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Abstract: The main purpose of this project is to find out the opportunity and obstacles that women in senior

management position have to face. Therefore some variables need to be interpreted to make the understanding more clear about workplace discrimination faced by women. In our survey we have used discrimination, family and child, company environmental factors, mentors, culture, recognition and career advancement as our variables. Introduction With the modern work environment emphasizing feminine relationship-building skills to the exclusion of masculine competitive instincts, the idea that women make better leaders than men is gaining ground. But many women in conjugal life do not feel comfortable to play dual role in family and children and career. Women have to face critical problem during cooperation with male workers. Developing field of the "psychology of work satisfaction” is a key determinant of effective career planning for organizations, and both for man and woman. Efficiency of women to succeed professionally has been acknowledged all over the world. Nevertheless gender discrimination in the workplace did exist and still continues in one form or the other. With better educational opportunities more and more women are opting for financial independence by working towards a stable career. Today almost every field that was earlier touted as being men only has been pervaded by women. If a woman qualifies on the basis of all the requirements of a profession, then there is no reason why there should be gender discrimination in the workplace. Although laws have been passed in most countries to provide equal opportunities at the workplace for both men and women, the fact is that 'women and glass ceiling’ still exist. (ref. article:1- M. Linehan and J. S. Walsh. Breaking the glass ceiling; British Journal of Management, Vol. 12, 85–95 (2001) In addition, however, the path between the mother's employment status and child outcomes is a long one; there are many steps in between. To understand how maternal employment affects the child, it is needed to understand how it affects the family because it is through the family that effects take place. Most of the time it is very difficult for women to maintain family life and work life together. It is found that most of the women hardly manage their family commitment and commitment to their work together. Married respondents with children believed that

partaking in international assignments created more conflict for them, and they were always conscious of the difficulties their careers caused for family members. (ref.article:1- M. Linehan and J. S. Walsh. International career versus relationship and child-rearing conflicts; British Journal of Management, Vol. 12, 85–95 (2001) Work–family conflict is experienced when pressures from the roles of work and family are mutually incompatible, such that participation in one role makes it more difficult to participate in the other (Greenhaus and Beutell, 1985). Various studies have shown that women continue to take responsibility for household tasks and childrearing, regardless of how many hours they work outside the home (Hochschild, 1989; Lewis and Cooper, 1987; Pleck, 1985). (ref.article:5-M. Linehan and J. S. Walsh. Work–family conflict; British Journal of Management, Vol. 11, Special Issue, S49–S58 (2000) Working women should receive equal pay for equal work. Management support for working women in balancing responsibilities between family and work for many companies nowadays indicates that they are very supportive. Company should value the work of a female worker equally as that of a male worker and company policies should also be equal for both male and female. A number of senior women felt that organizations viewed the performance of men and women differently. (ref.article:2-Careers of Senior Men and Women. Constraining factors; British Journal of Management, Vol. 19, S141–S149 (2008) "Importance of Mentoring in the Workplace" reveals that the majority of women have a formal or informal mentor-someone who has influenced their personal and professional development and contributed to their career success. Male mentors help women they mentor by providing general business training, leadership opportunities, coaching feedback and advice as well as networking and advancement opportunities. Women also noted that they learn negotiating skills from their male mentors. By contrast, if a mentor is a woman, the most essential contributions include informal fellowship, guidance within the corporation, motivation and encouragement. There are not enough women in senior international managerial positions yet to act as mentors for other women. As a result, female managers are more likely to be mentored by males. The findings establish that the mentor’s gender does not influence the effectiveness of the mentoring relationship. (ref.article:1- M. Linehan and J. S. Walsh. Mentors; British Journal of Management, Vol. 12, 85–95 (2001)

Employees under a female senior manager of a company should follow her instruction and try to appreciate her for her work. The similarities of women’s experiences across industries and occupations have been noted rather than any differences between them. (ref. Women’s success in achieving senior post varies-it is greater in the profession than in the corporate management and there are some evidence that it is greater in female-dominated than male-dominated industries. (ref. A culturally disparate. Differences are always attributed to Wale’s culture. for instance. Nowadays it has been observed that in different organization women are in senior management position and they are doing better than their male counterpart. There is no reason why there should not be at least as many women at the senior level as there are men. fairing less well in professions than their counterparts in England. Tokenism and lack of female role models. Women in our culture are not allowed to work long than men because it is perceived negatively. today's working women still report significant barriers to career advancement. Despite such differences. Employs are in a social-structural framework for analysis to explore comparative statistics. The company should provide the employees with moral encouragement. particularly the legacy of mining and heavy industry and the associated cultural stereotype of the Welsh mam. Linehan and J. organizational and legal mechanisms that encourage or discouraged discrimination. British Journal of Management. Women are still facing challenges when it comes to career opportunities and . economically similar society is used to seek an insight into female progression up the corporate ladder. Vol. In Wales. S. 12. The Editorial Board of The Sociological Review 2000) If female workers feel that they are valued by the company they will be more devoted to their work.article:1-M.The entrenched cultural norms affect the progress of women into and through the ranks of management. the significance of place in explanations of women’s under representation in senior management has largely been ignored. women appear to be particularly disadvantaged. There is also evidence that women movement into senior positions is affected by place. In business. Walsh. Cultural stereotype. there are few women who are role models and who have done exceptionally well. Conclude that cultural differences substantially influence the social. 85–95 (2001) After decades of progress.article:4-Nickie Charles and Charlotte Aull Davies.

Children. Women have to look very hard for advancement opportunities and make it a priority. S141–S149 (2008) Significance of the topic: In the last half of the 20th century labor force participation rate of women is increasing. such that participation in one role makes it more difficult to participate in the other. Work–family conflict is experienced by women worker often when pressures from the roles of work and family are mutually incompatible. Cornelius and D. women are stuck in mid level because of gender . But women have to face lots of difficulties for their movement in the career. It is found from research that majority of women are employed in junior managerial positions. Characteristics of participants.’ All the senior women did talk about seeking challenges. ‘Women look for challenge rather than status. A man is expected to advance. international moves are obvious. Discrimination is one of the main factors for the development of female career in high management. Company and environmental factor plays important role in women’s career development. In the higher management position. women are not always paid on equal basis. be promoted throughout his career. British Journal of Management. Work/life balance is so difficult for women. Skinner. Vol.article:2-N. and the lack of opportunity for personal growth or challenge was identified as an important reason for seeking new opportunities. it will be costly to organizations and will limit the potential supply of managers. But in most of the cases women managers remain concentrated in junior and mid management position and the percentage of women in high management is very low. home responsibilities all seem to be more women's issues. The issues might be found that women are not seen as equal as man in terms of skills. aging parents.advancement. . man's achievement got more exposure than women and opinions of man worker gets more preference. A woman has to prove herself over and over for each upward move. (ref. It is a kept challenge for Human resource management policy to develop effective strategies to overcome discrimination against women otherwise. 19.

Gender construction is embedded in societal and organizational practices and although practices and relations change in different times and in different settings. men and masculine values are dominant (Whitehead.. Mills and Tancred. 1994. managerial). As most managers are men it is important to consider the role of women managers and investigate the construction of women’s identities in male dominated working environments. Mavinet al. these relations are constructed within the particular organizational context and vary across organizations and societies (Tienarietal. However. inequalities are often revealed by numerical discrepancies between men and women in certain positions (e.. However. Recognition and career development is critical aspect for women’s career development. gender relations are often based on asymmetries which reinforce the inequalities between women and men in organizations. in higher education. The construction of identities is seen as a fluid and continuous process of negotiation taking place within the working environment and society in general. Culture in workplace is a big issue for women’s career satisfaction. 1996) has shown the role of gender in organizational functioning and has highlighted the importance of considering whether managers are men or women when understanding organizational behavior. as well as in business. 1992. Munford and Rumball (1999) report that only 7 per cent of universities worldwide are managed by women. considering men as effective mentor are the difficulties in the issue.Getting proper mentor considering gender in Career development is very important. it is likely that organizations remain dominated by men and masculine traditions (Kerfoot and Knights.1997. 1993). Statistics show that men represent the majority of academic staff (in the UK men represent 63 per cent of the academic staff and occupy the most senior academic and managerial positions. Literature review: Gender relations are rooted in organizational life.2002). Regardless of equal opportunities policies and rhetoric of parity and fairness. While the idea of gender neutrality has been abandoned (Calas and Smircich. 2001). Scarcity of women mentor. Gherardi. The sector of higher education is characterized by specific aspects which make it distinguishable from the business world. . 2004). Collinson and Hearn.g. 1992. Research (Alvesson and Billing.

would not be willing to transfer and relocate and are not competent enough. and it is immediately assumed that he is her boss. slowness in career of women also stems from the fact that they typically move into support functions rather than line management. in boardrooms and in general gender-mixed discussions many more times than men. the number of women in senior management in companies are increasing be it the top or middle management Issues: 1. Survey shows that women are equally competitive. the basis for the test is not simply because he is male. Moreover. Important points raised by a women at meetings and are ignored. but when a man then restates it. The true picture is just the opposite. Tested: The typical scenario goes like this: "A woman walks in with her male associate (who happens to report to her). style. The cause could be attributed to the perception that women might not be committed to their careers. and have refused relocation lesser than men (Linda Wirth -2001 pp. how she made it to the top. yet authentic. but usually when a man is tested. everyone pays attention and addresses the issue. which lead to senior positions. Not only that. this is not generally the case. Research continually shows that women are interrupted and/or dismissed in public. 3. etc. Those who have reached these positions are constantly faced by a lot of challenges from the environment.Women around the world are becoming more qualified in terms of both education and experience at work and currently represents more than 40 per cent of the global workforce."Everyone has experienced being "tested". Yet their share of management positions remains unacceptably low. . although miniscule. Different management style: Women are mostly dismissed because of their gender and their different. family as well as their male colleagues. The representation. are committed more than men. Slower career growth: the persistent stereotype of managers being male is a key issue in bringing more gender equality into career paths. with just a tiny proportion succeeding in breaking through the glass ceiling. she have to go through this process of being tested on whether she knows her stuff.104) 2. but even when they figure out that she is the boss. But for a woman. does she have the 'right' experience.

Excluded. Hypothesis 2: There is no significant relationship between family and children and career advancement.4. Hypothesis Building: Hypothesis 1: There is no significant relationship between discrimination and career advancement. and rightly so.the golf. women occupy about 10% of management positions in Europe and women managers remai n concentrated in junior and middle-management positions . Hypothesis 3: There is no significant relationship between culture and career advancement. In recent years. Women feel excluded from these events and find this limits their ability to network and have mentoring opportunities where they could contribute and learn. One of the most significant features of the global labor market in the last of the twentieth century was the increasing labor force participation rate of woman. Hypothesis 4: There is no significant relationship between recognition and company environment factor.harris 1995. Ensuring effectiveness: Any attempt to ignore the differences or "make them go away" is doomed to fail. supportive and aware workplace. ) According to Vinnicombe andColwill (1995). drink at the bar etc. is an approach that allows men and women to maximize their respective strengths in the workplace and to recognize that true competitive advantage lies in an ability to allow those strengths to coexist in a co-operative. What is called for. in particular. there has been a. and all-too-often lost in the debate. Those organizations best able to abandon the "battle of the sexes". avoided: The relationship building meetings are invariably guys stuff. .

Our objective was to find out how the company operates and how women are treated in playing a role in those operations.Conceptual Model: Discrimi nation Company Environme ntal Recognition Family and Children & Career Factors Recognition & Career Advancement Advancemen t Culture Mentors Research Methodology: Primary source of data: Our conducted survey was our primary source of data. Our subject for the interview was the Human Resource manager of Avery Dennison. It was collected by a structured questionnaire Our topic was to determine the position of women in senior management. Secondary source: Personal interview was our secondary source of data. The subjects of our survey were various employees of the company Avery Dennison. .

Management support for working women in balancing responsibilities between family and work for many companies nowadays indicates that they are very supportive.Data collection method: Primary data was collected by using a structured questionnaire. which we found out through regression which shows the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables and correlation to determine the degree of relationship between two variables. Company environmental factors: Working women should receive equal pay for equal work. Family and children: Most of the time it is very difficult for women to maintain family life and work life together. Company should value the work of a female worker equally as that of a male worker and company policies should also be equal for both male and female. Mentors: "Importance of Mentoring in the Workplace" reveals that the majority of women have a formal or informal mentor-someone who has influenced their personal and professional development and contributed to their career success. Dependent and independent variables Discrimination: Efficiency of women to succeed professionally has been acknowledged all over the world. Based on the answers the calculations were made and a report was prepared to determine the position of women in senior management. The employees were informed about our motive to carry out the survey and were asked to answer the questions according to their personal opinions to ensure the collection of unbiased and accurate information. We also conducted a reliability test to verify whether the data is reliable or not. . Nevertheless gender discrimination in the workplace did exist and still continues in one form or the other. Secondary data was collected from an extensive personal interview from the Human Resource The sample size was 100 and the data was then processed though SPSS a computer program for statistical analysis through manager of Avery Dennison. It is found that most of the women hardly manage their family commitment and commitment to their work together.

RFID inlays and tags. retail apparel ticketing and branding systems. Office and Consumer Products and other specialty converting businesses. economically similar society is used to seek an insight into female progression up the corporate ladder.Bangladesh. industrial and durable goods applications. Recognition: If female workers feel that they are valued by the company they will be more devoted to their work. The company is mainly production based and has its City-office at Uday tower. Retail Information Services. The Company's products include pressure-sensitive labeling materials. graphics imaging media. Career advancement: After decades of progress. today's working women still report significant barriers to career advancement. and a variety of specialized labels for automotive. A culturally disparate. office products. The company should provide the employees with moral encouragement. Gulshan 1. specialty tapes. Women are still facing challenges when it comes to career opportunities and advancement. manufactures and sells products through four groups of businesses: Pressure-sensitive Materials.Dhaka EPZ ext area .Gulshan Avenue. About the company Avery Dennison is a recognized industry leader that develops innovative identification and decorative solutions for businesses and consumers worldwide. .no 57.Dhaka 1349 .Dhaka 1212 and the production department is in Plot 167 -169 . Avery Dennison develops.Culture: The entrenched cultural norms affect the progress of women into and through the ranks of management.

Since the sample size was only 100. Table: Reliability Test Result .6.ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY KLASS General manager General Manager Ma MANAG NIPUN Marketing Customer service Human resource department MARIA Global product development Vendor Sales Retail and branding org Manager HAQUE Manager SUBRATA EROSHA ADHIKAR Assistant Manager SYED S AREFIN KUMAR KUNDU MD REFAT ALAM KAVITA ISLAM Assistant Manager About the company Avery Dennison Manager Assistant Manager Assistant Manager Reliability test: Data analysis has been started with the reliable test of the collected data. it was assumed that if the alpha value greater than 0. the data would be treated as the reliable.

After factor analysis reliability test result is: Alpha = 0.695 .8832 0. Company Environmental Factor: Rotated Component Matrix (a) Component -.8593 0.846 .407 .194 -.777 -.877 .SL 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 Dimensions Discrimination Family and Children Company Environment factor Mentors Culture Recognition Career Advancement Alpha Value -0.179 .4.132 2 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Discrimination: Rotated Component Matrix (a) Component 1 Women are paid on an equal basis as men Women are stuck in mid level management because of their gender Men's achievements get better exposure than women Women are seen as equal to men Opinions of male workers are given more preference than of female workers Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.6537 -06650 -0.2321 0.650 .4370 2. A Rotation converged in 3 iterations.5456 Factor analysis: Factor analysis is done for the alpha value which is less than 0.2300 0. 1.022 .

767 3.1 Company policies are equal for both genders of workers Men are offered more facilities than women Most of the companies today including yours.878 .787 .643 .015 .628 -.211 2 -.081 .334 -. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Mentors Component 1 Religion acts as a barrier towards working career Women dont have enough opportunities to socialize with other professionals as men do Working late is perceived more negatively for women than for men The culture of this country acts as a major barrier in women's working career The culture doesnot allow women to do a lot of jobs which men normally do .2331 -. are male dominated and oriented The work of a female worker is valued equally as that of a male worker General attitudes towards women is friendly Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.192 -.890 .730 .931 .392 .501 2 -.221 -. After factor analysis reliability test result is: Alpha = 0. A Rotation converged in 3 iterations.652 .034 -.046 -.166 -.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.334 -.4363 0.221 -. After Factor analysis the reliability tests: Alpha = 0.787 . A Rotation converged in 3 iterations.8593 .211 2 -. Culture: Rotated Component Matrix (a) Component 1 Religion acts as a barrier towards working career Women don’t have enough opportunities to socialize with other professionals as men do Working late is perceived more negatively for women than for men The culture of this country acts as a major barrier in women's working career The culture doesn’t allow women to do a lot of jobs which men normally do Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. After Factor analysis the reliability test: Alpha = .015 .643 . Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.2971 0.2271 4.6537 0.2972 Reliability Test Result After Factor Analysis SL 01 02 03 04 05 06 Dimensions Discrimination Family and Children Company Environment factor Mentors Culture Recognition Alpha Value 0.192 -.4370 0.Component Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.652 .2331 0. A Rotation converged in 3 iterations.730 .628 -.

5456 Correlation is done to analyze the relationship.07 Career Advancement Correlations Matrix 0. .

093 .913 100 -.776 100 -.313(**) .240(*) .232 100 -.776 100 -.121 .607(** ) .224(*) .153 .029 .012 100 .388 100 -.099 100 . (2-tailed) N 1 .098 .250(*) .121 .016 100 1 .001 100 .152 .247 100 Career Recognitio Advancemen n t .168 .913 100 .142 100 -.117 .117 .334 100 . (2-tailed) N Culture Pearson Correlation Sig.011 .001 100 Family and Children .095 100 .166 .049 100 .069 .198(*) .000 100 -.Discrimi nation Discrimina Pearson tion Correlation Sig. 100 -.396(**) .069 .000 100 Company Environment Mentor factor s -. 100 -.232 100 .011 .496 100 .129 100 1 .025 100 -.240(*) .049 100 -.012 100 1 .099 100 .142 100 .247 100 -. (2-tailed) N Career Advancem ent Pearson Correlation Sig.224(*) .000 100 -.166 . 100 .129 100 . 100 Culture -.148 .000 100 -.029 .607(**) . (2-tailed) N Family and Pearson Children Correlation Sig.250(*) .132 100 -.388 100 1 . 100 -.093 .148 .087 . (2-tailed) N Mentors Pearson Correlation Sig.000 100 .095 100 .473(**) .313(**) . (2-tailed) N Company Pearson Enviromen Correlation t factor Sig.098 .496 100 1 .087 .152 .473(**) . 100 .153 .000 100 1 .359 100 -.359 100 -.198(*) .016 100 .025 100 . 100 -.132 100 .334 100 -.168 .396(**) . (2-tailed) N Recognitio Pearson n Correlation Sig.

Analysis of the relationship among diff.240 DF 1 98 99 Mean Square 1.** Correlation is significant at the 0. Dependent Variable: Career Advancement Interpretation: We take a null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between Discrimination and Career Advancement with the alternative that there is relationship.01 level (2-tailed).001(a) a. The relationship between Discrimination & Career Advancement: ANOVA Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares 1. • Correlation is significant at the 0. . Predictors: (Constant).006 . .05 level (2-tailed). Independent Discrimination Family and Children Culture Dependent Career Advancement Recognition 1.674 Sig. Discrimination b. III.234 10. II. variables: The findings are here under as per the relations developed: Table 02: Independent and Dependent variables: SL I.006 9.094 F 10.

2. Dependent Variable: Career Advancement Interpretation: We take a null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between Family and Children & Career Advancement with the alternative that there is relationship. Family and Children b. The relationship between Family and children and Recognition: .000(a) a.In the relationship between Family and Children & Career Advancement it has been seen from ANOVA table that the F value (18.In the relationship between Discrimination and Career Advancement it has been seen from ANOVA table that the F value (10.001) which indicates the very positive relationship between these two variables.606 8. Predictors: (Constant).634 10.227) is greater than the significant value (0. .227 Sig.674) is greater than the significant value (0.088 F 18.000) which indicates the very positive relationship between these two variables.240 DF 1 98 99 Mean Square 1. The relationship between Family and Children & Career Advancement: ANOVA (b) Sum of Model 1 Regression Residual Total Squares 1. .606 .

133 F .099a a.160 df 1 98 99 Mean Square . Culture b Dependent Variable: Career Advancement .140 10.363 . Dependent Variable: Recognition 5. . The relationship between Discrimination and Recognition: ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares .060 Model 1 df 1 98 99 Mean Square . Dependent Variable: Recognition 4.388(a) 13.288 12.363 12.247(a) 10.357 Sig. Discrimination b. Family and Children b.100 .288 . The relationship between Culture and Recognition: ANOVA(b) Sum of Squares Regressio n Residual Total .140 .ANOVAb Model 1 Regression Residual Total Sum of Squares .752 Sig. Predictors: (Constant).103 F 1.197 Sig.131 F 2.142a a.797 13. .240 a Predictors: (Constant).100 13.781 Sig.100 Model 1 df 1 98 99 Mean Square . The relationship between Culture and Career Advancement: ANOVA(b) Sum of Squares Regressio n Residual Total . Culture b Dependent Variable: Recognition 6. .872 13.160 a Predictors: (Constant). Predictors: (Constant).131 F 2. .160 df 1 98 99 Mean Square .

The company should take risks with women and offer them visible 'stretch' roles The company should implement succession planning with a focus on women Help employees balance work and personal responsibilities Conclusion: Avery Dennison is a production based company and the production department is mainly male-dominated. So the few women who are working in the production department create an uncomfortable work environment. • Behavioural expectations regarding women's role in the family represent a very real obstacle to their corporate upward mobility. Thus the company should provide additional facilities like child care services etc to encourage women to work. • • The company should consider the concerns and responsibilities of women before judging their performance. give them adequate training so that they are encouraged to break the glass. • The company should motivate potential female employees. so the company can take necessary actions to improve that through frequently communicating with the women employees. for both the men and women. providing them more facilities to change their mind set.ceiling and move to top positions in the company. From the survey we deduce that almost 30% of women think that discrimination still exists. The majority of the burden of child rearing still is placed on mothers. imposing additional responsibility on a career woman that is often not faced by a man.Implication: • The company should have a complaint box where the employees can let the company know about any problem they are facing. and due to this the . • • • • The company should ensure that women have suitable mentors in order to encourage them to reach top positions. Any problem should be taken care of thoroughly and solved.

This explains the variation of data we got in our questionnaires and in the results of our analysis. Walsh Department of Adult and Continuing Education. the current General Manager of Avery Dennison.women may think they are discriminated. There is a possibility that the new employees have not face any discrimination after it has been bought by Klass. the new general manager. Cork and Department of Management and Marketing.ie(linehan). References: Key Issues in the Senior Female International Career Move: A Qualitative Study in a European Context Margaret Linehan and James S. the HR manager. Cork Institute of Technology. jw@ucc. Moreover we have observed that the employees who work in the company are either new or too young. In the interview with Maria Haque. Ireland Email: mlinehan@cit. she informed us that issues regarding discrimination existed in the company when she first joined the company 8 years back. This may make them biased while filling out the questionnaire as they may not want to provide any negative information about their company.ie (*Walsh) The Careers of Senior Men and Women – A Capabilities Theory Perspective . However looking at the reliability test we deduce that most of the data is not reliable through which we can assume that women in senior management are still held back and are considered not equal to men and the company regardless of all the efforts made tried to encourage women. Cork. having a maximum 5 years work experience. On the other hand there are old and experienced workers having a work experience of 8-10 years who has been with the company for a long time and have seen the inequalities between men and women in their work life with this company. strict rules and policies were developed and strictly followed thus reducing discrimination against women to a significant level. But when it was bought by the Klass. University College.

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