Está en la página 1de 124

Dear readers, The complexitity of bioenergy sector makes difficult to have a clear overview about the situation of the

sector and future potential: A variety of different biomass raw material, many different conversion technologies, the final energy use apart from that there is the question of European legislation that affects RES sector, the competition for raw material and the development of related sectors as agriculture or foresty. The information related to all these issues is scattered throhghout literature and sometimes the figures are not consistant. Thus why, AEBIOM has decided to publish this collection of data on biomass in order to contribute to a better understanding and futher successful development of bioenergy sector in Europe. The figures in this report have been compiled for data published in many different documents, presentations at conferences, and information provided by AEBIOMs members and other bioenergy experts. This report consists of two main parts. The first part (chapters 3) provides basic information about the biomass resources originated from forest, agricultural and waste streams. The second part (chapters 4-6) is structured according to its end use: electricity, heat and transport. Two more special chapters are dedicated to biogas and pellets sectors. At the end of the document the reader can find the Annex that includes explanation of terms, conversion units and abbreviations. The preparation of European Bioenergy Outlook 2012 was coordinated by Cristina Caldern, with technical assistance from Jean-Marc Jossart, Secretary General of AEBIOM. Special thanks are given to Heinz Kopetz, Gustav Melin, Kjell Anderson and Peter Rechberger who took time out of their busy schedules to review this work. Acknowledgements are also given to the helpful information provided by the attendance of the AEBIOM worshop in perennial energy crops and many other bioenergy experts who provided national statistics and make it possible to have trustworthy figures.

Table of Contents

Foreword 1 Introduction............................................................................................... 7
1.1 1.2 Biomass for energy ........................................................................................... 8 Biomass in Europe: The most important facts at a glance ................................... 9

2 Overview about the European Energy System.......................................... 11


2.1 Generalities .....................................................................................................11
Energy breakdown ......................................................................................................... 11 GHG emissions .............................................................................................................. 17 Current bioenergy balance ........................................................................................... 20 Overview about the National Renewable Energy Action Plans .................................... 24 2.1.1 2.1.2

2.2

Bioenergy in Europe.........................................................................................20

2.2.1 2.2.2

3 Biomass supply ........................................................................................ 29


3.1 3.2 General overview ............................................................................................30 Biomass for agricultural land and by-products ..................................................31

Agriculture in eu ........................................................................................................... 31 3.2.1 3.2.2 Energy crops.................................................................................................................. 36 3.2.2.1 Energy crops for biofuels .......................................................................................... 37 3.2.2.2 Energy crops for electricity and heat production ..................................................... 39 3.2.3 Agricultural By-products ............................................................................................... 42

3.3

Biomass from forestry......................................................................................43


Forestry in Europe......................................................................................................... 43 The role of forest in the carbon cycle ........................................................................... 49 Forestry residues .......................................................................................................... 51 Wood as a source of energy ......................................................................................... 52 Waste production in EU ................................................................................................ 60 Waste as a source of energy ......................................................................................... 62 Black liquor ................................................................................................................... 64 Peat .............................................................................................................................. 65

3.3.1 3.3.2 3.3.3 3.3.4

3.4

Biomass from waste ........................................................................................60

3.4.1 3.4.2

3.5

Other ..............................................................................................................64

3.5.1 3.5.2

4 Biomass for Heat ..................................................................................... 66


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Heat demand in Europe ................................................................................... 67 Biomass for heat and bioheat .......................................................................... 68 Small Scale heating ......................................................................................... 70 District heating and cooling ............................................................................. 73

5 Electricity from biomass .......................................................................... 79


5.1 5.2 5.3 Electricity in Europe ........................................................................................ 80 Bioelectricity ................................................................................................... 82 Combined heat and power (CHP) ..................................................................... 84

6 Biofuels for Transport .............................................................................. 86


6.1 6.2 Generalities .................................................................................................... 87 Biodiesel and bioethanol ................................................................................. 89

7 Biogas sector in Europe ........................................................................... 93


7.1 7.2 Generalities .................................................................................................... 94 Biomethane .................................................................................................... 98

8 Pellets sector in Europe............................................................................ 99


8.1 8.2 Generalities of the pellet sector ..................................................................... 100 Situation in Europe........................................................................................ 101
Production .................................................................................................................. 101 Trade ........................................................................................................................... 103 Pellet heating devices ................................................................................................. 104 ENplus quality certification statistics .......................................................................... 106

8.2.1 8.2.2 8.2.3 8.2.4

Annexes
General country information Symbols and abbreviations Transformation coefficients Energy content, calorific value, specific weight Glossary List of tables and figures

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

FOREWORD

AEBIOM is proud to present the European Bioenergy Outlook 2012. After last years interest in our AEBIOM statistical report 2011, we have decided to make this report an annual happening and change the name to European Bioenergy Outlook . In our opinion, the 2012 edition is even more interesting than the previous year; however you might still find some facts and figures that could be improved. We have the ambition to present the latest figures known in every area. In this years Outlook you mainly find figures from 2010 and 2011. Currently Bioenergy is most competitive in the heating sector replacing heating oil in both large and small installations. This development is not due to taxes, but simply due to the high price of oil in the world markets. Therefore, this makes oil disappear from the heating sector all over the globe. The use of combined heat and power and district heating is still small in many parts of Europe. In the long run, the development of CHP is essential to produce power from biomass at a cost competitive level. AEBIOMs staff has done a tremendous job compiling existing statistics from a large number of sources. During the last years, a number of EU projects have given us new statistics as well as projections for the future. A special thanks to Cristina Caldern who is responsible for the production of the European Bioenergy Outlook 2012. Statistics are not dry numbers. Good statistics presented in a clear way help us to understand what is going on around us, and to paint the big picture. Statistics give important information on the current development and thus function as a base for better decisions. Contrary poor statistics jeopardize sound decisions. Finally, I would like to invite you to read the interesting material ahead and to ask you to help us in our efforts to keep up the trend and continuously increase the use of Bioenergy. Your support and action is important - become an Aebiom member!

Gustav Melin PRESIDENT AEBIOM


BRUSSELS, NOVEMBER 2012

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

1 Introduction

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

1.1 Biomass for energy


Bioenergy refers to renewable energy coming from biological material using various transformation processes such as combustion, gasification, pyrolysis or fermentation. Biomass originates from forest, agricultural and waste streams. Forest and wood-based industries produce wood which is the largest resource of solid biomass. Biomass procurement logistics from forest to bioenergy plants are subject to major improvements. The sector covers a wide range of different bio with different characteristics - wood logs, bark, wood chips, sawdust and more recently pellets. Pellets, due to their high energy density and standardised characteristics, offer great opportunities for developing the bioenergy market worldwide. Agriculture can provide dedicated energy crops as well as by-products in the form of animal manure and straw. Available land can be used for growing conventional crops such as rape, wheat, maize etc. for energy purposes or for cultivating new types of crops such as poplar, willow, miscanthus and others. Biogenic waste is the biomass that can cover several forms of waste such as organic fraction of municipal solid waste, wood waste, refuse-derived fuels, sewage sludge, etc. Each biomass resource has different characteristics in terms of calorific value, moisture and ash content, etc. that requires appropriate conversion technologies for bioenergy production. These conversion routes use chemical, thermal and/or biological processes. Figure 1.1 Biomass feedstock converted to bioenergy carriers

Source: International Energy Agency (IEA)

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

1.2 Biomass in Europe:

8,16% of the total final energy consumption in Europe in 2010 Total gross inland consumption of renewables in EU27 was almost 152 Mtoe in 2010, from which 118,22 Mtoe was biomass. 12,90% of the total heat demand in Europe is covered with biomass. Heating with biomass represent more than 93% of all renewable heat production in Europe. Bioelectricity cover 16.85% of all the demand of electricity form RES in Europe. The cogeneration share was 63,59% of all electricity produced with solid biomass in 2010. 13,2 million toe of biofuels consumed in the transport sector in Europe in 2010. Biofuel is the main biofuel in European transport with a 78% share of total consumption. The production of wood pellets in EU increased by 20,5% between 2008 and 2010, reaching 9,2 million tons in 2010. 3.2 million tons of pellet production with the ENplus quality certification in 2012.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

2 overview about the EU energy system

10

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

2.1 Generalities
2.1.1 ENERGY BREAKDOWN
The dependency of the European Union (EU) on energy imports, particularly of oil and more recently of gas, forms the backdrop for policy concerns relating to the security of energy supplies. More than half of the EU-27s energy comes from countries outside the EU and this proportion is rising. A new era is at hand for energy and environment in the European Community. The current legislative and regulatory agenda for energy is arguably broader and more complex than it has ever been, with proposals now being debated on renewables, fuel quality, the internal market, emissions trading, and a host of related issues. As it showed in the figure below Europe produces only 48% of its energy needs. Figure 2.1 Production, net import and consumption of energy in the EU in the EU in 2010

Net energy imports 953 Mtoe

Energy production 830 Mtoe

Energy gross inland consumption 1759 Mtoe

Source: Eurostat 2012

Figure 2.2 EU 27 Energy import dependency 90 80

% of net imports in gross inland consumption

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Hard coal and derivatives All Petroleum Products Natural Gas
Source: Eurostat, April 2012

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

11

Energy dependency strongly differs among MS : Denmark is the only net energy exporter while Malta is entirely dependent on energy imports. Figure 2.3 Energy import dependency* in Member States in 2010 (%)

-18,21%

UK SE FI SK SI RO PT PL AT NL MT HU LU LT LV CY IT FR ES EL IE EE DE DK CZ BG BE 0%

28,27% 36,53% 48,14% 63,13% 49,30% 21,66% 75,45% 31,51% 61,82% 30,69% 99,9% 58,26% 96,82% 81,92% 41,62% 99,9% 83,78% 49,30% 76,69% 69,11% 85,62% 12,93% 59,78% 25,60% 40,33% 76,84%

-40%

-20%

20%

40%

60%

80%

100%

120%

* Energy dependency shows the extent to which an economy relies upon imports in order to meet
its energy needs. The indicator is calculated as net imports divided by the sum of gross inland energy consumption plus bunkers. Source: Eurostat, April 2012

Before going into data, it may be useful for the reader of this report to clarify some terms used in Eurostat: Gross inland consumption: Gross inland consumption is the quantity of energy consumed within the borders of a country. It is calculated using the following formula: primary production + recovered products + imports +stock changes exports bunkers (i.e. quantities supplied to sea-going ships) Final energy consumption: Final energy consumption is the energy finally consumed in the transport, industrial, commercial, agricultural, public and household sectors.It excludes deliveries to the energy transformation sector and to the energy industries themselves.

12

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Gross final energy consumtion is defined in Directive 2009/28/EC as the sum of: - final energy consumption, i.e. energy delivered to industry for manufacturing processes, to the transport sector, including international aviation, and to other sectors (households, services, agriculture, etc) - consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat generation (own use by plant), - losses of electricity and heat in transmission and distribution.

Fossils fuels represent three quarters of our energy mix today. However there have been changes in the mix of sources contributing to gross inland energy consumption over the last decade. While gas rose from 23% to 25%, nuclear energy remained almost stable at 14% during this period, oil fell from 38% to 35% and solid fuels from 19% to 16%. The share of renewable energy is on rise, from 6% of total gross inland energy consumption in 2000 to 10% in 2010, All Member States showed increases in the share of renewable energy in their energy supply in the last decade, with the largest increases in Denmark (from 8% of total gross inland energy consumption in 1999 to almost 20% in 2009), Sweden (from 27% to 47%), Germany (from 2% to 9,8%), Portugal (from 13% to 24,5%), Slovakia (from 3% to 10,3%), Austria (from 23% to 29,7%), Latvia (from 32% to 34%), Spain (from 5% to 13%), Slovenia (from 9% to 16,9%) and Hungary (from 3% to 7,7%). In the table below we can see the evolution of the energy mix in Europe during the last decade. Table 2.1 Gross inland consumption by fuel in the EU27 (Mtoe)
All fuels 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Solid fuels* Oil Gas Nuclear Renewables

1 724,2 1 762,7 1 759,1 1 802,9 1 824,6 1 825,2 1 825,7 1 808,8 1 800,3 1 703,3 1 759

320,8 322,7 319,7 330 327,1 317,3 325,3 328,7 305,5 267,9 279,9

661,2 676,2 671,2 675,2 678,5 679,3 675,1 661,3 657,2 623,1 617

393,9 404,0 405,5 425,6 435,7 438,5 432,9 432,9 441 416,9 441,7

243,8 252,6 255,5 257,0 260,2 257,5 255,5 241,4 241,9 230,7 236,5

96,9 99,9 97,7 103,9 111,6 116 123,4 134,1 143,7 152,7 172,1

* Solid fuels refer to primary coal and other derived solid fuels produced during coal processing and by coal transformation. Solid renewables fuels such as fuelwood and charcoal are included in renewables energy. Source: Eurostat

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

13

Figure 2.4 EU gross inland energy consumption by fuel in 2000 and 2010

Nuclear 14%

RES 6%

Nuclear 14%

RES 10%

Natural gas 23%

Solid fuel 19% Natural gas 25%

Solid fuel 16%

Oil 38%

Oil 35%

Total EU27 Gross inland Energy consumption in 2000: 1724 Mtoe Source: Eurostat

Total EU27 Gross inland Energy consumption in 2010: 1759 Mtoe

14

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 2.2 Final energy consumption by fuel in 2010 (Mtoe) All fuels EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 1 153,3 36,43 8,84 25,62 15,54 217,36 2,91 11,79 19,03 90,6 158,77 124,77 1,92 4,27 4,75 4,3 16,66 0,45 53,98 27,93 66,32 18,16 22,48 4,97 11,59 26,48 34,44 142,95 1,27 1,13 13,39 0,05 0,94 0,05 1,64 0,88 1,2 3,96 Solid fuels 49,54 1,18 0,47 3,08 0,14 9,64 0,08 0,61 0,3 1,26 4,5 2,91 0,02 0,09 0,2 0,07 0,48 Oil 456,67 14,94 3,14 6,63 6,75 82,46 0,95 7,11 12,13 46,77 66,72 48,91 1,38 1,46 1,61 2,86 4,7 0,31 18,26 10,65 20,49 9,32 6,07 2,45 2,3 7,92 10,09 60,32 22,38 4,99 9,49 1,58 6,19 0,62 4,11 1,01 0,62 46,92 8,22 0,85 9,15 1,78 2,17 0,59 1,5 5,1 4,21 25,47 Gas 268,63 11,07 0,98 6,69 1,79 54,05 0,21 1,61 0,78 14,57 32,48 38,5 0 0,5 0,57 0,68 6,26 Electricity* 181,01 6,33 1,72 4,31 1,68 35,38 0,5 1,81 3,66 13,47 30,67 18,55 0,42 0,22 0,51 0,31 2,68 Derived Heat** 42,97 0,62 0,96 2,16 1,58 10,29 0,39 0 0,05 0 3,39 3,06 0 0,48 0,73 0,03 1,01 0 1,93 1,02 6,68 0,34 1,62 0,17 0,75 3,04 1,41 1,29 1,07 1,28 8,5 16,91 4,94 1,92 8,88 6,54 5,05 Renevables 151,53 2,16 1,55 2,6 3,57 24,63 0,78 0,64 2,11 14,52 20,73 12,71 0,1 1,5 1,13 0,36 1,49

* Not including electricity from renewables ** Not including derived heat from renewables Source: Eurostat (May 2012)

Transport and industry consume more than half of the total final energy in the EU, while a quarter of final energy is consumed by households. Industry and agriculture/ forestry are the only two sectors where final energy consumption has decreased during the last decade.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

15

Table 2.3 Final energy consumption by sector in the EU27 (Mtoe) Year 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total 1 120,9 1 145,2 1 132,2 1 171,4 1 186,3 1 191,4 1 191,9 1 165,4 1 173,7 1 112,2 1 153,3 Industry 329,6 328,9 325,4 338,0 336,1 331,4 324,3 323,0 312,6 267,7 291,5 Transport 341,3 344,7 347,5 352,7 363,0 366,7 374,4 379,7 377,5 366,8 365,2 Residential 292,2 301,5 292,9 298,4 302,0 302,9 300,2 284,8 296,8 294,3 307,3 Agriculture/ Forestry 28,1 27,7 26,9 27,3 27,5 27,6 26,2 25,5 25,6 24,8 25,0 Services 115,4 127,2 125,0 131,3 133,8 135,8 138,6 135,6 144,0 143,3 152,4 Nonspecified 129,9 137,9 133,8 225,1 227,4 257,0 271,3 156,1 157,2 142,1 108,1

Source: Eurostat

Figure 2.5 Final Energy consumption by sector in the EU27 in 2010

Nonspecified 9% Services 12%


Agriculture/ Forestry 2%

Industry 23%

Residential 25%

Transport 29%

Source: Eurostat

According to the official data published by Eurostat in connenction with the EU Sustainable Energy Week in June 2012, renewable sources was estimated to have contribute 12.4% of gross final energy consumption in the EU27. The highest share of renewable energy in total consumption in 2010 was found in Sweden (47.9% of renewable energy sources in total consumption), Latvia, Finland, Austria and Portugal. The lowest is found in Malta , Luxembourg, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. Between 2006 and 2010, all Member States increased their share of renewable energy in total consumption. The largest increases were recorded in Estonia (from 16.1% in 2006 to 24.3% in 2010), Romania (from 17.1% to 23.4%), Denmark (from 16.5% to 22.2%), Sweden (from 42.7% to 47.9%) and Spain (from 9.0% to 13.8%).

16

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 2.4 Share of renewables in gross final enegy consumption (%) 2020 target 20 13 16 13 30 18 25 16 18 20 23 17 13 40 23 11 13 10 14 34 15 31 24 25 14 38 49 15

2006 EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 9 2,7 9,6 6,5 16,5 6,9 16,1 2,9 7,0 9,0 9,6 5,8 2,5 31,1 16,9 1,4 5,1 0,2 2,7 26,6 7 20,8 17,1 15,5 6,6 29,9 42,7 1,5

2007 9,9 3 9,3 7,4 18 9,0 17,1 3,3 8,1 9,5 10,2 5,7 3,1 29,6 16,6 2,7 5,9 0,2 3,1 28,9 7 22,0 18,3 15,6 8,2 29,5 44,2 1,8

2008 10,5 3,3 9,8 7,6 18,8 9,1 18,9 3,9 8 10,6 11,1 7,1 4,1 29,8 17,9 2,8 6,6 0,2 3,4 29,2 7,9 23,0 20,3 15,1 8,4 31,1 45,2 2,3

2009 11,7 4,6 11,9 8,5 20,2 9,5 23 5,1 8,1 12,8 11,9 8,9 4,6 34,3 20,0 2,8 8,1 0,2 4,1 31 8,9 24,6 22,4 18,9 10,4 31,1 48,1 2,9

2010 12,4 : 13,8 9,2 22,2 11,0 24,3 5,5 9,2 13,8 : 10,1 4,8 32,6 19,7 2,8 : 0,4 3,8 30,1 9,4 24,6 23,4 19,8 9,8 32,2 47,9 3,2

Source: Eurostat

2.1.2 GHG EMISSIONS

Greenhouse gas emissions in the EU have fallen 8% during the last decade a net reduction of 410 million tonnes of CO2 eq.. Table 2.5 shows total greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2001-2010, in the EU-27. At Member State level, all countries reduced greenhouse gas emissions during the last decade but there is a large variation in GHG emission trends between countries. The overall EU GHG emission trend is dominated by the two largest emitters, Germany and the United Kingdom, together accounting for about one third of total EU-27 GHG emissions.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

17

Table 2.5 Development of GHG emissions by country (million of tonnes CO2 equivalent)
2001 EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

5131,3 65,7 145,6 69,7 1053,8 17,6 70,1 128,0 381,6 564,7 557,5 10,0 10,8 20,4 10,1 79,2 2,7 215,1 84,3 381,5 83,2 143,1 19,7 52,4 74,5 69,7 674,9 5131,3

5086,1 62,6 141,5 69,1 1032,6 17,0 68,2 127,8 398,2 557,0 558,7 10,4 10,8 20,9 10,9 76,9 2,8 214,4 86,0 367,9 87,8 147,2 20,0 51,8 76,6 70,4 654,3 5086,1

5172,3 67,6 144,6 73,9 1030,8 18,9 68,2 131,7 405,2 563,7 574,0 10,8 11,0 20,8 11,3 79,9 2,9 215,4 91,9 381,0 82,5 153,1 19,7 52,4 84,5 70,9 659,1 5172,3

5177,9 66,5 146,4 68,1 1019,2 19,2 68,1 132,1 421,2 563,4 577,3 11,2 11,1 21,8 12,7 79,0 2,9 216,8 91,5 385,4 84,5 150,7 20,0 51,8 80,5 70,1 658,9 5177,9

5148,7 66,4 146,3 63,7 997,3 18,6 69,3 135,7 435,4 567,1 574,7 11,1 11,2 22,9 13,0 79,5 3,0 211,0 92,9 388,9 86,5 148,9 20,3 51,2 68,6 67,4 654,1 5148,7

5132,3 67,4 148,4 71,6 998,9 18,0 68,9 132,2 427,2 552,4 564,0 11,5 11,7 23,3 12,8 77,8 3,0 207,0 90,1 404,7 81,5 152,8 20,6 51,0 79,8 67,3 649,6 5132,3

5079,0 70,9 148,8 67,0 977,0 21,1 68,3 135,0 436,3 542,0 555,8 11,4 12,2 25,4 12,2 75,6 3,1 205,5 87,4 407,1 79,0 150,2 20,7 48,9 78,2 65,6 640,0 5079,0

4974,4 68,6 143,7 63,6 976,0 19,7 67,6 131,3 403,8 537,3 541,6 11,4 11,7 24,3 12,0 73,3 3,1 204,6 87,0 401,3 77,8 146,7 21,4 50,1 70,2 63,6 626,1 4974,4

4609,9 58,9 134,7 60,7 911,8 16,4 61,7 124,7 366,3 514,6 491,5 11,1 11,0 20,0 11,5 66,9 3,0 198,9 79,7 381,8 74,4 123,4 19,5 44,2 66,1 59,7 572,3 4609,9

4720,9 61,4 139,2 61,1 936,5 20,5 61,3 118,3 355,9 522,4 501,3 10,8 12,1 20,8 12,1 67,7 3,0 210,1 84,6 400,9 70,6 121,4 19,5 46,0 74,6 66,2 590,2 4720,9

Source: EEA (July 2012)

All the main sectors reduced their greenhouse gas emissions in the last years. One of the main reasons for this has been the decrease for all fossil fuels energy consumption but particularly for coal; the reduction in the use of coal for heat and power generation in the EU27 accounted for two thirds of the net reduction in emissions from energy industries. Along with this decline in the primary consumption of sossil fuels, it should be mention the strong increase in renewable energy (especially biomass). Thus, the non-carbon effect is fully accounted for by the increase in renewable energy. The table below shows the total greenhouse gas emissions by sector in EU27 in 2009.

18

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 2.6 Development of GHG emissions (CO 2 equivalent) by sector in the EU27 (Mtoe)
Solvent and other product use 13,8 13,7 13,2 12,7 12,7 12,8 12,8 12,4 11,9 11,3 11,6

Total emissions

Total energy

Industrial processes

Agriculture

Waste

LULUCF*

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

5 078,1 5 131,2 2 086,0 5 172,2 5 177,9 5 145,7 5 132,2 5 078,9 4 974,3 4 609,8 4 720,8

3 986,4 4 067,5 4 035,4 4 121,0 4 118,6 4 093,4 4 084,9 4 022,0 3 943,2 3 660,9 3 736,0

394,1 380,5 375,6 388,5 402,4 407,5 405,9 419,3 397,2 329,9 343,1

503,5 495,3 490,3 483,8 484,4 478,8 474,9 475,8 475,3 464,2 461,5

180,123 174,0 171,3 166,0 159,6 156,0 153,6 149,1 146,5 143,4 141,5

-297,7 -328,5 -276,4 -258,0 -284,4 -300,3 -320,0 -298,4 -321,7 -341,7 -311,6

* Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry (negative values mean uptake of CO2). Source: Eurostat

Figure 2.6 Greenhouse gas emissions by main sector in EU27 in 2010

Other Sectors 16,14%

Energy Industries 31,23%

Road Transportation 19,21%

Transport 20,39%

Manufacturing Industries and Construction 12,82%

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

19

2.2 Bioenergy in Europe


2.2.1 CURRENT BIOENERGY BALANCE
According to the last statistics, bioenergy remains the major source among renewables in Europe, accounting for almost 64% of European renewables and showing steady growth patterns across the different market segments. Total gross inland consumption of renewables in EU27 was almost 152 Mtoe in 2010, from which 118,22 Mtoe was biomass and waste or 8,16% of the total final energy consumption in EU27 for the same year. Figure 2.7 Gross inland consumption of RES in Europe in 2010
30000 Renewables 25000 of which biomass

20000 ktoe

15000

10000 16494 13467 5000 5724 0 1679 899 21632876 752 309 1011 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR 6064 6028 4665 4068 2701 1189 935 101 1324 0 1527 619 756 38 CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI 10398 7337 3117 SE UK

IT

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

Figure 2.8 Bioenergy balance in 2010 (ktoe)


Primary biomass 112.725 ktoe

Import 9.451 ktoe

Export 4.243 ktoe

Gross inland consumption 118.220 ktoe Input to electricity and CHP ktoe Input to DH ktoe

Losses ktoe Bioelectricity 10.601 ktoe Derived heat 9.592 ktoe

Biomass for households and services 38 970 ktoe

Biomass for industry 21.633 ktoe

Biofuels 13.272 ktoe Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

20

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 2.7 Bioenergy balance in Europe in 2010 (ktoe)


Primary energy Production Gross inland consumption 7. Input to power plants 8. Input to heating plants 1. Final use industry 2. Final use residential 3 Final use services 4. Final use transport 5. Bioelectricity 6. Derived heat (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 +6) Final energy consumption (5/7) Efficiency for electricity (5+6)/(7+8) Efficiency for electricity and heat

Import

Export

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

112 725 1 787 938 2 570 2 424 25 759 961 321 887 6 188 14 360 6 089 12 1 794 1 114 75 1 756 : 2 507 4 914 6 439 2 994 3 949 619 937 7 893 11 387 4 051

9 451 614 8 122 854 451 0 41 172 825 364 1 836 24 12 64 41 182 0 606 908 448 45 162 40 40 113 0 1 481

4 243 43 63 241 68 644 154 0 0 404 201 106 0 571 199 0 112 0 536 442 13 253 27 11 53 81 0 20

118 220 2 352 891 2 449 3 209 25 567 820 358 1 059 6 601 14 522 7 794 36 1 264 994 116 1 823 0 2 577 5 385 6 869 3 035 4 103 647 925 7 925 11 387 5 512

37.671 1.100 4 515 1.490 12.229 178 77 47 1.009 1.594 2.709 0 29 65 22 721 0 1.852 1.375 1.621 558 20 64 254 2.667 4.052 3.418

4.422 0 2 45 461 697 91 0 0 0 131 81 0 148 192 1 5 0 132 448 45 0 42 6 66 585 1.244 0

21 633 605 156 407 182 3 385 100 141 245 1 711 1 957 62 8 226 76 28 85 0 102 1 096 898 1 455 252 68 376 2 982 4 643 385

37 510 255 711 1 158 951 6 249 423 34 606 2 093 7 996 3 165 8 734 574 19 658 0 301 1 686 2 693 712 3 526 461 43 1 434 684 336

1 460 7 11 49 40 14 18 15 1 97 381 1 6 81 32 1 122 0 46 78 213 2 0 2 14 84 45 97

13 272 362 13 231 0 2 960 0 90 128 1 436 2 420 1 466 15 27 45 41 175 0 229 472 886 300 115 45 164 142 380 1 127

10 601 371 3 186 398 2 897 64 28 16 335 404 811 0 5 12 6 199 0 605 392 542 224 9 19 56 940 1 048 1 024

9 592 45 1 89 1 246 987 142 0 0 0 269 257 0 103 186 2 71 0 175 712 292 0 35 23 99 1 594 3 260 0

94 068 1 645 895 2 120 2 817 16 492 747 308 996 5 672 13 427 5 762 37 1 176 925 97 1 310 0 1 458 4 436 5 524 2 693 3 937 618 752 7 176 10 060 2 969

28,14% 33,73% 75,00% 36,12% 26,71% 23,69% 35,96% 36,36% 34,04% 33,20% 25,35% 29,94% 17,24% 18,46% 27,27% 27,60% 32,67% 28,51% 33,44% 40,14% 45,00% 29,69% 22,05% 35,25% 25,86% 29,96%

47,97% 37,82% 66,67% 49,11% 84,26% 30,05% 76,58% 36,36% 34,04% 33,20% 39,01% 38,28% 61,02% 77,04% 34,78% 37,19% 39,31% 60,56% 50,06% 40,14% 70,97% 60,00% 48,44% 77,92% 81,34% 29,96%

21

As can be seen in the figure bellow, biomass is mainly use for heat (75% of the total final energy consumption of biomass). According to NREAPs projection for 2020, this will continue being like this. The figure 2.10 shows the evolution of bioenergy use in Europe in the last decade and the 2020 targets. The biggest expected growth will is in transport where the biofuels consumption will be more than double by 2020. Bioelectricity will grow 85,8% and in the heat market the increment is expected to be 27.87% Figure 2.9 Final energy consumption of biomass in heat, electricity and transport in 2010 (ktoe)

Biofuels for transport; 13.272; 14% Bioelectricity; 10.601; 11%

Bioheat and derived heat; 70.195; 75%

Source:Eurostat, AEBIOM calculation

Figure 2.10 Final energy consumption of bioenergy 2000-2020 in Europe 160.000 140.000 120.000 100.000
89.756 ktoe

Bioheat and derived heat Biofuels for transport Bioelectricity

80.000 60.000 40.000


49.245 70.195

28.859

20.000

13.272 705 10.601 0 2.933 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Source: Eurostat and NREAPs. AEBIOM calculation

19.697 2020 (NREAPs)

22

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The share of biomass in the final energy consumption varies significantly among Members States: Sweden, Latvia and Finland lead the way with more that 27%, while Estonia and Lithuania follow with 25,67% and 19,47% respectively. Table 2.8 Final energy consumption in the EU27 in 2010 (Mtoe) and share of biomass Final Energy Consumption Total Mtoe 1 153,30 36,43 8,84 25,62 15,54 217,36 2,91 11,79 19,03 90,60 158,77 124,77 1,92 4,27 4,75 4,30 16,66 0,45 53,98 27,93 66,32 18,16 22,48 4,97 11,59 26,48 34,44 142,95 Final Energy Consumption Biomass Mtoe 94,07 1,65 0,90 2,12 2,82 16,49 0,75 0,31 1,00 5,67 13,43 5,76 0,04 1,18 0,93 0,10 1,31 0,00 1,46 4,44 5,52 2,69 3,94 0,62 0,75 7,18 10,06 2,97 Share of Biomass 8,16% 4,52% 10,12% 8,27% 18,13% 7,59% 25,67% 2,61% 5,23% 6,26% 8,46% 4,62% 1,93% 27,54% 19,47% 2,26% 7,86% 0,00% 2,70% 15,88% 8,33% 14,83% 17,51% 12,43% 6,49% 27,10% 29,21% 2,08%

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Source: Eurostat and AEBIOM calculations

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

23

2.2.2 OVERVIEW ABOUT THE NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY ACTION PLANS


AEBIOM has compiled data from NREAPs, focusing in bioenergy sector, in order to contribute to a better understanding of the bioenergy development in all EU countries, allowing easy comparison for further analysis. The original NREAP documents are available in www.ec.europa.eu/energy/renewables/action_plan_en.htm For the purpose of calculating the overall renewable and bioenergy share the relevant parameter is the gross final energy consumption in a reference scenario and after aviation reduction. In 2020 the overall share of renewable, under these specifications, will reach 20.7%. On average this projection results in a growth for overall renewables of approximately 12% for the period 2005-2020. Biomass will be by far the most important source of RES energy in Europe, covering 56,5% of all renewables. According to the NREAPs the total contribution of bioenergy in 2020 will be 138.3 Mtoe and heating will continue being by far the most important sector for bioenergy in 2020 counting 65% of the total and follow by transport with 21% and electricity 14%. Table 2.9 Estimation of total contribution expected from bioenergy (ktoe)
Bioelectricity 2010 EU27 AT BE BU CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK 9 737 406 259 0 3 166 324 21 696 378 2 818 22 168 30 743 6 13 6 1 514 518 206 0 52 26 388 914 1 060 24 2015 14 344 415 512 56 7 414 519 30 850 902 3 619 43 193 76 1 179 57 65 17 12 1 148 851 289 0 116 54 513 1 177 1 229 2020 19 697 443 949 75 12 531 761 30 1 110 1 476 4 253 108 286 87 1 615 105 105 29 12 1 431 1 223 302 0 147 58 861 1 441 2 249
Biomass for heat and bioheat*

Biofuels 2010 13 819 330 329 30 16 243 31 1 220 2 715 3 429 107 144 134 1 016 39 55 42 0 307 966 281 224 82 41 1 703 340 996 2015 19 460 370 497 115 22 438 247 35 420 2 925 3 070 386 250 299 1 748 39 109 81 0 567 1 327 429 363 137 79 2 470 528 2 510 2020 28 859 490 789 196 38 623 261 89 560 3 500 5 300 617 506 481 2 480 46 167 216 0 834 1 902 477 489 185 192 3 500 716 4 205

2010 61 782 3 415 682 734 18 1 759 2 245 612 4 990 9 953 9 092 1 012 812 198 2 239 1020 663 23 1 684 3 911 2 179 2 794 447 415 3 583 7 978 323

2015 72 882 3 463 1 178 929 24 2 248 2 526 626 5 810 12 760 10 388 1 128 829 388 3 521 1147 879 50 2 778 4 227 2 339 2 931 576 495 4 060 8 622 958

2020 89 756 3 607 2 034 1 073 30 2 517 2 643 607 6 610 16 455 11 355 1 222 1 277 486 5 670 1392 1 023 83 2 878 5 089 2 322 3 876 690 526 4 950 9 426 3914

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

* Biomass for heat means the energy content of biomass before conversion (considered as final energy when used in households, services and industry), while bioheat is the energy content of heat after conversion (considered as final energy in DH and CHP plants).

The following graphs show the contribution of biomass to the different sectors in 2020 according to the NREAPs.

Bioelectricity

Bioelectricity is expected to represent 19,5% of all renewable electricity in 2020 and it is expected to increase by 116 TWh between 2010 and 2020 On average 70% of bioelectricity should be produced from solid biomass and 24% from biogas in 2020. Figure 2.11 Estimated bioenergy consumption in electricity sector in 2020 in EU27

Gross final consumption of electricity 300126 ktoe

26,8% Bioelectricity 6,56% 67,8% solid biomass biogas bioliquids 5,4%

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

25

Table 2.10 Estimation of total contribution of RES (installed capacity, gross electricity generation) expected in electricity sector in 2020 (GWH) Total renewable electricity 2010 EU27 AT BE BU CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK
627 898

Out of which biomass 2010


113 249

Solid 2010
76 706

Biogas 2020
159 556

Bioliquids 2010
8 633

2020
1 175 742

2020
229 078

2010
28 720

2020
63 028

2020
12 753

45 383 4 663 3 879 68 5 072 12 412 604 22 660 87 369 104 972 7 838 2 843 5 866 66 791 3 036 876 256 15 10 636 10 618 22 751 0 5 481 4 510 84 034 83 635 31 630

52 377 23 120 7 537 1 175 11 679 20 595 1 913 33 420 155 284 216 935 27 269 5 597 13 909 98 885 5 191 2 958 780 433 50 317 32 400 35 584 0 8 000 6 126 150 030 97 258 116 970

4 720 3 007 2 30 1 930 3 772 241 8 090 4 391 32 778 254 1 955 347 8 645 72 147 70 9 5 975 6 028 2 400 0 610 298 4 517 10 632 12 330

5 147 11 038 871 143 6 171 8 846 346 12 910 17 171 49 457 1 259 3 324 1 006 18 780 1 226 1 223 334 135 16 639 14 218 3 516 0 1 710 676 10 017 16754 26 160

4 131 2 580 1 306 3 578 3930 4506 17498 73 1870 28 4758 8 98 25 5 103 5 700 1 092 0 540 150 3 719 10 513 5 500

4 530 9 575 514 3 294 6 345 7860 13 470 24 569 364 2 688 687 7 900 642 810 190 85 11 975 10 200 8 074 0 850 309 7 400 16 635 20 590

553 393 2 30 624 194 40 935 13 829 181 85 320 2 129 64 50 44 9 872 328 138 0 70 148 799 53 6 830

581 1439 357 143 2 871 2 493 270 3 701 23 438 895 636 319 6 020 584 413 144 50 4 664 4 018 525 0 860 367 2 617 53 5 570

36 33 4120* 1450 1 758 0 1 170* 0 0 0 0 65 0

36 25 6 8 4780* 1450 4 860 0 1 523* 0 0

0 65 0

* Finland and Portugal have listed black liquor as bioliquid in their National Action Plans.

26

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Biomass for heat

Biomass for heat and bioheat are expected to be increased by 27 Mtoe between 2010 and 2020 becoming the most important renewable source (77.6% of all RES for heating and cooling). Figure 2.12 Consumption of energy in heating and cooling in EU27 in 2020

Total consumption of energy in the heating and cooling sector 502,05 million toe

Biomass from heat and bioheat 18%

90% 5% 5%

solid biomass biogas bioliquids


Table 2.11 Estimation of total contribution (final energy consumption) expected from biomass in heating and cooling sector (ktoe) 2015 Biomass EU27 AT BE BU CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK 72 883 3 463 1 178 929 24 2 248 2 526 626 5 810 12 760 10 388 1 128 829 388 3 521 1 147 879 50 2 778 4 227 2 339 2 931 576 495 4 060 8 622 958 solid 66 156 3 447 1 138 916 20 2 137 2 426 626 3 300 12 500 8 389 1 128 800 362 3 404 1 109 851 39 0 604 3 996 1 515 2 919 540 483 3 997 8 607 904 biogas 2 657 16 26 13 5 110 92 0 30 260 1 312 0 26 83 38 28 12 2 174 231 23 10 36 0 63 14 54 bioliquid 4 093 0 14 0 0 0 8 0 2 470 0 688 0 33 0 0 801 2 12 0 65 Biomass 89 757 3 607 2 034 1 073 30 2 517 2 643 607 6 610 16 455 11 355 1 222 1 277 486 5 670 1 392 1 023 83 2 878 5 089 2 322 3 876 690 526 4 950 9 426 3 914 solid 80 993 3 591 1 947 1 053 24 2 350 2 470 607 3 940 15 900 8 952 1 222 1 225 453 5 254 1 343 973 70 0 650 4 636 1 484 3 845 630 497 4 850 9 415 3 612 2020 biogas 4 416 16 55 20 6 167 165 0 60 555 1 692 56 33 266 49 50 13 2 228 453 37 20 60 0 100 11 302 27 bioliquid 4 416 0 32 0 0 0 8 0 2 610 0 711 0 150 0 0 801 11 28 0 65 -

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

Biofuels

Following table shows the contribution of the renewable transport energy carriers. Biofuels are expected to be increased by 15 Mtoe between 2010 and 2020, this should represent more than 88% of the renewable energies used in transport by 2020. However, according to a proposal of the Commission (COM(2012)595) crop based biofuels should be limited to 5% (compared to 9% in the graph below) and NREAP are therefore not valid any more.

Figure 2.13 Consumption of energy in transport in EU27 in 2020

9% 9%

Total consumption of energy in transport sector 314,79 million toe


Biofuels Hydrogen Renewable electricity Others

of which advanced biofuels (Art. 21)*

Table 2.12 Estimation of total contribution expected from each renewable energy technology in 2020 in the transport sector (ktoe) Total renewables energies EU27 AT BE BU CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK
28

Biofuels 28 859 490 789 196 38 623 261 89 560 3 500 5 300 617 506 481 2 480 46 167 216 834 1 902 477 489 185 192 3 500 716 4 205

Hydrogen 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0

Renewable electricity 3 110 272 97 5 0,56 19 29 0,6 40 402 667 16,5 24 37 369 6 2 10 37 71 50 58 52 17 10 351 198 267

Others 743 94 0 4 0 49 0 0,3 0 160 173 0 5 0,9 50 31 0 0 0 0 66 0 6 5 0 4 94 0

32 715 856 886 205 38 691 290 90 600 4 062 6 140 634 535 519 2 899 83 170 226 37 905 2 018 535 551 207 203 3 855 1 008 4 472

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

3 biomass supply

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

29

3.1 General overview


Bioenergy is the largest source of renewable energy today providing heat, electricity, as well as transport fuels and a significant increase in bioenergy demand is expecting in the coming years. Since bioenergy can be generated from wood, energy crops and biomass residues, as well as organic wastes, there is a considerable potential that can contribute to the rural development, and create new opportunities for farmers and forest owners. International trade in biomass and biomass intermediates (pellets, pyrolysis oil, biomethane) wil be also vital to match supply and demand in different regions in Europe. However a large devate is going on about the sustainable development of bioenergy and the competition with existing uses of biomass such as food, feed or forest product. Therefore in order to understand the future role of bioenergy in Europe, it is important to analyze the potential of biomass supply. According to the vision roadmap of IEA, a total of 100 EJ (5-7 billion of dry tonnes aprox) will be required in 2050 to provide enough feedstock for the production of heat and electicity, in addition to 60 EJ needed for the production of transport fuels in 2050. This figure can be seen as a considerable increase on the estimated 50 EJ of biomass used for energy today but the IEA claims that the potential is much larger, around 500 EJ. Therefore the worlds bioenergy potential is large enough to meet the global energy demand in 2050. Figure 3.1 Comparison of primary bioenergy demand and global technical bioenergy potential estimate in 2050

Note: The technical potential for 2050 indicates the upper bound of biomass technical potential based on integrated global assessment studies using five resource categories indicated on the stacked bar chart, and limitations and criteria with respect to biodiversity protection, water limitations, and soil degradation, assuming policy frameworks that secure good governance of land use (Dornburg et al., 2010). Expert estimates undertaken by the IPCC (2011) indicate potential deployment levels of terrestrial biomass for energy by 2050 in the range of 100 to 300 EJ, with a most likely range of 80-190 EJ/yr, with upper levels in the range of 265-300 EJ/yr. Source: Technology Roadmap-Bioenergy for heat and power, IEA 2012 (Adapted from IPCC, 2011, and supplemented with data from IEA, 2011a and IEA, 2012a)

30

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The EUBIONET III partners have estimated that total biomass potential in Europe is 157 Mtoe (excluding biodegradable waste), of which 67% is from woody biomass. According to the same study, in Europe, 48% of the annual biomass potential is currently used. Figure 3.2 Biomass resources by different sources in EU24 and Norway

8% 23% 24%

Forest residues Firewood Solid ind. Wood residues Spent liquors Used wood Herbaceous & fruit biomass Other biomass 19%

6% 8% 12%

Source: Eubionet III project, June 2011

Obtaining accurate data on the biomass resource available can be challenging specially for some biomass feedstock as energy crops. AEBIOM has compiled data from different sources in order to have a clear picture of the biomass resources available in Europe. The following tables deliver data for the three main relevant biomass sector: agriculture, forestry and waste. Under these main sectors there are categories of dedicated biomass production such as biofuel crops, agricultural by products or primary and secondary forestry residues.

3.2 Biomass for agricultural land and by-products


3.2.1 AGRICULTURE IN EU
Agriculture represents nearly half of the total land use in Europe. However the figure at national level shows great differences between countries. 14 countries have more than half of their land used by agriculture, the highest share being Ireland (73,2 %) and 9 countries with less than half of their land used by agriculture, the smallest shares being Sweden and Finland (8,1 and 7,4 %.).

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

31

Figure 3.3 Share of agriculture in total land use, 2009 (%) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 BE CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT LV LT LU HU NL AT PL PT SI SK FI SE UK


BG, RO, CY and MT not included Source: Eurostat

73,2 63,5 52,550,4 51,7 51,9 51,4 46,6 32,3 25,7 61,6 55,1 52,752,6 65,1 52,6 42,0 35,8 30,0 7,4 8,1

38,2 31,6

Table 3.1 Agricultural land use, 2010 UAA Area total 1000 ha 441 412 3 053 11 100 7 887 4 310 35 713 4 523 7 029 13 198 50 537 63 795 30 132 925 6 456 6 530 259 9 303 32 3 736 8 387 31 268 9 191 23 839 2 027 4 904 33 842 45 030 24 410
32

Arable land

Land under permanent crop % of total area 2,9 0,7 1,5 0,5 0,2 0,6 11,3 0,0 8,5 10,0 1,7 8,6 3,8 0,1 0,4 0,6 2,1 4,1 1,0 0,8 1,2 8,5 1,5 1,3 0,5 0,0 0,0 0,1

Land under permanent grassland 13,0 16,3 15,3 11,9 5,2 13,3 4,3 44,1 2,1 10,7 15,6 11,0 0,4 10,2 9,3 26,1 10,8 0,0 21,6 20,6 10,3 19,4 19,1 13,2 10,5 0,1 1,0 46,1

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

25,7 27,5 28,5 32,3 55,8 33,4 9,3 15,5 18,3 24,1 37,7 24,3 9,1 18,1 31,4 23,9 48,2 25,3 27,1 16,3 38,8 12,0 38,4 8,3 27,6 6,7 5,8 24,7

The new binding EU target of about 20% share of renewables in total energy consumption in 2020 (with a 10% contribution of biofuels) could require some 230-250 Mtoe from primary biomass potential. In order to reach the target for 10% biofuels arable land should be dedicated to the production of energy crops. It is estimated that a total area between 17,5 and 21,1 million ha will be required (Biomass Futures project). The land available for growing bioenergy crops will be largely determined by the utilized agricultural area (UAA). As can be seen in the table below, UAA accounts for 42 % of the whole EU27 territorial area.

Source: Eurostat

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Nearly one quarter of the EU-23 land is covered by crops (23,1%). The following table shows the share of land covered by cultivated areas in the EU-23 countries. According to Eurostat, the largest share of cultivated areas (between 45 % and 68 % of the NUTS 2 regions) is in regions of eastern and central European countries, such as Hungary, the Czech Republic and Poland, where very large collective farming is still practiced, in northern parts of France (Picardie, Nord Pas-de-Calais, Haute- and Basse Normandie and Poitou-Charentes), eastern England, some regions of Germany (Leipzig, Sachsen-Anhalt, Hannover), Puglia and Sicilia in Italy and Denmark. All these regions have fertile lands and a long tradition of agriculture, which explains the significant share of croplands Figure 3.4 Share of land cover types in total country area, 2009 100% 90% 80% 70% 60%
34,9 10,4 32,4 26,4 47,2 23 32,5 11,5 23,5 10,5 28 16,9 35,3 22 45,9 18,2 5,2 3,9

50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% BE CZ 25,8 17,9 37,1

30,1 29,9

62,7 49,6 33 32,6 31,6 31,2 32,3 49,8 35,4 35,6 22,3 11 EL ES FR IT LV LT LU HU NL AT PL PT SL SK
4,6 21,3 45,8

58,7 57,1 45,9


19

45,1 32,3

10,8 EE IE

14,2 FI SE UK

DK DE

Forest and other wooden land Shrub-land Bare land


BG, RO, CY, IE and MT not included Source: Eurostat

Crop-land Water and wetland

Grass-land Built-up and other artificial areas

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

33

In the EU 27 the main crops grown on arable land are cereals (including rice), followed by forage plants and vegetable and fruit crops. Table 3.2 Harvested production of some of the main crops 2010 (1000 tonnes) Cereals total (including rice) 284 718 2 933 7 036 6 878 8 779 44 293 670 1 996 4 098 19 642 65 240 20 960 65 1 417 2 768 166 12 300 : 1 887 4 818 27 299 1 092 16 565 555 2 571 2 972 4 333 23 387 Field peas and others (1) 1 994 5 8 48 22 177 12 : 6 169 1 075 29 0 3 49 1 40 0 5 33 43 : 37 1 15 12 54 151 Sugar beet (2) 102 806 4 217 0 3 065 0 23 858 0 45 1 229 3 399 31 723 3 472 87 0 723 0 755 0 5 280 3 132 9 823 7 853 262 978 542 1 974 7 384 Rape (3) 19 821 51 545 1 042 0 5 749 130 22 : 36 4 773 51 0 225 415 16 560 0 12 171 2.078 : 924 15 323 179 279 2 230 Sunflower (4) 6 956 : 1 506 57 0 54 0 : 93 887 1 659 213 0 0 0 0 987 0 0 67 3 13 1 265 1 150 0 0 2

EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

(1) 2008 data for CH; 2009 data for DE, EL, ES, IT, LV, UK. (2) 2006 data for SI; 2008 data for CH; 2009 data for IE. (3) 2008 data for NO, CH; 2009 data for IE. (4) 2005 data for UK; 2008 data for CH. Source: Eurostat

The crops in the table above are produced in almost all EU Member States. However, a small group of four countries is responsible for most of the production (see figure below). France, Germany and Poland together produce almost half of the cereals in the EU-27.

34

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 3.5 Share of main crop production between Member States, 2010 (%)

Source: Eurostat

The most important cereals in European Union are wheat, barley and grain. With around 284 million tonnes of cereals harvested, wheat accounts for 139 million tonnes, i.e. almost half of all cereals production (49 %). Figure 3.6 Harvested production of cereals by type of cereal, EU27, 2010 (%) Rice 1% Rye and maslin 3%

Others 9%

Grain maize 20%

Wheat 49%

Barley 18%
Source: Eurostat

Cereal production is concentrated in a few Member States. For each cereal presented in the figure, the top four producing countries account for more than 60 % of the production. France and Germany, the two main wheat producers, account for almost 46 % of EU-27 production. In 2010, Germany and France each produced around 20 % of EU-27 barley output, followed by Spain (16 %). France is the leading EU-27 grain maize producer and accounts for 24 % of production. Romania, with 16 % of production, has been the second EU-27 producer since 2009, although in 2007 and 2008 it was producing less than Italy and Hungary.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

35

Table 3.3 Harvested production of the most important cereals, 2010 (1000 tonnes) Wheat (1) EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 138 450 1 832 3 995 4 162 5 940 25 190 324 674 1 830 5 611 38 195 6 341 19 1 036 2 100 91 4 419 : 1 442 1 523 9 488 122 5 588 152 1 228 887 2 184 14 076 Barley (2) 51 989 359 833 1 585 2 989 10 412 253 0 318 8 157 10 100 991 45 228 548 43 966 : 204 778 3 533 75 1 322 79 361 1 332 1 228 5 525 Grain maize (3) 56 711 667 2 044 693 : 4 073 0 : 2 352 3 179 13 562 7 878 : : 37 3 7 410 : 235 1 866 1 716 630 9 101 305 952 : 8 0 Rye and maslin (4) 8 023 2 18 118 260 2 903 25 0 42 275 151 14 0 69 87 6 75 : 10 174 3 466 27 34 3 36 68 123 38 Rice (5) 3 058 : 56 : : : : : 230 926 119 1 493 : : : : 8 : : : : 165 62 : : : : :

(1) 2008 data for NO, CH; 2009 data for DK, DE, IE, EL, IT, LV, LT, LU, HU, AT, FI, UK. (2) 2008 data for NO; 2009 data for CH. (3) 2009 data for EL, IT, SE, CH. (4) 2008 data for NO, CH. (5) 2007 data for IT. Source: Eurostat

3.2.2 ENERGY CROPS


13.2 Mha are available nowadays for the cultivation of biomass crops, while in 2020 it is expected to be increased and to be around 20.5 Mha. The projections that have been made in 4fcrops project showed that the available land for the non-food crops will further increased in 2030 and will be 26.2 Mha. The biggest available land for now and for 2020 was recorded in Spain (3616 ha), while in 2030 it is estimated that will be in Poland (4079 ha). It is reported in the EnCrop Project that in EU27 a total area between 50000 and 60000 ha are occupied with energy crops for solid biofuels (in 2007). At the same time the cultivation area for energy crops for liquid biofuels is quite bigger and exceeds the 2,5 million ha. This area is mainly
36 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

referring to cereals and rapeseed. The need of producing biofuels to cover the share of 5.75% (of the total transport fuels) was the main reason for this extended cultivation of the energy crops. A wide range of crops can be use as energy crops. Regarding their end use product we can differentiate between: oilseed crops (for biodiesel), sugar and starch crops (for bioethanol) and lignocellulosic and woody crops (for heat and power production and second generation biofuels). AEBIOM has compiled data for different sources in order to give an overview of the European situation for these types of crops. However we would like to point out the difficulties to obtain figures in Europe for the land dedicated to energy crops and the production.

3.2.2.1 ENERGY CROPS FOR BIOFUELS


The European Commission (2008) calculated that 17,5 million ha of land would be required to reach the 10% biofuels target, which would amount to about 10% of the total Utilised Agricultural Area (UAA) in EU27. The current market demand for biofuels is covered by conventional crops like oilseeds and grains with limited quantities from lignocellulosic energy crops which are mainly used for heat and electricity. A Joint Research Center of EC Reference Report published in 2010 presented the simulation results, assuming two different scenario, on biofuels feedstock both in EU and in the rest of the world. - Baseline scenario: shows the baseline assumptions regarding EU biofuels policies. The energy share of biofuels is assumed to reach 8.5% in 2020, of which 7% consists of first generation and 1.5% second generation biofuels. Consistent with the Renewable Energy Directive, the energy provided by the latter is considered doubled for the purpose of meeting the 10% target. - Counterfactual scenario: Assumes the absence of all internal EU biofuels policies supporting the production or consumption of biofuels. In the following tables, it can be seen the estimated variation in the production of these crops and how much could be attributed to the EU biofuel policy.

Table 3.4 EU 27 oilseed and vegetable oil balance (in thousand tonnes) 2008 Oilseed production Oilseed: net trade Oilseed: crush Vegetable oil: production Vegetable oil: net trade Vegetable oil: consumption Of which: for biodiesel 26 624 -17 142 41 468 13 110 -7 992 21 079 7 522 2009 Baseline 27 180 -14 525 39 434 12 477 -8 689 -21 224 7 576 25 155 -17 243 40 182 12 732 -9 555 22 303 8 669 28 560 -15 793 41 953 13 278 -17 242 30 523 16 020 31 573 -16 540 45 622 14 436 -20 035 34 479 17 973 2010 2015 2020

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

37

Counterfactual Oilseed production Oilseed: net trade Oilseed: crush Vegetable oil: production Vegetable oil: net trade Vegetable oil: consumption Of which: for biodiesel 26 624 -17 142 -41 468 -13 110 -1 992 13 110 7 522 25 167 -14 661 39 549 12 514 -7 697 12 531 6 594 25 043 -18 014 40 806 12 930 -6 297 12 948 5 454 27 233 -19 441 44 270 14 028 -4 173 14 045 2 960 29 931 -20 004 47 495 15 046 -5 489 15 064 3 299

Source: JRC Institure for Prospective Technological Studies Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use.

Table 3.5 EU27 coarse grains balance (in thousand tonnes) 2008 Production Net trade Consumption Of which: for ethanol Production Net trade Consumption Of which: for ethanol 162 379 7 272 149 627 3 400 162 379 7 272 149 627 3 400 2010 Baseline 156 783 154 487 221 1 372 156 795 156 018 4 006 4 258 2009 2015 165 510 -1 441 165 896 8 415 164 423 -1 194 164 666 3 091 2020 174 154 -116 174 339 15 150 173 468 1 074 172 128 7 454

Counterfactual 156 748 154 345 492 1 697 156 471 155 595 3 340 3 273

Source: JRC European Comission and Institure for Prospective Technological Studies. Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use. Table 3.6 EU 27 wheat balance (in thousand tonnes) 2008 Production Net trade Consumption Of which: for ethanol Production Net trade Consumption Of which: for ethanol 150 243 11 305 129 006 2 800 150 243 11 305 129 006 2 800 2010 Baseline 133 990 134 323 12 169 6 996 123 560 126 875 3 365 4 152 2009 2015 149 244 15 628 132 910 7 832 145 921 19 729 125 588 334 2020 154 049 13 530 140 354 11 029 149 258 18 364 130 847 1 368

Counterfactual 133 910 133 952 12 294 7 492 123 347 126 039 3 128 3 143

Source: JRC European Comission and Institure for Prospective Technological Studies. Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use.
38 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

EU biofuels policies stimulate some changes in EU agricultural land use. In particular, the total area of cerals, oilseeds and sugar beet is 2.2% higher, implying that the secular decline in total area is more gradual that it would otherwise be (-6.5% rather that -8.6%). With EU biofuel polices, the total world area planted with cereals, oilseeds (soya bean, rapeseed and sunflower) and sugar crops is only 0.7%, or 5.2 million ha higher in 2020. Table 3.7 Land use effects of EU biofuel policies in the EU-27 in % difference and thousand ha (baseline scenario) 2008 0,0 26 435 0,0 13 993 0,0 8 902 0,0 10 487 0,0 59 818 0,0 10 182 0,0 1 640 0,0 71 639 0,0 120 184 2009 0,0 26 295 0,0 13 926 0,0 9 299 0,0 10 197 0,0 59 718 0,0 10 103 1,2 1 555 0,0 71 376 0,0 120 512 2010 0,1 24 711 0,1 14 069 0,1 9 187 0,1 8 372 0,1 56 339 0,2 9 249 2,3 1 496 0,2 67 084 -0,1 125 029 2015 2,1 25 635 0,6 13 536 0,7 9 356 0,7 8 859 1,3 57 386 4,6 9 639 10,5 1 497 1,9 68 522 -0,8 123 517 2020 3,0 24 483 0,2 13 047 0,3 9 309 0,3 8 728 1,5 55 567 5,6 9 928 10,6 1 467 2,2 66 962 -0,9 124 805

Wheat (absolute values, 000 ha) Barley (absolute values, 000 ha) Maize (absolute values, 000 ha) Other cereals (absolute values, 000 ha) Total cereals (absolute values, 000 ha) Oilseeds (absolute values, 000 ha) Sugar beet (absolute values, 000 ha) Total area of the above in EU27 (absolute values, 000 ha) Pastures (permanent and temporary)

Source: JRC European Comission and Institure for Prospective Technological Studies. Impacts of the EU biofuel target on agricultural markets and land use.

3.2.2.2 ENERGY CROPS FOR ELECTRICITY AND HEAT PRODUCTION


While the production of the first generation biofuels is closely related to the cultivation of annual crops; for electricity and heating purposes either perennial herbaceous plants or wood crops are used. In the future the annual crops, the perennial herbaceous as well as the woody crops could be used for the production of second generation biofuels (that mainly based on the lignocellulosic crops).

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

39

The following table shows figures about cellulosic energy crops in some EU countries. These figures were gathered during the workshop Perennial energy crops within the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy organized by AEBIOM in December 2011. Table 3.8 Cellulosic energy crops in 2011 (ha) Hemp AT BE* BU CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU MT NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK 390 780 11 000 1 500-2 300 5 000 9 000 300 550 2.000 18 700 2300 2 000-3 000 5 000 2 000 5 300-5 500 Reed Canary grass Willow Poplar Miscanthus 800

220-1 100 60

880-1 100

100

820

50-130

4 000

670

5.490

50-100

90

550

450
10 000-11 000

* Willow data only for Walloon region Source: Danish Agriculture & Food Council; Ministry for food and agricultural-FNR (Germany); Swedish Agricultural board; Crops for Energy (UK); NFU (UK); Miscanthus Growers Ltd. (UK), Cradle Crops (The Netherlands); Association dinitiatives locales pour lenergie et lenvironnement, AILE (France) ; NovaBiom (France); VALBIOM, DGARNE -Dpartement des Aides- Direction des Surfaces agricoles (Belgium).

40

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 3.7 Energy crops in Germany

Source: FNR. ttz Bremerhavn, Germany

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

41

3.2.3AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS
According to EUBIONET III partners the amount of ago-industrial residues corresponds to an energy potential of approximately 2.4 Mtoe. Given the fact that only 17 countries were analized (see the map below) and some countries with a large agricultural sector were not assessed (e.g. France), the total EU potential is likely to be even larger. As an estimation (based on the number of inhabitants) the potential is estimated to be around 17.9 Mtoe. However, it needs to be pointed out that the amount of agricultural activity per capita differs amongst EU member states, so this should only be seen as a rough approximation. In Southern European countries (Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal) residues from olive production are by far the largest resource. The annual amount of residues in these countries would be more than 7 million tons, equivalent to a theoretical energy potential of more than 150 PJ (based on an overall olive harvest of just over 10 million tons). It should be mentioned that the energy utilization of olive waste is already growing rapidly, as well as for nuts (almond, hazel etc.) shells that in Southern Europe is becoming an interesting potential energy resource, presently already used in substitution of wood pellet fuel into small scale stoves and boilers. Another large resource is grain screenings, at the European level assessed at a theoretical potential equivalent to 40 PJ (1 Mtoe). Other biomass types could be residues breweries, 27 the tobacco industry and plant oil (besides olive oil) production, e.g. sunflower shells, sheanut shells etc. Figure 3.8 Estimated unexploited agro-industrial residues.

Source: EUBIONET III project, October 2011

42

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

3.3 BIOMASS FROM FORESTRY


Forests are key ecosystems that fulfil a number of roles: environmental functions, economic growth especially in rural areas (91% of the overall EU territory), wood and non-wood products and source of raw material for forest- based industries and energy. Forests and other wooded land cover more than 40 % of the EUs land area. Expansion of the EUs forest area exceeds the loss of forest land to infrastructure and urban uses. Several Member States have expanded their forest cover by plantation programmes on agricultural land which is no longer cultivated. This positive development sets the EU apart from many other global regions, where deforestation continues to reduce forest area.

Table 3.9 Forest area in Europe and in the world, 1990-2010 1990 180 521 4 168 399 Area (1000 ha) 2000 2010 188 971 195 911 4 085 063 4 032 905 Annual change (1000ha) 1990-2000 2000-2010 845 694 -8 334 -5 216 Annual change rate (%) 1990-2000 2000-2010 0,46 0,36 -0,2 -0,13

Europe*

World

* Countries and areas included in this regional section for the purposes of this review are: Albania, Andorra, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Faroe Islands, Finland, France, Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Guernsey, Holy See, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Isle of Man, Italy, Jersey, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands, Sweden, Switzerland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Ukraine, United Kingdom. Source: FAO State of the Worlds forest 2011

3.3.1 FORESTRY IN EUROPE


Forests and other wooded land in the EU cover approximately 177 million ha (over 40 % of the EU territory), of which 130 million ha are available for wood supply. Ecologically, the EUs forests belong to many different biogeographical regions and have adapted to a variety of natural conditions, ranging from bogs to steppes and from lowland to alpine forests. Socioeconomically, the EUs forests vary from small family holdings to state forests or large estates owned by companies, many as part of industrial wood supply chains. The MS with the largest proportions of wooded area are Finland and Sweden, where approximately three quarters of the land area was covered with forests or woods. These same two MS recorded the highest areas of wooded land per inhabitant, approximately ten times the EU average. Sweden alone accounted for 17.6 % of all the wooded land in the EU in 2010, and the five largest wooded areas (in Sweden, Spain, Finland, France and Germany) collectively accounted for well over three fifths (62.4 %) of the wooded land in the EU. The least densely wooded MS are Malta, The Netherlands, Ireland and the United Kingdom. Between 2000 and 2010, wooded area in the EU increased through natural expansion and afforestation by a total of 3.5 million hectares, a rise of 2.0 %. In relative terms, the largest expansions in wooded area were recorded in Ireland (21.4 %), while Bulgaria and Latvia both recorded increases in excess of 10 %. Only four of the EU Member States recorded a fall in their areas of wooded land, with Denmark recording the largest reduction (-5.0 %) ahead of Portugal, Slovenia and Finland.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

43

Table 3.10 Forest area in the EU Forest and other wooden Forest available for land wood supply (1) 2000 2010 2000 2010 (1000 ha) 174 235 177 757 128 125 13 2605 694 706 663 672 3 480 3 927 2 258 2 864 1 637 2 657 2 561 2 330 622 591 371 581 11 076 11 076 10 985 10 568 2 337 2 350 2 103 2 013 650 789 597 : 6 525 6 539 3 317 3 595 27 452 27 747 10 480 14 915 17 165 17 572 14 645 15 147 10 439 10 916 8 446 8 086 387 387 43 41 3 097 3 467 2 777 3 138 2 103 2 240 1 756 1 875 88 88 87 86 1 866 2 029 1 622 1 726 0 0 0 : 360 365 290 295 3 955 4 006 3 341 3 343 9 059 9 337 8 342 8 532 3 667 3 611 2 009 1 822 6 600 6 733 4 628 5 193 1 283 1 274 1 130 1 175 1 921 1 933 1 767 1 775 23 305 23 269 20 508 19 869 30 653 31 247 21 076 20 554 2 813 2 901 2 323 2 411 Forest and other wooden land 2000 2010 (ha/capita) 0,36 0,35 0,07 0,07 0,42 0,52 0,26 0,25 0,12 0,11 0,13 0,14 1,70 1,75 0,17 0,18 0,60 0,58 0,69 0,60 0,28 0,27 0,18 0,18 0,56 0,48 1,30 1,54 0,60 0,67 0,20 0,18 0,18 0,20 0,00 0,00 0,02 0,02 0,49 0,48 0,23 0,24 0,36 0,34 0,29 0,31 0,65 0,62 0,36 0,36 4,51 4,35 3,46 3,35 0,05 0,05

EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK
(1)

EU27, excluding Ireland and Malta Source: Eurostat Forestry in the EU and the world, 2011

In Europe, the forest area designated primarily for conservation of biological diversity doubled in the last 20 years. Table 3.11 Area of forest designated primarily for conservation of biological diversity in Europe, 19902010 Area (1000 ha) 2000 2010 13 203 19 407 302 916 366 255 Annual change (1000ha) 1990-2000 2000-2010 636 620 3 250 6 334 Annual change rate (%) 1990-2000 2000-2010 6,80 3,93 1,14 1,92

Europe World

1990 6 840 270 413

Source: FAO, State of the Worlds Forest

About 60% of the forests in the EU are in private ownership, with about 15 million private forest owners. Private forest holdings have an average size of 13 ha, but the majority of privately-owned forests are less than 3 ha in size.
44 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Based on data for 24 EU Member States (incomplete data for Greece, Portugal and Sweden), the publicly owned forest area decreased by a total of 2.9 % between 2000 and 2010, whereas privately owned forest area increased by 8.6 %.

Table 3.12 Forest ownership in the EU Publicy owned 2000 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL (1) ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT (1) RO (2) SI SK FI SE (3) UK 290 3 041 2 023 138 5 846 899 399 2 790 4 988 3 984 2 811 118 1 749 1 562 41 1 155 0 184 928 7 535 54 6 010 365 1 006 7 213 7 522 1 011 2010 Private and other 2000 2010 377 519 616 448 5 368 1 345 337 845 12 838 1 141 6 076 54 1 696 784 46 861 0 181 2 482 1 658 3 382 2 097 962 958 15 389 20 941 1 922 Change 2000-2010 Pub. Priv. & Pub. Priv. & owned other owned other (1000 ha/year) (% annual average) 1,1 0,0 0,4 0,0 36,8 18,4 1,1 4,5 1,8 0,2 0,1 0,0 0,1 10,0 0,1 2,6 -13,8 13,8 -0,2 0,3 -4,1 0,1 -0,5 0,0 0,1 10,1 0,0 3,6 23,4 6,8 0,8 0,8 34,8 83,7 0,7 0,7 12,9 47,2 0,3 0,4 26,2 51,8 0,9 0,9 0,1 0,0 0,1 0,0 -9,4 20,3 -0,6 1,3 -19,6 32,6 -1,3 5,5 0,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 2,4 10,9 0,2 1,4 0,0 0,5 0,0 0,3 -7,0 15,0 -0,8 0,6 12,6 13,4 0.2 0,8 0,1 3,2 0,1 0,1 -161,2 174,1 -3,1 19,4 -7,4 9,4 -2,2 1,0 -2,6 4,3 -0,3 0,5 -51,4 14,4 -0,7 0,1 28,4 -9,8 0,4 0,0 -5,2 14,0 -0,5 0,8

(1000ha) 301 377 3 408 334 2 041 614 139 348 5 708 5 230 858 1 344 400 236 2 907 811 5 336 1 200 4 113 11 369 3 073 5 558 119 54 1 655 1 493 1 366 458 41 46 1 178 753 0 0 184 176 858 2 332 7 661 1 524 54 3 366 4 398 356 291 868 980 915 6 699 15 245 7 664 20 990 959 1 782

(1) 2005 instead of 2010, change from 2000 to 2005 instead of from 2000 to 2010. (2) Excluding other ownership. (3) 2005 instead of 2000, change from 2005 to 2010 instead of from 2000 to 2010. Source: SoEF 2011

As demand for wood increases from both wood processing industries and the energy sector, the question of whether there is enough wood is of great concern nowadays. In order to understand how much wood is available, it is essential to know how much wood is growing in the European Unions forests and how much is removed. The growing stock (table 3.17) provides information on available resources as well as the basis for estimating biomass stocks. The increment in the EUs growing stock was in excess of 700 million m3 in 2010, around 1.6 times as high as the volume of fellings (only approximately 63 % of the increment is felled. With Europes forest area and growing stock expanding, it would seem that a high level of wood removal for production is not incompatible with sustainable forest management in countries with relatively developed economies and stable institutions.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

45

Table 3.13 Area of forest designated primarily for production in Europe, 19902010 Area (1000 ha) 2000 2010 111 229 108 829 1 160 325 1 131 210 Annual change (1000ha) 1990-2000 2000-2010 -13 -240 -2 125 -2 911 Annual change rate (%) 1990-2000 2000-2010 -0,01 -0,22 -0,18 -0,25

Europe World

1990 111 363 1 181 576

Source: FAO, State of the Worlds Forest

Table 3.14 Commercial wood volume (forest available for wood supply) in the EU. Grow. stock

Growing stock 2000 EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL (1) ES FR IT CY LV LT (2) LU (3) HU MT NL AT PL (3) PT (4) RO SI SK FI SE UK 19 394 142 321 678 56 3 356 427 58 157 617 2 119 1 153 3 515 320 13 291 0 49 1 060 1 584 210 697 305 437 1 916 2 643 267 2010 21 750 164 435 738 112 3 466 398 74 170 784 2 453 1 285 3 584 408 0 259 0 56 1 107 2 092 154 1 390 478 2 024 2 651 340

Increment 2000 2010 (million m3 over bark) 752 768,3 5 5 14 15 20 23 5 6 122 107 11 11 3 4 4 5 29 46 98 94 32 33 0 0 17 18 9 11 1 1 12 11 0 0 2 2 31 25 38 68 13 19 35 34 7 9 12 13 79 91 91 96 21 21

Fellings 2000 463 4 4 16 2 49 13 2 2 18 63 11 0 12 6 0 7 0 1 19 33 11 14 3 7 67 74 9 2010 484,1 4 8 18 2 60 6 3 2 17 64 13 0 12 9 0 7 0 2 24 41 14 17 3 10 59 81 11

Increment 2010 3 (m /ha) 5,8 7,9 5,1 9,9 10,0 10,1 5,6 5,8 1,3 3,1 6,2 4,0 0,9 5,8 5,7 7,5 6,4 0,0 7,6 7,5 8,0 10,5 6,5 7,8 7,4 4,6 4,7 8,6

Fellings

163,3 244,4 151,9 316,6 192,7 328,0 197,8 119,4 47,4 52,6 162,0 159,0 79,0 186,1 217,6 299,1 150,1 0,0 189,8 331,1 245,2 84,5 211,5 331,9 269,1 101,9 129,0 141,0

3,6 5,7 2,7 7,7 4,1 5,6 2,8 4,5 0,5 1,1 4,2 1,6 0,2 4,0 4,6 2,9 4,0 0,0 5,3 7,0 4,8 7,9 3,3 2,9 5,9 3,0 3,9 4,4

(1) Fellings, 2005 instead of 2010. (2) Increment and fellings, 2005 instead of 2000. (3) Increment, 2005 instead of 2010. (4) Increment and fellings, 2005 instead of 2010. Source: Eurostat, SoEF 2011

46

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The most common primary designated function of forests within the EU is production essentially of wood but also of non-wood forest products. Futher downstream, arrange of manufacturing processes take these basic and primary wood products and transform them into a range of wood and paper products or as a source of energy. The following figure gives a clear overview of the wood flow in Europe. Figure 3.9 Wood fow in EU 27, 2010

Source: VTT, EUBIONET3 project

A common measure of the magnitude of the extraction of wood from forests is roundwood removals: this comprises all quantities of roundwood removed from the forest or other felling sites and stripped of the bark (under bark). The total level of removals in the EU in 2010 was 420 million m under bark. The largest volumes of wood removals were recorded in Sweden, Germany, France, Finland and Poland, which together accounted for close to two thirds of the EU total. The production of roundwood in the EU in 2009 was, in the main, composed of industrial roundwood (accounting for 79% of the total), while the production of fuelwood covered the remaining 20.1 %.
AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012
3

47

Table 3.15 Roundwood removals under bark and proportion of fuelwood in EU


Total roundwood Thousands of cubic metres 2000 EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 408 094 4 510 4 783 14 441 2 952 53 710 8 910 2 673 2 244 14 321 65 864 9 329 20 14 304 5 500 259 5 902 0 1 039 13 276 26 025 10 831 13 148 2 253 6 163 54 542 63 300 7 791 2005 443 484 4 950 5 861 15 510 2 962 56 946 5 500 2 648 1 522 15 531 52 498 8 690 9 12 842 6 045 248 5 940 0 1 110 16 471 31 944 10 746 14 501 2 732 9 302 52 250 98 200 8 519 2010 420 794 4 827 5 668 17 022 2 669 54 418 7 560 2 789 1 251 15 648 55 477 7 254 8 12 533 7 096 274 5 740 0 1 080 17 830 35 467 9 648 13 111 2 945 9 599 50 951 70 200 9 718 2000 68 935 550 2 107 940 461 2 622 1 640 73 1 601 1 600 26 388 5 680 5 1 680 1 450 18 2 596 0 160 2 860 1 536 600 3 032 532 277 4 395 5 900 229 Fuelwood, including wood for charcoal Thousands of cubic metres 2005 75 127 650 2 678 1 225 1 280 6 041 1 050 19 1 004 2 180 24 555 5 673 3 950 1 130 12 3 136 0 290 3 685 3 413 600 2 959 943 297 5 134 5 900 317 2010 84 892 713 2 657 2 114 1 079 9 030 1 701 31 804 2 480 26 173 4 839 3 2 312 1 943 16 2 993 0 290 4 549 4 124 600 2 563 1 104 509 4 974 5 900 1 381 % of total roundwood 2000 16,89% 12,20% 44,04% 6,51% 15,62% 4,88% 18,41% 2,73% 71,33% 11,17% 40,07% 60,89% 26,38% 11,74% 26,36% 6,93% 44,00% 15,40% 21,54% 5,90% 5,54% 23,06% 23,61% 4,49% 8,06% 9,32% 2,94% 2005 16,94% 13,13% 45,69% 7,90% 43,23% 10,61% 19,09% 0,72% 65,95% 14,04% 46,77% 65,28% 39,96% 7,40% 18,69% 4,87% 52,79% 26,13% 22,37% 10,68% 5,58% 20,41% 34,52% 3,19% 9,83% 6,01% 3,72% 2010 20,17% 14,78% 46,88% 12,42% 40,44% 16,59% 22,50% 1,14% 64,32% 15,85% 47,18% 66,71% 40,51% 18,45% 27,38% 6,11% 52,16% 26,84% 25,51% 11,63% 6,22% 19,55% 37,48% 5,31% 9,76% 8,40% 14,21%

* Fuelwood is wood of generally lower quality (from trunks and branches of trees), to be used as fuel for cooking, heating and energy production and includes wood used to produce charcoal.

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

48

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

3.3.2 THE ROLE OF FOREST IN THE CARBON CYCLE


Forests play a crucial role in climate change mitigation and adaptation. At the global level, the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) indicated that global forest vegetation contains 283 Gt of carbon in biomass, 38 Gt in dead wood and 317 Gt in soils (in the top 30 cm) and litter. The total carbon content of forests ecosystems has been estimated at 638 Gt, which exceeds the amount of carbon in the atmosphere. Forest biomass in the EU contained 9 800 million tonnes of carbon in 2010, an increase of 5.1 % compared with 2005. A longer analysis from 1990 to 2010 (excluding Estonia and Portugal) shows an increase in carbon stock of 26.0 %.

Table 3.16 Carbon stock in living forest biomass in the EU Carbon stock in living forest biomass 1990 EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK : 50 127 287 22 981 : 16 67 289 965 375 3 193 134 7 117 0 21 339 691 : 600 116 163 721 1 178 120 2000 2005 (million tons carbon) : 9 341 61 63 161 182 322 339 26 36 1 193 1 283 168 167 18 20 73 76 396 400 1 049 1 165 467 512 3 3 234 244 146 151 9 9 130 136 0 0 24 26 375 299 807 887 : 102 599 601 141 159 190 202 802 832 1 183 1 219 119 128 2010 9 819 64 202 356 37 1 405 165 23 79 422 1 208 558 3 272 153 9 142 0 28 393 968 102 618 178 211 832 1 255 136 Carbon stock per inhabitant 2005 2010 (ton carbon/capita) 19,0 19,6 6,0 5,9 23,5 26,7 33,2 33,9 6,7 6,7 15,6 17,2 123,9 123,1 4,9 5,1 6,9 7,0 9.3 9,2 18,6 18,7 8,8 9,2 4,0 3,7 105,8 121,0 44,1 46,0 19,5 17,9 13,5 14,2 0,0 0,0 1,6 1,7 48,7 46,9 23,2 25,4 9,7 9,6 27,7 28,8 79,6 87,0 37,5 38,9 158,9 155,5 135,3 134,4 2,1 2,2

Source: FAO (Global FRA, 2010)

The forest functions in the carbon balance are addressed by three Kyoto Protocol activities: afforestation/reforestation; deforestation; and forest management. In the following table it can be seen the data that countries report on the changes to carbon stocks in managed forests that result from these three types of activities.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

49

Table 3.17 Data on afforestation and reforestation (A/R), deforestation (D) and forest management (FM) activities reported by Annex B Parties under the Kyoto Protocol for the year 2008 (in Gt CO equivalent)
2

AT BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

A/R -2 531 -399 1 353* -272 -70 -2 615 -534 2 763* -351 -10 276 -13 591 -1 736 -440 -1183 -574 -3 916 -4 134 -2 456 -1 077 -1 576 -2 696

D 1 224 468 275 160 35 16 393 6 600 11 4 188 11 926 386 1 674 44 780 263 6 877 2 385 2 426 2 886 2 385 452

FM

-6 145 281 -20 441

-2 052 -39 120 -84 620 -50 773 -23 595 -3 885 -46 865 2 563 -10 307 -10 324 -39 935 -18 606 -10 873

CO2 balance -1 307 69 1 628 -6 257 247 -6 663 6 066 2 774 -2 399 -52 279 -86 285 -52 122 -22 361 -5 025 233 -50 519 -180 -7 851 -7 897 -38 126 -17 797 -13 116

* AEBIOM considers this could be an error in the publicationas afforestation should always be a negative number (sequestration of carbon) Source: FAO ( State of World Forest 2011) http://unfccc.int/national_reports/annex_i_ghg_inventories/national_inventories_submissions/items/5270.php

The use of wood as a fuel is largely carbon neutral if wood resources are cultivated in a sustainable way. Although carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere when wood is burnt, this is converted into carbon and oxygen as trees grow, and hence the cycle of tree growth and wood burning is often referred to as being carbon neutral.

50

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

3.3.3 FORESTRY RESIDUES


In the next table it can be seen the quantity of wood waste and paper and cardboard waste that was treated within Europe. Almost 25 million tonnes of wood waste were treated in the EU in 2008, while the figure for paper and cardboard was 13.3 million tonnes higher. Waste treatment operations distinguish between five different treatment types: recovery, energy recovery, incineration, disposal on land, and land treatment/release into water.

Table 3.18 Waste and recycling of wood products in the EU (tonnes) 2004 30 910 989 0 226 721 2 221 180 155 24 279 4 261 4 248 0 2 17 70 183 1 944 2 935 930 1 109 80 75 126 3 472 4 948 2 715 Wood waste 2006 36 180 440 0 120 862 2 502 398 180 63 573 3 727 4 378 2 0 34 172 174 1 644 2 282 419 681 109 150 421 4 122 10 916 2 747 2008 24 970 565 19 113 891 2 642 319 159 88 1 737 4 583 1 790 2 0 60 69 135 0 1 422 3 565 2 194 981 761 165 151 115 178 2 272 Paper & cardboard waste 2004 2006 2008 37 550 34 920 38 260 1 581 630 574 169 125 196 152 201 246 677 788 782 6 054 5 922 5 908 0 6 35 118 26 6 263 425 440 2 217 3 346 5 060 7 550 6 050 5 659 3 335 4 143 4 450 6 29 23 15 18 19 68 141 146 0 0 18 287 344 354 2 3 3 2 670 2 656 2 268 1 156 1 425 1 401 1 157 212 1 326 345 781 303 344 335 325 349 373 380 45 108 102 424 734 468 1 677 1 846 2 339 6 891 4 174 5 430

EU 27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Source: Eurostat

The next table provides a breakdown of the origin of waste streams. The highest share of wood waste in the EU was produced by wood manufacturers in 2008 (some 39.0 % of all wood waste), while paper manufacturers accounted for 13.5 % of the total and households for 4.8 %. Households accounted for the highest share of waste paper and cardboard, some 29.8 % of the total generated in the EU in 2008. Both wood manufacturing and paper manufacturing accounted for only a tiny fraction of the total waste generated by all activities, while households accounted for 8.4 %.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

51

Table 3.19 Waste generated by wood and paper manufacturing and by households in the EU, 2008 (% share of waste from all NACE activities and households) Wood manufacturing
Total waste
EU27

Paper manufacturing
Total waste Wood waste Paper & cardboard waste Total waste

Households
Wood waste Paper & cardboard waste

Wood waste

Paper & cardboard waste

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

1,1 0,9 0,1 0,7 0,2 0,8 5,4 0,0 0,1 0,2 1,4 0,8 0,4 4,3 1,5 0,4 1,3 0,0 0,3 7,8 1,5 1,9 0,7 5,4 2,2 7,4 0,3 0,5

39,0 23,3 60,0 54,6 1,1 20,9 79,9 52,9 9,7 12,0 54,2 33,1 38,2 66,2 40,5 40,8 73,3 0,0 10,0 69,4 55,6 27,3 73,0 53,7 38,3 47,4 3,7 29,2

0,1 0,1 0,0 0,1 0,4 0,1 0,1 0,9 0,0 0,2 0,1 0,2 0,0 1,5 0,3 0,1 0,0 0,0 0,1 0,1 0,3 0,1 0,1 0,1 0,0 0,1 0,1 0,1

1,2 1,4 0,1 1,1 1,3 1,1 0,6 1,8 0,2 1,4 0,8 1,2 0,7 0,7 0,6 0,2 0,9 0,4 0,9 1,5 0,9 2,3 0,1 3,4 5,0 5,5 7,8 0,7

13,5 3,8 16,5 0,9 0,0 2,4 4,1 4,1 0,2 2,3 4,4 3,7 0,3 0,1 6,4 0,7 0,2 0,0 1,3 5,8 14,7 5,9 2,4 5,4 44,2 23,7 85,9 0,8

16,9 9,5 20,8 18,7 17,4 16,1 12,5 19,9 10,8 19,9 20,5 19,3 6,3 57,6 14,9 16,5 19,3 0,0 18,6 11,3 17,0 9,0 9,1 41,0 15,5 20,1 64,5 8,7

8,4 9,2 1,0 12,5 16,6 9,5 2,2 7,1 5,8 16,4 8,5 18,1 23,5 40,5 19,9 2,9 17,0 11,3 9,5 6,8 4,9 14,1 4,5 14,2 15,5 2,0 5,1 9,4

4,8 15,0 0,0 4,1 26,5 7,0 0,3 0,0 0,0 6,3 0,0 19,8 0,0 0,0 1,2 5,9 0,4 0,0 14,8 2,6 0,0 0,0 7,2 2,0 0,2 0,5 0,5 12,6

29,8 18,9 0,0 19,3 12,4 61,4 6,6 0,0 0,0 23,2 18,1 56,9 47,2 0,0 45,3 14,3 20,7 23,4 42,6 46,2 6,0 0,0 40,2 16,9 20,5 28,2 22,6 14,1

Source: Eurostat

3.3.4 WOOD AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY


Wood for use as an energy source comes not only from tree felling, but also from selective thinning of managed forests and other forestry practices (direct sources). Wood for energy use may also be derived as a by-product from downstream processing in wood-based manufacturing, for example, as off-cuts, trimmings, sawdust, shavings, wood chips or black liquor (indirect sources). End-of-life wood and paper products may also be used as a source of energy (recovered wood). The squeme in page 47 (figure 3.9) can help to understand the global picture. The following figure provides an overview of the use of wood from all wood sources in Europe. As we said before it should be noted that some of the wood resources used for energy come directly from forests and the remainder from production residues. Around 42% of all mobilized woody biomass supply is used for energy purposes. But it should be noted that, despite the increasing rate of wood consumption for energy, the regions forest are increasing in area as well as standing volumes (see section 3.3.1).

52

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 3.10 Wood resources use in the EU27, 2010 (% share of total volume in m ) Other material uses 2% Processed solid wood fuel 3% Energy use 42%

Pulp industry 17%

Panel & plywood industry 12%

Sawmill industry 24%


Source: Eurostat

Wood and wood waste was the principal source of renewable energy consumed in the majority of EU Member States (see Figure below), its relative importance ranging from a high of 97.46 % in Estonia to just 12.87 % in Cyprus.

Figure 3.11 Share of wood and wood waste in total renewable energy in the EU, 2010 (% of gross inland consumption of renewable energy)
100% 96,46% 88,17% 78,17% 75% 71,18% 61,83% 57,60% 50% 48,55% 37,57% 38,23% 31,05% 25% 31,53% 24,42% 12,87% 65,11% 76,67% 80,57% 68,29% 56,93% 84,77%

49,97% 36,09%

49,60% 46,43%

47,13%

53,46% 52,31%

30,26%

0% EU BE BG CZ DK DE EE 27 IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Malta not available Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations.

In Europe the production of fuelwood continues to rise despite the economic crisis, due to the increment in use of energy form renewable sources and price increases for fossil fuels. Production of fuelwood in the EU rose to 82.6 million m3 in 2009 as it can be seen in the following table. The production of wood pellets in the EU grew at a phenomenal rate, rising 41.3 % between 2008 and 2009; almost half of the EUs production was concentrated within Germany and Sweden in 2009.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

53

Table 3.20 Production of roundwood, fuelwood and other basic wood products in the EU, 2009 3 (1000 m ) Roundwood Industrial roundwood 309 334 3 670 2 224 14 307 1 706 48 073 3 708 2 262 507 11 900 28 643 2 600 6 8 673 3 677 257 2 365 0 726 12 144 30 475 8 964 8 587 1 948 8 501 36 701 59 200 7 509 Wood chips & particles 47 533 475 47 1 380 168 3 127 1 700 516 3 1 747 4 799 420 2 2 847 835 555 58 0 107 3 505 929 198 410 118 620 5 803 15 500 1 665 Wood residues & pellets Total 38 790 425 53 1 140 0 828 800 167 11 2 231 7 000 200 0 890 683 853 89 0 728 2 362 5 500 1 507 1 732 236 809 4 990 5 000 555 Pellets 7 828 0 6 0 0 1 460 488 8 0 242 554 0 0 671 278 14 0 0 185 222 585 402 200 6 90 260 1 982 175

Total EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 391 923 4 395 4 599 16 187 2 812 56 634 4 860 2 349 1 261 13 980 54 108 7 581 10 10 409 5 460 274 5 244 0 1 016 16 727 34 629 9 564 12 557 2 930 9 087 41 653 65 100 8 497

Fuelwood 82 590 725 2 375 1 880 1 106 8 561 1 152 87 754 2 080 25 465 4 981 4 1 736 1 783 17 2 879 0 290 4 584 4 154 600 3 969 983 586 4 952 5 900 988

Source: Eurostat

Information collected by the Joint Energy Enquiry (JWEE) shows that direct sources accounted for some 43% of total wood used as an energy source in the EU countries analysed (see following table), and 57% of wood used for energy coming from indirect sources. Private households were generally the main users of wood as a source of energy, accounting for almost half (48.17%) of the wood used for energy purposes in 2009. The industrial use counts almost one quarter (24.31%). The highest shares of industrial use are in Ireland, Slovakia, Belgium, Finland and Sweden.

54

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Residential use, mainly dependent on direct supplies of firewood, is prevalent in Southern and Central Europe with France, the Czech Republic, Italy, Lithuania, Germany and Austria reporting this category as their primary use. The forest products industry typically consumes energy generated from the solid and liquid co-products of its manufacturing processes. Therefore, countries with important forest industries, such as Finland or Sweden have a higher level of industrial consumption. The power and heat sector is the most important consumer of wood energy in the United Kingdom, and has relatively large shares in Germany, Sweden and the Baltic region. Overall it represents 20% of wood energy use. Table 3.21 Wood energy Sources and Uses in 2009 (1000 m ) U1 Power and Heat S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % 4,8 5172,7 0 U2 Industrial 0 2668,7 0 U3 Residential AUSTRIA 7001,7 1307,9 0 U4 Other 987,5 2815 0 Sum (U1, U2, U3, U4) 7994 11964,3 0 % 41,10% 59,90% 0
3

0%

5177,6

2668,7

8309,6

3802,5

25,90% 0 792,6 0

13,40% 0 1515,9 0

41,60% BELGIUM 0 0 0

19,10% 0 10,9 0 0 2319,3 0 0% 78,80% 0

623,1

623,1

21,20%

792,6

1515,9

623,1

10,9

26,90% 0 0 0

51,50% 0 1,6 0

21,20% CYPRUS 4,8 29,6 0

0,40% 0 35,2 0 4,8 66,4 0 6,70% 93,30% 0

1,6

34,4

35,2

2,30%

48,30%

49,40%

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

55

S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) %

0 867,9 0

28,8 2121,7 0

CZECH REPUBLIC 8414,9 335,5 0

16,8 81,5 0

8460,4 3406,6 0

71,30% 28,70% 0

867,9

2150,5

8750,4

98,3

7,30% 8,6 1357,10 16,1

18,10% 48,3 570,3 0

73,70% ESTONIA 1653,50 677,9 0

0,80% 25,2 7,5 0 1735,60 2.612,90 16,1 39,80% 59,90% 0,40%

1381,70

618,6

2.331,40

32,7

31,70% 3816,60 3374,70 391,5

14,20% 653,1 15.548,20 41,5

53,40% FINLAND 5538,30 747 0

0,70% 0 0 0 10008,10 19669,80 433 33,20% 65,30% 1,40%

7582,80

16242,80

6285,30

25,20% 653,2 440,8 497,6

53,90% 1422,1 7848,9 0,0

20,90% FRANCE 27118,9 8770,6 1.611,5

0 223,0 5,0 0,0 29417,2 17065,3 2109,1 60,5% 35,1% 4,3%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

1591,6

9271,0

37501,0

228,0

3,3%

19,1%

77,2%

0,5%

56

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) %

5700,4 7668,1 7320,1

0,0 3629,6 0,0

GERMANY 19951,6 3555,2 1411,0

0,0 0,0 0,0

25652,0 14852,9 8731,1

51,2% 29,6% 17,4%

574,5

0,0

319,5

0,0

894,0

1,8%

21263,1

3629,6

25237,3

0,0

42,4% 0,0 0,0 0,0

7,2% 0,0 328,6 112,7

50,3% IRELAND 88,7 131,0 0,0

0 57,6 0,0 0,0 146,3 459,6 112,7 20,4% 64,0% 15,7%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

441,3

219,7

57,6

0 5000,0 0,0 1082,0

61,4% 1000,0 1000,0 0,0

30,6% ITALY 18000,0 1500,0 0,0

8,0% 348,0 0,0 0,0 24348,0 2500,0 1082,0 87,2% 9,0% 3,9%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

6082,0

2000,0

19500,0

348,0

21,8% 187,1 995,0 0,0

7,2% 0,0 0,0 0,0

69,8% LITHUANIA 1661,9 361,1 0,0

1,2% 43,2 144,2 0,0 1892,1 1500,3 0,0 55,8% 44,2% 0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

1182,1

0,0

2023,0

187,3

34,8%

59,6%

5,5%

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

57

S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) % S1 Direct S2 Indirect S3 Recovere d S4 Unspecifi ed Sum (S1, S2, S3, S4) %
58

110,3 158,3 0,0

0,0 1.257,0 0,0

SLOVAK REPUBLIC 462,8 157,8 0,0

24,0 147,3 10,4

597,1 1720,3 10,4

25,7% 73,9% 0,4%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

268,6

1.257,0

620,6

181,7

11,5% 0,0 128,8 0,0

54,0% 0,0 418,1 0,0

26,7% SLOVENIA 1252,6 44,8 0,0

7,8% 0,0 21,6 0,0 1252,6 613,2 0,0 67,1% 32,9% 0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

128,8

418,1

1297,4

21,6

6,9% 9254,2 5755,2 1006,2

22,4% 0,0 17965,9 0,0

69,5% SWEDEN 4968,8 1497,5 0,0

1,2% 486,8 330,0 0,0 14709,8 25548,6 1006,2 35,6% 61,9% 2,4%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

16015,6

17965,9

6466,3

816,8

38,8% 990,2 1222,4 279,9

43,5% 73,8 321,8 295,5

15,7% UNITED KINGDOM 949,2 367,8 372,8

2,0% 0,0 0,0 0,0 2.013,2 1.912,1 948,2 41,3% 39,2% 19,5%

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

0,0

2492,5

691,1

1689,8

0,0

51,1%

14,2%

34,7%

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

S1 Direct: Any wood fibre entering energy production without any further treatment or conversion. It comprises removals from forests and outside. It also comprises any woody biomass from any land use and covers. It comprises any form of woody biomass, such as green chips, roundwood or split, stacked or loose from any part of the trees such as roots, stemwood and branches, fruits and shells. S2 Indirect: Processed and unprocessed co-products (residues) from the wood processing industries are considered as indirect supply. These co-products can be solid (sawdust, chips, slabs, etc.) or liquid from the pulp industry (black liquor or tall oil). Processed wood fuels such as wood pellets, briquettes but also wood charcoal are also included under indirect supply. S3 Recovered: Post consumer recovered wood comprises any waste wood fibre after at least one life cycle. S4 Unspecified: Many countries know something about the amount of wood used but not its source. * Latvia: The apparent inconsistency in the share of woody biomass among renewable energy sources possibly indicates that the use of wood energy in Latvia might be underreported in the UNECE/FAO enquiry. For this reason AEBIOM has not included the data of Latvia in this table. * No data for The Netherlands Source: UNECE/FAO Joint Wood Energy Enquiry (JWEE) 2009. United Nations, Geneva.

Table 3.22 Role of wood energy in forest sector and energy sector, 2009 Wood energy in forest sector
Direct mobilisation of woody biomass for energy production from forests and outside forests (m3/ha) Total woody biomass used for energy per ha of Forest and Other Wooded Land (OWL) available for wood supply (m3/ha) Share of Total domestic woody biomass supply (including cascaded use) used for energy purposes (%)

Wood energy in energy sector

Share of Total Roundwood and fuelwood supply directly used for energy purposes (%)

Share of woody biomass in TPES (%)

Share of woody biomass in RES (%)

Share of wood energy generated from black liquor (%)

Imported wood fuel as share of wood energy (%)

BE CZ DE EE IE FR IT CY LV LT NL AT SI SK FI SE UK

3,36 2,43 0,8 0,22 2 2,91 0,11 1,03 2,39 1,04 0,34 0,48 0,71 0,85

66,00% 50,20% 42,00% 6,30% 57,10% 82,20% 32,40% 37,50% 30,50% 46,50% 7,40% 20,20% 22,10% 22,30%

4,41 4,71 4,74 2,01 1,09 3,3 3,34 1,65 1,85 5,97 1,54 1,33 1,45 2 2,05

18,00% 73,00% 89,80% 51,60% 18,70% 54,30% 72,40% 81,70% 43,00% 46,90% 51,30% 19,80% 41,10% 36,80% 23,40%

1,10% 5,80% 3,30% 16,40% 1,00% 3,90% 3,50% 0,60% 8,40% 13,10% 5,60% 2,90% 18,90% 18,90% 0,50%

27,40% 101,90% 37,70% 126,90% 23,40% 51,10% 36,30% 15,20% 80,90% 47,20% 43,80% 40,00% 79,50% 54,30% 16,30%

30,20% 9,20% 0,00% 1,90% 0,00% 7,30% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00% 8,10% 0,00% 29,30% 41,90% 25,80% 0,00%

17,00% 1,30% 1,80% 3,40% 8,60% 0,70% 16,60% 83,50% 9,10% 11,80% 10,80% 1,20% 3,40% 3,10% 9,20%

TPES: Total primary energy supply. Source: UNECE/FAO Joint Wood Energy Enquiry (JWEE) 2009. United Nations, Geneva.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

59

3.4 BIOMASS FROM WASTE


3.4.1 WASTE PRODUCTION IN EU
In 2008 (last available data), some 2390 million tonnes of waste was generated in the EU-27, of which around 19% is biodegradable waste. Table 3.23 Waste generated in Europe for all NACE activities include households in 2008 (tonnes) Biodegradable waste* Animal and Household Wood vegetal and similar wastes wastes wastes** 68 420 000 114 960 000 202 310.000 1 572 776 4 265 806 3 608 476 327 051 976 508 3 746 741 248 256 540 638 3 281 224 892 056 165 969 3 171 601 10 270 534 12 231 406 20 806 297 1 288 169 287 052 465 707 147184 523 116 144 848 830 006 137 599 5 077 244 1 932 320 15 647 005 22 604 041 8 681 750 7 590 660 23 921 420 3 448 043 9 405 736 26 189 697 17 201 199 867 183 341 87 267 144 507 751 917 231 373 1 061 890 1 252 682 74 450 91 316 212 188 335 905 1 378 997 3 494 208 433 15 108 260 796 2 141 949 13 251 111 7 878 747 6 231 841 3 711 597 1 875 717 3 366 748 7 123 815 6 783 974 2 010 148 1 190 398 7 888 216 1 805 150 17 668 175 8 386 970 470 248 256 251 860 908 629 430 1 224 526 1 533 083 12 477 463 1 242 875 1 705 201 4 507 626 1 788 044 2 523 149 4 398 220 12 842 426 43 700 567

Total waste

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

2 611 580 000 48 621 916 286 092 936 25 419 695 15 155 208 372 796 353 19 583 855 23 637 015 68 643 963 149 254 157 345 002 210 179 034 461 1 842 781 1 495 084 6 333 352 9 592 144 16 949 197 1 499 220 99 591 174 56 308 766 140 340 303 36 479 845 189 310 549 5 038 401 11 472 008 81 792 854 86 168 590 334 127 092

Paper and cardboard wastes 58 710 000 3 542 574 109 991 697 807 782 386 9 981 698 159 295 33 524 729 179 4 732 556 6 899 000 5 160 681 153 027 9 670 109 029 104 668 590 524 4 169 2 919 366 1 524 865 1 158 495 2 441 059 546 408 199 521 218.704 805.621 2.292.088 12 802 975

Common sludges 64 470 000 863 242 1 182 360 1 239 164 541 749 2 033 096 72 383 154 242 161 732 1 945 536 2 317 490 1 223 235 70 190 95 593 57 038 14 024 223 711 173 26 870 584 847 453 401 277 792 182 216 883 607 186 1 164 067 818 011 669 486 19 888 143

* Not all the biodegradable waste can be considered as biowaste. According to the Waste Framework Directive (2008/98/CE) biowaste includes organic waste from gardens and parks, food and kitchen waste from households, restaurants, caterers and distribution networks, and comparable waste from food-processing plants. Biodegradable waste covers other biodegradables such as wood, paper, paperboard, wastewater and sludge. ** Total household wastes, not all it is biodegradable. Source: Eurostat 60 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Municipal waste (biodegradable garden, kitchen and food waste) represents more than half of all the biowaste generated in Europe. The quantity of municipal waste generated per inhabitant in the EU27 decreased between 2001-2010 by 3,64% to reach 502 kg. Table 3.24 Municipal waste* generated in Europe in 2010 Municipal waste (thousand of tonnes) Waste Energy generated recovery 252 095 42 007 5 074 1 743 3 091 0 3 334 495 3 732 2 025 47 691 6 840 417 0 2 846 108 5 175 0 24 664 2 236 34 535 11 200 32 090 4 590 611 0 680 0 1 253 1 344 122 4 129 406 246 0 9 887 3 229 4 960 1 465 12 038 0 5 464 1 058 7 830 0 864 9 1 809 171 2 519 441 4 364 2 124 32 450 3 744 MSW renewable (1000toe) Primary production 8 052 329 0 63 534 2 271 0 6 0 216 1 214 778 0 0 0 14 53 : 817 189 3 96 0 0 22 145 743 558 Final energy consumption 569 0 0 21 30 86 0 6 0 0 291 0 0 0 0 0 0 : 0 0 3 0 0 0 8 35 0 89

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

* Municipal waste is defined as waste collected by or on behalf of municipalities and includes waste produced by households; it may also include similar waste from offices, small businesses and so on, depending on the arrangements in the municipality. Source: Eurostat

The figure below summarises the quantity of waste treated by the three main treatment types: disposal, incineration (including energy recovery) and recovery (including all treatment of biodegradable matter, for example composting) To date, incineration is still the main energy conversion channel for renewable municipal waste, and more than 7 Mtoe were produced in Europe from solid renewable municipal waste incineration.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

61

According to Eurobserver, almost half of the energy produces in Europes municipal waste incineration plants is obstained from fermetescible waste (biomass waste). Table 3.25 Composition of waste treatment type, EU-27, 2008 (million tonnes) 1092,4 764,7 76,5 65,5 43,7 129,1 50,4 12,9 9,8 3,3 1168,9 970,2 97,7 39,6 27,4 (% of treatment type) 70 7 6 4 39 10 8 3 83 8 3 2

Recovery (other than energy recovery) Mineral waste Metallic wastes Animal and vegetal wastes Paper and cardboard wastes Incineration (including energy recovery) Household and similar wastes Sorting residues Chemical wastes Mixed and undifferentiated materials Disposal Mineral wastes Household and similar wastes Common sludges Sorting residues
Source: Eurostat

3.4.2 WASTE AS A SOURCE OF ENERGY


Using waste to produce energy has a twofold involvement in climate change: reduce GHG emissions (e.g. CH4 from landfilling, CO2 from incineration and recycling) and save limited fossil fuel resources used by traditional power plants. According to CEWEP (Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants) 73 million tonnes of household and similar waste that remains after waste prevention, reuse and recycling, was treated in Waste-to-Energy Plants across Europe in 2009, 29 billion kWh of electricity and 73 billion kWh of heat can be generated. Then between 7-40 million tonnes of fossil fuels (gas, oil, hard coal and lignite) can be substituted annually, emitting 20-40 million tonnes of CO2. Figure 3.12 Waste to energy cycle, 2010

Source: CEWEP

62

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The tables below summarize some data from EurObservER for the production of energy from renewable municipal waste. German waste-to-energy sector is one of the most efficient in Europe, but, on a per capita basis, Denmark is Europes most heavily committed country to energy recovery from renewable waste. Table 3.26 Gross electricity production form renewable municipal waste combustion in EU in 2009*(GWh) Electricity only plants 3083,0 1277,0 799,7 404,0 0,0 1240,7 0,0 761,0 309,6 253,0 65,0 290,0 29,0 24,3 0,0 0,0 8536,3 CHP plants 1083,0 703,0 816,5 1169,0 1241,0 269,9 1019,9 0,0 147,0 48,0 226,0 0,0 84,0 0,0 22,0 10,9 6840,2 Total electricity 4166,0 1980,0 1616,2 1573,0 1241,0 1510,6 1019,9 761,0 456,6 301,0 291,0 290,0 113,0 24,3 22,0 10,9 15376,6

DE FR** IT NL SE UK DK ES BE AT FI PT HU LU SK CZ EU

* Estimation ** French overseas departments excluded Source: EurObservER 2010

Table 3.27 Heat production from renewable municipal waste combustion in the European Union in 2009* (in ktoe) Heat plants only 169,1 110,0 35,8 58,4 81,5 0,0 11,2 13,1 24,4 0,0 2,4 0,0 505,8 CHP plants 355,8 380,1 316,9 195,1 38,1 55,9 42,5 33,1 10,0 12,6 0,5 2,7 1443,4 Total heat 525,0 490,1 352,7 253,5 119,6 55,9 53,6 46,2 34,4 12,6 3,0 2,7 1949,2

DE SE DK FR** NL IT Finland AT CZ HU SK BE EU

** French overseas departments excluded Source: Eurostat AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

63

Figure 3.13 Primary energy production form renewable municipal waste per inhabitant for each European country in 2009 (toe/1000 inhab)

98 69,1 46,7 29,5 25,6 25 21,9 20,6 18,7 15,4 11,4 11,3 9,3 6,9 5,5 5,1 4,6 1,2 0,02

** French overseas departments excluded Source: EurObservER 2010

3.5 Other
3.5.1 BLACK LIQUOR
Black liquor is the spent cooking liquor from the kraft process when digesting pulpwood into paper pulp removing lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibers. The pulp industry creates an important amount of secondary residues in the form of black liquor. This by-product of pulp mills is almost completely used for energy production in the pulp and paper industry. The paper and pulp industry uses more than 350 Mm wood; one part of this wood the lignin fraction (black liquor) and also other by-products such as bark are used to produce energy: heat and electricity. Table 3.28 Biomass use as fuel in paper and pulp mills (Mtoe) 2008 AT BE FI FR DE IT NL Norway PT ES SE Total 11 CEPI Countries 0,75 0,28 4,39 1,15 1,03 0,006 0,02 0,37 0,94 0,59 5,01 14,57 2009 0,74 0,27 3,34 0,97 1,03 0,01 0,02 0,27 0,96 1,00 4,94 13,55 % of fuel consumption in 2009 48,57 54,64 74,68 55,96 24,76 0,28 3,64 72,68 73,62 35,96 91,59 54,34

Source: CEPI -Confederation of European paper industry, 2010 64 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

3.5.2 PEAT
Peat is an intermediate fuel, part way between the biomass of which it was originally composed and the fossil fuel (coal) that it would eventually become, given appropriate geological conditions. Peat is not recognized as biomass by the European Commission and therefore is also not considered a renewable source of energy. However, peat is an important source of energy for many northern European countries and is often co-fired with biomass, providing as a way technical advantages. In Europe, only some 1750 km (0.34% of total peatland) is used for energy peat production. Only six countries have a significant peat for energy industry in EU27: Estonia, Ireland, Latvia, Lithuania, Finland and Sweden (one quarter of the land area in Sweden is covered with peat). The total use of fuel peat in EU is about 3,3 Mtoe of which 45% is used for CHP (Combined heat and power) production and 38% for production of condensing power. The share of peat in district heating was about 10% and in residential heating about 8% of the total. Around two million people are supplied with heating energy from peat. Table 3.29 Primary production, imports, exports and gross inland consumption of peat for energy in 2010 (ktoe) Primary production 3 139 88 995 2 9 1 1 806 238 Gross inland consumption of peat for energy 3 526 83 804 2 8 8 2 270 351
2

Imports 122 0 0 0 0 8 2 133

Exports 32 23 0 1 3 0 4 0

EU27 EE IE LV LT RO FI SE

Source: Eurostat

Figure 3.14 Peat use in different categories in EU (ktoe)

304

377 CHP Condensing power

1402 1653

District heat Residential heat

Source: VTT report Peat industry in the six EU member states, updated 2010

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

65

4 Biomass for Heat

66

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

4.1 Heat demand in Europe


Globally, heat represents a sizable part of energy consumption (47%). In Europe, the final energy demand for heating (48%) is higher than for electricity (20%) or transport (32%).

Figure 4.1 Heat consumption in EU in 2010 (Mtoe) 120

110,00

100

80 Mtoe

70,27 57,08 38,54 30,95 18,97 14,40 7,61 3,63 29,75 13,86 14,34 13,92 14,50 6,86 6,50 2,15 62,16

60

40

20

4,96 1,53

6,28

9,32 2,49 2,52 1,11 0,46 0,03

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK
Source: Eurostat

Figure 4.2 Expected additional heat demand* until 2020 (%expected growth rate 2010-2020) 2 1,8 1,6 1,4 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 0,2 0 -0,2
Note: 2010 was taken as a base year *Only heat for DH and CHP Source: European Commission (EU energy trends to 2030), Cross Border Bioenergy calculations.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

67

4.2 Biomass for heat and bioheat


The total demand for heat in Europe that is covered with biomass is 12,90%. The shares of biomass use for heat production in EU 27 countries are varying. Counties like Sweden (59,51%), Finland (42,51%), Latvia (45,32%) or Estonia (44,76%) have a high share of biomass use for heat production, while in other countries like Malta (0%), United Kingdom (1,32%) and Netherlands (2,10%), the share of biomass for heat is slightly increasing the last years.

Table 4.1 Final heat consumption of biomass for heat in comparison with the total heat consumption in Europe in 2010 Total heat consumption (all fuels) EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK 544 187 18 965 3 632 14 404 7 606 110 002 1 526 4 960 6 283 30 949 70 269 57 076 462 2 524 2 487 1 112 9 318 34 29 754 13 862 38 542 6 495 13 918 2 147 6 864 14 337 14 504 62 159 Final energy consumption of heat from RES 75 342 960 926 1 758 2 499 11 564 688 197 1 077 4 152 10 794 4 061 85 1 157 880 55 1 054 0 725 3 985 4 616 2 245 3 966 587 541 6 286 9 428 1 054 Biomass for heat ktoe 70 195 912 879 1 703 2 419 10 635 683 190 852 3 901 10 603 3 485 22 1 144 868 50 936 0 624 3 572 4 096 2 169 3 813 554 532 6 094 8 632 818 % of all fuels 12,90% 4,81% 24,20% 11,82% 31,80% 9,67% 44,76% 3,83% 13,56% 12,60% 15,09% 6,11% 4,76% 45,32% 34,90% 4,50% 10,05% 0,00% 2,10% 25,77% 10,63% 33,39% 27,40% 25,80% 7,75% 42,51% 59,51% 1,32% % of RES 93,17% 95,00% 94,92% 96,87% 96,80% 91,97% 99,27% 96,45% 79,11% 93,95% 98,23% 85,82% 25,88% 98,88% 98,64% 90,91% 88,80% 0 86,07% 89,64% 88,73% 96,61% 96,14% 94,38% 98,34% 96,95% 91,56% 77,61%

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

68

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The demand for heat consumes the largest share of primary energy supply and RES can offer a practical alternative to fossil fuels under many circumstances. Paradoxically, RES used for heating and cooling purposes have received relatively little attention compared to those used to generate electricity and produce transport fuels. As can be seen in the table below, heating with biomass represents more than 93% of all renewable heat production. The share of biomass for heat in EU27 has been calculated by AEBIOM as part of the final energy consumption. AEBIOM stimates that the EU27 consumes about 70,2 Mtoe biomass for heating, including wood, wood waste and renewable municipal wastes, approximately 74,62% of the final energy demand of biomass.

Figure 4.3 Final heat consumption of biomass for heat in comparison with the total renewable heat in 2010. Targets of biomass for heat in 2010 and 2020

18000 TOTAL RES 16000 Biomass 2010 target 2020 target 12000

14000

10000 ktoe

8000

6000

4000

2000

0 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK
Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations

According to this calculation, 53.44% of the final energy consumption of biomass for heat is delivered to households, 30,82% to industry and only 2,08% to services. The other 13,66% corresponds to derived heat.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

69

Figure 4.4 Final energy consumption of biomass for heat in Europe in 2010 in the different sectors 12000 10000 8000 ktoe 6000 4000 2000 0 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK
Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations.

Derived heat Heat for services Heat for households Heat for industry

4.3 Small Scale heating


Small scale biomass conversion technologies include stoves (for individual rooms, with typical capacities of a few kW) and boilers (capacities of a few tens of kW for homes up to 500 kW for big heating consumers e.g. schools, supermarkets, etc.). There has been significant innovation in the field of biomass technology during the past two decades, and modern systems are fully automatic with very low emissions. The development of new technologies will enable the production of high quality fuels, secure and sustainable supplies, clean and effective combustion processes, as well as optimally-integrated solutions for households. It should be mentioned here that the availability of data for small scale heating markets is generally limited due to the decentralized nature of these heat generation facilities and the problems of measurement that are associated therewith. Due to the wide dispersion of small scale burners and boilers, it is not easy to ascertain the total installed heat capacity. According to a survey made by EUBIONET III project, countries like Austria, Germany, Finland and Sweden have a very broad range of different producers for small-scale boilers. Boilers are traded within whole Europe. Especially East-European countries are concentrated on home markets and export their product limited to Europe and Russia. Producers in Austria, Germany, Finland and Sweden export their boiler within Europe, Russia, but also to North and South American countries and also to Asian markets. The Lot 15 EuP preparatory study on solid fuel small combustion installation (SCIs) done by the European Commission, DG TREN, stimated the general market shares of majority of appliances subjected to analysis in this study. It can be seen in the following figures that these shares will not change significantly.

70

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 4.5 Market share changes for different appliances (%)

Source: EuP Preparatory Study Lot15

The most common biomass fuels for domestic heat production are wood logs, wood chips and wood pellets. Especially for modern low-energy houses, wood pellets technologies are having a rapidly rising share in many Member States e.g. Austria, Germany, Italy, France, etc. (see chapter dedicated to pellets) . Wood fuel utilisation in small scale heating systems in Europe is currently concentrated in a small number of member states (predominantly Austria and Germany and, to a lesser extent, Italy, Finland, Belgium and France). As a rough estimate, it is probably safe to say that at least 8,2 Million stock (2007) of wood biomass boilers up to 500 kW are installed in Europe, over 90% of which are boilers up to 50 kW (Bio Intelligent Service, 2009). As above mentioned these are mainly installed in Austria and Germany. In Baltic States and East Europe countries fossil fuel heating systems are still the mostly used. In some countries, e.g. Poland, the use of coal-boilers is still frequent. At the moment (2011) more than 1,5 Million pellet stoves are installed for heating purposes in Europe. The biggest European market for this segment is Italy, where over 1.100.000 units are installed. The other part is mainly present in France and Austria. Austria is one of the countries with more reliable statistics about small scale biomass heating devices. In Austria more than 720,000 main heating systems based on biomass combustion have been in operation in 2009/2010, which amounts to about 20 % of the total number of main heating systems. Considering also secondary heating systems, more than 1.38 million small-scale biomass appliances are in operation. During the last years about 15,000 to 20,000 newly installed modern biomass combustion systems per year have been installed. Among these newly installed systems pellet boilers have gained a dominating role (klima:aktiv Marktanalyse Energieholz 3/11).

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

71

Figure 4.6 Number and capacity of annually newly installed Biomass Biolers<100 kw from 2001 to 2010 in Austria.

Source: Chamber of Agriculture, Lower Austria, Biomass Heating Survey. Publication Basic Data Bioenergy 2012, published by Austrian Energy Agency and Austrian Biomass Association.

Figure 4.7 Heating technologies used in Austrian households 2009/10

Source: Statistics Austria, Energy Consumption of Domestic Households. Publication Basic Data Bioenergy 2012, published by Austrian Energy Agency and Austrian Biomass Association.

72

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

4.4 District heating and cooling


District Heating (DH) currently covers 10% of the total heat demand in Europe. There are more than 5.000 medium and large scale distict heating systems (DHC+ Platform). However, market penetration of district heating is unevenly distributed; While DH is having an average market share of 10% in Europe,it is particularly widespread in North, Central and Eastern Europe, where market shares often reach up to 50 70%. District Cooling in Europe today has a market share of about 2% of the total cooling market, corresponding to approximately 10 PJ (3 TWh) cooling. The market penetration of District Cooling shows great diversity. Overall, this market has emerged quite recently and is consequently less developed than the District Heating market. Cooling with biomass is currently limited to centralized district solutions therefore statistics are very limited. Table 4.2 District heating statistics in some EU member states in 2009 Number of DH utilities AT Croatia CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL IT LV LT NL Norway PL RO SL SK SE Switzerland 730 11
449

Total installed DH capacity (MWth) 8200 1.800

200 ca 150 418 (systems) 228 5 (2007) 55 40 30 70 499 91 58 365 439 (systems) 41

5586 20790 16460 51506 445 2204 (only in CHP) 7308 9621 5552 2305 59790 53200 2242 27896 15000 2150

Share of citizens served by DH 20 10 38 61,20 53 49 8 14 4 64 60 1 50 23 17 41 42

Source: Euroheat and Power

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

73

Figure 4.8 Total length of DH pipeline network in 2009 and 2005 25.000 20.000 km 15.000 10.000 5.000 0 Total length of DH pipline system 2009

Source: Euroheat and power

Figure 4.9 District cooling capacity 2009 and where available 2005 700 600 500 MW 400 300 200 100 0 Austria Finland France Germany Italy Norway Poland Slovakia Slovenia Sweden
Source: Euroheat Source: Euroheat and power and power

DC capacity 2009

DC capacity 2005 (if not available 2007)

Figure 4.10 Energy supply composition for District Heat generated in 2009
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

- Others - Direct Renewables - Recycled heat

Recycled heat: Surplus heat from electricity production, from fuel and biofuel-refining and from different industrial processes. Source: Euroheat and Power 74 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

DHC using renewables is strongly increasing in Europe. According to the European Technology Platform on Renewable Heating and Cooling, in 2020 over 25% of heat consumed in the European Union could be generated with renewable energy technologies. The large majority of this renewable heat will still be produced from biomass sources. According to EurObservER analysis, the volume of heat from solid biomass sold by heating networks increased by 18% in 2010 which equates 6.7 Mtoe in 2010, and 68.7% of this was delivered by cogeneration units whose heat production increased 19.3% between 2009 and 2010. Table 4.3 Heat production from solid biomass in the European Union in 2009 and 2010* (in Ktoe) in the transformation sector ** 2009 Heat-only plants 1 829 774 214 0 259 140 39 145 83 87 0 30 20 0 5 20 12 0 1 1 CHP plants 3 869 1 328 945 579 325 195 211 36 44 9 61 28 30 39 29 0 4 6 0 0 Total heat 5 698 2 102 1 159 579 584 336 250 181 127 96 61 57 50 39 33 20 16 6 1 1 Heat-only plants 2 103 939 235 0 298 148 38 149 93 92 0 50 22 0 3 20 13 0 1 1 2010* CHP plants 4 617 1 477 1 077 846 399 231 236 36 50 10 94 38 37 49 26 0 5 6 0 4617 Total heat 6 721 2 416 1 312 846 698 379 274 186 143 101 94 88 59 49 29 20 18 6 1 1

EU SE FI DK AT DE PL LT EE LV IT SK CZ NL HU RO SL BE LU BU

* Estimation ** Heat sold by district heating networks or self-consumed. Source: EurObservER 2011

Below, some graphs showing the District Heating market in different EU countries. This information has been extracted from the DH Market Handbook elaborated by the Cross Border Bioenergy Project consortium (www.crossborderbioenergy.eu)

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

75

Figure 4.11 Amount of district heating systems in Germany in 2010 with a nominal heat output between 100-1000 kW and according raw materials use.

Source: dbfz.de. Cross Border Bioenergy Project

Figure 4.12 Amount of biomas heating systems with a nominal heat output > 1MW in Germany in 2010 and the used raw materials

Source: dbfz.de. Cross Border Bioenergy Project

Figure 4.13 Fuel consumtion for district heating production in Austria

Source. Annual Energy Statistic 2010. Cross Border Bioenergy Project

76

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 4.14 Energy mix in Swedish District Heating

Source: District Heating and Cooling Platform.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

77

BECOME AEBIOM MEMBER


AEBIOM Membership Who can become AEBIOM Full Member? National biomass associations Who can become AEBIOM Associate Member? Bioenergy companies active in the bioheat, bioelectricity, transport biofuels and biogas sectors, associations of specific biomass sectors such as pellets, biogas, wood energy etc. How to proceed? Complete, sign and return the application form found on www.aebiom.org to info@aebiom.org

78

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

5 ELECTRICITY FROM BIOMASS

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

79

5.1 Electricity in Europe


The European Union primarily uses fossil fuels to produce its electricity (52.3% in 2009). However unstable fuel prices and an increase in energy demand make power generation from RES more economically competitive than ever before. Figure 5.1 Final electricity consumption in EU countries in 2010 (ktoe)
50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 7163 5000 0 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

45482 38185

25736 22406

28230

4919 2757 2330

593

4567 2163

11283 9189 10188 7178 5274 4290 3553 2941 2074 1029 420 534 716 568 138

Source: Eurostat

Figure 5.2 Expected additional electricity demand between 2010 and 2020
35% 30% 25%

34,4%

31,6% 26,0% 24,9% 23,8%

24,4%

20,8%
20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

24,7% 22,3% 21,9%

24,4% 18,5% 17,1% 19,9%

15,8% 15,5% 14,3% 8,6% 7,3%

17,1% 17,0%

18,3% 15,0%

12,3% 9,8% 8,0% 9,3%

Source: European Commission EU energy trends to 2030, Cross Border Bioenergy project

80

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Over the past decade, biomass power output has been the second driver (after wind energy) for renewable electricity growth. Austria, Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark, Finland and Sweden are leading this process, mostly producing bio-electricity from wood residues in cogeneration plants. CHP systems remain the principle technology used to produce electricity form solid biomass, representing around three-quarters of total electrical production. Table 5.1 Final energy consumption of electricity in Europe in 2010 and proportion of renewable electricity (ktoe) Total electricity 243 907 7 163 2 330 4 919 2 757 45 482 593 2 163 4 567 22 406 38 185 25 736 420 534 716 568 2 941 138 9 189 5 274 10 188 4 290 3 553 1 029 2 074 7 178 1 1283 2 8230 Renewable electricity 62 899 838 608 610 1.073 10 103 90 352 909 8 933 7 516 7 182 3 312 207 259 261 968 4 427 1 034 2 506 441 576 2 076 7 077 2 757 Proportion of RES in electricity sector 25,79% 11,70% 26,09% 12,40% 38,92% 22,21% 15,18% 16,27% 19,90% 39,87% 19,68% 27,91% 0,71% 58,43% 28,91% 45,60% 8,87% 10,53% 83,94% 10,15% 58,41% 42,86% 27,77% 28,92% 62,72% 9,77%

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

81

5.2 Bioelectricity
Biomass for electicity output has increased by 13.5% on average since 1999. The development of solid biomass and biogas sectors has been particularly significant, as they have made an additional contribution of 44,1 TWh and 20,7 TWh respectively. Due to incentive schemes that have been installed recently in some EU countries (guaranteed feed-in tariffs, call for tender procedures and green certificates), new power plants have been implemented using biomass over the last few years. In average, bioelectricity covers 16,85% of all the demand of electricity from RES in Europe. This percentage increases up to 71,11% in Estonia, 62,50% in Netherlands or 52,42% in Poland. The countries with less used of biomass to produce renewable electricity are Bulgaria with only 0,49%, followed by Greece with 1,76% and Latvia with 1,60% of bioelectricity out of all RES used in electricity production.

Figure 5.3 Final energy consumption of electricity from RES and bioelectricity in 2010 10000 Electricity from RES Bioelectricity 8000

6000

ktoe

4000

2000

371

186 398 2897 64

28

16 335 404 811

12

199

605 392 542 224

19

56 940 10481024

0 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK

Soruce: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculation.

Biomass electricity generation is based on three fuel types: solid biomass, biogas, and the biodegradable fraction of MSW. According to EurObservER primary energy production from solid biomass increased by almost 8% between 2009 and 2010, which equates an additional contribution of 5.9 Mtoe. Renewable electricity output from incineration of renewable municipal solid waste is rising continuously in all the EU. It is put at almost 15.4 TWh in 2009, which is 1.3% up on 2008. But the biggest increase has been in biogas recovery in the form of electricity. 25.2 TWh was produced from biogas, which is an increase of 17.9% on 2008.

82

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 5.2 Total gross electricity production (electricity only plants and CHP plants) from solid biomass, municipal waste combustion and biogas in the European Union in 2009 (when not available, 2008) and 2010* (when not available 2009*) (inTWh)

Solid biomass 2009 European Union Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France ** Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdom 61,893 3,321 2,709 0,006 1,396 1,996 0,307 8,402 1,234 10,881 2,029 0,064 2,828 0,004 0,087 3,55 4,907 1,713 0,011 0,493 0,12 2,197 10,103 3,535 2010* 67,006 3,321 2,784 0,006 1,493 3,323 0,733 9,385 1,36 10,73 1,993 0,14 2,26 0,007 0,116 4,197 5,906 2,223 0,011 0,614 0,12 2,459 9,281 4,582

MSW combustion 2008 15,180 0,33 0,37 0,0117 1,117 0,293 1,881 4,506 0,109 1,556 0,0243 1,408 0,276 0,022 0,782 1,268 1,225 2009* 15,376 0,301 0,456 0,109 1,019 0,291 1,980 4,166 0,113 1,616 0,024 1,573 0,290 0,022 0,761 1,241 1,510 2008 21,356 0,602 0,333 0,012 0,266 0,298 0,009 0,029 0,700 9,979 0,191 0,068 0,127 1,599 0,039 0,009 0,043 0,734 0,251 0,071 0,001 0,015 0,055 0,584 0,030 5,304

Biogas 2009* 25,170 0,638 0,461 0,012 0,441 0,324 0,010 0,031 0,846 12,562 0,217 0,095 0,117 1,739 0,045 0,015 0,053 0,915 0,319 0,083 0,001 0,021 0,068 0,527 0,034 5,951

* Estimation ** French overseas departments excluded Source: EurObservER 2011

Co-firing is the technology with the largest growth potential in the power sector and is the most cost effective method for large-scale power generation from biomass, which is particularly relevant for power utilities. Globally, roughly 5 EJ (119,42 Mtoe) of biomass/waste could in theory be burned in coal power plants every year, assuming that biomass could be co-fired in all coal-fired power plants at a 10% fuel share, on energy basis. The large number of coal-fired power plants also makes biomass co-firing an option in many MS. Europe has roughly two-thirds of about 150 coal-fired power plants presently co-firing biomass, either as pilot tests or in commercial use (Article Strategies nd for 2 generation biofuels in EU, University of Technology Gteborg, Sweden)

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

83

5.3 Combined heat and power (CHP)


Europe is assisting the expansion of biomass use for power and CHP generation. Austria, Germany, the UK, Denmark, Finland and Sweden are leading this process, mostly producing bio-electricity from wood residues in cogeneration plants. Waste products, such as black liqueurs, wood waste, bark or sawdust, are also treated internally in large-scale power plants in CHP operation, which can use biomass alone, or mix it with other fuels. Figure 5.4 Share of biomass CHP compare to all CHP (in terms of electricity)
70 60 50

40 30 20 10 0

Source: Eurostat, Cross Border Bioenergy project.

Figure 5.5 Growth rate of biomass CHP electricity output over the period 2006-2009 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 Source: Eurostat, Cross Border Bioenergy project.

The following table shows that the highest share of biomass in CHP plants is in Sweden, Finland and Denmark. Key conditions facilitating the market development in these countries are the existence of district heating networks and the strong support policies for respective schemes. Besides, these are countries with a large forestry industry, therefore it is expected that such countries should have the highest proportions of biomass in the fuel mix for co-generation.

84

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

The main biomass feedstock for cogeneration is solid biomass. Cogeneration from solid biomass grew at a faster pace than that of electricity-only plants, rising by 9.7% between 2009 and 2010; As a result, the cogeneration share was 63.6% in 2010. Table 5.3 Gross electricity production in CHP plant from solid biomass, municipal waste combustion and biogas in the European Union in 2009 (when not available, 2008) and 2010* (when not available 2009*) (inTWh)

Solid biomass 2009 % of all electricity produced with solid biomass 62,77% 62,18% 35,11% 100,00% 0,87 2,00 0,20 7,53 0,86 3,00 0,20 0,02 0,72 0,00 0,09 1,79 4,91 1,36 0,00 0,49 0,11 1,57 10,10 0,00 62,61% 100,00% 64,82% 89,65% 70,02% 27,56% 10,00% 26,56% 25,57% 100,00% 100,00% 50,31% 100,00% 79,63% 9,09% 100,00% 93,33% 71,28% 100,00% 0,00% 1,75 5,91 1,56 0,00 0,61 0,12 1,90 9,28 0,00 0,20 0,02 0,72 0,01 0,12 0,90 3,32 0,48 8,51 0,95 3,21 2010 % of all electricity produced with solid biomass 63,59% 62,18% 35,63% 100,00% 60,15% 100,00% 64,80% 90,69% 70,00% 29,91% 9,98% 13,57% 31,73% 100,00% 100,00% 41,70% 100,00% 70,04% 9,09% 100,00% 100,00% 77,10% 100,00% 0,00% 0,00 1,27 0,27 0,02 0,00 0,00 1,05 0,92 0,09 0,20 0,68 1,15 0,01 1,12

Renewable MSW 2008 % of all electricity produced CHP with renewable MSW 6,80 44,79% 0,02 0,01 4,85% 2,97% 94,02% 100,00% 68,26% 35,94% 25,43% 77,98% 59,19% 0,00% 74,64% 0,00% 100,00% 0,00% 100,00% 22,29% 0,00 1,24 0,27 0,02 0,00 0,00 1,17 0,82 0,08 0,23 0,70 1,08 0,01 1,02 2009 % of all electricity produced CHP with renewable MSW 6,84 44,48% 0,05 0,15 15,95% 32,24% 9,17% 100,00% 77,66% 35,51% 26,00% 74,34% 50,50% 0,00% 74,32% 0,00% 100,00% 0,00% 100,00% 17,81% 0,01 0,20 0,30 0,00 0,03 0,09 1,14 0,02 0,07 0,02 0,31 0,04 0,01 0,04 0,65 0,25 0,01 0,00 0,01 0,05 0,58 0,03 0,46 2008

Biogas 2009 % of all electricity produced with biogas 18,96% 5,64% 62,04% 0,01 0,20 0,32 0,00 0,03 0,18 1,24 0,03 0,10 0,02 0,37 0,04 0,02 0,05 0,83 0,32 0,01 0,00 0,02 0,06 0,53 0,03 0,53 100,00% 45,12% 99,69% 0,00% 100,00% 20,69% 9,85% 15,67% 100,00% 14,53% 20,99% 93,33% 100,00% 100,00% 91,04% 100,00% 12,05% 0,00% 95,24% 86,76% 100,00% 100,00% 8,84%

CHP

CHP

CHP

% of all electricity produced with biogas 18,69% 7,48% 47,75% 100,00% 76,32% 99,66% 0,00% 100,00% 13,43% 11,44% 10,47% 100,00% 13,39% 19,26% 94,87% 100,00% 100,00% 88,69% 100,00% 11,27% 0,00% 93,33% 83,64% 100,00% 100,00% 8,67%

CHP

EU27 AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR ** DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK

38,85 2,07 0,95 0,01

42,61 2,07 0,99 0,01

3,99 0,05 0,16

4,77 0,04 0,29

* Estimation ** French overseas departments excluded Source: EurObservER 2011


AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

85

6 Biofuels for Transport

86

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

6.1 Generalities
As it can be seen in the following graph the European Union is strongly dependent on fossil fuels for its transport needs and is a net importer of crude oil. More than 90% of the total energy consumption in the transport sector comes from petroleum products. The 10% target in transport by 2020 is viewed by many as one of the hardest target to reach, as the biofuel usage today is small in most EU-27 countries. According to Eurostat data the proportion of biofuels within the total energy consumption in the transport sector is only 3.63% in the EU27. Therefore, this sector should grow rapidly withing the coming years to achieve the 2020 target. Figure 6.1 Final energy consumption in the transport sector in EU 27 and proportion of biofuels.
390.000 380.000 370.000

Total petroleum products

Biofuels

Total energy consumption in transport 1,78% 1,47% 2,53% 3,25%

360.000

ktoe

0,54%
350.000

0,85% 3,63%

0,40%
340.000

0,21%
330.000 320.000 310.000

0,24%

0,32%

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculation.

According to last available figures of EurobservER the biofuel consumption increased by 3% between 2010 and 2011 which translates into 13.6 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) used in 2011 compared to 13.2 million toe in 2010. Despite the positive figure, this increase is much less comparing to the previous years: 10.7% between 2009 and 2010, 24.6% between 2008 and 2009 and 41.7% between 2007 and 2008.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

87

Figure 6.2 Trend of the European Union biofuel consumption for transport (ktoe) 16000 14000 12000 10000 ktoe 8000 6000 4000 2000 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011* * Estimate
Sources: Data from 2000 to 2009 (Eurostat 2012), data from 2010 to 2011 (EurObservER 2012).

13179 11908 9559

13571

5495 3100 705 821 1096 1422 1976 3744

Figure 6.3 Evolution of the final energy consumption in biofuels for transport thend (ktoe)
3.000

2.500

2.000

2005 2008 2010

ktoe

1.500

1.000

500

BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SI SK FI SE UK Source: Eurostat

88

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

6.2 Biodiesel and bioethanol


Between 2010 and 2011, just a handful of countries decided to increase their biofuel incorporation rates in the fuel total namely, Finland (4 to 6%), Poland (5.75 to 6.2%), Italy (3.5 to 4%), Spain (5.83 to 6.2%), Bulgaria (3.5% to 5% in volume), the Netherlands (4 to 4.25%) and Denmark (first quota set at 3.5%). However Germany continued being in 2011 the largest consumer of biofuels. Table 6.1 Biofuel consumption for transport in the European Union in 2010 and 2011 (ktoe)
2010 Bioethanol EU27 AT BE BG CY CZ DK EE FI FR DE EL HU IE IT LV LT LU NL PL PT RO SK SL ES SE UK Biodiesel Other biofuels** Total consumption Bioethanol Biodiesel 2011* Other biofuels** Total consumption

2 684,85 68,48 49,90 0 0 61,26 22,04 0 71,53 254,21 751,19 0 57,39 30,73 156,06 8,41 10,41 0,720 134,08 153,48 0 71,51 39,33 2,90 233,44 191,11 316,49

10 343,88 408,31 277,17 15,90 15,02 172,49 0,72 0 52,91 1788,14 2234,95 124,60 116,65 59,68 1297,31 18,69 34,73 40,04 94,65 789,25 325,25 125,87 121,07 41,72 1186,85 175,01 826,81

149,78 13,02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,09 0 53,90 0 0 2,32 0 0 0 0 0 34,64 0 0 0 0 0 45,79 0

13 178,52 489,82 327,07 15,90 15,02 233,75 22,76 0 124,53 2042,35 3040,15 124,60 174,04 92,74 1453,37 27,11 45,14 40,76 228,74 977,38 325,25 197,38 160,40 44,62 1420,29 411,92 1143,30

2 852,58 68,91 48,12 0 0 59,28 135,42 0 79,48 252,924 795,14 0 54,12 29,62 145,74 7,64 9,20 5,13 147,34 141,87 0 71,58 39,98 3,74 229,57 200,67 327,02

10 587,55 349,07 273,30 0 15,02 240,56 4,41 0 92,34 1797,94 1143,92 103,39 110,00 67,70 1286,71 34,02 35,37 38,42 163,37 841,31 306,89 126,37 123,72 31,62 1443,13 229,80 729,07

130,59 13,67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0,268 0 17,67 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34,60 0 0 0 0 0 64,37 0

13 570,72 431,66 321,42 0 15,02 299,84 139,84 0 172,1 2050,87 1956,74 103,39 164,12 97,33 1432,45 41,66 44,57 43,55 310,71 1017,79 306,89 197,95 163,70 35,36 1672,71 494,85 1056,10

* Estimation ** Pure vegetable oils used for Germany, Poland, Austria, Ireland, biogas fuel for Sweden and Finland Source: EurObservER

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

89

Biodiesel is the main biofuel in European transport with a 78% share of total consumption, as against 21% for bioethanol. The vegetable oil fuel share is becoming negligible (0.5%) and for the moment the biogas fuel share in transport is specific to Sweden and a few places in Germany.

Figure 6.4 Breakdown of biofuel consumption for transport in Europe in 2011* by biofuel type Vegetable oil 0,50% Biogas 0,50%

Bioethanol 21,00%

Vegetable oil Biogas Bioethanol Biodiesel

Biodiesel 78,00%

* Estimation Source: EurObservER 2012

Figure 6.5 Production of bioethanol (map left) and biodiesel (map right) in EU in the year 2009 (million litres/year)

Source: Biofuels Platform

90

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 6.6 EU biofuels trade in 2010 4.000 3.500 3.000 2.500 ktoe 2.000 1.500 1.000 500 0 Biogasoline Source: Eurostat, AEBIOM calculations Biodiesels 405 1.058 1.763 Imports Exports 3.512

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

91

Figure 6.7 EU biodiesel trade balance 20002009 in PJ

Source: P. Lamers et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 2655 2676

Figure 6.8 EU fuel ethanol trade balance 20002009 in PJ

Source: P. Lamers et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) 2655 2676

92

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

7 Biogas sector in Europe

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

93

7.1 Generalities
Biogas has become a real success story over the last years. As can be seen in the table below, in 2010, more than 10.9 Mtoe of biogas were produced in Europe, which means a growth of 31.3% comparing with 2009. There is no doubt that the role of biogas in the European energy mix is steadily growing. But it is also true that ten countries in Europe provide 85% of the total biogas production in Europe and that much of the strong growth in primary energy production from biogas emerged in Germany, which already contributes to almost 61% of the total production in Europe. Table 7.1 Primary production of biogas in the EU 27 in 2008 and 2009 (ktoe) 2009
Landfill Gas Sewage 1 sludge gas Other 2 biogas Total Landfill Gas

2010*
Sewage 1 sludge gas Other 2 biogas Total

EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR** IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SE SI SK FI UK

3034,6 42,7 29,2 6,2 265,5 1,6 42,2 46,3 140,9 442,3 361,8 0,0 6,8 1,3 0,0 2,8 39,2 4,9 35,7 21,3 0,0 34,5 8,3 0,8 26,0 1474,4

982,9 2,1 33,7 20,0 386,7 1,0 8,1 9,5 10,0 45,2 5,0 0,0 2,7 2,1 1,4 10,5 48,9 19,0 58,0 1,5 0,0 60,0 7,7 14,8 12,6 222,6

4317,1 80,5 67,0 73,4 3561,2 0,0 4,1 0,2 32,9 38,7 77,5 0,2 0,2 1,2 11,0 17,5 179,8 135,9 4,5 1,0 1,1 14,7 11,0 0,7 2,8 0,0

8334, 7 125,3 129,9 99,6 4213, 4 2,5 54,4 56,0 183,7 526,2 444,3 0,2 9,7 4,7 12,4 30,9 267,9 159,8 98,0 23,8 1,1 109,2 27,1 16,3 41,4 1697, 0

2929,8 41,9 29,5 8,1 232,5 2,7 44,2 51,7 119,6 323,7 383,8 0,0 7,9 2,0 0,1 2,6 36,7 5,1 43,3 28,2 0,0 35,7 7,7 0,8 22,7 1499,4

1075,2 14,6 35,9 20,1 402,6 1,1 8,6 15,0 12,4 41,6 7,0 0,0 3,3 3,0 1,2 12,3 50,2 22,5 63,3 1,7 0,0 60,7 2,8 9,5 13,2 272,8

6938,3 70,9 111,3 74,0 6034,5 0,0 4,5 1,0 66,7 48,0 87,7 0,2 2,2 5,0 11,7 19,3 206,5 143,9 8,0 0,8 1,1 14,8 19,9 1,8 4,5 0,0

10943, 3 127,4 176,7 102,2 6669,6 3,7 57,3 67,7 198,7 413,3 478,5 0,2 13,3 10,0 13,0 34,2 293,4 171,5 114,6 30,7 1,1 111,2 30,4 12,2 40,4 1772,2

* Estimation ** Overseas department not included 1 Urban and industrial 2 Decentralised agricultural plants, municipal solid waste, methanation plants, centralized codigestion and multi-products plants. Source: Eurobserver
94 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Biogas is mainly used for electricity production. According to EurObservER, the power output from biogas would be as much as 30,4 TWh in 2010 (25,1 TWh in 2009) which is a 20,9% up on 2009 and the heat production in 2010 amounted to 1,5 Mtoe. Therefore, according to this data, members states are already ahead of their electricity targets in the NREAPs (28,7 TWh in 2010) and in line with their heat consumption forecast (1,5 Mtoe in 2010). Table 7.2 Gross biogas electricity output in the European Union in 2009 and 2010* (GWh) 2009 Electricity-only plants EU27 BE BG CZ DK DE EE IE EL ES FR** IT CY LV LT LU HU MT NL AT PL PT RO SE SI SK FI UK 20 307,9 161,9 241,6 1,3 11 325,0 0,0 169,0 189,9 479,0 671,4 1 299,6 0,0 2,6 0,0 0,0 0,0 82,0 571,0 0,0 72,6 0,0 0,0 9,7 1,0 0,2 5 030,0 CHP 4 793,3 313,7 199,6 318,3 1 237,0 6,7 17,0 33,9 51,0 175,0 365,4 0,0 42,4 14,8 53,3 96,0 833,0 39,0 319,2 10,4 1,0 34,0 59,2 21,0 31,4 521,0 Total electricity 25 101,1 475,6 441,3 319,6 12 562,0 6,7 186,0 223,8 530,0 846,4 1 665,0 0,0 45,0 14,8 53,3 96,0 915,0 610,0 319,2 83,0 1,0 34,0 68,8 22,0 31,6 5 551,0 Electricity-only plants 24 470,9 149,3 361,0 1,5 14 847,0 0,0 176,0 190,7 564,0 774,2 1 451,2 0,0 2,5 0,0 0,0 0,0 82,0 603,0 0,0 89,8 0,0 0,0 7,2 1,0 51,5 5 118,0 2010* CHP 5 868,6 418,0 275,0 330,7 1 358,0 10,2 22,0 31,4 88,0 304,2 602,9 0,0 50,8 31,0 55,9 83,0 946,0 45,0 398,4 9,8 1,0 36,4 90,2 21,0 37,8 622,0 Total electricity 3 0339,6 567,3 636,0 332,2 16 205,0 10,2 198,0 222,1 653,0 1078,4 2 054,1 0,0 53,3 31,0 55,9 83,0 1 028,0 648,0 398,4 99,6 1,0 36,4 97,4 22,0 89,2 5 740,0

*Estimation ** Overseas department not included Source: Eurobserver

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

95

Table 7.3 Thermal energy production in 2010 (GWh) Thermal energy production 7700 15 49 1014 140 23 113 564 200 365 666 315 49 11 213

CZ DE EE EL FR IT LV LT LU HU NL AT PL RO SE FI Switzerland TOTAL approx..

Source: European Biogas Association Table 7.4 Biogas plants in Europe in 2009 and 2010 According to the data collected from EUBA, the number of biogas plants in Europe has increased over 30% between 2009 and 2010. As can be seen in the table below, German biogas industry is the undisputed world market leader in the distribution and development of biogas technology and where it can be found the biggest growth in the number of new installed biogas plants in 2010, followed by Hungary and Czech Republic. Other best practice countries like Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland and the Netherlands experience very positive market developments which encourage other countries to follow the example. Total number of biogas plants 2009 202 4 490 491 445 5 11 26 25 130 458 155 6 230 68 586 7 328 Total number of biogas plants 2009 235 7 090 3 17 12 498 510 15 16 30 43 209 425 160 6 228 74 275 587 10 433

Agriculture 124 5 905 0 12 48 313 8 1 26 21 95 330 9 0 31 10 32 86 7 051

Landfill 61 2 301 197 4 8 8 25 15 78 0 57 39 75 870

Other* 50 1 185 15 149 3 7 4 14 89 80 73 6 140 25 168 501 2 509

CZ DE EE EL ES FR IT LV LT LU HU NL AT PL RO SE FI UK Switzerland TOTAL approx.

*including industry and sewage Source: European Biogas Association

96

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 7.1 Left: substrate input in biogas plants in Germany in 2010 (mass referred); Right: Substrate input of energy crops in biogas plants 2010 in Germany (mass referred).

Other Sugar beet 1% 1% Grass silage 11% Whole plant grain silage 7% Cereal grain 4%

Livestock excrement s 45%

Energy crops 46%

Industrial and harvest Biowaste 7% residues 2%

Maize silage 76%

Source: FNR

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

97

7.2 Biomethane
Biogas can be upgraded to biomethane and injected into the natural gas grid to substitute natural gas or can be compressed and fuelled via a pumping station at the place of production. Finally, injected biomethane can be used at any ratio with natural gas as vehicle fuel, therefore biomethane could play an important role in the transportation sector. Sweden is the biomethane leader with a 55% share of all gas used in vehicles. Mostly few countries have fair experience in biomethane to grid injection technology: Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany and Austria. According to Green Gas Grids project, more than 170 plants are operating in these countries that upgrade biogas to biomethane, of zith a large proportion is feeding into the public natural gas grids. Table 7.5 Number of biomethane plants in some European Countries Biomethane plants AT FR DE HU NL SE UK 10 3 84 1 13 47 2 Biomethane plants feeding the grid 7 1 82 13 8 2

Source: Green Gas Grid Acording to the information provided by dena (German Energy Agency), in July 2012 in Europe biomethane injection plants with a feeding capacity of about 70,000 Nm/h are operating. The average plant size is about 500 Nm/h feed performance. As can be seen in the previous table, with 84 biomethane plants out of 177 in all Europe, Germany takes the lead in biomethane production in Europe. Besides, according to market research, about 75 more are expected to start operation in the following years. Figure 7.2 Biomethane production in Germany: Number of plants in operation and upgrading capacity installed, status March 2012

Source: Green Gas Grids

98

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

8 Pellets sector in Europe

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

99

8.1 Generalities of the pellet sector


The wood pellet market has experienced a large growth in the last years. In 2010 the global wood pellet production reached 14.3 million tons while the consumption was close to 13.5 million tons2 thus recording an increase of more than 110% if compared to 2006. Worldwide, the production capacity of pellet plants is also increasing, as well as their average size. Between 2009 and 2010 the global installed production capacity of the pellet industry has recorded a 22% increase, reaching over 28 million tons. The highest increase in production capacity was observed in North America (the U.S., Canada) and Russia, followed by traditional European producing countries such as Germany, Sweden and Austria.

Figure 8.1 Estimated world wood pellet production 2000-2010 (kt).

Source: P. Lamers et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 16 (2012) 3176 3199

Figure 8.2 Global raw material availability and pellet production , 2008-2015

Source: VTT, Pyry


100 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Figure 8.3 Wood pellet production capacity by country

Source: IEA Bioenergy Task 40 Sustainable Bioenergy Trade

8.2 Situation in Europe


8.2.1 PRODUCTION
In 2009 around 670 pellet plants were active in EU, 30% of them with a rather small production capacity below 10,000 tons/y, however since 2008/2009 the rapid growth of pellet demand has stimulated investments in largescale plants in the range of several hundred thousand tons in EU as well as in the U.S., Russian Federation and other countries (IEA Bioenergy Task 40 Sustainable Bioenergy Trade, Sikkema et al. 2011). The European Union is still the main market for wood pellets and will remain as such for the next several years. Between 2008 and 2010 the production of wood pellets in EU increased by 20.5%, reaching 9.2 million tons in 2010, equal to 61% of the global production. In the same period, EU wood pellet consumption increased by 43.5% to reach over 11.4 million tons in 2010, equal to nearly 85% of the global wood pellet demand (IEA Bioenergy Task 40 Sustainable Bioenergy Trade, Sikkema et al. 2011). Figure 8.4 Production and consumption of wood pellets in EU 12 Production 10 million tonnes 8 6 4 2 0 2008 2009 2009
7,68 7,95 11,41

consumption
8,73 9,09 9,26

Source: IEA Bioenergy Task 40 Sustainable Bioenergy Trade


AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

101

Table 8.1 Pellets production and production capacity in EU27 (kt) 2009 Number of plants 27 8 7 72 28 29 31 10 29 15 80 Capacity 1100 440 193 2500 500 700 866 125 750 875 2300 Production 695 223 51 160 1600 900 299 346 81 550 400 1580 57 29 27 27 10 27 19 80 2600 900 650 1040 200 725 853 2500 162 600 550 1750 21 7 19 75 700 250 853 2300 480 470 170 650 1350 300 145 1750 150 290 54 32 27 2700 950 650 137 1880 225 310 550 Number of plants 29 7 24 2010 Capacity 1200 460 Production 850 286 Number of plants 31 10 2011 Capacity 1250 480 Production 940 300

AT BE BG CH CZ DE ES FI FR HU IT LT PT SE UK

Source : European Pellet Council, 2012

Figure 8.5 Wood pellet plant capacity utilization rate (%) by country in 2010

Source: IEA Bioenergy Task 40 Sustainable Bioenergy Trade

102

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

8.2.2 TRADE
Pellet trade in Europe is developing rapidly. The new European quality standard (EN14961-2) facilitates cross-border trade - growing by more than 1 million tons per year from 2009-2011. The ENplus certification is another important factor to open new markets for pellet producer and traders. See ENplus statistics. Portugal and Latvia are the biggest exporters of industrial pellets. Table 8.2 Pellet trade within EU27 (kt)
Exporting country Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech R Denmark Estonia Finland France Germany Hungary Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden UK EU27 Growth rate 2009 159 119 11 72 20 316 154 59 370 33 2 231 93 7 74 98 138 62 46 75 59 104 6 2308 2010 285 50 8 102 124 383 187 62 543 13 4 420 126 15 103 142 199 142 64 81 138 69 61 3323 44% 2011 274 51 6 83 184 562 116 87 680 20 10 670 203 37 136 135 508 176 44 106 121 154 57 4420 33% DK, BE DK DK, UK, NL AT, IT IT, HU IT PT, FR DK DK DK DK, IT main target country IT, DE FR, NL IT AT, IT, DE DE, SE, NL DK, SE DK, SE IT, BE, DE DK, AT, IT IT

Source: Eurostat, EPC calculation Pellet imports into Europe are aslo growing quickly. This development is mostly spurred by industrial pellets and co-firing initiatives in BE, NL, UK, DK. Currently new production capacity is being build in the South-East USA as well as Russia.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

103

Table 8.3 Pellet export to EU27 (kt)


Exporting country Argentina Australia Bosnia Belarus Canada Chile Croatia New Zealand Norway Russia South Africa Switzerland Ukraine USA Total import to EU27 Growth rate 2009 10 9 54 75 520 0 73 0 10 379 42 6 30 535 1742 2010 9 66 44 90 983 1 95 21 4 396 25 15 57 763 2569 47% 2011 6 14 47 100 1160 3 115 30 13 475 43 3 149 1001 3161 23% main target country IT NL IT, SLO LT, DK UK, NL, BE IT IT IT, UK SE DK, SE NL, UK IT PL NL, UK, BE

Source : Eurostat, EPC calculations

8.2.3 PELLET HEATING DEVIC ES


The European Pellet Council (EPC) and Ekman have conducted a survey mostly among national pellet associations to assess Europe's heating demand for pellets until 2020. The growth (potential) in this sector is significant and more predictable than in the power sector. Table 8.4 Pellet heating demand outlook (kt)

2011 Austria Belgium Denmark France Finland Germnay Ireland Italy Spain Sweden Switzerland UK other total 710 100 700 560 70 1400 40 1900 150 1000 160 50 1100 7940

2015 1490 150 1000 1400 150 1900 60 3100 450 1200 250 500 1600 13250

2020 3500 200 1250 2500 450 3500 70 4250 1150 1400 400 1250 2200 22120

Source: EPC, Ekman


104 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Table 8.5 Annually installed pellet boilers < 50kw


2005 Austria Belgium Denmark France Finland Germany Ireland Italy Spain Sweden Switzerland 12 000 1 570 8 243 600 5 000 1 240 2 500 17 000 500 2 000 2006 9 836 700 20 000 3 697 2 000 26 000 1 500 3 000 500 20 000 2 222 2007 3 284 500 4 500 798 4 500 13 000 1 120 2 200 500 3 500 1 026 2008 10 470 800 3 000 5 510 3 500 22 000 1 178 1 900 1 000 5 000 1 197 2009 7 815 450 5 000 4 300 2 000 20 000 376 1 800 1 700 2 500 885 2010 7 510 200 4 000 3 100 2 000 15 000 106 1 570 2 900 3 500 1 180 2011 10 400 300 4 000 4 200 2 000 15 000 100 2 000 3 800 3 500 1 300 2012* 12 400 400 4 500 5 460 2 000 25 000 100 5 000 3 000 3 500 1 500

* Estimation Source: European Pellet Council, 2012

Table 8.6 Annually sold pellet stoves


2005 Austria Belgium France Finland Germany Ireland Italy Spain Switzerland 709 1 114 913 949 100 000 308 000 5 000 3 780 1 700 5 710 2006 5 640 3 000 10 278 200 5 000 2007 1 750 4 400 13 787 300 7 000 512 193 000 2008 3 050 4 200 17 100 300 9 000 345 143 000 2009 2 600 4 200 23 000 300 24 000 179 147 000 7 000 800 2010 3 273 4 200 27 000 400 15 000 111 176 000 16 000 756 2011 5 000 3 000 38 000 600 7 000 100 182 000 10 000 800 2012* 7 000 3 000 53 200 600 7 000 100 195 000 11 000 800

* Estimation Source: European Pellet Council, 2012

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

105

Figure 8.6 Annual increase of pellet demand for domestic heating


1.200.000 Boilers <50KW 1.000.000 800.000 600.000 400.000 200.000 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012* Stoves

Source: European Pellet Council, 2012

8.2.4 ENPLUS QUALITY CERTIFICATION STATISTICS


The ENplus quality certification is a major step towards establishing pellets as a widely used energy commodity. For the first time nummerous national standards and certifications are replaced by one uniform system based on the EN 14961-2 standard for wood pellets. This system has been agreed upon by the European Pellet Council in January 2011 and thus enjoys the support of large parts of the European pellet sector. In 2012, 14 countries have Enplus producers. More information can be found in the European Pellet Council website: www.pelletcouncil.eu and www.enplus-pellets.eu Figure 8.7 ENplus production and trade

3.500.000 3.000.000 2.500.000 2.000.000 1.500.000 1.000.000 500.000 2011 Source: EPC 2012 Production Trade

106

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

9 ANNEX

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

107

GENERAL COUNTRY INFORMATION Country abbreviations and key general statistics Total 2 Area (km ) EU 27 AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE EL ES FI FR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK Austria Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech Republic Germany Denmark Estonia Greece Spain Finland France Hungary Ireland Italy Lithuania Luxembourg Latvia Malta Netherlands Poland Portugal Romania Sweden Slovenia Slovak Republic United Kingdom 4 281 550 83.870 30.528 111.002 9.251 78.865 357.104 43.098 45.227 131.982 505.365 338.420 505.365 93.034 70.285 301.323 65.300 2.586 64.589 316 37.355 312.679 91.909 238.391 450.295 20.273 49.037 244.101 Population (1000 inhabitants) 503680 8443 11041 7327 797 10505 81844 5581 1340 11291 46196 5401 65398 9958 4583 60821 3008 525 2042 416 16730 38538 10542 21356 9483 2055 5404 62990 GDP in current prices (EUR/inhabitant) 1 () 25100 35700 33500 4800 20600 14700 31400 43000 11900 19000 23300 35200 30600 10100 34900 26000 9500 82700 9800 15300 36100 9300 9300 5800 41000 17400 12700 27800 Unemployment rate (% of the labour force) 10,2 4,1 7,1 12,0 10,0 6,8 5,6 7,5 10,9 21,7 23,8 7,5 10,0 11,0 14,8 10,0 13,6 5,2 15,3 6,0 5,0 9,9 14,8 7,2 7,5 8,2 13,7 8,2

(1)

Data for 2011 except Bulgaria, Ireland, Poland and Romania 2010

Source: Eurostat

108

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS AND DECIMAL PREFIXES Symbols and abbreviations Symbol , BTL ca. CEPI CHP CO2 DH DME EE E85 EEA EREC ESU ETBE EPC EC FAME FAO GCV / n.a. % Meaning Decimal separator Data not available Per cent Biomass to Liquid Circa = approximately Confederation of European Paper Industries Combined Heat and Power Carbon Dioxide District Heating Di-Methyl Ether Energy efficiency Fuel with ethanol content of 85 % European Environmental Agency European Renewable Energy Council Economic Size Unit Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether European Pellet Council European Commission Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Food and Agriculture Organisation Gross Calorific Value Symbol GDP GIC h IEA IRENA J Kg oe m m.c./MC MSW NCV Nm ODS ORC RES RME solid m toe UAA VAT W Meaning Gross Domestic Product Gross Inland Consumption Hour International Energy Agency International Renewable Energy Agency Joule Kilogram oil equivalent Cubic meter Moisture content Municipal solid waste Net Calorific Value Normal m Organic dry substance Organic rankine cycle Renewable Energy Sources Rape Methyl Ester Solid cubic meter Ton of oil equivalent Utilized agricultural areas Value Added Tax Watt

Table Decimas prefixes 10 10 10 6 10 9 10 12 10 15 10 18 10


1

Deca (da) Hecto (h) Kilo (k) Mega (M) Giga (G) Tera (T) Peta (P) Exa (E)

10 -2 10 -3 10 -6 10 -9 10 -12 10 -15 10 -18 10

-1

Deci (d) Centi (c) Milli (m) Micro () Nano (n) Pico (p) Femto (f) Atto (a)

Table General conversion factor for energy to from 1 MJ 1 kWh 1 kg oe 1 Mcal 1 MJ 1 3.6 41.868 4.187 1kWh 0.278 1 11.63 1.163 1 kg oe 0.024 0.086 1 0.1 Mcal 0.239 0.86 10 1 109

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

ENERGY CONTENT, CALORIFIC VALUE, SPECIFIC WEIGHT

LIQUIDS Average net calorific value, energy content NCV (GJ/m) toe Diesel Biodiesel* Rape oil Gasoline Ethanol 35,4 32,8 34,3 31,9 21,2 0,83 0,88 0,915 0,748 0,794 Density (t/m) NCV (GJ/t) 41,868 42,7 37,3 37,5 42,7 26,7 0,85 0,78 0,82 0,76 0,51 1,02 0,89 0,9 1,02 0,64 1 m = x toe 1 t = x toe

*also called RME for rapeseed methyl ester or FAME for fatty acid methyl ester. Calorific value can change according to raw material used for biodiesel production Source: M. Kaltschmitt,H. Hartmann, Energie aus Biomasse, Springer 2001

SOLID FUELS Net calorific value, moisture content and energy density for different biomass fuels Net calorific value, dry content kWh/kg (moisture content 0%) (qp,net,d) 5,28-5,33 5,83-6,39 5,14-5,56 5,28-5,33 5,26-5,42 5,14-5,56 5,14-5,28 5,14-5,56

Fuel

Moisture content w-% (Mar)

Net calorific value, as received=actual value kWh/kg (qp,net,ar)

Bulk density kg/loose 3 m

Energy density (MWh/loose 3 m)

Ash content, dry, %

Sawdust Bark, birch Bark, coniferous Plywood chips Wood pellets Steam wood chips Lof wood (oven-ready) Logging residue chips
110

45-60 45-55 50-65 5-15 7-8 40-55 20-25 50-60

0,60-2,77 2,22-3,06 1,38-2,50 4,44-5,00 4,60-4,90 1,94-3,06 3,72-4,03 1,67-2,50

250-350 300-400 250-350 200-300 550-650 250-350 240-320 250-400

0,45-0,70 0,60-0,90 0,50-0,70 0,9-1,1 2,6-3,3 0,7-0,9 1,35-1,95 0,7-0,9

0,4-0,5 1-3 1-3 0,4-0,8 0,2-0,5 0,5-2,0

1,0-3,0

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Whole tree chips Reed canary grass (spring harvested) Reed canary grass (autumn harvested) Grain Straw, chopped Miscanthus, chopped Straw pellets Olive cake (olive pomace) Olive cake (olive marc)

5,14-5,56 4,78-5,17

45-55 8-20

1,94-2,78 3,70-4,70

250-350 70

0,7-0,9 0,3-0,4

1,0-2,0 1,0-10,0

4,64-4,92 4,8 4,83 5,0 4,83 4,9-5,3 4,9-5,3

20-30 11 12-20 8-20 8-10 55-70 <10

3,06-3,81 4,30 3,80-4,20 3,86-4,06 4,30-4,40 1,00-3,10 4,30-4,70

80 600 80 110-140 550-650 800-900 600-650

0,2-0,3 2,6 0,3-0,4 1,72-2,19 2,4-2,8 1,46-1,64 2,6-2,9

5,1-7,1 2 5 2,0-3,5 5 2-7 2-7

1kWh/kg = 1 MWh/ton = 3.6 GJ/ton Source: EUBIONET Biomass fuel supply chains for solid biofuels

Calculation of net calorific value as received (CEN/TS 15234) The net calorific value (at constant pressure) as received (net calorific value of the moist biomass fuel) is calculated according to equation:

qp,net,ar=qp,net,d x [(100 Mar)/100] 0,02443 x Mar


qp,net,ar is the net calorific value (at constant pressure) as received [MJ/kg] qp,net,d is the ner calorific value (at constant pressure) in dry matter [MJ/kg] (net calorific value of dry fuel) Mar is the moisture content as received [w-%, wet basis] 0,02443 is the correction factor of the enthalpy of vaporization (constant pressure) for water (moisture) at 25C [MJ/kg per 1 w-% of moisture)

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

111

Typical moisture content of biomass fuels and corresponding calorific values as received GCV Moisture content (%) Green wood direct from the forest, freshly harvested Chips from short rotation coppices after harvest Recently harvested wood Saw mill residues, chips etc Wood, dried one summer in open air, demolition timber Wood, dried several years in open air Pellets Wood, dry matter Cereals as stored after harvest, straw, hay, miscanthus after harvest Silomaize Rape seed Chicken litter as received Hard coal Brown coal Peat
Source: M. Kaltschmitt,H. Hartmann, Energie aus Biomasse, Springer 2001; AEBIOM

NCV toe/t 0,17 kWh/kg 1,6 GJ/t 5,76 toe/t 0,14

kWh/kg 2

GJ/t 7,2

60%

50-55% 50% 40%

2,5 2,6 3,1

9 9,36 11,16

0,21 0,22 0,27

2,1 2,2 2,9

7,56 7,92 10,44

0,18 0,19 0,25

30%

3,4

12,24

0,29

20% 8-9% 0% 13-15% 30% 9% 68% To compare with:

4 4,7 5,2 4

14,4 16,92 18,72 14,4

0,34 0,4 0,45 0,34

7,1 2,6

25,6 9,6

0,61 0,22

8,06 4,17 2,8

29 15 10

0,69 0,36 0,24

The energy content of one ton of wood depends primarily upon the moisture content and not on the wood species. This is not true on volume basis. The energy content of 1 m wood depends upon the species, the water content and the form of the wood (logs, fire wood pieces, chips etc.). In the practical use the NCV is of greater importance than the GCV, because normally the energy needed to evaporate the water is not used. This energy needed to evaporate 1 kg of moisture is around 2,44 MJ (0,68 kWh). The GCV is only of importance in combustion plants, where the vapour is condensed and therefore this energy can be used. The NCV of a given biomass fuel depends mainly on the mass, measured in units such as tons or kg and the moisture content. The moisture content is defined as follows: m: total weight of a given biomass d: weight of the dry matter of this biomass (after completely drying) Moisture content, m.c. in % = 100 d/m x 100

112

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

Examples for weight and energy content (NCV) for 1 m wood at different water contents, species and shape of the wood

Species Spruce Spruce Spruce Spruce Beech Beech Beech Average figures Average figures for different species Average figures for different species

Shape Solid wood Solid wood Stapled wood Chips Solid wood Solid wood Stapled wood Chips Pellets Solid wood Chips

m.c. in % 0 40 25 40 0 40 25 40 9 35 35

t/m 0,41 0,64 0,33 0,22 0,68 0,96 0,5 0,34 0,69 0,75 0,3

GJ/m 7,7 6,6 4,5 2,3 12,6 9,2 6,3 3,2 10,8 7,2 2,9

kWh/m 2.130 1.828 1.245 640 3.500 2.547 1.739 892 3.300 2.000 800

Source: M. Kaltschmitt,H. Hartmann, Energie aus Biomasse, Springer 2001

Frequently used conversion factors for different units of solid biomass 1 PJ = 0.278 TWh = 0.024 Mtoe = 139.000 m solid wood = 5.900 ha SRC* 1 TWh = 3.6 PJ = 0.086 Mtoe = 500.000 m solid wood = 21.400 ha SRC 1 Mtoe = 41.868 PJ = 11.63 TWh = 5.8 Mm solid wood = 248.500 ha SRC 1 Mm solid wood = 0.172 Mtoe = 7.19 PJ = 2 TWh = 42.800 ha SRC 1 Mha SRC = 4 Mtoe = 168.3 PJ = 46.8 TWh = 23.4 Mm solid wood *SRC = short rotation coppices, assumption 9 t dry matter/year and ha. Gaseous fuels

GASEOUS FUELS Net Calorific value and density of gaseus fuels NCV kWh/Nm 9,9 6 NCV MJ/m 36 21,6 NVC toe/1000m 0,86 0,52 Density kg/Nm 0,73 NCV kWh/kg 13,6

Natural gas Biogas (60% methane) Biomethane (upgraded biogas)

9,5

36

0,86

0,73

13

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

113

TRANSFORMATION COEFFICIENTS, AVERAGE YIELDS

Transformation coefficients from biomass to final energy The following coefficients describe the quantity of final energy in terms of toe that can be produced on the basis of one ton of different forms of biomass and different conversion technologies. Biodiesel: conversion technology: transesterification 1 t rape seed 0,4 t rape seed oil 0,4 t biodiesel 0,45 m RME = 0,35 toe These figures are valid for big installations. Ethanol : conversion technology: alcoholic fermentation 1 t corn (14% m.c.) 0,382 m ethanol = 0,194 toe 1 t wheat (14% m.c.) 0,378 m ethanol = 0,192 toe 1 t sugar beet (16% sugar content) 0,107 m ethanol = 0,054 toe 1 t sugar cane ( 14% sugar content) 0,085 m ethanol = 0,043 toe Biogas: conversion technology: anaerobic fermentation 1 t silo maize (30% dry matter) 180 m biogas 110 m biomethane = 0,088 toe 25% of this biogas is needed as energy source for the fermentation 1 t sugar beet (23% organic dry matter) 170 m biogas 100 m biomethane = 0,08 toe 1 t cattle manure (8-11% org. dry matter) 25 m biogas 15 m biomethane = 0,012 toe 1 t pig manure (7% organic dry matter) 20 m biogas 12 m biomethane = 0,01 toe 1 t poultry manure. (32 % organ. dry matter) 80 m biogas 48 m biomethane = 0,04 toe 1 t organic waste from households 90m biogas 55 m biomethane = 0,05 toe 1 t glycerine (100% organic dry matter) 840 m biogas 500 m biomethane = 0,4 toe Advanced biofuels: 1 t wood (dry matter) = 0,2 t BTL = 0.2 toe 1 t wood (dry matter) = 0,2 t ethanol

114

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

CO2 EMISSIONS

CO2 emissions for stationary combustion in the energy industries (1000 kg of CO2 per TJ on a net calorific basis) CO2

Fuel
Crude Oil Orimulsion Natural Gas Liquids Motor Gasoline Gasoline Aviation Gasoline Jet Gasoline

Default Emission Factor 73,3 77 64,2 69,3 70 70 71,5 71,9 73,3 74,1 77,4 63,1 61,6 73,3 80,7 73,3 97,5 73,3

Lower 71,1 69,3 58,3 67,5 67,5 67,5 69,7 70,8 67,8 72,6 75,5 61,6 56,5 69,3 73 69,3 82,9 68,9 48,2 72,2 72,2 72,2 94,6 87,3 89,5 92,8 90,9 90,2 87,3 87,3

Upper 75,5 85,4 70,4 73 73 73 74,4 73,7 79,2 74,8 78,8 65,6 68,6 76,3 89,9 76,3 115 76,6 69 74,4 74,4 74,4 101 101 99,7 100 115 125 109 109 115

Jet Kerosene Other Kerosene Shale Oil Gas/Diesel oil Residual Fuel Oil Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Naphtha Bitumen Lubricants Petroleum coke Refinery Feedstocks Refinery Gas Other Oil Paraffin Waxes White Spitir ans SBP Other Petroleum Products Anthracite Coking Coal Other Bituminous Coal Sub-Bituminous Coal Lignite Oil shale and Tar Sands Brown Coal Briquettes Patent Fuel

57,6 73,3 73,3 73,3 98,3 94,6 94,6 96,1 101 107 97,5 97,5

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

Coke

Coke Oven Coke and Lignite Coke Gas Coke

107 107 80,7

95,7 95,7 68,2 37,3 37,3 219 145 54,3 73,3 110 72,2 100 95 80,7 84,7 95 59,8 59,8 67,1 46,2 46,2 46,2

119 119 95,3 54,1 54,1 308 202 58,3 121 183 74,4 108 132 110 117 132 84,3 84,3 95,3 66 66 66

Coal Tar Derived Gases Gas Works Gas Coke Oven Gas Blast Furnance Gas Oxigen Stell Furnance Gas

44,4 44,4 260 182 56,1 91,7 143 73,3 106

Natural Gas Municipal Waste (non-biomass fraction) Industrial Wastes Waste Oils Peat Solid Biofuels Wood/Wood Waste Black Liquor Other Primary Solid Biomass Charcoal Biogasoline Biodiesels Other Liquid Biofuels Landfill Gas Sludge Gas Other Biogas Municipal Wastes (biomass fraction)

112 95,3 100 112 70,8 70,8 79,6 54,6 54,6 54,6

Other nonfossil fuels

Gas Biomass

Liquid Biofuels

100

84,7

117

Source: IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

116

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

GLOSSARY

Biodiesel Biodiesel is a methylester derived from vegetable oils or animal fats by the process of transesterification. Biodiesel has similar properties as fossil diesel and can be blended with fossil diesel or used as pure biofuel. Bioethanol Bioethanol is an alcohol C2H5OH derived from sugar by fermentation. The crops used for the production of ethanol for energy purposes contain sugar (like sugar beets or sugar cane) or starch like cereals or corn. In the latter case starch is hydrolyzed to sugar and then fermented to alcohol. . The conversion of lignin or cellulose to sugar is a more complicated process and subject to research in pilot plants. These technologies are summarized under the term advanced biofuels. Biomass The biodegradable fraction of products, waste and residues from biological origin from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), forestry and related industries including fisheries and aquaculture, as well as the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste. (Renewable Energy Directive) Biofuels Biofuels means liquid or gaseous fuel for transport produced from biomass Bioliquids Bioliquids means liquid fuel for energy purposes other than for transport, including electricity and heating and cooling, produced from biomass Biogas Biogas is a gas containing 50-70% biomethane. It is produced by micro-organisms under anaerobic conditions from different sources of wet biomass such as manure, fresh crops, and organic waste. The process of biogas production takes place in landfill sites and also in swamps and other places in the nature, where organic matter is stored under anaerobic conditions. Black liquor Wood consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and to 30-35% of lignin, which cannot be used to produce pulp and paper. Black liquor is a recycled by-product formed during the process of chemical pulping of wood in the papermaking industry. In this process, lignin is separated from cellulose, with the latter forming the paper fibres. Black liquor is the combination of the lignin residue with water and the chemicals used for the extraction. It plays an important role as bioenergy carrier in the paper and pulp industry. An example: A pulp mill consuming 1 million m wood per year can use 0.03-0.04 Mtoe primary energy in the form of black liquor. By-products and waste of the forest- and wood industry Further wood based fuels are by-products of the forest- and wood industry such as: Bark, saw dust, demolition wood, branches, tops and other wood waste. CO2eq (Carbon Dioxide Equivalent) Carbon dioxide equivalent is the standard unit for comparing the global warming potential of any greenhouse gas over a specified period of time. In this way, the relative severity of all greenhouse gas emissions can be evaluated in terms of one agreed reference point. CHP (Combined Heat and Power) Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is a technology used to improve energy efficiency through the generation of heat and power in the same plant, generally using a gas turbine with heat recovery. Heat delivered from CHP plants may be used for process or space-heating purposes in any sector of economic activity including the residential sector. CHP thus reduces the need for additional fuel combustion for the generation of heat and avoids the associated environmental impacts, such as
AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

117

CO2 emissions. Energy crops Energy crops are those annual or perennial plants that are specifically cultivated to produce solid, liquid or gaseous forms of energy, including transportation biofuels. These can be traditional crops such as oilseeds, (rape, soybean, sunflower) cereals (wheat, barley, maize) sugar beet and new dedicated perennial energy crops only planted for energy purposes such as short rotation coppices (willows, poplars) miscanthus, reed canary grass and others. Economic Size Unit For each activity (enterprise) on a holding, or farm (e.g. wheat, dairy cows or vineyard), a standard gross margin (SGM) is estimated, based on the area (or the number of heads) and a regional coefficient. The sum of all margins, for all activities of a given farm, is referred to as the economic size of that farm. The economic size is expressed in European Size Units (ESU), 1 ESU being equal to 1 200 euros of SGM. Final Energy Consumption Gross final consumption of energy means the energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to industry, transport, households, services including public services, agriculture, forestry and fisheries, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission. Note: According to the understanding of AEBIOM (taking into account the phrasing in the template of the RES Directive) the share of RES electricity will be calculated in the following way: Fire wood Fire wood is the oldest form of woody biomass, yet in many European countries it is still the most used biomass. The production and the use of firewood is labour intensive, explaining why firewood has lost market shares in the past. New firewood boilers complying with high environmental standards, new technical development of producing firewood and the increasing price of fossil fuels lead to a renaissance of firewood as heating fuel in some regions Gross Calorific Value (GCV) The gross calorific value is the total amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel when it is burned completely with oxygen and when the vapor produced during combustion is condensed to liquid water. GCV includes the heat of condensation and is therefore independent upon the moisture content Gross Inland Consumption (GIC) Gross inland consumption is the quantity of energy consumed within the borders of a country. It is calculated using the following formula: Primary production + recovered products + imports + stock changes exports bunker (i.e. quantities supplied to sea going ships) Net Calorific Value (NCV) The net calorific value (or lower heating value LHV) is the amount of heat released by a unit quantity of fuel, when it is burned completely with oxygen, and when the water contained in the fuel is transformed to vapor and not condensed to water again. This quantity therefore does not include the heat of condensation of any water vapor. The net calorific value of a given biomass depends on the content of dry matter (excluding minerals) and moisture. The higher the moisture content and minerals content (giving ashes) the lower the net calorific value. Organic Waste (renewable) Renewable organic waste is the term used to describe those wastes that are readily biodegradable, or easily broken-down with the assistance of micro-organisms. Organic wastes consist of materials that contain molecules based on carbon, the carbon coming from the atmosphere via the green plants. This includes food waste and green waste. Pellets Wood pellets are a clean, CO2 neutral and convenient fuel, mostly produced from sawdust and wood shavings compressed under high pressure using no glue or other additives. They are cylindrical in
118 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

shape and usually 6-10 mm in diameter. The average length is about 10-30 mm. Furthermore, due to their high energy content the convenient delivery and storage features, pellets are the ideal fuel for fully automatic small scale heating systems. With a rapidly growing share in the market, they are a key technology for increasing biomass utilisation in Europe. In the last few years pellets are increasingly used in power plants for co-firing. Pellets are also an excellent way of using local resources thus making a concrete contribution to environmental protection and climate change prevention. Refuse-derived fuel (RDF) (Also solid recovered fuel or specified recovered fuel) RDF is produced by shredding and dehydrating municipal solid waste (MSW). It consists largely of organic components of municipal waste such as plastics and biodegradable waste. RES = Renewable Energy Sources energy from renewable sources means energy from renewable non-fossil sources, namely wind, solar, aerothermal, geothermal, hydrothermal and ocean energy, hydropower, biomass, landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas and biogases Round wood Wood in its natural state as felled, with or without bark. It may be round, split, roughly squared or in 3 other forms. Normally measured in m . Ton of oil equivalent (toe) The ton of oil equivalent is a conventional standardized unit for measuring energy, defined on the basis for a ton of oil with a net calorific value of 41 868 kJ/kg. Utilised agricultural area (UAA) Total arable land,permanent grassland, land used for permanent crops and kitchen gardens. The UAA excludes unutilised agricultural land, woodland and land occupied by buildings, farmyards, tracks, ponds, etc. Wood chips The importance of wood chips as heating fuel is increasing rapidly due to competitive prices and automatic heating systems based on wood chips. Wood chips are either produced as by-products from saw mills and other wood industries or from logs coming directly from the forests; in the latter case their price is higher. High quality wood chips can only be produced from optimal raw material with a minimum diameter of five centimetres. Smaller diameters cause more ash, which means less convenience for the customer operating the wood chip heating system. Rotten and musty wood, dirty wood, demolition wood, shrubs with small branches and whole trees are not suitable to produce high quality wood chips for small wood chip heating systems. Such raw materials can, however, be used to produce lower quality wood chips for larger biomass district heating plants. Wood briquettes Briquettes are similar to wood pellets, but physically larger. Sizes vary but briquettes can vary in diameter from around 50 mm to 100 mm +. Briquettes are usually between 60 mm and 150 mm in length. They can offer a cleaner, more consistent alternative to firewood logs, offering higher energy density and steady combustion.

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

119

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 2.1 GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION BY FUEL IN THE EU27 (MTOE) ........................................................... 13 TABLE 2.2 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY FUEL IN 2010 (MTOE) ................................................................... 15 TABLE 2.3 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR IN THE EU27 (MTOE)......................................................... 16 TABLE 2.4 SHARE OF RENEWABLES IN GROSS FINAL ENEGY CONSUMPTION (%) ...................................................... 17 TABLE 2.5 DEVELOPMENT OF GHG EMISSIONS BY COUNTRY .............................................................................. 18 TABLE 2.6 DEVELOPMENT OF GHG EMISSIONS (CO2 EQUIVALENT) BY SECTOR IN THE EU27 (MTOE)........................ 19 TABLE 2.7 BIOENERGY BALANCE IN EUROPE IN 2010 (KTOE)............................................................................. 21 TABLE 2.8 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE EU27 IN 2010 (MTOE) AND SHARE OF BIOMASS 23 TABLE 2.9 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL CONTRIBUTION EXPECTED FROM BIOENERGY (KTOE) ........................................... 24 TABLE 2.10 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL CONTRIBUTION OF RES (INSTALLED CAPACITY, GROSS ELECTRICITY GENERATION) EXPECTED IN ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN 2020 (GWH) . 26 TABLE 2.11 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL CONTRIBUTION (FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION) EXPECTED FROM BIOMASS IN HEATING AND COOLING SECTOR (KTOE) .. 27 TABLE 2.12 ESTIMATION OF TOTAL CONTRIBUTION EXPECTED FROM EACH RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGY IN 2020 IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR (KTOE) .. 28 TABLE 3.1 AGRICULTURAL LAND USE, 2010 .. 32 TABLE 3.2 HARVESTED PRODUCTION OF SOME OF THE MAIN CROPS 2010 (1000 TONNES) .................................... 34 TABLE 3.3 HARVESTED PRODUCTION OF THE MOST IMPORTANT CEREALS, 2010 (1000 TONNES)............................. 36 TABLE 3.4 EU 27 OILSEED AND VEGETABLE OIL BALANCE (IN THOUSAND TONNES)................................................. 37 TABLE 3.5 EU27 COARSE GRAINS BALANCE (IN THOUSAND TONNES) ................................................................... 38 TABLE 3.6 EU 27 WHEAT BALANCE (IN THOUSAND TONNES) ............................................................................. 38 TABLE 3.7 LAND USE EFFECTS OF EU BIOFUEL POLICIES IN THE EU-27 IN % DIFFERENCE AND THOUSAND HA (BASELINE SCENARIO) .. 39 TABLE 3.8 CELLULOSIC ENERGY CROPS IN 2011 (HA) .. 40 TABLE 3.9 FOREST AREA IN EUROPE AND IN THE WORLD, 1990-2010 ................................................................ 43 TABLE 3.10 FOREST AREA IN THE EU............................................................................................................. 44 TABLE 3.11 AREA OF FOREST DESIGNATED PRIMARILY FOR CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN EUROPE, 1990 2010 .............................................................................................................................................. 44 TABLE 3.12 FOREST OWNERSHIP IN THE EU ................................................................................................... 45 TABLE 3.13 AREA OF FOREST DESIGNATED PRIMARILY FOR PRODUCTION IN EUROPE, 19902010 ........................... 46 TABLE 3.14 COMMERCIAL WOOD VOLUME (FOREST AVAILABLE FOR WOOD SUPPLY) IN THE EU. ............................... 46 TABLE 3.15 ROUNDWOOD REMOVALS UNDER BARK AND PROPORTION OF FUELWOOD IN EU ..48 TABLE 3.16 CARBON STOCK IN LIVING FOREST BIOMASS IN THE EU ..................................................................... 49 TABLE 3.17 DATA ON AFFORESTATION AND REFORESTATION (A/R), DEFORESTATION (D) AND FOREST MANAGEMENT (FM) ACTIVITIES REPORTED BY ANNEX B PARTIES UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL FOR THE YEAR 2008 (IN GT CO2
EQUIVALENT) .................................................................................................................................... 50 TABLE 3.18 WASTE AND RECYCLING OF WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE EU (TONNES) ................................................... 51 TABLE 3.19 WASTE GENERATED BY WOOD AND PAPER MANUFACTURING AND BY HOUSEHOLDS IN THE EU, 2008....... 52 TABLE 3.20 PRODUCTION OF ROUNDWOOD, FUELWOOD AND OTHER BASIC WOOD PRODUCTS IN THE EU, 2009 (1000 3 M ) ................................................................................................................................................. 54 TABLE 3.21 WOOD ENERGY SOURCES AND USES IN 2009 .... 55 TABLE 3.22 ROLE OF WOOD ENERGY IN FOREST SECTOR AND ENERGY SECTOR, 2009 ............................................. 59 TABLE 3.23 WASTE GENERATED IN EUROPE FOR ALL NACE ACTIVITIES INCLUDE HOUSEHOLDS IN 2008 ... 60 TABLE 3.24 MUNICIPAL WASTE* GENERATED IN EUROPE IN 2010 ..................................................................... 61 TABLE 3.25 COMPOSITION OF WASTE TREATMENT TYPE IN EU 27 ........ 62 TALBE 3.26 GROSS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FROM RENEWABLE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION IN EU IN 2009 . 63 TABLE 3.27 HEAT PRODUCTION FROM RENEWABLE MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN 2009* (IN KTOE) ......................................................................................................................................... 63 TABLE 3.28 BIOMASS USE AS FUEL IN PAPER AND PULP MILLS 64 TABLE 3.29 PRIMARY PRODUCTION, IMPORTS, EXPORTS AND GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION OF PEAT FOR ENERGY IN 2010 (KTOE) ................................................................................................................................... 65 TABLE 9.2 FINAL HEAT CONSUMPTION OF BIOMASS FOR HEAT IN COMPARISON WITH THE TOTAL HEAT CONSUMPTION IN EUROPE IN 2010 . 68 TABLE 4.2 DISTRICT HEATING STATISTICS IN SOME EU MEMBER STATES IN 2009................................................... 73 TABLE 4.3 HEAT PRODUCTION FROM SOLID BIOMASS IN THE EU IN THE TRANSFORMATION SECTOR . 75

120

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

TABLE 5.1 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY IN EUROPE IN 2010 AND PROPORTION OF RENEWABLE ELECTRICITY (KTOE) ............................................................................................................................ 81 TABLE 5.2 TOTAL GROSS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION (ELECTRICITY ONLY PLANTS AND CHP PLANTS) FROM SOLID BIOMASS, MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION AND BIOGAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN 2009 (WHEN NOT AVAILABLE, 2008) AND 2010* (WHEN NOT AVAILABLE 2009*) (INTWH) ............................................................................. 83 TABLE 5.3 GROSS ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION IN CHP PLANT FROM SOLID BIOMASS, MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION AND BIOGAS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN 2009 (WHEN NOT AVAILABLE, 2008) AND 2010* (WHEN NOT AVAILABLE 2009*) (INTWH) ............................................................................................................................. 85 TABLE 6.1 BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORT IN THE EUROPEAN UNION IN 2010 AND 2011 (KTOE)............... 89 TABLE 7.1 PRIMARY PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS IN THE EU 27 IN 2008 AND 2009 (KTOE) ........................................ 94 TABLE 7.2 GROSS BIOGAS ELECTRICITY OUTPUT IN THE EU IN 2009 AND 2010 .. 95 TABLE7.3 THERMAL ENERGY PRODUCTION IN 2010 (GWH) ............................................................................ 96 TABLE 7.4 BIOGAS PLANTS IN EUROPE IN 2009 AND 2010 96 TABLE 7.5 NUMBER OF BIOMETHANE PLANTS IN SOME EUROPEAN COUNTRIES...................................................... 98 TABLE 8.1 PELLETS PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTION CAPACITY IN EU27 (KT) ...................................................... 102 TABLE 8.2 PELLET TRADE WITHIN EU27 (KT) ................................................................................................ 103 TABLE 8.3 PELLET EXPORT TO EU27 (KT) ..................................................................................................... 104 TABLE 8.4 PELLET HEATING DEMAND OUTLOOK (KT) ...................................................................................... 104 TABLE 8.5 ANNUALLY INSTALLED PELLET BOILERS < 50KW ............................................................................... 105 Table 8.6 AnnuaLLY SOLD PELLET STOVES .. 105

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

121

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.1 BIOMASS FEEDSTOCK CONVERTED TO BIOENERGY CARRIERS ................................................................. 8 FIGURE 2.1 PRODUCTION, NET IMPORT AND CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN THE EU IN THE EU IN 2010 ..................... 11 FIGURE 2.2 EU 27 ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY ........................................................................................... 11 FIGURE 2.3 ENERGY IMPORT DEPENDENCY* IN MEMBER STATES IN 2010 (%) ..................................................... 12 FIGURE 2.4 EU GROSS INLAND ENERGY COSUMPTION BY FUEL IN 2000 AND 2010 14 FIGURE 2.5 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY SECTOR IN THE EU27 IN 2010 ....................................................... 16 FIGURE 2.6 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS BY MAIN SECTOR IN EU27 IN 2010 . .. 19 FIGURE 2.7 GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION OF RES IN EUROPE IN 2010 .............................................................. 20 FIGURE 2.8 BIOENERGY BALANCE IN 2010 (KTOE) ......................................................................................... 20 FIGURE 2.9 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BIOMASS IN HEAT, ELECTRICITY AND TRANSPORT IN 2010 (KTOE) .... 22 FIGURE 2.10 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BIOENERGY 2000-2020 IN EUROPE.............................................. 22 FIGURE 2.11 ESTIMATED BIOENERGY CONSUMPTION IN ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN 2020 IN EU 27 .... 25 FIGURE 2.12 CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN HEATING AND COOLING IN EU27 IN 2020 .. 27 FIGURE 2.13 CONSUMPTION OF ENERGY IN TRANSPORT IN EU27 IN 2020 .......................................................... 28 FIGURE 3.1 COMPARISON OF PRIMARY BIOENERGY DEMAND AND GLOBAL TECHNICAL BIOENERGY POTENTIAL ESTIMATE IN 2050 .............................................................................................................................................. 30 FIGURE 3.2 BIOMASS RESOURCES BY DIFFERENT SOURCES IN EU24 AND NORWAY ... 31 FIGURE 3.3 SHARE OF AGRICULTURE IN TOTAL LAND USE, 2009 (%) ................................................................... 32 Figure 3.4 Share of land cover types in total country area, 2009 ... 33 FIGURE 3.5 SHARE OF MAIN CROP PRODUCTION BETWEEN MEMBER STATES, 2010 (%) 35 FIGURE 3.6 HARVESTED PRODUCTION OF CEREALS BY TYPE OF CEREAL, EU27, 2010 (%) ....................................... 35 FIGURE 3.7 ENERGY CROPS IN GERMANY ....................................................................................................... 41 FIGURE 3.8 ESTIMATED UNEXPLOITED AGRO-INDUSTRIAL RESIDUES . 42 FIGURE 3.9 WOOD FOW IN EU 27, 2010 ..................................................................................................... 47 FIGURE 3.10 WOOD RESOURCES USE IN THE EU27, 2010 (% SHARE OF TOTAL VOLUME IN M3) .... 53 FIGURE 3.11 SHARE OF WOOD AND WOOD WASTE IN TOTAL RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE EU, 2010 (% OF GROSS INLAND CONSUMPTION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY) ................................................................................................ 53 FIGURE 3.12 WASTE TO ENERGY CYCLE, 2010 . 62 FIGURE 3.13 PRIMARY ENERGY PRODUCTION FORM RENEWABLE MUNICIPAL WASTE PER INHABITANT FOR EACH EUROPEAN COUNTRY IN 2009 (TOE/1000 INHAB) .................................................................................. 64 FIGURE 3.14 PEAT USE IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES IN EU (KTOE)......................................................................... 65 FIGURE 4.1 HEAT CONSUMPTION IN EU IN 2010 (MTOE) ................................................................................ 67 FIGURE 4.2 EXPECTED ADDITIONAL HEAT DEMAND* UNTIL 2020 (%EXPECTED GROWTH RATE 2010-2020) .............. 67 Figure 4.3 Final heat consumption of biomass for heat in comparison with the total renewable heat in 2010. Targets of biomass for heat in 2010 and 2020 69 FIGURE 4.4 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF BIOMASS FOR HEAT IN EUROPE IN 2010 IN THE DIFFERENT SECTORS ....... 70 FIGURE 4.5 MARKET SHARE CHANGES FOR DIFFERENT APPLIANCES (%) ............................................................... 71 FIGURE 4.6 NUMBER AND CAPACITY OF ANNUALLY NEWLY INSTALLED BIOMASS BIOLERS<100 KW FROM 2001 TO 2010 IN AUSTRIA. ...................................................................................................................................... 72 FIGURE 4.7 HEATING TECHNOLOGIES USED IN AUSTRIAN HOUSEHOLDS 2009/10 .. 72 FIGURE 4.8 TOTAL LENGTH OF DH PIPELINE NETWORK IN 2009 AND 2005 .. 74 FIGURE 4.9 DISTRICT COOLING CAPACITY 2009 AND WHERE AVAILABLE 2005 ...................................................... 74 FIGURE 4.10 ENERGY SUPPLY COMPOSITION FOR DISTRICT HEAT GENERATED IN 2009 ........................................... 74 FIGURE 4.11 AMOUNT OF DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS IN GERMANY IN 2010 WITH A NOMINAL HEAT OUTPUT BETWEEN 100-100 KW ABD ACCORDING RAW MATERIALS USE .. 76 FIGURE 4.12 AMOUNT OF BIOMASS HEATING SYSTEMS WITH A NOMINAL HEAT OUTPUT > 1MW IN GERMANY IN 2010 AND THE USED RAW MATERIALS 76 FIGURE 4.13 FUEL CONSUMTION FOR DISTRICT HEATING PRODUCTION IN AUSTRIA ................................................ 76 FIGURE 4.14 ENERGY MIX IN SWEDISH DISTRICT HEATING ................................................................................ 77 FIGURE 5.1 FINAL ELECTRICITY CONSUMPTION IN EU COUNTRIES IN 2010 (KTOE).................................................. 80 FIGURE 5.2 EXPECTED ADDITIONAL ELECTRICITY DEMAND BETWEEN 2010 AND 2020 .. 80 FIGURE 5.3 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION OF ELECTRICITY FROM RES AND BIOELECTRICITY IN 2010 .. 82 FIGURE 5.4 SHARE OF BIOMASS CHP COMPARE TO ALL CHP (IN TERMS OF ELECTRICITY) .. 84 FIGURE 5.5 GROWTH RATE OF BIOMASS CHP ELECTRICITY OUTPUT OVER THE PERIOD 2006-2009 ........................... 84
122 European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM

FIGURE 6.1 FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR IN EU 27 AND PROPORTION OF BIOFUELS .87 FIGURE 6.2 TREND OF THE EUROPEAN UNION BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORT (KTOE)................................ 88 FIGURE 6.3 EVOLUTION OF THE FINAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BIOFUELS FOR TRANSPORT (KTOE) 88 FIGURE 6.4 BREAKDOWN OF BIOFUEL CONSUMPTION FOR TRANSPORT IN EUROPE IN 2011* BY BIOFUEL TYPE 90 FIGURE 6.5 PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL (MAP LEFT) AND BIODIESEL (MAP RIGHT) IN EU IN THE YEAR 2009 (MILLION LITRES/YEAR) .................................................................................................................................... 90 FIGURE 6.6 EU BIOFUELS TRADE IN 2010 ...................................................................................................... 91 FIGURE 6.7 EU BIODIESEL TRADE BALANCE 20002009 IN PJ ........................................................................... 92 FIGURE 6.8 EU FUEL ETHANOL TRADE BALANCE 20002009 IN PJ..................................................................... 92 FIGURE 7.1 SUBSTRATE INPUT IN BIOGAS PLANTS IN GERMANY IN 2010 . 97 FIGURE 7.2 BIOMETHANE PRODUCTIN IN GERMANY 98 FIGURE 8.1 ESTIMATED WORLD WOOD PELLET PRODUCTION 2000-2010 (KT). .................................................. 100 FIGURE 8.2 GLOBAL RAW MATERIAL AVAILABILITY AND PELLET PRODUCTION, 2008-2015 ... 100 FIGURE 8.3 WOOD PELLET PRODUCTION CAPACITY BY COUNTRY ....................................................................... 101 FIGURE 8.4 PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION OF WOOD PELLETS IN EU ............................................................ 101 FIGURE 8.5 WOOD PELLET PLANT CAPACITY UTILIZATION RATE (%) BY COUNTRY IN 2010 .. 102 FIGURE 8.6 ENPLUS PRODUCTION AND TRADE .... 106 FIGURE 8.7 ENPLUS PRODUCTION AND TRADE ............................................................................................ ..106

AEBIOM | European Bioenergy Outlook 2012

123

124

European Bioenergy Outlook 2012| AEBIOM