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LENGUA INGLESA TEORA Y PRCTICA

Pedro Civera Coloma

NDICE
Conceptos gramaticales To be To have To do Pronombres y adjetivos demostrativos Haber impersonal Some, any, no y sus compuestos Pronombres y particulas interrogativas Contables e incontables El gnero El plural Formacin de palabras compuestas Funciones del nombre La posesin El artculo indeterminado El articulo determinado Both, neither, either Adjetivos La comparacin Preposiciones Adverbios Yet, still, already, during y ago El imperativo El presente simple Be going to El presente continuo El pasado simple El pasado continuo El presente perfecto El presente perfecto continuo El pasado perfecto El pasado perfecto continuo El futuro simple El futuro continuo El futuro perfecto El condicional simple El condicional perfecto Cuadro resumen de los tiempos Tipos de oraciones Las oraciones de relativo
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Las conjunciones Los verbos modales Can May, might Must Have to Should, ought to Will, would, shall Cuadro resumen de los verbos modales Coletilllas Say y tell Make y do Las exclamaciones Las oraciones condicionales La voz pasiva El estilo indirecto El gerundio El infinitivo Estructuras de inters El causativo have Verbos con preposicin Verbos y adjetivos con preposicin Contracciones Cambios ortogrficos Verbos irregulares Conectores Falsos amigos Expresiones para la comunicacin oral Expresiones para la comunicacin oral Saludos y felicitaciones. Para dirigirse a un desconocido. Presentaciones Cuando no entendemos algo bien Para preguntar la hora Hablando por telfono Para agradecer algo Expresiones de cortesa Das de la semana Das de fiesta Meses del ao Estaciones Puntos cardinales
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Los colores Adjetivos Signos del zodiaco La hora Nmeros cardinales Los nmeros ordinales Equivalencia de pesos y medidas Paises y nacionalidades La familia Profesiones La casa La cocina El cuarto de bao El dormitorio El salon Muebles La ciudad Partes del cuerpo Comida En la mesa Sabores Bebidas Frutas y verduras Postres Pescados Carnes Frutos secos Medios de transporte Actividades diarias Actividades de tiempo libre Ropa Complementos y joyeria Tejidos y materiales Adjectivos para la descripcion Adjetivos para describir el caracter La escuela La oficina Deportes Dolencias Tareas domesticas Tiempo atmosferico Animales
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Arboles, flores y plantas Politica Religion Banco Smiles Refranes Expresiones idiomticas Trabalenguas Citas Abreviaturas Oraciones y villancicos

Paises y nacionalidades Adjectivos para la descripcin Smiles Refranes Expresiones idiomticas Trabalenguas Citas Abreviaturas Oraciones y villancicos

CONCEPTOS GRAMATICALES
Para poder dominar una lengua extranjera es fundamental que estemos familiarizados con la terminologa gramatical de la Lengua Espaola, que como todas las lenguas, est compuesta por un conjunto de signos que tienen sus propias reglas. Facultad que nos permite comunicarnos. Est compuesta por signos y reglas. Uso que hacen los individuos de la lengua.

Lenguaje.

Lengua. Habla.

Norma.

Establece las reglas de uso.

El lenguaje tiene varias funciones:

FUNCIONES DEL LENGUAJE


Representativa Expresiva Apelativa Potica Se transmite algo objetivo. Se transmite algo subjetivo Intent a provocar una reaccin En ella se usan recursos lingsticos y literarios que cambian el sentido normal del mensaje.

CATEGORAS GRAMATICALES DEL ESPAOL


Partes variables Sustantivo. Adjetivo. Artculo. Pronombre.
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Partes invariables

Sujeto. Atributo.

Complemento directo. Complemento indirecto. Complemento circunstancial.

Verbo Adverbio. Preposicin. Conjuncin Para conocerlo preguntamos al verbo quin? Aparece con verbos copulativo (ser, estar, etc) se conce preguntado qu es? Se conoce preguntando qu es lo que? A quin? o para quin? Modo: cmo? Lugar: dnde? Tiempo: cundo? En oraciones pasivas. Fue escrito por l.

Complemento agente.

Es bueno que estemos conozcamos el significado de los siguientes trminos: Lexema. Morfema. Fontica. Fonologa. Lexicologa. Antes se le denominaba raz. Nos informa del genero, nmero, etc. Estudia los sonidos. Estudia los fonemas. Estudia el lxico o vocabulario de una lengua. Es la unidad ms pequea. La lengua espaola tienen 24: cinco vocales y diecinueve consonantes Oclusivas. Fricativas. Africadas. Lquidas. Bilabiales.
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Fonema.

Divisin de las consonantes segn el modo de articulacin.

Divisin de las consonantes segn

el lugar de articulacin.

Labiodentales. Linguodentales. Linguointerdentales. Linguoalveolares. Linguopalatales. Linguovelares. Sonoras. Sordas. Estudia la forma de las palabras. Estudia el significado de las palabras. Unidad lingstica que se aade al lexema o raz para formar una palabra.

Segn su sonoridad se clasifican en. Morfologa. Semntica. Morfema.

Sintaxis.

Parte de la gramtica que se ocupa de las reglas mediante las cuales se combinan las unidades lingsticas para formar la oracin.

Sintagma.

Es una o ms palabras relacionadas entre s.

Oracin.

Unidad lingstica mnima, constituida por dos sintagmas: el nominal y el verbal que realizan la funcin de sujeto y predicado. Es la persona u objeto del que se dice algo. Expresa todo lo que se dice del sujeto. Tiene como ncleo del predicado un solo verbo.

Sujeto.

Predicado. Oracin simple.

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Sustantivo. Verbo.

Se refiere a nombres, Pedro come pan. animales, cosas, etc. Indican las acciones que Comer, Bailar, Ir. ealzan los sujetos. Califica al nombre. Sustituye al nombre. Inma es rubia. Pepe es mi amigo, l nunca me falla. Ella come mucho. Habla ingls y francs.

Adjetivo. Pronombre.

Adverbio. Conjuncin.

Modifica al verbo. Une oraciones y palabras. Pueden ser coordinadas y subordinadas. Matiza al nombre.

Determinante.

Mi hermana. Un coche. Vive en Sax. El libro es til.

Preposicion. Artculo

Relaciona palabras. Puede ser determinado o indeterminado: El, la, los, las Un, una, unos, unas

Las oraciones pueden tener las siguientes partes:

Sujeto.

Es quien realiza la Yo como a las 2. accin. Se conoce preguntando quin? al verbo. Indica lo que hace el Ella estudia mucho. sujeto. Se conoce preguntando Ellos comen bocadillos. al verbo qu es lo qu?

Verbo Complemento directo.

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Complemento Indirecto. Se conoce preguntando Las cartas son para al verbo a quin o para Mara. quin ? Complemento Circunstancial de tiempo. Se conoce preguntando Ayer vi a Juan. al verbo cundo?

Complemento Se conoce preguntando Me duele la cabeza Circunstancial de modo. al verbo cmo? terriblemente. Complemento circunstancial de lugar. Locuciones adverbiales. Se conoce preguntando Se caso en Monvar. al verbo dnde? Pueden aparacer al principio, en medio o al final de la frase. La vi esta maana. Esta maana la vi.

Atributo.

Acompaa al verbo ser, Ella es guapa. estar y algunos otros como existir, parecer. Hay tres en singular: yo, t, l, ella y ello. Tres en plural: nosotros, vosotros y ellos. Puede ser masculino, femenino o neutro. Puede ser singular o plural. Pueden ser: posesivos, demostrativos, numerales, cardinales, partitivos, indefinidos . Pueden ser determinados o indeterminados l es Pepe. Nosotros somos de Elda Ellos son altos. Perico es alto. Gloria es alta. Tengo un coche. Ellos tienen dos coches. Mi casa. Algunas personas Esta habitacin.

Persona.

Genero.

Nmero.

Determinantes.

Artculo.

El libro es bueno. Un libro es un buen regalo.

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Pronombres.

Pueden ser personales, demostrativos, posesivos, relativos, interrogtivos, numerales, indefinidos. Puede llevar complemento directo

La mias es rpida. rpida. Quin vive aqu? Algunos vendrn luego. Compro el pan cada da

Verbo transitivo.

Verbo intransitivo.

No llevan complemento Viven en Aspe. directo. Forma el pasado y el participio aadiendo la misma desinencia. En ingls -ed. Forma el pasado y el participio pasado de otra forma. To play, played, played.

Verbo regular.

Verbo irregular.

Go, went, gone.

Infinitivo.

Es la forma verbal Cantar, comer, reir. acabada en en ar, - To come, to play er, -ir. Must, can. En ingls suelen llevar la partcula to. En ingls acaba en ing. Playing, singing.

Participio de presente.

Participio de pasado.

En castellano acaba en -ado -ido. Es una caracteristica del verbo. Puede ser: indicativo, subjuntivo, imperativo y condicional. Situa temporalmenta la accin. Presente,

Comido, contado.

Modo.

Tiempo.

Yo como. To com.

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pasado y futuro. Pueden Yo comer ser simples, continuos y Yo he comido. perfectos. Voz. Existen dos: activa y pasiva. Ernesto vende piel Las pieles son vendidas por Ernesto.

Afirmativas. Negativas. Interrogativas. Interrogativa negativa. Transitiva. Intransitiva. Reflexiva. Reciproca. Impersonal. Enunciativa. Interrogativa. Exclamativa. Imperativa. Desiderativa.

Yo vivo en Elda. No como carne roja. Eres de Villena? No eres t la prima de Olga? Pepe come carne. Ellos viven en Logroo Ella se lava sola. Pepe y Raquel se odian. Llueve mucho en Letonia. Tengo mucho hambre Nunca bebo caf. Cunto vale el disco? Qu bonito! Cllate ya! Ojal llueva maana.

Tipos de oraciones simples Atributivas Expresan cualidades del sujeto, y suelen usar los verbos ser y estar.

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Predicativas

Expresan acciones con verbos predicativos. Pueden ser activas y pasivas. Llevan complemento directo: Yo como bocadillos de calamares. No tienen complemento directo. El sujeto realiza y recibe la accin. Los sujetos realizan y reciben la accin mutuamente: Ellos se miran. Llevan sujeto gramatical. Carecen de sujeto. Hace sol. El sujeto recibe la accin verbal y el verbo est en forma pasiva. Tienen el sujeto en voz activa: Se venden pollos de campo. ivas o Pueden ser afirmativas o negativas. Se utilizan para preguntar. Expresan emociones. Expresan mandatos y ruegos. Expresan deseos. Indican posibilidades o probabilidades.

Transitivas

Intransitivas Reflexivas Recprocas

Personales Impersonales Pasivas Pasivas reflejas Enunciativas Interrogativas Exclamativas Imperativas Desiderativas Dubitativas

COORDINADAS
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Copulativas. Adversativas. Disyuntivas.

Estudia y trabaja. Estudia mucho sin embargo no aprueba. Entra o sal.

SUBORDINADAS
Temporales. Modales. Consecutivas. Mientras caminabamos ibamos cantando. Debes hacerlo como dice la guia. Ha aprobado, por lo tanto se matricular en derecho. Lo har si no te quejas ms. Puesto que lo sabe todo que conteste Manuel. Iremos para que te revisen la vista. Aunque no me gusta lo har.

Condicionales. Causales. Finales. Concesivas.

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TO BE
El verbo to be significa ser o estar. Comparte con to do y to have la caractereristica de ayudar a formar otros tiempos verbales, por eso se le denomina verbo auxiliar. Puede contraer con sujetos, demostrativos y tambin con: who, where, how, etc. Peters here. Pedro est aqu. Thats Manoli. Esa es Manoli. Whos that girl? Quin es esa chica?

Im Peter. Yo soy Pedro.

Las contracciones se suelen usar en las conversaciones. Interviene en la formacin de los tiempos continuos o progresivos. Las formas negativas las hace aadiendo not y las interrogativas por medio de la inversin, es decir, poniendo primero el verbo y luego el sujeto. Esta estructura la comparte con el verbo to havecuano indica posesin y con los verbos modales.

PRESENTE
I am/I'm. Yo soy o yo estoy. You are/you're. He is/he's. She is/she's It is/it's. We are/we're. You are/you're. They are/they're.

PASADO
I was. Yo era o yo estaba. You were. He was. She was. It was. We were. You were. They were.

FUTURO
I will/ shall be. Yo ser o yo estar. You will be. He will be. She will be. It will be. We will/ shall be. You will be. They will be.

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Are not contrae en arent. Was not contrae wasnt Is not contrae en isnt. Were not contrae werent

en La contraccin es ll. Will not contrae en wont. en Shall not contrae en shant.

Are you Elda?

from He is not from Elche

Were they in the cinema?

Eres de Elda?

l no es de Elche.

Estaban ellos en el cine?

PRINCIPALES USOS
Para preguntar la edad. How old are you? Qu edad tienes? I am forty. Tengo cuarenta aos. Indicar la profesin. I am a teacher. Soy profesor. He is a socialist. El es socialista. He is a catholic. El es catlico. I am writing with a computer. Estoy escribiendo con un ordenador. I was swimming yesterday. Estuve nadando ayer. I will be walking on the beach. Estar caminando por la playa. La formacin de la voz pasiva. The book was written by Emilio. Este libro lo escribi Emilio.
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La ideologa.

El credo religioso.

Formar los tiempos continuos.

Este libro fue escrito por Emilio. Para medidas. I am six feet tall. Mido seis pies. How big is the town? Cmo es de grande el pueblo? It is quite big. Es bastante grande. How wide is the river Vinalop? Qu anchura tiene el ro Vinalop? It is 200 metres wide. Tiene 200 metros de ancho. How high is Boln? Qu altura tiene Boln? It is nearly 1.000 metres high. Tiene casi 1.000 metros de altura. How small is an atom? Cmo es un tomo de pequeo? It is very small Es muy pequeo. Indica tallas. I am size 8. Gasto la talla 8 I am happy and you are right. Yo estoy contento y t tienes razn. Wheres the boy? Dnde est el nio? Whens your birthday? Cundo es tu cumpleaos? I am right. Tengo razn. I am cold.
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Con adjetivos.

Unido a: Where (Dnde?) What (Qu?) Who (Quin?) Why, (Por qu?) etc, Con ciertas expresiones.

Tengo fro. Contrae con demostrativos y adverbios. Thats right. As es. Hows that? Cmo es eso?

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1) I ......................sure I will. a - Am b - Are c - Is 2) I ................a teacher. a - Am b - Is c - Are 3) Camara.......in Elda. a - Is b - Are c - Am 4) Where...........you from? a - Is b - Are c - Am 5) How old ........you? a - Is b - Are c - Am 6) It.........hot today. a - Is b - Am c - Are 7) It.......a telephone. a - Am b - Are c - Is 8) They........students. a - Is b - Am c - Are 9) This dog.......................white. a - Am b - Is c - Are 10) The houses.........old. a - Am b - Is c - Are 11) ........these books interesting?
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a - Is b - Are c - Am

12) What........those people doing? a - Is b - Am c - Are 13) The baby.......eating the food. a - Am b - Is c - Are 14) The window........open. a - Am b - Is c - Are 15) Cats.........black or white. a - Is b - Are c - Am 16) Don't .............cheeky. a - Be b - Have c - Do 17) How old are you? I................ a - Have 20 years b - Am 20 years c - Have 20 years 18) That is Mr. Pedro Civera. How .................he? a - Old is b - Many years is c - Many years has 19) He ............in Madrid last week. a - Was b - Were c - Be 20) ......they in the same class as you at Azorn High School? a - Was b - Were c - Be

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21) Yes, they........interesting books. a - Is b - Are c - Am 22) Manolo.......a boy. a - Am b - Is c - Are 23) I...........a teacher. a - Is b - Am c - Are 24) Manuela.......tall. a - Am b - Are c - Is 25) The tables........not small. a - Is b - Am c - Are 26) ........the Plaza Mayor very big? a - Am b - Is c - Are 27) You.........the limit. a - Are b - Is c - Am 28) I ....................tall. a - Is b - Am c - Are 29) My friends..........very nice. a - Am b - Is c - Are 30) Horacio ......in Elche. a - Am b - Is c - Are

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31) Juan Carlos and Clemente........friends. a - Am b - Is c - Are 32) She.........36 years old. a - Are b - Is c - Am 33) My sister.......happy. a - Am b - Is c - Are 34) What......your name? a - Is b - Am c - Are 35) How.............you? a - Am b - Is c - Are 36) Elda........in Alicante. a - Is b - Are c - Am 37) My name........Pedro. a - Am b - Is c - Are 38) I.........in the classroom. a - Am b - Is c - Are 39) Jose Prez ....................a mechanic. a - Is b - Are c - Am 40) My mother ..................very good. a - Is b - Am c - Are 41) You.....................tall.
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a - Is b - Are c - Am

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Soluciones 1. A 11. B 21. B 31. C 41. B 2. A 12. C 22. B 32. B 3. A 13. B 23. B 33. B 4. B 14. B 24. C 34. A 5. B 15. B 25. C 35. C 6. A 16. A 26. B 36. A 7. C 17. B 27. A 37. B 8. C 18. A 28. B 38. A 9. B 19. A 29. C 39. A 10. C 20. B 30. B 40. A

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TO HAVE
Se traduce por tener. Puede ir acompaado de la partcula got. No se produce alteracin del significado si aparece o no, pero cuando aparece el verbo puede ir contraido. Tampoco se usa en las respuestas breves.

PRESENTE
I have/l've. To tengo. You have/you've. He has/he's. She has/she's. It has/it's. We have/we've. You have/you've. They have/they've. Have + not contrae en havent. Has + not contrae en hasnt. I have a car. Tengo un coche. I have got a car. Tengo un coche.

PASADO
I had. Yo tuve o yo tena. You had. He had. She had. It had. We had. You had. They had. Had + not contrae en hadnt.

FUTURO
I will have. Yo tendr. You will have. He will have. She will have. It will have. We will have. You will have. They will have.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Indicar posesin. I have a white car. Tengo un coche blanco. I have got a white car.
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Tengo un coche blanco. Puede indicar otro tipo de actividades. I have breakfast at 7:45. Ingest in de alimentos tanto slidos Desayuno a las 7:45. como lquidos. I have a drink on Friday. Me tomo una copa los viernes. Otros. I have a bath and my wife has a shower. Yo me bao y mi mujer se ducha. We have a walk on Sunday. Damos un paseo los domingos. We had a good time there. Lo pasamos muy bien all. Construccin de tiempos perfectos. I have been in New York. He estado en Nueva York. I have had a headache. He tenido un dolor de cabeza. I will have gone to Madrid. Habr ido a Madrid. Obligacin. I have to go to Alicante tomorrow. Tengo que ir a Alicante maana.

Combinado con better indica consejo. You had better buy a new pair of shoes. Sera mejor que te comprases un par de La contraccin es Youd better. zapatos. La construccin causativo have, se Im going to have my hair cut. utiliza cuando alguien hace algn Me voy a cortar el pelo. servicio para nosotros. Con el significado de tener puede tener dos modos de hacer la forma interrogativa. La segunda es ms usada en ingls americano. Have you got a car? Tienes un coche? Do you have a car?
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Tienes un coche? Utiliza de igual modo do para hacer la interrogativa cuando hace referencia a usos idiomticos.

Did you have a bath? Te baaste?

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1) I..........a white car. a - Have b - Has c - Is 2) Mary.........a German boyfriend. a - Has b - Have c - Are 3) We .....................a nice park near Sagasta Sqaure. a - Has b - Have c - Is 4) My flat.......................seven rooms. a - Has b - Have c - Having 5) My sister ...................a white car. a - Has b - Have c - Haveen 6) Pepita ........three daughters. a - Has b - Haave c - Having 7) My mother .......a lot of pictures. a - Have b - Has c - Having 8) Susana.......two cars. a - Is b - Have c - Has 9) Mr and Mrs Garca ........a house on the beach. a - Has b - Have c - Haveing 10) You..................two dictionaries. a - Has b - Have c - Jaf 11) My sister.....a new TV set and a DVD player.
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a - Has b - Have c - Having 12) Elda......................six parks. a - Have b - Has c - Having 13) ......................she got a boyfriend? a - Has b - Have c - To have 14) We ......................three cinemas in Plaza Mayor. a - Has b - Have c - Haven 15) Manuela ..............a cat. a - Have b - Has c - Having 16) I........................to go to Madrid last month. a - Have b - Had c - Must 17) Hey...........a look, Rocio Jurado is there with her husband. a - Have b - Take c - Put 18) I'd rather ..............paella than gazpachos. a - Have b - Has c - Had 19) "Do you have " a car and "Have you got a car " are: a - The same b - Not the same c - It depends 20) I ................................a headache. a - Has b - Have c - Is 21) She.................got a cold.

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a - Is b - Have c - Has

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Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. C 2. A 12. B 3. B 13. A 4. A 14. B 5. A 15. B 6. A 16. B 7. B 17. A 8. C 18. A 9. B 19. A 10. B 20. B

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TO DO
Se traduce por hacer. En presente tiene dos formas, do y does, esta ltima se usa en la Tercera Persona del Singular (He, she, it). La forma del pasado es did. Todas se usan como auxiliares para la forma interrogativa y la negativa del presente y del pasado simple de los verbos no modales. Recuerda que siempre que aparezcan, el verbo ir en infinitivo.

PRESENTE
I do. Yo hago. You do. He does. She does. It does. We do. You do. They do.

PASADO
I did. Yo hice. You did. He did. She did. It did. We did. You did. They did.

FUTURO
I will do. Yo har. You will do. He will do. She will do. It will do. We will do. You will do. They will do. Will not do contrae en wont do.

Do not contrae en dont. Did not contrae en didnt. Does not contrae en doesnt.

PRESENTE
Construir las formas negativas. He doesnt eat meat. No come carne. I dont want to go to the cinema. No quiero ir al cine. Construir las formas Do you love her?

PASADO
I didnt go to cinema. Yo no fui al cine. the

Did you go to England?


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interrogativas.

La quieres?

Fuiste a Inglaterra?

Does he speak Valenciano? Habla valenciano? Tiene tambin un uso He does love running. Le encanta correr. enftico.

He did say what he wanted to say. Dijo lo que quera decir.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Otros usos idiomticos. I did the shopping in Carrefour. Hice la compra en Carrefour. I do the washing up every night. Friego los platos cada noche. I never do the cleaning. Nunca hago la limpieza. Sometimes I do the cooking. A veces cocino. She hates doing the ironing. Ella odia planchar. Con la expresin Yo tambin. -I like Mara Callas. Me gusta Mara Callas. -So do I. Y a m tambin. Con la expresin Yo tampoco. I dont smoke. Yo no fumo. Neither do I. Yo tampoco.

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LOS PRONOMBRES Y ADJETIVOS


En ingls se hace necesario usar los pronombres personales, ya que de no hacerlo y usar slo la forma verbal existira ambigedad. En el ejemplo: Go to London, no sabramos quin va, podra ser yo, t, nosotros, nosotras, vosotros, vosotras, ellos o ellas. En castellano no pasa lo mismo. Si decimos Vamos a Alicante, las desinencias verbales nos sacan de dudas. Est claro que somos nosotros.
PRONOMBRES PERSONALES COMPLEMENTO ADJETIVOS POSESIVOS PRONOMBRES POSESIVOS PRONOMBRES REFLEXIVOS

PRONOMBRES PERSONALES SUJETO

I . Yo. You . T. He. l.

Me. A m, me. You. A ti, te. Him. A l, le.

My. Mi. Your. Tu.

Mine. El mo. Yours. El tuyo.

Myself. Me. Yourself. Te. Himself. Se. Herself. Se. Itself. Se. Ourselves. Nos.

His. Su de l. His. El suyo. (de l). She. Ella. Her. A ella, le. Her. Su de Hers. El suyo. ella. (de ella). It. Ello. It. A ello, le. It. Su de ello. Its. El suyo. (de ello). We. Nosotros o Us. A nosotros, a Our. Ours. El Nuestro, nosostras. nosotras, nos. nuestro. nuestra. You .Vosotros You. A vosotros, Your. Yours. El Vuestro, o vosotras. a vosotras, os. vuestro. vuestra. They. Ellos o ellas. Them. A ellos, a ellas, les. Their. Su de ellos, su de ellas. Theirs. El suyo.

Yourselves. Os.

Themselves. Se.

Los pronombres personales pueden funcionar dentro de la frase como sujetos o complementos

SUJETO
Ella es alta.

COMPLEMENTO
Dale esto a ella.

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You are a teacher.

This is for you.

I siempre se escribe con mayscula. You se puede traducir por T, Vd, vosotros, vosotras y Vds. You e it tienen la misma forma como sujetos que como complementos.

You are young. T eres joven. I love you. Te quiero. No utilizan preposicin delante del objeto indirecto, pero s, si sigue al Objeto Directo.

She gave me a kiss. Ella me dio un beso. She gave a kiss to me. Ella me dio un beso a m. El complemento Indirecto sin t o se coloca delante del Complemento Directo

I gave Sarah a kiss. Yo le di a Sara un beso. El Complemento indirecto con t o se coloca detrs del Complemento Directo

I gave a kiss to Inma. Le di un beso a Inma. It se usa generalmente para cosas y a veces tambin para bebs.

Look at the baby, it is smiling. Mira al bebe, est sonriendo. La diferencia entre un adjetivo y un pronombre posesivo es que el adjetivo acompaa al nombre y el pronombre lo substituye.

ADJETIVO

PRONOMBRE
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Mi casa es grande. My house is big.

La ma tambin. Mine is also big.

Los pronombres reflexivos indican:

Acciones que recaen sobre el mismo He washes himself every morning. Se lava cada maana. sujeto.

Enfatizan.

He himself can go. l puede ir solo.

Pueden ir precedidos de by, en cuyo I went to Madrid by myself. Fui yo solo a Madrid. caso significan yo solo, t solo..

Each other. El uno al otro

They love each other. Se quieren. They gave presents one another. Se hacen regalos. She is the prettiest one. Ella es la ms guapa. I was the second one in the race Fui el segundo en la carrera.

One Another. A todos

One.

38

ADJETIVOS Y PRONOMBRES DEMOSTRATIVOS


SINGULAR
THlS este, esta, esto.

PLURAL
THESE estos, estas.

THAT ese, esa, eso, aquel, aquella, THOSE esos, esas, aquellos, aquellas. aquello.

Como adjetivos concuerdan con el nombre.

This man is my teacher of English. Este hombre es mi profesor de ingls. That woman is my wife. Esa mujer es mi esposa. These books are interesting. Estos libros son interesantes. Those girls are from Italy. Aquellas chicas son de Italia. Se usan telfono. cuando hablamos por This is Peter. ste es Pedro. Thats right. Es correcto. This is Mary, my friend sta es Mara, mi amiga.

En ciertas expresiones.

En presentaciones

39

1) Let me introduce.......... a - Me b - Myself c - Mine 2) I hope you enjoy..........stay. a - You b - Your c - Yourself 3) .......am sorry. a-I b - Me c - My 4) I will show .........the house. a - Yours b - Your c - You 5) What's............name? a - You b - Your c - Yours 6) What is...........motto? a - Your b - You c - Yours 7) Peter and Mary have ................house in Villajoyosa. a - Their b - They c - Them 8) Sara is very happy with .........new doll. a - She b - Her c - Hers 9) Oscar is at home playing with...............toys. a - His b - He c - Him 10) Carlos is in Elche. .............works there in a shoe factory. a - Him b - He c - His 11) ..................says that Isabel is her best friend.
40

a - She b - Her c - Hers 12) Felipe is very proud of ..................new car. a - Him b - His c - He 13) Pilar and Paco are paying for...................new house. a - Them b - Their c - They 14) Barbie has ...........hair blonde. a - Her b - She c - Hem 15) The door is open because...............is very hot. a - It b - Its c - Itt 16) .....................play tennis with their sons. a - They b - Them c - Theirs 17) The girls are playing with ..................dolls. a - Them b - Their c - They 18) Mara is pretty and..............is also very tall and slim. a - She b - Her c - Hers 19) ...............doesn't like writing with a fountain pen. a - He b - She c - Me 20) ...............always play football in Castelar Square. a - Them b - Theirs c - They 21) Pepe is poor but he says that...............is happy. a - He
41

b - Him c - Hers 22) The computer is old...........was bought in 1980. a - It b - Its c - Him 23) My sister is working with ..................new computer. a - Her b - His c - She 24) Excuse....... a - Me b - My c - Mine 25) I am looking at.......... a - Your b - You c-I 26) Pleased to meet ............ a - Yours b - Us c - You 27) How do ............do? a - You b - Yours c - Him 28) Help .............., Pepe. a - You b - Yourself c - Yours 29) Here ...........are. a - We b - Us c - Our 30) Shut up and mind your ........business. a - Our b - Ours c - Own 31) ................Goodness. a - My b - Me
42

c-I 32) ...........sounds great. a-I b - That c - Me 33) Give..........a ring when you get home please. a - Mine b - Me c - My 34) Didn't .............say you wanted to come with us? a - Yours b - Us c - You 35) Thank ......very much. a - You b - Yours c - Youm 36) Please give ............a hand. a - Us b - We c - Our 37) Give.............regards to your family. a - Me b - My c-I 38) Let ........take a photograph of you. a - Me b - My c - Us 39) Let ...........introduce myself. a - Me b-I c - My 40) I like............ a - She b - Her c - Hem 41) I play football with......... a - He b - Him c - His
43

42) The book is............ a - My b - Mine c - Me 43) She is ..................secretary. a - Me b - My c - Mine 44) I am................father. a - He b - His c - Him 45) Inmita is ..................daughter. a - Me b - My c - Mine 46) The dictionary is............ a - Me b - My c - Mine 47) The umbrella is.......... a - He b - Her c - Hers 48) He is..................teacher. a - Our b - We c - Us 49) .........live in Elda. a - Us b - We c - Our 50) If you work for......you will not have to suffer a boss. a - You b - Yours c - Yourself 51) Many people nowadays live by....... a - Them b - Themselves c - Their

44

52) We enjoyed ..........in our honeymoon. a - Us b - Ours c - Ourselves 53) Help................Feel at home. a - Yourself b - You c - Yours 54) The keys on the table are.........Mine are here. a - You b - Your c - Yours 55) I am very proud of this town of...... a - Me b - My c - Mine 56) ........faithfully. a - Your b - Yours c - Yourself 57) Maika is a friend of......................... a - Me b-I c - Mine 58) It was a problem of.........that made us arrive late. a - Hers b - She c - Her 59) I like swimming. -.......too. a-I b - My c - Me 60) Visit...........when you come to Elda. a - Us b - Our c - Ours 61) ....................wife's name is Inma. a-I b - Me c - My 62) .....................father was the Mayor.
45

a - He b - His c - Him 63) She is ...................new teacher, her name is Laura. a - Us b - Our c - Ours

46

Soluciones 1. B 11. A 21. A 31. A 41. B 51. B 61. C 2. B 12. B 22. A 32. B 42. B 52. C 62. B 3. A 13. B 23. A 33. B 43. B 53. A 63. B 4. B 14. A 24. A 34. C 44. B 54. C 5. B 15. A 25. B 35. A 45. B 55. C 6. A 16. A 26. C 36. A 46. C 56. B 7. B 17. B 27. A 37. A 47. C 57. C 8. A 18. A 28. B 38. A 48. A 58. A 9. B 19. B 29. A 39. A 49. B 59. C 10. B 20. C 30. C 40. B 50. C 60. B

47

HABER IMPERSONAL. THERE IS


Se usa para indicar que hay una o ms cosas. Al formarse con el verbo to be hace las formas interrogativas y negativas como el mencionado verbo.

AFIRMATIVA
There is a car. Hay un coche. There was a boy. Haba un nio.

INTERROGATIVA
Is there a car? Hay un coche? Was there a boy? Haba un nio?

NEGATIVA
There is not a car. No hay un coche. There was not a boy. No haba un nio.

PRESENTE
There is. There are. There's.

PASADO
There was. There were.

FUTURO
There will be.

CONDICIONAL
There would be.

There is someone waiting for you. Hay alguien esperndote. There are four biscuits on the plate. Hay cuatro galletas en el plato. Is there anything I can do for you? Hay algo que pueda hacer por t?

48

1) Crevillente is a very modern town. There.....................not many old buildings. a - Is b - Are c - Am 2) There.......................a photograph of the Mayor in the newspaper! a - Is b - Are c - Am 3) Excuse me, ..............there a restaurant near here? a - Is b - Are c - Am 4) There........................five people in my family. a - Is b - Are c - Am 5) There.....not a film in the camera. a - Is b - Are c - Am 6) How many cinemas.. there in Villena? a - Is b - Are c - Am 7) .........................there a concert next Sunday? a - Is b - Are c - Am 8) ..........................there a bus from Alicante at 7.00? a - Is b - Are c - Am 9) There...........two trains to Madrid every day. a - Is b - Are c - Am 10) There.......some computers in this University. a - Is b - Are c - Am 11) .......there a nice park in Alicante?
49

a - Is b - Are c - Am 12) ................there a supermarket near here? a - Is b - Are c - Am 13) There...........................two letters from the bank. a - Is b - Are c - Am 14) There.............many people in the club now. a - Is b - Are c - Am 15) There.................a parade next Saturday. a - Is b - Are c - Am 16) There........a football match on TV tonight. a - Is b - Are c - Am 17) ..............there a swimming-pool in your hotel? a - Is b - Are c - Am 18) There...............many restaurants in Benidorm. a - Is b - Are c - Am 19) There.............a concert next June in Santa Pola. a - Is b - Are c - Am 20) .....................there many people in the Festivities in Villena? a - Is b - Are c - Am

50

Soluciones 1. B 11. A 2. A 12. A 3. A 13. B 4. B 14. B 5. A 15. A 6. B 16. A 7. A 17. A 8. A 18. B 9. B 19. A 10. B 20. B

51

LOS PRONOMBRES INDEFINIDOS SOME, ANY, NO y SUS COMPUESTOS


Expresan cantidades indefinidas. Some. I have some magazines from the Se usa con oraciones afirmativas. Se library. Tengo varias revistas de la biblioteca. traduce por algo, algn, algo de. En interrogativas cuando respuesta que se espera afirmativa. la Do you want some chocolates? es Quieres bombones?

Any. Have you any good book to lend me? Se usa en oraciones interrogativas y Tienes algn buen libro para negativas. Se traduce por nada, dejarme? ningn, algn. I havent any money. No tengo dinero. No. I have no money. Se usa en oraciones con el verbo en No tengo dinero. afirmativa pero el sentido de la frase es negativo.

Los compuestos de some, any y no se comportan de la misma manera. Anything. Algo, nada. Anybody. Alguien, nadie. Anywhere. Alguna parte, ninguna parte. Anyone. Alguien, nadie. Nothing. Nada. Nobody. Nadie. Nowhere. Ninguna parte. Everything. Todo. Everybody. Todos. Everywhere. Todas partes.

Something. Algo. Somebody. Alguien. Somewhere. Algn lugar.

Someone. Alguien.

No one. Nadie.

Everyone. Cada uno.

52

Is there anybody who wants to come with me to Madrid? Hay alguien que quiera venir conmigo a Madrid? There is nothing more to say. No hay nada ms que decir.

53

1) I want..........water please. a - Some b - Any c - Somebody 2) I want...........................ice. a - Myself b - Any c - Some 3) I haven't got...........................pets. a-A b - Some c - Any 4) I have.............................money. a - Some b - Any c - Do 5) Do you want..............................bread? a - Some b - Both c - Any 6) I want...........................coke. a - Any b - Three c - Some 7) I haven't ......................................money. a - Some b - Any c - Something 8) We haven't......................................matches. a - Some b - Everything c - Any 9) We have......................................French wines. a - Any b - Some c - Much 10) There aren't.................................biscuits. a - Some b - Any c - Anything 11) I have.............................old pictures of Elda.
54

a - Me b - Some c - Any 12) Are there.....................................letters? a - Some b - Any c - No 13) Would you like .........................chocolates? a - Any b - Will c - Some 14) Have you seen ................love film lately? a - Some b - Any c - No 15) Have you got...........................brothers or sisters? a - Any b - My c - Some 16) There are.....................................boys playing football outside. a - These b - Some c - Any 17) Is there.........................................cinema in town? a - Any b - Some c - Six 18) Is there .....................................swimming pool in Petrel? a - Some b - Any c - Big 19) I've got ....................................books on computers a - Any b - Some c - Me 20) I want...........................apples. a - Somenody b - Any c - Some 21) They haven't........................relatives in Seville.
55

a - Some b - Any c - Theirs 22) Have you ........brothers or sisters? a - Some b - Any c - No 23) ..............understands me. a - Onebody b - Nobody c - Anyboby 24) ...................smells nice! a - Anything b - Something c - Nothing 25) There's ...............like a siesta. a - Nothing b - Something c - Anything 26) is there .........we can do to help? a - Anybody b - Anything c - Anywhere 27) I would like to buy him .........typical of Spain. a - Something b - Nothing c - Anything 28) There is......milk in the fridge. a - No b - Some c - Many 29) I want..........to eat. a - Some b - Something c - Anywhere 30) There is .......which is not very clear in this. a - Something b - Anything c - Nothing

56

31) Would you like ..............more chocolates? I know they are your favourite ones. a - Any b - Much c - Some

57

Soluciones 1. A 11. B 21. B 31. C 2. C 12. B 22. B 3. C 13. A 23. B 4. A 14. B 24. B 5. C 15. A 25. A 6. C 16. B 26. B 7. B 17. A 27. A 8. C 18. B 28. A 9. B 19. B 29. B 10. B 20. C 30. A

58

OTROS INDEFINIDOS
All. Hace referencia a ms de dos. Both. Se refiere a dos. Each. Cada. Either. O. Every. Cada. Neither. Ni. Neithernor Ni..ni. None. Ninguno de los dos. All my friends came to my party. Todos mis amigos vinieron a mi fiesta. Both are 14. Los dos tienen catorce aos. Each and every day I sleep siesta. Todos los das duermo la siesta. Either you stay here or come with us. O te quedas o vienes con nosotros. Every day I go running. Todos los das voy a correr. Neither of them are happy. Ninguno de ellos est contento. I neither like coffee nor tea. No me gusta ni el caf ni el t. None wanted coffee. Ninguno quiso caf.

59

PRONOMBRES Y PARTICULAS INTERROGATIVAS


Who. Quin? Se usa con personas. Whom. A quin? Se usa compaado por preposiciones. Whose De quin? Se usa en la forma posesiva. Which. Qu o Cul? What Qu? Se usa cuando no hay antecedentes. How. Cmo? How many. Cantos? How much. Cunto? How long. Cunto tiempo? How far. A qu distancia? How fast. A qu velocidad? Who came yesterday? Quin vino ayer? Whom did you speak to? Con quin estabas hablando? The man with whom you spoke is Pepe. El hombre con quien est abas hablando es Pepe. Whose car is this Ford Fiesta? De quin es este Ford Fiesta?

Which is your favourite singer? Quin es tu cantante favorito? What do you think of him? Qu piensas de l?

How is your mother? Cmo est tu madre? How many books do you read a year? Cuntos libros lees al ao? How much is that CD? Cunto cuesta ese disco? How long will it take to go to Madrid by plane? Cunto tiempo tardar en ir a Madrid en avin? How far is Elche from Santa Pola? Qu distancia hay entre Elche y Santa Pola? How fast can you type? A qu velocidad mecanografas?

60

How often. Con qu frecuencia? Why. Por qu? When. Cundo? Where. Dnde? What kind. Qu clase?

How often do you play football? Con qu frecuencia juegas al ftbol? Why was he late? Por qu lleg tarde? When did you go there? Cundo fuiste all? Where do you live? Dnde vives? What kind of music do you like? Qu clase de msica te gusta?

61

1) ........do you spend your free time? a - How b - When c - Which 2) ........your phone number? a - What is b - Where is c - How is 3) ........do you live with? a - Who b - Where c - How 4) ........do you do on Sundays? a - Where b - What c - How 5) ........were you born? a - Where b - Which c - What 6) ..........sports do you practise. a - Which b - Where c - How 7) ..............do you live? a - Where b - Which c - How 8) ................says this is a good film? a - Who b - Where c - What 9) He is the one ....is in London, isn't he? a - Who b - Which c - Where 10) ..............did you know it was my birthday today? a - Where b - What c - How 11) What ........good idea!
62

a-A b - Some c - Few 12) Wow! ...........a sight. a - How b - Where c - What 13) ............silly! a - How b - Where c - Which 14) ..................delicious sweets you have in Elda. a - How b - Where c - What 15) .. is Arguiano?, -He is a marvellous cook, he came to Elda in 1997. a - Who b - Where c - Which 16) We both realise ...........important it is. a - How b - Which c - Where 17) ...............interesting! a - What b - What an c - How 18) Mercedes is ......................came to the party wearing the red dress. a - The one who b - What c - One which 19) Juan, .........................did you have lunch with, last Saturday? a - Who b - Whose c - Which 20) .is Salvador? - The boy I met yesterday. a - Who b - What c - That 21) .................came yesterday?
63

a - Who b - Whom c - Whose 22) ....................love opera a - Whom b - Who c - Whose 23) And this is ..happened that night. a - What b - Who c - That 24) Is that book ..............you wanted to buy? a - The one b - That c - What 25) Look at those boys, Mary....one is your brother? a - Who b - Where c - Which 26) This is the Harley .........I want to buy. a - Where b - What c - Which 27) ............is this pencil? a - How b - Whose c - Who 28) ........father is the President of The Moros Musulmanes? a - Whose b - What c - Which 29) .........wrote several books on grammar? a - Who b - Where c - Which 30) is the restaurant? a - Where b - Which c - What 31) .........celebrate San Antn all together? a - What about
64

b - Why don't we c - How about 32) .........very nice car is a Mercedes. a - What a b - How c - How a 33) ........I arrive in Moscow I will send a fax. a - As b - When c - Now 34) ......a pretty girl. a - What b - What a c - How 35) ......pretty girls. a - What b - What a c - How 36) .........tall is the cathedral? a - What b - How c - Where 37) ..........silly of you is to say that! a - What b - How c - What a 38) ........long have you been studying English? a - Where b - How c - What 39) ........horrible weather you have in England! a - What a b - What c - How 40) ........paid the bill? a - Where b - Who c - How 41) ......did you see at the fair? a - Where b - Who
65

c - Whose 42) ........is your favourite film? a - What b - Which c - Who 43) .........happened when we went? a - What b - Where c - How 44) ..........does she want? a - Where b - What c Who 45) .......is this old car? a - Whose b - Who c - Whom 46) .........did you give the parcel? a - Whose b - Whom c - How 47) .........was that pretty girl who was with you in the Plaza Mayor? a - Who b - Whose c - Whom 48) .......came with Pepe? a - What b - Who c - Where 49) .....did he say? a - Who b - Which c - What 50) ..is this car? a - Who b - Whom c - Whose 51) .......did you givethe first prize in the contest? a - Whose b - Who
66

c - Whom 52) ..........a pretty girl! a - What b - How c - What a 53) ........stupid of him! a - What b - How c - What a

67

Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. A 31. B 41. B 51. C 2. A 12. C 22. B 32. A 42. B 52. A 3. A 13. A 23. A 33. B 43. A 53. B 4. B 14. C 24. A 34. B 44. B 5. A 15. A 25. C 35. A 45. A 6. A 16. A 26. C 36. B 46. B 7. A 17. C 27. B 37. B 47. A 8. A 18. A 28. A 38. B 48. B 9. A 19. A 29. A 39. A 49. C 10. C 20. A 30. A 40. B 50. C

68

El NOMBRE CONTABLES E INCONTABLES


Los nombres se pueden clasificar en contables e incontables. Contables son aqullos que podemos contar con la ayuda de un numeral. Tienen forma de plural y pueden llevar el artculo a/an o the, some, few etc. Two pencils. Dos lapiceros. Three boys. Tres nios. Four cars. Cuatro coches.

One book. Un libro.

Los incontables no tienen plural, algunos de ellos pueden ser tanto contables como incontables. Existe un cambio en el significado.

I bought a paper. Give me some paper to write. Compr un peridico. Dame papel para escribir. She has a new iron. This is made of iron. Tiene una nueva plancha. sto est hecho de hierro. Give me a glass. This is Bohemian glass. Dame un vaso. Esto es cristal de Bohemia. I drink coffee. Give me two coffees. Bebo caf. Dame dos cafs. Algunos nombres incontables: Help. Ayuda. Homework. Deberes. Hope. Esperanza. Hunger. News. Noticias. Paper. Papel. Physics. Fsica. Rubbish. Tea. T Time. Tiempo. Toothpaste. Pasta de dientes. Trouble.
69

Butter. Mantequilla. Chocolate. Chocolate. Coffee. Caf. Cream.

Crema. Dirt. Suciedad. Flour. Harina. Food. Comida. Fun. Diversin. Furniture. Mobiliario.

Hambre. Information. Informacin. Mathematics. Matemticas. Milk. Leche. Money. Dinero. Music. Msica.

Basura. Sand. Arena. Sky. Cielo. Soap. Jabn. Wine. Vino. Sugar. Azcar.

Problema. Water. Agua. Weather. Tiempo atmosfrico. Work. Trabajo. Silver. Plata. Advice. Consejo.

70

MUCH, MANY, FEW, LITTLE, A LOT OF


CONTABLES
Many. Muchos o muchas. Few. Pocos o pocas. A few. Unos pocos o unas pocas. So Many. Tantos. I have many friends. Tengo muchos amigos. She has read few books. Ella ha ledo pocos libros. I have a few good friends. Tengo unos pocos buenos amigos. We have so many books that I dont know where to put them. Tenemos tantos libros que no s dnde ponerlos. He is alone, he has so few friends. Est solo, tiene tan pocos amigos. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Demasiados cocineros echan a perder el caldo. There were too few to start the party. Haba demasiado pocos para empezar la fiesta.

So Few. Tan pocos. Too Many. Demasiados.

Too Few. Demasiado pocos.

INCONTABLES
Much. Mucho. Little. Poco. A little Un poco. So Little. Tan poco. I dont drink much coke. No bebo mucha Coca-cola. He eats little fruit. Come poca fruta. With a little milk please. Con un poco de leche. He drinks so little water. Bebe tan poca agua.
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Too Much. Demasiado. ms de lo necesario. Too Little. Demasiado necesario. So Much. Tanto.

They eat too much meat. Comen demasiada carne. They have too little money. lo Tienen demasiado poco dinero. They spend so much on clothes that they never have enough money. Gastan tanto en ropa que nunca tienen suficiente dinero.

poco.

menos

de

CON CONTABLES E INCONTABLES


A lot of. Mucho, muchos. We have a lot of books. Tenemos muchos libros. We drink a lot of water. Bebemos mucha agua. Lots of. Montones de. Mucho, Mucha. Plenty of. Mucho, muchos. Tiene el matiz de de sobra. Lots of people came yesterday. Mucha gente vino ayer. There are plenty of good books in the library. Hay muchos buenos libros en la biblioteca. I dont have to hurry, Ive got plenty of time. No tengo que apresurarme, tengo mucho tiempo.

Partitivos ms utilizados con los nombres incontables. A bar of chocolate. Una barra de chocolat e. A bottle of wine. Una botella de vino.

A bar of. Una barra de. A bottle of. Una botella de.

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A can of. Una lata de bebida. A cup of. Una taza de. A piece of. Un trozo de, una porcin de. A tin of. Una lata de. A packet of. Una bolsa de.

A can of coke. Un lata de Coca-cola. A cup of coffe. Una taza de caf. A piece of paper. Un trozo de papel. A tin of tuna. Una lata de atn. A packet of crisps. Una bolsa de papas.

73

1) Only ....................live in the country nowadays. a - Few b - Little c - Much 2) There is....................noise in this city. a - Few b - Many c - Much 3) There are ........schools in Salinas.Only two. a - Little b - Few c - Much 4) I'll have........................coffee. a - Few b-A c - Any 5) In Petrel there are...................mountains. a - Many b - Much c - Little 6) There's...........................................whisky in the bottle a - Few b - Little c - Many 7) ....................good friends are better than many. a - Little b - Few c - Much 8) I have .........................money left. a - Little b - Few c - Many 9) I want..........................milk in my coffee please. a - Some b - Any c - Few 10) I spend.........................time watching TV. a - Much b - Many c - Few 11) We have to study.........................books.
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a - Much b - Many c - Any 12) There are .................................desks in this class. a - Much b - Little c - Many 13) Not ...................people smoke in this University. a - Manys b - Many c - Fews 14) They pay Zidane .......................money. a - Much b - Many c - Few 15) There aren't ..............................towns in Teruel. a - Many b - Much c - Little 16) I didn't drink ............................wine yesterday. a - Much b - Many c - Few 17) There are only ..........................people in the concert. a - Few b - Little c - Many 18) I want to have ............................friends. a - Little b - Many c - Much 19) Now I have.................................money. a - Few b - Many c - Little 20) They asked me ...........................questions. a - Many b - Little c - Much 21) I don't have ................................time.
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a - Much b - Many c - Little 22) I'll try .............English tea. a - Some b - Many c - Any 23) Don't ask me so ..........questions. a - Many b - Much c - Less 24) How ..............shirts are you going to buy? a - Many b - Much c - Often 25) I have .....time. a Little b - Much c - Yet 26) How ...........people are living in Villena? a - Much b - Many c - Some 27) ...............much is the English book? a - How b - Which c - Where 28) I drink........................coke. a - Many b - Much c - Few 29) My wife eats ..................oranges. a - Many b - Little c - So 30) My brother has...................CDs. a - A lot os b - A lot of c - Much 31) I study..........
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a - Few b - Many c - Much 32) Is there ..................water in the bottle? No, there isn't. a - Many b - Lot c - Much 33) There is .................milk in the jug. a - Many b - Much c - Lot of 34) We have.................magazines and books about Elda. a - A lot b - A lot of c - Lots 35) There are...................boys waiting for you outside. a - Much b - A few c - Fewing 36) I don't eat..........................meat. a - Many b - Much c - Few 37) We eat ...............fish. a - Many b - Much c - Few 38) Lorenzo has ....................money. a Much b - Many c Few

77

Soluciones 1. A 11. B 21. A 31. C 2. C 12. C 22. A 32. C 3. B 13. B 23. A 33. B 4. B 14. A 24. A 34. B 5. A 15. A 25. A 35. B 6. B 16. A 26. B 36. B 7. B 17. A 27. A 37. B 8. A 18. B 28. B 38. A 9. A 19. C 29. A 10. A 20. A 30. A

78

EL GENERO
Un gran nmero de nombres carecen de l, por eso tenemos la misma palabra para masculino y femenino. Doctor. Mdico. Reader. Lector. Student. Estudiante. Musician. Msico. Lawyer. Abogado. Driver. Conductor.

Teacher. Profesor. Artist. Artista.

Otras palabras tienen una forma para el masculino y otra para el femenino y neutro.

MASCULINOS
Father. Padre. Brother. Hermano. Boy. Chico.

FEMENINOS
Mother. Madre. Sister. Hermana. Daughter. Hija. Flower. Flor. Cat. Gato.

NEUTROS

Door. Puerta.

Otros tienen forma masculina y femenina

MASCULINO
A male doctor. Un doctor. Actor. Actor. Bachelor. Soltero. Boy. Chico.

FEMENINO
A woman doctor. Una doct ora. Actress. Actriz. Spinster. Soltera. Girl. Chica.

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Brother. Hermano. Bull. Toro. Cock. Gallo. Duke. Duque. Emperor. Emperador. Father. Padre. God. Dios. Horse. Caballo. Host. Anfitrin. Husband. Esposo. Lion. Len. Lord. Seor. Man. Hombre. Nephew. Sobrino. Poet. Poeta.

Sister. Hermana. Cow. Vaca. Hen. Gallina. Duchess. Duquesa. Empress. Emperatriz. Mother. Madre. Goddess. Diosa. Mare. Yegua. Hostess. Anfitriona. Wife. Esposa. Lioness. Leona. Lady. Seora. Woman. Mujer. Niece. Sobrina. Poetess. Poetisa.

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Prince. Prncipe. Son. Hijo. Steward. Auxiliar de vuelo. Tailor. Sastre. Uncle. To. Waiter. Camarero. Widower. Viudo.

Princess. Princesa. Daughter. Hija. Stewardess. Azafata. Dressmaker. Modista. Aunt. Ta. Waitress. Camarera. Widow. Viuda.

Curiosamente, Baby puede llevar el pronombre it y los gatos y los perros he o she. Los pases, los barcos y los coches se consideran femeninos y a veces se personifican.

- Do you like my car? Te gusta mi coche? - She is beautiful. Es bonito.

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EL PLURAL DE LOS NOMBRES


La regla general es aadir ( -s). Cars. Book. Libro. Books. Pen. Boli. Pens. Car. Coche.

En los nombres que acaban en , s, z, ch, x, sh y o se aade ( -es) Potatoes. Brush. Cepillo. Pouch. Bolsa. Box. Caja. Brushes. Box. Caja. Church. Iglesia. Church. Iglesia. Boxes.

Potato. Patata. Kiss. Beso. Bush. Arbusto.

Kisses.

Pouches.

Churches

Bushes.

Boxes.

Churches.

Sin embargo, las palabras de origen extranjero que terminan en -o solamente aaden una -s. Kilos. Kimono. Kimono. Soprano. Soprano. Radio. Radio. Kimonos. Piano. Piano. Solo. Solo. Pianos.

Kilo. Quilo. Photo. Foto. Piano. Piano.

Photos.

Sopranos.

Solos.

Pianos.

Radios.

Tomato. Tomate.

Tomatoes.

Los nombres acabados en -y precedida de vocal siguen la regla general, pero si la -y va precedida de consonante se transforma en y se -i aade -es. Toy. Toys. Boy. Boys. Monkey. Monkeys.

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Juguete. Lady. Seora. Ladies.

Chico. City. Ciudad. Cities.

Mono. Country. Pas. Countries.

Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en -f o -fe, cuyo plural cambia por -ves. Wolves. Thief. Ladrn. Leaf. Hoja. Thieves. Sheaf. Gavilla. Half. Mitad. Sheaves.

Wolf. Lobo. Loaf. Barra pan. Wife. Esposa. Life. Vida.

Loaves. de

Leaves.

Halves.

Wives.

Shelf. Shelves. Estantera. Knife. Cuchillo. Knives.

Self. Selves. Uno mismo. Calf. Ternero. Calves.

Lives.

Las dems palabras que terminan en -f o -fe aaden una -s. Safes. Chief. Jefe. Chiefs. Cliff. Cliffs. Acantilad o.

Safe. Caja de seguridad.

Existen plurales irregulares. Men. Woman. Mujer. Goose. Ganso. Tooth. Diente. Women. Mouse. Ratn. Ox. Buey. Mice.

Man. Hombre. Foot. Pie. Child. Nio.

Feet.

Geese.

Oxen.

Children.

Teeth.

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Algunos animales o peces no cambian en plural: Deer. Ciervo. Carp. Carpa. Trout. Trucha. Plaice. Platija. Cod. Bacalao. Duck. Pato. Squid. Calamar. Partridge. Perdz. Mackarel. Caballa.

Sheep. Oveja. Salmon. Salmn.

Al igual que otras palabras como:


Spacecraft. Hovercraft.

Aircraft. Aeronave.

Nave espacial.

Aerodeslizador.

Otros tan slo tiene forma plural Cattle. Ganado. Glasses. Gafas. Stairs. Escaleras. Police. Policia. Scissors. Tijeras. Folk. Gente. Binoculars. Prismticos. Shorts. Jeans. Pantalone Pantalones s cortos. vaqueros. Thanks. Gracias.

People. Gente. Pyjamas. Pijama. Trousers. Pantalones.

Algunos de los acabados en -s van siempre en singular. Phonetics. Fontica.

Mathematics. Gymnastics Politics. Matemticas Gimnasia. Poltica.

Los nombres colectivos, police, crew, family, team, etc., pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural, segn el sentido que le demos a la frase:

Our police is very efficient. Nuestra polica es muy eficaz. The police are looking for the thief. La polica esta buscando al ladrn.

Our team is the best. Nuestro equipo es el mejor. Our team are wearing the new T-shirts. Nuestra equipo lleva la nueva camiseta.
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Penny tiene dos posibles plurales. Pennies hace referencia a las monedas y pence a la cantidad total. I paid 50 pence. Pagu cincuenta peniques.

I have 4 pennies. Tengo cuatro peniques.

Las palabras compuestas formadas con preposiciones o adverbios forman el plural en la primera parte del nombre Maids of honour. Brother in law. Cuado. Brothers in law.

Maid of honour. Dama de honor

Las palabras que incluyen man o woman forman el plural modificando las dos partes Menservants.

Manservant.

PRONUNCIACION PLURAL.
/s/. Cats.

DE

LA

DESINENCIA
/iz/ Houses.

DE

/z/ Windows.

Cuando los nombres Cuando los nombres Cuando los nombres acaban en consonante acaban en consonante acaban en s, z, x, ch, ss, ... sorda.. p, t, k, f sonora o vocal. b, d, g, v, m, n, l, r, w, j

85

1) El plural de dish es........ a - Dishes b - Dishs c - Dishen 2) Las palabras acabadas en vocal "+ y " como boy, hacen el plural...... a - Aadiendo s b - Cambiando la "y " por i y aadiendo s c - Aadiendo -es 3) Las palabras "glass, dish, church, fox y buzz " hacen el plural........ a - Aadiendo -s b - Aadiendo -es c - Aadiendo -ies 4) What are you.........? a - Hobby b - Hobbies c - Jobis 5) What .......have you visited? a - Country b - Countries c - Cantris 6) I want two ......................of Fanta. a - Glass b - Glassves c - Glasses 7) I like tomato .............. a - Sandwiches b - Sandwichs c - Sandwicheves 8) In the sea there are many ................. a - Fishess b - Fishs c - Fish 9) I bought three ............ a - Salmons b - Salmon c - Salmones 10) I like ........................................... a - Potatos b - Potatoes c - Pototaves 11) I do not like...........
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a - Mouses b - Mouse c - Mice 12) My penthouse has two. a - Rooves b - Roofs c - Roofes 13) This tree has many .................................................. a - Leafs b - Leaves c - Leafss 14) I use paper ....................................................... a - Handkerchiefs b - Handkerchieves c - Handkerchiefes 15) In the zoo I saw four ..... a - Sheep b - Sheeps c - Sheppes 16) I never go to ............................................... a - Discoes b - Discos c - Discooes 17) In my kitchen there are many .............................. a - Shelves b - Shelfs c - Shelving 18) Europe has many different............................. a - Countrys b - Countries c - Countris 19) I prefer ghost ............................. a - Stories b - Storyes c - Storis 20) She has many ............................. a - Worries b - Worrys c - Worryes 21) We always use silver ................
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a - Knives b - Knifes c - Knifs 22) The forest has many ........... a - Deers b - Deer c - Deeres 23) Las palabras " kilo, photo, piano, solo, dynamo y magneto " hacen el plural...... a - Aadiendo -s b - Aadiendo -es c - Aadiendo -ves 24) Las palabras "glass, dish, church, fox y buzz " hacen el plural........ a - Aadiendo -s b - Aadienod -es c - Aadiendo -ies 25) Sheep, deer, swine, fish, trout, salmon, aircraft hacen el plural........ a - Aadiendo -es b - Esa misma forma les sirve para el plural c - Aadiendo -s 26) The police ........coming very soon. a - Is b - Are c - Be 27) This mountain is more that 1500 ..........high. a - Foot b - Foots c - Feet 28) Which .................are you from? a - Country b - Countri c - Kantry 29) She gave him four .........of bread. a - Loafs b - Loaves c - Loavings 30) The indians had many....... a - Chiefs b - Chieves c - Cifs

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31) My favourite.........were a ball and the Scalextrix. a - Toys b - Toyes c - Tois 32) In the Tarzan films there are many......... a - Monkeis b - Monkeys c - Mankis 33) A famous English king had six........ a - Wifes b - Wives c - Wivess 34) We always buy three.......of bread in Perete. a - Loafs b - Loaves c - Loavess 35) All of us have two....... a - Feet b - Foot c - Foots 36) The plural of goose is... a - Gooses b - Geese c - Gees 37) The plural of mouse is... a - Mouses b - Mice c - Mices 38) The plural of carp is... a - Carps b - Carpe diem c - Carp 39) The plural of partridge is a - Partridges b - Partdrigess c - Partridge 40) Para decir que hay muchos peces en el mar diremos...... a - There's a lot of fishes in the sea b - There's a lot of fish in the sea c - There are a lot of fishes in the sea 41) I like........................with cream.
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a - Strawberries b - Strawberryes c - Strauberries 42) Before my daughters were born I visited many....................with my wife. a - Countries b - Countryes c - Cauntries

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Soluciones 1. A 11. C 21. A 31. A 41. A 2. A 12. B 22. B 32. B 42. A 3. B 13. B 23. A 33. B 4. B 14. B 24. B 34. B 5. B 15. A 25. B 35. A 6. C 16. B 26. B 36. B 7. A 17. A 27. C 37. B 8. C 18. B 28. A 38. C 9. B 19. A 29. B 39. C 10. B 20. A 30. A 40. B

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FUNCIONES DEL NOMBRE. FORMACIN DE PALABRAS COMPUESTAS


Algunos nombres surgen de la combinacin de dos palabras. Handful. Toothpaste. Washingmachine. Shegoat. Breakfast. Overwork. Income. Puado. Pasta de dientes. Lavadora. Cabra. Desayuno. Exceso de trabajo. Ingresos. Adjetivo + nombre. Nombre + nombre. Ing + nombre. Pronombre + nombre. Verbo + nombre. Preposicin + nombre. Preposicin + verbo.

Todos los nombres pueden tener las siguientes funciones Mara is a teacher. Mara es profesora. Mara is a sociable woman. Mara es una mujer sociable. I saw a woman there. V una mujer all. This present is for that woman. Este regalo es para esa mujer.

Sujeto.

Predicado.

Complemento Directo.

Complemento Indirecto.

Algunos sufijos nos pueden ayudar a identificar a los nombres. -er.


Cosas. Opener.

-er.
Profesiones. Baker.

-ee.
Personas. Employee.

-tion.
Nombres Verbos. Pollution.

-ist.

-ism.

-ness.
Nombre. Hapiness. 92

Profesiones. Ideologas. Violinist. Comunism.

Panadero.

Abridor.

Empleado.

Contamina cin.

Comunism o

Felicidad.

-ance.
Nombre. Abundance Abundancia.

-hood.
Nombre. Childhood. Niez.

-ment.
Nombre. Shipment. Envo.

-tion.
Nombre. Education. Educacin.

-ity.
Nombre. Ability. Habilidad.

Algunos sufijos nos pueden ayudar a identificar a los adjetivos o adverbios. -ic.
Historic. Histrico.

-al.
Practical. Prctico.

-ive.
Exclusive. Exclusivo.

-ful.
Faithful. Leal.

-less.

-ous.

-ly.

Hopeless. Industrious Friendly. Sin Trabajador Amistoso. esperanza

-ed.
Excited. Excitado.

-en.
Wooden. De madera

-ant.
Irrelevant. Irrelevant e

-ive.

-ible.

-like.
Childlike. infantil

-worthy.
Trustworthy.

Compreh Sensible. ensive. Sensato. Comprensi vo.

Fiable

Algunos prefijos negativos. IlIllegal. Ilegal.

DisDishonest. Deshonesto

ImImpolite. Mal educado.

InInvisible. Invisible.

IrIrregular. Irregular.

NonNonsmoker. No fumador.

UnUnthinkable Impensable

Algunos prefijos de los ms usados. OverPreSemiSuperPostUnder

Anti-

Antibiotic. Overdose Predictable Semiprofe Supernat ssional. Antibitic Sobredosis . ural. Predecible. Semiprofe Supernat o

Postpone. Undermin Posponer. e Socavar.


93

sional.

ural.

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GENITIVO SAJN
Es una construccin especial que se utiliza para indicar posesin. La estructura del genitivo sajn es: Poseedor + s + cosa poseda. Normalmente la utilizamos con personas y rara vez con objetos.

Aadir apstrofo y una s es la regla Peters bike. La bici de Pedro. general. Acabados en s, como nombre propio Pits car. El coche de Pit. aade slo . Plurales irregulares no terminados en A mens club. Un club para hombres. s o -es siguen la regla general. Ms de un sujeto. My brother and sisters friends. Los amigos de mi hermano y de mi hermana. My brothers and sisters friends. Los amigos de mi hermano y las amigas de mi hermana. Algunas expresiones. A days break. Un descanso de un da. Todays paper. El peridico de hoy. The cars engine. El motor del coche. A stones throw. A tiro de piedra. Casas y tiendas. I went to my sisters Fui casa de mi hermana. She was at the bakers. Estaba en la panadera. Tiendas, hospitales e iglesias. He goes to his friends.
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l va a casa de su amigo. He got married in Sant Louis. l se cas en la Iglesia de San Luis. I was at the dentists. Yo estaba en el dentista. Los plurales regulares acabados en s A girls school. Una escuela de chicas. slo aaden el apstrofo.

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1) This is the .............., isn't it? a - Balls' boys b - Boys' the ball c - Boys' ball 2) La casa de Manoli. a - House's manoli b - Manoli's house c - The manoli's house 3) El coche de mi amigo. a - The my friend's car b - My friend's car c - Car's my friend 4) La casa de los Torres. a - The Torres' house b - Torres'ss house c - The house of Torres' 5) Las obras de Cervantes. a - Cervantes' works b - Cervante's works c - The cervantes's works 6) El teorema de Pitgoras. a - Pythagoras's the therom b - The pythagora's theorem c - Pythagoras's theorem 7) La madre de mi suegra. a - My mother-in-law's mother b - My mother's- in- law mother c - My mother's-in -law's mother 8) Vamos a casa de Clemente. a - We are going to Clemente's b - We are going to the Clemente's c - We are going to Clementes 9) Ella est en la pelu. a - She's at the hairdresser's b - She is at hairdresser c - She is the hairdresser

97

Soluciones 1. C 2. B 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. A 8. A 9. A

98

EL ARTCULO INDETERMINADO
Los artculos preceden y detreminan a los sustantivos. Su traduccin es un, una. Tiene dos formas a y an. Es invariable en gnero y nmero, por lo tanto la misma forma sirve para masculino y femenino. Carece de plural. Se suele usar some para expresar el significado de unos.

A se emplea con palabras que comienzan por sonido consonntico. An va con las que comienzan por sonido voclico.

Las palabras que comienzan por h muda como honest, llevan an. Las palabras que comienzan por semiconsonantes como university llevan a. Hace las misma funciones que el artculo espaol. Designa personas y cosas. Se puede usar con el sentido de un tal

There is a Mr. Prez waiting for you. Hay un tal seor Prez esperndote.

A
A house. Una casa. A car. Un coche. A university. Una universidad. A uniform. Un uniforme. A union. An apple. Una manzana. An hour. Una hora.

AN

An honest person. Una persona honrada. An honor. Un honor. An umbrella.


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Un sindicato. A European. Un europeo.

Un paraguas. An MP. Un miembro del Parlamento.

Acompaa a ciertos expresiones de cantidad.

nmeros

y A hundred. Cien. A couple of hours. Un par de horas.

Para indicar el precio de las cosas.

It is 10 euros a kilo.. Cuesta 10 euros el kilo.

Usamos a o an cuando es la The woman had a nice house near the primera vez que hablamos de un beach. La mujer tena una bonita casa cerca de la playa. objeto. Cuando la referencia no est clara. I want a book but I dont want an English book. Quiero comprar un libro pero no quiero un libro ingls. I am a lawyer and he is a nurse. Yo soy abogado y ella es enfermera. He is a Catholic and I am a Jew. l es catlico y yo soy judo. He was a socialist and now he is a conservative. l era socialista y ahora es conservador. Con enfermedades. Last week I had a terrible cold. La semana pasada tuve un resfriado horrible. My wife has a toothache. A mi mujer le duele un diente Con expresiones. As a rule. Por regla general.

Con profesiones, religiones, e ideas polticas.

100

On a diet. A dieta. Con exclamaciones. What a pretty woman. Qu mujer ms guapa! Once a year. Una vez al ao.

Con adverbios.

A puede ser cambiado por one en algunos casos. One morning I saw him here. Una maana le vi aqu.

101

EL ARTCULO DETERMINADO THE


Es parte invariable de la oracin y va tanto con nombres en singular como con nombres en plural. Se puede traducir por: el, la los y las. Tiene dos pronunciaciones segn vaya precediendo a vocales o consonantes.

The girl. La chica.

The girls. Las chicas.

The car. El coche.

The cars. Los coches.

USOS
Ros. The Nile. El ro Nilo. The Black Sea. El mar Negro. The Atlantic Ocean. El Ocano Atlntico. Montaas. The Alps. Los Alpes. The Canary Islands. Las Islas Canarias. The Sahara. El desierto del Sahara. The Netherlands. Los Pases Bajos. The Universe. El Universo. The Sun. El Sol. The Moon. La luna.

Mares.

Islas.

Desiertos.

Pases en plural.

Cosas nicas.

102

The Earth. La Tierra. Con instrumentos musicales. I play the piano. Yo toco el violn.

Junto a un adjetivo hace referencia a The blind. Los ciegos. un colectivo, a un tipo de personas. The rich. Los ricos. The poor. Los pobres. The British. Los britnicos. Con los superlativos. Water is in my opinion the best drink. El agua es en mi opinin la mejor bebida. He was in the navy. l estuvo en la marina. The police. La polica. I went to the Post Office. Yo fui a la oficina de correos. They were in the radio this morning. Ellos estuvieron en la radio sta maana. I went to the cinema last Sunday. Yo fui al cine el pasado domingo. I have spent very good moments in the theatre. Yo he pasado muy buenos momentos en el teatro. Con fechas se lee pero no se escribe. 30th November is my birthday. El da treinta de noviembre es my
103

Tambin con algunas expresiones.

cumpleaos. Esto debe leerse November the thirtieth o the thirtieth of November. Con algunas palabras modifica el significado Bed, class, court , college, church, hospital, market , prison, university , town. In hospital. En el hospital. (hospitalizado) In the hospital. En el hospital. (de visita)

Junto a las palabras Republic, State, The United Kingdom. El Reino Unido. Kingdom. The Arab Republic. La Repblica rabe. Con cosas nicas. The moon isnt red. La luna no es roja. hace The orange is an excellent fruit. La naranja es una excelente fruta. The rich also cry. Los ricos tambin lloran. The blind. Los ciegos. Con apellidos. The Barrymore. Los Barrimore The Parker. Los Parker.

Con contables en singular referencia a la totalidad. Con los adjetivos pasa lo mismo.

NO SE UTILIZA
Con das de la semana. I play tennis on Monday. Yo juego al tenis los lunes. In July I go to San Juan beach. En el mes de julio voy a la playa de San Juan.
104

Meses.

Estaciones y fiestas.

Easter is a great holiday. Pascua es una gran fiesta. Italian is very romantic. El italiano es muy romntico. On Monday El lunes Red is my favourite colour. El color rojo es mi color favorito. Swimming is good for you. La natacin es buena para ti. I dont play cards. Yo no juego a las cartas.

Idiomas.

Meses, estaciones, semanas, aos. Colores.

Deportes, actividades y juegos.

Comidas.

Lunch, breakfast and supper are the meals of the day. La comida, el desayuno y la cena son las comidas del da. At night. Por la noche. At dawn. Al anochecer. At sunrise. Al amanecer.

Expresiones.

Cuando nos referimos general de algo.

al

sentido Wine is good for you. El vino es bueno para ti. The wine from Pinoso is the best. El vino de Pinoso es el mejor.

Con las partes del cuerpo.

Wash your hair. Lvate el pelo. Suez canal. El canal de Suez

Canales hechos por el hombre.

Con las palabras bed, school, He is in bed.

105

hospital, prison, university . Con las comidas.

college, El est en cama. I have lunch at home. Como en casa. I never watch TV. Nunca veo la tele. Doctor Ferreira no The doctor Ferreira. El doctor Ferreira.

Con ver la tele. Con personas.

106

1) He......... boy. a - An b - The c - That 2) Today I ate..........apple. a - An b-A c - Any 3) My sister is ..........doctor. a - An b-A c - Something 4) Mr. Garca is...........honest man. a-A b - An c - Both 5) I like drinking .........coke. a - An b-A c - Many 6) Is he ........architect? a-A b - An c - Little 7) Is Salinas............big city? a-A b - An c - These 8) I went to the swimming pool.......hour ago. a - An b-A c - The 9) He has ........cat. a - An b-A c - Many 10) I want to be ........lawyer. a - Some b-A c - An 11) Do you like .......English language?
107

a-A b - The c - Some 12) He's ........engineer. a - An b-A c - Some 13) I would like to be ........lawyer. a-A b - An c - Some 14) What ........................relief to get rid of him. a - An b-A c - Some 15) They only cost 30 euros ...........hour. a - An b-A c - The 16) I never listen to...radio at night. a-A b - The c-17) .......moon goes round the Earth. a-A b - The c-18) My father-in-law likes watching......TV. a-A b - The c-19) Why don't you eat..........breakfast? a-A b - The c-20) Tabarca is........island near Santa Pola. a - The b-A c - An 21) Toms lives in........country. a - The
108

b-c-A 22) Before......lunch we played ATAJOS. a - The b-c-A 23) .......capital of Spain is Madrid. a - The b-c-A 24) ...........Vinalop is the only river we have. a-b - The c-A 25) ........USA is a very big country. a-b - The c-A 26) I would like to live near........sea. a-b - The c-A 27) .......wine is good if you drink properly. a-b - The c-A 28) ........wine from Rioja is my favourite. a-b - The c-A 29) ......policemen have a hard life. a - The b-c-A 30) My mother-in-law is always with........telephone in hand. a - The b-A c-31) I didn't learn to play .......guitar in don Emilio's. a-b - The
109

c-A 32) .............rich also cry. a-b-A c - The 33) ......French drink more wine than we do. a-b-A c The 34) ......women like going to the hairdresser more than men. a-b - The c-A 35) Pepe had an accident so he is in ......hospital. a-b - The c-A 36) I went to.......hospital to vist my friend Enrique who had a heart attack. a - The b-c-A 37) Sarah goes to......church every Sunday with my wife. a-b - The c-A 38) He was in........prison because he killed a cat. a-b-A c - The 39) I studied at......Alicante University wih Bryn Moody. a-b - The c-A 40) Vladi has gone to........work now. a - The b-A c-41) I prefer to stay...........home. a - The b-A
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c-42) Before .......work we go running. a-A b-c - The

111

Soluciones 1. B 11. B 21. A 31. B 41. C 2. A 12. A 22. B 32. C 42. B 3. B 13. A 23. A 33. C 4. B 14. B 24. B 34. A 5. B 15. A 25. B 35. A 6. B 16. B 26. B 36. A 7. A 17. B 27. A 37. A 8. A 18. C 28. B 38. A 9. B 19. C 29. B 39. A 10. B 20. C 30. A 40. C

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BOTH, ALL, NONE, NEITHER, EITHER, EACH, EVERY, NO.


Both. Ambos. Both Peter and Sarah like confetti. Tanto a Pedro como a Sara les gustan los confetis. We both like jazz. A los dos nos gusta el jazz. Both of the children have been to Paris. Los dos nios han estado en Pars. The children have both been to Paris. Los dos nios han estado en Pars. Give me both. Dame los dos. I like both the film and the book. Me gusta tanto la pelcula como el libro. Both of them are happy. Los dos son felices.

Both.and. Tanto como. Both of them. Ellos dos.

Neither. Ninguno. Neither of them came to my party. Ninguno de los dos vino a mi fiesta. Ni. -I dont like coffe. A m no me gusta el caf. -Neither do I. Ni a m tampoco. Either....or. O..o. Either you come with me or go with him. O vienes conmigo o vas con l. Neither....nor. Ni.ni. All. Todos. dos. None. I like neither coffee nor tea. No me gusta ni el t ni el caf. All the students were happy after the exam. de Todos los estudiantes estaban contentos despus del examen. None of my friends wanted to buy my car.
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Ms

Ninguno. Ms de Ninguno de mis amigos quiso comprar mi coche. dos Most of them are from Canada. Most. La mayora, la Los dos son de Canad. mayor parte. Each. Cada uno. Every. Todos cada uno No. Nada. Each student must buy a dictionary. Cada estudiante debe comprar un diccionario. y Every citizen paid the taxes. Todos los ciudadanos pagaron los impuestos. I have no money now. Ahora no tengo dinero.

114

LOS ADJETIVOS.
Los adjetivos tiene la misin de modificar al sustantivo y normalmente le preceden.

A red car. Un coche rojo. A beautiful woman. Una mujer guapa. Al ser en ingls parte invariable, slo tiene una forma para masculino, femenino, singular y plural. I have a red car. Yo tengo un coche rojo. She has a red dress. Ella tiene un vestido rojo. My daughter wears red shoes. Mi hija lleva zapatos rojos. They have red skirts. Ellas tienen faldas rojas.

USOS
Detrs de los verbos copulativos: be, look, sound, taste, appear, seem, get , feel, stay, fall, etc. She is nice. Ella es agradable. You look beautiful. T tienes buen aspecto. He feels strong. l se siente fuerte. Algunos adjetivos preposicin. siempre llevan I am interested in politics. A m me interesa la poltica.

Los participios de presente y pasado He is tired. pueden hacer las veces de adjetivos. El est cansado. He is tyring.
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El cansa. (es un pesado) Los adjetivos que se colocan delante A beautiful song. de los sustantivos se llaman Una cancin bonita. atributivos. Principal, sheer, chief y main. son atributivos. The main road is closed today. La carretera principal est cerrada hoy.

Afraid, awake, asleep, ashamed, She is still alive. upset , alive, alone, asleep son Ella est todava viva. predicativos y van detrs. El significado de late y early depende We caught an early plane to London. Cogimos un vuelo temprano para de su posicin. Londres. They were early at the party. Ellos llegaron temprano a la fiesta.

Algunos nombres pueden funcionar como adjetivos.

A gold chain. Una cadena de oro. A leather case. Una maleta de piel. Muchos adjetivos son reconocibles por sus terminaciones.

-Y Happy. Feliz.

-Al

-Ial

-Ous Famous. Famoso.

-Ary Voluntary. Voluntario.

-Ic Economic. Econmico

Professional Industrial. Profesional. Industrial.

-Ful Careful.

-Ive
Competitiv

-Ent Urgent.

-Ible Legible.

-Able
Beneficioso.

-Ed

-Less Useless.

Cuidadoso. e

Profitable. Limited.

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Competitivo .

Urgente. Legible.

Limitado. Intil.

Los siguientes prefijos indican lo contrario del adjetivo que acompaan. InDisIlImIr-

UnUnhappy. Triste.

Incompeten Dishonest. Illegible. t Deshonesto Ilegible. Incompeten te.

Impatient. Irregular. Impaciente Irregular.

Otros prefijos tambin nos indican que estamos delante de un adjetivo. BiExtraHyper. Inter-

Auto-

Automatic. Bisexual. Automtico Bisexual. MonoMonochrom e

Extraordinary Hypersensitive Interchangeable. Extraordinario. Hipersensible Intercambiable. PreSuperUltraUltrasonic. Ultrasnico.

MultiMultilingual. Multilinge.

Monocromo

Predominant. Superstitious. Predominante Supersticioso.

Los adjetivos pueden estar formados por dos palabras unidas por un guin.

Top-quality. De calidad suprema. Tax-free. Libre de impuestos. Cuando aparecen varios adjetivos en una frase el orden debe ser el siguiente:
Dimensiones. Color. Origen. Material.

Opinin.

Cheap. Barato.

New. Nuevo.

Blue. Azul.

French. Francs.

Plastic. Plstico.

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Cualidad.

Tamao.

Forma.

Edad.

Color.

Famous. Famoso.

Big. Grande.

Round. Redondo.

Old. Viejo.

Blue. Azul.

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LA COMPARACIN CON ADJETIVOS


Puede ser de igualdad, inferioridad y superioridad.

IGUALDAD
As... As. Tan como. En los puntos va el adjetivo. So.....as. No tan como. I am as tall as you are. Yo soy tan alto como t. He is not so intelligent as his brother Mike. l no es tan listo como su hermano Miguel.

Los monosiabos y bislabos aaden -er en el comparativo. Los monoslabos acabados en una consonante precedida de una nica vocal, duplican la consonante. Como en fat . Fatter . Si acaban en -y se sustituye por i.

GRADO POSITIVO
Tall. Alto.

COMPARATIVO
Taller. Ms alto. He is taller than you. l es ms alto que t.

SUPERLATIVO
The tallest. El ms alto

Big. Grande.

Bigger . Ms grande. My car is bigger than yours. Mi coche es ms grande que el tuyo.

The biggest. El ms grande.

Happy. Feliz.

Happier. Ms feliz.

The happiest El ms feliz.

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He is happier now. l es ms feliz ahora. Algunos adjetivos de dos slabas y todos los que tiene ms de dos usan more ...than y the most.

GRADO POSITIVO
Comfortable. Cmodo. Interesting. Interesante.

COMPARATIVO
More comfortable. Ms cmodo. More interesting. Ms interesante.

SUPERLATIVO
The most comfortable. El ms cmodo. The most interesting. El ms interesante.

COMPARATIVO
-Er. I am taller now. Ahora soy ms alto. It is more interesting than the film. Es ms interesante que la pelcula. I am getting fatter and fatter. Cada vez me estoy poniendo ms gordo. + The richer, the sillier. Cuanto ms rico, ms tonto.

More.than.

Comparativo + and + comparativo.

The + comparativo, comparativo.

the

SUPERLATIVO
The .....est con adjetivos de una o dos The richest people in Elda. Los ms ricos de Elda. silabas. Se utiliza in para lugares y periodos de tiempo. The + most + adjetivo con los de dos o The most beautiful girl in town.
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ms silabas.

La chica ms guapa del pueblo.

COMPARATIVO DE INFERIORIDAD
Less + adj + than. She is less intelligent than Rose. Ella es menos inteligente que Rosa. adjetivo indican The least important of all his novels. La menos importante de sus novelas.

The least inferioridad.

GRADO POSITIVO
Busy. Ocupado.

COMPARATIVO
Less busy. Menos ocupado.

SUPERLATIVO
The least busy. El menos ocupado.

LOS IRREGULARES
Algunos hacen la comparacin de forma irregular y no siguen reglas concretas. Good. Better. The best. Bueno. Mejor. El mejor Bad. Malo. Little. Poco. Much / Many. Mucho. Far. Worse. Peor. Less. Menos. More. Ms. Farther. The worst. El peor. The least. El menos. The most. El ms. The farthest.
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Lejos. Old. Viejo.

Ms lejos. Elder. Ms viejo.

Lo ms lejano. The eldest. El ms viejo.

Elder y eldest se utilizan cuando hacemos referencia a miembros de una misma familia. My sister Berta is elder than me. Mi hermana Berta es mayor que yo.

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1) This is ......than this? a - Long b Longer c - Longest 2) How.............are you? a - Tall b - Talling c - Tallest 3) Isabel is ...........................than last year. a - The thinnest b - Thiner c - Thinner 4) Everybody says that Jorge is ..............................than his brother. a - More clever b - The more clever c - The most clever 5) Alicante is .......................................................than Elda. a - Hotting b - Hottest c - Hotter 6) I am .............................teacher here. a - The oldest b - Older c - Olderest 7) This park is ...............................................than the one in Almagro. a - Nicer b - Niceer c - Nicest 8) This sweater is ...........................................than the one we saw yesterday. a - Old-fashionest b - Old-fashionedest c - More old-fashion 9) A Mercedes is .....................................than a Seat Marbella. a - Most expensive b - More expensive c - Expensiver 10) He's ......................................................than he was a year ago. a - Healthier b - Healthiest c - Healthiere 11) Do you think English is ..............................than French?
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a - More difficult b - The most difficult c - Difficulter 12) He eats a lot - he's getting ...................... a - Fatting b - Fatter c - Fattest 13) I think that Pilar is ..................................than Manoli. a - More mature b - The most mature c - More maturest 14) He was the..................person I have ever met. a - The most dishonest b - More dishonet c - Most dishonest 15) My mother was getting ................ a - Redder and redder b - The more redest c - Most red 16) A bed is ..........................a sofa. a - More comfortable than b - The more comfortable c - The comfortablest 17) I think that Harry Potter's books are .....................................than the films. a - More interesting b - The most interesting c - Interestinger 18) Have you got a ........................size? a - Biggest b - Bigger c - Biger 19) My exam was ..........................................than I had thought. a - Badder b - Badding c - Worse 20) Now I have ...............................time than when I was single. a - Less b - Lesser c - Mucher 21) My neighbour Mara is ................................now that she has a new kitchen. a - Hapiest
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b - Happier c - Happyer 22) This exercise is .......................................than the previous one. a - Easier b - Easyer c - Easiest 23) Mari Carmen is ........................................than her sister. a - Politest b - More polite c - The more polite 24) It is .....................................to walk after having dinner. a - Better b - The good c - The gooder 25) When I was young Agustina was the .......................................swimmer in Elda. a - Fastest b - Fatesr c - The ffasterest 26) Sarah is ..........................................in the class. a - Tallest b - The tallest c - The taller 27) Paco was the................................of my friends. a - Craziest b - Crazier c - Crasiest 28) This is ........................................book I have ever read. a - The goodest b - The bester c - The best 29) Barcelona is .....................................than Madrid. a - Farer b - Farest c - Further 30) You should eat ....................................chocolate. a - Littler b - Less c - Littlest 31) Home.......home. a - Good
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b - Sweet c - Nice 32) I was ..........cross with him. a - So b - As c - The 33) Do you have to have the music ..........loud? a - As b - So c - Some 34) He's the ...........person I know. a - Meanest b - Mean c - Meaner 35) You'll need it when it gets .......... a - Coldest b - Colder c - Colding 36) I'd ............say goodbye to you now. a - Good b - Better c - Best 37) I don't mind, .......................the hours are reasonable and the pay is good. a - Long so b - As long as c - As long So 38) That sounds .........................! a - Exciteing b - Exciting c - Excite 39) He is as busy ............a bee. a - So b - The c - As 40) That is the ............compliment you can pay to a girl like her. a - Great b - Greater c - Greatest 41) So they have the ............of both worlds. a - Best b - Betteer
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c - Goodest 42) The ..........he starts Spanish lessons the better. a - Soon b - Soonest c - Sooner 43) They are ............than pears. a - Big b - Biggest c - Bigger 44) I was .................sorry that I felt ashamed. a - So b - As c - So as 45) Everything is ........wonderful in Spain!! a - So b - As c - As so 46) The place I enjoyed .............was the museum of Moder Art. a - Most b - More c - Little 47) This quick test is.................than the one we did yesterday. a - Easiest b - Easier c - More easy 48) My mother's dress is.......................than my aunt's. a - Longer b - The longest c - More long 49) Loli was ill, but now she ........................... a - Looks best b - Looks better c - Is best 50) You have to be much .....................when you use this. a - More careful b - Carefuler c - Carefulest 51) The Vinalop is ....................river in Elda. a - The longest b - Longer than c - Longest than
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52) Many people say Barcelona football team is .............than Real Madrid. a - Better b - Best c - Good 53) This pullover is too big. I need a ...........one. a - Smallest b - More small c - Smaller 54) All these children are nice, but ours are ................ a - Niecerest b - Nicer c - Nicest 55) I think he is the ......................in the class. a - Good b - Better c Best 56) I think that "The Pillars of the Earth " is .........book I have read in my life. a - The best b - Best than c - The better 57) This film is ........I have ever seen in my life. a - Baddest b - The worst c - The most bad 58) What a pity he is in Almeria. I wish he lived ............... a - Most near b - Nearer c - Nearest 59) She is very pretty but my girlfriend is ........ a - Prettier b - Prettiest c - The pretty 60) I am .............tall as Paco Cabrera. a - As b - So c - So as 61) I am .............than last year. a - More and more fat b - More fat c - Fatter
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62) You'd ..........buy a better car. a - Best b - Better c - Good 63) My .......sister is married. a - Older b - Elder c - Oldesr 64) Novelda is.......than Monvar. a - Far b - Further c - Furthest 65) Pepe is .......rich as Manolo. a - So b - As c - Than 66) I am not......tall as a basketball player. a - As b - So c - Than 67) The.........of a party is having to tidy the house. a - Bad b - Worse c - Worst 68) She is.................now than when she was 28. a - Prettyer b - Prettier c - Prittier 69) There are...............books in Martin Fierro for us. a Most expensive b - Expensive c - Expensiver 70) You must buy these.. pills. a - Good b - Gooder c The good 71) She loves ........... a - Tall b The tallest c - Tallerst 72) They drank..........................bottle of whisky.
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a - The most expensive b - Expensiver c The expensiver 73) They said he was a ...................teacher. a - Bored b - Boring c - Borerst 74) I was .....................because the film was boring. a - Boring b - Borest c - Bored 75) In a couple we will be ......... a - Richer b The rich c - Riching 76) They serve ..................coffee in town. a - Badder b - Gooder c The worst 77) There are always .................. trees in the park. a - Greener b - Greenest c Gren 78) All the Chinese have .................smiles. a Lovelier b - Lovely c - Lovlyest 79) Peter felt ..................of what he had done. a - Ashamed b - Ashamer c - Ashamest 80) The porter is a..................man. a - Happier b - Happiest c - Happy 81) Felipe was the....................President. a - Form b - Formerst c - Former 82) His .....................brother works in Per.
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a - Elder b - Old c - Older 83) The ..................part of the book is not good. a - Major b - May c - Most of 84) He is a lonely man, he feels............ a - Aoner b - Alone c - Alonest 85) Parents are happy when their children are.............. a - Aleppest b - Aslepper c - Asleep 86) Sometimes she drives me............. a - Madder b - Mad c - Madest 87) I found a ................bottle on the beach. a - Broker b - Brokenest c - Broken

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Soluciones 1. B 11. A 21. B 31. B 41. A 51. A 61. C 71. B 81. C 2. A 12. B 22. A 32. A 42. C 52. A 62. B 72. A 82. A 3. C 13. A 23. B 33. B 43. C 53. C 63. B 73. B 83. A 4. A 14. C 24. A 34. A 44. A 54. B 64. B 74. C 84. B 5. C 15. A 25. A 35. B 45. A 55. C 65. B 75. A 85. C 6. A 16. A 26. B 36. B 46. A 56. A 66. B 76. C 86. B 7. A 17. A 27. A 37. B 47. B 57. B 67. C 77. A 87. C 8. C 18. B 28. B 38. B 48. A 58. B 68. B 78. B 9. B 19. C 29. C 39. C 49. B 59. A 69. B 79. A 10. A 20. A 30. B 40. C 50. A 60. A 70. A 80. C

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LAS PREPOSICIONES
Aunque la gramtica inglesa es bastante simple, tiene partes que presentan cierta dificultad como las preposiciones. Por ejemplo, para decir en, se pueden emplear in , on y at . Por lo tanto se les debe prestar mucha atencin.

AT Puntos concretos. We stopped at the zoo. Paramos en el zoo. He was at the station. l estaba en la estacin. I was at home and my wife was at a meeting. Yo estaba en casa y mi mujer estaba en una reunin. Cafs y restaurantes We'll eat at MacDonald's, in San Juan Beach. Comeremos en el MacDonalds de la Playa de San Juan.

Sitios donde se est udia I was at school and then at university later on I worked at IBM. o trabaja. Fui al colegio, luego a la universidad y despus trabaj en IBM. Nombres de actividades de grupo He was at a meeting, then at the theatre and later at a concert and at a lecture, afterwards at a match and finally at the cinema. l estaba en una reunin, luego fue al teatro, despus a un concierto y a una conferencia, despus a un partido y, finalmente, al cine.

Con el nmero de la I lived at 35 Prncipe de Asturias. calle Yo viva en la calle Prncipe de Asturias 35. Horas I wake up at six. Me levanto a las seis. At Christmas I buy many presents and at Easter I go to
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Navidad y Pascua

the beach. En Navidad compro muchos regalos y en Pascua voy a la playa. Expresiones At present Im reading a novel. Ahora estoy leyendo una novela. He died at the age of 81. l falleci a la edad de 81 aos.

At night. Por la noche. At first sight. A primera vista.

At sunrise. Al amanecer At midnight. Al mediodia

At noon. Al mediodia

At sunset. Al atardecer

At this moment. At last. En este momento. Al fn. At the top. At work. En la parte de En el trabajo. arriba.

At the bus-stop. At the office. En la parada del En la oficina. autobs.

At the station. En la estacin.

At least. Al menos.

At the bottom. En la parte de abajo.

Otros.

It was love at first sight. Fue amor a primera vista. She is always at home. Ella siempre est en casa. At least it is a very good book. Al menos es un buen libro. At present they are working a lot. En este momento estn trabajando mucho. They were at war.

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Ellos estuvieron en guerra. The boss is at work El jefe est trabajando.

ON

Algo que est tocando We have a house on the river. o cercano a una lnea, Tenemos una casa al lado del ro. o algo parecido a una Benidorm is on the coast. lnea. Benidorm est en la costa. Elche is on the road to Murcia. Elche est en la carretera de Murcia. Cuando algo est tocando una superficie. The keys are on the table. Las llaves estn en la mesa. They fish on the lake. Ellos pescan en el lago. The new picture is on the wall. El nuevo cuadro est en la pared. Con transportes pblicos, caballos, motos y bicicletas. Con pisos. I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the bus. Yo la vi en el avin, tren, autobs. I live on the second floor. Yo vivo en el segundo piso. I study French on Monday. Yo estudio francs los lunes. On St. Valentines many people buy diamonds. El da de San Valentn mucha gente compra diamantes. Expresiones. The train arrived on time.

Das.

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El tren lleg en punto. He is on a business trip. Est de viaje de negocios. The soldier is on duty. El soldado est de servicio. He came on foot. Vino a pie. The house is still on sale. La casa est todava en venta. On the other hand, I dont like it. Por otra parte no me gusta. On the whole, It was a very good play. En resumidas cuentas, fue una buena obra. Pginas. On page 26 you will find the exercises. En la pgina 26 encontraris los ejercicios.

IN est My friends are in the cuartelillo. Mis amigos estn en el cuartelillo. The bottles are in the fridge. Las botellas estn en la nevera.

Cuando algo dentro de algo.

Con pases.

I live in Spain. Yo vivo en Espaa. They are in the Sahara. Ellos estn en el desierto del Sahara. We spent the summer in the Canary islands. Ellos pasaron el verano en las Islas Canarias. I have a pain in my stomach. Me duele la barriga. y I saw him in a new Mercedes.
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Con regiones.

Con grandes islas.

Partes del cuerpo.

Con

coche,

taxi

avioneta. Con algunos lugares.

Yo le vi en un nuevo Mercedes. In bed. En cama In hospital. En el hospital. In court. En el juzgado. In church. En la iglesia. In prison. En la crcel. I lived in Onesimo Redondo street. Yo viv en la calle Onsimo Redondo. I read the paper in the morning. Yo por las maanas leo el peridico. I got married in October. Yo me cas en el mes de Octubre. I met my wife in 1982. Conoc a mi mujer en el ao 1982. I go to San Juan beach in summer. Voy a la playa de San Juan en verano. In he l9th century people did not wear jeans. En el siglo XIX la gente no llevaba pantalones vaqueros. Spain was very rich in the Middle Ages. Espaa era muy rica en la Edad Media. He is always in a hurry. Siempre tiene prisa. In any case, you can come. De cualquier manera puedes venir.
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Nombres de calles.

Partes del da

Meses.

Aos.

Estaciones.

Siglos.

Perodos de tiempo.

Expresiones.

He was in danger. Estuvo en peligro. They are in love Est n enamorados. Everything is in order. Todo est en orden. In other words, I love you. En otras palabras, te quiero. I will tell you in private. Te lo dir en privado. She was in tears Estaba llorando.

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PREPOSICIONES MAS USADAS.


Aboard. A bordo. About. Sobre. Above. Por encima de. Across. A travs de. After. Despus. Against. Contra. Along. A lo largo de. I was aboard a yatch. Estuve a bordo de un yate. I was talking about music. Estuve hablando de msica. Above all I love my family. Quiero a mi familia por encima de todo. I walked across the park. Camin a travs del parque. After the meeting I went to the doctor. Despus de la reunin fui al mdico. It was against the public opinion. Todo fue en contra de la opinin pblica. I found many good people along the way. Me encontr mucha buena gente a lo largo del camino. I found a letter among the books. Entre los libros encontr una carta. I travelled around the world. Viaj alrededor del mundo. I was at the zoo. Estuve en el zoo. Before eating I read the press. Antes de comer leo el peridico. There was a mouse behind the door. Haba un ratn detrs de la puerta. The temperatures were below zero. Las temperaturas estaban por debajo de cero.

Among. Entre. Around. Alrededor de. At. En. Before. Antes de. Behind. Detrs de. Below. Por debajo de.

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Beside. Al lado de. Between. Entre (2). Beyond. Mas all de. By. Por.

I was beside the Mayor at the table. Estuve al lado del alcalde en la mesa. Between you and me there is magic. Entre t y yo hay magia. I live beyond the road. Vivo ms all de la carretera. Hamlet was written by Shakespeare. Shakespeare escribi Hamlet . I always travel by plane. Siempre viajo en avin. He comes everyday by bus l viene todos los das en autobs. He did it by chance. Lo hizo por casualidad. By far he is the best. l es el mejor con mucho. You must learn this by heart Debes aprenderte esto de memoria. He did it by mistake. Lo hizo por error. He got me by surprise. Me cogi por sorpresa. Go down the street. Ve calle abajo. During the summer I have a great time. Durante el verano me lo paso muy bien. Except for the price, I like it very much. Excepto por el precio me gusta mucho. I have lived in this flat for 20 years.
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Down. Abajo. During. Durante. Except. Excepto. For.

Durante, desde, hace. From. Desde.

He vivido en este piso durante veinte aos. From June to September I go swimming to the salt lake. Desde Junio a Septiembre voy a nadar al lago de sal. She was sittting in front of me. Estaba sentada delante de m. I was in Greece in 1992. Estuve en Grecia en el ao 1992. I went into a taxi. Sub a un taxi. There was a disco near my house. Haba una discoteca cerca de mi casa. I live next to the theatre. Vivo al lado del teatro. The son of Peter and Mary is tall. El hijo de Pedro y Mara es alto. Tabarca is off the coast of Santa Pola. Tabarca est en frente de la costa de Santa Pola. My keys are on the table. Mis llaves estn en la mesa.

In front of. Delante de. In. En. Into. En, Dentro de. Near. Cerca. Next to. Al lado de. Of. De. Off. En frente y separado. On. En. (Sobre).

I jumped onto the car. Onto. En. (indica movimiento) Salt sobre el coche. Opposite. Enfrente de. Out of. Fuera de. I live opposite the cinema Vivo enfrente del cine. Please go out of the class. Por favor sal fuera de clase. He was out of control. Estaba fuera de s.

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At the moment he is out of work. Ahora no tiene trabajo Out of sight out of mind. Ojos que no ven, corazn que no siente. There is a bridge over the Vinalop river. Hay un puente sobre el ro Vinalop. I walk past your house in the morning. Paso por al lado de tu casa por la maana. We went round the park. Fuimos alrededor del parque. She hasn t written to me since last January. No me ha escrito desde el pasado mes de Enero. He came in through the gate. Entr a travs de la puerta. Til now Ive lived in Monovar. Hasta ahora yo he vivido en Monvar. I go to Sax every Saturday. Voy a Sax cada Sbado. The WC is towards the end. El aseo est hacia el final. The children are under the table. Los nios estn debajo de la mesa. Until I was ten, I lived in Petrel. Hasta que tuve diez aos viv en Petrel. They are up the stairs. Ellos estn arriba de las escaleras. It was upon a cushion. Estaba sobre un cojn. One upon a time a little rabbit called Perico. rase una vez un pequeo conejo llamado Perico..
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Over. Sobre. Past. Por al lado de. Round. Alrededor. Since. Desde. Through. A travs de. Till. Hasta. To. A. Towards. Hacia. Under. Debajo de. Until. Hasta. Up. Arriba Upon. Sobre Once upon. Hace

With. Con Within. Dentro de. Without. Sin.

I was with him in the military service. Estuve con l en la mili. It is within two kilometres. Est antes de dos kilmetros. I cant live without you. Yo no puedo vivir sin ti.

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Existen en ingls una gran cantidad de adjetivos que siempre van acompaados por una preposicin. With. Angry with. Enfadado con. Satisfied with. Satisfecho con. Happy with. Feliz con. About. Worried about.
Preocupado por.

To. Married to. Casado con. Polite to. Educado con.

At. Good at. Bueno en.

Of.

For.

Proud of. Ready for. Orgulloso de. Listo para.

Sorry about. Bad at. Triste por. Malo en.

Ashamed of. Suitable for. Avergonzado Adecuado de. para. Afraid of. Temeroso de.

Surprised at. Sorprendido por.

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1) I will meet her.................the station. a - At b - In c - On 2) Please hang it................the wall. a - On b - At c - In 3) This happened ...................Saturday. a - On b - In c - At 4) ...................the past things were different. a - On b - At c - In 5) My grandmother was always.................home. a - At b - In c - On 6) You must change ................Albacete. a - In b - On c - At 7) I prefer to stay ........the right hand side. a - In b - On c - At 8) Please look...............the mirror. a - At b - In c - On 9) We live ...................the second floor. a - In b - On c - At 10) Monforte is .................the road to Alicante. a - On b - In c - At 11) He always pays.................cash.
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a - On b - In c - At 12) Arenales del Sol is .................the coast. a - On b - In c - At 13) He is very good .............music. a - In b - On c - At 14) I will see you........Monday. a - In b - On c - At 15) I saw you............television. a - In b - On c - At 16) I heard it........Radio Elda. a - In b - On c - At 17) He is always ......a bad mood. a - In b - On c - At 18) ......the moment things are very different. a - In b - At c - On 19) .......Christmas we eat a lot of nougats. a - In b - At c - On 20) ........Christmas day we eat relleno. a - In b - On c - At 21) He was ........the Navy.
146

a - In b - On c - At 22) They were......both sides of the road. a - In b - On c - At 23) She drives ........full speed. a - At b - In c - On 24) The house is ........good condition. a - In b - At c - On 25) It was always........my mind. a - In b - On c - At 26) My grandmother died........the age of 80. a - At b - In c - On 27) ........present they are very busy. a In b - On c - At 28) Most people ............Elda prefer to go to the beach. a - In b - On c - At 29) Please don't speak................the same time. a - At b - In c - On 30) I don't work............Sunday. a - In b - On c - At 31) I wake up.........8.00. a - At
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b - In c - On 32) Aida was born.......1934. a - In b - On c - At 33) I run..............night. a - In b - On c - At 34) My daughters play with me .........home. a - In b - On c - At 35) I look at the stars..................night. a - At b - In c - On 36) My birthday is .......November. a - On b - In c - At 37) The book is.......the table. a - On b - In c - At 38) The coke is.........the kitchen. a - In b - On c - At 39) I am writing .........the blackboard. a - In b - On c - At 40) The chocalates are ............the box. a - On b - At c - In 41) I am.................Spain. a - For
148

b - From c - Foreign 42) They are .............the theatre now. a - At b - On c - In 43) The train arrives......................Victoria station. a - At b - In c - On 44) Please tell me..........................once. a - In b - At c - On 45) I waited for half an hour, and .......................last he came. a - On b - In c - At 46) He is sitting...........................an armchair. a - In b - On c - At 47) The picture is .......................the wall. a - At b - In c - On 48) I put my hands ..................my pockets. a - On b - At c - In 49) The shop is ........................Juan Carlos I street. a - In b - At c - On 50) We go to church ......................Sundays. a - At b - In c - On 51) It is .............................the foot of the page. a - At b - On
149

c - In 52) .....................my opinion, it is a very good book. a - In b - At c - On 53) He is...........................the garden. a - On b - In c - At 54) I am living .................a hotel near here. a - In b - On c - At 55) The milk's .......................................the fridge. a - In b - At c On 56) They sat ...........................the wall. a - On b - At c - In 57) They made the film ....................Petrel. a - In b - At c - On 58) I saw them ......................................the station. a - In b - At c - On 59) Mary's not here - she's....................the office. a - On b - In c - At 60) They were sitting ............................the floor. a - In b - On c - At 61) The ham is...................................the shelf in the kitchen. a - On b - In
150

c - At 62) The money's.....................................my pocket. a - At b - On c - In 63) They are all......................................the garden. a - At b - In c - On 64) The papers are................................my desk. a - In b - At c - On 65) They are all.....................................the car. a - On b - At c - In 66) He's not..........................................work today. a - On b - In c - At 67) I'll see you ........................................Monday. a - In b - At c - On 68) I met him .........................................the holidays. a - At b - In c - On 69) I'll pick you up..........................eight o'clock. a - At b - In c - On 70) I'm going home.................................four. a - On b - In c - At 71) They came to visit us ....................my birthday. a - In

151

b - At c - On 72) I can work ................the morning. a - At b - In c - On 73) Did you have a good time ......................Christmas? a - In b - At c - On 74) School finishes ..................................three o'clock. a - On b - In c - At 75) We arranged to meet ..........................Seven. a - At b - In c - On 76) I'll meet you............................the station. a - At b - In c - On 77) He's still..........................................school. a - At b - In c - On 78) That picture....................the wall was painted by Vladi Monz. a - In b - At c - On 79) He's................................................the building somewhere. a - On b - At c - In 80) You could phone me.....................work. a - On b - In c - At 81) Why don't you stay........................home? a - At b - In
152

c - On 82) He'll be...........................................prison for robbery. a - In b - At c - On 83) I'm studying law..............................University. a - In b - On c - At 84) Is he...............................................hospital? a - In b - On c - At 85) I'll see you......................................the meeting tomorrow. a - At b - In c - On 86) We're meeting...............................7.00 on Tuesday. a - At b - On c - In 87) We usually go .................................holiday to Tabarca. a - At b - On c - In 88) What are you doing.........................Christmas? a - On b - In c - At 89) I don't sleep much.............................night. a - In b - On c - At 90) What about going to see 'Hamlet "....................the 15th. a - At b - In c - On 91) Ill wait for you............the airport. a - At b - In c - On
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92) My wife is........the kitchen. a - In b - On c - At 93) I was .......the station. a - In b - On c - At 94) The water is..........the fridge. a - On b - In c - At 95) They are........the floor. a - In b - On c - At 96) The book is ..........the table. a - In b - On c - At 97) My mother is.........home. a - On b - In c - At 98) My house is..............the road to Sax. a - In b - On c - At 99) I work..................Villena. a - In b - On c At 100) The TV is a - In b - On c - At 101) Come ........., let's go and watch TV. a - On b - In c - At
154

102) Teresa's ...........the phone. a - In b - On c - At 103) Please hurry ............. a - Down b - In c - Up 104) ...............last. a - At b - In c - On 105) Hold ......................a moment. a - In b - At c - On 106) It's always better to try new clothes .......... a - On b - In c - At 107) .........cash. a - In b - On c - At 108) ..............credit card. a - By b - With c - In 109) I have to be..............home. I must study. a - At b - In c - On 110) Would you like to come ............a concert with me? a - To b - From c - At 111) Come ..............about ten o'clock. a - At b - In c - On
155

112) I was sitting .........the garden reading the news about Elda. a - At b - In c - On 113) I'll ring ..............a pizza. a - For b - From c - To 114) There was a very beautiful woman ...................the crossroads near Castelar Square. a - In b - On c - At 115) What .......a T-shirt? a - Around b - About c - Again 116) Yes I went ........a tour in Mexico. a - On b - In c - At 117) The car is .............sale now. a - In b - On c - At 118) I'm really looking ...............to the concert! a - For b - Forward c - Up 119) They are .................High School. a - At b - In c - On 120) That depends .....your grades. a - On b - In c - At 121) I intend to get a job ........weekends. a - In b - On c - At 122) It looks great ......!
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a - On b - In c - At 123) This is celebrated ......the fourth Thursday of November. a - On b - In c - At 124) We can have a picnic ..................the beach. a - In b - On c - At 125) He's 10 and he's mad ................Harry Potter. a - In b - At c - On 126) He is the expert ......................computers. a - In b - On c - At 127) How ..............going out for a drink. a - Around b - Aside c - About 128) I'll bring you a present ........the journey. a - In b - Up c - On 129) I'm really looking ..........to visiting Berna. a - Forward b - For c - Fast 130) We look ............him as one of the family. a - On b - In c - At 131) Can I pay ........credit card? a - With b - By c - As 132) I must go ...........a diet. a - On
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b - At c - In 133) If you don't know the meaning of the word look it ........in the dictionary. a - Up b - For c - Forward 134) Perhaps I should give ............smoking. a - Up b - At c - On 135) Many are open ........the public. a - Up b - To c - In 136) It's great while you are .....................holiday. a - On b - In c - At 137) Where did you park the car? It's .............Pedrito Rico Road. a - In b - On c - At 138) Tommy, don't sit on the floor, sit..................the chair. a - On b - In c - At 139) Where is the supermarket? It's ...............Dahellos Road. a - In b - Into c - On 140) Inma, please sit.....................the chair. a - On b - By c - At 141) They arrived ................Elda yesterday. a - In b - On c - At 142) I was listening to the news .........................TV when the baby began to scream. a - On
158

b - In c - At 143) We waited a couple of hours......the airport. a - At b - In c - On 144) We play tennis.......the club every Monday. a - In b - On c - At 145) We were.......theatre last night. a - In b - On c - At 146) I studied ........don Emilio's school from 1968 to 1975. a - In b - On c - At 147) I met her ..........a lecture. a - On b - In c - At 148) She studied........Oxford. a - On b - At c - Of 149) She lives.....Oxford. a - In b - On c - At 150) We live......the frontier. a - On b - In c - At 151) Elda is ......the road to Albacete. a - In b - On c - At 152) All the pictures are......the wall. a - On b - In
159

c - At 153) I live ......the second floor. a - In b - At c - On 154) I was born......Elda. a - On b - In c - At 155) We have a house......the coast. a - In b - On c - At 156) I met her..........the croosroads. a - At b - In c - On 157) I lived ......a desert island like Robinson Crusoe for a month. a - On b - In c - At 158) I always travel ..........the plane. a - On b - At c - In 159) I met her......the bus. a - On b - In c - At 160) I found a wallet.......taxi. a - In b - On c - At 161) I studied Shakespeare.........college. a - At b - In c - On 162) We arrived .......France in 1990. a - At b - In
160

c - On 163) We arrived ........Paris in 1991. a - At b - On c - In 164) I live........1 Plaza Mayor. a - In b - On c - At 165) .......the weekend we go to Rabosa. a - At b - In c - On 166) ......lunch time we drink coke. a - In b - On c - At 167) ......the age of 11 I went to Alicante. a - In b - On c - At 168) ......the beginning of the book I didn't like very much. a - In b - On c - At 169) ........first sight I fell in love with her. a - At b - In c - On 170) We became friends.......last. a - In b - On c - At 171) We go shopping..................Mondays. a - On b - In c - At 172) ........Christmas day my family come home. a - In b - On c - At
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173) ........the morning I never drink coffee. a - At b - In c - On 174) .......1998 I got married. a - In b - On c - At 175) I like going to the mountains......spring. a - In b - On c - At 176) .......the Middle Ages many cathedrals were built. a - On b - In c - At 177) I'll be back.......five hours. a - In b - On c - At 178) Trains in Spain now arrive........time. a - In b - On c - At 179) You must be ......time for the plane. a - In b - On c - At 180) In the USA everybody works.......nine to five. a - For b - From c - Since 181) Holidays in Spain are.......July to September. a - For b - From c - At 182) All the trains come......Alicante. a - From b - For c - Up 183) We are going .................the cinema tonight.
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a - At b - To c - In 184) They went .......the car. a - In b - Into c - On 185) We all ran ....................the church because it was raining cats and dogs. a - In b - Into c - At 186) When we go to Madrid we always go......train. a - By b - On c - In 187) The safest way to travel is.......road. a - On b - In c - By 188) We got.......the bus at 8.00. a - In b - On c - By 189) I go to work........foot. a - In b - On c - By 190) Most students at the University work ......part time jobs such as Tele Pizza and so on. a - As b - On c - In 191) A car came.......the right. a - For b - From c - By 192) A lorry crashed.......my car. a - Into b - Up c - To 193) .......Christmas Eve we have dinner together.
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a - In b - At c - On 194) Everybody in Elda is looking.......to the Moors and Christians festivities. a - For b - Forwards c - Forward 195) My factory passed ........the hands of my uncle. a - In b - Into c - To 196) The shop opened......the public in 1989. a - At b - For c - To 197) She is always worried........money. a - Around b - Aside c - About 198) You must always look........ a - Ahead b - Head c - Heading 199) ......Lent people many people don't eat meat. a - At b - On c - In 200) She won't be back......the end of May. a - As b - Until c - At 201) In the middle ....................August we organise many BBQs. a - From b - Of c - On 202) People .......the beach should drink water all the time. a - In b - On c - At 203) I couldn't play tennis because I had to look...........my daughter. a - For
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b - After c - Up 204) I went for a walk........Castelar Square. a - About b - Afloat c - Around 205) Antonio Poveda gave a lecture.................Roman culture. a - For b - Of c - On 206) The girl........the window is Mara. a - By b - In c - On 207) You should send the letters ......advance. a - On b - At c - In 208) My father-in-law arrived...........Alicante airport from Italy yesterday. He went to Lineapelle. a - In b - At c - On 209) The tickets for the opera must be booked well........advance. a - In b - On c - At 210) Sarah has a room ........her own and so does Inmita. a - Of b - From c - For 211) You must be very good if you want to get........one these college. a - In b - Into c - To 212) It will depend....................the amount of money. a - In b - On c - At 213) We always play badminton......weekends. a - On
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b - In c - At 214) Why don't we prepare a BBQ........San Juan beach. a - On b - In c - At 215) My friend is mad......books. a - In b - On c - At 216) He told her to shut......her mouth. a - Up b - At c - By 217) My house is ..................the cinemas. a - Near b - Near of c - Near off 218) The park is......................the hospital. a - Next b - Next to c - Next about 219) Sol y Nive is.....................the bookshop. a - Opposite b - Opposite of c - Off opposite 220) Jess ngel is.......Palencia a - From b - On c - At Soluciones
1. 11. 21. 31. 41. 51. 61. 71. 81. 91. A B A B B B B C A A 2. 12. 22. 32. 42. 52. 62. 72. 82. 92. A A B A C B C B A A 3. 13. 23. 33. 43. 53. 63. 73. 83. 93. A C A C A B B B C C 4. 14. 24. 34. 44. 54. 64. 74. 84. 94. C B A C B A C C A B 5. 15. 25. 35. 45. 55. 65. 75. 85. 95. A B A A C A C A A B 6. 16. 26. 36. 46. 56. 66. 76. 86. 96. A B A B A A C A A B 7. 17. 27. 37. 47. 57. 67. 77. 87. 97. B A C A C A C B B C 8. 18. 28. 38. 48. 58. 68. 78. 88. 98. A B A A C C B C C B 9. 19. 29. 39. 49. 59. 69. 79. 89. 99. B B A B A C A C C A 10. 20. 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. A B B C C B C C C

100. B 110. A

101. A

102. B

103. C

104. A

105. C

106. A

107. A

108. A

109. A

166

111. A 121. B 131. B 141. A 151. B 161. A 171. A 181. B 191. B 201. B 211. B

112. B 122. A 132. A 142. A 152. A 162. B 172. B 182. A 192. A 202. B 212. B

113. A 123. A 133. A 143. A 153. C 163. C 173. B 183. B 193. C 203. B 213. A

114. C 124. B 134. A 144. C 154. B 164. C 174. A 184. B 194. C 204. C 214. A

115. B 125. C 135. B 145. C 155. B 165. A 175. A 185. B 195. B 205. C 215. B

116. A 126. B 136. A 146. C 156. A 166. C 176. B 186. A 196. C 206. A 216. A

117. A 127. C 137. C 147. C 157. A 167. C 177. A 187. C 197. C 207. C 217. A

118. B 128. C 138. A 148. B 158. A 168. C 178. B 188. B 198. A 208. B 218. B

119. A 129. A 139. A 149. A 159. A 169. A 179. A 189. B 199. A 209. A 219. A

120. A 130. A 140. A 150. A 160. A 170. C 180. B 190. C 200. B 210. A 220. A

167

ADVERBIOS
Son modificadores de adjetivos, adverbios y oraciones. Con el verbo ser y los verbos defectivos, se colocan detrs. Algunos se forman aadiendo ly al adjetivo, otros como: fast , hard, late, early tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos. He writes quite quickly. Escribe bastante deprisa. It is very cheap. Es muy barato. Perhaps they will win. Quizs ganen.

Modificando adverbios.

Modificando adjetivos.

Modificando frases.

I am just going to sleep for half an hour. Voy a dormir media hora. He runs fast. l corre rpido. Los adverbios de lugar y tiempo se suelen colocar al principio o al final de una frase.

Yesterday I bought a CD. Ayer compr un CD. I will go tomorrow. Yo ir maana. Los de lugar suelen preceder a los de tiempo

I met Pilar at Castelar yesterday. Me encontr a Pilar ayer en Castelar. El comparativo y superlativo lo hacen igual que los adjetivos. Sooner. Ms pronto. More quickly. The soonest. Lo ms pronto. The most quickly.
168

Soon. Pronto. Quickly.

Rpidamente.

Ms rpido.

Lo ms rpidamente.

Con los tiempos compuestos se coloca delante del verbo principal. They have nearly finished our swimming pool. Ellos casi han acabado nuestra piscina. Already, just , now y then, pueden ir entre dos formas verbales.

I have already seen her. Ya la he visto. I have just come back from India. Acabo de regresar de India. Los de frecuencia: always, never, usually, sometimes, se colocan entre el sujeto y el verbo, pero cuando es el verbo to be, se colocan detrs.

I never drink coffee. Nunca bebo caf. I always go to Alicante in the summer. Siempre voy a Alicante en verano.

CLASIFICACIN
FRECUENCIA Often. Con frecuencia. Frequently. Frecuenteme nte. Sometimes. A veces. Always. Siempre. Never. Nunca. LUGAR Away. Fuera. MODO Fast. Rpido. GRADO Enough. Suficiente. TIEMPO Yesterday. Ayer.

There. All.

Well. Bien.

Very. Mucho.

Daily. Diariamente.

Near. Cerca. Here. Aqu.

Slowly. Almost. Lentamente. Casi. Undoubtedly Hardly. Sin duda. A penas. Rather. Bastante.

Last week. La semana pasada. Tomorrow. Maana.

169

INTERROGATIVOS
Where. Dnde? Why. Por qu? When. Cundo? Which. Cul? How. Cmo? How far. A qu distancia? How long. Cunto tiempo? How often. Con qu
frecuencia?

Ojo con enough, pues puede tener dos posiciones:

I have enough money. Tengo suficiente dinero. I am rich enough to buy a car. Soy lo suficientemente rico como para comprar un coche.

Recuerda RICH ENOUGH MONEY. Enough lleva delante a los adjetivos y detrs a los nombres. El orden de los adverbios suele ser modo, lugar y tiempo.

I walk fast there in the morning. Yo ando all rpido por la maana. Muchos adverbios tienen la misma forma que los adjetivos.

A fast motorbike Una moto rpida. A motorbike that runs fast. Una moto que corre rpida.

170

1) That's ............. a - Enough b - Enougher c - Enoughing 2) It's not ..........................long. a - To b - Too c - As 3) It's .........fair. a - No b - None c - Not 4) In the USA there are ...........public and private universities. a - Both b - All c - Every 5) ...............is the University? a - Where b - When c - Whom 6) ............all cars here are automatic. a - Nearly b - Near c - Close 7) It says .......diving! a - Not b - No c - Any 8) ............would I. a - So b - As c - Some 9) I suppose ....... a - As b - So c - So as so 10) My wife feels ..........nervous about driving in England. a - Too b - To c - Tooth 11) There is ...........a variety of things.
171

a - Such b - So c - Very 12) That girl is ............................pretty. a - As b - So many c - So 13) I............smoke......drink alcohol. a - Either-nor b - Neither-nor c - Neither-nir 14) They went he cinema.. a - Now b Yesterday c - Tomorrow 15) Cul es la correcta? a - The house is big enough b - The house is enough big c - The house enough big 16) Cmo se denominan a los siguientes adverbios: almost, only, nearly, enough, far, just, quite, rather, so, too, very, etc? a - De frecuencia b - De grado c - De modo 17) ......Horacio and Pepe go to Elche on Monday. a - All b - Both c - None 18) This wine is........Rioja or Ribera del Duero. a - Either b - Neither c - So 19) We ..................speak Valenciano nor French. a - Either b - Neither c - Nor 20) I ....................smoke nor drink wine. a - Neither b - Either c - So 21) His French is very.....
172

a - Well b - Good c - Better 22) My daughters are .......sleeping. a - Quietly b - Quiet c - Quieter 23) They prepare the gazpachos...... a - Perfect b - Perfectly c - Perfecting 24) My friend Toms is a .........driver. a - Carefully b - Care c - Careful 25) Tom Cruise and Nicole Kidman were.......married until they got a divorce. a - Happy b - Happily c - Hapili 26) He is always very......and sends me a Jabugo ham on November the 30th. a - Kindly b - Kaind c - Kind 27) She is very......in English. a - Fluently b - Fluent c - Fluents 28) We never speak..........about our friends. a - Badder b - Badly c - Worse 29) Inma likes Nesquick because it melts................. a - Quick b - Quickly c - Quicker than 30) She never has.........to buy what she needs. a - Money enough b - Enough money c - Enough monei 31) Everybody has ..........to make the beds. a - Now
173

b - Yesterday c - Best 32) There are.......good and bad methods of learning a language. a - All b - Neither c - Both 33) Everybody spent the afternoon... a - Happier b - Happy c - Happily 34) It was.............understood by all the students. a - Easy b - Easily c - Easier that 35) It had been .........decided that a Ford Fiesta was the best option. a - Quick b - Quicker c - Quickly 36) The party was.........planned. a - Wonderfully b - Wonder c - Wonderful 37) ........it is not very clear if you are entitled or not to inherit the money. a - Legally b - Legal c - Legaly 38) I don't think so...... a - Personally b - Personal c - Personaly 39) He drives.......... a - Fast b - Fasting c - Fastest 40) We always arrive............... a - Early b - Earliest c - The earlier 41) My parents work.............. a - Hard b - Harder than
174

c - The hard 42) Mara Callas sang .................... a - Beautifully b - Beautiful c - Beatifuler

175

Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. B 31. A 41. A 2. B 12. C 22. A 32. C 42. A 3. C 13. B 23. B 33. C 4. A 14. B 24. C 34. B 5. A 15. A 25. B 35. C 6. A 16. B 26. C 36. A 7. B 17. B 27. B 37. A 8. A 18. A 28. B 38. A 9. B 19. B 29. B 39. A 10. A 20. A 30. B 40. A

176

YET, STILL, ALREADY, DURING Y AGO


Yet. I haven't finished the job yet. Va al final de la oracin en No he acabado el trabajo todava. interrogativas y negativas. Con el Have you seen her yet? pretrito perfecto, an, todava. La has visto ya? Still. Va detrs del verbo to be. Todava. My sister is still working . Mi hermana est todava trabajando.

Va entre sujeto y verbo en afirmativas I still love her. Todava la quiero. e interrogativas Do they still live in Sax? Viven ellos todava en Sax? He still hasnt paid. Va detrs del sujeto en negativas. Da l todava no ha pagado. nfasis Already. This car is already too old. Va detrs de to be. Este coche es ya demasiado viejo. Already. En posicin final enfatiza. He has the tickets already. l ya tiene las entradas.

Already. I have already bought the grapes. Se coloca entre el auxiliar y el verbo Ya he comprado las uvas. en afirmativas e interrogativas. Have you already bought the books? Has comprado ya los libros? During. During the summer I go to Santa Pola. Indica un perodo de tiempo dentro Durante el verano voy a Santa Pola. de otro. Ago. Se coloca al final de la oracin. I went to Elche two days ago. Fui a Elche hace dos das.

177

1) He is ..........in bed. He has been sleeping all night long. a - Yet b - Still c - Already 2) She is ................waiting for the bus. a - Yet b - Still c - Since 3) They ..................go to the mountains although they are 80. a - Still b - Yet c - Already 4) Have you done your homework...................? a - Still b - Yet c - Already 5) I am .............working there but I will change very soon. a - Still b - Yet c - Already 6) Has he come..............? a - Yet b - Still c - Already 7) They are.....................playing football. a - Yet b - Still c - Already 8) He has.....................come back from school. a - Already b - Yet c - St ill 9) I' ve worked in Elche ...................six years. a - Since b - For c - Ago 10) l lived here in San Francisco ...................three months. a - For b - Since c - Ago 11) I've worked in the same factory ...................1970.
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a - Since b - For c - Ago 12) He's been abroad ...................five years. a - For b - Since c - Ago 13) I studied French .............twelve years. a - Since b - For c - Ago 14) I' ve known her ..............1982. a - Ago b - Since c - For 15) I've lived in Elda ...................I was a child. a - Since b - For c - Ago 16) We have not been in Rome ...........we were married. a - For b - Since c - Ago 17) I've known them ................years. a - Ago b - For c - Since 18) We have been painting the room ...........2 months. a - Ago b - Since c - For 19) I studied Italian ........a couple of months. a - For b - Since c - Ago 20) She has been working here ...................she left school. a - For b - Since c - Ago 21) I have been working in the restaurant ................six months. a - For
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b - Ago c - Since 22) He has been in prison..................nine years. a - Ago b - Since c - For 23) I haven't been to Tabarca .................I was at the University. a - Since b - For c - Ago 24) I haven't seen my friend Mara ...................several years. a - Since b - For c - Ago 25) We lived in Villena ........................1950. a - For b - Since c - Ago 26) I have been writing a novel .................seven years. a - Ago b - For c - Since 27) They have been going to England ...................1983. a - Since b - Ago c - For 28) Horacio has been waiting for his wife......................8 o'clock. a - Since b - For c - Ago 29) Pepica has lived in Salinas........................................she was ten years old. a - For b - Since c - Ago 30) They are married. They got married six months ........ a - For b - Since c - Ago 31) My sister has been reading a book ...........................a long time. a - Ago b - For
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c - Since 32) I've been swimming every Friday ............................I was thirteen. a - Since b - For c - Ago 33) She is in London now. She arrived there four days ................ a - For b - Since c - Ago 34) Clemente has been writing an article ........................September. a - Ago b - For c - Since 35) Ana has been working in Elche..................................9 o'clock. a - For b - Since c - Ago 36) Rosi has been buying presents...................................Christmas. a - Since b - For c - Ago 37) Marano has been playing tennis ...............................he was thirty. a - Ago b - Since c - For 38) Jess has been working in this project..............October. a - Since b - Ago c - For 39) She's been in London .....................Monday. a - For b - Since c - Ago 40) It is raining. It started an hour ............... a - Ago b - For c - Since 41) He has been ill .........a long time. a - For b - Since c - Ago
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42) Manoln has lived in Aspe ..................................15 years. a - Since b - For c - Ago 43) That old house has been empty .............many years. a - Ago b - Since c - For 44) Pili is in her office. She's been there ..............7 o'clock. a - Ago b - For c - Since 45) The bus is late. We've been waiting .........................20 minutes. a - Since b - For c - Ago 46) Tere is here. She has been in Majorca ..........6 months a - For b - Ago c - Since 47) I know Pepe. I first met him two years .............. a - Since b - For c - Ago 48) I have a camera. I have it .............................................1985. a - Since b - Ago c - For 49) Laura is studying Medicine ............................1987. a - Ago b - For c - Since 50) I've been learning English.............................January. a - For b - Ago c - Since 51) My brother's been working in Alicante ................2 years. a - For b - Since c - Ago

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52) We've been trying to buy a house..................years now. a - Since b - For c - Ago 53) I've only been cycling to work......................two months. a - For b - Since c - Ago 54) Haven't you done it ....................? a - Ago b - Yet c - For 55) It's very early, are you in bed ..? a - Yet b - Already c Still 56) We haven't seen the new Harry Potter film ... a - Yet b - Already c - Still 57) It's late and Juan is ...........in bed. a - Already b - Still c - Yet 58) It's very late and your brother is...... a - Still in bed b - Still in the bed c - Already in bed 59) How long has Pepe been in hospital? ........seven days. a - Ago b - For c - Since 60) It rained a lot.......the night. a - For b - Since c - During 61) ........our stay in London we visited many museums. a - Since b - During c - For
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62) He ...........works in the same company. a - Still b - For c - Yet 63) Are they.........waiting for the doctor? a - Still b - Yet c - Already 64) I haven't read the book about Garzon...... a - Yet b - Still c - Already 65) I haven't written my Christmas cards...... a - Still b - Yet c - Already 66) My ford fiesta is.........very old. a - Already b - Still c - Yet 67) I ................know the answer. a - Still b - Already c - Yet 68) The leathers came five minutes... a - Since b - For c - Ago 69) It's at least five months ......I met her for the last time. a - Since b - For c - Ago 70) I haven't finished........ a - Yet b - Already c - Still

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Soluciones 1. B 11. A 21. A 31. B 41. A 51. A 61. B 2. B 12. A 22. C 32. A 42. B 52. B 62. A 3. A 13. B 23. A 33. C 43. C 53. A 63. A 4. B 14. B 24. B 34. C 44. C 54. B 64. A 5. A 15. A 25. B 35. B 45. B 55. A 65. B 6. A 16. B 26. B 36. A 46. A 56. A 66. A 7. B 17. B 27. A 37. B 47. C 57. B 67. B 8. A 18. C 28. A 38. A 48. A 58. A 68. C 9. B 19. A 29. B 39. B 49. C 59. B 69. A 10. A 20. B 30. C 40. A 50. C 60. C 70. A

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EL IMPERATIVO
Se usa para dar rdenes y hacer sugerencias o consejos. Carece de forma interrogativa.

AFIRMATIVA
Infinitivo sin t o. Go home. Ve a casa. Come here. Ven aqu. Lets go home, its late. Vayamos a casa es tarde.

NEGATIVA
Do not + Inf sin t o. Dont drink too much. No bebas demasiado.

FORMA ENFTICA
Do go home. Vete a casa ya.

El imperativo puede servir para hacer sugerencias, invitaciones, ruegos.

Do se puede usar con el verbo to be

Do be quiet. Estte quieto. Dont be cruel to her. No seas cruel con ella. Si utilizamos you indica irritacin.

Dont you go. No se te ocurra ir. El imperativo de la primera persona de plural se hace con lets. La negativa con lets not .

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Lets go. Vayamos

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1) Let's ....... a - Thinks b - Thinking c - Think 2) ..............that music down please. a - Play b - Turn c - Put 3) Let's ..............a good restaurant, I am very hungry. a - Finding b - Found c - Find 4) Why don't we go to the beach and ..............a swim. a - Have b - Has c - Had 5) Let's .........home. a - Went b - Go c - Gone 6) Boys, ......................here. a - Come b - To come c - Comes 7) Manolo, .................go to the disco tonight. a - Let us b - We let's c - We let 8) Pepita, ...down here. a - Sitting b - Sits c - Sit 9) ........here at once. a - Come b - Coming c - To cime 10) .the room before 7.00. a - Clean b - Cleaning c - Cleans 11) Let.................come.
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a - Her b - She c - Hers 12) Let................go. a - Him b - He c - His 13) Let's......go to the cinema, it's better a disco. a - Not b - No c - None 14) ......a girlfriend who share your hobbies. a - Choose b - To choose c - Choosing 15) ......your mouth close all the time, only answer if the teaches asks you. a - Keep b - To keep c - Keeps 16) Please.......................on the lights. a - To switch b - Switch c - Switching 17) Don't forget ...............the letters. a - Posted b - To post c - Posts

189

Soluciones 1. C 11. A 2. B 12. A 3. C 13. A 4. A 14. A 5. B 15. A 6. A 16. B 7. A 17. B 8. C 9. A 10. A

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EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
Equivale al presente de indicativo. Se forma con el sujeto ms el infinitivo. La tercera persona del singular, ( he, she, e it ) aaden -s o -es. Las reglas ortogrficas que aprendiste en la formacin del plural son las mismas que se aplican en est e caso a los verbos. Los verbos que terminan en -ss, sh, -ch, -x, -o aaden -es en la tercera persona del singular:

AFIRMATIVA

Sujeto + Inf sin to

I play tennis. Yo juego al tenis.

He, she, it aaden (s) o He kisses his mother. l besa a su madre. (es) He watches TV everyday. l ve la tele todos los das. NEGATIVA Sujeto + do + not + Inf sin I dont like cocido. No me gusta el cocido. to. He, She, It usan does. He doesnt love her. l no la quiere. He doesnt want to come. l no quiere venir. He doesnt read much. l no lee mucho. Do + not contrae en We dont smoke. Nosotros no fumamos. dont. Does + not contra en He doesnt cook. l no cocina. doesnt. INTERROGATIVA Do + S + Inf sin to. Do you love me? Me quieres?

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PRINCIPALES USOS
Indicar hbitos o costumbres. I never go to the university by car. Yo nunca voy en coche a Universidad. The sun rises everyday. El sol sale todos los das. The play begins at 8 and ends at 10.30. La obra comienza a las 8 y acaba a las 10.30. la

Para indicar verdades universales.

Para planes futuros.

Para contar historias, cuentos, chistes, A waiter asks a couple. Un camarero le pregunta a la pareja. acontecimientos deportivos, etc. En el llamado presente histrico. Colombus discovers America in 1492. Coln descubre Amrica en 1492. The plane leaves at 7.00. El avin sale a las 7.00. Time flies. El tiempo vuela.

Horarios.

Con refranes.

Se suele usar con adverbios o frases adverbiales tales como Never. Nunca. Occasionally.
Ocasionalmente.

Always. Siempre.

Often. Con frecuencia. Frequently. On Sundays. Sometimes. Frecuentemente. Los domingos. A veces. Usually. Normalmente. He always goes to Benidorm in summer. Siempre va a Benidorm en verano. She never tells me what to do. Ella nunca me dice lo que tengo que hacer.

Every day. Cada da. In winter. En invierno.

Seldom. Rara vez.

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We play football every day. Jugamos al ftbol todos los das. Cuando un verbo termina en -y detrs de una consonante, cambiamos la -y en -i, y aadimos -es.

I copy, he copies. Yo copio, l copia. I try, he tries. Yo lo intento, l lo intenta. Sin embargo, los verbos que terminan en y detrs de una vocal siguen la regla general.

I play, he plays. Yo juego, l juega. I obey, he obeys. Yo obedezco, l obedece. Debido a su significado, algunos verbos usan siempre la forma habitual al no admitir las formas continuas.

I love you. Te quiero. She likes me. Me gusta I believe you. Te creo.

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1) I ......................like liver. a - Does b - Doing c - Do not 2) ...........you like to go to the cinema? a - Does b - Do c - Are 3) What........your brother do? a - Do b - Does c - Is 4) Where .........you live? a - Is b - Do c - Does 5) What languages ........you speak? a - Does b - Are c - Do 6) He............to the University. a - Goes b - Go c - Is go 7) The Harry Potter film.........150 minutes. a - Takes b - Take c - Taking 8) My wife.............at Azorn High School. a - Teaches b - Teach c - Is tiching 9) Sometimes he.......his girlfriend who is stuying in England. a - Missing b - Misses c - Miss 10) There.......not sharks in Tabarca. a - Is b - Are c - Am 11) We........friends during our holidays.
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a - Visiting b - Visit c - Is visiting 12) In summer, my daughter ...........her friend Roco. a - Miss b - Misses c - Is missed 13) Laura ........magazines at night. a - Reading b - Read c - Reads 14) The Maths teacher never.......late. a - Come b - Comes c - Is comeing 15) He............the best player in Elda. a - Is b - Are c - Am 16) I ...............................living in Elda. a - Likes b - Like c - Liking 17) Mike .........potatoes and tomatoes in his cottages. a - Grow b - Grows c - Grounig 18) Where........? a - Does he lives b - Does he living c - Does he live 19) Which car ................................at the moment? a - Are you haveing b - Do you have c - Is having you 20) What ..........................................for a living? a - Does you do b - Do you do c - Do you does 21) I ...............................that this President will win again. a - Does not think
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b - Do not thinks c - Do not think 22) He .............most of the homework with his mother. a - Does b - Doing c - Do 23) I ..........................like Opera, I prefer Jazz. a - Dis b - Do c - Do not 24) You ............................................know him. a - Don b - Do not c - Does not 25) I .............................enjoy the film. a - Does not b - Do not c - Am 26) I .............................want to study French. a - Does b - Do c - Do not 27) Teresa ..........................................smoke. a - Do b - Does not c - Did will 28) My mother .................................wear glasses. a - Do b - Does c - Does not 29) Pepi..............................swim very fast. a - Do b - Does not c - Do 30) .........................you like football? a - Does b - Do c - Are 31) ...................Pepe read the paper? a - Do b - Does
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c - Is 32) Julia...........................drink wine. a - Do b - Does c - Does not 33) The doctor ...................................smoke at all. a - Do b - Does not c - Are 34) Vladimir.......................................run a lot. a - Does not b - Do not c - Is not 35) My sister.......................................travel much. a - Does do b - Does not c - Are not 36) Jos Luis.......................................visit his relatives very often. a - Does not b - Do not c - Is will 37) I ............................eat meat. a - Do not b - Does not c - Will do 38) Where ...................................? a - Do he lives b - Does he lives c - Does he live 39) I .........................................much of him as a writer. a - Does not think b - Do not think c - Thinking 40) I ............................to the swimming pool every day at 5.00. a - Going b - Goes c - Go 41) I think he ................................too hard at the moment. a - Works b - Is working c - Does working
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42) ............................what he's saying? a - Do you understand b - Does you understand c - Did you understand 43) I can't answer the phone right now, I .................................a bath. a - Am haveing b - Am having c - Having 44) Excuse me...........................................Italian? a - Speaking b - Does you speak c - Do you speak 45) They ...............................television very often. a - Does not watch b - Do not watches c - Do not watch 46) Somebody...............................to us. a - Is listens b - Listens c - Is listening 47) She..........................to go home now. a - Is wants b - Is wanted c - Wants 48) How often ........................................a magazine? a - Do you read b - Does you read c - Did you reads 49) I'm sorry, I ............................................ a - Am not understand b - Does not understand c - Do not understand 50) Peter.............................................National Geographic? a - Does you reads b - Do you reads c - Do you read 51) What time ......................................work every day? a - Does she finishes b - Do she finish c - Does she finish

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52) They.............................................lots of beer in Great Britain. a - Drinks b - Drink c - Drinking 53) He ..............to the University. a - Goes b - Go c - Going 54) The film ..........................................sixty-one minutes. a - Taking b - Takes c - Take 55) Elia...........................at Azorn High School. a - Teach b - Teaching c - Teaches 56) Sometimes he ...............................his girlfriend. a - Misses b - Misse c - Missing 57) It ..................................always sunny in Alicante. a - Are b - Is c - Were 58) We ...........................friends during our holidays. a - Visiting b - Visit c - Are visit 59) Manolo and Ana ......................the festivities a lot. a - Are like b - Like c - Liking 60) I .......................................................living in Elda. a - Likes b - Is like c - Like 61) I ..............................to the San Juan Beach every July with my family. a - Goes b - Go c - Going
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62) Malena ........................................a lot of icecreams. a - Eating b - Eats c - Eat 63) I'm ........I will. a - Sure b - Suring c - Here 64) I ...........like kidney pie. a - Don't b - Doesn't c - Has 65) ..........you like bacon? a - Does b - Do c - Are 66) ............you like hamburguers? a - Does b - Is c - Do 67) Don't ...............to him. a - Listened b - Listen c - Listening 68) What do you do for a .............? a - Living b - Live c - Liver 69) What does your father ...........? a - Do b - Does c - Doing 70) You really .........celebrate Christmas. a - Do b - Does c - Not 71) I ............you like it. a - Hope b - Hopes c - Hoping 72) I ..........hope you've got everything now, Pepe.
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a - Did b - Do c - Does 73) Everyone ...........paella and ham in Spain. a - Loves b - Love c - Loving 74) 5.900 ...............insurance and unlimited mileage. a - Including b - Includes c - Include 75) Juan, ...........................champagne on Christmas day? a - Are you going to drink b - Drink you c - You drink 76) Every day he ....................after he finishes at the office. a - Is going to run b - Run c - Runs 77) How much money ........................you spend on clothes ? a - Do b - Don't c - Does 78) She usually ...................fresh bread every day. a - Buys b - Bought c - Buying 79) Ismael ..............20 Kms a week. a - Run b - Ran c - Runs 80) Oscar always ...................tennis a - Play b - Plays c - Is play 81) It ..............a lot in winter in Bocairente. a - Snows b - Is snowed c - Is snowing 82) What ..............you do on Monday evening?

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a - Don't b - Do c - Does 83) I want you to .................to my party. a - Came b - Coming c - Come 84) I can't .......chocolate. a - Resist b - Resisting c - Resisted 85) I ................................a letter to my friend once a month. a - Write b - Writing c - Am write

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Soluciones 1. C 11. B 21. C 31. B 41. B 51. C 61. B 71. A 81. A 2. B 12. B 22. A 32. C 42. A 52. B 62. B 72. B 82. B 3. B 13. C 23. C 33. B 43. B 53. A 63. A 73. A 83. C 4. B 14. B 24. B 34. A 44. C 54. B 64. A 74. A 84. A 5. C 15. A 25. B 35. B 45. C 55. C 65. B 75. A 85. A 6. A 16. B 26. C 36. A 46. C 56. A 66. C 76. C 7. A 17. B 27. B 37. A 47. C 57. B 67. B 77. A 8. A 18. C 28. C 38. C 48. A 58. B 68. A 78. A 9. B 19. B 29. B 39. B 49. C 59. B 69. A 79. C 10. B 20. B 30. B 40. C 50. C 60. C 70. A 80. B

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BE GOING TO
Su estructura es Sujeto + Be + Going t o + Inf sin to. Bsicamente se usa para indicar acciones planeadas en un futuro cercano. Cuando se tiene intencin de hacer I am going to visit my friend. Voy a visitar a mi amigo. algo. Para predecir algo. Its going to rain. Va a llover. relativamente She is going to get married next Sunday. Se va a casar el prximo sbado.

Con un inmediato.

futuro

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EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
Al igual que todos los tiempos continuos, est formado por to be e -ing. Sujeto + Am, Is, Are + I am reading. Estoy leyendo. Verbo + Ing. Sujeto + Am, Is, Are + Not I am not cooking. No estoy cocinando. + Verbo + Ing. Am, Is, Are + Sujeto + Are you listening to me? Me ests escuchando? Verbo + Ing.

Afirmativa.

Negativa.

Interrogativa.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones no acabadas encuentran en proceso. que se I am paying my flat. Estoy pagando mi casa. I am reading a good book. Estoy leyendo un buen libro. Acciones planificadas. I'm playing golf with my friend Eduardo next Sunday. Voy a jugar al golf con mi amigo Eduardo el prximo domingo.

Quejas sobre acciones que se repiten. They are always complaining and asking for more. Siempre se estn quejando y pidiendo ms. Situaciones temporales. Im staying at a hotel because Im having my house built. Estoy viviendo en un hotel porque me estn construyendo mi casa.

Suele ir acompaado de expresiones como:

205

Now. Ahora.

At the moment. En este momento.

Right now. Justo ahora.

206

1) The dog......now. a - Is barking b - Is barks c - Barking 2) Roco ............the potatoes. a - Is cutting b - Is cutted c - Is cuts 3) Marta..................in the street. a - Is danced b - Is dance c - Is dancing 4) I..................to my mother's house. a - Am go b - Are going c - Am going 5) Isabel...............a chocolate cake. a - Is eating b - Is eat c - Is ate 6) We..................a film on Tele Elda. a - Are watching b - Are watched c - Watcheing 7) You..................too much. a - Are work b - Are working c - Are worked 8) I am .................my composition. a - Coeing b - Doing c - Duing 9) Mara Teresa................a new book. a - Are writing b - Is writeing c - Is writing 10) Someone ...............................can you open the door? a - Ring b - Is ringing c - Are ring 11) I ..................................a shower.
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a - Am having b - Has c - Has having 12) Be careful, a lorry ...............................................very fast. a - Come b - Comeing c - Is coming 13) Can you speak up, please? My elder daughter................a terribe noise. a - Is making b - Taking c - Is makeing 14) I ................................at the moment. a - Am smoking b - Smokeing c - Smoking 15) He is ......................of getting married soon. a - Think b - Thinking c - Thought 16) All this noise ....................................................your grandmother now. a - Annoys b - Is annoying c - Annoyed 17) He .....................................fat. a - Get b - Is getting c - Gets 18) Carol ..........................................................................a lot of icecreams lately. a - Are eating b - Is eating c - Eat 19) We.....................................to the new restaurant next month. a - Are going b - Go c - Will go 20) We ..................................chess in the new tournament. a - Are going to play b - Plays c - Would plays 21) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning.
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a - Meet b - Are meeting c - Meets 22) I ...................................a Harley in November. a - Am driving b - Is driving c - Driving 23) I ..............................him a Mara Callas CD for his birthday. a - Give b - Giving c - Am giving 24) The new teacher.................................at seven. a - Come b - Is comeing c - Is coming 25) We ...........................some money to charities. a - Gives b - Are giveing c - Are giving 26) You .................................................a motorbike if you pass your exams. a - Has have b - Are having c - Has 27) They ...........................to Majorca with all their friends. a - Are going b - Goes c - Are go 28) He ...............smoking next year. a - Give b - Is giveing up c - Is giving up 29) I ..........................her a new Polo for her birthday. a - Buys b - Am buying c - Buy 30) My friend ...............................................next summer with his family. a - Is coming b - Come c - Coming 31) I ............................lunch with him in La Sirena . a - Have
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b - Am having c - Has 32) My friend....................................a party next Saturday. a - Is celebrating b - Is celebreteing c - Is celebrate 33) Mara Jos and Marcial ..............................married next week in Santa Ana's. a - Get b - Are getting c - Are geting 34) The King............................................Elda during the Festivities. a - Is visiting b - Is visitting c - Is visit 35) We ........................................the car on Sunday. a - Cleans b - Are cleaning c - Are cleanning 36) Mike .................................................a new book. a - Write b - Is writing c - Is wrtitteing 37) I ............................with the new boss tomorrow. a - Eat b - Eating c - Am eating 38) The sun ...............................................this afternoon. a - Shine b - Is shineing c - Is shining 39) The waiter ..............................................a bottle of Rioja wine. a - Bring b - Bringed c - Is bringing 40) Alejandro Sanz ...............................................a new album in March. a - Release b - Is releaseing c - Is releasing 41) The weather forecast says it .....................................this afternoon. a - Rains b - Is raining
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c - Would rain 42) Teresa and Horacio .........................................friends for dinner tonight. a - Has b - Are having c - Haveing 43) My wife...............................................a party for our daughters. a - Prepare b - Is prepare c - Is preparing 44) He .....................................a new CD now. a - Listens b - Is listening c - Are listening 45) Horatio ..........................................a shower at the moment. a - Is has b - Is having c - Has 46) I .....................a good CD. a - Am listening to b - I am listen c - Listening 47) I .........................................................how to get to Alicante. a - Am explaining b - Explains c - Does explain 48) He ......................................the violin in another orchestra. a - Play b - Is playing c - Playeds 49) I can't, I .....................................a shower. a - Am have b - Am having c - Am has 50) Sarah, be quiet I ............................on the phone. a - Talk b - Am talks c - Am talking 51) A motorbike .............................................................very fast. a - Comes b - Come
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c - Is coming 52) These children .........................a terribe noise. a - Are make b - Are makeing c - Are making 53) He is .....................of buying a house. a - Thinks b - Thinking c - Think 54) This music .................................................................your father. a - Is annoying b - Annoy c - Annoyeind 55) My friend Juan ............................................fat. a - Are getting b - Getting c - Is getting 56) We ..............................................................to the new restaurant. a - Going b - Are going c - Goes 57) My sister ...........................................................a chocolate cake for my birthday. a - Make b - Is making c - Is makeing 58) I ..........................tennis lessons in summer. a - Takes b - Is taking c - Am taking 59) She .................................with us next April in Cazorla. a - Is fishing b - Fishes c - Fish 60) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning. a - Meet b - Are meeting c - Meet 61) The football match ................................at 6:00. a - Starts b - Are starting c - Is start
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62) I ................................her a new watch in the party. a - Give b - Gives c - Am giving 63) We ....................................some books to the Public Library. a - Are giving b - Gives c - Giving 64) The children ............................................their holidays in Benidorm. a - Are going to begin b - Is beginning c - Begins 65) She.........................to visit us in May. a - Is comeing b - Comed c - Is coming 66) They .................................to Alpera with all their friends. a - Are go b - Are going c - Is going 67) He................................................smoking next year. a - Is give up b - Is giveing up c - Is giving up 68) I ..........................her a diamond ring. a - Am buy b - Am buying c - Am buyed 69) Pepe and Manolo ...................................in Plaza Mayor at 8.00. a - Meeting b - Is meeting c - Are meeting 70) Calixta and Marcial ...................................married next week. a - Are get b - Are getting c - Are geting 71) He ...............his girlfiend a lot at the moment. a - Misses b - Miss c - Is missing 72) I ...............................the grass on Sunday.
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a - Am cuting b - Am cutt c - Am cut 73) They ...............................the cuartelillo . a - Are clean b - Are cleaning c - Are cleaned 74) I like ..........................................fresh air in the mountains. a - Breathes b - Breathing c - Breathed 75) I'm............for a cup of tea. a - Dyeing b - Dieing c - Dying 76) You are ....................me a lot. a - Annoying b - Annoy c - Annoys 77) I'm .........to report a traffic accident. a - Ring b - Ringing c - Rang 78) He likes ........and cycling. a - Swim b - Swimming c - Swims 79) They'll drive you crazy .............questions about your family. a - Asks b - Asking c - Asked 80) No, I ............................to have anything to eat today. a - Am no going b - Don't go c - Am not going 81) What ..................wine or beer? Wine, please. a - You drink b - Are you going to drink c - Drinks you 82) The sun is......today
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a - Shineing b - Shining c - Shaining 83) I am ............a Spanish omelette for the picnic. a - Makeing b - Making c - Meiking 84) I like..........everyday in La Ciudad Deportiva. a - Swim b - To swim c - Swimming 85) She hates...........the plates a - Washing b - Wash c - To wash 86) It is worth.........the Shoe museum, Castelar Square and taste the chocolates of Totel. a - Go b - To go c - Going 87) ........to write in English is not easy at the beginning. a - Have b - Having c - To have

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Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. B 31. B 41. B 51. C 61. A 71. C 81. B 2. A 12. C 22. A 32. A 42. B 52. C 62. C 72. A 82. B 3. C 13. A 23. C 33. B 43. C 53. B 63. A 73. B 83. B 4. C 14. A 24. C 34. A 44. B 54. A 64. A 74. B 84. C 5. A 15. B 25. C 35. B 45. B 55. C 65. C 75. C 85. A 6. A 16. B 26. B 36. B 46. A 56. B 66. B 76. A 86. C 7. B 17. B 27. A 37. C 47. A 57. B 67. C 77. B 87. B 8. B 18. B 28. C 38. C 48. B 58. C 68. B 78. B 9. C 19. A 29. B 39. A 49. B 59. A 69. C 79. B 10. B 20. A 30. A 40. C 50. C 60. B 70. B 80. C

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CONSTRUCCIN DE LA FORMA ING


Los verbos que acaban en -e, la sustituyen por -ing excepto dye. Having. Have. Tener. Come. Venir. Live. Vivir. Practise. Practicar.

Coming.

Living.

Practising.

Dye. Tintar.

Dyeing.

Cuando el verbo acaba en -ie la -i se convierte en -y. Dying.

Die. Morir Lie. Mentir, poner la mesa, poner huevos.

Lying.

Cuando los verbos acaban en -y siguen la regla general, es decir, aaden ing. Trying.

Try. Intentar Study. Estudiar Play. Jugar. Buy.

Studying.

Playing.

Buying.
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Comprar.

Ciertos verbos no se suelen usar en los tiempos continuos. Son los denominados verbos de los sentidos. Feel. Sentir. Smell. Oler. Love. Amar. Fear. Temer. See. Ver. Taste. Probar. Want. Querer. Sound. Sonar. Dislike. Disgustar. Doubt. Dudar. Hear. Or. Hate. Odiar. Appear. Aparecer. Belong to. Pertenecer. Have. Tener. Like. Gustar. Forget. Olvidar. Owe. Deber. Cost. Costar. Know. Saber. Own. Poseer. Wish. Desear. Seem. Parecer. Possess. Poseer.

Believe. Creer. Consider. Considerar. Depend. Depender. Doubt. Dudar. Guess. Adivinar. Hope. Esperar. Imagine. Imaginar. Prefer. Preferir. Realise. Darse cuenta. Remember. Recordar. Suppose. Suponer. Think. Pensar. Understand. Comprender.

218

219

EL PASADO SIMPLE
Equivale al imperfecto y el indefinido y se usa con acciones concluidas. Los verbos regulares lo hacen de la siguiente forma: I played chess. Sujeto + Inf sin t o + Ed Los acabados en -e Jugu al ajedrez. solo I loved her. -d. Yo la quera. Sujeto + Did not , + Inf sin I didnt go out. No sal. to Did + Not contrae en dint . Did + Sujeto + Inf sin t o. Did you buy the new CD? Compraste el disco?

Afirmativa.

Negativa.

Interrogativa.

LOS VERBOS IRREGULARES


Afirmativa. S+ 2 columna de la lista I ate the cake. Me com el pastel. de verbos irregulares. I bought a new house. Compr una nueva casa. Negativa. S+ Did + Not + Inf . I didnt eat the cake. No me com el pastel. Did you eat the cake? Te comiste el pastel?

Interrogativa.

Did + S + Inf.

Para formar el pasado de un verbo regular se aade -ed al infinitivo.

I worked. Yo trabaj You worked.


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T trabajaste. Los verbos monoslabos, y los bislabos que terminan en consonante, con acento en la ltima slaba, duplican la consonante final: Admit, Admitted Admitir. Prefer, Preferred Preferir.

Stop, Stopped Parar.

El verbo travel es una excepcin, pues acenta en la primera slaba.

Travel, Travelled Viajar.

Si el verbo termina en -e slo se aade -d.

I lived in Petrel but now I live in Elda. Yo viv en Petrel, pero ahora vivo en Elda. Los verbos que terminan en -y detrs de una consonante cambia la -y por -i al aadir la -ed: Cry, Cried. Llorar. Carry, Carried. Llevar. Study, Studied. Estudiar.

Try, Tried. Intentar.

Acciones que se completaron en el We went to Paris last year. Fuimos a Paris el ao pasado. pasado Acciones consecutivas I bought a car and went to Paris. Compr un coche y fui a Paris.

Puede ir acompaado de expresiones temporales del tipo: Yesterday. Ayer. Last winter. El invierno pasado. In 1984. En 1984.

Ago. Hace.

I went to Paris when I was five years old.


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Fui a Paris cuando tena cinco aos. Con did, do, does el verbo va siempre en infinitivo. Por lo tanto las formas interrogativas y negativas del presente siempe y pasado simple siempre llevarn el verbo en infinitivo.

1) I ..........................dancing lessons every summer, but now I don't.. a - Take b - Took c - Taken 2) She ................................with me to Petrel two days ago. a - Comes b - Came c - Is caming 3) They ...........................to Disneyland Paris last April. a - Went b - Goes c - Will go 4) The food ............................................horrible. a - Am b - Was c - Are 5) Last summer the weather ......................................worse than in England. a - Is b - Was c - Will be 6) The French ...................................Spanish very bad in the past. a - Speaks b - Spoke c - Speaking 7) We ............................Tarifa last summer. a - Visited b - Visits c - Vistting 8) Sarah ......................a present for her friends in her last visit to Terra Mtica. a - Is buy b - Bought c - Buys will 9) Inmita ..........to a swimming pool in the evenings when she was 3 years old. a - Went
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b - Go c - Wenting 10) When we lived in Alicante my wife ...........................her mother every night. a - Phone b - Phoned c - Phones will 11) My aunt ...........................................gazpachos in the Culebrn. a - Ate b - Eat c - Will eats 12) Pepi .............................to Alicante to buy some new clothes. a - Go b - Went c - Go will 13) We ...........................her in the market buying meat last Saturday. a Saw b - Sees c - Seeing 14) I ..............................to her and I told her everything. a - Spoke b - Speaks c - Speaking 15) We.....................................a lot in England last summer. a - Enjoying b - Enjoys c - Enjoyed 16) I ...............................in love with her when I saw her. a - Fall b - Fell c - Fallen 17) Mr. Garca.....................................a new computer for his factory. a - Bought b - Buy c - Buying 18) Lady Hernndez...............................her old boyfriend in a restaurant. a - Met b - Meeting c - Meets 19) Manuel ..................................the lesson when I explained it. a - Understands b - Understood
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c - Undertsanding 20) Marisa ..............................your boyfriend in Petrel last night. a - Saw b - Sees c - Seen 21) I ...............................more than ever last summer. a - Swim b - Swimming c - Swam 22) They .................................to Alicante when they were young. a - Will go b - Goes c - Went 23) She.........................in the opera with me. a - Were b - Was c - Be 24) We ............................many museums in Japan. a - Seen b - Saw c - Seen 25) The doctor ...........................................us hat it was nothing important. a - Tolds b - Telling c - Told 26) My wife and I .....................................in Madrid at 12:00. a - Arriveds b - Arrived c - Arriving 27) We ............................to buy the house but it was too expensive. a - Tryes b - Tried c - Tryed 28) She ................................it was hotter than in Alicante. a - Finds b - Founding c - Found 29) They ..........................all the night during the Festivities. a - Dances b - Dancing
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c - Danced 30) The bus ...........................................in every city. a - Stopped b - Stopping c - Stops 31) It ................................................during the festivies a - Rained b - Raining c - Raineing 32) They ............................to dinner but she feel ill. a - Has come b - Came c - Will come 33) I ........................................................Valle the Elda last Friday. a - Read b - Were reading c - Red 34) They ..............................to the cinema at 9.00. a - Goes b - Wenting c - Went 35) My parents ...................................................me some money when I got married. a - Giving b - Gaven c - Gave 36) Before I ................................they had come. a - Went b - Go c - Will go 37) When we.....................everything was ready at the party. a - Arrived b - Arrives c - Am arriving 38) We .................................the present until you rang us. a - Saw b - Did not see c - Will saw 39) The girls .....................................................a present for their parents. a - Bought
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b - Was buy c - Was buys 40) I .......................................................French before studying English. a - Studied b - Studyied c - Studies 41) We............................................with him the night before. a - Eats b - Ateing c - Ate 42) We .......................................your friends that you were out. a - Tells b - Told c - Was teeling 43) We.............................in Telepizza and Telefnica until I decided to quit. a - Invested b - Nvesting c - Invest 44) We .......................................all morning in Rabosa. a - Walked b - Walking c - Was walking 45) I ..........them yesterday. a - Took b - Take c - Taken 46) You .........them in the kitchen this morning. a - Left b - Leave c - Leaves 47) That was the first place I ................. a - Look b - Looked c - Looking 48) I didn't ..........you. a - Recognize b - Recognised c - Recognising 49) what time did you .......................to the cinema last night? a - Go b - Went
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c - Going 50) Lzaro. ........................in time yesterday. a - Arrived b - Goes c - Arrives 51) Mr. Martnez ......................for a loan, but then, he won the lottery. a - Asked b - Asking c - Askeing 52) When did you ..................your summary of English grammar for Pedro ? a - Finish b - Finishes c - Finished 53) Did you ..................in the San Silvestre race last year? a - Run b - Runed c - Running 54) There ..................only a little coffee in the cup. a - Had b - Was c - Were 55) I was going to write but the computer ...............down. a - Break b - Breaks c - Broke 56) Mary, ..........................to the Costa Brava last year. a - Went b - Go c - Goes 57) ......you born in Elda ? a - Had b - Are c - Were 58) The shop was open this morning. It ...at 4:45. a - Open b - Was open c - Opened 59) I ...............at the University from 1980 to 1985. a - Studied b - Studyed c - Studyed
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60) I ...............at the traffic light because it was red. a - Stoped b - Stopped c - Stoppeed 61) She.......the big bags in our last travel. a - Carryed b - Carried c - Carryeed 62) We........because it was getting late. a - Hurryed b - Hurried c - Hurred 63) The thief........he had robbed all the jewels. a - Adnited b - Admitted c - Admitedd 64) I ................to London in 1987. a - Go b - Went c - Gone 65) I..........my friend Javi last Sunday. a - See b - Seen c - Saw 66) He ...................arrive late yesterday. a - Do b - Does c - Did

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Soluciones 1. B 11. A 21. C 31. A 41. C 51. A 61. B 2. B 12. B 22. C 32. B 42. B 52. A 62. B 3. A 13. A 23. B 33. A 43. A 53. A 63. B 4. B 14. A 24. B 34. C 44. A 54. B 64. B 5. B 15. C 25. C 35. C 45. A 55. C 65. C 6. B 16. B 26. B 36. A 46. A 56. A 66. C 7. A 17. A 27. B 37. A 47. B 57. C 8. B 18. A 28. C 38. B 48. A 58. C 9. A 19. B 29. C 39. A 49. A 59. A 10. B 20. A 30. A 40. A 50. A 60. B

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EL PASADO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Was, Were + Ing. I was reading Time. Yo estaba leyendo la revista Time. Sujeto + Was, Were + Not I was not sleeping. No estaba durmiendo. + Ing. Was, Were + Sujeto + Ing. Were they playing chess? Estaban jugando al ajedrez?

Negativa. Interrogativa.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Para hablar acerca de lo que estaba I was reading when she came. Yo estaba leyendo cuando ella lleg. sucediendo. Cuando dos acciones estaban ocurriendo al mismo tiempo. I was reading a novel while she was watching TV. Yo estaba leyendo una novela mientras ella estaba viendo la tele. I was riding a car and then... Estaba conduciendo cuando

En descripciones.

Cuando hablamos de dos acciones pasadas, la ms larga se expresa con pasado continuo y la ms corta en pasado simple It was raining when I went to bed. Estaba lloviendo cuando me fui a la cama. Para indicar que una accin sucedi despus de otra, usamos el pasado simple en ambos casos. Yesterday I got up and had a shower. Ayer me levant y me duch. Puede ir con expresiones temporales del tipo:

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All night. Toda la noche.

The whole day. Todo el da.

The whole afternoon. Toda la tarde.

For a long time. Durante mucho tiempo

1) My wife .................................................a bath when her mother phoned. a - Was having b - Were having c - Was to have 2) Inma .................................................to the radio when I came home. a - Was listen b - Was listening c - Were listening 3) Mike ...............................in the sofa reading a magazine. a - Sit b - Were siting c - Was sitting 4) We ....................................in Almansa when my son was born. a - Was living b - Were living c - Living 5) It ................................................dark, so we went home. a - Get darker b - Got darking c - Was getting 6) The dog .....................................when a cat appeared. a - Was runing b - Was running c - Were runing 7) They ...............................in a karaoke when their friends arrived. a - Was singing b - Were song c - Were singing 8) I ......................................................when my mother came. a - Wrote b - Was writing c - Were writing 9) I .........................................................when the phone rang. a - Gotting dress b - Was getting dressed c - Were get dressed
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10) The alarm clock...............................................but I couldn't stop it. a - Ringing b - Rings c - Was ringing 11) He ..................................................................TV when his girlfriend came. a - Were watching b - Was watching c - Watching 12) We....................................and it began to snow. a - Riding b - Were riding c - Roding 13) She.........................the food before she served it. a - Tastes b - Taste c - Was testing 14) Yesterday they ..................................................siesta when I phoned. a - Was sleeping b - Sleep c - Were sleeping 15) We ................................tennis when she came. a - Plays b - Were playing c - Wil play 16) She ...............................letters before you rang. a - Was writing b - Were writing c - Writes 17) I ......................................................the press an hour before. a - Were reading b - Reads c - Was reading 18) I ..........wondering if you would like to marry me. a - Be b - Is c - Was 19) I was ................of going abroad. a - Think b - Thinking c - Thinks
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Soluciones 1. A 11. B 2. B 12. B 3. C 13. C 4. B 14. C 5. C 6. B 15. B 16. A 7. C 17. C 8. B 18. C 9. B 19. B 10. C

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EL PRESENTE PERFECTO
Este tiempo, al igual que el resto de los tiempos perfectos, hacen referencia a acciones ya acabadas, aunque tambin se use para acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y todava tienen continuidad en el presente. Como todos los tiempos perfectos, s forma con el verbo to have y el e Participio Pasado.

Afirmativa

Sujeto + Have, Has + Participio Pasado.

I have played tennis. He jugado al tenis. I have eaten paella. He comido paella.

Negativa

Sujeto + Have, Has not + Participio Pasado.

I have not played chess. No he jugado al ajedrez. I have not eaten gazpachos. No he comido gazpachos.

Interrogativa

Have, Has + Sujeto + Participio Pasado.

Have you played golf? Has jugado al golf? Have you eaten octopus? Has comido pulpo?

PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones que ocurrieron en el pasado I have eaten paella. pero se desconoce o no interesa el He comido paella. momento exacto en que ocurrieron. I have visited Paris. He visitado Paris. Acciones que se han repetido en el He has visited Madrid many times.
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pasado.

Ha ido a Madrid muchas veces.

Con just, indica que la accin ha I have just seen my wife. Acabo de ver a mi mujer. ocurrido recientemente.

Con ever. (alguna vez)

Have you ever been to Rome? Has estado en Roma alguna vez? I have always liked the country. Siempre me ha gustado el campo. We have already finished. Ya hemos acabado.

Con always.

Con already.

For y since suelen acompaar a ste tiempo para referirse a acciones que empezaron en el pasado y que continuan hasta el momento presente.

How long. Se utiliza para preguntar How long have you been wearing glasses? por la duracin. Cunto tiempo hace que llevas gafas? For. Se emplea con perodos de tiempo. Desde hace. Since. Nos remonta a un punto concreto en el pasado. Desde o desde que. I have lived in Elda for 40 years. Hace 40 aos que vivo en Elda. She has had the same car since 1987. Tiene el mismo coche desde 1987. I have been wearing glasses since October. Llevo gafas desde octubre.

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1) My sister ............................................a chocolate cake for my birthday. a - Has made b - Has be made c - Has been makeing 2) He has never ................................................ "Gone with the wind ". a - Seen b - See c - Saw 3) I have ..........................................................paella every Saturday for years. a - Ate b - Eat c - Eaten 4) They have just ............................................around Spain. a - Travel b - Traveled c - Travelled 5) He has ............................................Diet Coke since he was at University. a - Being drinking b - Been drunk c - Been drinking 6) Flavio has ............................................his girlfriend. a - Forgave b - Forgive c - Forgiven 7) My mother has ........................................in Petrel all the morning. a - Be b - Been c - Was 8) Their friends have .......................................a new job in Elche. a - Finded b - Founded c - Found 9) Toni has ...............................................fireworks for the summer party. a - Buyed b - Bought c - Boughting 10) Cayetano has ..........................................a new house for his family. a - Build b - Built c - Boughts 11) Mario has ........................................................ for the beers in the bar.
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a - Payed b - Paid c - Paying 12) I ........................................................for this moment since I was a child. a - Have wait b - Have been waiting c - Have being waiting 13) We ............................in this house since 1997. a - Lived b - Have being living c - Have been living 14) He .......................in Terra since 1999. a - Is invested b - Is invest c - Has been investing 15) He ......................a book for a long time. a - Writes b - Is wrote c - Has been writing 16) Lucas .................................................since last summer in this project. a - Has been working b - Has working c - Had been working 17) I ....................................................this question many times. a - Have answered b - Has answer c - Had answering 18) They ..............................in the same house since they got married. a - Have living b - Have lived c - Has lived 19) We .....................................a single match this year. a - Haven't played b - Hasn't play c - Have play 20) They .............................a lot with this teacher. a - Has learnt b - Have learnt c - Have learned 21) We.........................................many good films, but this is the best one. a - Has see
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b - Has seen c - Have seen 22) I ......................................................a new TV set this week. a - Have buy b - Have boughted c - Have bought 23) We .................................. "El Cid " many times in summer. a - Have climbt b - Have climbed c - Have climbing 24) He ...............................some shoes for his brother. a - Has bought b - Has buy c - Have bought 25) They ..............................the news in Hello magazine. a - Have readed b - Have read c - Have readt 26) He has.................................................on weight since he got married. a - Puts b - Put c - Putting 27) Pepe has......................................a new apartment in Santa Pola. a - Buying b - Boughted c - Bought 28) Mari Puri has.....................................all the chocolate cakes in the fridge. a - Ate b - Eating c - Eaten 29) Our new neighbours have ............................with us about their problems. a - Speaken b - Spoken c - Speaking 30) My brother-in-law has...................................football in Alicante. a - Plays b - Played c - Playeding 31) I have.............................four faxes today to the Consellera. a - Sent
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b - Sended c - Sented 32) He .................................his book yet. a - Had finished b - Has finishing c Hasnt finished 33) Pepe.................................since last summer in this book. a - Has being working b - Has been working c - Has be working 34) Mary ......................................an affair with John since she got her divorce. a - Has been having b - Have being having c - Has been haveing 35) The neighbour's children ...................a terrible noise since we moved here. a - Has been making b - Have being making c - Have been making 36) Olga ..........................................a picture of her daughter for a month. a - Have being painting b - Has been paint c - Has been painting 37) Javi....................................................a lot of money in Russia since 1995. a - Has being making b - Has been making c - Has be making 38) Fermina....her journey since she knew that we were also going there. a - Has be preparing b - Has being preparing c - Has been preparing 39) We...........................................football this morning in "La Sirmat ". a - Has being playing b - Have been playing c - Had be playing 40) Alberto Navarro .................................his last book for over fifteen years. a - Has been writing b - Has be writing c - Has being writing 41) l have ..........my first marathon at the age of 42. a - Runing b - Run
239

c - Runed 42) I..........................Antonio Maestre since we went to don Emilio's school together. a - Know b - Have known c - Has been knowing 43) I..........................a lot with these quick tests. a - Has learnt b - Have learnt c - Have learning 44) They.........................................................me that she has won the lottery. a - Have tell b Has told c Have told 45) We .......................................to move to a bigger house. a - Have decided b - Has decided c - Will decided 46) How long have you ....................there? a - Be b - Being c - Been 47) He's .............. a - Arrived b - Arrive c - Arrives 48) I've just....................to the manager. a - Speak b - Spoke c - Spoken 49) Have you ...........my glasses? a - Seen b - See c - Saw 50) Have you .............in the bedroom? a - Looked b - Look c - Looking 51) They have just ...................... a - Disappeared b - Disappear
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c - Disappeareing 52) There has ........a car crash in Juan Carlos I street. a - Be b - Was c - Been 53) What ................happened to him? he looks very sad. a - Is b - Has c - Have 54) A little boy called Jaime ......been here. a - Is b - Have c - Has 55) You have ........a great help to all of us, thanks a lot. a - Been b - Be c - Was 56) I've .............the CD, but I prefer to see them live. a - Bought b - Buy c - Buys 57) I've often ............them on TV, but this is something else! a - Seen b - See c - Saw 58) Well, I've ..............packing. a - Finished b - Finish c - Finishing 59) He has ...........teaching me Spanish. a - Been b - Be c - Was 60) Jaime has never ..................late before. a - Come b - Came c - Comes 61) The Sax train ...........................Its been half an hour late. a - Arrived has just b - Has just arrived c - Has arrived just
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62) -Have another chocolate. -No, thank you very much indeed, .............too much. a - I've eaten b - I eaten c - I ate 63) Hello, darling, have you ..........................dinner yet? a - Cooked b - Cooken c - Do 64) My daughter hasn't ....................from school yet. a - Comed b - Coming c - Come 65) It was nice to see him again. I .........him for ages. a - Haven't seen b - Haven t see c - Saw 66) ................you done your homework? a - Have b - Has c - Have to 67) It ...........for ages in Almeria. a - Doesn't rain b - Did rain c - Hasn't rained 68) -Where is Clemente? -He ......to the bank. a - Is b - Has gone c - Has went 69) I ..........to London since 1993. a - Haven't been b - Haven't gone c - Haven't go 70) "Tres Superhombres en Tokyo " was the worst film I've ever ...... a - See b - Saw c - Seen 71) I.........a cigarette since last Christmas. a - Haven smoked b - Haven't smoked

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c - Hasn't smoked 72) All flights to Madrid...........because of the fog. a - Has been cancelled b - Have been cancelled c - Cancelled 73) He has...................to bed because he was a little tired. a - Go b - Went c - Gone

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Soluciones 1. A 11. B 21. C 31. A 41. B 51. A 61. B 71. B 2. A 12. B 22. C 32. C 42. B 52. C 62. A 72. B 3. C 13. C 23. B 33. B 43. B 53. B 63. A 73. C 4. C 14. C 24. A 34. A 44. C 54. C 64. C 5. C 15. C 25. B 35. C 45. A 55. A 65. A 6. C 16. A 26. B 36. C 46. C 56. A 66. A 7. B 17. A 27. C 37. B 47. A 57. A 67. C 8. C 18. B 28. C 38. C 48. C 58. A 68. B 9. B 19. A 29. B 39. B 49. A 59. A 69. A 10. B 20. B 30. B 40. A 50. A 60. A 70. C

244

EL PRETRITO PERFECTO CONTINUO


Como todos los tiempos continuos, indica acciones en proceso. Sujeto + Have, Has + Been + Ing. I have been reading the paper. He estado leyendo el peridico. I have not been cooking. No he estado cocinando. Have you been walking? Has estado dando un paseo?

Afirmativa.

Negativa.

Sujeto + Have, Has not + Been + Ing.

Interrogativa.

Have, Has + Sujeto + Been + Ing.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Indica acciones muy recientes que She has been swimming. Ella ha estado nadando. acaban de terminar. He has been crying l ha estado llorando. Acciones que empezaron en el I have been waiting for half an hour. Llevo esperando media hora. pasado y que todava continuan. Puede ir acompaado de expresiones He has been working the whole day. Ha estado trabajando todo el da. como: the whole day, all week, etc.

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EL PASADO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Had + Participio Pasado. Sujeto + Had not + Participio Pasado. Had + Sujeto + Participio Pasado I had seen her. Yo la haba visto. I had not gone. Yo no haba ido. Had she been with you? Haba estado ella contigo?

Negativa.

Interrogativa.

Equivale al pluscuamperfecto. Es el tiempo ms remoto en el pasado.

PRINCIPALES USOS
Acciones que ocurrieron antes que When I had finished all my work, I went to the swimming pool. otra. Cuando hube acabado mi trabajo me fui a la piscina.

Suele usar expresiones del tipo: Since. Desde. When. Cuando For. Desde hace. Before. Antes. Till. Until Hasta. By the time. Para cuando. Always. Siempre.

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EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO


Expresa acciones que haban estado ocurriendo en el pasado hasta un momento concreto. Sujeto + Had been + Ing. I had been sleeping siesta. Haba estado durmiendo la siesta. Sujeto + Hadn't been + Ing. She had not been reading. Ella no haba estado leyendo. Had you been working? Habas estado trabajando?

Afirmativa.

Negativa.

Interrogativa.

Had + Sujeto + Been + Ing.

We had been studying until her mother came. Habamos estado estudiando hasta que vino su madre.

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EL FUTURO SlMPLE
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Will + Inf sin t o. I will go with you. Ir contigo.

Negativa.

Sujeto + Will not , + Inf sin I will not pay for that. No pagar eso. t o. Will + Sujeto + Inf sin t o. Will you marry me? Te casars conmigo?

Interrogativa.

Se puede usar shall en la primera persona del singular y del plural, aunque su uso queda cada vez ms restringido a la expresin de ofrecimientos. Se puede usar will en todas las personas de singular y plural. Tanto shall como will contraen en -ll.

PRINCIPALES USOS
En sugerencias. Shall we go to the cinema? Vamos al cine? I will buy you the car. Te comprar el coche. I will go with you. Ir contigo. I will never do it again. No lo volver a hacer. They will win the match. Ellos ganarn el partido.

En promesas.

Determinaciones.

nfasis.

Predicciones.

Lgicamente, indica acciones que I will buy a Harley next year. Me comprar una Harley el ao que ocurrirn. viene. Con advertencias y condicines. If you dont hurry, youll be late. Si no te das prisa llegars tarde.

Para expresar deseo o rechazo ante Dont drink too much or youll get drunk. algo. No bebas demasiado o te
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emborrachars. I'll help you with your exercises. Te ayudar con los ejercicios.

Ofrecimientos.

BE GOING TO
Indica planes para el futuro, tambin hace referencia a acciones que se ve que van a ocurrir.

Im going to visit my mother. Voy a visitar a mi madre. Its going to rain. Va a llover.

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1) She ..................................with us next April in Cazorla. a - Will go fishing b - Would go fishing c Went fishing 2) She .................................to Petrel next week. a - Is moving b - Is moved c - Is going to moving 3) We.........................................a new computer for the students. a - Are buy b - Are going to buy c - Will buys 4) I .......................................................in Aspe tomorrow. a - Will be b - Will is c - Will am 5) I ......................................................my cousin in Madrid next week. a - Visited b - Will visit c - Visit 6) They ...........................a new road in 2007. a - Build b - Will build c - Builded 7) She .................................in the team next year. a - Played b - Playing c - Will play 8) I .............................with them to Toledo next March. a - Will go b - Go c - Went 9) They ...........................back at 8.00. a - Is b - Was c - Will be 10) He .................................her in Alicante in 2005. a - Will marry b - Married c - Would married 11) I ....................................to the Yelmo Cineplex cinemas tomorrow.
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a - Went b - Go c - Will go 12) I .............................all my friends to a paella next Saturday. a - Invite b - Will invite c - Would invite 13) I..........with you if you pay. a - Will eat b - Would eat c - Had eaten 14) I will ........you your room. a - Shows b - Show c - Showing 15) I won't .............long. a - Be b - Have c - Do 16) I'll .......the waiter if they have Coke instead of Pepsi. a - Asks b - Ask c - Asking 17) He will ........you a parcel for me. a - Brings b - Bring c - Brought 18) We will ......immediately. a - Come b - Comes c - Cam 19) I will ...............the car tonight. a - Wash b - Washed c - Washing 20) Next Sunday I ....................play tennis with Eduardo. a - Was played b - Will plays c - Am going to play 21) How .......................you go to Sax tomorrow?
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a - Does b - Shall c - Will 22) -Where.......tonight? -Why don't we go to the new Mamma Luna? a - Shall we go b - We going c - Go can we 23) We ..................go to Madrid to see Beauty and the Beast next month. a - Will b - Would c - Need 24) If you can't water the plants, I ........do it for you. a - Would b - Will c - going 25) ......you look after my daughters while I go to buy the paper? a - Will b - Must c - Need 26) I..........send a letter as soon as I arrive. a - Have b - Will c - Would

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Soluciones 1. A 11. C 21. C 2. A 12. B 22. A 3. B 13. A 23. A 4. A 14. B 24. B 5. B 15. A 25. A 6. B 16. B 26. B 7. C 17. B 27. 8. A 18. A 28. 9. C 19. A 29. 10. A 20. C 30.

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EL FUTURO CONTINUO
Expresa acciones que con seguridad tendrn lugar en el futuro. I will be driving to Alicante. Estar conduciendo hacia a Alicante. I will not be eating there. No estar comiendo all. Will you be studying in Elx? Estars estudiando en Elx? What will you be doing at 7 oclok tomorrow? Qu estars haciendo maana a las 7?

Afirmativa.

Sujeto + Will be + Inf sin to + Ing.

Negativa.

Sujeto + Will not + Inf sin t o + Ing. Will + Sujeto + Be + Inf + Ing.

Interrogativa.

Suele ir acompaado de expresiones temporales como: At 7 oclock, this time next year/month/week.

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EL FUTURO PERFECTO
Indica acciones que habrn acabado en el futuro. Normalmente son suposiciones o presunciones. Sujeto + Will have + Participio Pasado. Sujeto + Will have + Not + Participio Pasado. I will have eaten. Habr comido. I will not have eaten. No habr comido.

Afirmativa.

Negativa.

Interrogativa.

Will + Sujeto + Will have + Will you have eaten? Habrs comido? Participio Pasado.

I will have read the book next month. Habr leido el libro el prximo mes. Puede ir acompaado de referencias temporales In the year 2050. En el ao 2050. The day after tomorrow. Pasado maana. In a month. Dentro de un mes. Next week. La prxima semana. In the next year. El ao que viene. At 7 oclock. A la siete en punto.

Tomorrow. Maana. Soon. Pronto. In the future. En el futuro

This time next year: By 8.30. A esta hora el ao que Para las 8.30. viene.

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1) Barcelona............against Manchester United in June. a - Will be playing b - Will play be c - Will be played 2) Everybody..........at Christmas. a - Will have eat cocido b - Will be eating cocido c - Will cocido be eating 3) I .................................a new car by 2005. a - Will buy be b - Will have bought c - Will have be buying 4) She .................5 kilos with this new diet. a - Will have lost b - Will have loose c - Will have losted 5) I..................my first novel in 2007. a - Will have written b - Will have write c - Will have wrote 6) We ................our house by 2018. a - Will have pay b - Will have be payd c - Will have paid 7) My mother............her new portrait next week. a - Will have paint b - Will be paint c - Will have painted 8) We.............the cuartelillo in September. a - Will be bought b - Will have bought c - Will be buy 9) My friend ............his lecture in February. a - Will have given b - Will have gave c - Will have give 10) I ........................................................in a new office next year. a - Will be working b - Will working be c - Will have working 11) They ...........................in La Sirena next Saturday.
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a - Will be having dinner b - Will dinner have c - Will be dinner 12) I..........to Berln in August. a - Will flying b - Will flying be c - Will be flying 13) We .....................................our daughter next Christmas. a - Will visitt b - Will visitting c - Will be visiting 14) They ................................for you at the airport. a - Will be waited b - Will be waiting c - Will be wait 15) I .......................................................some new books tomorow. a - Will be buying b - Will buying be c - Will bought 16) She...........................in the new disco next Saturday. a - Will dancing b - Will dancing be c - Will be dancing 17) It...........in Madrid. a - Will be snow b - Will be snowing c - Will snow be 18) I ......................tennis this evening. a - Will be playing b - Played c - Will be play 19) I hope I ...................................................the report on Monday. a - Will have finished b - Will finished c - Will be finish 20) By this time next year they .............................a lot with that teacher. a - Will learnt have b - Will have learnt c - Will have learn 21) We ............................all the beer before winter. a - Will drank
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b - Will be dranking c - Will have drunk 22) He ...............................many countries in April. a - Will have seen b - Will seen c - Will be seen 23) I .............................everything before 12:00. a - Will eaten b - Will have eaten c - Will be ate 24) My friend ..........................................before Christmas. a - Will be come b - Will come be c - Will have come 25) Juan ...............................................a new computer in June. a - Will have bought b - Will bought c - Will be boughting 26) His friends ........................................the new baby on Monday morning. a - Have will visit b - Will have visited c - Will visited 27) The teachers .....................................all the exams this evening. a - Will have corrected b - Will be correct c - Will correcting be 28) Tomorrow my secretary ......................all the memos. a - Will have typed b - Will types c - Had typed 29) By twelve o'clock they will ...................studying English for two hours. a - Have b - Been c - Have been 30) By the end of the year I will .........twenty books. a - Have written b - Had written c - Writing 31) We..........by nine o'clock tomorrow night. a - Will have finished b - Will finished
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c - Finish

259

Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. C 31. C 2. B 12. C 22. A 3. B 13. C 23. B 4. A 14. B 24. C 5. A 15. A 25. A 6. C 16. C 26. B 7. C 17. B 27. A 8. B 18. A 28. A 9. A 19. A 29. C 10. A 20. B 30. A

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EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE
El condicional se forma igual que el futuro, anteponiendo al infinitivo la partcula: would o should. La partcula should slo se usa en ingls muy formal. Normalmente se emplea para expresar consejos o advertencias. Puede contraer con el sujeto: I would en Id

Afirmativa.

Sujeto + Would + Inf sin t o.

I would go with you. Yo ira contigo. Id go to the cinema. Yo ira al cine.

Negativa.

Sujeto + Would not + Inf sin t o.

I would not pay that. Yo no pagara eso. I wouldnt buy it. Yo no lo comprara.

Interrogativa.

Would + Sujeto + Inf sin t o.

Would you marry me? Te casaras conmigo?

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EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Would + Have+ Participio Pasado. I would have gone with you. Yo habra ido contigo.

Negativa.

I would not have paid Sujeto + Would not/ won't + Have+ Participio that. Yo no habra pagado Pasado. eso. Would + Sujeto + Have+ Participio Pasado. Would you have married her? Te habras casado con ella?

Interrogativa.

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CUADRO RESUMEN DE LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES


EL PRESENTE SIMPLE
Afirmativa. Sujeto + Inf. 3 p. ( He, She, It ) aade -s o -es Sujeto + Dont o Doesnt + Inf Do o Does + S + Inf? I live in Elda. He kisses her. She washes up every day. I dont like coffee. She doesnt smoke.

Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos.

Otros.

Do you love me? Does he go to school? Acciones habituales. I get up at 7.45. Verdades universales. Snow is cold. The match starts at 6.00. Horarios. The train leaves at 6.00. Acciones en el futuro sujetas a un horario. Le suelen acompaar: every day, always, usually, often, never, generally, etc.

EL PRESENTE CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Be (am, is, are) + Ing. S + Be + Not + Ing. Am, Is, Are + S + Ing? Acciones en proceso Planes futuros. Acciones repetidas. I am reading. She is not smoking. Are you running? I am readind a book. I am playing tennis tomorrow. He is always talking.

Otros.

Le suelen acompaar: at present , nowadays, now, at the moment, etc.

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EL PRESENTE PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Have (have o has) + I have played tennis. I have eaten paella. Participio pasado I have not washed the dishes. S + Have + Not + I have not seen her. Participo pasado. Have you been there? Have o Has + S + Participo pasado? I have read the book. Acciones acabadas de las que no se dice cuando sucedieron. Puede llevar just , for, since, already, yet, etc.

Otros.

EL PASADO SIMPLE
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa Usos. I played. S + Vb. Regular + ed S + Vb Irr ( 2Columna). I ate. S + Did + Not (didnt) + I did not play. I did not eat. Inf. Did + S + Inf? Did you play? Did you eat?

Otros.

I went to Barcelona. Acciones que I was reading the paper and then ocurrieron en el it began to rain. pasado. A veces acompaa al pasado continuo Le suelen acompaar: last year, yesterday, two days ago etc.

EL PASADO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Negativa. S + Be (Was, Were) + Ing. S + Was, Were + Not + Ing I was writing a letter. I was not writing a letter.

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Interrogativa. Usos.

Was, Were + S + Ing? Acciones en proceso en el pasado. En narraciones. Para descripciones.

Were you writing a letter? I was painting the gate. The girls were smiling.

EL PRESENTE PERFECTO CONTINUO


Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Have o Has + Been I have been learning English for 20 years. +Ing. S + Have o Has+ not + I have not been sleeping. Been + Ing. Have o Has + S + Been Have you been reading? + Ing? Acciones que comenzaron en el pasado y todava continuan o acaban de suceder, Resalta la duracin de la accin. For y since le suelen acompaar.

Otros.

EL PASADO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. I had gone. S + Had + Participio Pasado. I had not gone. S + had + Not + Participio Pasado. Had she gone? Had + S + Participio Pasado?. Acciones que ocurrieron antes que otra accin pasada. Le suelen acompaar: when, before, by the time etc.

Otros.

EL PASADO PERFECTO CONTINUO


Afirmativa. S + Had + Been + Ing. I had been watching TV.

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Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos.

S + Had + Not + Been + I had not been watching TV. Ing. Had + S + Been + Ing?. Had she been ironing? Acciones que estaban en proceso antes que otra accin pasada ocurriera.

EL FUTURO SIMPLE
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. Otros. S + Will o Shall + Inf. S + Will + Not + Inf. Will + S + Inf? I will go. I will not go. Will she come?

Acciones futuras. Predicciones Le suelen acompaar: tonight , tomorrow, next year, in a month.

EL FUTURO CONTINUO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Wil be + Ing S + Will + Not + Be + Ing. Will + S + Be + Ing? Acciones futuras en progreso. I will be reading Valle de Elda. I will not be watching TV. Will you be working?

EL FUTURO PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. S + Will have + Participio Pasado. S + Will + Not + Have + Participio Pasado. Will + S + Have + Participio Pasado? I will have arrived at 7.00. I will not have finished. Will she have paid?

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Usos.

Acciones acabadas en el futuro.

EL FUTURO PERFECTO CONTINUO


Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Will have + Been + I will have been working. Ing. S + Will + Not + Have + I will not have been working. Been + Ing. Will + S + Have + Been + Will you have been working? Ing. Acciones que estarn finalizadas en el futuro.

EL CONDICIONAL SIMPLE
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. Usos. S + Would + Inf. S + Would + Not + Inf. Would + S + Inf? Deseos en el presente o en el futuro. I would go to London. I would not go to London. Would you go to Lisbon?

EL CONDICIONAL PERFECTO
Afirmativa. Negativa. Interrogativa. I would have gone to London. S + Would + Have + Participio Pasado. S + Would + Not + Have I would not have gone to London. + Participio Pasado. Would you have gone to Paris? Would + S + Have + Participio Pasado? Lamentos sobre acciones pasadas.

Usos.

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TIPOS DE ORACIONES
Podemos establecer dos grandes grupos: Las coordinadas y las subordinadas. Las primeras son oraciones compuestas independientes entre s. En cuanto a las subordinadas una depende de la otra. Los nexos ms usados son los siguientes: And. Y. Bothand. Tanto...como. He is tall and intelligent. l es alto e inteligente. They both teach French and Italian. Ellos dos ensean francs e italiano.

Copulativas.

Moreover. Adems. Likewise. De igual modo.

It rained a lot, moreover it snowed. Llovi mucho, adems nev. I bought a ham; likewise did my neighbour. Compr un jamn, al igual que mi vecino.

Besides. Adems.

I have no money, besides I dont want to buy anything else. No tengo dinero, adems no quiero comprar nada ms. You can stay or come with us. Puedes quedarte o venir con nosotros. They are either Italian or Greek. Ellos son o italianos o griegos. I neither like Wagner nor the Rolling Stones. Ni me gusta Wagner ni los Rolling Stones.

Disyuntivas.

Or. O. Eitheror. Oo. Neithernor. Ni...ni.

Adversativas

But. Pero. Not onlybut also.

I like Verdi but I prefer Puccini. Me gusta Verdi pero prefiero Puccini. Not only I read Valle de Elda but I also read Vivir en Elda.
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No slo...sino tambin.

No slo leo Valle de Elda sino que tambin leo Vivir en Elda.

Yet. Aunque.

She is pretty, yet nobody loves her. Ella es guapa, aunque nadie la quiere.

Although. Aunque.

Although he is rich, he hasnt many friends. Aunque es rico no tiene muchos amigos.

Causales.

Because. Porque. For. Para. As. Como.

I became rich because I saved a lot. Me hice rico porque ahorr mucho. She studies for being a lawyer. Estudia para ser abogado As I had studied French I could travelled alone. Como haba estudiado francs pude viajar solo. Since they are adults they can go. Ya que son adultos pueden viajar solos.

Since. Puesto que.

Owing to. The recital was cancelled owing to lack of Ya que, debido audience. El recital se cancel debido a falta de a. pblico. In order to. Para. So as to. Con el fin de. In order to be accepted you have to pay first. Para que te acepten, debes pagar primero. They voted so as to elect the new President. Votaron para elegir al nuevo presidente.

Finales.

In case. I have an insurance in case I need it. En el caso de Tengo un seguro por si lo necesito. que. Por si.
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For fear. Por miedo a.

He eats a lot of oranges for fear of getting a cold. Come muchas naranjas por miedo a coger un catarro. He won the pools so he bought a new house. Gan las quinielas y por eso se compr una nueva casa. He has many friends therefore he is never alone. Tiene muchos amigos y por eso nunca est solo.

Consecutivas.

So. Por eso.

Therefore. Por lo tanto.

Which is why. He is boring, which is why hes always alone. Esa es la razn Es aburrido, esa es la razn por la que por la que. siempre est solo.

Sothat. Para que.


Comparativas. As.

I bought a present so that you liked it. Compr un regalo para que te gustara He is as intelligent as his sister. l es tan inteligente como su hermana. He is not as honest as his brother. l no es tan honrado como su hermano. He is not so tall as me. l no es tan alto como yo.

Como. Asas. Tan como. Soas. No tan como.

Similarly. Petrel has nice parks, similarly Elda has nice Del mismo modo. museums. Petrel tiene parques muy bonitos, de igual modo Elda tiene museos muy bonitos. As. Como. As a pianist she is the best. Como pianista el es el mejor.
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Modo.

Like. Como.

He eats like a lion. Come como un len.

Concesivas.

Although. Aunque. Though. Aunque. Even though. Incluso. Even if. Incluso si. However. Sin embargo.

Although I prefer to stay I have to go now. Aunque prefiero quedarme tengo que irme. Though he is ill, he never complains. Aunque est malo, nunca se queja. Even though he is rich he never shows off. Aunque es rico, nunca presume. Even if it rains I will go. Incluso si llueve ir. I liked it, however, I didnt buy it. Me gust, sin embargo no lo compr.

No matter. No importa. In spite of. A pesar de .

No matter if you love her, she doent love you. No importa si la quieres, ella no te quiere. In spite of having lived in France she doesnt speak French. A pesar de haber vivido en Francia no habla francs. Despite all the efforts he didnt win. A pesar de todos los esfuerzos, no gan.

Despite. A pesar de.

Condicionales If. . Si.

If you need me, phone me. Si me necesitas, llmame. When you want to visit us, let us know. Cuando quieras visitarnos, hznoslo saber.

Tiempo.

When. Cuando.

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While. Mientras. Before. Antes.

While I was in Italy I ate a lot of pasta. Mientras estuve en Italia com mucha pasta. Before I worked in Elda, I worked in Crevillente. Antes de trabajar en Elda, trabaj en Crevillente. I have lived here since 1962 Vivo aqu desde 1962

Since. Desde.

Whenever. Cada vez que Until. Hasta.

Whenever he comes I visit him. Cada vez que viene le visito. Until I found it I was sad. Hasta que lo encontr estaba triste.

Now. Ahora. Once. Una vez.

Now I am hungry. Ahora tengo hambre. Once I pay the house I will buy a car. Una vez que haya pagado el piso comprar un coche.

No sonnerthan. No sooner had they gone than I was asleep. Apenas. Apenas se haban ido me qued dormido.

Finally. Finalmente. In short. En breve. Where. Donde. Wherever. Dondequiera

Finally I read the book. Finalmente le el libro. In short they will be here. En breve estarn aqu. This is the house where we lived until 1996. Esta es la casa donde vivimos hasta 1996. Wherever she goes she buys some clothes. Dondequiera que vaya se compra ropa.
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Lugar.

que.

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ORACIONES DE RELATIVO
Este tipo de oraciones suelen aadir informacin a lo que ya se ha dicho en la oracin principal. Usan los siguientes pronombres relativos: Who. This is the man who came yesterday. Este es el hombre que vino ayer. here

Personas.

That.

This is the man that came yesterday. Este es el hombre que vino ayer. This is the book which I bought in Martn Fierro. Este es el libro que compr en Martn Fierro. The house that I sold. La casa que vend. The boy whose bike is this is Mike. El chico de quien es esta bici es Mike. This is the school where I studied. Esta es la escuela donde estudi. This is the day when I was born. Este es el da en el que nac. The girl whom I loved. Es la chica a quien am. The reason why I bought this is you. La razn por la que compr esto eres t. And this is what he said. Esto es lo que l dijo. This is the thing that we should do. Esto es lo que deberamos hacer.

Cosas.

Which.

That.

Posesin.

Whose.

Lugar.

Where.

Tiempo.

When.

Personas.

Whom.

Why.

What.

The thing that.

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That puede utilizarse en lugar de who o which en las oraciones de relativo especificativas ( defining)

This is the girl that I love. This is the girl who I love. Esta es la chica a quien quiero. This is the car which I told you. This is the car that I told you. Este es el coche que te dije. Las oraciones de relativo se dividen en:

NON-DEFINING O EXPLICATIVAS.
Van entre comas. Aaden informacin extra que podra omitirse y no alterara el significado de la frase. No son imprescindibles para comprender el significado. Se trata de una explicacin. Nunca llevan that y nunca se puede omitir el relativo.

My wife , who is a teacher, reads a lot. Mi mujer, que es profesora, lee mucho.

DEFINING O ESPECIFICATIVAS.
Son ms frecuentes y no van entre comas. Definen al antecedente. The woman who came is my wife. La mujer que vino es mi esposa Who, which y that se pueden omitir cuando no son los sujetos de la oracin.

The girl (who) he met is Mary. La chica que conoci es Mara. The CD (which) I bought is very good. El disco que compr es muy bueno.

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CONJUNCIONES
According to. Segn. I did it according to his instructions. Lo hice segn l me dijo. They came after I arrived. Llegaron despus de que yo llegu. Although It rained a lot the match wasnt cancelled. Aunque llovi mucho, no se cancel el partido. I like wine and beer. Me gusta el vino y la cerveza. As he came I saw him. Le vi mientras vena. He became poor as a result of spending too much. Se empobreci como consecuencia de gastar demasiado. He behaves as if he doesnt know me. l se comporta como si no me conociera. As long as you study you can play. Mientras que estudies puedes jugar. As soon as I found it I complained. Tan pronto como lo descubr me quej. Act as though nothing happens. Acta como si no pasara nada. She, as well as me, will go to Madrid. Ella, al igual que yo, ir a Madrid. We wont go because it is very cold. No iremos porque hace mucho frio.

After.

Despus.

Although.

Aunque.

And.

Y.

As.

Mientras que, as como. Como consecuencia.

As a result.

As if.

Como si.

As long as.

Mientras que.

As soon as.

Tan pronto como.

As though.

Como si.

As well as.

Al igual que.

Because.

Porque.

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Because of

Debido a.

Because of her behaviour nobody likes her. Debido a su comportamiento nadie la quiere. I read the paper before we eat. Leo el peridico antes de comer. It is expensive but I will buy it. Es caro pero lo comprar. He came despite feeling bad. l vino a pesar de sentirse mal. We can either go home or to the cinema. Podemos o bien ir a casa o al cine. Even though its late you can watch TV. Aunque es tarde, puedes ver la tele. I will go except if I have to work. Ir salvo que tenga que trabajar. He doesnt study and futhermore he doesnt work. l no estudia y adems no trabaja. He didnt study, however he passed his exams. l no estudi, sin embargo aprob sus exmenes. If he comes tell him to visit me. Si viene, dile que me visite. In case of fire ring the fire brigade. En caso de incendio llama a los bomberos. In order to pass you have to study a lot. Para aprobar debes estudiar mucho. I went to London, moreover I went to
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Before.

Antes.

But.

Pero.

Despite.

A pesar.

Either..or.

o.o.

Even though.

Aunque.

Except.

Salvo.

Furthermore.

Adems.

However.

Sin embargo.

If.

Si.

In case of.

En caso de.

In order to.

Para.

Moreover.

Adems.

Scotland. Fui a Londres y adems a Escocia. Neithernor. Nini. I neither like coffee nor tea. No me gusta ni el t ni el caf. I didnt want to go, nevertherless I enjoyed the trip. No quise ir, sin embargo disfrut del viaje. I like the shoes, notwithstanding they are very expensive. Me gustan los zapatos, no obstante son muy caros. Phone or fax. Telefonea o manda un fax. Send us the money, otherwise we wont send you the shoes. Mndenos el dinero, de otra manera no le mandaremos los zapatos. Provided you pay I accept the offer. Siempre que pague acepto la oferta. Since I have been invited I have to go. Ya que me han invitado, tengo que ir. I save money so as to buy a new house. Ahorro dinero para poder comprar una nueva casa. There is a concert next Monday, therefore Ill buy the tickets. Hay un concierto el prximo lunes, por lo tanto comprar las entradas. He is rich though not very intelligent. Aunque es rico no es muy inteligente. I went to England to learn English. Fui a Inglaterra para aprender ingls.
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Nevertheless.

Sin embargo.

Notwithstanding.

No obstante.

Or.

O.

Otherwise.

De otra manera.

Provided.

Siempre que.

Since.

Ya que.

So as to.

Para.

Therefore.

Por lo tanto.

Though.

Aunque.

To.

Para.

Unless.

A menos que.

Unless they pay we wont send them anymore shoes. A menos que paguen no les mandaremos ms zapatos. Until I noticed I liked opera I listened to classical music. Hasta que me di cuenta de que me gustaba la pera yo escuchaba msica clsica. Whenever they feel like, they go to Madrid. Cada vez que les apetece, van a Madrid. They stopped where they saw a light. Ellos pararon donde vieron una luz. He is shy whereas she is not. l es tmido mientras que ella no. Whether you like it or not, we have to go. Te guste o no, tenemos que irnos. She is the most intelligent, yet she didnt win the contest. Ella es la ms inteligente, sin embargo no gan el concurso.

Until.

Hasta que.

Whenever.

Cada vez que.

Where.

Donde.

Whereas.

Mientras.

Whether..or.

Sio.

Yet.

Sin embargo.

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LOS VERBOS MODALES


Los verbos modales se l aman as al carecer de las mayora de las formas verbales. Se usan para hacer suposiciones, sacar conclusiones, hablar de posibilidades y establecer conjeturas. No tienen todos los tiempos verbales, por ejemplo, must y ought t o slo tienen presente. Can, may, dare y need, tienen presente y pasado. May, might. Poder. Dare. Atreverse. Must. Deber. Need. Necesitar. Ought to. Deber. Will, shall. Auxiliares de futuro.

Can, could. Poder. Would. Auxiliar del condicional.

Tienen una nica forma para todas las personas en presente:

I can. He can.

No llevan -s en la tercera persona del singular. Van seguidos de Infinitivo sin t o.

I can ski. He must study. Hacen la negacin y la interrogacin como el verbo to be.

Can you ski? No se construyen con to do, to have y to be.

Can she go? No tienen imperativo, ni infinitivo, ni participio de presente ni de pasado por lo tanto no forman tiempos continuos ni perfectos. Tampoco aparecen en formas pasivas.

She can swim.


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Ella sabe nadar. He must study everyday. l debe estudiar todos los das. Usan otros verbos para suplir sus carencias temporales, ya que no tienen forma para todos los tiempos. No tienen participio ni infinitivo. He was able to go. l pudo ir. I had to go alone. Yo tuve que ir solo. I must not eat so much chocolate. No debo comer tanto chocolate. Can you tell me the time? Me puede decir la hora? Van seguidos de infinitivo sin t o, a excepcin de ought to, have to y used t o.

I used to go to the disco. Yo sola ir a la discoteca.

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CAN
Slo se usa en el presente, para el resto de tiempos se utiliza to be able to. En algunos casos puede ser sustituido por to know how to. Se puede traducir por poder o saber.

I can swim. S nadar. I know how to swim. S como nadar. l'll be able to go tonight. Podr ir esta noche. Will he be able to come in time? Podr venir a tiempo? I have been able to finish it in time. He podido acabar a tiempo. Expresa conocimiento y capacidad fsica e intelectual. I can play the violin. S tocar el violn. I can read. S leer. Posibilidad. I can go with you. Puedo ir contigo. Can I go with you? Puedo ir contigo?

Tambien para dar y recibir permiso.

Puede indicar prohibicin en la forma You cant smoke here. No puedes fumar aqu. negativa. Deduccin negativa. They cant be at home. No deben de estar en casa. I can swim. S nadar. Can I help you? Puedo ayudarte?
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Habilidad.

Ofrecimientos.

Solamente se usa para el presente de She can do it alone. Lo puede hacer sola. indicativo. Could se usa para el pasado y el condicional. I could go yesterday. Pude ir ayer. I could go tomorrow. Podr ir maana. Sugerencias. You can come with us. Puedes venir con nosotros.

El verbo to know how le puede sustituir

I know how to go. S ir.

COULD
Indica habilidad en el pasado. I could translate Italian at the age of 9. Saba traducir italiano a los 9 aos. Could I go with you? Podra ir contigo?

Peticiones formales.

MAY
Posibilidad. It may rain during the weekend. Puede llover durante la semana. May I come in ? Puedo pasar? You may not stay here. No puedes estar aqu. He may be in Italy. Puede que est en Italia.

Permiso.

Prohibiciones.

Especulaciones.

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Sugerencias.

If I may say so I will buy it. Si se me permite decirlo, comprara.

yo

lo

MIGHT
Expresa una posibildad ms remota It might snow in Benidorm but I doubt it. que may. Podra nevar en Benidorm, pero lo dudo. Especulaciones. He might be working in a new book. El podra estar trabajando en un nuevo libro.

MUST
Obligacines morales. I must visit my friend, he is ill. Debo ir a visitar a mi amigo que est enfermo. You must visit the museum, it is one of the best in Spain. Debes visitar el museo, es uno de los mejores de Espaa. He must be out because nobody answers the phone. Debe de haber salido, pues nadie contesta el telfono. You must not come here again. No debes volver a venir aqu.

Consejos.

Deduccines.

Prohibiciones.

HAVE TO
Obligacin normalmente impuesta. You have to drive with a helmet.
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Debes conducir con casco. Para indicar costumbres. I have to take an aspirin every night. Me tengo que tomar una aspirina cada noche.

En negativa, indica que algo no es You don't have to stay if you have something to do. necesario. No tienes que quedarte si tienes algo que hacer.

SHOULD, OUGHT TO
Son prcticamente sinnimos. You should go to the Yemo Cineplex cinemas. Debera ir a los cines Yelmo Cineplex. You ought to spend more time with them. Deberas pasar ms tiempo con ellos.

Para dar consejos.

WILL
Auxiliar del futuro simple. I will buy a sandwich when I finish this. Me comprar un bocadillo cuando acabe esto. It will be sunny. Har sol. I will buy a new car. Me comprar un coche nuevo. I will do it. Lo har. Will you pass me the salt? Me pasas la sal?

Predicciones sobre el futuro.

Decisiones.

Ofrecimientos.

Peticiones.

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WOULD
Peticiones y ofrecimientos. Would you like to come with me? Te gustara venir conmigo? In 1998 I would walk a lot. En 1998 yo paseaba mucho.

Hbitos y rutinas en el pasado.

Como a

I would go out to the cinema with my friends in the summer nights when I was 6 Iba al cine con mis amigos en las noches de verano cuando tena seis aos.

SHALL
Es auxiliar de futuro, pero slo para las primeras personas del singular y del plural I, we.

I shall go. Ir. Puede expresar cierta determinacin We shall never surrender. Nunca nos rendiremos.

USED TO
Hbitos en el pasado. I used to sing in the shower. Yo sola cantar en la ducha.

Los hbitos en el presente se pueden expresar con la estructura To be used to +Ing.

286

I am used to reading. Suelo leer.

NEED
Puede actuar como verbo modal o verbo ordinario. Como modal no aade -s en la tercera persona del singular y no admite ni auxiliares en la interrogativa y negativa. He needs a lot of money to get married. Necesita mucho dinero para casarse. Needn't se usa para indicar que no hay obligacin.

You neednt come tomorrow. No es necesario que vengas maana. Need to indica necesidad.

I need to consult a good doctor. Necesito consultar a un buen mdico. He needs to have more money to buy this car. Necesita tener ms dinero para comprar este coche. Para la forma negativa e interrogativa hay dos opciones: Need you buy so much? Do you need to buy so much? You needn't come with us. No es necesario que venga con nosotros. You don't need to come with us. No es necesario que venga con nosotros. Para el pasado slo hay una. You didn't need to wait for them. No era necesario que les esperases.

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1) You ..........................study everyday. a - Can b - Must c - Are 2) The Town Hall ...........................................a new street to Alberto Navarro. a - Should dedicate b - Shall dedicating c - Should to dedicate 3) There's nothing in the fridge. They..............all. a - Must have eaten b - Must has ate c - Must had eaten 4) You ............try everything. a Can to b - Must c - Need 5) you ..........the receipt here please? a Can b - Musts c - Shall 6) You ............cry, it's not worth. a - Should not b - Shaln't c - Won't 7) I...........quit smoking. a - Wills b Haves to c Have to 8) ..........I speak to Jorge? a - Cans b - Can c - Was 9) He ..........be very rich, he is driving an expensive car. a - Is b - Must c - Should 10) We ........ be united. a - Ought b - Must c - Had 11) He wasn't .........to see the driver.
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a - Can b - Able c - May 12) Will we...........buy a dictionary? a - Must b - Have to c - Can 13) That ........be enough. a - Should b - Cans c - Must s 14) I .........send him something for his new baby. a - Must b - Has to c - Have 15) We .............................send the photograph to you. a - Will b - Do c - Did 16) I ...........like a window-seat please. a - Will b - Would c - Can 17) Yes, I guess we ...........buy them now. a - Shall b - Should c - Would 18) There's Marcelo and that ...........be his father. a - Must b - Has c - Mays 19) People of your age ............not drink beer. a - Shall b - Will c - Should 20) Girls, you ......................say those things about your friends. a - Haven't to b - Mustn't c - Mustn 21) I........................write to Gema I haven't written to her for ages. a - Must
289

b - May c - Had 22) I think my brother ..................to come next month. a - Cans b - Could c - Will be able 23) I don't speak Valenciano ..................you speak Castellano ? a - Would b - Can't c - Are able 24) You ..................have a passport to travel to Petrel. a - Needn't b - Must c - Can 25) Felix, the Maths teacher ..................correcting the exams because he is not here. a - Must be b - Must has c - May have 26) Michael was dictating too fast, so I ...............copy what he said. a - Were able b - Couldn't c - Won't be able 27) Jess you'd like to go to buy a new computer, .............you? a - Would b - Wouldn't c - May 28) He ..............understand the problem if you explained it to him. a - Would b - Shall c - Will 29) What ....................happen if we didn't go to work? a - Will b - Would c - Must 30) The local Council ...........do something about those houses! a - Must to b - Have to c - Must 31) When you come again, you .........visit The Plaza Mayor and the museums. a Has to
290

b - May c - Should 32) Come on, boys. We .........win them this time. a - Must b - Have to c - Have 33) They didn't come to the meeting I suppose they ..........have gone to the beach. a - Must b - Has c - May 34) I didn't go to the concert I.............have gone. a - Shall b - Should c - Must 35) This paella tastes very well. Lorenzo ...have made it. a - Must b - Had c - Has 36) I haven't seen Mara Luisa since Christmas. She.................be in New York. a - Must b - Can c - Shall 37) He........to find the restaurant after asking two or three times. a - Was able b - Couldn't c - Could 38) This book ..........at home. a - Must be read b - Have to be raed c - Has to bee read 39) It .......snow in "El Cid " but it is not very probable. a - May b - Might c - May be 40) It........rain tomorrow. a - May b - Must c - Can 41) We........some money to buy a new fridge. Can we borrow from you? a - Need
291

b - Must c - May 42) You .......speak like this to your parents. a - Shalls b - Shouldn't c - Shall 43) I would........to have a better bike. a - Like b - To like c - Liking 44) Elda Shoes, .......I help you? a - Need b - Can c - Must 45) I .....................buy the bread if you don't give me the money. a - Must b - Can't c - Can 46) You ........teach me how to prepare a paella. a - Ought b - Must c - Need 47) Your aunt is ill. We ........visit her. a - Can b - Should to c - Should 48) You ......go to bed. You look very tired. a - Should b - Should to c - Ought 49) We ought not to visit her. She........study. a - Has b - Must c - Have 50) Thou........not kill is one of the ten commandments that God gave us. a - Will b - Shall c - Shan't 51) ........we go to Panoramis? a - Able to b - Sahll
292

c - Shall 52) I promise that you ........have a motorbike if you pass all your exams. a - Shall b - Would c - Wont 53) Students .........not use mobile phones during the lessons. a - Will b - Shall c - Wont 54) No smoking.........be allowed in all the premises. a - Will b - Shall c - Is 55) He ...........to have gone to Menorca instead of Ibiza. a - Ought b - Ouhgt c - Outhgt 56) You.........to visit your grandmother more often. a - Shall b - Should c - Ought 57) ........you like to come with us to the cinema? a - Will b - Shall c - Would 58) When my mother was young my grandmother ........look after her. a - Used b - Would c - To 59) You........treat everybody with respect. a - Has b - Should c - Will 60) If you.......see her tell her to phone me. a - Should b - Will c - Would 61) You ........visit the dentist twice a year. a - Would b - Should c - Shall
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62) Why......you want to buy this? if it is of no use. a - Shall b - Will c - Should 63) The man with the moustache and the golden watch........be his father. a - Must b - Can c - Need 64) You ..................smoke in the classes, it is forbidden. a - Must not b - Must c - Can 65) It .................rain tonight. It is very dark. a - May b - Mays c - Mights 66) I .................................not go because I have not been invited. a - May b - Mei c - Can

294

Soluciones 1. B 11. B 21. A 31. C 41. A 51. C 61. B 2. A 12. B 22. C 32. A 42. B 52. A 62. C 3. A 13. A 23. B 33. A 43. A 53. B 63. A 4. B 14. A 24. A 34. B 44. B 54. B 64. A 5. A 15. A 25. A 35. A 45. B 55. A 65. A 6. A 16. B 26. B 36. A 46. B 56. C 66. A 7. C 17. B 27. B 37. A 47. C 57. C 8. B 18. A 28. A 38. A 48. A 58. B 9. B 19. C 29. B 39. B 49. B 59. B 10. B 20. B 30. C 40. A 50. B 60. A

295

TABLA RESUMEN DE LOS VERBOS MODALES


Can. Habilidades. Peticin de permiso. Imposibilidad. Habilidad en el pasado. Posibilidad. Imposibilidad. Sugerencias. Posibilidad. Permiso. Prohibicin Posibilidad remota. Predicciones. Decisiones. Peticiones formales. Acciones pasadas. Preferencias. Peticiones formales. Acciones futuras. Consejos. Obligacin. Prohibiciones. Obligaciones impuestas. Habilidades. Deducciones. I can swim. Can I come in? He cant go now. He could read Russian. They could be in Tokyo. I couldnt buy the car. You could try next year. It may rain tomorrow. May I come in? You may not smoke here. It might snow. They will come. I will buy a Harley. Would you marry me? I would play tennis when I was 10. I would rather go to the cinema. Shall I open the window? I shall visit her. You should buy her a diamond. I must study. You must not go with that boy. You have to drive on the right. He is able to make a cake. They must have bought a new house. They cant have come here this morning. They may have gone. She could have seen her. You are going to need a lot of help. You neednt come tomorrow.

Could.

May.

Might. Will. Would.

Shall. Should Ought to. Must. Have to. Be able to. Must, cant have + PP. May, might Could, + Have + Participio Pasado. Need. Neednt.

Deducciones donde no tenemos mucha seguridad. Necesidad. Ausencia de necesidad.

QUESTION TAGS (COLETILLAS)


296

Son preguntas que sirven para confirmar una suposicin. Tienen dos partes, si la primera es afirmativa, la segunda ser negativa. Si la primera es negativa, la segunda ser afirmativa. Las frases con verbos auxiliares o defectivos forman la coletilla con el mismo v erbo.

You are from Petrel, aren't you? T eres de Petrel, no es cierto? You arent from Petrel, are you? T no eres de Petrel, verdad? She isnt from Sax, is she? Ella no es de Sax, verdad? He has a Harley, hasn't he? El tiene una Harley, no es cierto? You can swim, can't you? T sabes nadar, verdad? She couldn't run fast, could she? Ella no poda correr deprisa, no es cierto? Con los dems verbos se usan las partculas do, does, en presente.

You study every day, don't you? T estudias todos los das, no? She plays golf, doesn't she? Ella juega al golf verdad? You don't speak Chinese, do you? T no sabes hablar chino verdad? She doesn't write very well, does she? Ella no escribe muy bien. verdad? En pasado se usa did.

You went to Milan, didn't you? Fuiste a Miln, no es verdad? She prepared a paella, didn't she?
297

Ella hizo la paella, verdad? En futuro se usa will y won't.

They will come tomorrow, won't they? Vendrn maana, no es cierto? They won't come tomorrow, will they? No vendrn maana, verdad? En condicional se usa would.

They would buy it if they could, wouldn't they? Ellos lo compraran si pudieran, verdad? She wouldn't buy it, would she? Ella no lo comprara, verdad?

298

SAY Y TELL
Tienen el mismo siginificado, decir y contar. To tell debe ir acompaado de un complemento indirecto, mientras que to say tan solo necesita un complemento directo. I told her your story Le cont a ella tu historia. I told your story to her. Le cont tu historia a ella. I said that I was going to move to Sax. Dije que me iba a ir a vivir a Sax.

299

1) What did the teacher ........yesterday? a - Say b - Tell c - Said 2) What did your mother .......to you? a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 3) Please ...............what happened? a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 4) I will never....................a lie. a - Say b - Tell c - Count 5) Will you please ................us all the truth? a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 6) He didn't ...................anything. a - Say b - Tell c - Count 7) Yesterday Mr Garca .......it was going to rain. a - Say b - Said c - Tells 8) .........a joke. a - Say b - Tell c - Count 9) You've ........me that at least six times today. a - Tell b - Tollen c - Told 10) She is always asking you to .........her words in Italian. a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 11) My mother wants to see Sarah.................to come her at once.
300

a - Tell her b - Let her c - Let she 12) Did Pedro Civera ........anything about the exams? a - Tell b - Speak c - Say 13) ........me what happened yesterday. a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 14) Don't..........you don't like good wine. a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 15) I........my mother I wanted to be an artist. a - Said b - Told c - Spoke 16) What did she........? a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 17) He.........that he wants to go to Alicante. a - Tells b - Says c - Speaks 18) Don't ........it to your friends. a - Say b - Tell c - Speak 19) I.........my daughter a story every night. a - Speak b - Say c - Tell 20) She never..........lies. a - Says b - Tells c - Speaks 21) We always...............the truth.
301

a - Tell b - Speak c - Say 22) I ...............them I was going to Australia. a - Told b - Tell c Said 23) He........his wife he had had an affair with her best friend. a - Said b - Told c - Spoke 24) .......me the truth please. a - Say b - Speak c - Tell 25) They.......................that it was very cold in Disneyland Paris. a - Said b - Sayd c - Told 26) He ...........to the waiter that the wine was not very good. a - Told b - Said c - Sayd 27) He......so. a - Said b - Say c - Told 28) She always......us the story of her childhood in Salinas. a - Tell b - Tells c - Says 29) It is not easy to.........how it all began. a - Say b - Count c - Speak 30) He ...........the secretary to send the faxes. a - Told b - Said c - Order 31) My mother ....... "Let's visit the cousins "
302

a - Said b - Told c - Sayd 32) I know two twin sisters in the Plaza Mayor who are very difficult to...................one from the other. a - Tell b - Say c - Mutter 33) Life is not easy. You can never..........what is going to happen. a - Say b - Tell c - Knows 34) When I went to England, a friend .....................me my fortune. a - Said b - Told c - Explaind 35) "It has been the best day of my life "......my sister. a - Told b - Said c - Gueses 36) The teacher......to the class that they should work more. a - Said b - Told c - Manded 37) It goes without........ a - Telling b - Saying c - Explainig

303

Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. A 31. A 2. A 12. C 22. A 32. A 3. A 13. B 23. B 33. B 4. B 14. A 24. C 34. B 5. B 15. B 25. A 35. B 6. A 16. A 26. B 36. A 7. B 17. B 27. A 37. B 8. B 18. B 28. B 9. C 19. C 29. A 10. B 20. B 30. A

304

MAKE Y DO
Estos dos verbos comparten el significado de hacer y para cuyo uso no existen reglas aunque to make tiene el matiz de fabricar, construir y to do se emplea con un sentido ms general. Por lo tanto se deben aprender ciertas expresiones.

MAKE
Everybody makes mistakes. Todo el mundo comete errores. He is always making friends. Siempre est haciendo amigos. He makes a lot of noise. Hace mucho ruido. Im going to make you my last offer. Te voy a hacer mi ltima oferta. I make many telephone calls. Yo hago muchas llamadas. I make the beds in the morning. Hago las camas por la maana. Make me a promise. Promtemelo. She is making coffee. Est preparando caf She made a fortune in Cuba. Hizo una fortuna en Cuba. These shoes are made in Elda. Estos zapatos estn hechos en Elda. They have made a lot of money. Han hecho mucho dinero. They made a good choice. Hicieron una buena eleccin.

DO
I always do the ironing. Siempre plancho. How do you do? Cmo ests? I do the cooking. Cocino. We do business with Japan. Hacemos negocios con Japn. His son is doing badly at university. A su hijo le va mal en la universidad. He does well in his job. Lo hace bien en su trabajo. I do the dusting on Tuesday. Quito el polvo los martes. My sister does the washing up. Mi hermana lava los platos. She did her hair yesterday. Se arregl el pelo ayer. She does the housework. Ella hace las tareas del hogar. We do the shopping on Saturday. Hacemos la compra el sbado. They did me a favour. Me hicieron un favor.
305

They made fun of the new pupil. Se rieron del nuevo alumno.

This will do you good. Esto te sentar bien.

They made us wait. Nos hicieron esperar. We made a complaint yesterday. Nos quejamos ayer. We made sure everything was OK. Nos aseguramos de que todo estaba bien. You have to make a decision. Tienes que decidirte.

This pill wont do you any harm. Esta pastilla no te har mal. I will do the cleaning. Har la limpieza. Everyday I do the washing. Cada da hago la colada.

You will have to make an effort. Tendrs que hacer un esfuerzo. Make arrangements, we are going to Paris. Haz los preparativos, nos vamos a Paris. The Mayor made a good speech. El alcalde hizo un buen discurso. Make up your mind and buy the house. Decdete y cmprate el piso. They made love. Hicieron el amor. They made war. Hicieron la guerra.

Englishmen do the gardening on Sunday Los ingleses arreglan el jardn los domingos. He doesnt do any exercise. No hace nada de ejercicio. She is doing up the house. Est decorando la casa.

306

1) What is she.....................in summer? a - Making b - Does c - Doing 2) Is there anyhing to.....................here in this city? a - Do b - Make c - Making 3) I hate ........................the housework. a - Doing b - Making c - Do 4) I am .........................my exercises now. a - Doing b - Making c - Does 5) I always.....................my bed. a - Make b - Do c - Doing 6) They were....................a fire yesterday. a Made b - Making c - Doing 7) If you want to................progress you have to study a lot. a - Made b - Make c - Do 8) The first thing that you must.....................is your homework. a - Do b - Make c - Does 9) I never..................coffee. a - Do b - Make c - Does 10) I prefer...................the shopping. a - Doing b - Making c - Diding 11) Elena always.....................the ironing.
307

a - Does b - Makes c - To make 12) You have to......................room for another desk. a - Do b - Make c - Does 13) They always...................so much noise!!! a - Make b - Do c - Does 14) He ............a very good speech in Novelda about Gaud. a - Made b - Did c - Do 15) Why don't we.....................a cake? a - Do b - Make c - Does 16) They..................friends very soon. a - Do b - Make c - Does 17) Hippies said. "...............love not war " a - Do b - Make c - Does 18) I was................the washing up when my boss phoned me. a - Doing b - Making c - Diding 19) It will ............you good to go to the beach. a - Do b - Make c - Does 20) You must .........it for us. a - Make b - Makes c - Made 21) I'm ..............the Christmas cake. a - Making
308

b - Doing c - Madeing 22) .................sure you have everything you need. a - Is b - Make c - Do 23) All right, but .........sure you put plenty of suncream on or you will get burnt. a - Do b - Are c - Make 24) I'm going to ....................coffee. a - Made b - Do c - Make 25) You should ......an effort now. a - Make b - Do c - Made 26) People ...........a lot of money selling shoes to The USA in the 60s. a - Made b - Make c - Did 27) ......sure everything is in order. a - Make b - Do c - Is 28) I have................the decision of going back to teaching again. a - Do b - Done c - Made 29) She is always........................friends. a - Doing b - Made c - Making 30) My daughters..................so much noise! a - Do b - Make c - Making 31) I............some cakes for my guests. a - Did
309

b - Made c - Maded 32) What are you..................? -Just reading the paper. a - Making b - Doing c - Make 33) The doctor always .................wait a lot. a - Does b Makes c - Making

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Soluciones 1. C 11. A 21. A 31. B 2. A 12. B 22. B 32. B 3. A 13. A 23. C 33. B 4. A 14. A 24. C 5. A 15. B 25. A 6. B 16. B 26. A 7. B 17. B 27. A 8. A 18. A 28. C 9. B 19. A 29. C 10. A 20. A 30. B

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EXCLAMACIONES
Las oraciones exclamativas pueden tener alguna de las siguientes estructuras. What a yacht. Qu yate.

What a. Se usa con sustantivos.

Tambin con adjetivos What. Se usa con plurales e incontables.

What a pretty girl. Qu chica tan guapa. What pretty girls. Qu chicas tan guapas. What horribe films. Qu pelculas ms malas. What weather. Qu tiempo.

How. Se usa con adjetivos y adverbios.

How beautiful. Qu guapa. How fast. Qu rpido.

Oraciones interrogativas negativas.

Isnt he the perfect football player? No es l el perfecto jugador de ftbol?

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ORACIONES CONDICIONALES
Describen situaciones hipotticas. Podemos distinguir bsicamente tres tipos de oraciones condicionales: el primer tipo plantea situciones reales. El segundo, indica hiptesis, deseos difciles de conseguir pero posibles. El tercer tipo, hace referencia a situaciones e hiptesis irreales e imposibles en el pasado, imposibles de conseguir.

PRIMER TIPO

SEGUNDO TIPO

TERCER TIPO
Acciones imposibles.

Acciones probables que Acciones improbables y se refieren al presente o situaciones hipotticas. al futuro. Si llueve me mojo. Si lloviera me mojara.

Si hubiera llovido habra mojado.

me

No importa qu oracin se pone primero, pero s la condicin es la primera se deben separar entre comas.

If you play tennis, buy good tennis shoes. Si juegas al tenis, cmprate una buenas zapatillas.

Primer tipo: If + presente + presente. If I eat chocolate, I get fat. Si como chocolate engordo. Tambin podemos tener: If + presente + futuro. If I eat chocolate, I will get fat. Si como chocolate engordar. Segundo tipo: If + pasado simple + If I ate chocolate, I would get fat. Si comiera chocolate engordara. conditional simple. Tercer tipo: If + pasado perfect o + If I had eaten chocolate, I would have get fat. condicional perfecto. Si hubiera comido chocolate habra engordado.

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En el primer tipo se trata de una referencia al futuro donde cualquiera de las dos acciones puede ir en primer lugar. Indica verdades universales y consecuciones lgicas de acontecimietos. Son acciones que pueden ocurrir. If he doesnt pay, hell have to face the music. Si no paga, tendr que afrontar las consecuencias.

Existen otras posibles combinaciones: If + presente + modal. If I finish early I can go. Si acabo pronto podr ir. Should you see her give her my regards. Si la ves, dale recuerdos. Stop shouting or I will get angry. Para de gritar o me enfadar.

should + imperativo.

Imperativo + conjunction + clause

Unless se suele emplear en lugar de if We wont go out unless you pay. No nos iremos a menos de que not. pagues. Con imperativo. If you are hungry, eat something ! Si tienes hambre, come. Travel the world if you want to be wise. Si quieres ser sabio, viaja.

Cualquiera de las dos oraciones puede ir colocada en primer lugar, pero si la subordinada que empieza con if va la primera, debe ir seguida de coma.

Las oraciones del segundo tipo expresan acciones que pueden ocurrir. Expresan deseos y anhelos. If el Fari came here, I would ask for an autograph. Si el Fari viniera le pedira un autogrfo. Tambin se usan para dar consejos.

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If I were you, I wouldnt go out with him. Yo de t no ira con l. Were se puede usar en lugar de was. No hay diferencia en el significado, pero were es ms formal, y se usa para posibilidades remotas: If I were rich, I would not buy a yacht. Si fuera rico no me comprara un yate. Tambin expresan esperanzas y deseos. If I could, I would go to Mexico. Si pudiera, ira a Mjico. Este tipo suele referirse al presente. Could y might se pueden usar en lugar de would. Las oraciones del tercer tipo hacen referencia a acciones imposibles de realizar, pues son hiptesis en el pasado, lamentos, etc.

If I had met her, I would have told you. Si la hubiera visto, te lo habra dicho.

OTRAS FORMAS DE CONDICIONALES:


Suppose. Suppose you are rich, would you live in a big house? Suponiendo que fueras rico, Viviras en una casa grande? Suppose he comes, would you visit him? Supn que viene, le visitaras? Supposing. Supposing you find a wallet with money, what will you do? Suponiendo que encuentras una cartera con dinero, Qu haras? You could go as long as you pay your part. Podrs ir mientras pagues tu parte.
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As long as.

On the condition that.

On the condition that you pay you can be with us. Con la condicin de que pagues puedes estar con nosotros. Provided you want it I will give it to you. Si lo quieres te lo dar.

Provided.

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1) If you eat all these cakes you...............................................ill. a - Are b - Will be c - Is 2) If I want to go with you I ...............................................you tonight. a - Would telephone b - Will telephone c - Had telephoned 3) If you had read Mortadelo you.........a good time. a - Would have had b - Will have had c - Will had have 4) If you clean my bike I .............................you to go to the cinema. a - Invites b - Invite c - Invited 5) I .........................you my car if you pay the petrol. a - Would lend b - Will lending c - Lend 6) If you say that again she...........................................crossed with you. a - Is b - Will be c - Would be 7) Unless you study everyday you ....................................able to pass the exam. a - Would not be b - Will not be c - Shall be not 8) If you put ice in the sun it..............................................to water. a - Turn b - Turns c - Turning 9) If the house...........................................on fire call the firemen. a - Go b - Going c - Goes 10) If you...........................................this one I'll bring you another. a - Doesn't like b - Didn't like c - Don't like 11) British people .....................................to Alicante because of the climate.
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a - Come b - Comes c Coming 12) If I had money I.........................................a new computer and a Harley. a - Will buy b - Would buy c - Would bought 13) If he ...............................................eating chocolates he will get fat. a - Don't stop b - Doesn't stop c - Didn't stop 14) If I ................................................studied I would get a better job. a - Has b - Have c - Had 15) If it ............more we could grow more trees. a - Rain b - Rained c - Raining 16) If I had known that you wanted to eat out I ......to book a table in a restaurant. a - Will has telephoned b - Would have telephoned c - Will have telephone 17) I.............................you something if I had known that you wanted a drink. a - Would have brought b - Had brought c - Will bring 18) If I had known that you had a new house I..............................to visit you. a - Will have gone b - Would have gone c - Would have went 19) If the boss had been a good one, this shop................................. a - Wouldn't have closed b - Would has closed c - Will have close 20) If you had studied more you.......................................your degree last year. a - Would have got b - Would has got c - Will had got
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21) If you...........................here this morning you would have seen my new car. a - Had been b - Had being c - Had be 22) If I had bought lottery yesterday, today I..............................................rich. a - Would have being b - Will have been c - Would have been 23) If they had offered him to be the President of the club he............................... a - Would have accepted b - Will have accepted c - Had accepted 24) If I had known that they were in Elda l...............them to have lunch in La Sirena. a - Willl have invited b - Would have invited c - Had invited 25) If I had known that Penelope Cruz was invited to this party I ..........................earlier. a - Would have come b Have tohave came c - Will had come 26) If I had know that Benidorm had so many discoes I....................... a - Would has gone b - Would have went c - Would have gone 27) If you ........the bean, it means you are going to pay "the roscn ". a - Find b - Found c - Had found 28) Well, you have to study a lot, if you ...........to get into a good university. a - Want b - Wanted c - Wants 29) Don't ring ...........................there is anything you need. a - Unless b - Or c - Both 30) If I could, I ......................go to Continente with you, darling. a - Went b - Must
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c - Would 31) What ....................if you won the lottery? a - You do b - Would you do c - Had you done 32) If I were you, I .............work in that bank anymore. a - Would b - Wouldn't c - Can 33) If I were you I ........buy the house today. a - Will b - Would c - Must 34) If you study, you...............pass all the subjects with flying colours. a - Will b - Can c - Would 35) If you ...............worried, tell your mother about it. a - Were b - Are c - Had been 36) If you................earlier tonight, we could go to the cinema. a - Come b - Came c - Comes 37) If I ............too much chocolate I get fat. a - Eat b - Ate c - Would eat 38) ......he rich he would buy a Mercedes. a - Was b - Were c - Is 39) ......you tell me the truth you will be punished. a - As long as b - Unless c - In order to 40) I paid a lot of money......that you repaired my car. a - On condition that b - With the condition that
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c - At the condition of 41) ......you pay there is no problem. a - As long as b - So long c - With as 42) .........Antonio had won the elections what would have happened? a - Suppose b - Supponing c - Supposing 43) ........that Pepe were rich he would not be here. a - Provides b - Provided c - Providind 44) ..........Manolo the Mayor, nothing of this kind would happen. a - Is b - Are c - Were Soluciones 1. B 11. A 21. A 31. B 41. A 2. B 12. B 22. C 32. B 42. C 3. A 13. B 23. A 33. B 43. B 4. B 14. C 24. B 34. A 44. C 5. C 15. B 25. A 35. B 6. B 16. B 26. C 36. B 7. B 17. A 27. A 37. A 8. B 18. B 28. A 38. B 9. C 19. A 29. B 39. B 10. C 20. A 30. C 40. A

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LA VOZ PASIVA
Se usa para resaltar ms la accin que el sujeto. Puede que desconozcamos al autor de la accin o que no nos interese. La voz pasiva en ingls se usa mucho ms que en castellano. Se forma con el auxiliar to be en el mismo timepo que el verbo de la forma activa y el participio pasado del verbo que se conjuga. En la transformacin a pasiva se produce un cambio de sujeto, que lgicamente, debemos hacer concordar con el verbo.

ACTIVA
Presente Simple I eat bread with olive oil.

PASIVA
Bread with olive oil is eaten. El pan con aceite es comido. Pasado Simple

I ate bread with olive oil.

Bread with olive oil was eaten. El pan con aceite fue comido. Futuro Simple

I will buy a car.

A car will be bought. Un coche ser comprado. Condicional Simple

I would eat a sandwich.

A sandwich would be eaten. Un bocadillo ser comido. Presente Perfecto

I have made a photograph.

A photograph has been made. Una fotografa ha sido hecha.

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Pasado Perfecto I had found a wallet. A wallet had been found. Se haba encontrado una cartera. Futuro Perfecto I will have seen the sea. The sea will have been seen. El mar habr sido visto.

Condicional Perfecto I would have bought a Cadillac. A Cadillac would have been bought. Un Cadillac habr sido comprado.

Usamos la preposicin by para indicar el complemento agente It was done by my mother. Fue hecho por mi madre. Los siguientes verbos llevan complemento directo e indirecto. Con estos verbos se puede usar el complemento indirecto como sujeto al transformar las oraciones a pasiva. Esto no ocurre en espaol. Lend. Prestar. Refuse. Negarse a. Offer. Ofrecer. Send. Enviar. Pay. Pagar. Show. Mostrar.

Give. Dar. Promise. Prometer.

I gave Mary a kiss.

Mary was given a kiss. Le dieron un beso a Mara. My friend was shown my house. A mi amiga le fue enseada la casa.

I showed my friend my house.

Si el complemento es un pronombre complemento. Him, them, her, etc., en la oracin pasiva, ste complemento pasar a la forma de sujeto.

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He gave her a rose.

She was given a rose. Se le dio una rosa.

Tambin se suelen usar los siguientes verbos en estructuras pasivas: To believe. Creer. To think. Pensar. To consider. Considerar. To say. Decir.

To know. Saber.

It is said that he is going to be promoted. Se dice que le van a ascender. 1) The book ..........by Emilio Maestre. a - Was write b - Was written c - Was to written 2) Those pictures .....................by my mother. a - Were taken b - Took c - Tooks 3) The streets ...........decorated. a - Are b - Is c - Will 4) Shoes are traditionally .............with leather. a - Made b - Makes c - Mades 5) Ham in Spain is .......as a starter. a - Eat b - Eaten c - Ate 6) I was........a very nice present in my last birthday. a - Gave b - Given c - To give 7) The boy is .........Pepet and his sister Mara. a - Calles b - Called c - Calling 8) "The Roscn " has things ..........in it.

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a - Hide b - Hid c - Hidden 9) It's very difficult to get ...............in a school like that. a - Accept b - Accepted c - Accpeting 10) When we stay up late studying we phone and have one pizza .......... a - Delivered b - Deliveres c - Delivering 11) My brother-in-law Jesus wrote this article. It ...................by him. a - Is witten b - Was wrlte c - Was written 12) Plaza Mayor .......in 1996. a - Was built b - Will be built c - Built 13) Barcelona scored seven goals yesterday. All ........by Ronaldo. a - Were scored b - Scored c - Will be scored 14) She's .........to watch TV on Friday. a - Allowed b - Alloweed c - Alowed 15) All the shoes were........during the shoe fair in Milan. a - Sell b - Sold c - Selling 16) Many boxes are..........due to bad handling. a - Damaged b - Damage c - Damaging 17) People from Elda are........to be very hardworking. a - Say b - Says c - Said 18) The best shoes are......here in Elda.
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a - Make b - Making c - Made 19) The fire was......by an electrical fault. a - Causing b - Causes c - Caused 20) The leathers were.........from Italy as usual. a - Import b - Importted c - Imported 21) Hotels for the shoe fairs must be......well in advance. a - Book b - Booked c - Boked 22) Someone has......................the book from the library. a - Steal b - Stole c - Stolen

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Soluciones 1. B 11. C 21. B 2. A 12. A 22. C 3. A 13. A 4. A 14. A 5. B 15. B 6. B 16. A 7. B 17. C 8. C 18. C 9. B 19. C 10. A 20. C

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EL ESTILO INDIRECTO
Para contar lo que dijo alguien, podemos hacerlo de dos maneras, repitiendo las palabras exactas, o usando el estilo indirecto. Como se utiliza para contar lo que sucedi, los verbos suelen ir en pasado. En estilo indirecto la frase suele empezar con un verbo como: Tell. Contar. Complain. Quejarse. State. Afirmar. Ask. Preguntar. Warn. Advertir. Announce. Anunciar. Inquire. Solicitar. Point out. Sealar. Protest. Protestar. Think. Pensar. Remark. Remarcar. Claim. Reclamar.

Say. Decir Explain. Explicar. Declare. Declarar.

El tiempo de lo narrado da un salto hacia atrs y las preguntas dejan de serlo. Tambin debemos de tener en cuenta una serie de cambios: en expresiones temporales, en los tiempos verbales y en los pronombres.

Presente Simple. I live in Elda. Presente Continuo. I am reading a book. Presente Perfecto Simple. I have bought a car. Presente Perfecto Continuo. I have been working with him. Pasado Simple.

Pasado Simple. He said he lived in Elda. Pasado Continuo. He said he was reading a book. Pasado Perfecto Simple. He said he had bought a car. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. He said he had been working with him. Pasado Perfecto.

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I went to London. Pasado Continuo. I was writing a letter. Pasado Perfecto. I had been there. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. I had been waiting for you. Futuro Simple. I will live in Alicante. Futuro Continuo. I will be singing in a karaoke.

He said he had gone to London. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. He said he had been writing a letter. Pasado Perfecto. He said he had been there. Pasado Perfecto Continuo. He said he had been waiting for him. Condicional Simple. He said he would live in Alicante. Condicional Continuo. He said he would be singing in a karaoke. Could. He said he could swim. Should. He said he should do it. Might. He said it might rain that day. Had To. He said he had to study.

Can. I can swim. Shall. I shall do it. May. It may rain today. Must. Have To. I must study.

Now. I am happy now.

Then. He said he was happy then.


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Today. I am sad today. Yesterday. Yesterday I went to Madrid.

That day. He said he was sad that day. The day before, The previous day. He said he had gone to Madrid the previous day. The next day. The following day. The day after. He said he would go to Valencia the day after. The following week. He said he would be in Milan the following week. The previous week. He said he had cooked paella the previous week. The Week Before.

Tomorrow.

I will go to Valencia tomorrow.

Next week. Next week I will be in Milan.

Last week. I cooked paella last week.

A Week Ago.

A week ago I played tennis in Almeria. He said he had played tennis in Almera the week before. This. I am going to buy this. These. These are my friends. Here. I live here. That. He said he was going to buy that. Those. He said that those were his friends. There. He said he lived there.

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Now. Now I want a coffee.

Then. He said that then he wanted a coffee.

Las ordenes tambien sufren imperativo por infinitivo Go out.

modificaciones:

Debemos

cambiar

el

He told us to go out. Nos dijo que nos fueramos. He ordered me to drink the milk. Me orden que me bebiera la leche. He invited me to go out. Me invit a que saliera.

Drink the mik.

Go out.

Las rdenes negativas generalmente se expresan con not + infinitive. Dont smoke in the corridor. He ordered us not to smoke in the corridor. Nos orden que no fumaramos en el pasillo.

Las sugerencias con lets se intoducen con el verbo suggest que puede tener dos construcciones. Seguido de gerundio o con una oracin subordinada introducida por that. Lets take a taxi. He suggested taking a taxi. l sugiri coger un taxi. He suggested that we should take a taxi. Sugiri que deberamos coger un taxi.

En las preguntas, adems de c ambiar los tiempos se omite el signo de interrogacin y se usa el orden de la afirmativa. What does she do? He asked what she did.
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El pregunt qu haca. When did you go to Petrel? He asked me when I had gone to Petrel. Me pregunt cundo haba ido yo a Petrel.

Cuando en el estilo directo se hagan preguntas, en el indirecto debemos utilizar inquire, wonder, want to know, etc. Where's Mary? He asked where Mary was. Me pregunt dnde estaba Mara. He asked me how he could go to Elche? Me pregunt cmo podra ir a Elche. He wanted to know why I smoked. El quera saber por qu fumaba yo.

How can I go to Elche?

Why do you smoke?

Cuando no empleemos un pronombre interrogativo usaremos if o whether. Is anyone interested in coming? Est alguien interesado en venir? He asked whether anyone was interested in going. El pregunt si alguien estaba interesado en ir.

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EL GERUNDIO
En ingls se puede usar como

Sujeto de una oracin.

Swimming is very good. La natacin es muy buena. I like reading the paper. Me gusta leer el peridico. I avoid going out at night alone. Evito salir solo por la noche. I keep on dancing on Saturday. Sigo bailando el sbado.

Complemento directo.

Con ciertos verbos.

En prohibiciones.

No cycling. Prohibido ir en bicicleta. I gave up smoking in 1998. Dej de fumar en 1998.

Detrs de las preposiciones.

Detrs de after, before, since, when, Before eating I have a coke. Antes de comer tomo una coca-cola. while. After eating I sleep siesta. Despus de comer duermo la siesta.

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1) There's sure ................a long line for the concert. a - To be b - To have c - There is 2) Wasn't it worth .................all those cars? a - Washing b - Wash c - Washed 3) ...............in a pub or a pizzeria is good for me. a - Work b - Working c - Works 4) It was difficult at first..........to live alone in England. a - Have b - Has c - Having 5) I don't mind ............the same clothes everyday. a - Wearing b - Wear c - Weared 6) I hate going ............on Saturday. a - Shops b - Shopping c - Shopper 7) I will get ............to living in Alicante very soon. a - Use b - Used c - Uses 8) I just love ..............all the people and listening to the music. a - Watching b - Watch c - Watched 9) I will not get ...........to living in England in winter. a - Use b - Using c - Used 10) Imagine .........to work in the Sahara. a - Have b - Having c - Has 11) I've got ...........to it.
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a - Used b - Use c - Using 12) I am going to get ............to getting up early willy nilly. a - Used b - Use c - Using 13) I like........in the kitchen. a - Help b - Helping c - To helping 14) My wife has never liked .........to the opera. a - Gone b - Going c - Went 15) I like........ a - Read b - To read c - Reading 16) She hates....... a - Wash b - Washing c - Washed 17) I prefer...... a - Swimming b - Swim c - Going swim 18) I went to England.............English. a - To learn b - Learn c - Learning 19) My sister wants......a cottage. a - To buy b - Buy c - Buying 20) They have nowhere........ a - To go b - Go c - Going 21) My sister is not easy .......
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a - Convincing b - To convince c - Convince 22) May I....... a - To go b - Go c - Went 23) Does she ......chocolate? a - To like b - Likeing c - Like 24) Do........home now it's very late! a - Go b - To go c - Goed 25) Paco Claros ........me laugh. a - Makes b - To make c - To made 26) We'd rather.........home. a - To stay b - Stay c - Staying 27) Why .......him about the accident? a - To tell b - Tell c - Telling 28) My keys are ........found. a - Be b - To be c - Beeing 29) There are many letters........written. a - Be b - To be c - Being 30) I went to the disco....... a - To dance b - Dance c - Dancing 31) My family couldn't...................to buy a car. a - Afford
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b - To afford c - Affording 32) I ...............................to buy the house for a cuartelillo. a - Agree b - To agree c - Agreeing 33) You ..................to go tomorrow to the meeting. a - Are b - Be c Was 34) I have decided .................a new bike. a - Buying b - Buy c - To buy 35) They deserve.......................treated better. a - Be b - To be c - Being 36) My brother happened .......................Paloma in the cinema. a - Meet b - To meet c - Meeting 37) I have planned....................on holidays to Menorca In spring. a - Go b - To go c - Going 38) She pretended not ........................them in the street. a - To see b - See c - Seeing 39) I refused.............the bill because it was very expensive. a - Paying b - Pay c - To pay 40) In court you must ........................the truth. a - Swear b - Swearing c - To swear 41) Please remind me...................the new customers. a - Call
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b - Calling c - To call 42) You had better...........................the car now. Next year the prices will go up. a - To buy b - Buy c - Buying 43) She can ............better than last year. a - Swim b - To swim c - Swimming 44) He must......................hard if he wants o pass the exams. a - To study b - Study c - Studying 45) She would rather........................the night in Alicante than in London. a - Spent b - Spend c - Soending 46) Yo must avoid........................to him. a - Speaking b - To speak c - Speak 47) He admitted.......................the jewels. a - Stealing b - Steal c - To steal 48) We can't help.....................chocolate after lunch. a - Eat b - To eat c - Eating 49) My sister hates..........................to the beach. a - To go b - Go c - Going 50) I finished................the novel last summer. a - Writing b - To write c - Write 51) I don't mind..........................to wait. a - To have b - Having
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c - Have 52) She misses..........................to the mountains now that she is 89. a - Go b - Goes c - Going 53) I suggest.............................to a good restaurant. a - To go b - Going c - Go 54) I am used to............................at night. a - Drive b - Driving c - To drive 55) They boast of.............................the best beaches in the province. a - Have b - To have c - Having 56) It consists of.............................many problems. a - Solve b - Solving c - To solve 57) She dreams of.................................an actress. a - Becoming b - Become c - To become 58) I gave up......................last year. a - Smoking b - To smoke c - Smoke 59) They ended by...........that the goal was scored when the match had finished. a - Say b - Saying c - To say 60) We are looking forward to........................to Madrid. a - Going b - To go c - Go 61) Refrain from........................... a - Smoke b - Smoking
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c - To smoke 62) We are thinking of...........................a bigger flat. a - Buy b - To buy c - Buying 63) I will never forget........................in London. a - Walk b - Walking c - To walk

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Soluciones 1. A 11. A 21. B 31. A 41. C 51. B 61. B 2. A 12. A 22. B 32. A 42. B 52. C 62. C 3. B 13. B 23. C 33. A 43. A 53. B 63. B 4. C 14. B 24. A 34. C 44. B 54. B 5. A 15. C 25. A 35. B 45. B 55. C 6. B 16. B 26. B 36. B 46. A 56. B 7. B 17. A 27. B 37. B 47. A 57. A 8. A 18. A 28. B 38. A 48. C 58. A 9. C 19. A 29. B 39. C 49. C 59. B 10. B 20. A 30. A 40. C 50. A 60. A

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EL INFINITIVO
Se emplea Detrs de algunos verbos: afford I learnt to drive in 1977. (permitirse), agree (estar de acuerdo), Aprend a conducir en 1977. learn (aprender), want (querer), wish (desear), prepare (preparar). Detrs de adjetivos como: sad, ready, It is difficult to translate Latin. Es difcill traducir Latn. easy. It is sad to say Es triste decirlo. It is easy to memorize. Es fcil de memorizar. Detrs de enough. He has enough to live on his own. Tiene suficiente para vivir por su cuenta. They invited me to parade inVillena. Me invitaron a desfilar en Villena. I can swim. S nadar. I must go. Debo ir. Como sujeto. To walk is good. Andar es bueno.

Con: order, invite, tell, etc

Con los verbos modales.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS DE GERUNDIO O INFINITIVO


Algunos verbos siempre van en gerundio y otros siempre van en infinitivo. Otros como: advise (aconsejar), allow (permitir), permit (permitir), begin (empezar), continue (continuar), intend (tener la intencin de), love

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(amar), prefer (preferir), hate (odiar) etc, pueden ir seguidos de gerundio o de infinitivo sin cambiar el significado. I started smoking at 17. Empec a fumar a los 17. I started to smoke at 17. Empec a fumar a los 17. Otros, como: stop (parar), remember (recordar), forget (olvidar), regret (lamentar), pueden ir seguidos tanto por un gerundio como por un infinitivo, pero con sentidos diferentes. I stopped to smoke. Par para fumar. I stopped smoking. Dej de fumar. Forget. I forgot to post the letter. Olvid echar la carta. I will never forget visiting my uncle. Nunca olvidar visitar a mi to. Regret. I regret doing this. Lamento hacer esto. I regret to tell you this. Lamento tener que decirte esto. Remember. I remember swimming in the lake. Recuerdo cuando nadaba en el lago. Remember to buy bread. No te olvides de comprar el pan. Try. I tried to buy it. Intent comprarlo. I tried working as a lawyer but I didnt like it. Intent trabajar de abogado pero no me gustaba.
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Stop.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS POR INFINITIVO


Afford. Permitirse. Agree. Estar de acuerdo. Appear. Aparecer. Mean. Querer decir. Need. Necesitar Seem. Parecer. Arrange. Preparar. Ask. Pedir. Beg. Suplicar. Offer. Ofrecer. Stop. Parar. Wish. Desear. Care. Cuidar. Claim. Reclamar. Consent. Consentir. Pretend. Fingir. Swear. Jurar. Decide. Decidir. Deserve. Merecer. Expect. Esperar. Refuse. Negar. Wait. Esperar. Forget. Olvidar. Hope. Desear. Manage. Arreglarselas. Remember. Recordar. Want. Querer.

VERBOS SEGUIDOS POR GERUNDIO


Admit. Admitir. Advise. Aconsejar. Anticipate. Anticiparse. Avoid. Evitar. Complete. Completar. Delay. Retrasar. Dislike. Disgustar. Forget. Olvidar. Regret. Lamentar. Enjoy. Disfrutar. Miss. Echar de menos. Resist. Resistir. Finish. Acabar. Quit. Abandonar. Understand. Comprender.

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ESTRUCTURAS DE INTERES WHAT IS LIKE?


Se utiliza para recabar informacin sobre el aspecto fsico de alguien pues para saber cmo es alguien de carcter usamos how.

What is your girlfriend like? Cmo es fsicamente tu chica? She is very pretty. Ella es muy guapa. How is she? Cmo est ella? Very well, thank you. Muy bien gracias. Las siguientes estructuras nos sern de utilidad a la hora de formular deseos, quejas etc.

Wish. I wish I had lived in America. Expresa deseos, para su traduccin se Ojal hubiera vivido en Amrica. debe usar el subjuntivo. I wish you would be rich. Ojal fueras rico. I wish you were quiet. Ojal te estuvieras quieto. I would like to go to Paris. Me gustara ir a Paris. I would like you to come with me. Me gustara que vinieras conmigo. I would like a sandwich. Me gustara comerme un bocadillo.

Would like.

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Would prefer.

Id prefer a coffee. Preferira un caf. I would prefer to go with you. Preferira ir contigo.

Prefer.

I prefer tea to coffee. Prefiero el t al caf. I prefer swimming to running. Prefiero nadar a correr. I prefer to stay at home. Prefiero quedarme en casa.

If only.

If only she would stop complaining. Con tan slo que dejara de quejarse. If only he would do what he has to do. Con tan slo que hiciera lo que tiene que hacer.

Would rather.

Id rather not go. Preferira no ir. Id rather not go now. Preferira no ir ahora.

Had better.

I had better go to have a drink. Preferira ir a tomar una copa. It's time to eat. Es hora de comer. It's time for us to eat. Es hora de que comamos. It's time we ate. Es hora de que comamos.

It's time.

It's about time.

Its about time he came. Ya es hora de que venga. He used to drink quite a lot. l sola beber mucho.
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Used to.

I used to wear glasses, but now I use contact lenses. Yo sola llevar gafas pero ahora uso lentillas. To be used to. I am used to reading the paper. Estoy acostumbrado a leer peridico. I have enough money. Tengo suficiente dinero. I am rich enough. Soy lo suficientemente rico. Too. She is too old to climb the mountain. Es demasido vieja para subir las montaas. He speaks English fairly well. l habla ingls bastante bien. He speaks English quite well. l habla ingls muy bien. He speaks English rather well. l habla ingls muy bien. He speaks English pretty well. l habla ingls muy bien.

el

Enough.

Fairly.

Quite.

Rather.

Pretty.

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EL CAUSATIVO HAVE
Esta estructutura se usa para indicar que el que realiza la accin no es el sujeto sino otra persona. Se usan los verbos causativos have y get . Indica acciones como cortarse el pelo, hacerse un empast e donde lgicamente el sujeto no se hace un empaste ni se corta el pelo, sino que contrata un servicio.

I have my hair cut every month. Me corto el pelo cada mes. I have my car repaired when it breaks down. Me reparan el coche cuando se estropea. Esta estructura se puede usar en todos los tiempos. En la interrogrativa y negativa utilizan los auxiliares, do, does, did.

Did you have your tooth fill? Te hicieron un empaste? Do you have your carpets cleaned every year? Te limpian las alfombras cada ao?

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VERBOS CON PREPOSICN


Muchos verbos ingleses van acompaados de preposiciones o adverbios. Si observamos por ejemplo el verbo look y sus posibles combinaciones nos daremos cuenta de que en muchos casos nos sera difcil averiguar el significado. I'm looking for a new job. Estoy buscando empleo. I am going to look up a word in the dictionary. Voy a buscar una palabra en el diccionario. We are looking forward to the festivities. Estamos esperando con deseo que lleguen las fiestas. Los verbos con preposicin se pueden dividir en: separables e inseparables. Sern separables si podemos colocar los complementos entre el verbo y la preposicin.

I am going to put my coat on. Me voy a poner la chaqueta. I am going to put on my coat. Me voy a poner la chaqueta. Algunos ejemplos con el verbo to come. Come along. Venir. Come off. Come out.

Come across. Encontrarse.

Desprenderse. Publicar.

Algunos ejemplos con to get . Get up. Levantarse. Get over. Recuperarse. Get into. Entrar. Get at. Llegar.

Get on. Llevarse bien.

Look up.

Look after.

Look forward to.

Look for.

Look into.

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Mirar el Cuidar. significado de una palabra en el diccionario.

Esperar con deseo.

Buscar.

Investigar.

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VERBOS Y ADJETIVOS CON PREPOSICIONES


Muchos verbos y adjetivos van siempre seguidos por una preposicin: He is always dreaming about being rich. Siempre suea con ser rico. He is worried about the future. Est preocupado por el futuro. After. He is always looking after his daughter. Siempre cuida a su hija. He is good at Maths. Es bueno en matemticas. He is bad at History. Es malo en historia. Look at me please. Mrame por favor. Dont shout at me. No me chilles. For. I am ready for the party. Estoy listo para la fiesta. He is responsible for the damages. Es responsable de los daos. In. I believe in God. Creo en Dios. He is fond of running. Le gusta correr. She is afraid of spiders. Le asustan las araas. She is proud of her daughter.
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About.

At.

Of.

Est orgullosa de su hija. This consists of three parts. Tiene tres partes. I will remind him of his duties. Le recordar sus obligaciones. On. That depends on you. Eso depende de ti. He insisted on going. Insisti en ir. To. He was married to Helen. Estaba casado con Helen. He was polite to the old man. Fue educado con el viejo. You must listen to me. Debes escucharme. With. He was angry with me. Estaba enfadado conmigo. I was satisfied with the work. Estaba satisfecho con el trabajo. I agree with you. Estoy de acuerdo contigo.

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CONTRACCIONES
Normalmente se usan en el lenguaje hablado. Recuerda que -s puede corresponder a to be o to have pero slo seguido de got o participio.

Hes a boy. He is a boy l es un chico Hes got a car. He has got a car. l tiene un coche. Del mismo modo -d puede ser la contraccin de had o would. Id gone there. I had gone there. Yo haba ido. Id like to go. I would like to go. Me gustara ir. Im. Ive. Ill. Id. Youre. Youve. Youll. Youd. Hes. Hell. Hed . Shes. I am. I have. I will. I had o I would. You are. You have. You will. You had o you would. He is o he has. He will. He had o he would. She is o she has.
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Shell. Shed . Its. Itll. Itd. Were. Weve. Well. Wed. Theyre. Theyve Theyll. Theyd. Lets. Isnt. Arent. Wasnt. Werent. Dont. Doesnt.

She will. She had o she would. It is o it has. It will. It had o it would. We are. We have. We will. We had o we would. They are. They have. They will. They had o they would. Let us. Is not. Are not. Was not. Were not. Do not. Does not.

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Didnt. Havent. Hasnt. Hadnt. Cant. Couldnt. Wont. Wouldnt. Shant. Shouldnt. Oughtnt. Mustnt. Neednt. Mightnt. Darent.

Did not. Have not. Has not. Had not. Can not. Could not. Will not. Would not. Shall not. Should not. Ought not. Must not. Need not. Might not. Dare not.

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CAMBIOS ORTOGRFICOS
El plural de las palabras que terminan en -y se forma cambiando la "-y" por "-ies" cuando va precedida de consonante. Ladies.

Lady. Seora. City. Ciudad.

Cities.

Si la -y va precedida de vocal no se producen cambios. Boys.

Boy. Chico. Day. Da

Days.

Lo mismo sucede a los verbos que acaban en -y al formar la tercera persona del singular del presente de indicativo. He carries.

Carry. Llevar. Study. Estudiar. Play. Jugar. Annoy. Molestar.

She studies.

Mary plays.

John annoys.

Las palabras que terminan en -s, -ss, -zz, -sh, -x aaden -es para formar el plural si son nombres o la tercera persona del singular si son verbos.

NOMBRES
Bus. Buses.
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Autobs. Glass. Vaso. Dish. Plato. Church. Iglesia. Glasses.

Dishes.

Churches.

VERBOS
Pass. Pasar. Buzz. Zumbar. Wash. Lavar. Fix. Fijar. Passes.

Buzzes.

Washes.

Fixes.

Algunos nombres acabados en -o aaden -es para formar el plural. Potato. Patata. Tomato. Tomate. Piano. Piano. Biro. Bolgrafo. Potatoes.

Tomatoes.

Pianos.

Biros.

El pasado y el Participio Pasado de los verbos regulares se froman aadiendo -ed al infinitivo. Solo se aade -d si el verbo acaba en -e.
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Answer. Contestar. Listen. Escuchar. Ask. Pedir. Live. Pedir. Practise. Practicar. Love. Amar.

Answered.

Listened.

Asked.

Lived.

Practised.

Loved.

Si el verbo acaba en -y precedido de consonante se cambia por -ied. Si acaba en vocal se aade -ed. Carried.

Carry. Llevar. Study. Estudiar. Play. Jugar. Die. Morir Dye. Teir.

Studied.

Played.

Died.

Dyed.

Al aadir -ing al infinitivo la -e desaparece excepto en dye. Living.

Live. Vivir. Practise.

Practising.
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Practicar. Dye. Teir Dyeing.

Cuando el verbo acaba en -ie la -i se convierte en -y.

Die. Morir. Lie. Mentir.

Dying.

Lying.

Cuando los verbos acaban en -y se aade -ing. Trying.

Try. Intentar. Study. Estudiar. Play. Jugar. Buy. Comprar.

Studying.

Playing.

Buying.

Al aadir cualquier sufijo -ful, -ness, -er, -est, la -y se convierte en -i. Beatiful.

Beauty. Guapa. Steady. Listo. Happy. Feliz. Pretty.

Steadily.

Happiness.

Prettier, Prettiest.
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Guapa. Sly. Astuto. Slyly.

Los adjetivos acabados en -al, doblan la -l al formar los adverbios. Practically.

Practical. Prctico. Economical. Econmico. Historical. Histrico.

Economically.

Historically.

Lo mismo sucede con los acabados en -ful. Beautifully.

Beautiful. Bonito. Faithful. Fiable.

Faithfully.

Las siguientes palabras pierden una -l al tomar un sufijo Skilful.

Skill. Destreza. Well. Bien. Will. Deseo.

Welcome.

Wilful.

La terminacin -re pertenece al ingls britnico y -er al americano

BRITNICO
Centre. Center.

AMERICANO

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Centro. Theatre. Teatro. Theater.

La terminacin -our pertenece al ingls britnico y -or al americano

BRITNICO
Favour. Sabor. Honour. Honor. Colour. Color. Favor.

AMERICANO

Honor.

Color.

Algunas palabras cambian.

Britnico
Aerial. Antena. Angry. Enfadado. Anywhere. Cualquier parte. Autumn. Otoo. Bill. Cuenta del restaurante. Car park. Aparcamiento. Chemists. Farmacia. Antenna.

Americano

Mad.

Anyplace.

Fall.

Check.

Parking lot.

Drugstore.

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Film. Pelcula. Holiday. Vacaciones. Label. Etiqueta. Lorry. Camin. Mad. Loco. Motorway. Autopista. Nappy. Paal. Petrol. Gasolina. Queue. Cola. Rubber. Borrador. Shop. Tienda. Single ticket. Billete de ida. Sunglasses. Gafas de sol. Sweets. Caramelos. Taxi. Taxi.

Movie.

Vacation.

Tag.

Truck.

Crazy.

Freeway.

Diaper.

Gas.

Line.

Eraser.

Store.

One way ticket.

Shades.

Candy.

Cab.

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Tin. Lata. Trousers. Pantalones. Underground. Metro. Wire. Telegrama.

Can.

Pants.

Subway.

Telegram.

Algunas palabras usan -c en el nombre y -s en el verbo

NOMBRE
Advice. Consejo. Practice. Practicar. Licence. Permiso. Advise.

VERBO

Practise.

License.

Los monosilabos acabados en una sola consonante y precedidos de una sola vocal, doblan la consonante final al aadir un sufijo. Planning.

Plan. Planear. Dad. Papa. Let. Permitir. Beg. Suplicar. Sit.

Daddy.

Letting.

Beggar.

Sitting.
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Sentarse. Put. Poner. Fat. Gordo. Star. Estrella. Stir. Remover. Fur. Piel. Putting.

Fatter.

Starring.

Stirring.

Furry.

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VERBOS IRREGULARES
Infinitivo Arise Be Bear Beat Become Begin Bend Bet Bid Bind Bite Bleed Blow Break Bring Build Burn Burst Buy Catch Choose Come Cost Creep Cut Deal Dig Do Draw Dream Drink Drive Eat Fall Feed Feel Pasado Arose Was Bore Beat Became Began Bent Bet Bade Bound Bit Bled Blew Broke Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chose Came Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Did Drew Dreamt Drank Drove Ate Fell Fed Felt Participio Pasado Arisen Were, Been Borne Beaten Become Begun Bent Bet Bidden Bound Bitten Bled Blown Broken Brought Built Burnt Burst Bought Caught Chosen Come Cost Crept Cut Dealt Dug Done Drawn Dreamt Drunk Driven Eaten Fallen Fed Felt Traduccin Surgir, presentarse Ser, estar Llevar, soportar Batir, golpear, latir Llegar a, ser, hacerse Empezar Doblar Apostar Mandar, ordenar Atar, encuadernar Morder Sangrar Soplar Romper Traer Edificar Arder, quemar Estallar Comprar Atrapar Escoger Venir Costar Arrrastrarse Cortar Tratar Cavar Hacer Dibujar, sacar, tirar Soar Beber Conducir Comer Caer Alimentar, Sentir, palpar, tocar
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Fight Find Fling Fly Forbid Forget Forgive Freeze Get Give Go Grow Hang Have Hear Hide Hit Hold Hurt Keep Kneel Know Lay Lead Leap Learn Leave Lend Let Lie Light Lose Make Mean Meet Mow Pay Put Quit

Fought Found Flung Flew Forbade Forgot Forgave Froze Got Gave Went Grew Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Knew Laid Led Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lay Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mowed Paid Put Quit

Fought Found Flung Flown Forbidden Forgotten Forgiven Frozen Got Given Gone Grown Hung Had Heard Hid Hit Held Hurt Kept Knelt Known Laid Led Leapt Learnt Left Lent Let Lain Lit Lost Made Meant Met Mown Paid Put Quit

Luchar Encontrar Lanzar Volar Prohibir Olvidar Perdonar Helar Conseguir, obtener Dar Ir Crecer, cultivar Colgar Haber, tener Oir Esconder Golpear Sostener, agarrar Hacer dao, doler Guardar, conseguir Arrodillarse Saber, conocer Poner Guiar Saltar Aprender Dejar, salir Prestar Dejar, permitir Tumbarse Iluminar Perder Hacer Querer decir, significar Encontrar Segar Pagar Poner Abandonar
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Read Ride Ring Rise Run Say See Sell Send Set Sew Shake Shine Shoot Show Shrink Shut Sing Sink Sit Sleep Sling Smell Speak Spell Spend Spill Spoil Spread Stand Steal Stick Sting Strike Swear Swim Take Teach

Read Rode Rang Rose Ran Said Saw Sold Sent Set Sewed Shook Shone Shot Showed Shrank Shut Sang Sank Sat Slept Slung Smelt Spoke Spelt Spent Spilt Spoilt Spread Stood Stole Stuck Stung Struck Swore Swam Took Taught

Read Ridden Rung Risen Run Said Seen Sold Sent Set Sewn Shaken Shone Shot Shown Shrunk Shut Sung Sunk Sat Slept Slunk Smelt Spoken Spelt Spent Spilt Spoilt Spread Stood Stolen Stuck Stung Struck Sworn Swum Taken Taught

Leer Montar, cabalgar Sonar, tocar el timbre Levantarse Correr, dirigir un negocio Decir Ver Vender Enviar Poner, establecer Coser Agitar Brillar Disparar Mostrar Encogerse Cerrar Cantar Hundir, sumergirse Sentarse Dormir Lanzar, tirar Oler Hablar Deletrear, hechizar Pasar el tiempo, gastar Derramar Estropear Extender Ponerse de pie Robar Pegar Picar Golpear Jurar Nadar Tomar, llevar Ensear
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Tear Tell Think Throw Understand Wake Wear Win Wind Write

Tore Told Thought Threw Understood Woke Wore Won Wound Wrote

Torn Told Thought Thrown Understood Woken Worn Won Wound Written

Rasgar Decir, contar Pensar, creer Arrojar Comprender Despertar Llevar puesto, usar Ganar un premio Dar cuerda al reloj Escribir

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CONECTORES
A la hora de redactar un texto necesitars usar palabras o expresiones que te permitan unir ideas en forma de frases y organizar el texto. Primero debes tener claro qu te piden y haz un esquema donde aparezcan las ideas que quieres desarrollar. Usa un papel y antalo todo. Luego tacha las ideas que no te gusten y ordenalas y clasifcalas. Recuerda que puede ser una buena idea que la composicin tenga tres partes diferenciadas: introduccin, desarrollo y conclusin. A continuacin encontrars algunas expresiones que te pueden servir para organizar tus ideas.

Para introducir.
In the first place. To begin. First of all. It is obvious. It is certain that. It is a commonly held belief among people that. It goes without saying that. A controversial question facing our society is. Whether we like it or not. As regards. En primer lugar. Para empezar. Lo primero de todo. Es bvio que. Es cierto que. Es una creencia bastante extendida entre la gente que. Ni que decir tiene que. Un asunto controvertido que afecta a nuestra sociedad es. Nos guste o no. Por lo que respecta.

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Expresar opinin.
In my opinion. In my view. Personally. As far as Im concerned. From my point of view. I would like to point out a couple of things. I believe/consider/think. I feel very strongly that. Im absolutely convinced that. Im inclined to believe that. I am totally opposed to. I am in favour of. I strongly disagree with. It seems/ appears to me that. There is no doubt that. One thing that is sure is. It is true that. I very much doubt that. We should all have to take into account that. Every now and then. En mi opinion. Tal y como yo lo veo. Personalmente. Por lo que a m respecta. Desde mi punto de vista. Me gustara puntuaalizar un par de aspectos. Creo que. Estoy convencido de. Estoy absolutamente convencido de. Tiendo a pensar que. Estoy totalmente en desacuerdo con. Estoy a favor de. No estoy nada de acuerdo con. Me parece que. No hay duda de que. Algo que es seguro es. Es cierto que. Dudo mucho de que. Deberamos tener en cuenta que. De vez en cuando.

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A favor y en contra.
One of the strongest arguments in favour of... Is that. On the other hand. Uno de los argumentos mas slidos a favor de ... Por otra parte.

There are several arguments against... Hay varios argumentos en contra de... Yet there is another side to the picture. Aunque hay otros aspectos que se deben tener en cuenta. Existe gran controversia por lo que respecta a. Por una parte. Por otra parte.

There is bitter controversy over.

On the one hand. On the other hand.

While there are many supporters of the Mientras que hay mucha gente que idea, there are also people who have apoya esta idea, hay otros que tienen reservations about it. ciertas reservas. There are valid arguments for... Hay argumentos muy validos a favor de. Aunque tambin existen buenas razones en contra de. ...tiene tanto ventajas como desventajas.

There are also other good reasons against. ...has both advantages and disadvantages.

Para expresar la opinin de otros.


An increasing number of people believe that. Today many people are worried about. Un gran nmero de personas cree que. Hoy en da mucha gente est preocupada con.

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Half the population are in favour/ against of... These people firmly believe that...

La mitad de la poblacin est a favor/en contra de... Estas personas creen firmemente en...

Para continuar.
In the second place. Secondly. Next. Besides. In addition. Apart from that. Moreover. What is more. Futhermore. Another aspect to be considered can be. En segundo lugar. En segundo lugar. Despus. Adems. Adems. Adems de. Y adems. Adems. Adems. Otro aspecto para tener en cuanta es.

Para expresar contraste.


On the one hand. On the other. While. Whereas. Por una parte. Por otra parte. Mientras que. Mientras.

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In spite of the fact that. Although. In spite of. However. Given the differences between.

A pesar de. Aunque. A pesar de. Sin embargo. Teniendo en cuenta las diferencias entre. Al mismo tiempo

At the same time

Para comparar.
At the same time. Similarly. Likewise. Al mismo tiempo. Del mismo modo. Del mismo modo.

Para expresar causa.


Because. Because of. The main purpose of...is... The reason is very simple. For this reason. Porque. A causa de. El propsito principal es. La razn es bien sencilla. Por esta razn.

Para expresar resultado.


Therefore. Por lo tanto.

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As a result. Consequently. In consequence. Thus. So.

Como resultado. Como consecuencia. En consecuencia. Por lo tanto. As.

Para ejemplificar.
A good ilustration of this is. Nothing could better demostrate this that. We have an obvious proof of this in... This is best exemplified by. This is best shown in the following example. In other words. That is to say. For instance. For example. Un buen ejemplo de esto es. Nada podra demostra esto mejor. Tenemos una prueba clara de esto en. Esto est muy bien explicado con. Esto se puede apreciar mucho mejor con el siguiente ejemplo. En otras palabras. Es decir. Por ejemplo. Por ejemplo.

Para incluir datos y estadsticas.


Recent studies have found that. Researches claim that. According to recent studies. Estudios recientes han demostrado que. Los investigadores afirman que. Segn estudios recientes

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Para narrar.
When. While. Before. After. By the time. During. It all began when. It all happened. Once upon a time. Suddenly. All of a sudden. First. At first. Later. Afterwards. Meanwhile. In the meantime. Finally. In the end. Cuando. Mientras que. Ant es. Despus. Por esas fechas. Durante. Todo empez cuando. Todo ocurri. rase una vez. De repente De repente. Al principio. Al principio. Ms tarde. Depus de todo. Mientras tanto. Mientras. Finalmente. Al final.

Para concluir.
The conclusion to be drawn from this is La conclusin que podemos sacar es. that.
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We can conclude by saying that. To sum up. Summing up. In brief. In conclusion. In short. Finally. All this suggests that. We should all work elbow to elbow in this respect. In conclusion. Although there are two sides to a picture I believe that. All things considered, I am in favour of/against... Lastly. As was previously stated.

Podemos concluir afirmando que. Para resumir. Resumiendo. En breve. Como conclusin. En breve. Finalmente. Todo esto nos sugiere que. Creo que todos deberamos trabajar de forma conjunta en la misma direccin. Como conclusin. Aunque hay dos caras de la moneda yo tiendo a creer que. Teniendo en cuenta todos los aspectos, estoy a favor/en contra de. Por ltimo. Como ya se ha dicho.

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FALSOS AMIGOS
Son palabras que pueden fcilmente inducir a error. Muchas son de origen latino y han cambiado el significado. Un buen consejo es no dejarse llevar por las apariencias y comprobar siempre el significado en el diccionario. Pues en la lengua inglesa las apariencias engaan. Abuse. Actually. Advertise. To advise. Agenda. Anxious. Apology. Apparent. Application. Argument. To assist. To assume. Avocado. Cabinet. Career. Carpet. Cartoon. Casual. Casualty. Insultar. En realidad. Anunciar. Aconsejar. Orden del da. Nervioso. Deseoso. Disculpa. Evidente. Solicitud. Discusin. Ayudar. Asumir. Aguacate. Gabinete de ministros, vitrina. Carrera. Alfombra. Dibujos animados. Informal. Baja militar.

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Character. Collar. Collector. Complexion. Conductor. Conference. Conservatory. Constipated. Disgust. Embarrassed. Eventually. Exit. Fabric. Firm. Idiom. Insane. Intoxicated. Large. Parents. Physician. Policy. To presume. To pretend. Quiet.

Personaje. Cuello. Coleccionista. Color de la piel. Cobrador de autobs. Director de orquesta. Congreso. Invernadero. Estreido. Asco. Avergonzado. Finalmente. Salida. Tejido. Empresa. Expresin idiomtica. Loco Borracho. Grande. Padres. Mdico Poltica Suponer. Fingir. Callado.
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Rare. To remove. Sensible. Signature. Spectacles. Suburb. Success. Sympathy. To pretend. Tramp. Vicious.

Poco frecuente. Quitar. Sensato. Firma. Gafas. Barrio residencial. xito. Compasin. Fingir. Vagabundo. Malvado.

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EXPRESIONES PARA LA COMUNICACIN ORAL


Saludos y Felicitaciones.

How do you do? Cmo ests? Very well thank you. Muy bien gracias. Good morning. Buenos das. Good afternoon. Buenas tardes. Good evening. Buenas tardes- noches. Good night. Buenas noches. Hello. Hola. Good bye. Adis. How are things? Cmo te van las cosas? See you tomorrow. Hasta maana. Happy anniversary. Feliz aniversario. Up and down. As as.

How are you? Cmo ests? Fine thanks, and you? Bien y t? Hi. Hola. Congratulations. Enhorabuena. So long. Hasta luego. See you. Nos vemos. Happy birthday. Feliz cumpleaos. Happy Christmas. Feliz Navidad. Well. Bien. So long. Hasta luego. How is it going? Cmo te va?

380

Para dirigirse a un desconocido. Excuse me. Disculpe. I beg your pardon. Disculpe.

Presentaciones Peter, this is Mary. Pedro esta es Mara. Let me introduce my friend Paul. Permteme que te presente a mi amigo Pablo. Mary, do you know Michael? Mara, conoces a Miguel?

Cuando no entendemos algo bien Can you repeat it please? Puede repetirlo por favor? Im sorry I dont understand Lo siento, pero no lo entiendo. Can you speak more slowly? Puede hablar ms despacio?

Para preguntar la hora Would you mind telling me the time? Me dice la hora por favor? Whats the time please? Qu hora lleva?

Hablando por telfono Hello, could I speak to Manuel? Hola, podra hablar con Manuel? Para agradecer algo Thank you. Thank you very much.
381

Gracias. Thats very kind of you. Es muy amable por su parte. Youre welcome. De nada. Expresiones de cortesa Excuse me. Disculpe. I beg your pardon. Perdn.

Muchas gracias. Thanks. Gracias. Dont mention it. No hay de qu.

Sorry Lo siento

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DAS DE LA SEMANA
A diferencia de en espaol en ingls se escriben en maysculas.

Monday. Lunes. Da de la luna.

Tuesday. Martes.

Wednesday.

Mircoles.

Thursday. Friday. Jueves. Viernes. Da de Thor.

Saturday. Sbado.

Sunday. Domingo. Da del sol.

Tiw era un Da de dios de la Odn. guerra.

Frig era la Da de esposa de Saturno. Odn.

DAS DE FIESTA
Easter. Pascua. Boxing day. 26 de diciembre. Whitsun. Pentecostes. Halloween. Christmas day. Da de navidad. Midsummers eve. Noche de san Juan.

New years day. New years eve. Da de ao nuevo. Nochevieja.

MESES DEL AO
Al igual que los das tambin se escriben en maysculas. January. Enero. May. Mayo. September. Septiembre. February. Febrero. June. Junio. October. Octubre. March. Marzo. July. Julio. November. Noviembre. April. Abril. August. Agosto. December. Diciembre.

ESTACIONES
Spring. Summer. Autumm. Fall (USA) Winter
383

Primavera.

Verano.

Otoo.

Invierno.

PUNTOS CARDINALES
North. Norte. South. Sur. East. Este. West. Oeste.

LOS COLORES
White. Blanco. Orange. Naranja. Brown. Marrn. Chestnut. Castao. Blond. Rubio. Black. Negro. Purple. Morado. Blue. Azul. Colored. Coloreado. Dark. Oscuro. Pink. Rosa. Yellow. Amarillo. Navy blue. Azul marino. Grey. Gris. Green Verde. Red. Rojo. Beige. Beige. Lilac. Lila.

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ADJETIVOS
Big. Grande. Good. Bueno. Fat. Gordo. Angry. Enfadado. Cheap. Barato. Long. Largo. Hot. Caliente. Happy. Feliz. Clean. Lmpio. Nice. Agradable. Cold. Frio. Ill. Enfermo. Easy. Fcil. Fair. Justo. Short. Corto. Thirsty. Sediento.

SIGNOS DEL ZODIACO


Aquarius. Acuario. Gemini. Geminis. Libra. Libra. Pisces. Piscis. Cancer. Cancer. Scorpio. Escorpio. Aries. Aries. Leo. Leo. Sagittarius. Sagitario. Taurus. Tauro. Virgo. Virgo. Capricorn. Capricornio.

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LA HORA
Usamos el verbo to be para indicar las horas junto a las siguientes estructuras: Para preguntar la hora usamos Whats the time? What time is it? Could you tell me the time please? Oclock. En punto. Proviene de la expresin of the clock. Half past. Y media. A quarter to. Menos cuarto. A quarter past. Y cuarto To. Menos Past. Y It is 8 oclock.

It is half past 9. It is a quarter to 6. It is a quarter past 7. It is twenty to 4. It is twenty past 4.

Usamos a.m y p.m para indicar antes del medioda y despus del medioda. Tambin podemos usar In the morning. In the afternoon. At night. Midday= 12.00 am Midnight= 24.00 Los horarios de los medios de transporte se rigen por el sistema de 24 horas. I took the 18.30 plane to London.

386

NMEROS CARDINALES
One. Uno. Two. Dos. Three. Tres. Four. Cuatro. Five. Cinco. Six. Seis. Seven. Siete. Eight. Ocho. Nine. Nueve. Ten. Diez. Eleven. Once. Twelve. Doce. Thirteen. Trece. Fourteen. Catorce. Fifteen. Quince. Sixteen. Diecisis. Seventeen. Diecisiete. Eighteen. Dieciocho. Nineteen. Diecinueve. Twenty. Veinte.

Thirty. Treinta. Forty. Cuarenta. Fifty. Cincuenta. Sixty. Sesenta.

Eighty. Ochenta. Ninety. Noventa. A hundred. Cien. A thousand. Mil.

387

Seventy. Setenta.

A milion. Un milln.

Se usa un guin entre los nmeros comprendidos entre el 21 y 99. A partir del 100 se usar and.

Twenty-one. Veintiuno. One hundred and three. Ciento tres. En Estados Unidos 1 billn equivale a 1,000,000,000. En Europa 1 billn equivale a 1,000,000,000,000. Hundred, thousand, million y billion como son adjetivos no aaden -s

I paid three million pesetas in 2001 for a car. Pagu tres millones de pesetas en el ao 2001 por un coche. Las fechas se indican de dos en dos

I was born in 1962. Nac en en el ao 1962.

My grandmother Berta was born in 1900. Mi abuela Berta naci en (nineteen hundred). El 00 es hundred. Los nmeros de telfono de uno en uno

My phone number is 965436789. Mi nmero de telfono es... Se usa coma con los nmeros: 1,000. Se usa el punto con los decimales: 4.5. En las horas se pueden usar uno o dos puntos: 3.45 o 3:45. El 0 se pronncia /ou/

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LOS NMEROS ORDINALES


Con la excepcin de first , second y third, los nmeros ordinales se forman aadiendo -th a los ordinales. Existen algunos que s que se ven modificados: 8th Eighth. 9th Ninth. 12th Twelfth. 20th Twentieth.

5th

Fifth.

First. Primero. Second. Segundo. Third. Tercero. Fourth. Cuarto. Fifth. Quinto. Sixth. Sexto. Seventh. Sptimo. Eighth. Octavo. Ninth. Noveno. Tenth. Dcimo.

Eleventh. Undcimo. Twelfth. Duodcimo. Thirteenth. Decimotercero. Fourteenth. Decimocuarto. Fiftteenth. Decimoquinto Sixteenth. Decimosexto. Seventeenth. Decimosptimo. Eighteenth. Decimoctavo. Nineteenth. Decimonoveno. Twentieth. Vigsimo.

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En las decenas y cambia por -ie. Hundred, thousand y million aaden -th Thirty. Thirtieth. Forty. Fortieth. Fifty. Fiftieth. Sixty. Sixtieth. Seventy. Seventieth.

Twenty. Twentieth.

USOS
En fechas. Captulos. Monarcas. November 30th. Chapter III. Juan Carlos I. ( The first)

EQUIVALENCIA DE PESOS Y MEDIDAS


1 ounce. 1 pound. 1 inch. 1 foot. 1 mile. 1 mile. 1 pint. 1 gallon. 1 stone 12 inches = 1 foot. 3 feet = 1 yard. 28,35 gramos. 454 gramos. 2,45 centmetros. 30 centmetros. 1.610 metros. Milla terrestre. 1.852 metros. Milla marina. 0,57 litros. 4,54 litros. 6356 kilos. 30,48 centimetros. 91,44 centimetros.
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1760 yards= 1 mile=. 16 ounces= 1 pound

1,61 kilometres. 0,454 kilos.

PAISES Y NACIONALIDADES
Brazil. Brasil. Britain. Gran Bretaa. Canada. Canad. China. China. Denmark. Dinamarca. Egypt. Egipto. Europe. Europa. Finland. Finlandia. France. Francia. Germany. Alemania. Greece. Grecia. Brazilian.

British.

Canadian.

Chinese.

Danish.

Egyptian.

European.

Finnish.

French.

German.

Greek.

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Holland. Holanda. Ireland. Irlanda. Italy. Italia. Japan. Japn. Mexico. Mjico. Norway. Noruega. Poland. Polonia. Scotland. Escocia. Spain. Espaa. Portugal. Portugal. Sweden. Suecia. Switzerland. Suiza. Turkey. Turqua. Wales. Gales.

Dutch.

Irish.

Italian.

Japanese.

Mexican.

Norwegian.

Polish.

Scottish.

Spanish Spaniard. Portuguese.

Swedish.

Swiss.

Turkish.

Welsh.

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LA FAMILIA
Ancestor. Antepasado. Relative. Pariente. Twin. Gemelo. Mum. Mam. Dad. Pap. Cousin. Primo. Nephew. Sobrino. Niece. Sobrina. Widow. Viuda. Widower. Viudo. Grandfather. Abuelo. Father. Padre Son. Hijo. Brother. Hermano. Husband. Esposo Uncle. Tio. Grandson. Nieto. Brother-in-law. Cuado. Father-in-law. Suegro. Son-in-law. Yerno. Grandmother. Abuela. Mother. Madre. Daughter. Hija. Sister. Hermana. Wife. Esposa. Aunt. Tia. Granddaughter. Nieta. Sister-in-law. Cuada. Mother-in-law. Suegra. Daughter-in-law. Nuera.

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PROFESIONES
Lawyer. Abogado. Bricklayer. Albail. Barber. Barbero. Butcher. Carnicero. Driver. Conductor. Headmaster. Director de un colegio. Manager. Gerente. Judge. Juez. Dressmaker. Modista. Secretary. Secretario. Salesman. Vendedor. Teacher. Profesor. Mayor. Alcalde. Librarian. Bibliotecario. Carpenter. Carpintero. Janitor. Conserje. Economist. Economista. Blacksmith. Herrero. Cleaner. Limpiador. Baker. Panadero. Soldier. Militar. Actor. Actor. Artist. Artista. Waiter. Camarero. Surgeon. Cirujano. Accountant. Contable. Nurse. Enfermera. Researcher. Investigador. Sailor. Marinero. Hairdresser. Peluquero. Grocer. Tendero. Farmer. Agricultor. Housewife. Ama de casa. Singer. Cantante. Conductor. Cobrador de autobus. Priest. Sacerdote. Chemist. Farmacutico. Jeweller. Joyero. Typist. Mecangrafo. Painter. Pintor. Shoemaker. Zapatero.

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LA CASA
Bedroom. Dormitorio. Kitchen. Cocina. Hall. Entrada. Corridor. Pasillo. Door. Puerta. Air conditioning. Aire acondicionado. Diningroom. Comedor. Bathroom. Cuarto de bao. Lift. Ascensor.

Central heating. Calefaccin central. Curtains. Cortinas. Stairs. Escaleras. Garden. Jardn. Shelf. Estantera. Heating. Calefaccin.

Water heater. Calentador de agua. Study. Despacho. Doorbell. Timbre. Roof. Tejado. Wall. Pared. Corridor. Pasillo.

Garage. Garaje.

Loft. Desvn Letterbox. Buzn. Window. Ventana. Light. Luz. Basement. Stano.

Attic. tico. Aerial. Antena. Chair. Silla. Toilet. Aseo. Ceiling. Techo.

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LA COCINA
Tin opener. Abrelatas. Spoon. Cuchara. Saucepan. Cacerola. Oven. Horno. Refrigerator. Nevera. Knife. Cuchillo. Freezer. Congelador. Tap. Grifo. Microwave oven. Horno microondas. Fork. Tenedor. Pantry. Despensa. Washing machine. Lavadora. Sink. Fregadero. Toaster. Tostadora. Broom Escoba. Washing up liquid. Liquido para fregar los platos. Corkscrew. Sacacorchos. Telephone. Telfono.

Dishwasher. Fregaplatos. Ironing board. Tabla de planchar. Teapot. Tetera. Litter. Basura.

Iron. Plancha. Cup. Taza.

Saucer. Platillo. Mug. Tazn.

Cloth. Trapo. Coffe pot. Cafetera.

Glass. Vaso. Pan. Sartn.

Dishes. Platos.

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EL CUARTO DE BAO
Toilet. Taza del WC. Bath. Baera. Soap. Jabn Towel. Toalla. Bidet. Bid. Towel. Toalla. Mirror. Espejo. Shower. Ducha. Toothbrush. Cepillo de dientes. Shower. Ducha. Hairspray. Laca. Compresses. Compresas. Tissue. Papel higinico. Comb. Peine. Nail varnish. Esmalte de uas. Deodorant. Desodorante. Washbasin. Lavabo. Plug. Enchufe. Razor. Maquinilla de afeitar. Emergency kit. Botiqun. Comb. Peine. Makeup. Maquillaje. Nail polish. Laca de uas. Eye-shadow. Sombra de ojos. Perfume. Perfume. To shave. Afeitarse. Showergel. Gel.

Toothpaste. Pasta dentfrica. Brush. Cepillo. Dryer. Secador. Sponge. Esponja. Eyeliner. Rmmel. Lipstick. Barra de labios. Aftershave. Locin. To have a bath. Baarse.

Comb. Peine. Shampoo. Champ. Cologne. Colonia. Lipstick. Lapiz de labios. Eyeshadow. Sombra de ojos. Mirror. Espejo. Hairbrush. Cepillo.

To have a shower. To dry. Ducharse. Secar.

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Sanitary towel. Compresa.

El DORMITORIO
Alarm clock. Despertador. Sheet. Sbana. Bed. Cama. Dressing table. Tocador. Duvet. Edredn. Alarm clock. Despertador. Bedclothes. Ropa de cama.

EL SALON
Television. Television. Bokcase. Librera. Cushion Cojn. Carpet. Alfombra. Chair. Silla. Telephone. Telfono. Window. Ventana. Picture. Cuadro Wallpaper. Papel pintado. Sofa. Sof. Lamp. Lampara Ashtray. Cenicero. Rocking chair. Mecedora. Lampshade. Pantalla. Sofa. Sofa. Fireplace. Chimenea. Table. Mesa Clock. Reloj.

MUEBLES
Wardrobe. Armario. Table. Mesa. Sideboard. Aparador. Chest of drawers. Cmoda. Bed. Cama.

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LA CIUDAD
Airport. Aeropuerto. Bus station. Estacin de autobuses. Hotel. Hotel. Toilets. Aseos. Car park. Parking. Cinema. Cine.

Hospital. Hospital. Post office. Oficina de Correos. Bank. Banco. Chemist. Farmacia.

Market. Mercado. Restaurant. Restaurant.

Police station. Comisara. Station. Estacin

Beach. Playa. Church. Iglesia.

Book shop. Libreria. Petrol station. Gasolinera.

Library. Biblioteca. Phone box. Cabina de telfono. Street. Calle. School. Escuela. Fair. Feria. Monastery. Monasterio. Park. Parque.

Sea. Mar. Cathedral Catedral. Sculpture. Escultura. Art gallery Galera de arte. Museum. Museo.

River. Ro. Cementery. Cementerio. Stadium. Estadio Hospital. Hospital. Pavilion. Pabelln.

Supermarket. Supermercado. Building. Edificio. Statue. Estatua. Garden. Jardn. Palace. Palacio.

399

Square. Plaza. Theater. Teatro. Butcher. Carnicera. Greengrocer. Verdulera. Off-licence. Bodega.

Bridge. Puente. Zoo. Zoolgico. Drugstore. Droguera. Grocer. Ultramarinos. Post office. Oficina postal.

River. Ro. Cinema. Cine. Delicatessen.

Ruins. Ruinas. Baker. Panadera. Fishmonger. Pescadera. Newsagent. Prensa.

Hardware store. Ferretera.

TIENDAS

400

PARTES DEL CUERPO


Eye. Ojo. Chest. Pecho. Stomach. Estmago. Foot. Pie. Fist. Puo. Moustache. Bigote. Lung. Pulmn. Mouth. Boca. Leg. Pierna. Head. Cabeza. Arm. Brazo. Thumb. Dedo pulgar. Tongue. Lengua. Kidney. Rion. Nose. Nariz Elbow. Codo. Ear. Oreja. Hand. Mano. Finger. Dedo. Brain. Cerebro. Muscle. Msculo. Hair. Pelo. Knee. Rodilla. Chin. Barbilla. Throat. Garganta. Mouth. Boca. Heart. Corazn. Neck. Cuello.

COMIDA
Biscuits. Galletas. Fruit juice. Zumo. Eggs. Huevos. Rice. Arroz. Fish. Pescado. Lambchops. Cakes. Pasteles. Milk. Leche. Butter. Mantequilla. Spaghetti. Espaguetis. Chicken. Pollo. Fillet. Chewing gum. Chicle. Sugar. Azcar. Bread. Pan. Chips. Patatas fritas. Sandwich. Bocadillo. Hamburguer.
401

Sweets. Golosinas. Tea. T. Cheese. Queso. Meat. Carne. Meatballs. Albndigas.

Chuletas de cordero.

Filete.

Hamburguesa.

EN LA MESA
Sugar caddy. Azucarero. Tablecloth. Mantel. Cup. Taza. Oil. Aceite. Butter. Mantequilla. Salt. Sal. Breaded. Empanado. Well done. Bien pasado. Bottle. Botella. Bread. Pan. Fork. Tenedor. Garlic. Ajo. Mustard. Mostaza Vinegar. Vinagre. Fried. Frito. Medium. Al punto. Cafetera. Coffepot . Salt. Sal. Teapot. Tetera. Cinnamon. Canela. Parsley. Perejil. Smoked. Ahumado. Boiled. Hervido. Baked. Cocinado. Glass. Vaso. Napkin. Servilleta. Vinager. Vinagre. Hot pepper. Guindilla. Pepper. Pimienta. Grilled. Asado. Rare. Poco hecho. Roasted. Asado.

SABORES
Acid. cido. Fresh. Fresco. Bitter. Amargo. Cold. Fro. Hot. Caliente. Tasty. Sabroso. Sweet. Dulce. Spicy. Picante.

402

BEBIDAS
Water. Agua. Tonic water. Tnica. Tap water. Agua del grifo Black coffee. Caf solo. Mineral water. Agua mineral. Short coffee. Cortado. Sparkling water. Agua con gas. Decaffeinated coffee. Descafeinado. Tea. T. Red wine. Vino tinto. Gin. Ginebra. Soft drink. Refresco.

Espresso. Caf exprs. Beer. Cerveza.

Long coffee. Caf largo. White wine. Vino blanco.

Coffee with milk. Caf con leche. Rose wine. Vino rosado. Soda. Gaseosa. Draft beer. Caa.

Orange juice. Hot chocolate. Zumo de naranja. Chocolate. Whisky. Whisky. Coke. Coca cola. Rum. Ron. Juice. Zumo.

FRUTAS Y VERDURAS
Apple. Manzana. Tomato. Tomate. Cabbage. Repollo. Brussels sprouts. Coles de Bruselas. Spinachs. Espinaca. Musrhroom. Champin. Artichokes. Alcachofas. Endives. Endivias. Peas. Guisante. Radishes. Rbanos. Broccoli. Brcol. Escarole. Escarola. Lettuce. Lechuga. Carrot. Zanahoria. Potato. Patata. Asparagus. Esprragos. Cucumber. Pepino. Avocado. Aguacate. Apricots. Albaricoques. Plums. Ciruelas.

403

Leeks. Puerros. Carrot. Zanahoria. Raspberries. Frambuesas. Mango. Mango. Pear. Pera. Raisin. Pasa.

Onion. Cebolla. Orange. Naranja. Strawberries. Fresas. Peaches. Melocotones. Pineapple. Pia. Aubergine. Berengena.

Banana. Pltano. Zucchinni. Calabacn. Lemon. Limn. Quince. Membrillo. Watermelon. Sanda. Celery. Apio.

Coconut. Coco. Date. Dtil. Mandarin. Mandarina. Orange. Naranja. Melon. Meln.

POSTRES
Pudding Pudin. Honey. Miel. Chocolate. Chocolate. Icecream Helado. Honey. Miel. Cookies. Galletas. Custard. Natillas Cake. Tarta Marmalade. Mermelada. Yogurt. Yogur.

PESCADOS
Anchovy. Anchoa. Angler. Rape. Clams. Elver. Angula. Hake. Merluza. Herring. Octopus. Pulpo. Oysters. Ostras. Prawn. Shrimps. Gambas. Sole. Lenguado. Squids.
404

Almejas. Cockle. Berberecho.

Arenque. Lobster. Langosta.

Langostino. Razor clam. Navajas.

Calamares. Sword fish. Pez espada.

Cod. Bacalao. Crab. Cangrejo. Cuttlefish. Sepia.

Mackerel. Caballa. Mussels. Mejillones. Norway lobster. Cigala.

Salmon. Salmn. Sardine. Sardina. Sea bream. Besugo.

Turbot. Rodaballo.

CARNES
Bacon. Tocino. Chicken. Pollo. Cow. Vaca. Deer. Ciervo. Goose. Ganso. Hare. Liebre. Hen. Gallina. Lamb. Cordero. Ox. Buey. Partridge. Codorniz. Pork. Cerdo. Rabbit. Conejo. Turkey. Pavo.

FRUTOS SECOS
Almonds. Almendras. Sunflowerseeds. Pipas. Hazelnuts. Avellanas. Pistachios. Pistachos. Chestnuts. Castaas. Pinenuts. Piones.

405

MEDIOS DE TRANSPORTE
Car. Coche. On foot. A pie. Bus. Autobs. Plane. Avin. Taxi. Taxi. Ship. Barco.

ACTIVIDADES DIARIAS
Wake up. Despertarse. Have breakfast. Desayunar. Buy the newspaper. Comprar el peridico. Get up. Levantarse. Go to work. Ir al trabajo. Go for a walk. Dar un paseo. Have a shower. Ducharse. Have lunch. Comer. Have dinner. Cenar. Get dressed. Vestirse. Watch TV. Ver la TV. Go to bed. Irse a la cama.

ACTIVIDADES DE TIEMPO LIBRE


Meet friends. Reunirse con amigos. Go to the pub. Ir al pub. Go to the cinema. Go to the mountains. Ir al cine. Ir al campo. Go to the disco. Ir a la discoteca. Go shopping. Ir de compras.

ROPA
Coat. Cap. Pocket. Skirt.
406

Abrigo. Belt. Cinturn Bikini. Bikini. Blouse. Blusa. Boots. Botas.

Gorra. Clogs. Zuecos. Dress. Vestido Dressing gown. Bata. Handbag. Bolso.

Bolsillo Purse. Monedero. Pyjamas. Pijama. Ring. Swimming trunks. Sandals. Sandalias.

Falda. Sleeve. Manga Stockings. Medias. Tie. Corbata. Trainers. Zapatillas de deporte. Trousers. Pantalones. T-shirt. Camiseta Umbrella. Paraguas. Underpants. Calzoncillos. Wellingtons. Botas de agua.

Bow. Lazo. Bra. Sujetador. Bracelet. Pulsera Braces. Tirantes. Vest. Camiseta.

Hat. Sombrero. Jacket. Chaqueta Jeans. Vaquero. Knickers. Bragas. Slippers. Zapatillas de ir por casa. Cap. Gorra. Glasses. Gafas. Bracelet. Pulsera. Scarf. Bufanda.

Shirt. Camisa. Shoes. Zapatos. Shorts. Pantaln corto. Size. Talla. Jacket. Chaqueta.

Socks. Calcetines. Scarf. Bufanda. Ear-rings. Pendientes. Jacket. Chaqueta.

Raincoat. Gabardina. Gloves. Guantes. Necklace. Collar. Socks. Calcetines.

Zipper. Cremallera. Watch. Reloj de pulsera. Handkerchief. Pauelo. Vest. Chaleco.


407

Belt. Cinturn.

Zipper. Cremallera.

Slip. Enagua.

Gloves. Guantes.

COMPLEMENTOS Y JOYERIA
Bracelet. Pulsera. Watch. Reloj. Brooch. Broche. Ring. Sortija. Earring. Pendiente. Chain. Cadena. Necklace. Collar. Pendant. Colgante.

TEJIDOS Y MATERIALES
Acrylic. Acrlico. Wool. Lana. Cloth. Tela. Oil. Aceite. Bronze. Bronce. Iron. Hierro. Vervet. Terciopelo. Clay. Arcilla. Cotton. Algodn. Corduroy. Pana. Fur. Piel. Silver. Plata. Canvas. Lona. Linen. Lino. Aluminium. Aluminio. Denim. Tela vaquera. Leather. Piel. Silk. Seda. Glass. Cristal. Stone. Piedra. China. Porcelana. Porcelain. Porcelana. Brass. Latn. Marble. Mrmol. Knitted. De punto. Velvet. Terciopelo. Leather. Cuero. Wire. Alambre. Corduroy. Pana. Steel. Acero. Clay. Arcilla. Plaster. Yeso.

408

Suede. Ante.

Tinfoil. Papel de aluminio.

Wax. Cera.

409

ADJECTIVOS PARA LA DESCRIPCION


FIGURE Tall. Alto. Short. Bajo. Stout. Robusto. FACE Round. NOSE HAIR Straight. Liso. Wavy. Rizado. EYES SKIN CHARACTER Humble. Humilde.

Long. Redonda. Larga. Oval. Flat. Ovalada. Chata. Long. Larga.

Bright. Pale. Brillantes. Plido.

Large. Tanned. Proud. Grandes. Bronceado Orgulloso.


.

Prominent Tangled. Small. Flecked. Greedy. . Enredado Pequeos Con Avaricioso. Prominente . pecas

Thin. Small. Delgado. Pequea. Athletic. Atltico. Muscular. Musculoso . Wrinkled.


Arrugada.

Brown. Marrn

Blue. Azules.

Selfish. Egoista. Miserable. Triste. Honest. Honrado. Mean. Tacao. Stubborn. Cabezota. Enthusiastic. Entusiasta.

Auburn. Grey. Castao. Grises. Golden. Rubio. Silky. Sedoso. Blonde. Rubio. Merry. Alegres.

410

ADJETIVOS PARA DESCRIBIR EL CARACTER


Boring. Aburrido. Adventurous. Audaz. Gossipy. Chismoso. Pleasant. Agradable. Greedy. Avaricioso. Sympathetic. Compasivo. Cheerful. Alegre. Bright. Brillante. Polite. Corts. Ambitious. Ambicioso. Loving. Carioso. Careful. Cuidadoso.

Determined. Decidido. Clever. List o Wise. Sabio.

Amusing. Divertido. Crazy. Loco. Stubborn. Testarudo.

Boastful. Fanfarrn Proud. Orgulloso.

Childish. Infantil. Vain. Presumido.

411

LA ESCUELA
Book. Libro. Teacher. Profesor. Desk. Pupitre. Bulletin board. Tabln de anuncios. Notepad. Bloc de notas. Eraser. Borrador. Chalk. Tiza. Fountain pen. Pluma estilogrfica. Lesson. Leccin. Reading. Lectura. Break Recreo. To fail. Suspender. Calculator. Calculadora. Blackboard. Pizarra. School. Colegio. Paper. Papel. University. Universidad.

Pen. Bolgrafo. Pencil. Lapicero. Sharpener. Sacapuntas. Exam. Examen.

Notebook. Cuaderno. Paste. Pegamento. College. Universidad. Holidays. Vacaciones.

Sheet of paper. Hoja de papel. Ruler. Regla. Essay. Trabajo. Lecture. Conferencia.

Homework. Deberes. Question. Pregunta. Timetable. Horario. To pass. Aprobar. Canteen Cantina. Primary school. Escuela primaria. Grammar school. Instituto de bach.

Map. Mapa. Rubber. Borrador. Dictation Dictado. Term. Trimestre. Spelling. Ortografa.

Mistake. Error. Schoolbag. Cartera. Janitor. Conserje. Blot. Borrn. Nursery school. Parvulario. High school. Instituto. Polythecnic. Universidad politcnica.

Infants school. Junior school. Escuela (5-7 aos) (7-11 aos) Secondary modern school. Formacin prof. University. Universidad.

412

Playground. Patio. Physics. Fsica. Principal. Director.

Geography. Geografa. Exam. Examen. To revise. Repasar.

Chemistry. Qumica. Degree. Licenciatura. Subject. Asignatura.

Mathematics. Matemticas. Teacher. Profesor.

LA OFICINA
Letter. Carta. Printer. Impresora. Envelope. Sobre. Keyboard. Teclado. Computer. Ordenador. Label. Etiqueta.

INSTRUMENTOS

DEPORTES
Tennis. Tenis. Swimming. Natacin. Football. Ftbol. Ice hockey. Jockey sobre hielo. Handball. Balonmano. Billiards. Billar. Basketball. Baloncesto

DOLENCIAS
Headache. Dolor de cabeza. Toothache. Dolor de muelas Backache. Dolor de espalda. Sore throat. Dolor de
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Break a leg. Romperse una pierna.

Temperature. Fiebre.

Stomachache. Dolor de barriga.

garganta. Measles. Sarampin.

TAREAS DOMESTICAS
To do the washing. Lavar la ropa. To make the beds. Hacer las camas. To do the washing To do the ironing. up. Planchar. Lavar los platos. To do the dusting. Quitar el polvo. To do the gardening. Arreglar el jardn. To do the cleaning. Limpiar. To tidy. Ordenar.

TIEMPO ATMOSFERICO
Fine. Bueno. Warm. Templado. Freezing. Mucho frio. Foggy. Con niebla. Rainy. Lluvioso. Sunny. Soleado. Windy. Ventoso. Centigrades. Centgrados. Hot. Caluroso. Windy Ventoso. Hot. Caluroso. Swony. Nevado. Sunny. Soleado. Cold. Frio. Wet. Humedo Frosty. Helado. Degree. Grados Cloudy. Nublado.

EL DOCTOR

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ANIMALES
Cow. Vaca. Bull. Toro. Dog. Perro. Goldfish. Pez de colores. Cod. Bacalao. Trout. Trucha. Prawn. Gamba. Calf. Ternero. Pig. Cerdo. Bitch. Perra. Pelican. Pelcano Herring. Arenque. Hake. Merluza. Squid. Calamar. Horse. Caballo. Goat. Cabra. Hen. Gallina. Swan. Cisne. Shark. Tiburn. Crab. Cangrejo. Duck. Pato Chicken. Pollo. Tortoise. Tortuga. Seagull. Gaviota. Sole. Lenguado. Mussel. Mejilln.

MEDIOS DE TRANSPORTE

ARBOLES, FLORES Y PLANTAS


Daisy. Margarita. Oak. Roble. Palm. Palmera. Orchid. Tulip. Tulipn. Elm. Olmo. Cedar. Cedro. Rose. Carnation Clavel. Ash. Fresno. Geranium. Geranio. Violet.
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Thistle. Cardo. Pine. Pino. Jasmine. Jazmn.

Orqudea.

Rosa.

Violeta.

HERRAMIENTAS

POLITICA
Prime minister. Primer ministro. House of commons. Cmara de los comunes. Congress. Congreso. Councillor. Concejal. MP. Diputado. House of lords. Cmara de los lores. Parliament. Parlamaento. President. Presidente. Cabinet. Gobierno. Governor. Gobernador.

Senate. Senado. To vote. Votar.

Mayor. Alcalde. Conservative party. Partido conservador.

Council. Ayuntamiento. Liberal. Liberal.

Democracy. Democracia.

RELIGION
Faith. Fe. Devil. Demonio. Bishop. Obispo. God. Dios. Saint. Santo. Monk. Monje. Virgin Mary. Virgen Mara. Priest. Sacerdote. Nun. Monja. Angel. ngel. Vicar. Vicario. Heaven. Cielo.

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Abbey. Abada. Temple. Templo. Prayer. Oracin.

Cathedral. Catedral. Synagogue. sinagoga Holy. Sagrado.

Monastery. Monasterio. Mosque. Mezquita.

Church. Iglesia. To pray. Rezar.

BANCO
Bank. Banco. Cash. Dinero en metlico. Account. Cuenta. Profit. Beneficio. Withdraw. Reintegro. Loss. Perdida. Savings. Ahorros. Loan. Prstamo.

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SIMILES
As agile as a monkey. As bitter as gall. As black as coal. As blind as a bat. As brave as a lion. As brown as a berry. As busy as a bee. As clean as a new pin. As clear as crystal. As cool as a cucumber. As cunning as a fox. As dead as a doornail. As deaf as a doorpost. As different as chalk to cheese. As dry as a bone. As easy as ABC. As fit as a fiddle. As flat as a pancake. As fresh as a daisy. As good as gold. As green as grass. As happy as a king. Muy gil. Ms amargo que la retama. Ms negro que el carbn. Ms ciego que un topo. Ms valiente que un len. Muy moreno. Ocupadsimo. Ms limpio que el jaspe. Ms claro que el agua. Ms fresco que una lechuga. Ms astuto que una zorra. Completamente muerto. Ms sordo que una tapia. Diferente como de la noche al da. Ms seco que la mojama. Muy fcil. En forma. Liso como una tabla. Ms fresco que una lechuga. Muy bueno. Verde como la hierba. Ms alegre que unas Pascuas.

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As hot as fire. As light as a feather. As like as two peas. As mad as a hatter. As old as the hills. As pale as death. As patient as Job. As poor as a church mouse. As proud as a peacock. As quiet as a mouse. As red as betroot. As right as rain. As round as a barrel. As sharp as a razor. As silent as the grave. As slippery as an eel. As slow as a tortoise. As smooth as velvet. As sweet as honey. As thin as a rake. As timid as a mouse. As white as snow. As wise as an owl.

Muy caliente. Ligero como una pluma. Como dos gotas de agua. Ms loco que una cabra. Ms viejo que Matusaln. Ms blanco que la pared. Ms paciente que el santo Job. Ms pobre que una rata. Ms orgulloso que un pavo real. Ms callado que nunca. Ms rojo que un pimiento. Ms derecho que una vela. Ms gordo que un barril. Muy ingenioso. Ms callado que una tumba. Escurridizo como una anguila. Ms lento que una tortuga. Ms suave que un guante. Ms dulce que la miel. Ms delgado que un palo. Ms tmido que nadie. Ms blanco que la nieve. Muy sabio.

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REFRANES
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. A cat may look at a king. A friend in need is a friend indeed. Ms vale pjaro en mano que ciento volando. Nada es imposible. Un amigo en la necesidad es un amigo de verdad. Dime con quin andas y te dir quin eres. Quien no arregla la gotera, arregla la casa entera. Obras son amores y no buenas razones. Todos los caminos conducen a Roma. No es oro todo lo que reluce.

A man is known by his friends. A stich in time saves nine.

Actions speak louder than words. All roads lead to Rome. All that glitters is not gold.

All work and no play makes Jack a Debe de haber tiempo para todo. dull boy. Among the blind the one-eyed is king. En el pas de los ciegos el tuerto es el rey. An apple a day keeps the doctor Una manzana al da, mantiene al away. doctor en la lejana. Barking dogs seldom bite. Perro ladrador, poco mordedor. Better be alone than in ill company. Better late than never. Birds of a feather flock together. Blood is thicker than water. Constant dripping wears the stone. Courtesy cost nothing. Ms vale solo que mal acompaado. Ms vale tarde que nunca. Dios los cra y ellos se juntan. La familia es lo que ms tira. La constancia lo puede todo. La amabiliad no cuesta nada.

Cut your coat according to your cloth. Amldate a tu presupuesto.

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Dont count your chickens until they are hatched.

No hagas como en el cuento de la lechera.

Early to bed, early to rise makes a man Acostarse pronto y levantarse healthy, wealthy and wise. temprano hacen al hombre sano, rico y sabio. Example is better than precept. El ejemplo es el mejor precepto. God helps those who help themselves. Dios ayuda a los que se ayudan a s mismos. He who laughs last laughs longer. El que re el ltimo, re mejor. He who pays the piper calls the tune. Its no use crying over spilt milk. Look after the pence and the pounds will look after themselves. Make hay while the sun shines. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. One good turn deserves another. Out of sight, out of mind. Practice makes perfect. Such a father, such a son. The early bird catches the worm. Too many cooks spoil the broth. Two heads are better than one. El que paga manda. Agua pasada no mueve molino. Cuida de los peniques y las libras se cuidarn solas. Disfruta mientras puedas. A caballo regalado no le mires el diente. Un buen favor se paga con otro. Ojos que no ven, corazn que no siente. La prctica hace maestros. De tal palo, tal astilla. A quien madruga Dios le ayuda. Demasiados cocineros echan a perder el caldo. Cuatro ojos ven ms que dos.

Whats worth doing is worth doing well. Lo que vale la pena hacer, vale la pena hacerlo bien. When the cat is away the mice will play. Where there is a will, there is a way. Cuando el gato est ausente, los ratones se divierten. Querer es poder.

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You can not have your cake and have it.

No puedes tenerlo todo.

EXPRESIONES IDIOMATICAS
A close shave. A crying shame. A day off. A dish. A slip of the tongue. All alone. All in all. All over the world. All the same. April fool. As a matter of fact. As good as done. Be in a hurry. Be in the red. Be moody. Be the talk of the town. Be your age. Brand new By heart. Por los pelos. Una vergenza. Un da libre. Estar como un tren. Un lapsus. Ms solo que la una. En resumidas cuentas. Por todo el mundo. A pesar de todo. Inocente. De hecho. Dar algo por hecho. Tener prisa. Estar en nmeros rojos. Estar de mal humor. Ser la comidilla del pueblo. No seas nio. Comprtate. Nuevo. De memoria.
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By the way. Call a spade a spade. Crack a joke. Every now and then. Feel homesick. First things first. Follow suit. Get rid of. Give someone a cold shoulder. Give someone the sack. Go out on a spree. Go to hell. Goodness. Have a good time. Have a sweet tooth. Have forty winks. Have fun. Have the knack of. Hit the jackpot. I dont give a damn. If the cap fits wear it. In black and white. In the twinkling of an eye.

A propsito. Al pan pan y al vino vino. Contar un chiste. De vez en cuando. Sentir morria. Lo primero es lo primero. Seguir el ejemplo. Librarse de. Dar de lado a alguien. Despedir a alguien del trabajo. Irse de marcha. Irse a la porra. Cielos. Pasarlo bien. Ser goloso. Dar una cabezadita. Pasarlo bien. Tener habilidad para algo. Tocarle a uno el gordo. Me importa un bledo. Si te pica, te aguantas. Por escrito. En un abrir y cerrar de ojos.

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In time. Inside out. It goes without saying. Its up to you. Jump to conclusions. Keep ones fingers crossed. Last but no least. Love at first sight. Many happy returns of the day. Mind your own business. Off the beaten track. On leave. On second thoughts. On time. Once and for all. Once in a blue moon. Once upon a time. Ones cup of tea. Out of the blue. Over and over again. Owe someone a grudge. Play host. Rack ones brains. Ring a bell.

A tiempo. Al revs. Ni que decir tiene. Depende de ti. Sacar conclusiones. Tocar madera. El ltimo pero no por eso menos importante. Amor a primera vista. Que cumplas muchos ms. Mtete en tus asuntos. Fuera de lo comn. De permiso. Pensndolo mejor. Puntual. De una vez por todas. De uvas a peras. rase una vez. Santo de devocin. De repente. Una y otra vez. Tenrsela jurada a alguien. Hacer los honores. Devanarse los sesos. Ser familiar.
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Show off. Sleep on it. Talk shop. The coast is clear. The last but one. Theres no accounting for taste. Third time lucky. Time is money. Time is up. To be like a bull in a china shop. Turn over a new leaf. Two heads are better than one.

Presumir, ostentar. Consultarlo con la almohada. Hablar del trabajo fuera de horas. No hay moros en la costa. El penltimo. Sobre gustos no hay nada escrito. A la tercera va la vencida. El tiempo es oro. Ser la hora. Ser un desmaado. Borrn y cuenta nueva. Cuatro ojos ven ms que dos.

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TRABALENGUAS
She sells sea-shells on the sea-shore, and the shells she sells are sea-shells, Im sure. What kind of noise annoys an oyster?. A noisy noise annoys an oyster most. When a doctor gets sick, and another doctor doctors him, does the doctor doing the doctoring have to doctor the doctor the way the doctor being doctored wants to be doctored, or does the doctor doing the doctoring of the doctor, doctor as he wants to doctor? Work while you work, play while you play. That is the way to be cheerful and gay Whether the weather is cold, or whether the weather is hot, we have to put up with the weather, wether we like it or not

CITAS
Even God can not change the past. Eureka. Man is by nature a political animal. The price of wisdom is above rubies. A living dog is better than a dead lion. There is no new thing under the sun. When thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth. Where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. Veni, vidi, vici. Cogito, ergo sum. It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. Agathon. Archimedes. Aristotle. The Bible. The Bible. The Bible. The Bible. The Bible. Julius Caesar. Descartes. Sir Arthur Conan
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Doyle. Good fences make good neighbours. It is better to die on your feet than to live on your knees. When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life; for there is in London all that life can afford. One should eat to live, and not live to eat. All animals are equal but some are more equal than others. Brevity is the soul of wit. Neither a borrower or a lender be. Robert Frost. La Pasionaria. Samuel Johnson. Moliere. George Orwell. Shakespeare. Shakespeare.

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ABREVIATURAS
a.m. A/c. AD. B.A. B.C. B/E. B.B.C. Bros. c.a.d. C.O.D. C.W.O. Cfm. CIA. Co. Dept. e.g. FBI. G.M.T. GCE. H.M. H.R.H. I.O.U. Before noon. Account. Anno Domini. Bachelor of Arts. Before Christ. Bill of exchange. Brit ish Broadcasting Corporation. Brothers. Cash againts documents. Cash on delivery. Cash with order. Confirm. Central Intelligence Agency. Company. Department. For example. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Greenwich Mean Time. General Certificate of Education. Her Majesty. His or Her Royal Highness. I owe you.

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IBM. IRA. ISBN. K. K.O. L/C. Ltd. m.p.h. MP. NASA.

International Business Machine. Irish Republican Army. International Standard Book Number. A thousand. Knock-out. Letter of credit. Limited. Miles per hour. Member of Parliament. National Astronautic and Space Administration. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. National Health Service. Or nearest offer. Pence. Per annum. Please turn over. Please. Post Office Box. Research and development. Rpondez sil vous pliat. Regards. Save our souls. Thanks.

NATO. NHS. o.n.o. P. p.a. P.T.O. Pls. POB. R&D. R.S.V.P. Rgds. SOS. Thx.

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U.N.O. U.S.A. U.S.S.R. UFO. V.A.T. V.I.P. Y.M.C.A.

United Nations Organization. United States of America. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Unidentified Flying Object. Value Added Tax. Very Important Person. Young Mens Christian Association.

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ORACIONES y VILLANCICOS
EL PADRE NUESTRO
Our father, who art in Heaven Hallowed be thy name Thy kingdom come Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven Give us this day our daily bread And forgive us our trespasses As we forgive those who trepass againts us And lead us not into tempation But deliver us from evil

AVE MARA
Hail. Mary, full of grace The Lord is with Thee Blessed art thou among women And blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary. Mother of God Pray for us sinners Now and at the hour of our death. Amen

HAPPY BIRTHDAY
Happy birthday to you Happy birthday to you Happy birthday, dear. Happy birthday to you For hes a jolly good fellow For hes a jolly good fellow For hes a jolly good fellow And so say all of us And so say all of us And so say all of us For hes a jolly good fellow And so say all of us

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HOLY NIGHT
Silent night, holy night All is calm, all is bright Round you Virgin mother and child Holy infant so tender and mild Sleep in heavenly peace Sleep in heavenly peace Silent night, holy night Son of God, oh how bright Love is smiling from thy face Peals for us the our of grace Christ ous Saviour is born Christ ous Saviour is born

JINGLE BELLS
Jingle bells, jingle bells Jingle all the way Oh what fun is to ride In a one-horse open sleigh Dashing through the snow In a one-horse open sleigh Over the fields we go Laughing all the way Bells on bob-tail ring Making spirits bright What fun it is to ride and sing A sleighing song tonight. Oh Jingle bells, jingle bells Jingle all the way Oh what fun is to ride In a one-horse open sleigh

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1) Mary.........a German boyfriend. a - Has b - Have c - Are 2) We .....................a nice park near Sagasta Sqaure. a - Has b - Have c - Is 3) Yesterday Mr Garca .......it was going to rain. a - Say b - Said c - Tells 4) They were....................a fire yesterday. a - Made b - Making c - Doing 5) My grandmother was always.................home. a - At b - In c - On 6) Monforte is .................the road to Alicante. a - On b - In c - At 7) He is very good .............music. a - In b - On c - At 8) He is always ......a bad mood. a - In b - On c - At 9) ......the moment things are very different. a - In b - At c - On 10) He was ........the Navy. a - In b - On c - At 11) She drives ........full speed
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a - At b - In c - On 12) I am .............working there but I will change very soon. a - Still b - Yet c - Already 13) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Three b - Sheep c - Ship 14) El verbo "to be " significa ....... a - Tener b - Ser o estar c - Parecer 15) Si hablamos de un perro usaremos el pronombre........ a - It b - He c - She 16) A qu categora gramatical pertenece: " My, your, his, her, its, our, your y their "? a - Pronombres personales b - Pronombres posesivos c - Adjetivos posesivos 17) Qu preposicin debemos usar cuando hablamos de los dias de la semana? a - On b - In c - At 18) El verbo to have se usa para formar los tiempos......... a - Simples b - Continuos c - Perfectos 19) How.............you do? a - Do b - Am c - Is 20) Let me introduce.......... a - Me b - Myself c - Mine
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21) I hope you enjoy..........stay. a - You b - Your c - Yourself 22) Here you.......... a - Are b - Is c - Am 23) He.........a boy. a - Am b - Is c - Are 24) Isabel...............a chocolate cake. a - Is eating b - Is eat c - Is ate 25) You..................too much. a - Are work b - Are working c - Are worked 26) Mara Teresa................a new book. a - Are writing b - Is writeing c - Is writing 27) My sister is ..........doctor. a - An b-A c - Something 28) Is Salinas............big city? a-A b - An c - These 29) I went to the swimming pool.......hour ago. a - An b-A c - The 30) He has ........cat. a - An b-A c - Many

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31) I don't work............Sunday. a - In b - On c - At 32) I wake up.........8.00. a - At b - In c - On 33) I look at the stars..................night. a - At b - In c - On 34) I ......................like liver. a - Does b - Doing c - Do not 35) Where...........you from? a - Is b - Are c - Am 36) What........your brother do? a - Do b - Does c - Is 37) How old ........you? a - Is b - Are c - Am 38) What languages ........you speak? a - Does b - Are c - Do 39) ........were you born? a - Where b - Which c - What 40) He............to the University. a - Goes b - Go c - Is go 41) My wife.............at a High School.
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a - Teaches b - Teach c - Is tiching 42) In summer, my daughter ...........her friend Marta. a - Miss b - Misses c - Is missed 43) He............the best player in Elda. a - Is b - Are c - Am 44) I ..................................a shower. a - Am having b - Has c - Has having 45) I ................................at the moment. a - Am smoking b - Smokeing c - Smoking 46) He .....................................fat. a - Get b - Is getting c - Gets 47) My sister ............................................a chocolate cake for my birthday. a - Has been making b - Has be made c - Has been makeing 48) They are.....................playing football. a - Yet b - Still c - Already 49) He has.....................come back from school. a - Already b - Yet c - Still 50) She ..................................with us next April in Cazorla. a - Will fish b - Would fishing c - Would been fishing 51) They ................................her at the airport tomorrow morning. a - Meet
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b - Are meeting c - Meets 52) I ...................................a Harley in November. a - Am driving b - Is driving c - Driving 53) I ..............................him a Mara Callas CD for his birthday. a - Give b - Giving c - Am giving 54) The new teacher.................................at seven. a - Come b - Is comeing c - Is coming 55) We ...........................some money to charities. a - Gives b - Are giveing c - Are giving 56) They ...........................to Majorca with all their friends. a - Are going b - Goes c - Are go 57) He ...............smoking next year. a - Give b - Is giveing up c - Is giving up 58) I ..........................her a new Polo for her birthday. a - Buys b - Am buying c - Buy 59) The sun ...............................................this afternoon. a - Shine b - Is shineing c - Is shining 60) The waiter ..............................................a bottle of Rioja wine. a - Bring b - Bringed c - Is bringing 61) Barcelona............against Manchester United in June a - Will be playing b - Will play be
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c - Will be played 62) Alejandro Sanz ...............................................a new album in March. a - Release b - Is releaseing c - Is releasing 63) What .................................................for a living? a - Does you do b - Do you do c - Do you does 64) I ...............................that this President will win again. a - Does not think b - Do not thinks c - Do not think 65) He .............most of the homework with his mother. a - Does b - Doing c - Do 66) I have ..................................................paella every Saturday for years. a - Ate b - Eat c - Eaten 67) They have just ............................................around Spain. a - Travel b - Traveled c - Travelled 68) Flavio has ............................................his girlfriend. a - Forgave b - Forgive c - Forgiven 69) Toni has ...............................................fireworks for the summer party. a - Buyed b - Bought c - Boughting 70) Cayetano has ..........................................a new house for his family. a - Build b - Built c - Boughts 71) Mario has ........................................................the beers in the bar. a - Paid b - Payed c - Paying
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72) My mother............her new portrait next week. a - Will have paint b - Will be paint c - Will have painted 73) We ............................in this house since 1997. a - Lived b - Have being living c - Have been living 74) He ......................a book for a long time. a - Writes b - Is wrote c - Has been writing 75) ........these books interesting? a - Is b - Are c - Am 76) The baby.......eating the food. a - Am b - Is c - Are 77) Cats.........black or white. a - Is b - Are c - Am 78) Pepita ........three daughtres. a - Has b - Haave c - Having 79) Carlos is in Elche. .............works there in a shoe factory. a - Him b - He c - His 80) ..................says that Isabel is her best friend. a - She b - Her c - Hers 81) I haven't ......................................money. a - Some b - Any c - Something

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82) Would you like .........................chocolates? a - Any b - Will c - Some 83) Have you seen ................love film lately? a - Some b - Any c - No 84) There are.....................................boys playing football outside. a - These b - Some c - Any 85) Is there.........................................cinema in town? a - Any b - Some c - Six 86) I've got ....................................books on computers. a - Any b - Some c - Me 87) ..........................there a bus from Alicante at 7.00? a - Is b - Are c - Am 88) There...........two trains to Madrid every day. a - Is b - Are c - Am 89) ................there a supermarket near here? a - Is b - Are c - Am 90) There.................a parade next Saturday. a - Is b - Are c - Am 91) There...............many restaurants in Benidorm. a - Is b - Are c - Am 92) There.............a concert next June in Santa Pola.
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a - Is b - Are c - Am 93) Pepi..............................swim very fast.. a - Do b - Does not c - Do 94) .........................you like football? a - Does b - Do c - Are 95) ...................Pepe read the paper? a - Do b - Does c - Is 96) I ............................eat meat. a - Do not b - Does not c - Will do 97) I want two ......................of Fanta. a - Glass b - Glassves c - Glasses 98) This tree has many .................................................. a - Leafs b - Leaves c - Leafss 99) In the zoo I saw four ..... a - Sheep b - Sheeps c - Sheppes 100) She has many ............................. a - Worries b - Worrys c - Worryes 101) There are ........schools in Salinas. Only two. a - Little b - Few c - Much 102) I have .........................money left. a - Little
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b - Few c - Many 103) We have to study.........................books. a - Much b - Many c - Any 104) Not ...................people smoke in this University. a - Manys b - Many c - Fews 105) They pay Zidane .......................money. a - Much b - Many c - Few 106) There aren't ..............................towns in Teruel. a - Many b - Much c - Little 107) They asked me ...........................questions. a - Many b - Little c - Much 108) I don't have ................................time. a - Much b - Many c - Little 109) Everybody says that Jorge is ..............................than his brother. a - More clever b - The more clever c - The most clever 110) I am .............................teacher here. a - The oldest b - Older c - Olderest 111) This exercise is .......................................than the previous one. a - Easier b - Easyer c - Easiest 112) When I was young Agustina was the .......................................swimmer in Elda. a - Fastest b - Fatesr
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c - The ffasterest 113) This is ........................................book I have ever read. a - The goodest b - The bester c - The best 114) You should eat ....................................chocolate. a - Littler b - Less c - Littlest 115) The picture is .......................the wall. a - At b - In c - On 116) We go to church ......................Sundays. a - At b - In c - On 117) The milk's .......................................the fridge. a - In b - At c - On 118) They sat ...........................the wall. a - On b - At c - In 119) They made the film ....................Petrel. a - In b - At c - On 120) Mary's not here - she's....................the office. a - On b - In c - At 121) The ham is...................................the shelf in the kitchen. a - On b - In c - At 122) They are all......................................the garden. a - At b - In c - On
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123) The papers are................................my desk. a - In b - At c - On 124) He's not..........................................work today. a - On b - In c - At 125) I'll see you ........................................Monday. a - In b - At c - On 126) They came to visit us ....................my birthday. a - In b - At c - On 127) Did you have a good time ......................Christmas? a - In b - At c - On 128) School finishes ..................................three o'clock. a - On b - In c - At 129) I'll meet you............................the station. a - At b - In c - On 130) He's still..........................................school. a - At b - In c - On 131) That picture....................the wall was painted by Vladi Monz. a - In b - At c - On 132) We're meeting...............................7.00 on Tuesday. a - At b - On c - In

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133) I ............................to the swimming pool every day at 5.00. a - Going b - Goes c - Go 134) ............................what he's saying? a - Do you understand b - Does you understand c - Did you understand 135) Horatio ..........................................a shower at the moment. a - Is has b - Is having c - Has 136) Somebody...............................to us. a - Is listens b - Listens c - Is listening 137) She..........................to go home now. a - Is wants b - Is wanted c - Wants 138) How often ........................................a magazine? a - Do you read b - Does you read c - Did you reads 139) The Town Hall ...........................................a new street to Alberto Navarro. a - Should dedicate b - Shall dedicating c - Should to dedicate 140) I .......................................................in Aspe tomorrow. a - Will be b - Will is c - Will am 141) I .........................................my cousin in Madrid next week. a - Visited b - Will visit c - Visit 142) They ...........................a new road in 2007. a - Build b - Will build c - Builded 143) I ........................................to the Yelmo Cineplex cinemas tomorrow.
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a - Went b - Go c - Will go 144) They ...........................in La Sirena next Saturday. a - Will be having dinner b - Will dinner have c - Will be dinner 145) I..........to Berln in August. a - Will flying b - Will flying be c - Will be flying 146) They .............................a lot with that teacher. a - Will learnt have b - Will have learnt c - Will have learn 147) He ...............................many countries in April. a - Will have seen b - Will seen c - Will be seen 148) I .............................everything before 12:00. a - Will eaten b - Will have eaten c - Will be ate 149) Next summer he ............................................a new car. a - Will bought b - Will buying c - Will have been driving 150) In May he .......................................with a new team in France. a - Will played b - Will have been playing c - Will playing be 151) We.........................................many good films but this is the best. a - Has see b - Has seen c - Have seen 152) He ...............................some shoes to his brother. a - Has bought b - Has buy c - Have bought 153) The food ............................................horrible. a - Am
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b - Was c - Are 154) The French ...........................Spanish very bad in the past. a - Speaks b - Spoke c - Speaking 155) Inmita .......to a swimming pool in the evenings when she was 3 years old. a - Went b - Go c - Went 156) When we lived in Alicante my wife ....................her mother every night. a - Phone b - Phoned c - Phones will 157) My aunt ............................gazpachos in the Culebrn. a - Ate b - Eat c - Will eats 158) We.....................................a lot in England last summer. a - Enjoying b - Enjoys c - Enjoyed 159) Lady Hernndez...............................her old boyfriend in a restaurant. a - Met b - Meeting c - Meets 160) I ...............................more than ever last summer. a - Swim b - Swimming c - Swam 161) They .................................to Alicante when they were young. a - Will go b - Goes c - Went 162) The doctor .......................us hat it was nothing important. a - Tolds b - Telling c - Told 163) The bus ...........................................in every city. a - Stopped

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b - Stopping c - Stop 164) It ..........................................during the festivies. a - Rained b - Raining c - Raineing 165) The alarm clock...............................................but I couldn't stop it. a - Ringing b - Rings c - Was ringing 166) He has............................................on weight since he got married. a - Puts b - Put c - Putting 167) Pepe has...................................a new apartment in Santa Pola. a - Buying b - Boughted c - Bought 168) My brother-in-law has...................................football in Alicante. a - Plays b - Played c - Playeding 169) Manuela ..........................................................aspirins for a long time. a - Is takes b - Is took c - Has been taking 170) Alberto Navarro ...........................his last book for over fifteen years. a - Has been writing b - Has be writing c - Has being writing 171) There's nothing in the fridge. They..............all. a - Must have eaten b - Must has ate c - Must had eaten 172) My parents .............................me some money when I got married. a - Giving b - Gaven c - Gave 173) I ............................................that she had won the lottery. a - Have knew b - Have known
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c - Has know 174) Last summer they .......................................siesta before six. a - Was sleeping b - Sleep c - Were sleeping 175) I .........................................................how to get to Alicante. a - Am explaining b - Explains c - Does explain 176) I' ve worked in Elche ...................six years. a - Since b - For c - Ago 177) I've lived in Elda ...................I was a child. a - Since b - For c - Ago 178) We have not been in Rome ...........we were married. a - For b - Since c - Ago 179) I've known them ................years. a - Ago b - For c - Since 180) She has been working here ...................she left school. a - For b - Since c - Ago 181) He has been in prison..................nine years. a - Ago b - Since c - For 182) Pepica has lived in Salinas.............................she was ten years old. a - For b - Since c - Ago 183) He has been ill .........a long time. a - For b - Since c - Ago
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184) Pili is in her office. She's been there ..............7 o'clock. a - Ago b - For c - Since 185) The bus is late. We've been waiting .........................20 minutes. a - Since b - For c - Ago 186) Laura is studying Medicine ............................1987. a - Ago b - For c - Since 187) I've been learning English.............................January. a - For b - Ago c - Since 188) I've only been cycling to work......................two months. a - For b - Since c - Ago 189) If you put ice in the sun it..............................................to water. a - Turn b - Turns c - Turning 190) If you...........................................this one I'll bring you another. a - Doesn't like b - Didn't like c - Don't like 191) If I ................................................studied I would get a better job. a - Has b - Have c - Had 192) If it ............more we could grow more trees. a - Rain b - Rained c - Raining 193) If I had bought lottery yesterday, today I..............................................rich. a - Would have being b - Will have been c - Would have been

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194) If I had known that they were in Elda l............................................ them to have lunch in La Sirena. a - Willl have invited b - Would have invited c - Had invited 195) Indicativo, Subjuntivo e Imperativo son: a - Modos verbales b - Formas del adjetivo c - Tipos de adverbios 196) Qu nombre reciben los siguientes verbos: "to be, to have y to do "?. a - Auxiliares b - Modales c - Ordinarios 197) My wife is........the kitchen. a - In b - On c - At 198) I was .......the station. a - In b - On c - At 199) The water is..........the fridge. a - On b - In c - At 200) The book is ..........the table. a - In b - On c - At 201) My mother is.........home. a - On b - In c - At 202) My house is..............the road to Sax. a - In b - On c - At 203) The football match ................................at 6:00. a - Starts b - Are starting c - Is starting
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204) We ....................................some books to the Public Library. a - Are giving b - Gives c - Giving 205) He................................................smoking next year. a - Is give up b - Is giveing up c - Is giving up 206) They ............................... "the cuartelillo ". a - Are clean b - Are cleanig c - Are cleaned 207) I like ..........................................fresh air in the mountains. a - Breathes b - Breathing c - Breathed 208) Pleased to meet ............ a - Yours b - Us c - You 209) I'll try .............English tea. a - Some b - Many c - Any 210) Don't ...............to him. a - Listened b - Listen c - Listening 211) You must .........it for us. a - Make b - Makes c - Made 212) How long have you ....................learning English? a - Be b - Being c - Been 213) That's ............. a - Enough b - Enougher c - Enoughing 214) Teresa's ...........the phone.
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a - In b - On c - At 215) Please hurry ............. a - Down b - In c - Up 216) How ..............shirts are you going to buy? a - Many b - Much c - Often 217) .........cash. a - In b - On c - At 218) ..............credit card. a - By b - With c - In 219) Shut up and mind your ........business. a - Our b - Ours c - Own 220) The streets ...........decorated. a - Are b - Is c - Will 221) Come ..............about ten o'clock. a - At b - In c - On 222) Let's ..............a good restaurant, I am very hungry. a - Finding b - Found c - Find 223) There has ........a car crash in Juan Carlos I. a - Be b - Was c - Been 224) What ................happened to him, he is very sad. a - Is
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b - Has c - Have 225) A little boy called Jaime ......been knocked off by a bike. a - Is b - Have c - Has 226) That ........be enough. a - Should b - Can c - Must 227) Thank ......very much. a - You b - Yours c - Youm 228) You'll need it when it gets .......... a - Coldest b - Colder c - Colding 229) I ..........hope you've got everything now, Pepe. a - Did b - Do c - Does 230) I'm really looking ...............to the concert! a - For b - Forward c - Up 231) Wasn't it worth .................all those cars? a - Washing b - Wash c - Washed 232) I intend to get a job ........weekends. a - In b - On c - At 233) I don't mind, .......................the hours are reasonable and the pay is good. a - Long so b - So long as c - As long as 234) It was difficult at first..........to live alone in England. a - Have b - Has
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c - Having 235) ............all cars here are automatic. a - Nearly b - Near c - Close 236) This is celebrated ......the fourth Thursday of November. a - On b - In c - At 237) Give.............regards to your family. a - Me b - My c-I 238) Everyone ...........paella and ham in Spain. a - Loves b - Love c - Loving 239) It says .......diving! a - Not b - No c - Any 240) I don't mind ............the same clothes everyday. a - Wearing b - Wear c - Weared 241) I'll bring you a present ........the journey. a - In b - Up c - On 242) I suppose ....... a - As b - So c - So as so 243) That is the ............compliment you can pay to a girl like her. a - Great b - Greater c - Greatest 244) Jos Luis says you are a very good ......... a - Cooker b - Cooking c - Cook
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245) 5.900 ...............insurance and unlimited mileage. a - Including b - Includes c - Include 246) ...............interesting! a - What b - What an c - How 247) I was .................sorry that I felt ashamed. a - So b - As c - So as 248) You can ..............a taxi and go sightseeing. a - Spend b - Hire c - Look up for 249) Can I .........a bike? a - Hire b - Spend c - Renting 250) Imagine .........to work in the Sahara. a - Have b - Having c - Has 251) People of your age ............not drink beer. a - Shall b - Will c - Should 252) The place I enjoyed .............was the museum of Moder Art. a - Most b - More c - Little 253) At what time did you .......................to the cinema last night? a - Go b - Went c - Going 254) I play football with......... a - He b - Him c - His

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255) She is ..................secretary. a - Me b - My c - Mine 256) My wife eats ..................oranges. a - Many b - Little c - So 257) The umbrella is.......... a - He b - Her c - Hers 258) If I could, I ......................go to the cinema with you, darling. a - Went b - Must c - Would 259) Girls, you ......................say those things about your friends. a - Haven't to b - Mustn't c - Mustn 260) Have another chocolate. No, thank you very much indeed, ....................too much. a - I've eaten b - I eaten c - I at e 261) I think my brother ..................to come next month. a - Cans b - Could c - Will be able 262) Mr. Martnez ......................for a loan, but then, he won the lottery. a - Was asking b - Asking c - Askeing 263) That girl is ............................pretty. a - As b - So many c - So 264) How .......................you go to Sax tomorrow? a - Does b - Shall c - Will
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265) My daughter hasn't ....................from school yet. a - Comed b - Coming c - Come 266) Haven't you done it ....................? a - Ago b - Yet c - For 267) Manolo, .................go to the disco tonight. a - Let us b - We let's c - We let 268) You have to be much .....................when you use this. a - More careful b - Carefuler c - Carefulest 269) It was nice to see him again. I .........him for ages. a - Haven't seen b - Haven t see c - Saw 270) Those are the ones .................came yesterday. a - Who b - Whom c - Whose 271) It ...........for ages in Almeria. Said the weather forecast yesterday. a - Doesn't rain b - Did rain c - Hasn't rained 272) I was going to write but the computer ...............down. a - Break b - Breaks c - Broke 273) Oscar always ...................tennis a - Play b - Plays c - Is play 274) ......you born in Elda ? a - Had b - Are c - Were 275) Jess you'd like to go to buy a new computer, .............you?
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a - Would b - Wouldn't c - May 276) My grandmother died at the .......of 89. a Age b - Years c - Years of 277) Hey...........a look, Rocio Jurado is there with her husband. a - Have b - Take c - Put 278) Plaza Mayor .......in 1996. a - Was built b - Will be built c - Built 279) What ....................happen if we didn't go to work? a - Will b - Would c - Must 280) The local Council ...........do something about those houses! a - Must to b - Have to c - Must 281) All these children are nice, but ours are ................ a - Niecerest b - Nicer c - Nicest 282) The shop was open this morning. It ...at 4:45. a - Open b - Was open c - Opened 283) It ..............a lot in winter in Bocairente. a - Snows b - Is snowed c - Is snowing 284) We haven't seen the new Harry Potter film ... a - Yet b - Already c - Still 285) It's late and Juan is ...........in bed. a - Already
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b - Still c - Yet 286) I think that "The Pillars of the Earth " is .........book I have read in my life. a - The best b - Best than c - The better 287) If I were you, I .............work in that bank anymore. a - Would b - Wouldn't c - Can 288) Come on, boys. We .........win them this time. a - Must b - Have to c - Have 289) She is very pretty but my girlfriend is ........ a - Prettier b - Prettiest c - The pretty 290) I was listening to the news ...........TV when the baby began to scream. a - On b - In c - At 291) This is the boy........father is the President of "The Moros Musulmanes ". a - Whose b - What c - Which 292) I ..........to London since 1993. a - Haven't been b - Haven't gone c - Haven't go 293) She doesn't live in Novelda, ...she? a - Do b - Does c - Doesn't 294) It........rain tomorrow. a - May b - Must c - Can 295) I am .............tall as Paco Cabrera. a - As b - So
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c - So as 296) This is the restaurant.........we celebrate our anniversary every year. a - Where b - Which c - What 297) We........some money to buy a new fridge. Can we borrow from you? a - Need b - Must c - May 298) What's your new girlfriend like ? a - Very nice b - Very pretty c - Demanding 299) It's very late and your brother is...... a - Still in bed b - Still in the bed c - Already in bed 300) There is......milk in the fridge. a - No b - Some c - Many 301) .........very nice car is a Mercedes. a - What a b - How c - How a 302) I want you to .................to my party. a - Came b - Coming c - Come 303) She gave him four .........of bread. a - Loafs b - Loaves c - Loavings 304) She had .......money that she didn't know what to do. a - So much b - So many c - So 305) He got married on the ...........of May. a - 3rd b - 3nd c - 3st
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306) My uncle has never been to Jamaica. a - Neither has mine b - Neither has me c - Neither has I 307) I never listen to...radio at night. a-A b - The c-308) Why don't you eat..........breakfast? a-A b - The c-309) Before......lunch we played ATAJOS. a - The b-c-A 310) ...........Vinalop is the only river we have. a-b - The c-A 311) .......wine is good if you drink properly. a-b - The c-A 312) ........wine from Rioja is my favourite. a-b - The c-A 313) I went to.......hospital to visit my friend Enrique who had a heart attack. a - The b-c-A 314) Sarah goes to......church every Sunday with my wife. a-b - The c-A 315) There is .......which is not very clear in this. a - Something b - Anything c - Nothing

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316) The indians had many....... a - Chiefs b - Chieves c - Cifs 317) My favourite.........were a ball and the Scalextrix. a - Toys b - Toyes c - Tois 318) A famous English king had six........ a - Wifes b - Wives c - Wivess 319) The plural of goose is... a - Gooses b - Geese c - Gees 320) .........live in Elda. a - Us b - We c - Our 321) La casa de Manoli. a - House's Manoli b - Manoli's house c - The manoli's house 322) El coche de mi amigo. a - The my friend's car b - My friend's car c - Car's my friend 323) La casa de los Torres. a - The Torres' house b - Torres'ss house c - The house of Torres' 324) We were.......the theatre last night. a - In b - On c - At 325) I studied ........don Emilio's school from 1968 to 1975. a - In b - On c - At 326) I met her ..........a lecture.
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a - On b - In c - At 327) She studied........Oxford. a - On b - At c - Of 328) She lives.....Oxford. a - In b - On c - At 329) Elda is ......the road to Albacete. a - In b - On c - At 330) I live ......the second floor. a - In b - At c - On 331) I was born......Elda. a - On b - In c - At 332) We have a house......the coast. a - In b - On c - At 333) I met her..........the croosroads. a - At b - In c - On 334) We arrived .......France in 1990. a - At b - In c - On 335) We arrived ........Paris in 1991. a - At b - On c - In 336) ......lunch time we drink coke. a - In
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b - On c - At 337) ......the beginning of the book I didn't like very much. a - In b - On c - At 338) ........first sight I fell in love with her. a - At b - In c - On 339) We became friends.......last. a - In b - On c - At 340) ........Christmas day my family come home. a - In b - On c - At 341) You must be ......time for the plane. a - In b - On c - At 342) Holidays in Spain are.......July to September. a - For b - From c - At 343) All the trains come......Alicante. a - From b - For c - Up 344) We are going .................the cinema tonight. a - At b - To c - In 345) The safest way to travel is.......road. a - On b - In c - By 346) We got.......the bus at 8.00. a - In b - On
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c - By 347) I go to work........foot. a - In b - On c - By 348) Qu forma verbal expresa intencin? a - Going to b - Must c - Need 349) Let.................come. a - Her b - She c - Hers 350) Los advervios de frecuencia se colocan .......del verbo to be. a - Detrs b - Delante c - Cerca 351) The thief........he had robbed all the jewels. a - Adnited b - Admitted c - Admitedd 352) I ................to London in 1987. a - Go b - Went c - Gone 353) She hates....... a - Wash b - Washing c - Washed 354) She never..........lies. a - Says b - Tells c - Speaks 355) ........long have you been studying English? a - Where b - How c - What 356) Novelda is.......than Monvar. a - Far b - Further

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c - Furthest 357) Pepe is .......rich as Manolo. a - So b - As c - Than 358) ..........does she want? a - Where b - What c - Who 359) .......is this old car? a - Whose b - Who c - Whom 360) .........was that pretty girl who was with you in the Plaza Mayor? a - Who b - Whose c - Whom 361) She play tennis. a - So do she b - So does she c - Does she so 362) Are they.........waiting for the doctor? a - Still b - Yet c - Already 363) I haven't read the book about Garzon...... a - Yet b - Still c - Already 364) I haven't written my Christmas cards...... a - Still b - Yet c - Already 365) How much is two + three? a - Five b - Six c - Seven 366) We have.................magazines and books about Elda. a - A lot b - A lot of c - Lots
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367) Good....... a - Ivining b - Evening c - Evenning 368) Thank you very much indeed. -You're....... a - Welcome b - Welcomed c - Welcame 369) .......Christmas Eve we have dinner together. a - In b - At c - On 370) .........way, how is your family? a - In b - By c - Upon 371) You never know........he is happy or sad. a - Whenever b - Wheather c - Whether 372) My factory passed ........the hands of my uncle. a - In b - Into c - To 373) If you ...............worried, tell your mother about it. a - Were b - Are c - Had been 374) If you................earlier tonight, we could go to the cinema. a - Come b - Came c - Comes 375) We never understood......he wanted to say. a - Who b - Which c - What 376) ......mind, I have another one. I will repair it. a - Never b - All c - Both

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377) If you work for......you will not have to suffer a boss. a - You b - Yours c - Yourself 378) Many people nowadays live by....... a - Them b - Themselves c - Their 379) We enjoyed ..........in our honeymoon. a - Us b - Ours c - Ourselves 380) My friend Toms is a .........driver. a - Carefully b - Care c - Careful 381) He is always very......and sends me a Jabugo ham on November the 30th. a - Kindly b - Kaind c - Kind 382) We never speak..........about our friends. a - Badder b - Badly c - Worse 383) ......Lent people many people don't eat meat. a - At b - On c - In 384) In the middle ....................August we organise many BBQs. a - From b - Of c - On 385) People .......the beach should drink water all the time. a - In b - On c - At 386) We ought not to visit her. She........study. a - Has b - Must c - Have 387) I went for a walk........Castelar Square.
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a - About b - Afloat c - Around 388) ......your mouth close all the time, only answer if the teacher asks you. a - Keep b - To keep c - Keeps 389) My father-in-law arrived...........Alicante airport from Italy yesterday. He went to Lineapelle. a - In b - At c - On 390) I haven't finished........ a - Yet b - Already c - Still 391) If you can't water the plants, I ........do it for you. a - Would b - Will c - Won't 392) All the shoes were........during the shoe fair in Milan. a - Sell b - Sold c - Selling 393) Hallowen is...... a - October 31st b - October 1rd c - October 1nd 394) ........faithfully. a - Your b - Yours c - Yourself 395) Everybody..........to make the beds. a - Has b - Have c - To have 396) There are.......good and bad methods of learning a language. a - All b - Neither c - Both 397) No smoking.........be allowed in all the premises.
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a - Will b - Shall c - Is to 398) When my mother was young my grandmother ........look after her. a - Used b - Would c - To 399) Why......you want to buy this? if it is of no use. a - Shall b - Will c - Should 400) He........his wife he had had an affair with her best friend. a - Said b - Told c - Spoke 401) He ...........to the waiter that the wine was not very good. a - Told b - Said c - Sayd 402) Life is not easy. You can never..........what is going to happen. a - Say b - Tell c - Knows 403) "It has been the best day of my life "......my sister. a - Told b - Said c - Gueses 404) It goes without........ a - Telling b - Saying c - Explainig 405) ........stupid of him! a - What b - How c - What a 406) I like swimming. -.......too. a-I b - My c - Me 407) ........that Pepe were rich he would not be here. a - Provides
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b - Provided c - Providing 408) It was.............understood by all the students. a - Easy b - Easily c - Easier that 409) The party was.........planned. a - Wonderfully b - Wonder c - Wonderful 410) I don't think so...... a - Personally b - Personal c - Personaly 411) The man with the moustache and the golden watch........be his father. a - Must b - Can c - Need 412) Do........home now it's very late! a - Go b - To go c - Goed 413) Why .......him about the accident? a - To tell b - Tell c - Telling 414) I went to the disco....... a - To dance b - Dance c - Dancing 415) Is Real Madrid going to win the league?- I think....... a - Such b - So c - Some 416) .......to speak. a - So b - Such c - As 417) She lives ........ a - The fifth floor b - On the fifth floor
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c - On the fivefth floor 418) English people celebrate ..........................twelve days after Christmas' day. a - Twelfth's night b - Twelve night c - Twelves nights 419) He ...................arrive late yesterday. a - Do b - Does c - Did 420) He has...................away because he was a little bit tired. a - Go b - Went c - Gone 421) Before my daughters were born I visited many....................with my wife. a - Countries b - Countryes c - Cauntries 422) Please.......................on the lights. a - To switch b - Switch c - Switching 423) Don't forget ...............the letters. a - Posted b - To post c - Posts 424) The park is......................the hospital. a - Next b - Next to c - Next about 425) Someone has......................the book from the library. a - Steal b - Stole c - Stolen 426) She is always........................friends. a - Doing b - Made c - Making 427) My daughters..................so much noise! a - Do b - Make c - Making
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428) What are you..................? -Just reading the paper. a - Making b - Doing c - Make 429) I have finished the book.- He said .................finished the book. a - He has b - He had c - He having 430) We always arrive............... a - Early b - Earliest c - The earlier 431) My parents work.............. a - Hard b - Harder than c - The hard 432) It .................rain tonight. It is very dark. a - May b - Mays c - Mights 433) At 9.00 am you must say good................... a - Night b - Afternoon c - Morning 434) American people often say..................instead of bye a - So long b - So long as c - As by 435) We eat ...............fish. a - Many b - Much c - Few 436) I smoke..........................cigarettes than before. a - Few b - Fewerst c - Fewer 437) ....................wife's name is Inma. a-I b - Me c - My

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438) They said he was a ...................teacher. a - Bored b - Boring c - Borerst 439) I was .....................because the film was boring. a - Boring b - Borest c - Bored 440) In a couple of hours the factory was......... a - Ablaze b - Ablase c - Ablasing 441) He always says that ll the Chinese look.................. a - Like b - Alike c - Likes 442) His .....................brother works in Per. a - Elder b - Old c - Older 443) Sometimes she drives me............. a - Madder b - Mad c - Madest 444) Many peole are....................during the Moors and Christians Festivities. a - Drink b - Drank c - Drunk 445) The....................age of pop was the 60s. a - Gold b - Golgind c - Golden 446) I have decided .................a new bike. a - Buying b - Buy c - To buy 447) They deserve.......................treated better. a - Be b - To be c - Being 448) You had better...........................the car now. Next year the prices will go up.
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a - To buy b - Buy c - Buying 449) Yo must avoid........................to him. a - Speaking b - To speak c - Speak 450) I don't mind..........................to wait. a - To have b - Having c - Have 451) Qu clase de conjuncin es "so "? a - Consecutiva b - Copulativa c - Adversativa 452) Qu clase de conjuncines son "if, unless, as long as, provided that "? a - Condicionales b - Causales c - Finales 453) Cmo se llaman las palabrass que llevan acento? a - tonas b - Tnicas c - Agudas 454) Cmo se llaman las palabras que no llevan acento? a - tonas b - Llanas c - Esdrjulas 455) Cmo se llaman las palabras que llevan el acento en la ltima silaba? a - Agda b - Llana c - Esdrjula 456) Cmo se denominan a los verbos ser y estar? a - Transitivos b - Copulativos c - Modales 457) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Paul b - John c - Four 458) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente?
478

a - Had b - Head c - Said 459) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Pen b - Bed c - Pan 460) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - At b - Art c - Hat 461) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Pat b - Match c - Part 462) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Shop b - Sport c - Fox 463) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Full b - Fool c - Pull 464) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Bat b - But c - Cup 465) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Run b - Rung c - Sank 466) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Heard b - Turn c - Debt 467) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Place b - Plays c - Prize 468) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Bus
479

b - Once c - Buzz 469) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Seat b - Sell c - Shell 470) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Thin b - Sin c - Thing 471) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Ham b - Hum c - Bun 472) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Was b - Wash c - Ship 473) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Swan b - Bald c - Ball 474) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Want b - Wallet c - Salt 475) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Scar b - Party c - Dollar 476) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Daughter b - Fault c - Because 477) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Beans b - Bread c - Dead 478) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Dry b - Big
480

c - City 479) Qu palabra tiene un sonido diferente? a - Bore b - Canoe c - Shoe 480) Yes, they........interesting books. a - Is b - Are c - Am 481) I...........a teacher. a - Is b - Am c - Are 482) You.........the limit. a - Are b - Is c - Am 483) I ....................tall. a - Is b - Am c - Are 484) Horacio ......in Elche. a - Am b - Is c - Are 485) I.........in the classroom. a - Am b - Is c - Are 486) You.....................tall. a - Is b - Are c - Am 487) Tres. a - Zrui b - Tree c - Three 488) Cinco. a - Faif b - Five c - Fife
481

489) Diez. a - Tenn b - Tent c - Ten 490) Trece. a - Thirten b - Therteen c - Thirteen 491) Diecisis. a - Sixten b - Sisteen c - Sixteen 492) Diecisiete. a - Seventeen b - Seventen c - Seveteen 493) Madre. a - Sister b - Daugher c - Mother 494) Abuelo. a - Father in law b - Grandfather c - Granparentes 495) Abuela. a - Motherold b - Grandmother c - Mother inlaw 496) Hija. a - Daughter b - Sister c - Mother 497) Pariente. a - Relative b - Parent c - Parenting 498) Chaleco. a - Coat b - Waistcoat c - Tie

482

499) Vaqueros. a - Jins b - Jeans c - Troussers 500) Macarena lives........Ronda. a - In b - On c - At

483

Soluciones
1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. A 7. C 8. A 9. B 10. A 23. B 36. B 49. A 62. C 75. B 88. B 101. B 114. B 127. B 140. A 153. B 166. B 179. B 192. B 205. C 218. A 231. A 244. C 257. C 270. A 283. A 296. A 309. B 322. B 335. C 348. A 361. B 374. B 387. C 400. B 413. B 426. C 439. C 452. A 465. C 478. A 491. C 11. A 24. A 37. B 50. A 63. B 76. B 89. A 102. A 115. C 128. C 141. B 154. B 167. C 180. B 193. C 206. B 219. C 232. B 245. A 258. C 271. C 284. A 297. A 310. B 323. A 336. C 349. A 362. A 375. C 388. A 401. B 414. A 427. B 440. A 453. B 466. C 479. A 492. A 12. A 25. B 38. C 51. B 64. C 77. B 90. A 103. B 116. C 129. A 142. B 155. A 168. B 181. C 194. B 207. B 220. A 233. B 246. C 259. B 272. C 285. B 298. B 311. A 324. C 337. C 350. A 363. A 376. A 389. B 402. B 415. B 428. B 441. B 454. 467. A 480. B 493. C 13. C 26. C 39. A 52. A 65. A 78. A 91. B 104. B 117. A 130. B 143. C 156. B 169. C 182. B 195. A 208. C 221. A 234. C 247. A 260. A 273. B 286. A 299. A 312. B 325. C 338. A 351. B 364. B 377. C 390. A 403. B 416. A 429. B 442. A 455. A 468. C 481. B 494. B 14. B 27. B 40. A 53. C 66. C 79. B 92. A 105. A 118. A 131. C 144. A 157. A 170. A 183. A 196. A 209. A 222. C 235. A 248. B 261. C 274. C 287. B 300. A 313. A 326. C 339. C 352. B 365. A 378. B 391. B 404. B 417. B 430. A 443. B 456. B 469. C 482. A 495. B 15. A 28. A 41. A 54. C 67. C 80. A 93. B 106. A 119. A 132. A 145. C 158. C 171. A 184. C 197. A 210. B 223. C 236. A 249. A 262. A 275. B 288. A 301. A 314. A 327. B 340. B 353. B 366. B 379. C 392. B 405. B 418. A 431. A 444. C 457. B 470. C 483. B 496. A 16. C 29. A 42. B 55. C 68. C 81. B 94. B 107. A 120. C 133. C 146. B 159. A 172. C 185. B 198. C 211. A 224. B 237. B 250. B 263. C 276. A 289. A 302. C 315. A 328. A 341. A 354. B 367. B 380. C 393. A 406. C 419. C 432. A 445. C 458. A 471. A 484. B 497. A 17. A 30. B 43. A 56. A 69. B 82. A 95. B 108. A 121. B 134. A 147. A 160. C 173. B 186. C 199. B 212. C 225. C 238. A 251. C 264. C 277. A 290. A 303. A 316. A 329. B 342. B 355. B 368. A 381. C 394. B 407. B 420. C 433. C 446. C 459. C 472. A 485. A 498. B 18. C 31. B 44. A 57. C 70. B 83. B 96. A 109. A 122. B 135. B 148. B 161. C 174. C 187. C 200. B 213. A 226. A 239. B 252. A 265. C 278. A 291. A 304. A 317. A 330. C 343. A 356. B 369. C 382. B 395. A 408. B 421. A 434. A 447. B 460. B 473. A 486. B 499. B 19. A 32. B 45. A 58. B 71. B 84. B 97. C 110. A 123. C 136. C 149. C 162. C 175. A 188. A 201. C 214. B 227. A 240. A 253. A 266. B 279. B 292. A 305. A 318. B 331. B 344. B 357. B 370. B 383. A 396. C 409. A 422. B 435. B 448. B 461. C 474. C 487. C 500. A 20. B 33. A 46. B 59. C 72. C 85. A 98. B 111. A 124. C 137. C 150. B 163. A 176. B 189. B 202. B 215. C 228. B 241. C 254. B 267. A 280. C 293. B 306. A 319. B 332. B 345. C 358. B 371. C 384. B 397. B 410. A 423. B 436. C 449. A 462. B 475. C 488. B 21. B 34. C 47. A 60. A 73. C 86. B 99. A 112. A 125. C 138. A 151. C 164. A 177. A 190. C 203. A 216. A 229. B 242. B 255. B 268. A 281. B 294. A 307. B 320. B 333. A 346. B 359. A 372. B 385. B 398. B 411. A 424. B 437. C 450. B 463. B 476. C 489. C 22. A 35. B 48. B 61. A 74. C 87. A 100. A 113. A 126. C 139. A 152. A 165. C 178. B 191. C 204. A 217. A 230. B 243. C 256. A 269. A 282. C 295. A 308. C 321. B 334. B 347. B 360. A 373. B 386. B 399. C 412. A 425. C 438. B 451. A 464. A 477. A 490. C

484