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Submitted To Prof. Vaishali Mehta

Rahul Purshottam #42 Uddipana Bora #56 Abhishek Hekre #18 Prachiti Jadhav #20 Jigna Chouhan #09 Shailja Jha #50


This dissertation would not have been possible without Professor Vaishali Mehta, who challenged and encouraged us throughout this semester for the subject of Indian Management Thoughts and Practices. She and our co-ordinator, Dr. Ms. Zuleika Homavazir , guided our group, never accepting less than our best efforts. Our group also thanks Wilson College BMS as a department which has given us tremendous amounts of opportunities to develop our skills in presentation and research. Last, but not the least, we thank our individual group members to have contributed all that went into making this project a completed entity.



Introduction pg. 3 History & Origin pg. 5 Spiritual pg. 7 Near Death Experience pg. 9 Sacredness & personal Well Being pg. 10 Spirituality vs Religion pg. 11 Spiritual Leaders pg. 13




Spirituality. the word conjures up visions of meditating hippies chanting barefoot in a circle in unison or perhaps the soft-spoken friar. Modern day spirituality takes the form for those that do not have knowledge of it often as that of psychic readings, when sitting on client side and talking to a spiritualist for advice and direction in life. So exactly what is spirituality? And how can we define spirituality? Being aware of spirit is spirituality. Looking for direction from spirit by looking within ones heart is spirituality. Looking externally for guidance by a book or minister isnt. You can best define it by those who know they are spirit. Being psychic is simply being aware of your spirit and intuition and the vibration that exists all around us, many lead a life of materialism whilst on the mortal plain and have no idea of what spirituality is or how to achieve it.

Spirituality is the idea that we can look to be guided from within our being by listening to our spirit, which is in tune with and part of the whole of spirit. Those who are spiritual have no need for another person to lead them, for their guide is the compass within them that never allows them to go off course, and it is this magic which if tapped into can make such a positive difference to ones life. Spirituality is, in the most basic sense, matters pertaining to the spirit and is based on the idea that there exists something, be it a state of mind, a being, or a place, that is outside the experience of our five limited senses. Spirituality is the personal relationship of the individual to this state of mind, being or place and often emphasizes the notion of a path. All of us are spirits energies connected with one another and comprising the whole spirit. Everything that is, exists within that entire energy, some may call it God, but you are part of it, and your connection with the divine source can never be severed. Psychic Mediums are highly aware of this & can connect to other spirits, either deceased or those that have never walked the earth and exist those on the mortal plain.

Spirituality is never religion, for it never asks us to look outside ourselves for answers. The spirit is ever close, never far and always connected to us for it is us. We are divine beings having physical experiences, and not just physical beings living a temporary life. Those that choose to believe they are imperfect and lacking are living life and looking outward, spirituality looks inward and need nothing but to know the truth of who we are. This path that few understand brings inner peace. Many are drawn to those who practice as psychic readers as they are closer

to spirituality than the querent. There are many different types of spiritualist, some visit spiritualist churches, some sit in circles and others hone and develop their intuitive skills to use within the psychic readings arena. Modern day spirituality can be seen in action via the very vast and very credible metaphysical industry, where one can obtain spiritual guidance through channels simply known as psychic or psychic medium phone readings, what unfolds during a reading can change ones life forever.


The word Spirituality derives from the Latin spiritualitas, an abstract word related to spiritus and spiritus, which were used to translate Pauls Pneuma and Pneumaticos. To be spiritual means to know, and to live according to the knowledge, that God is present to us in grace as the principle of personal, interpersonal, social, and even cosmic transformation. The humans are not only alive by the transcendental principle, but, in their own personalities, consciously aware of, in touch with, and motivated by, that principle of life. Since God is not present to Christians alone, spirituality is not exclusively Christian. There are various spiritualities. (e.g. Buddist, hindu).

Indias emphasis on spirituality can be ascertained from the productive constellations reported in Kroebers (1944) work; it received the singular distinction of being a culture that has the longest duration of evolution of philosophy, from 100 to 500,and 600 to 1000 ad (see p. 683). If we add the period of Buddha, Mahavira, and Samkhya around 500 bc, and the period of medieval bhakti Movement from 1100 to 1800 (reported in the literature section in Kroebers work, from Jayadeva to Lallu Ji Lal, see page 482483), we can see that in India, more than in any other culture, spirituality has been emphasized for almost 2,500 years of recorded history. Emphasis on spirituality in India can also be seen in the list of spiritual masters that was generated using various sources (Bhattacharya, 1982; Lesser, 1992; Narasimha, 1987; Sholapurkar, 1992; Singh, 1948). Most of the sources used are by Indian scholars, and the list was further corroborated by Kroebers (1944) work.The long list of spiritual masters over 2,500 years does support the idea that India emphasizes spirituality (see Table 2.1). A closer examination of the list shows that these spiritual gurus came from all castes and were not limited to the caste of Brahmin, the caste that had the privilege of being a teacher or a guru. They also came from many religions, e.g., Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Islam, and Sufism. Also, they were not limited to any particular part of India; they came from east, west, south, and north. Therefore, it could be argued that spirituality is an Indian cultural phenomenon. An analysis of Kroebers (1944) compilation shows that in the Indian sample 49% of the geniuses were spiritual geniuses compared to 33% for literature, 10% for science, and 8% for philology. If we combine the names in Table 2.1 to those in Kroebers compilation, the percentage of spiritual geniuses jumps to 65% compared to 23% for literature, 7% for science, and 5%

for philology. Analyzing the list of thousands of geniuses in China (Simonton, 1988) and Japan (Simonton, 1996), Simonton found that the number of celebrities in each of the categories varied tremendously. For example, of the two thousand plus Japanese geniuses studied, 14% came from politics, 13% from painting, 10% from poetry, 8% from war, 5% from each of economics and religion, 4% from philosophy, and only 2% from each of sculpture, ceramics, and medicine. The category spirituality did not even appear and might have been merged with philosophy and religion. In the Chinese sample there were only 44 recluses, who could be considered spiritual, in the 3,000 years of the Chinese history. Simonton (1996) also suggested that one of the limitations of his study was that the findings might not apply to a civilization that has been dominated by a certain configuration throughout its history. It could be argued that the Indian culture has been dominated by spirituality, and, therefore, this domain-specific configuration might dominate any systemic or cross-domain configurations in that culture. Evidence of such a dominance can be seen in the domain of music and dance where the control of prANa (i.e., breath) and dhyAna (i.e., focus) is considered critical to be accomplished in Indian music and dance.

The spiritual path is a journey of love, service and inner reflection. It strengthens your connection to Source and helps you discover your True Self. It is a journey toward enlightenment.

When the spiritual path arrives, it has often followed a sense of dissatisfaction with your current life, a realization that material trinkets or romantic adventures don't provide the lasting happiness you may have sought. There is often a sense of emptiness before the higher path arrives, a yearning for something more meaningful, a vague or sometimes pronounced feeling that there has to be something "more" out there, something with deeper meaning, satisfaction and joy - something beyond yourself and your own personal needs and desires. As the spiritual yearning grows, your own needs and desires tend to seem increasingly petty and unimportant. A new desire emerges, a higher desire to help others, to be of service beyond your personal needs, to help make the world a healthier, happier place. Some people want to be seen while walking a spiritual path. They may yearn for attention or acknowledgment of their achievements, generosity or spiritual abilities. The true spiritual path, however, is marked by humility and selfless service. There is no sense of "work" on the path, as everything is done in service to a Higher Source. There is no show, no play for attention, no games or drama. The true spiritual path is a relationship between you and Source. Ultimately, there is no one else. Floating through life in an ungrounded fog of imagined bliss is not effective. The spiritual path requires disciplined and grounded application of the Higher Teachings. In living the Higher Teachings as consistently as possible, eventually and with Grace, the higher consciousness of these teachings can become your true nature. These Higher Teachings can be found in all genuine spiritual lineages, and include wisdom such as, Hands that serve are holier than lips that pray; Exercise compassionate detachment; Understand that nothing is permanent; Perform acts of selfless service; Release all expectations and judgments; Do not reach for the fruits of your actions or give with strings attached; Give away that which you need most; Release all desires; Speak and act only

with love; All perception is projection, so see everything you experience as a mirror of yourself and do not project onto others; Forgiveness is good, forgetting is better. Traveling the spiritual path is an ongoing process. There are many levels of consciousness and signposts along the way. It is the journey, not the destination, that brings the most valuable treasures. The spiritual journey is demanding, but it is the highest path and an honor to traverse. In order to understand the spiritual practices outlined in this section, it is useful to have an overview of the main processes or "paths" (see One Goal, Different Paths). Some authorities list three, others add a fourth. Many thinkers claim that all paths are equally valid and effective and that the choice depends on individual inclination. Others suggest that all four paths are stepping stones along one spiritual path, each building progressively on the previous, more elementary disciplines. Either way, it is not that the different paths are tightly compartmentalised each may contain elements of the others.




A near-death experience (NDE) refers to a broad range of personal experiences associated with impending death, encompassing multiple possible sensations including detachment from the body; feelings of levitation; total serenity, security, or warmth; the experience of absolute dissolution; and the presence of a light. These phenomena are usually reported after an individual has been pronounced clinically dead or otherwise very close to death, hence the term near-death experience. Many NDE reports, however, originate from events that are not life-threatening. With recent developments in cardiac resuscitation techniques, the number of reported NDEs has increased. The experiences have been described in medical journals as having the characteristics of hallucinations, while parapsychologists, religious believers and some mainstream scientists have pointed to them as evidence of an afterlife and mind-body dualism Popular interest in near-death experiences was initially sparked by Weiss's 1972 The Vestibule, followed by Raymond Moody's 1975 book Life After Life and the founding of the International Association for Near-Death Studies (IANDS) in 1981. According to a Gallup poll, approximately eight million Americans claim to have had a near-death experience. Some commentators, such as Simpson, claim that the number of near-death experiencers may be underestimated. People who have had a near-death experience may not be comfortable discussing the experience with others, especially when the NDE is understood as a paranormal incident.


NDEs are among the phenomena studied of psychology, psychiatry, and hospital medicine. in the fields


Social scientists have defined spirituality as the search for "the sacred," where "the sacred" is broadly defined as that which is set apart from the ordinary and worthy of veneration. Spirituality can be sought not only through traditional organized religions, but also through movements such as the feminist theology and ecological spirituality. Spirituality is associated with mental health, managing substance abuse, marital functioning, parenting, and coping. It has been suggested that spirituality also leads to finding purpose and meaning in life.


In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments, prayer has garnered attention among some behavioral scientists. Masters and Spielmans have conducted a meta-analysis of the effects of

distant intercessory prayer, but detected no discernible effects. Spirituality has played a central role in selfhelp movements such as Alcoholics Anonymous: "...if an alcoholic failed to perfect and enlarge his spiritual life through work and self-sacrifice for others, he could not survive the certain trials and low spots ahead...."
Spirituality v/s Religion
One principal problem with attempts to separate religion from spirituality is that the former is saddled with everything negative while the latter is exalted with everything positive. It is important to note the fact that many of the negative things which people attribute to religions are features of some forms of some religions (usually Judaism, Christianity, and Islam), but not of other religions (like Taoism or Buddhism). Religion is spiritual and spirituality can also be considered religious. One tends to be more personal and private while the other tends to incorporate public rituals and organized doctrines.

The lines between one and the other may often not be clear or distinct depending on the interpretation.



Consider these definitions:

Religion is an institution established by man for various reasons. Exert control, instill morality, stroke egos, or whatever it does. Organized, structured religions all but remove god from the equation. You confess your sins to a clergy member, go to elaborate churches to worship, told what to pray and when to pray it. All those factors remove you from god.

Spirituality is born in a person and develops in the person. It may be kick started by a religion, or it may be kick started by a revelation. Spirituality extends to all facets of a persons life. Spirituality is chosen while religion is often times forced. Being spiritual to me is more important and better than being religious. True spirituality is something that is found deep within oneself. It is your way of loving, accepting and relating to the world and people around you. It cannot be found in a church or by believing in a certain way.


Spiritual Leaders

Famous as Born on Born in

Spiritual Leader of Tibet 06 July 1935 Tibet


Works & Achievements

His Holiness the Dalai Lama is the spiritual leader of Tibet. Recognized as the "Man Of Peace", Dalai Lama was awarded the Noble Prize in 1989 for adapting peaceful methods to find a solution for the much debated Tibetan issues.


Famous as Born on Born in Died on Nationality Works & Achievements

Religious Leader Who Led the Famous Iranian Revolution in 1979 24 September 1902 Khomein, Iran 04 June 1989 Iran (islamic Republic Of) Guardianship of the Islamic Jurists & Establishment of an Islamic Government in Iran

Famous as Born on

Serving the poor and destitute 27 August 1910


Born in Died on Nationality Works & Achievements

Skopje, Macedonia 05 September 1997 Albania A Noble Peace Prize laureate, Mother Teresa helped the poor and destitute people living in the slums of Kolkata. The Roman Catholic Nun established center for AIDS patients in 1985 and founded Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta in 1969. Her selfless service is recognized worldwide today.

Famous as

Worked for civil rights of black people


Born on Born in Died on Nationality Works & Achievements

15 January 1929 Atlanta, Georgia 04 April 1968 United States Organized American Civil Rights Movement to support the black people, Fought for the civil rights of the underprivileged black people