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Reactive Power Compensation -Submitted by Ramit Gera ObjectivesTo understand Reactive Power Basics. To understand PF Concepts.

cepts. To understand Benefits of Reactive Power Management. Understanding HV Capacitors in detail. Its Importance

- Types of Loads 1. Resistive/ohmic LoadsV & I in Phase All the power is dissipated and hence useful. Frequency Independent.

2. Inductive Loads 3. V leads I by 90 degree Power is alternatively absorbed and dissipated. Hence only used for maintaining flux. Impedence is directly proportional to frequency. Capacitive Loads I leads V by 90 degree. Power is alternatively absorbed and dissipated. Hence only used for charge storage and discharge. Impedence is inversely proportional to frequency.

Reactive power is critical for power system reliability to maintain system voltages within safe operating limits. Sufficient reactive resources must be scheduled to control voltages under normal and emergency conditions. Generating units are one of only three pieces of equipment (along with SVSs and synchronous condensers) that provide continuously variable reactive power on a second to second basis, and as a result play a very critical role in network voltage control and protection against voltage collapse during disturbances and emergencies. Different types of generating units provide different levels of reactive power capabilities to the system. The reactive capability curves give the maximum reactive power loadings corresponding to various (real) power loadings with operations at rated voltage.

These are the so-called D-curves. Armature heating is the limiting factor in the region from unity to rated power factor. For lower power factors, field heating is limiting. In general, when the active power loading and voltage are fixed, the allowable reactive power production of a generating unit depends on thermal (either armature or field heating) and stability limits.

Unit Reactive Limit The maximum quantity of Reactive Power that a Generation Resource is capable of providing at a 0.95 power factor at its maximum real power capability. High Sustained Limit (HSL for a Generation Resource) Limit established by the QSE, continuously updated in Real Time, that describes the maximum sustained energy production capability of the Resource. Except for the exemptions cited in Section 3.15 Voltage Support of the ERCOT Nodal protocols, Generation Resources which are required to provide VSS must be capable of producing a defined quantity of Reactive Power (MVars) at a .95 power factor at the Resources maximum rated real power capability (MWs) to maintain a Voltage Profile established by ERCOT. This quantity of Reactive Power is the Unit Reactive Limit

(URL). Whenever a Generation Resource is On-Line and available for energy deployment, it is required to provide VSS up to its URL. The URL must be available for utilization at the Resources continuous rated active power output, and Reactive Power up to the Resources operating capability must be available for utilization at lower active power output levels. In no event may the Reactive Power available be less than the required installed reactive capability multiplied by the ratio of the lower active power output to the Resources continuously rated active power output, and any Reactive Power available for utilization must be fully deployed to support system voltage upon request by ERCOT, or a TSP. Direction of flow of Active and Reactive Power Even though the AC current flows alternatively in both the directions, the direction of AC current is always rendered positive in the direction of power flow. In power balance calculations at any node in the power system, by a convention adopted by most of the utilities, the outgoing power from the node is taken as positive and incoming power as negative. Let us consider a dummy node N with voltage V and power P with current I flowing from left to right, as below. P Q I ----------------------------N---------------------------I1 (V) I2 P1 P2 Q1 Q2 By the convention stated earlier, at the node N, P1 = - P, and P2 = + P I1 = - I, and I2 = + I Hence at dummy node N, I1 + I2 = 0 and P1 + P2 = 0 I2, i.e., (I) lags V by, say, angle . So, P2 = |V|.|I2|. Cos = V I Cos I1, i.e. (-I) lags V by angle 180+, and so, P1 = |V|.|I1|.Cos(180+) = - VI Cos Let us try to do the same thing with reactive power Q (lag, say). Here we have an additional concept of lagging and leading reactive power. As mentioned earlier, lagging reactive power is taken as positive, by convention adopted by most of the utilities. I2 lags V by, say, angle . So, Q2 = |V|.|I2|. Sin = V I Sin I1 lags V by, angle 180+. And so, Q1 = |V|.|I1|. Sin (180+) = - V I Sin Now, we are ready to view the quadrant principle of power factor as below: Q Phase angle 90 to 180 Deg (lag) Power Factor: 0 to -1 (lag) Active Power P is Negative Lagging Reactive Q is Positive Phase angle 0 to 90 Deg (lag) Power Factor: 1 to 0 (lag) Active Power P is Positive Lagging Reactive Q is Positive V

V (Rotating)

Fig. 1 represents an a.c. generator supplying a load through a line of series impedance (R+jX) ohms. Fig. 2(a) shows the phasor diagram when the line is delivering a complex power of (P+jQ) VA and Fig. 2 (b) shows the phasor diagram when the line is delivering a complex power of (P+jQ) VA i.e. with the load fully compensated. A thorough examination of these phasor diagrams will reveal the following facts.

Shunt Capacitors Utility Perspective

1. Current is higher by a factor of 1/cos in the case of uncompensated

load compared to compensated load.

2. The higher current flow in the case of uncompensated load

necessitated by the reactive demand results in a tie up of capacity in this equipment by a factor of 1/cos I.e. compensating the load to UPF will release a capacity of (load VA rating X) in all these equipment.

3. The sending-end voltage to be maintained for a specified receiving-end voltage is higher in the case of uncompensated load

4 The sending-end power factor is less in the case of an uncompensated one. This due to the higher reactive absorption taking place in the line reactance.

5. The Generator is required to maintain Higher terminal voltage with greater current at low PF and hence it stretches the excitation to the limit and increases the excitation losses.

Shunt Capacitors Necessity

Compensating a lagging load by using shunt capacitors will result in

i.

Lesser power loss everywhere up to the location of capacitor and hence a more efficient system

ii.

Releasing of tied-up capacity in all the system equipments thereby enabling a postponement of the capital intensive capacity enhancement programmers to a later date.

iii.

Increased life of equipments due to optimum loading on them

iv.

Lesser voltage drops in the system and better regulation

v.

Less strain on the excitation system of generators and lesser excitation losses.

vi.

Increase in the ability of the generators to meet the system peak

vii.

Demand thanks to the released capacity and lesser power losses.

Genera-tor

KVAR Movement

TTTr111 KV/ 220KV

Tr2 220KV/ 33KV

Tr3 33KV/11K V Tr4 11KV/415 V

Shunt capacitive compensation delivers maximum benefit when employed right across the load. And employing compensation in HT & LT distribution network is the closest one can get to the load in a power network. However, various considerations like ease of operation and control, economy achievable by lumping shunt compensation at EHV stations etc will tend to shift a portion of shunt compensation to EHV & HV substations.

Shunt Capacitors Other Parameters


Overcompensation/Leading PF is also Harmful because

- Over voltages

- Higher losses

- Lesser Capacity Utilization

- Reduced Stability Margins in Generators.

Shunt compensation is successful in reducing voltage drop and power loss problems in the network under steady load conditions. But the voltage dips produced by DOL starting of large motors, motors driving sharply fluctuating or periodically varying loads, arc furnaces, welding units etc can not be improved by shunt capacitors since it would require a rapidly varying compensation level.

HV Capacitors Substation Capacitors

Construction:

The construction of an individual capacitor cell comprises of many elements connected in series parallel combination to achieve the necessary capacitance. Each element is made by winding two layers of Aluminum Foil(Electrode) Interleaved by Layers of Hazy Polypropylene (Dielectric).These connected elements are then put in a tank along with impregnate which is normally NPCB Oil. Then the tank is sealed and bushings are provided for termination.

However these individual cells are of standard rating and voltages and usually in single phase construction (for higher voltages). These individual cells are made to form as bank in series parallel combinations to deliver required capacity at required voltage.

E.g. A single cell rated 200KVAR, 7.3KV may be used in bank of 7.2 MVAR (Double Star Connected), 12.65KV in 6 cells in parallel per phase per star bank.

How Does Your Capacitor Work?

A load & therefore its KVAR are in a dynamic state - generally. A matching KVAR output of a capacitor bank must also be dynamic i.e. must adjust itself-instantly to its requirement, if one is to obtain a uniform &'set' p.f. all along. This is best achieved by an automatic control that switches in & out, segments of a designed capacitor bank. A control panel serving this purpose is called on APFC panel or Automatic Power Factor Controlling panel. It controls the load power factor by sensing various available parameters.

A) Sensing Parameters:-

1. Current - Sensing based APFC: - The current magnitude through a feeder or bus is sensed and fed to a relay. As this magnitude crosses a set bandwidth, the relay operates a power controlling a section of a capacitor bank. This is the simplest and possibly the cheapest relay. It has a disadvantage of functioning with no reference to the actual load power factor - but assuming it.

2. Power Factor Sensing based APFC: - This relay senses the start of the voltage current wave forms on a given feeder & measures the time difference between them. It then converts this into a p.f. & compares this with a set value. Upon finding a difference, it operates the power contactor. This type of relay is most widely used. It has an advantage of being able to

show the load p.f. on an indicating meter. Its disadvantage: - It has no relation to the load magnitude & its KVAR requirement. It can lead to severe hunting.

3. KVAR Sensing based APFC: - This relay senses the magnitudes of both the voltage & current wave forms & also the time or phase difference between them. It then calculates the load KVAR & compares these with a possible combination of sections within a capacitor bank and operates their controlling contractors to add the required capacitor KVAR to the electrical system. This is the most sensitive relay - capable of obtaining maximum benefit out of a given capacitor bank.

Its disadvantages: - It is rather hard on the contractors and its related surge suppression attachments

B) Sizing of Capacitor Switching Blocks:1) Power Factors for the purposes of levying penalties are based on the monthly consumptions of KVA-Hrs, KW-Hrs & KVAR-Hrs as recorded on a tri-vector meter. If the basic purpose of installing capacitors is to stay safely above the penalty limit, then average power factor correction based on a 24 hour basis is sufficient and not an elaborate "instant to instant" p.f. correction. This helps one in setting as wide a band-width as possible before changing a step. It prevents switching - too often. It must be noted that KVA-Hrs and KVAR-Hrs do not subtract if excessive capacitor KVAR are dumped into the system by over corrections into a leading zone - say part of the time. It records this also as a low p.f. & subject to penalty. Besides, leading p.f.'s is unhealthy for capacitors & the system itself.

a) A simple straight forward method of sizing the capacitor blocks would be to divide them equally into targeted number of steps. Besides simplicity it

has an advantage of standard sizes for replacement of work out contractors, blown fuses etc. Many a designer favors this.

b) In ambitious method of sizing the blocks, they are designed in a binary sequence so that a large number of combinations are available for a given set of contactors etc. If the accessories are chosen properly, this can be an ideal method though slightly costlier than method (a) above.

c) Each control in an APFC Panel adds considerably to overall costs. It is advisable to keep as much capacitor KVAR out of the APFC control as possible, for example, the first step i.e. load portion which is constant on a 24 hour basis, Continuous working industries offer this. In the second step - divide the remainder in a number of steps. Keep this number of step as small as possible, by studding the load pattern. The portion that is likely to be operated often should be at the fag end. Large size contactors should at the starting end so that they operate as few times as possible.

C) Methods of Switching In & Switching Out:1) When the bank is controlled in equal steps, as in B(a) above, some designers prefer a first - in, first - out or FIFO method so that all contactors and steps have uniform period of operation & can together last longer.

2) If method B(c) above is followed, then the switching control should be on the basis of 'First-in, Last-out' or FILO. 3) Method B.(b) above, calls for random switching which requires careful selection of power contactors or better still, opting out for thyristor switching - which has yet to prove it's mettle in India

D) Structural Design of an APFC Panel:1) Capacitor bank step (section) 2) Discharge resistance on individual capacitor unit - external. 3) Incoming switch fuse for the bank. 4) Capacitor bank bus bar. 5) Capacitor bank CT's. 6) Ammeter selector switch. 7) Ammeter for bank current. 8) Thermal overload relay or sectional fuses. 9) Automatic control relay & p.f. meter. Time delay relays. 10) Power contactor. 11) Push Button sets. 12) Indicating lamps. 13) Cabinet (capacitor bus bars) 14) Earthing bus bars. 15) Isolating transformer for contactor coils. 16) Heater. 17) Lamp, extra piano type switches & sockets. 18) Cooling fan. 19) Auto-manual change over switch.

E) Rating of Components:1) Should an APFC panel develop a 'short' from the main bus to body or between phases, a heavy current will flow till the back-up protection - like an HRC fuse, isolates this short. The system voltage divided by the system impedance up to the point of a short, gives the short circuit current. This impedance consists main by of the step down transformer impedance - generally 4% to 6%. Increasing this value by 10% takes care of impedances of intervening items like a switch, a bus bar, C.T. etc. The short circuit current divided by 165 Amps gives an acceptable conductor cross section, which can safely hold for a s.c. duration of one second. Generally, these sections are not unduly large and fall within a current density of 2.5 to 3 Amps/mm2 of the full capacitor bank current rating. Should the length of this panel be large - then the bus bars must be laterally & rigidly supported to prevent flex ring under s.c. forces.

2) A capacitor shorted to its body restricts the s.c. current severely. Depending on the inside construction and the wall thickness of the capacitor tank, this unit can withstand the bursting forces till its protective system takes over. Thus the double earthling of a panel can be safely standardized on G.I. strip of 50 x 6 mm2 size.

3) A capacitor at the instance of being switched on is a dead short circuit. The inrush current is limited in its peak value by system inductances unto that point, except that the circuit now goes into a natural resonance. A power contactor, by nature of its construction and contact material, can withstand a peak current of a given magnitude - beyond which, the contactor points will weld on to themselves - leading to capacitor failure. If a capacitor is being switched on against other steps which are already on, then the other steps will discharge into this new - comer. The intervening bus bars have very low inductances & these peak currents are very high -

reaching 160 times the rated capacitor current or more. The capacitor should be able to handle this- without welding. There are three methods to deal with this:-

a) Use a liberal & proven rating for a known contactor.

b) Use surge suppression choke coils on each capacitor, to introduce extra inductance & thus limit the peak current. For panels with 4 steps or more & also for panels using MPP capacitors, this is essential.

c) Use a special contactor with auxiliary contacts which introduce a starting resistance at the beginning, then short it.

4) A discharge resistor on a capacitor reduces the residual voltage on it after being switched off to a safe value of 50 volts within less than a minute and readies it for re-switching should this be required. If this resistance were to burn out, the re-switching will take place against a charged unit. This will burn it out. It is highly essential to periodically check the condition of these externally mounted discharge resistances.

5) Other Items: Main switch fuse is substituted by air-breakers for large banks. Draw - out type, electrically operated breakers increase cost of a panel tremendously.

6) Time Delay Relays: Time Delay Relays with an adjustable one minute delay should be incorporated - both in APFC or Manual mode to prevent reswitching of a

Contactor within less than one minute of switching it off.

What can go wrong in an APFC Panel? 1) Wrong connections to the Automatic Relay: The C.T. feeding this relay is the mains CT & not the CT within the panel itself. The voltage connection to the relay should be from the same phase from which the current is measured. These relays are single phase relays.

2) Too narrow a band-width, per step: The band-width can be set manually. A narrow band width leads to hunting between steps.

3) Contactor points welding together.

4) Discharge Resistor &/or choke coils burning out.

5) Time Delay Relays being bypassed or not working. 6) Failure of electronic components under the combined on sought of higher ambient temperature and voltage surges - particularly for outdoor polemounted type of panels. 7) Improper ventilation, loose cable joints & similar causes commonly found.

8) Unattended leaks on capacitors.

A. POWER FACTOR CONTROL :

In an electrical distribution system , low power factor, harmonics can not be tolerated as it reduces the overall efficiency of the system and it also affects the working of other devices. To improve the power factor use of capacitor is essential, where harmonic level is high only capacitor does not serve the purpose and use of power factor correction capacitors along with the harmonic filter becomes essential. Reactive power compensation is very important as it not only improves the efficiency of the system but also reduces the penalty for low power factor

Benefits of high power factor :


o o o o o o

Reduction in load current. Reduction in power loss, improvement in efficiency of the system. Reduction in KVA rating of equipment's, better utilisation of equipment's. Better voltage profile. Less voltage fluctuations. Higher stability.

Capacitor itself is an energy efficient product as it has low power loss, its efficiency as high as 99.9%. In addition to this, capacitors has low initial cost, flexibility in choosing rating, compact size, easy installation, less maintenance etc.

To install capacitors in a system we should study the system i.e. we should have certain data such as load in KW, existing power factor etc. Now we should decide the new required power factor, then we can calculate the required KVAR to improve the power factor very easily with the help of following table.

Following tables and illustrations will enable you to properly select the capacitor for your installation.

Capacitor KVAR for Power Factor Correction. Ratio of Capacitor KVAR/Existing load in KWS to raise the power factor to

New Power Factor Existing Power Factor 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.65 0.67 0.68 0.69 0.70 0.71 1.668 1.112 0.714 0.549 0.488 0.459 0.429 0.400 0.372 1.805 1.248 0.849 0.685 0.624 0.595 0.565 0.536 0.508 1.959 1.403 1.005 0.840 0.779 0.750 0.720 0.691 0.663 1.998 1.441 1.043 0.878 0.817 0.788 0.758 0.729 0.701 2.037 1.481 1.083 0.918 0.857 0.828 0.798 0.769 0.741 2.085 1.528 1.131 0.966 0.905 0.876 0.840 0.811 0.783 2.146 1.590 1.192 1.027 0.966 0.937 0.907 0.878 0.850 2.288 1.732 1.334 1.169 1.108 1.079 1.049 1.020 0.992 0.85 0.90 0.95 0.96 0.97 0.98 0.99 1.00

0.72 0.73 0.74 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.78 0.79 0.80 0.81 0.82 0.83 0.84

0.343 0.316 0.289 0.262 0.235 0.209 0.183 0.156 0.130 0.104 0.078 0.052 0.026

0.479 0.452 0.425 0.398 0.371 0.345 0.319 0.292 0.266 0.240 0.214 0.118 0.162

0.634 0.607 0.580 0.553 0.526 0.500 0.474 0.447 0.421 0.395 0.369 0.343 0.317

0.672 0.645 0.618 0.591 0.564 0.538 0.512 0.485 0.459 0.433 0.407 0.381 0.355

0.712 0.685 0.658 0.631 0.604 0.578 0.552 0.525 0.499 0.473 0.447 0.421 0.395

0.754 0.727 0.700 0.673 0.652 0.620 0.594 0.567 0.541 0.515 0.489 0.463 0.437

0.821 0.794 0.740 0.713 0.687 0.661 0.633 0.608 0.582 0.556 0.530 0.504 0.478

0.963 0.936 0.909 0.882 0.855 0.829 0.808 0.776 0.750 0.724 0.698 0.672 0.645

Selection of Voltages: Capacitors are very sensitive to over voltages and may get damaged under excessive voltage conditions. Thus the question of Fixing rated voltage of capacitor needs careful consideration. Capacitors are designed to withstand 10% over voltage for prolonged operation (12 Hrs as per IS 13925 (I):1998).Further, during light load periods the voltages may go up e.g. up to 12 KV in rural feeders. Also usage of series reactor also causes rise of voltage across the capacitor hence the voltage rating of the capacitor in such case needs to be increased. Suggested ratings of voltages are given below:

sys volt cap volt cap volt with 6% SR

3.3 KV

6.6 KV 7.2 KV

11 KV

22 KV 24 KV

33 KV

3.6 KV

12 KV

36 KV

3.8 KV

7.6 KV

12.65 KV

25.3 KV

38 KV

It should be noted that the capacitor output reduces in square proportion with reduction in voltage I.e. a 3MVAR @12.65KV would mean 2.268MVA @11KV

HV Capacitor- Protection
1. Capacitor Unit Protection: Individual Units may protected by either - Internal Fuses - Connected with each and every element - Failure causes small sustainable over voltages - Compact in Size - No External Indication - No Protection against insulation Failure - External Fuses. - Either Expulsion or HRC Type - Best suited for Larger Cap Banks - Care should be taken for selecting no. of Caps in Parallel to avoid high over voltages in case of one cell failure.

Minimum Cells in Double Star 1 Series Group 2 2 Series Group 7 3 Series Group -8 2. over Current and E/F Protection:

O/C Protection is provided to disconnect the bank in case of overloading caused due to over voltages or harmonics. It also protects bank from S/C between bank and breaker.Earth fault protection is also provided with a minimum setting of 10%.

3. Over voltage Protection:

Relay is provided to ensure that whenever system voltage exceeds 110% of Capacitor rated voltage the bank is tripped.

4. No Volt protection :

Once supply fails capacitor bank should trip and should not be recharged until it discharges to a safe value of 50V. To ensure this under voltage relay of instantaneous type along with a timer in the closing circuit is provided.

5. Unbalance Protection: HV Capacitors are normally connected in ungrounded star formation connecting units in series /parallel combination. In event of failure of one unit; parallel connected units are subject to over voltages. Hence unbalance protection is provided to trip the bank. This protection can be carried out by two ways.

a) Voltage Unbalance Protection: Open Delta Secondary PTs (RVTs) are used to measure the neutral voltage. In balanced condition the neutral voltage would be zero, but in event of failure of capacitor unit the neutral is shifted and there is output at the secondary of RVT.

b) Current Unbalance protection: In this scheme capacitors are connected in double star formation with neutrals interconnected through neutral CT. In balance condition there is no current flowing through CT but in the event of Capacitor failure the neutral of one star shifts and causes current to flow through the neutral.

Unbalance Current Calculation For Ungrounded Double Star


%OV = Vn/S*Vu[(600*S*N)/(6S(N-F)+5F)] In = Iu*N[Vn/S*Vu][3F/(6S(N-F)+5F)] Where Vn = Phase to Neutral Voltage Vu = Unit Voltage In = Neutral Current Iu = Unit Rated Current S = No. of Series Units N = No. of Cells in one Series Unit F = No.of Failed Cells

HV Capacitors: Accessories

While Installing A Capacitor Bank the following Accessories are also recommended to be used:

a) Isolators

b) Circuit Breakers :Must be restrict free, I.e. must have high breaking speed or designed in such a way that insulation between the contacts is increased very rapidly.

c) Discharging Device: This is normally inbuilt so as to ensure discharge to 50V within 5 Mins.

d) Series Reactor: Series reactors can be used for either Inrush suppression or Harmonic Suppression or as Filter Circuit Reactor. Inrush reactors are normally 0.2 to 1% of Capacitor impedance and are air core type provided at the neutral end of the star bank. Commonly 6% SR is used as HSR t suppresses 5th Harmonics.

e) Surge/Lightning Arrestors: LAs should be placed close to capacitors in case of switched capacitor bank. The arrestor protective ratio (impulse withstand of Capacitor to impulse withstand of LA) should preferably be higher than 1.5. Station class LA s advisable because of heavy discharges.

HV Capacitors: Advantages

a. Reduction Transmission Losses: Reduced Load current because of better PF causes lesser I2R losses.

b. Release of Transformer and Transmission Capacity: Use of Capacitor improves the PF and hence reduces the Maximum Demand. Thus substation can take some more loads.

c. Improvement in Bus Voltage: Installation of Capacitors improves voltage at the point where they are connected. Rise in voltage is given by the following formula:

% Rise in Voltage = Capacitor MVAR X %Tr.Impedance/Tr.Rating in MVA

HV Capacitors: Preventive Maintenance

Regular Maintenance covering the following points should be done on the capacitor banks at least twice in a year:

a) Capacitors including bushings should be cleaned of dust etc... All Connections should be checked for tightness. b) Any rusty portion should be cleaned and then given a coat of paint.

c) Units should be checked for leakage. d) Balancing of all parallel units should be done.

e) All auxiliary equipments like breaker, isolator, LA s should be maintained f) Oil of Series reactor/RVT (If applicable) should be checked for breakdown values.

Bases for Generator Power Factor Criteria

System voltage levels are directly related to the availability of reactive power. If sufficient reactive power resources exist in the areas where they are needed, system voltages can be maintained in a reliable manner. While capacitors provide coarse control of voltage, generators are the primary means of continuous control of system voltages. Excitation systems of generating units provide dynamic control of the power system by adjusting terminal voltages and Mvar production as total system load varies.

System events, such as the loss of a transmission line, create an instantaneous change in the reactive power demand. Shunt capacitors are not able to switch fast enough to supply the increase in demand and prevent further voltage decline. Therefore, generators must have some capability to immediately respond to system events by providing additional reactive power to the system.

Based on a sampling of existing generators, there is usually no more than a 3% difference in power factor (pf) between what the generator produces and what is delivered to the transmission system. For example, a generator operating at 0.90 pf is usually capable of delivering power to the grid at 0.93 pf or lower.
For a generator, relatively small real power changes can have a large impact on reactive power. For instance, if a generator is rated to operate at a power factor of 0.90, but operates at a MW level equivalent to 0.98 pf, the machines reactive capability is reduced by 55%. To ensure adequate reactive capability is provided with each generator, Duke Power expects all facilities connected to the grid to have the capability to provide anywhere between 0.93 pf lagging to 0.97 leading pf at the connection point (high side of GSU). The reactive power requirements are associated with the MW output of the unit. For each MW a unit produces, it must also have the capability to produce the proportional amount of reactive power at a specified transmission system voltage. On a per MW basis, the reactive requirements are calculated as: At 0.93 pf Q=
1MW sin(cos1 (0.93)) = 0.395 Mvar lagging 0.93

At 0.97 pf

Q=

1MW sin(cos1 (0.97)) = 0.251 Mvar leading 0.97

Lagging Capability: During periods when voltage is below the desired value, full generator reactive power capability must be available to arrest voltage decline. For each MW, the generator shall have the capability to simultaneously produce 0.395 Mvar. Therefore, generators must be capable of meeting the previously determined pf requirements at the following voltages: 500 kV 230 kV 100 kV 1.05 pu 1.00 pu 1.00 pu 0.93 pf lagging at the grid 0.93 pf lagging at the grid 0.93 pf lagging at the grid

Leading Capability: During periods of high voltage, some capability to absorb reactive power is necessary. For each MW, the generator shall have the capability to simultaneously produce 0.251 Mvar. Therefore, generators must be capable of meeting the previously determined pf requirements at the following voltages: 500 kV 230 kV 100 kV 1.09 pu 1.04 pu 1.05 pu 0.97 pf leading at the grid 0.97 pf leading at the grid 0.97 pf leading at the grid

Preface:
Capacitors and inductors supply and consume static reactive power. Dynaic reactive power is produced from equipment that can quickly change the Mvar level independent of the voltage level. Thus, the equipment can increase its reactive power production level when voltage drops and prevent a voltage collapse. Shunt Capacitors Banks (SCB) are mainly installed to provide capacitive reactive compensation/Power factor correction. The use of SCBs has increased because they are relatively inexpensive, easy and quick to install and can be deployed virtually anywhere in the network. Its installation has another beneficial effect on the system such as: improvement of the voltage at the load, better voltage regulation (if they were adequately designed), reduction of losses reduction or postponement of investments in transmission. The main disadvantage of SCB is that its reactive power output is proportional to the square of the voltage and consequently when voltage is low and the system need them most, they are least efficient.

TABLE OF CONTENT

Objectives What is Reactive Power and Its Importance Shunt Capacitors Utility Perspective Shunt Capacitors Necessity Shunt Capacitors Other Parameter HV Capacitors Substation Capacitors How Does Your Capacitor Work? What can go wrong in an APFC Panel? Benefits of high power factor

Capacitor KVAR for Power Factor Correction Selection of Voltages HV Capacitor- Protection HV Capacitors: Accessories HV Capacitors: Advantages

HV Capacitors: Preventive Maintenance Conclusion