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TRNG I HC CNG NGH THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG

KHOA CNG NGH IN T V TRUYN THNG








ThS. HONG QUANG TRUNG










K THUT VIBA S
TP BI GING
(Lu hnh ni b)





















THI NGUYN - 2011
2
CHNG 1. TNG QUAN V H THNG VIBA S
1.1. Gii thiu
HTTT siu cao tn (microwave) vi mi trng truyn dn v tuyn trn gii
sng cc ngn, bao gm cc loi h thng thng tin v tinh, thng tin v tuyn
tip sc (radio-relay) v thng tin di ng;

Cc h thng thng tin v tinh c dung lng trung bnh song b li c c ly
lin lc t ln n rt ln. Cc h thng ny c s dng lm trc xuyn lc
a hoc phc v cho cc tuyn kh trin khai cc loi hnh lin lc khc (nh
tuyn lin lc t lin-hi o, t lin-cc gin khoan du, t lin-cc tu
vin dng...). Ngoi ra, cc h thng v tinh a tnh cn c s dng cho
cc h thng pht qung b truyn hnh. Trong tng lai gn, khi h thng cc
v tinh qu o thp v trung bnh c trin khai, cc h thng v tinh c th
c s dng cho c thng tin di ng ph sng ton cu. Cc h thng thng
tin di ng phc v cc u cui di ng, ni chung c dung lng thp. Kh
nng di ng l u th ln nht ca cc h thng ny.Cc h thng v tuyn
tip sc mt t (terrestrial radio-relay) c dung lng t thp ti cao, c
kh nng thay th tt cc tuyn cp ng trc trong cc mng ni ht ln
ng trc. Vi thi gian trin khai tng i thp, tnh c ng ca cc h
thng v tuyn tip sc mt t hn hn mt s loi h thng khc. Mt u
im na ca cc h thng ny l rt d trin khai, ngay c trong cc iu kin
a hnh gy nhiu tr ngi cho vic trin khai cc loi h thng dung lng
cao khc nh trong cc th, hoc qua cc vng c a hnh rng ni vi c
ly chng lin lc ln n 70 km, trung bnh l t 40 dn 45 km.

3
Truyn dn viba tn nhn thng (LOS-Line Of Sight) cung cp kt ni bng
rng tng i qua mt tuyn n hay mt chui cc tuyn ni ui. Mt
tuyn kt ni mt thit b u cui v tuyn ti mt tuyn khc hoc trm lp.
Tuyn Viba tm nhn thng c minh ha nh hnh 1.1. Khong cch ca
tuyn ph thuc vo cao ca antenna.

Hnh 1.1. M hnh truyn viba chuyn tip
4
1.2. H thng thng tin viba
Thng tin sng cc ngn gia hai im bt u xut hin vo nhng nm 30
ca th k trc tuy nhin lc by gi do kh khn v mt k thut nn ch
lm vic dI sng mt do vy u im ca thng tin siu cao tn cha c
pht huy. Nm 1935 ng thng tin VTTS u tin c thnh lp
Newyooc v Philadenphi chuyn tip qua 6 a im v chuyn c 5 knh
thoi. V TTVTTS bng n sau chin tranh th gii ln th hai. H thng vi
ba s bt u hnh thnh t u nhng nm 50 v pht trin mnh m cng vi
s pht trin ca k thut vin thng.

Hnh 1.2. M hnh h thng viba
5
M hnh chc nng ca h thng viba c minh ha nh hnh 1.2. Cc trm
u cui l cc tng i ni b thc hin chc nng chuyn mch to kt ni
gia cc thu bao trn khong cch xa. C th mt s lng ln cc thu bao
(khong 2000 thu bao) c th c hp nht truyn trn mt tuyn viba.
Ti , tn hiu c chuyn sang tn s sng viba (vo khong vi GHz ti
vi chc GHz) v c truyn qua khong cch t 30 n 60 Km t trm A
n anten nhn ca trm lp. Trm lp n gin l cc b khuch i tn hiu
v chuyn tip s dng tn sng viba. Trm u cui B nhn tn hiu sng
viba, x l ri phn b vo cc knh ring r.
6

Hnh 1.3. S khi chc nng ca h thng viba tm nhn thng
7
Di tn s hot ng ca cc h thng viba:

Thng tin siu cao tn lm vic di sng cc ngn dng truyn tn hiu
c di tn rng. V l thuyt, gii sng dng cho cc h thng vi ba l t
60MHz cho ti 60/80GHz. Trong thc t, i vi cc h thng vi ba dng
thng phm thng lm vic trn gii sng t 60MHz n 20 GHz, cc h
thng cng tc vi gii tn s cao hn (60|80 GHz) hin vn ang cn trong
giai on th nghim.

8
1.3. Phn loi h thng
Theo dung lng (tc bt tng cng B u vo) cc h thng vi ba s
c phn thnh:
- Cc h thng dung lng thp: B < 10 Mb/s;
- Cc h thng dung lng trung bnh: B = (10 - 100 Mb/s);
- Cc h thng dung lng cao: B > 100 Mb/s.
Theo c ly lin lc (haul)
- Tuyn di (c ly lin lc ln hon 400km): thng l nhng ng trc c
dung lng ln so snh c vi cp quang. Di tn c s dng rng ri t
4 n 6 GHz.
- Tuyn ngn (c ly lin lc di 400km): dung lng thp, thng thng
1DS1, 4DS1, 1E1, 4E1 dng ni cc trung tm chuyn mch di ng. Di
tn thng s dng khong 15 GHz v di tn ny cho php thu gn kch
thc ca an ten v thit b. Do chng ngn nn khng cn phn tp chng
li hin tng phaing. Nguyn nhn gy gin on lin lc ch yu gy do
ma nn cn c h s khuych i ln v chng ngn. Vi chng ln hn
thng s dng di tn L6GHz, U6GHz hoc 11GHz dung lng thp. Di tn
ny khng chu nh hng pha ing do ma nn c th bo m c ly lin lc
xa hn.

9
1.4. u, nhc im ca viba s
u im:
+ Do lm vic di sng siu cao tn nn m bo c vic truyn nhng tn
hiu di rng.
+ rng di tn siu cao khong 30GHz do nhiu i c th lm vic
ng thi.
+ Hu nh khng b can nhiu kh quyn v cng nghip
+ Trong di sng SCT d dng to ra cc h thng an ten c tnh nh hng
cao, bp sng hp nh vy my pht c th gim cng sut v trn cng mt
phm vi ta c th trin khai nhiu h thng cng lm vic m khng gy nhiu
ln nhau.
+ Trin khai nhanh v gi thnh r hn so vi cc h thng thng tin dng cp
(cp quang hoc cp ng trc) v vic trin khai h thng cp l rt tn km
v trong khu vc ng dn c c nhiu cng trnh xy dng th vic trin khai
mt h thng cp l rt kh khn.
+ D dng qun l v h thng vi ba ch gii hn qun l trong phm vi ca
trm v tuyn dc theo trc (trong khi h thng cp phi qun l ton b
tuyn cp v cbit phi i u vi nguy c t cp).
10
Nhc im:
Di sng SCT c nhc im l ch truyn c chc chn trong tm nhn
thng c ly khng qu 50 km. V vy khi mun thng tin i xa cn thc hin
chuyn tip nhiu ln.
C tc nh hn nhiu so vi h thng cp quang v hin nay ng
trc ch cn s dng nhng khu vc cha ko c cp quang do a hnh
phc tp.
Chu tc ng ca ng truyn: hp th do hi nc v xi, suy hao do
ma v hin tng pha inh c bit i vi cc h thng bng rng phi chu
tc ng ca pha inh a ng chn lc theo tn s.

11
1.5. Cc ch tiu c trng i vi cc h thng vi ba s
1.5.1. T s li thp
CCITT ngh mt ch tiu thit k t s li 10
-10
trn Km vi h
thng truyn dn ni s chun gi nh 25000Km. i vi HRDP 2500Km
cho mt t s li 2,5x10
-7
tr tc ng ca thit b ghp knh. Trong cc h
thng viba s, t s li ny s ph hp vi tiu chun thit k hin nay, t
c i vi t nht l 99% thi gian. Do gi tr thp ca t l li khong
10
-7
l thch hp cho truyn dn s chun gi nh 2500Km. CCITT
khuyn ngh l t l li bit i vi mt on bc cao 25000Km trong ng
chun gi nh di nht khng ln hn 10
-6
trong hn 4% ca tp m pht
trong thng bt k.
1.5.2. T s li cao
Khong thi gian m t s li cao c th vt qu, lm nh hng rt
ln n thit k mt h thng. Mt yu cu l t s li cao khng c vt
qu 0,01% ca thng bt k i vi mt mch 2500Km, s c tc ng n
tnh kinh t ca mt h thng thc. Tuy vy, mt yu cu l t s li ny
khng c vt qu 0,1% ca thng bt k s to nn mt h thng kinh t
hn, nhng ngi ta khng so snh vi cc h thng viba FDM-FM hin c.
Cc s liu m n c chp nhn, cng l ph hp, mt ni no trong
hai cc tr ny v l 0,054% ca thng bt k khi s dng thi gian hp thnh
mt giy.
12
1.5.3. Ch tiu giy khng li trong mt thi gian di
T l li bit (BER) khng cho mt nh gi chnh xc c tnh ca mch
s liu tr khi bit phn b ca li. Tiu chun t s li ca khi nh gi tt
hn, nhng li i hi v c ca khi s liu v tc s liu, m chng li
thay i t ng s dng ny sang ngi s dng khc.
Cc ch tiu giy khng li (EFS) l mt phng php trong c th
gii quyt c cc gii hn trn. CCITT cng b rng i vi truyn a
s liu th s t ti mc tiu EFS 95% i vi on chuyn mch ni ht ni
chun gi nh 25000Km, mt gi tr 99,5% EFS i vi HRDP 2500Km l
ph hp. Thc t y khng phi l mi tng quan n gin gi c tnh
BER v c tnh EFS trong thi gian di i vi mt h thng v tuyn trong
thi gian fading nhiu tia, v EFC l mt hm ca tc fading, trong lc
BER khng ph thuc vo tc fading.
1.5.4. Ch tiu t bin li
Khi s dng vi cc thit b tch knh s th s xut hin ca cc t
bin li trong cc h thng viba s dung lng ln s gy ra cc nh hng
khng mong mun i vi mng li. Do , CCIR cng b mt gii hn
v kch thc cho php v khong thi gian ca cc t bin li ny, ch yu
iu khin giai on ban u ca nhiu cuc gi c ly ra trong mng
in thoi.
13
1.6. Cc ch tiu c tnh li
1.6.1. ng truyn s chun gi nh (HRDP)
xc nh cc chun c tnh li ca mt h thng viba s, mt im
cn thit l phi hiu nh ngha ng truyn s chun gi nh. iu ny s
cho mt s hng dn thit k thit b v cc h thng s dng trong cc
mng thng tin quc t. di ca ng truyn i vi cc h thng c tc
bit trn ghp s bc th cp (2048 kbit/s hoc 1554 kbit/s) l 2500 Km.
Di y l v d v ng truyn s chun gi nh HRDP gm 9 b ghp
knh s ti mc phn bc theo khuyn ngh ca CCITT v bao gm 9 on v
tuyn s ging nhau lin tip cng di.
14
2500 Km
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
64 Kbit/s 64 Kbit/s 64 Kbit/s
64 Kbit/s
- Thit b ghp knh s bc nht
- Thit b ghp knh s bc khc ti cc n- c phn bc do CCITT khuyn ngh
on v tuyn s
- ng truyn dn s chun gi nh i vi cc h thng viba c
dung l- ng trn mc th cp (Theo Khuyn ngh 566-1, CCIR)

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1.6.2. Cc on v tuyn s
Theo khuyn ngh 556 ca CCIR, mt on v tuyn s bao gm hai
thit b u cui v tuyn lin tip v mi trng truyn dn lin kt gia
chng, cung cp ton b cc phng thc pht v thu gia hai khung phn b
s lin tip. Do vic b sung cc bit mo u k c trong thit b v tuyn, nn
tc bit tng on v tuyn s c th khc so vi mc phn cp do CCITT
khuyn ngh hoc khc so vi vic ghp tng hp ca n.
1.6.3. Cc t s li bit cho php
Do nh hng lan truyn v cc nh hng khc, nn c tnh t l li
bit c biu th bng k hiu thng k l phn trm thi gian. Trong khi thit
lp cc ch tiu BER, mt s yu t khc c a vo xem xt, l o
li bit yu cu trong mt khong thi gian nht nh ph thuc vo ln t
s li do hin tng t bin li v cn phi a trt vo tnh ton. iu
c th ni rng, trong khi hot ng bnh thng, s xut hin cc khong
chu k t s li bit cao, chng s gy ra cc gin on ngn, ch yu do cc
iu kin truyn lan bt li lm gim mc tn hiu mong mun hoc tng mc
tn hiu tp m. HRDP tng ng vi mch ch tiu cht lng bc cao c
nh r trong Khuyn ngh G.821 ca CCITT, n cng to nn mt phn ca
ISDN v i vi n CCITT xc lp mt quy lut chia cho php suy
gim tng cng ca mch s chun gi nh. S chia ny l:
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1). t hn 0.00016%/km tng ng vi 25000 km ca nhng khong thi
gian 1 pht c t l li bit xu hn 10
-6
. (ch tiu cc pht suy gim).
2). t hn 0.000128%/km, tng ng vi 25000 km ca nhng khong
thi gian 1 giy c mt s li bt k. (ch tiu cc giy li trm trng).
3). t hn 0.05% ca khong thi gian 1 giy c mt t s li xu hn
10
-3
i vi HRDP 2500 km. (ch tiu cc giy li).
V d i vi HRDP 2500 km s s dng nh sau:
1. t hn 0.4% cho cc khong thi gian 1 pht l c t l li bit xu hn
10
-6
.
2. t hn 0.32% cho cc khong thi gian 1 giy c mt s li no
(tng ng vi 99.68% ca cc giy khng li).
3. t hn 0.05% ca khong thi gian 1 giy c t l li bit xu hn l
10-3.

17
1.7. Cu hnh mng viba
Thng cc mng vi ba s c ni cng vi cc trm chuyn mch nh
l mt b phn ca mng trung k quc gia hoc trung k ring, hoc l ni
cc tuyn nhnh xut pht t trung tm thu thp thng tin khc nhau n trm
chnh. (ng dng trong cc trung tm chuyn mch hoc t chc cc mng
Internet).
1.7.1 Viba s im ni im
Mng vi ba s im ni im hin nay c s dng ph bin. Trong cc
mng ng di thng dng cp si quang cn cc mng quy m nh hn
nh t tnh n cc huyn hoc cc ngnh kinh t khc ngi ta thng s
dng cu hnh vi ba s im-im dung lng trung bnh hoc cao nhm tho
mn nhu cu ca cc thng tin v c bit l dch v truyn s liu. Ngoi ra,
trong mt s trng hp, viba dung lng thp l gii php hp dn cung
cp trung k cho cc mng ni ht, mng thng tin di ng.
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1.7.2 Vi ba s a im
Mng vi ba s ny tr thnh ph bin trong mt s vng ngoi v nng
thn. Mng bao gm mt trm trung tm pht thng tin trn mt an ten ng
hng phc v cho mt s trm ngoi vi bao quanh. Nu cc trm ngoi vi
ny nm trong phm vi (bn knh) truyn dn cho php th khng cn dng
cc trm lp, nu khong cch xa hn th s s dng cc trm lp a tn
hiu n cc trm ngoi vi. T y thng tin s c truyn n cc thu bao.
Thit b vi ba trm ngoi vi c th t ngoi tri, trn ct.v.v... mi trm ngoi
vi c th c lp t thit b cho nhiu trung k. Khi mt cao c th b
sung thm thit b; c thit k hot ng trong cc bng tn 1,5GHz -
1,8GHz v 2,4GHz s dng mt sng mang cho h thng hon chnh.
Hin nay cc h thng im ni n a im 19GHz c ch to v
lp t Chu u cung cp cc dch v s liu (Kbit/s) Internet trong
mng ni ht khong cch 10Km. Trm trung tm pht tc bit khong
8,2Mb/s v a ch mi trm li s dng k thut TDMA.
19



Hnh 1.5: Cu hnh viba im-im, im-a im
20
1.8. Cc k thut iu ch s dng trong viba s
1.8.1. iu ch v gii iu ch s

1.8.2. Cc phng thc iu ch s trong viba
Trong viba s ch yu s dng cc phng thc iu ch M-PSK v M-QAM
a mc.
1.9. Cc m truyn dn s dng trong viba s
Trong viba s ch yu s dng cc m HDB3 v CMI.
21
CHNG 2. TRUYN SNG VIBA S
2.1. C bn v sng v tuyn
Sng v tuyn l sng in t c tn s t 30KHz n 300GHz v c
chia ra cc bng tn LF, HF, VHF, UHF v bng tn cao dng cho thng tin
v tinh. C hai loi sng v tuyn l sng dc v sng ngang. Sng dc l
sng lan truyn theo phng chuyn ng ca n (tiu biu nh sng m
thanh lan truyn trong khng kh) cn sng ngang l sng in t c vect
cng in trng v t trng vung gc vi nhau v vung gc vi
phng truyn sng.
Cc sng v tuyn c th c truyn t anten pht n anten thu bng
hai ng chnh: bng sng b mt v sng khng gian.
22
2.1.1. Sng b mt
Khi sng v tuyn lan truyn dc theo b mt tri t, th nng lng
truyn dn b tiu hao. Mc tiu hao ny ph thuc vo hng s in dn
v in mi hiu dng ca t. tng t nh khi sng i dc theo ng dy.
Khi tn s sng trn 30MHz t c tc dng nh mt dy dn km gy tiu
hao ln. Do , trong thc t khi truyn sng trn mt t ngi ta thng
chn sng c tn s thp.
2.1.2. Sng khng gian
Sng khng gian l mt loi sng quan trng trong thng tin VHF,UHF
v SHF. Nng lng truyn ca sng khng gian t anten pht n anten thu
theo ba ng truyn tng ng vi sng trc tip, sng phn x t mt t
v sng phn x t tng i lu.
23
Bu kh quyn chia ra lm 3 tng:
+ Tng i luu: l lp kh quyn t mt t ln n cao khong (10 -
15)km. Cng ln cao mt phn t kh cng gim, lm thay i phng
truyn ca cc tia sng. Tng ny thch hp cho vic truyn sng ngn.
+ Tng bnh lu: l lp kh quyn nm trong min t tng i lu ln
n cao khong 60km, tng ny c mt phn t kh thp, chit sut
kh c tc dng lm khc x tia sng, i phng truyn, lm cho cc tia
sng pht t mt t ln tng bnh lu s b i phng truyn quay v
mt t. Do vy rt thch hp cho vic truyn sng cc ngn.
+ Tng in ly: l tng kh quyn cao nm t cao (60 - 2000)km,
min ny hp th nhiu tia t ngoi c nng lng ln, cc tia ny c tc
dng phn ly cc phn t
kh tr thnh cc ion t do, tng ny mt phn t kh gim thp. Khi
tia sng c pht ln gn tng in ly th cng b phn x b cong v
quay tr li mt t do vy rt thch hp cho vic truyn sng ngn.
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- Sng trc tip: L sng truyn trc tip t anten pht n anten thu khng b
phn x trn ng truyn. Trong iu kin truyn lan bnh thng, n c
bin ln nht so vi cc sng khc n my thu.
- Sng phn x t: Sng ny n an ten thu sau lc phn x mt vi ln t
mt t hoc t cc vt th xung quanh. S phn x khng nhng ch xut
hin trn mt phng ng m cn c th xut hin trn mt phng ngang.
Sng phn x ti anten thu c bin v pha khc vi bin v pha ca
sng trc tip, lm tn hiu thu khng n nh.
Nu hiu khong cch ng truyn ca tia phn x v tia trc tip bng
s l ln na bc sng th anten thu sng phn x lch pha vi sng trc
tip mt gc
180
0
v kt qu lm suy gim tn hiu sng trc tip, n mt mc no
ph thuc vo bin ca sng phn x.
- Sng phn x tng i lu: Do thay i ch s khc x ca khng kh theo
cao so vi mt t, nn sng c th b phn x, tu theo gc sng ti c th
xy ra phn x ton phn t tng i lu. Trong trng hp ny xut hin mt
bin gii c tc dng ging nh mt b mt phn x, gi sng tr li mt t.
Mt s tia ny s n an ten thu, c th lm suy gim sng trc tip do s
thay i pha v bin gy ra. Sng truyn theo tng i lu c th lan rng
n 10 dm (khong 15km).
25
2.2. Cc yu t nh hng n s truyn lan ca sng v tuyn
2.2.1. Suy hao khi truyn lan trong khng gian t do
Khong khng m trong cc sng truyn lan b suy hao c gi l
khng gian t do. Mc suy hao ca sng v tuyn c pht i t anten pht
n anten thu trong khng gian t do t l thun vi khong cch gia hai
anten v t l nghch vi di bc sng. Suy hao ny gi l suy hao truyn
lan trong khng gian t do, c tnh nh sau:

ln lt l khong cch truyn dn v bc sng ca
sng v tuyn.
26
2.2.2. nh hng ca pha inh v ma
Pha inh c nh ngha l s thay i cng tn hiu sng mang
cao tn thu c do s thay i kh quyn v phn x t, nc trong ng
truyn sng. Thc t cho thy nh hng do ma v pha inh nhiu tia l
nhng nh hng lan truyn ch yu i vi cc tuyn v tuyn tm nhn
thng trn mt t lm vic trong di tn GHz. V chng quyt nh cc tn
hao truyn dn v do quyt nh khong cch lp cng vi ton b gi
thnh ca mt h v tuyn chuyn tip. Pha inh nhiu tia tng khi di ca
tuyn tng tuy nhin n khng ph thuc nhiu vo tn s. Cn tiu hao do
ma tng ln khi tn s tng. Chng hn, i vi cc tuyn s dng tn s trn
35GHz thng suy hao do ma ln do m bo cht lng tn hiu
truyn dn th cc khong cch lp thng chn di 20km, ngoi ra vic
gim di ng truyn s lm gim cc nh hng ca pha dinh nhiu tia.
Vy i vi cc ng truyn di v c tn s hot ng thp th pha
inh nhiu tia l nh hng chnh. Cn i vi cc tuyn ngn v c tn s
hot ng cao hn th tiu hao do ma l nh hng ch yu.
27
Bng 2.1 Kt qu thc nghim v suy hao do hi nc - kh hu theo tn s sng v
tuyn ca Alcatel.

Cng mc d tr phadinh 40dB, mt ng truyn vi ba di tn 38GHz s
b mt i hon ton do bo ln, trong khi tuyn vi ba lm vic tn s 6GHz
vn tip tc hot ng bnh thng.
2.2.3. S can nhiu ca sng v tuyn
Thng thng nhiu xy ra khi c thnh phn can nhiu bn ngoi trn
ln vo sng thng tin. Sng can nhiu c th trng hoc khng trng tn s
vi sng thng tin. Chng hn h thng Vi ba s ang s dng b nh hng
bi s can nhiu t cc h thng vi ba s ln cn nm trong cng khu vc, c
tn s sng v tuyn trng hoc gn bng tn s ca h thng ny, ngoi ra n
cn b nh hng bi cc trm mt t ca cc h thng thng tin v tinh ln
cn.
28
2.3. Pha inh v cch phng chng
Pha dinh l s bin i cng tn hiu sng mang cao tn ti anten
thu do c s thay i khng ng u v ch s khc x ca kh quyn, cc
phn x ca t
v nc trn ng truyn sng v tuyn i qua. S bin i ny l yu t
xu i vi thng thng tin vi ba.
- Pha inh phng: lm thay i u tn hiu sng mang trong mt di tn s
(thay i ging nhau i vi cc tn s trong di).
- Pha inh la chn tn s: lm thay i tn hiu sng mang vi mc thay i
ph thuc vo tn s, pha inh ny nh hng ln n tuyn vi ba s dung
lng cao.
Hai loi pha inh ny c th xut hin c lp hoc ng thi v vy dn
n lm gin on thng tin. S thay i tn hiu ti anten thu do phn x
nhiu tia gi l pha inh nhiu tia.
29
2.3.1. Pha inh phn x t
Nu ng truyn v tuyn i qua mt t hoc mt nc c phn x
cao th pha inh do phn x mt t l pha inh ch yu so vi pha inh do
phn x t tng i lu. c bit vi cc ng truyn ngn th phn x mt
t lm cho cc tn hiu thu thng ging ngu nhin do cc iu kin kh
tng gy ra lm bin i cc tham s truyn dn.
Nu ng truyn v tuyn i qua cc vng nh bin, h, cc vng bng
phng v m t, m ly,... th cc mc tn hiu phn x nh hn 10dB so
vi mc tn hiu ca ng truyn trc tip. Nu trong trng hp tuyn v
tuyn i qua a hnh c sng m bao ph c th c s phn x ton phn.
30
2.3.2. Cc k thut gim nh hng ca pha dinh nhiu tia
Cc k thut c s dng gim cc nh hng ca pha dinh phng
v pha
inh la chn tn s nhiu tia l dng phn tp khng gian v phn tp tn s
nng cao cht lng ca tn hiu thu.
Phn tp theo khng gian cng vi cc anten t cch nhau theo chiu
dc kt hp cc b kh giao thoa phn cc giao nhau. Hiu qu ca k thut
ny m bo khng lm gin on thng tin, thng c biu th bng mt
h s nng cao. Nh p dng k thut phn tp khng gian v phn tp tn s
thi gian gin on thng tin gim nh so vi thi gian yu cu h thng
t c ch tiu cht lng ra.
31
2.3.2.1 Phn tp theo khng gian
nh ngha: Phn tp theo khng gian l k thut thu hoc pht mt tn
hiu trn 2 anten (hoc nhiu hn 2 anten) vi cng mt tn s v tuyn f.
Khong cch cc anten ca my pht v my thu c chn sao cho cc
tn hiu ring bit c thu khng tng quan nhau tng ng vi h s
tng quan bng "0". Trong thc t khng bao gi t c gi tr bng "0"
ny. Trong h thng thng tin tm nhn thng ngi ta a ra mt cng thc
bn kinh nghim biu
th h s tng quan khng gian theo khong cch trc ng:

Vi s: khong cch gia 2 tm ca anten [m]
f: Tn s sng v tuyn [GHz]
d: khong cch truyn dn [km]
Trong biu thc ny, ta b qua sng phn x t.

32
Theo khuyn ngh 376-4 ca CCIR, ngi ta chn khong cch gia cc anten
sao cho h s tng quan khng gian khng vt qu 0,6. Do c th s
dng h s ny lm ngng cho vic s dng phn tp.
Kh nng ci thin tn hiu thu do s dng mt cp anten c xc nh
bng li phn tp Ios

Trong s: khong cch gia 2 tm ca 2 anten [m]
f: Tn s sng mang v" tuyn [GHz]
a
r
: H s khuch i in p tng i ca anten phn tp so vi anten chnh:

Ad: l h s khuch i cng sut anten phn tp [dB]
Am: l h s khuch i cng sut anten chnh [dB]
d: di ca tuyn truyn dn [Km]
Fm: d tr pha dinh phng

33
Bng s m phng nhiu ln tm c v tr tt nht cho hai anten, khi khng
th tnh c v tr, th khong cch hai anten phi ln hn 150. Thng
thng cng thc trn tnh gn ng cho mt tuyn c chiu di (20 - 70)Km
v tn s (2-11)GHz.

Hnh 2.1: Phn tp theo khng gian
34
2.3.2.2. Phn tp theo tn s
nh ngha: phn tp theo tn s l k thut thu hoc pht mt tn hiu
trn hai knh (hoc nhiu hn hai knh) tn s sng v tuyn.
H s ci thin phn tp tn s c th tnh:

Trong :
f : l tn s trung tm ca bng tn [GHz]
d: di ca ng truyn [km]
l khong cch tn s tng i biu th bng %
Fm: l d tr pha inh [dB]
Phng trnh trn ng vi cc gi tr tham s sau:

Mc d cc h thng thng tin v tuyn s phn tp theo tn s c th
cho cc h s ci thin tt hn nhng vic s dng ph tn khng t hiu qu
cao.

35
Ngoi ra tng hiu qu chng pha inh ngi ta s dng kt hp phn tp
khng gian v tn s.

Hnh 2.2: Phn tp khng gian v tn s s dng 3 anten
2.3.2.3. Chuyn mch bo v
Mc ch ca chuyn mch bo v l nng cao kh dng ca h
thng bng cch chuyn sang knh d phng khi c hin tng s c thit b
chnh. Ngoi
ra cng c th t c li ch khc khi thit b bo v chng li s gin on
thng tin do pha dinh la chn tn s gy ra bng cch chuyn sang h thng
d phng. (Ngha l knh d phng c s dng khi knh chnh b s c
hoc b gin on thng tin do pha inh).
Cht lng v kh nng sn sng ca h thng vi ba s c th nng cao
nh s dng mt hay 2 knh d phng thay th cc knh b s c nh thit
b chuyn mch t ng. Thng thng khi s knh truyn dn nh hn hoc
bng 7(n s 7) th dng mt knh d phng, tng ng vi cu hnh (n+1).
Trong thc t dng cu hnh (1+1) gm mt knh truyn dn v mt
knh d phng nng HSB (Hot
Standby), c th hot ng cao tn RF hoc trung tn IF.

36
Hnh di m t mt tuyn vi ba s c chuyn mch bo v bng knh d
phng

Hnh 2.3: M hnh tuyn c d phng

37
Chuyn mch c thc hin khi my pht b s c hoc l khi c s la chn
my thu cho tn hiu tt nht trong 2 my ang hot ng.

Hnh 2.4: Phn pht v thu ca h thng d phng nng 1 + 1
38
2.4. Nguyn l c bn truyn sng viba
Sng viba l sng c chiu di bc sng nm trong khong 1m - 1cm.
K thut truyn sng viba va lin quan n tnh cht vt l li va mang tnh
thng k. Suy hao khng gian t do khng ch ph thuc vo khong cch
tuyn m cn phc thuc c vo tn s sng viba. V vy, vi mt tn s cho
trc th tn hao khng gian t do c coi l hng s i vi v tr c nh
ca anten pht v thu. Hnh di y cho thy mi quan h gia li v
mt mt cng sut tn hiu trn mt tuyn viba:
39

Hnh 2.5: Lc quan h gia tng ch v tn hao

40
Ti mi thi im nht nh, cc iu kin p sut dn ti fading l khng th
xc nh mt cch chnh xc do chng ta khng th bit chc chn mc tn
hiu thu s thay i nh th no theo thi gian. Nh cc phng php thng
k ton hc, chng ta c th quan st d on c cc kh nng xy ra s
c v mc nh hng ca fading.

41
Truyn sng viba b chi phi bi cc nguyn l: phn x (reflection), khc x
(refraction) v nhiu x (diffraction). iu ny dn ti hai vn cn xem
xt:
(1) S khc x (refraction) v phn x (reflection) ca sng v tuyn.

Hnh 2.6: Tia khc x v tia phn x
42
i qua mt khong cch di (t anten pht n anten thu), cc tia sng
viba c th di theo cc ng khc khyu (do khc x lin tip qua cc lp
kh quyn theo mt phng thng ng). S ln khc x v ng i khc
khyu ca ca cc tia sng l ph thuc vo cc lp (gradient) p sut kh
quyn v tn s ca sng viba. Kt qu l tia sng c th khng i theo ng
thng. Cc gradient khc x l thay i chm theo thi gian, phc thuc vo
tng ngy, ma, a l v kh hu. Chnh v th m cc ng khc khyu ca
cc tia sng t my pht n my thu cng c thay i mt cch tng
ng.

Ngoi ra, s khc x ca cc tia sng viba cn dn n fading a ng.
43
S phn x mt t ca cc tia sng ti nhng im gia ca tuyn gy
ra fading a ng ti my thu v dn ti mo tn hiu. Cn s phn x
khuch tn, s tn x do a hnh g gh s lm cho cc tia sng i theo cc
hng no mt cch ngu nhin nn cc tia ny khng nh hng nhiu ti
fading a ng.
cong ca cc tia sng c bit thng qua h s bn knh hiu dng
K ca tri t. C ngha l s khc x do p sut kh quyn c mi lin h vi
gi tr trung bnh ca bn knh tri t. Nu gi
e
a l bn knh hiu dng ca
tri t th ta c:
r a a
e
1 1 1
=
Trong : a - bn knh thc ca tri t (6370 Km).
r - bn knh cong ca tia sng.
44
gi s a K a
e
. = , khi
a
a
K
e
= c gi l h s bn knh hiu dng ca
tri t. Nu gi N l khc x, h l cao ca tia sng so vi mt t th
kt qu tnh ton cho ta biu thc:
dh
dN
K
+
=
157
157

Nh vy h s K l bin i v l phng php thng c s dng
miu t kh nng un cong ca cc tia sng viba. Hnh di y cho thy s
nh hng ca h s K khc nhau n tia sng viba.

Hnh 2.7: Minh ha cong ca tia sng theo h s K
45
(2) S nhiu x (diffraction)
Xt trn quan im vt l th chm sng viba c b rng l mt ct ngang
ly tia truyn trc tip lm trc gia. Ga tr o b rng ca chm l i
Fresnel th nht - Mt ellipsoid cha hu ht cng sut tn hiu t my pht
n my thu.

i vi mt tuyn c nh th i Fresnel s tr nn hp hn khi tn s
viba tng ln v anten ln hn. Xt theo mt thng ng th i Fresnel xc
nh pha trong bin ca hnh ellipsoid, cc tia phn x khng gy nhiu
ti cc tia truyn trc tip ti anten thu. Cn t b mt bn ngoi ca i
Fresnel th nht tr ra th cc vt chn hay a hnh bt u gy ra tn hao do
nhiu x. Ngoi i Fresnel th nht, cn c cc h ellipsoid bao xung quanh
ng bin ca n. l cc i Fresnel 2, 3, ... Chng c nh hng t ti
vic gy tiu hao nhiu x do cng sut tn hiu trong cc vng ny l khng
ng k.
46
Bn knh i Fresnel th nht cho bi:
( )
( ) m
d f
d d
F
2
1
2 1
1
.
.
. 32 , 17
(

=
d d d , ,
2 1
tnh theo Km. f l tn s tnh theo GHz.
i vi cc a hnh khc nhau c th lm chn min Fresnel th nht
gy ra cc tn hao nhiu x khc nhau.

Hnh 2.8: Min Fresnel
47
2.5. Cc ch tiu k thut ca vi ba s
2.5.1. Phn b tn s lung cao tn
Tn s lung cao tn y l tn s thu pht ca thit b v tuyn, vic
la chn phng n phn b tn s ph thuc vo:
- Phng thc iu ch s.
- Cch sp xp cc lung cao tn.
- c tnh ca mi trng truyn sng.
Theo khuyn ngh ca ca CCITT v vi ba s th di tn lm vic nn
chn t
2GHz n 23GHz. Nu sng mang gia cc lung cao tn khng c phn
chia ng th c s can nhiu gia chng v tp m s tng ln. Cc lung ln
cn nn cch nhau 29 n 40 MHz v phn cc trc giao.
48
2.5.2. Cng sut pht
Cng sut pht cng ging nh vi ba tng t, ph thuc vo c ly v
nhy my thu m bo t s li bit cho php.
n v cng sut pht tnh bng dBm. P
0
= 1mw.

2.5.3. nhy my thu hay ngng thu
L mc tn hiu cao tn ti thiu n u vo my thu n hot ng
bnh thng, ngha l tho mn t s li bit (BER) cho trc tng ng vi
tc bt nht nh.
2.5.4. T s bit li BER

thng tin t c tin cy cao, m bo cho thit b hot ng
khng nhm li th t s ny cng nh cng tt, bnh thng cng phi t
3
10

, vi cht lng tt hn phi t


6
10

. Vi yu cu BER cho trc my


thu phi c mt ngng thu tng ng.
49
2.5.5. Phng thc iu ch v gii iu ch
Thng thng trong vi ba s, ty theo tc bit (dung lng knh)
ngi ta thng dng cc phng thc iu ch nh QPSK (hoc 4PSK
hay QAM) hoc QAM nhiu mc, chng hn (16QAM, 64QAM)...
Phng thc gii iu ch c chn tng ng vi phng thc iu
ch thc hin ti my pht. Thng thng, trong vic gii iu ch c 2
phng php l tch sng kt hp (Coherent), hoc tch sng khng kt hp.
Tch sng kt hp i hi my thu s khi phc li sng mang ng pha vi
i pht nn cu hnh phc tp nhng cht lng tn hiu cao hn so vi tch
sng khng kt hp.
2.5.6. Tr khng vo my thu v tr khng ra my pht
Vn phi hp tr khng i vi mch cao tn rt quan trng, cc b
phn kt ni vo my pht v my thu phi phi hp c tr khng. Nu
vic phi hp tr khng tt s lm nh hng n cht lng tn hiu, cng
sut pht hoc thu khng t cc i, ngoi ra cn gy ra sng phn x, gy
mt cn bng lm gim nhy my thu. Thng thng tr khng ra ca my
pht v tr khng vo my thu c chun ho l 50O do tr khng vo ra
ca cc b lc, ng dn sng, phi
phi l 50O.
50
2.5.7. Tc bng tn gc
Tc bng gc l tc dy s liu vo/ra my thu pht v tuyn
V d: Thit b vi ba s RMD 1502/4 HDB3 2*2048kb/s
9470LX HDB3 4*2048kb/s
Mini-link HDB3 2*2048kb/s
vi tr khng 75O khng cn bng.
2.5.8 Knh nghip v
C cc ch tiu v iu ch, mc vo ra, t s S/N, tn s bo gi (knh
nghip v thng c iu ch FM hoc FSK).
2.5.9 Knh gim st v iu khin t xa
Cng c cc ch tiu nh knh nghip v (c th c iu ch theo
phng thc ASK ,FSK). Ngi ta s dng knh ny khai thc qun l v
gim st thit b.
51
2.6. Thit b ng-ten
Yu cu chnh ca thit b anten cho mt h thng v tuyn l c suy hao
truyn dn nh v kinh t, hiu sut bc x anten cao, h s khuch i ln.
2.6.1 Anten
Anten l mt giao din chnh gia thit b in v mi trng truyn
sng, tu thuc vo tn s, cng ngh v cng dng.
Anten YAGI c s dng cho tn s 400MHz - 900MHz.
Anten Parabol c s dng cho tn s t 1GHz n 60GHz, b phn
phn x c ch to bng kim loi hoc nha c ph mt lp kim loi mng
mt lm ca anten. Khi tn s nh hn 4GHz b phn phn x c th c
ch to bng vic ph kim loi trn cc thanh mng lm gim trng lng
anten v lm cho gi lt xuyn.
52
Phn chnh ca mt anten Parabol c th c minh ho di y:

Hnh 2.9: ng-ten Parabol
Trong :
D: ng knh anten [m]
d: B su lng cho, c tnh t tm n mt ming cho [m]
F: Tiu c ca cho, c tnh t tm cho n tiu im F ca n.

53
Mi lin h gia tiu c, b su lng cho v ng knh cho c biu in
theo theo biu thc:

Khi pha ca ngun s cp t ngay tm F ca Parabol th cc sng bc
x u ng pha.
li ca anten parabol c tnh theo biu thc:

Trong :
S: Din tch (tit din) b mt anten [m
2
]
q: Hiu sut ca anten t (0,5 - 0,7).

54
li ca anten theo hiu sut v tn s (s liu ca hng Alcatel):

S bin i ca hnh dng anten parabol hoc sai lch tiu c u c th
dn n suy gim tr s li ca n. Cc anten c th c dng pht
hoc thu nhn sng theo mt hoc 2 phn cc (phn cc ng hoc phn cc
ngang).
55
2.5.2 Biu bc x
Phn chnh ca nng lng c tp trung bp sng chnh nhng mt
phn nng lng s b bc x theo cc bp sng ph, iu ny dn n hin
tng giao thoa ti cc im nt.
Gc m u 3dB ph thuc vo ng knh anten v bc sng c
tnh theo biu thc sau:

Trong : D l ng knh an ten. l bc sng.
56

Hnh 2.10: Biu bc x anten Parabol
57
Bng sau cho thy gc pht x theo ng knh anten (s liu ca hng
Alcatel):


58
CHNG 3. THIT K TUYN VIBA
3.1. Cu trc h thng viba s
3.1.1. Cc thnh phn c bn
a). S khi ca tuyn pht

Hnh 3.1: S khi ca b pht viba
Nhim v:
- Bin i tn hiu bng gc thnh tn hiu dng sng
- Chuyn i tn hiu ln bng tn cng tc
- Khuch i tn hiu, hn ch ph tn hiu v bc x qua an ten.
59
b). S khi tuyn thu

Hnh 3.2: S khi ca b thu viba
- Thu nhn v chuyn i tn hiu thu c v trung tn
- Chuyn i thnh tn hiu bng gc
- Khi phc xung clock
60
c). S khi ca mt trm u cui thc t

Hnh 3.3: S khi ca mt trm u cui
61
d). S khi trm trung gian
My thu v my pht thc hin chuyn i tn s, tn hiu cao tn c
chuyn i v tn s trung tn my thu. Tn hiu c gii iu ch
chuyn tn hiu thu c thnh tn hiu s bng gc sau c a n khi
ti to xung nhm gt b tp m tch lu. Tn hiu u ra ca khi ti to xung
c a c a vo khi iu ch chuyn tn hiu bng gc thnh tn
hiu dng sng. Ti my pht s thc hin vic chuyn i tn hiu trung tn
thnh tn hiu cao tn v bc x ra anten. y l s trm trung gian ph
bin s dng cho nhng h thng c dung lng trung bnh v cao.

Hnh 3.4: My thu pht i tn vi b ti to tn hiu trung tn
My thu thc hin chuyn i tn s cao tn thnh tn hiu trung tn v gii
iu ch nhm thu c tn hiu tn hiu s bng gc. Ti my pht thc hin
iu ch trc tip ti cao tn v pht ra an ten. S trm trung gian c th
hin trn hnh v. thng c p dng cho nhng h thng dung lng nh
v lm vic tn s cao hn.
62


Hnh 3.5: My thu i tn vi b ti to tn hiu
Ti trm trung gian khng thc hin vic ti to xung, gii iu ch v iu
ch. My thu thc hin vic chuyn i tn hiu v trung tn v chuyn sang
my pht. Ti my pht li chuyn i tn s tn hiu trung tn ln tn s tn
s cao tn tng ng vi phn hoch tn s. vi vic s dng trm trung gian
theo s hnh v. h thng thng tin cho php s dng chung knh d phng
vi h thng v tuyn tng t v ct gim nhng thit b cn thit.

Hnh 3.6: Trm trung gian dch chuyn tn s, khng c b ti to tn hiu
63
Trm trung gian khng thc hin ti to tn hiu v dch chuyn tn s. V
bn cht trm trung gian nh hnh v. l mt b khuch i tn hiu cao tn c
bng tn gii hn cho mi hng truyn dn.

Hnh 3.7: Trm trung gian khng c b ti to tn
64
3.1.2. B tr tn s cho trm lp
+ K hoch 2 tn s: Ti mt trm lp (A) s dng 2 tn s sng mang cho
lin lc hai hng. My thu trn c hai hng cng lm vic trn tn s f1,
trong khi my pht trn c hai hng cng tc trn cng tn s f2

+ K hoch 4 tn s: Ti mt trm lp (A), theo mt hng thu trn tn s f1
pht trn tn s f2, theo hng ngc li thu trn tn s f3, pht trn tn s f4.

i vi phng n b tr 4 tn s th thit b trm phc tp hn do phi lm
vic trn 4 tn s song b li xuyn nhiu gia cc hng thu-pht rt nh.

65
3.2. L thuyt v thit k tuyn
3.1.1. Xc nh cc tham s yu cu
- Xc nh yu cu v gi tr BER: Da trn cc tiu chun p dng c th i
vi mi h thng khc nhau.
- Yu cu v dung lng h thng: c kh nng pht trin trong vng 10 n
15 nm ti. Yu t ny phi da vo cc c im sau:
+ S pht trin dn s.
+ c im vng.
+ T l pht trin ca cc hot ng kinh t.
+ Tc ci thin iu kin sng trong tng lai.
Tuy nhin cn phi dung ho chi ph vi h thng khi lp t. C th s
dng cc h thng c dung lng va phi. Khi cn pht trin ln h thng c
dung lng cao th c th thay bng h thng mi hon ton cn h thng c
s dng cho v tr c dung lng nh hn.
66
3.1.2. La chn bng tn v tuyn s dng
i vi cc ng dng ca k thut viba, bng tn hot ng ca n nm
trong khong 1GHz n 15GHz. Trong cc tn s v tuyn c cp pht
cho cc dch v xc nh c quy nh bi CCIR (Consultative Committee
on International Radio).
3.1.3. K hoch tn s v tuyn
V mc khc bit v tn hiu v tuyn gia ng vo v ng ra ca mt
trm lp thay i t 60 n 80 dB nn vic s dng cng mt tn s v tuyn
gia ng ra v ng vo s gy ra hin tng giao thoa ng do phn hi.
Trong viba chuyn tip, ta thng s dng k hoch 2 tn s hoc k hoch 4
tn s.
- K hoch 2 tn s: Ti mt trm lp s dng 2 tn s sng mang cho
lin lc hai hng. My thu trn c 2 hng cng lm vic trn f
1
trong khi
my pht trn 2 hng cng lm vic vi tn s f
2
.
- K hoch 4 tn s: Ti mt trm theo mt hng, thu trn tn s f1 pht
trn tn s f2. Theo hng ngc li, pht trn tn s f3 thu trn tn s f4. i
vi k hoch bn tn s th thit b phc tp hn k hoch 2 tn s do phi
lm vic trn 4 tn s. Tuy nhin xuyn nhiu gia hai hng thu, pht l rt
nh so vi k hoch 2 tn s.
67
3.1.4. Chn v tr v tnh ton ng truyn
(1) Kho st v tr t trm
Kho st mt tuyn n c 2 trm truyn dn. Trc ht cn tin hnh
cc bc sau:
- Xc nh tuyn trn bn : cn tm bn a hnh ca khu vc xy dng
trm.
- To nn cc bn v mt ct nghing ca tuyn.
T cc yu cu thc t ca mt tuyn vi ba gm: v tr trm, khong cch
trm, dung lng truyn dn, a hnh tuyn s i qua... ta tin hnh nh du
hai u cui ca trm trn bn ca S o c xc nh chnh xc kinh
, v ca mi trm. Cc thng s to ny c s dng iu chnh
cc anten mi trm trong giai on lp t thit b. K hiu trn bn :
trm A l trm th nht v trm B l trm th 2. Sau v mt mt ct
nghing ca ng truyn:
68

Hnh 3.8: Mt ct ngang ca mt tuyn viba
Mc d t c cong nhng n gin trong tnh ton, ngi ta
thng v mt ct vi bn knh hiu dng ca tri t l K = 4/3. Phng
trnh sau cho ta xc nh ch li ca mt t:
| | m
K
d d
K r
d d
h
2 1
1
2 1
51
4
1000
2
= =
Trong : r
1
l bn knh qu t, K l h s bn knh hiu dng ca tri
t, d
1
, d
2
l khong cch t trm A v trm B n im ang xt li ca
mt t.

69
Nh vy trn mt ct nghing ny th hin c b mt ca a hnh. Ngoi ra
n cng c th biu din c c cao ca cy ci cc vt chn trn ng
truyn ni hai trm A, B chng hn nh cc g, i, cc nh cao tng... i
vi khong truyn dn di, cong ca mt t ln th cn phi tnh ton n
nng ca v tr trm. nng c v dc cc ng thng ng nn
khng i dc theo ng bn knh xut pht t tm qu t.
(2) Tnh khong cch tia truyn pha trn vt chn
Sau khi chn c tn s lm vic cho tuyn, ta tnh min Fresnel th
nht. Nu tn ti mt vt cn ra ca min Fresnel th nht th sng phn x
s lm suy gim sng trc tip, mc suy gim tu thuc bin ca sng
phn x. Do vic tnh ton i vi min Fresnel th nht i hi c tnh
chnh xc vic thng tin gia hai trm khng b nh hng ng k bi
sng phn x ny. Bn knh ca min Fresnel th nht (F1) c xc nh
theo cng thc sau:
70

Trong : d
1
,d
2
ln lt l khong cch t trm A v trm B n im
bn knh min Fresnel c tnh ton, d l khong cch gia 2 trm, f l
tn s GHz.
Trong thc t, thng gp ng truyn i qua nhng a hnh khc
nhau c th chn min Fresnel th nht gy nn tn hao trn ng truyn.
cc loi a hnh ny c th c vt chn hnh nm trn ng truyn v cc
loi chng ngi khc. Hnh di y ch ra m hnh ca vt chn trn
ng truyn dn, trong F
1
l bn knh min Fresnel th nht, F l
khong h thc - l khong cch gia tia trc tip v mt vt chn hnh nm
ti im tnh ton min Fresnel th nht.
71

Hnh 3.9: Th hin cc tham s trn mt ct ngang ca tuyn
Theo cc ch tiu thit k v khong h ng truyn c khuyn ngh
th cao ti thiu ca anten m bo sao cho tn hiu khng b nhiu x bi
vt chn nm trong min Fresnel th nht l F = 0,577F1. Ngha l ng
trc tip gia my thu v my pht cn mt khong h trn mt t hoc trn
mt vt chn bt k t nht l vo khong 60% bn knh min Fresnel th nht
t c cc iu kin truyn lan trong khng gian t do.
72
(3) Tnh chn chiu cao ca thp antenna
tnh cao ca thp anten th trc tin phi xc nh c cao
ca tia v tuyn truyn gia hai trm. Trn c s ca cao tia c tnh
cao ti thiu ca thp anten thu c tn hiu. Vic tnh ton cao ca
tia v tuyn cng phi dng n s mt ct nghing ng truyn ni hai
trm trong c xt n cao ca vt chn (O), cao ca cy ci (T) gia
tuyn v bn knh ca min Fresnel th nht (F1). Biu thc xc nh cao
ca tia v tuyn nh sau:

Trong : C l h s h.
Thng thng th cao ca tia B c tnh ton ti im c mt vt
chn cao nht nm gia tuyn.
73

Hnh 3.10: Xc nh cao tia B lm h mt vt chn
Cc cao ca cy ci v vt chn gia tuyn c xc nh t bc
kho st ng truyn. Hnh di y biu din mt ct ng truyn ca
tuyn cng vi cc vt chn gia tuyn v c xt n min Fresnel th nht.
Sau khi c c cao tuyn, ta tnh cao ca anten lm h mt vt
chn nm gia tuyn (tc khng gy nhiu n ng truyn v tuyn).
bc kho st nh v trm, ta xc nh c cao ca hai v tr t trm
so vi mt nc bin tng ng l h1 v h2. Hai thng s ny kt hp vi
cao B ca tia nh tnh ton trn s tnh c cao ca ct an ten cn li
khi bit trc cao ca mt ct an ten.
74

Trong : ha
1
, ha
2
[m] l cao ca mt trong hai anten cn c tnh.
d1, d2 [km] l khong cch t mi trm n v tr tnh ton cao ca tia
B. Nh vy khi bit c cao ca mt an ten th c th tnh c cao
ca anten kia sao cho khng lm gin on tia truyn ca hai trm. Hnh di
y minh ho cch tnh ton cao ca an ten ni trn:
75

Hnh 3.11: cao ca thp ng-ten

76
Tuy nhin nh cp phn trc, m bo cho h thng hot ng
khng chu nh hng ca cc yu t trong tng lai th cao an ten phi s
dng mt khong d phng, ph thuc vo ngi thit k. Khi cc cao
ca cc anten thc t phi l har
1
, har
2
do c cng vi mt lng cao
d phng l Ph
1
hoc Ph
2
nh sau:

(4) Tnh ton cc nhn t nh hng n ng truyn
Cng sut tn hiu truyn gia trm pht n trm thu b suy hao trn
ng truyn. Khi pht mt cng sut Pt pha pht th bn thu s c
mt cng sut l Pt

v do suy hao nn Pt > Pt

. S mt mt cng sut ny do
cc yu t gy nhiu ng truyn; C th ta xem xt cc nhn t di y:
77
- d tr phading phng:
Do tc ng ca phadinh phng, mc tn hiu thu c c th b st i
so vi mc tn hiu thu khng b pha inh, trc khi h thng cn lm vic
ng. Nh vy tc ng ca pha inh l lm thay i mc ngng thu ca
my thu. Do khi b nh hng ca pha dinh phng my thu c th nhn
c tn hiu rt yu t ng truyn v c th lm gin on thng tin nu
trng hp phainh mnh. Vic tnh ton mt lng phadinh d tr l cn
thit cho ng truyn v tuyn.
d tr phadinh phng Fm (dB) lin quan n mc tn hiu thu c
khng phadinh Wo (dB) v mc tn hiu thu c thc t thp W(dBm) trc
lc h thng khng cn hot ng tnh theo biu thc:


78
- Phadinh la chn:
Phadinh la chn ch yu nh hng n cc h thng vi ba s c dung
lng trung bnh (34Mb/s) v dung lng cao (140Mb/s).
- Tiu hao do ma:
Tiu hao do ma v phadinh l cc nh hng truyn lan ch yu cc cc
tuyn v tuyn tm nhn thng trn mt t lm vic cc tn s trong di tn
GHz, v chng quyt nh cc bin i tn hao truyn dn do quyt nh
khong cch lp cng vi ton b gi thnh ca mt h thng v tuyn
chuyn tip. Tiu hao do ma tng nhanh theo s tng ca tn s s dng, c
bit vi cc tn s trn 35GHz thng suy hao nhiu v do m bo th
khong cch lp phi nh hn 20km, ngoi ra vic gim di ca ng
truyn s gim cc nh hng ca phadinh nhiu tia.
79
3.1.5. Tnh ton cc tham s tn hao ca tuyn
Cc tham s c s dng trong tnh ton ng truyn nh: Mc suy
hao trong khng gian t do, cng sut pht, ngng thu, cc suy hao trong
thit b...c vai tr quan trng xem xt tuyn c th hot ng c hay
khng v hot ng mc tn hiu no.
- Tn hao trong khng gian t do:
Tn hao trong khng gian t do (A0) l tn hao ln nht cn phi c
xem xt trc tin. y l s tn hao do sng v tuyn lan truyn t trm ny
n trm kia trong mi trng khng gian c tnh theo biu thc sau:

Trong : f l tn s sng mang tnh bng [GHz], d l di tuyn
[Km].

80
- Tn hao phi (feeder):
y l tn hao thit b (ng dn sng) truyn dn sng gia anten v
my pht/ my thu. Khi tnh ton suy hao ny th phi cn c vo mc suy
hao chun c cho trc bi nh cung cp thit b. Chng hn vi phi s
dng loi WC 109 c mc tiu hao chun l 4,5dB/ 100m v cng vi 0,3dB
suy hao ca vng trn chuyn tip ng dn sng th tn hao phi my
pht (LTxat) v my thu (LRxat) c tnh nh sau:

Trong har
1
v har
2
l cao ca cc anten c tnh ton lng d
phng.
- Tn hao r nhnh:
Tn hao r nhnh xy ra ti b phn nhnh thu pht, tn hao ny cng
c cho bi nh cung cp thit b. Mc tn hao ny thng khong (2 -
8)dB.

81
- Tn hao hp th kh quyn:
Cc thnh phn trong kh quyn gy ra cc tn hao m mc ca n
thay i theo iu kin thi tit, thay i theo ma, theo tn s s dng... Khi
tnh ton mc suy hao ny ta da theo cc ch tiu c khuyn ngh cc
nc chu u. chng hn i vi h thng thit b v tuyn 18, 23 v 38GHz
th mc suy hao chun Lsp
0
c cho trong khuyn ngh vo khong 0,04
dB/km - 0,19 dB/km v 0,9 dB/m khi tn hao cho c tuyn truyn dn
c xc nh l:
| | dB d L L
o o
sp sp
=

Vi d l khong cch ca tuyn tnh bng Km.

82
Phng trnh cn bng cng sut trong tnh ton ng truyn:

Trong : P
t
l cng sut pht.
A
t
: Tn hao tng = (tn hao trong khng gian t do + tn hao phi d
+ tn hao r nhnh + tn hao hp th kh quyn).
G: Tng cc li = li ca an ten A + li ca an ten B.
Pr: Cng sut ti u vo my thu.
Pr l tham s quan trng khi thit k ng truyn vi ba, tham s ny l
mt ch tiu quyt nh xem tuyn c hot ng c hay khng khi em so
snh n vi mc ngng thu ca my thu.
83
3.1.6. Tnh ton cc tham s cht lng ca tuyn
V cht lng ng truyn c nh gi da trn t s BER; cc t s
BER khc nhau s cho mt mc ngng tng ng v cng c d tr pha
inh khc nhau. Cc t s BER thng c s dng trong viba s l:
6 3
10 ; 10

= BER tng ng vi hai mc ngng RX
a
v RX
b
.
1. d tr fadinh ng vi RXa v RXb l FM
a
v FM
b
c tnh theo
biu thc:
6
3
10
10

= =
= =
BER with RX P FM
BER with RX P FM
b r b
a r a

2. Xc xut fadinh phng nhiu tia (P
0
) l mt h s th hin kh nng
xut hin fadinh nhiu tia c nh gia theo cng thc sau:

Trong :
8
10 4 , 1

= KQ ;
B = 1; C = 3,5 l cc tham s lin quan n iu kin truyn
lan v kh hu v a hnh ca sng v tuyn v cc gi tr c s dng theo
khuyn ngh ca CCIR.

84
3. Xc sut t n ngng thu RX
a
; RX
b
.
Gi P
a
; P
b
l xc sut t ti cc gi tr ngng thu tng ng RX
a
v
RX
b
c tnh nh sau:
10
10
a
FM
a
P

=
;
10
10
b
FM
a
P

=

Vi FM
a
v FM
b
l d tr fadinh ng vi cc t s
3
10

= BER v
6
10

= BER c tnh ton trn.


4. Khong thi gian fading
T
a
v T
b
l cc gi tr c trng cho cc khong thi gian tn ti fadinh
v cng ng vi FM
a
, FM
b
c tnh theo cng thc:

Vi 5 , 0 ; 5 , 0 ; 3 , 10
2 2 2
= = = | o d C ly theo khuyn ngh.

85
5. Xc sut fading phng di hn 10 giy
P(10) v P(60) l Xc sut xut hin fadinh phng di hn 10s v 60s
tng ng vi cc t s BER khc nhau v c xc nh theo cng thc:

Vi:
( ) ( )
( )
2
0
10 10
0, 548ln ; 0, 548ln ; 1 .
2
.
a b
a b
t
t
Z Z erfc t erf t
T T
erf t e dt
t

| | | |
= = =
| |
\ . \ .
=
}

6. Xc sut BER vt 10
-3
Xc sut BER vt 10
-3
th hin s gin on thng tin nhng trong thi
gian khng qu 10 giy.
( )
10
3
10 10
a
FM
o a o
P P P BER P

= = >


86
7. Xc sut mch tr nn khng th s dng c do fading phng
P
u
l xc sut mch s c BER ln hn 10
-3
trong khong thi gian ln
hn 10 giy tc l mch tr nn khng s dng c v c tnh theo:
( ) 10 P P P P
o u
=
8. Kh nng s dng tuyn
Kh nng s dng tuyn c biu th bng phn trm v c xc nh
theo P
u
nh sau:

9. Xc sut mch c
6
10

> BER
Xc sut ny c tnh da theo P
o

v P
b
:
( )
10
6
10 10
b
FM
o b o
P P P BER P

= = >

10. Xc sut mch c
6
10

> BER
trong thi gian hn 60 giy do fading
phng
( ) ( ) 60 60 10
6
P P P s t BER P
b o
= > >



87
Nh vy ton b cc tham s tnh cho ng truyn cng nh cc tham s
nh gi cht lng tuyn c s dng ngi thit k a ra cc quyt
nh v kh nng lm vic ca tuyn, tnh xem tuyn c cong sut cung
cp cho my thu hay khng. Ngoi ra cng da vo cc tham s ny c th
hiu chnh li cng sut my pht, quyt nh dng cc bin php phn tp...
3.1.7. Cc ch tiu k thut nh gi cht lng tuyn
Ba ch tiu ch yu nh gi cht lng tuyn:
(1) khng s dng ng cho php (i vi ng trc)
Km L with L P
ucf
600 % 600 06 , 0 < =

V d: L = 30 Km
% 003 , 0 % 600 30 . 06 , 0 % 600 06 , 0 = = = L P
ucf

(2) khng s dng c ca mng ni ht
Gi tr cho php bng 0,0325% ti mi u cui.

88
(3) khng s dng c (gi tr cho php) ca hnh trnh
ngc:0,0225%
Mc ch ca cc tnh ton ch tiu cht lng l nhm xc nh xc sut
vt cc ch tiu BER, bng cch s dng cc gi tri ca cc xc sut tm ra
trong cc tnh ton ng truyn.
Cc mc tiu t l li bit BER c s dng sao cho BER khng c
ln hn cc gi tr sau:
trong
6
10 . 1

hn % 2500 4 , 0 d ca thng bt k i vi thi gian hp
thnh mt pht, vi 280 Km < d < 2500 Km.
1.10
-6
trong hn 0,045 % ca thng bt k i vi thi gian hp thnh 1
pht, vi d < 280km.
1.10
-3
trong hn 0,054.d / 2500 % ca thng bt k i vi thi gian hp
thnh 1 giy, vi 280km < d < 2500km.
1.10
-3
trong hn 0,006 % ca thng bt k i vi thi gian hp thnh 1
giy, vi d < 280km.

89
Cc mc tiu c trng:
+ Cc pht suy gim cht lng: l khong thi gian 1 pht trong
BER trung bnh xu hn 10
-6
, ngha l trong 1 pht ny xut hin t nht 5
li (gi s 64Kbps).
+ Cc giy li nghim trng: l khong thi gian 1 giy, trong BER
trung bnh xu hn 10
-3
, ngha l c hn 64 li trong giy ny.
+ Cc giy li: l khong thi gian 1 giy trong xut hin t nht mt
li bit.
90
3.1.8. nh gi cht lng tuyn, lp t thit b a vo hot ng
y l mt bc c tin hnh sau khi tnh ton c kh nng lm
vic ca tuyn v tnh xong cc tham s cn thit thit lp tuyn c ngha
l trn tnh ton thit k th tuyn hot ng. Tuy nhin vn cn nhiu vn
tn ti s tc ng ln tuyn v c th lm cho kh nng lm vic ca tuyn
khng nh mong mun ca ngi thit k.
Ni chung vic nh gi cht lng ca tuyn l da vo cc gi tr
tnh c cc bc thit k trn.
Cng vic cui cng l lp t thit b a vo vn hnh. Tin hnh cn
chnh anten thu c tn hiu t my pht. V y cng l lc i chiu
gia vic tnh ton gia thc t v l thuyt ph hp vi nhau hay khng bng
vic o th cc tn hiu hai bn thu v pht.
91
3.2. Thit k tuyn viba thc t
3.2.1. Yu cu bi ton
Tuyn viba s dng thit b c cc c tnh k thut:


92
Gi s thng s tuyn cn thit k cho trc nh sau:
di tuyn: 28 Km.
Nhit trung bnh hng nm: 25
o
C.
Lng ma trung bnh hng nm: 150 mm/h.
K = 4/3, C = 1 (chn theo khuyn ngh).
cao mt t so vi mc nc bin: Trm A l 5m, trm B l 12m.
cao anten: Gi thit trm A l 30m, trm B cn tnh ton.
cao: O + T = 12 ti v tr cch trm A 14 Km.
Gi s a hnh bng phng.

93
Yu cu tnh ton:
(1) Tnh cao thp anten ca trm B.
(2) V mt ct nghing ca tuyn.
(3) Tnh ton cc nhn t nh hng n tuyn.
(4) Tnh cc tham s tn hao ca tuyn.
(5) Tnh cc tham s cht lng tuyn.
(6) nh gi cht lng tuyn.
94
CHNG 4. THIT B VIBA S V H THNG
4.1. THIT B VIBA PASOINK
4.1.1. M hnh mng viba DH

Hnh 4.1: M hnh mng viba SDH
4.1.2. Tham s h thng

Hnh 4.2: Thit b ng-ten
95

96
4.2. THIT B INI-LINK
4.2.1. Gii thiu
MINI-LINK E v E Micro l cc thit b viba im-im, cho php truyn
dn t 2 n 34 Mbit/s, v hot ng trong gii tn t 7 GHz n 38 GHz. H
thng v tuyn viba MINI-LINK c th tng thch vi nhiu mng vin
thng hin ti, ngoi ra cn c nhiu tin ch khc. Thit b ny cho php
truyn dn tin cy. Dng thit b ny to ra cc kt ni mang lu lng Nx2
Mbit/s v c thit k ch yu cho h thng truyn dn t bo v cc mng
c nh.
97

Hnh 4.3: M hnh cc thit b MINI LINK c t ti cc trm BTS

98
4.2.2. Phn loi thit b u cui
Cc sn phm MINI-LINK c hai loi l All-outdoor v Split c m t
nh hnh di y:

Hnh 4.4: Thit b ngoi tri
99
Trong , MINI-LINK E Micro l mt thit b rt nh gn v tin li cho vic
lp t ngoi tri. N bao gm mt khi v tuyn ngoi tri (RTU), mt
antenna v mt hp kt ni v tuyn (RCB). Thit u cui ny c cc giao
din h tr lu lng 2 Mbit/s hoc 2x2 Mbit/s, c kh nng ng dng trong
mng in thoi di ng, truy nhp dnh cho thng mi, PBX (Tng i
nhnh), v cc mng d liu khc vi cc thit b truyn thng c lp t
bn trong nh hay ngoi tri. Ngoi ra n cng c s dng nh l mt thit
b kt cui, b lp hay mt trm nhiu u cui.
100

Hnh 4.5: Kt ni terminal ti hp u ni v tuyn RCB
101
Cc thit b u cui phn chia ca MINI-LINK E c th c tch hp trong
mt module truy nhp chung. Kh nng ny to ra s tng thch cao cho cc
trm cng nh to ra s chia s ti nguyn hiu qu gia cc thit b u cui
viba, nh cc b ghp knh, cc giao din knh dch v v cc h thng h
tr. Loi thit b ny cung cp kh nng dung lng ln ti 17x2 (34+2)
Mbit/s.

Hnh 4.6: u ni vi module truy nhp
102
4.2.3. Lp t h thng
a) Pha ngoi tri

Hnh 4.7: Ghp ni ng-ten
103
Khi v tuyn v anten c th c lp t theo cc cu trc khc nhau.
Trong c th lp trc tip khi v tuyn vi anten hoc t ring r sau
kt ni bng ng dn sng ph hp. Trong c hai trng hp th anten phi
c lp t sao cho c th d dng hiu chnh hng.
b) Pha trong nh (Indoor)
Cc phn thit b pha trong nh c t vo trong cc rack 19.

Hnh 4.8: Gi cm dy trong nh
104
Mt module truy nhp bao gm mt khi v mt tp cc khe cp khc nhau.
Cc khi module truy nhp cho cc ng dng khc nhau c thit k theo
tiu cc tiu chun c th l:
- Khi module truy nhp (AMM) 1U cho cc thit b u cui viba
- Khi module truy nhp (AMM) 2U-3 cho cc v tr u cui kp hoc
n, cha ng ln ti 4 n v khe cm (plug-in).
- Khi module truy nhp 4U cho cc v tr nhiu u cui, phc tp, cha
ng ln ti 7 n v khe cm.
Ngoi ra phn thit b pha trong nh c th c nng cp hay c cu
hnh vi cc n v tr khe cm c cung cp.
Kt ni gia phn thit b bn ngoi (outdoor) v phn thit b pha
trong nh l mt cable ng trc mang lu lng c hai hng.
105

Hnh 4.9: Mt trc ca AMM 4U
106
4.2.4. Cc cu hnh ca thit b u cui viba loi Split
Cc thnh phn ca h thng bao gm:
- Mt khi v tuyn (RAU)
- Mt antenna
- Mt khi module truy nhp (AMM 1U)
- Mt khi modem (MMU)
- Mt cp ng trc cho kt ni lin kt (interconnection)
Kh nng lu lng ca thit b ny l 8x2, 17x2 v 4x8+2.
Khi truy nhp dch v (SAU) cng c thm vo ti khi module truy
nhp (AMM) cung cp kh nng bo ng v cc giao din iu khin,
cc knh dch v v cc ng dng ring ca khch hng.
107


Mt trc ca MMU 34+2

Hnh 4.10: Cc thit b trong nh
108
S cu hnh 1+1 (d phng nng):

109
Cu hnh trm nhiu u cui (Multi-Terminal):
Mt vi thit b u cui MINI-LINK E c th c tch hp trong cng khi
module truy nhp (AMM). Cc cu hnh khc, kh nng lu lng v cc tn
s v tuyn c th c kt hp. Mt trm c th c nng cp d dng bng
cch b sung thm cc khi ghp ni. Trong :
- Mt AMM 2U-3 c th h tr hai u cui (khng d phng)
- Mt AMM 4U c th h tr ln n 4 thit b u cui (khng d phng)
hoc hai u cui (1+1).
110

Hnh 4.11: Cu hnh trm tch hp nhiu thit b u cui
111
Cu hnh trm lp (repeater):

Hnh 4.12: Thnh phn trm lp
112
4.2.5. Qun l mng viba
Cc chc nng bo dng to kh nng tng thch v d dng ci t v
tin li trong vic tm v sa cha li. Cc chc nng qun l mng bao
gm:
- Knh truyn cnh bo
- Gim st cht lng
- Kim tra vng phn hi (loop-back) u cui gn v xa
- Cc knh dch v thoi v d liu
- Kh nng thit lp mm nh tuyn lu lng
- Kh nng la chn mm cng sut v tn s u ra
- Nng cp phn mm
113

Hnh 4.13: M hnh qun l mng viba.
114
4.2.6. chc nng ca thit b viba
MINI-LINK E Micro l mt thit b viba c khi v tuyn all-outdoor hot
ng bng tn 23 v 38 GHz, vi kh nng lu lng l 2 hoc 2x2 Mbit/s.
Trong loi 2x2 Mbit/s dnh cho bng tn 38 GHz.

Hnh 4.14: S khi ca khi truy nhp v tuyn (RAU)

115
Ti liu tham kho:
[1] Viba s T1,2. Nxb: KHKT
[2] V tuyn chuyn tip. Nxb: KHKT 1995
[3] L thuyt vin thng. Nxb: KHKT 1997
[4] Telecmmunication Transmission Systems. Robert G. Winch
[5] General on Microwave Links, Alcatel, 1998
[6] Fundamentals of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons. ISBNs: 0-471-
29699-6