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Jose Camacho 11-5-12 Period 2 Ionic vs.

Covalent Bonding Lab Investigation Introduction: Atoms are never found by themselves,they are usually bonded to another atom in either an ionic or covalent bond. This is because ionic or covalent bonds need the help with a full octet or full shell to make the atom stable. The only way that the atom would have a full octet is by the cation sharing the valence electron or transfer a valence electron to an anion. Which cations are usually a conduct electricity very well while an anion has a weak conduction but it does have a high electrostatic attraction to cations.

Hypothesis: Table 1: The expected results of testing five different chemical substances Compound to Chemical Formula Hypothesis 1:Ionic Hypothesis 2: Hypothesis 3: Will or Covalent High or Low it Conduct be Tested
Distilled (pure)Water Sodium Chloride Sucrose(sugar) Dextrose Sodium Sulfate H2O NaCl C12H22O11 C6H12O6 NaSO4 Covalent Ionic Covalent Covalent Ionic Melting Point ? Low High Low Low High Electricity Yes Yes No No Yes

Procedure: Part I. Melting Point and Strength of Bonds 1. Fold aluminum foil into a square and neatly fit on the ring-stance. Place a small amount of each of the 4 compounds on the foil 2. Carefully place the tray on the ring stand and heat with the Bunsen Burner (no longer than 1-2min)

3. Immediately begin to record your observation, keep track of the order in which the substance melts and which has the weakest melting point 4. Allow the square of foil to cool and then wash it off into the sink. Part II. Electrical Conductivity 1. Test the dry compound for conductivity with the tester and record your observation 2. Add enough drops of distilled water to the well so that it can dissolve the compound as best as you can 3. Test the solution for conductivity with the tester again and make sure to wash the conductive tester it with distilled water after every use 4. Results:
Name/Chemical Formula: Part I: Melting Point Part II: Conducted Final Conclusion: Ionic (1-5;High,Med. or Electricity? (Yes/No) or Covalent Bond Low) Dry Dissolve 1=Lowest 5=Highest 2=Low 3=Medium 4=High N/A No No No No No Yes No No Yes Covalent Ionic Covalent Covalent Ionic

Repeat for all samples

Distilled (pure) water/ h2o Sodium Chloride/NaCl Sucrose(sugar)/C12H22 O11 Dextrose/ C6H12O6 Sodium sulfate/NaSO4

Conclusion: After this lab experiment, it was concluded that conductive electricity was ionic compound, while non conductive were covalent compounds. All of the initial hypothesis

were correct except one thing and that was water which was not an ionic compound but it was a covalent compound. From the results the ionic compound were those that conducted electricity in after and had high melting points. However the covenant compounds had low melting points because they had a weak bond structure. Which meant that they could not conduct electricity and their structure was made up of nonmetals and that means that it will tend to break easily. Ionic bonds are formed from metal cations and non-metals anions so when they dissolve in water, electricity can flow through the solution. Additionally Ionic bonds are stronger sine they have a medium strong structure which lets it have a higher melting point then covalent bond. While covalent bond are formed with anions because it just has a just non-metal in it the electricity has no where o collect to conduct the electricity.