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CHNG V. THIT B VI BA S. I. THIT B VI BA S AWA.

1- Gii thiu chung v thit b a- c im: - Thit b AWA l thit b truyn dn Vi ba s bng hp dng cn ng b do AUSTRALIA sn xut v c nhp vo Vit Nam di dng SKD hoc CKD. - Thit b Vi ba AWA hin nay nc ta c 3 loi: + RMD 1502 : Truyn dn 1 lung s 2,048 Mbt/s. + RMD 1504: Truyn dn 2 lung s 2,048 Mbt/s + RMD 1808: Truyn dn 4 lung s 2,048 Mbt/s. Xong ngoi thc t cc Bu in tnh u s dng ch yu l thit b RM-1504 truyn dn thng tin t cc trung tm Huyn n trung tm Tnh - Thit b RMD - 1504 c kh nng thit lp tuyn thng tin tm nhn thng vi c ly thng tin 2500 km gm c cc trm u cui, Rle, r/xen knh, khong cch thng tin gia hai trm (im ni im) <50 km. Cc Bu in Tnh s dng thit b RMD - 1504 thit lp ng dy thng tin t Bu in Huyn n Bu in Tnh vi s lng knh s dng cho trm u cui l 60 knh, s lng knh s dng cho trm r/ xen (Dop/ Insert) l 60 knh. Trong : + R 30 knh thoi + Xen 30 knh thoi. - My ghp knh c s dng cho trm u cui l DMS -2, my ghp knh ny c 30 knh thoi (tng ng vi mt lung tn hiu s c s PCM30 (2,048 Mbt/s). Tn hiu thoi c iu ch xung m PCM theo lut A vi 13 on v ly A = 87,6 theo tiu chun ca CCITT. Nu s dng thng tin 60 knh thoi tng t th trm u cui phi dng hai my ghp knh DMS - 2. Cn my ghp knh s dng cho trm r/ xen (Drop insert) l DMD -2. My ghp knh DMD-2 c 30 knh thoi tng t.

Trong : + R 15 knh thoi + Xen 15 knh thoi. Nu s dng 60 knh thoi tng t th phi dng 2 my ghp knh DMS -2. - Thit b v tuyn ca RMD-1504 c th truyn dn c 2 lung s liu 2,048 Mbt/s m HDB -3. Hai lung s liu ny c a vo iu ch sng mang trung tn pht vi tn s sng mang 220MHz theo phng thc iu ch pha 4 trng thi m ho trc tip (OQPSK) (OfSet Quadrature Phase Shif Keying) . Ring hai knh nghip v v knh gim stvaf tn hiu bo gi c a vo iu ch khi VCO theo phng thc iu ch tn s. - Thit b RMD-1504 c t trn cng mt gi my (khung my) vi cc ngn th t t trn xung. + My pht v tuyn + Khi phn hng anten + My thu v tuyn + My ghp knh + Khi ngun cung cp (PS) Tx ( Transmitter) ( Diplexer) Rx (Reciver) DMS, DMD (Power Suply)

Cc ngn khi na c ch to theo kt cu kt ni cc ngn b, cc tm mch in c cc chn Jc cm lin kt vi nhau bn trong hoc ni vi nhau bng cp dt, cp ng trc. Cc ngn b ny c th ko ra mt cch d dng tng ngn tin hnh sa cha, bo dng tin li cho ngi khai thc vn hnh thit b. - Thit b RMD-1504 c h thng cnh bo, gim st , iu hnh chung, nn rt tin li cho cho ngi s dng vn hnh, thit b, d pht hin cc s c v c th khc phc s c nhanh m bo thng tin nhanh chng. - Thit b ny c th chn cu hnh c hoc khng c s phng nng tu theo yu cu s dng. Sau y l cc kiu cu hnh h thng ca thit b RMD - 1504. + Ngn my pht + Ngn my thu + Ngn phn hng anten Tx Rx DIPLEXER.

HDB-3
Knh nghi v p Knh gi m s t

M y ph t Tx

Lc ph t
Ph h- ng n anten

M y thu Rx

Lc thu

Hnh 4-1 S khi kiu thit b khng c d phng (1+0) Trm vi ba u cui trn tuyn khng c d phng bao gm c: + My pht v tuyn +My thu v tuyn 1 1

Trng hp ny s dng khi thit b RMD -1504 c tin cy cao phng my gn hn. Trng hp sy ra s c n gin th nh c h thng cnh bo nn ngi trc ca c th khc phc s c c ngay m bo thng tin. * Kiu c d phng (1+1) Tx (Transmiter) my pht: 2. Rx (Reciver) my thu: 2. m bo tin cy cao cho tuyn truyn dn ca h thng RMD 1504 th mi trm c s dng thit b d phng, thng thng l d phng nng. Trm c d phng nng bao gm: + My thu pht chnh: + My thu pht d phng: 1 b 1 b

Hai b thu pht ny u lm vic ging nhau v tn s pht, tn s thu v c gim st qua h thng chuyn mch chung. Khi my thu hoc my pht chnh b hng th chuyn mch s iu khin my thu hoc pht d phng thay th vo . Hai my pht (my chnh v my d phng) c kt cui bng b cch ly xa. Hai my ny u c gim st lin tc v c chuyn mch PSD iu khin ni vo hay ct ra khi h thng truyn dn.

Trong ch d phng thng thng th b khuch i cng sut pht ca my d phng c ngt ra (khng lm vic) tit kim nng lng. S khi thit b c d phng (1+1)
M y ph t TxA M y thu RxA
Knh nghi v p HDB-3 Knh gi m s t

Lc ph t

PSD Lc thu
M y thu RxB M y ph t TxB

Ph h- ng n anten

Lc thu

Hnh 4-2 S khi trm vi ba c d phng nng (1+1) * Ngoi kiu trn th thit b ny cn c cc kiu d phng sau: - Kiu phn tp khng gian. Phn tp thng c s dng khc phc s bin i ca truyn sng v c th s dng gp i s my nng cao tin cy sn sng ca thit b v ng truyn dn. Vi phn tp khng gian th mt ma thu c ni vi an ten th 2. T l sai bt ngu nhin c gim st lin tc trn c hai my thu. Nu khi t l sai bt thp hn gi tr t trc ma thu A th my thu B khng c s sai li s c chn.

M y ph t TxA M y thu RxA


Knh nghi v p HDB-3 Knh gi m s t

Lc thu

Lc ph t

PSD

Ph h- ng n anten

Lc thu
M y thu RxB M y ph t TxB

Hnh 4-3: S khi kiu phn tp theo khng gian.

* Phn tp theo tn s lm vic tng t nh phn tp theo khng gian, nhng hai b my thu pht lm vic tn s khc nhau. Mi b thu pht c th ni vi anten ring hoc ni chung vi mt anten duy nht. b- Ch tiu, k thut: - Dung lng truyn (knh) - Bng tn v tuyn: (MHz) - Cng sut ra ti u anten 60 knh (1427 n 1535)MHz 36 dBm 1dB.

- Ngng thu vi BER = 10-3 (dBm) - 94 dB - iu ch lung s - iu ch knh nghip v - Dy s liu knh thoi vo A: HDB -3 2,048 Mbt/s B: HDB -3 2048 Mbit/s OQPSK FM(tn s) A, B 75 khng cn bng 75 khng cn bng

M y ph t TxA M y thu RxA


Knh nghi v p HDB-3 Knh gi m s t

Lc ph t Lc thu

Ph h- ng n anten

PSD

M y thu RxB M y ph t TxB

Lc thu Lc ph t
Ph h- ng n anten

Hnh 4-4: S khi kiu phn tp tn s. - di tn knh chuyn nghip v (KHz) - iu ch knh gim st - Mc vo knh nghip v - Mc ra knh nghip v - Mc vo knh gim st - Mc ra knh gim st - p tuyn tn s knh gim st. Vi cng sut ra: Vi cng sut ra: 2- thit b RMD 1504. Thit b RMD-1504 l thit b truyn dn vi ba s bng hp, s dng cho tuyn truyn dn ngn dung lng nh. Thit b RMD-1504 c th chn cu hnh d phng (1+1) hoc khng c d phng (1+0) v c y cu trc ca cc trm cui, trm rle, trm r/xen. 5W 1W 15KHz

FM (tn s) 0 dBm/ 600 0 dBm/ 600 -10dBm/ 600 -10dBm/ 600 (2,7 - 5) KHz. 60 (W) 40 (W)

- Cng sut tiu th ton b trn mt trm my u cui (W).

Xong d c c trc 1 trm vi ba nh th no th thit b RMD-1504 cng du kt cu bao gm nhng ngn my sau: - Ngn my pht Tx (Transmitter) - Ngn my thu Rx (Receiver) - Ngn phn hng anten (Diplexer) - Phn phi ngun cung cp: PS (Power Supply) a- Ma pht RMD -1504 (Transmitter) Tx *, S khi my pht(hnh 4-5) S khi ngn my pht bao gm: - Khi x l bng tn c s pht(PBA Tx). - Khi kch thch (Exciter). - Khi khuch i cng sut PA (Power Ampfier) - Mch hin Th (Display) . Tt c cc khi trn u c lp t trn mt st si chung cc u ni, ngoi n my pht u trn tm mch in khi bng tn c s pht u ra ca b cch ly gn bn cnh modun ca khi khuch i cng sut (PA). Pha tri modun cng sut (PA) c cc im iu chnh mc SSB (mc RF). Trc mt my c Jc cm t hp ra knh nghip v v mt phm () n pht tone khi lin lc ni b trong tuyn. Pha trn ca khi kch thch c cc chuyn mch xoay t tn s cng tc ca my pht (mi nc l 100 KHz) *, Ch tiu k thut - Cng sut ra (dBm) - Tr khng ra () - n nh tn s (PPm) - Bc tng hp tn s (KHz) + 37 dBm 50 15 PPm 100

B ng t n ph

Th pTel

DATA in 2048kbit/s

HDB-3/ NRZ

HDB-3/ NRZ

SS/NT

SCRAMLRER

NT/SS

T h p ng t s n VCO Chia 4 Chia 4 Lc

RF out t i ph h- ng n

Hnh 4- 5: s khi my pht.

- Nhiu pht ra (dBc) - Cng sut tiu th (W) : vi cng sut ra vi cng sut ra 5W 1W

< -60 51W 31W

*, Chc nng nhim v: V chc nng nhim v tng qut ca ngn my pht theo cc khi. Tn cc khi ni ln phn no chc nng ca khi xong hiu r v c th chc nng ca tng khi chi tit trong ngn my pht c tnh by nh sau * X l bng tn c s pht PBA (Tx Base Band PBA). S khi: CLK
A In put 2,048Mbit/s HDB-3/ NRZ Ngu nhin ho B In put 2,048Mbit/s HDB-3/ NRZ M ho vi sai

NT/ SS

Out put

CLK Hnh 4-6. S khi bng tn c s chnh. Khi x l bng tn s c s pht m nhn cc chc nng nh sau: - X l tn hiu gc. - Cung cp ngun. - Hin Th cnh bo, gim st iu khin. Cc chc nng ny u c cc mch in trong khi m nhn. Tt c cc mch in c t trn tm mch in chung nm pha y ca ngn my pht.

2,2 KHz

Mic
EAR

d/dt

SERVICE

2 KHz 5 KHz

SUPEViSORY

Hnh 4-7. Khi bng tn c s ph. Cc mch in ca khi bao gm: + Mch cung cp ngun + My x l d liu 2x2,048 Mbt/s + Mch x l tn hiu ph (knh nghip v knh, gim st, Tone gi). + Mch khuch i logarit v ch Th cnh co. Sau y xt chc nng c th ca cc mch in trn. * Mch cung cp ngun: Mch cung cp ngun c chc nng chuyn i t ngun in p mt chiu (DC) -24 V hoc -48V u vo, thnh cc ngun in p mt chiu (DC) +36V ; +20V; +10V; +5V; -5V, n nh cung cp cho cc IC; Transistor, Rle hot ng. Mch cp ngun c th s dng ngun vo danh nh -24V hoc -48V l tu thuc vo v tr cc u ni (Jc u chuyn) X28, X29, X30, X37 , cc dng ca ngun c t.

Mch cung cp ngun hot ng theo nguyn l o in chuyn mch xung,v c n nh in p ra bng nguyn l iu rng xung, vi mu in p ra l +20V. Cc in p khc c n nh thm bng cc mch n p ring ng thi c mch bo v qu p nng cao n nh cho thit b.
B chuy n m ch v i n i

Bo v v i mc

N n v n p

+36v +20v +10v +5v -5v

B t o xung u khi i n

Hnh 4-8: Khi ngun cung cp Mch ngun cho php hot ng n nh tm in p vo rng sau: * Vi ngun -24V mc n nh t (-20 -30)V * Vi ngun -48V mc n nh t (-40 - 60)V Mch cung cp ngun c b phn chng qu p v qa dng. Nu dng ti vt qu tr s cho php th mch bo v s tc ng ngt in p mt chiu ra khi ti. Kt cu mch ngun gn, vng trc. C s dng diode chng ngc ngun khi sai cc c qui.. m nhn c cc chc nng trn ca khi ngun th mch ngun cung cp phi s dng cc bin php n nh cho cc ngun (+30V, +20V, +10V, 5V). Trong mch n nh ny bao gm cc IC n p, cc Transistor trng loi MOSFET, cc Transistor khc cng vi cc doide. *, Mch x l bng tn c s chnh (2x2,048 Mbt/s) Mch c chc nng x l tn hiu ca 2 lung s vo (Av B) a sang khi kch thch iu ch. C th cc chc nng l: + Bin i 2 lung s vo 2,048 Mbt/s t m HDB-3(m ng)v m NRZ (m gc) ng thi khi phc xung ng h nhm mc ch ng b lung s vo.

+ Ghp 2 lung s vo 2,048Mbt/s thnh mt lung s c tc 4,245 Mbt/s. Nh vy trong lung s mi c cha thm cc bt khc ngoi bt tin (bt ng b, bt ch Th chn v cc bt chn.) + Ngu nhin ho s liu: Lung s liu chung 4,245 Mbt/s b ghp lung, a sang b ngu nhin ho tn hiu s. (Scrambler). Mc ch ca vic ngu nhin ho s liu, l to ra mt tn hiu c s thay i mc ngu nhin, ng thi to cho pha thu d dng khi phc li lung s ban u, v lm cho tn hiu v tuyn c ph ng u mi vng tn s. + M ho vi sai: Tn hiu sau khi ngu nhin ho c m ho vi sai trc khi sang b bin i ni tip/ song song + Bin i lung s t ni tip sang song song. Lung s sau khi m ha vi sai c tch ra lm 2 lung s liu song song, a sang khi kch thch thc hin iu ch vi sng mang trung tn pht. + Ca tn hiu cnh bo AIS. Nu c s c ca lung s liu u vo, mt 1 trong 2 lung(lung A, hoc B), th mch kim tra cnh bo s cho php b dao ng AIS 2,048 Mbt/s hat ng, tn hiu ny s c a vo lung tn hiu AIS bo cho pha sau bit c s c v lung s, ng thi pha thu khng b mt ng b do mt lung s. Cc chc nng ny u c cc mch in ca hai IC chuyn dng D1, D2 m nhn. (IC chuyn dng ca hng AWA). * Mch x l bng tn c s ph: Mch x l bng tn c s ph my pht, c chc nng x l nhng tn hiu bng tn thp cc knh nghip v, gim st v kt hp chung li thnh mt tn hiu bng tn ph, a vo b to dao ng VCO trong khi kch thch thc hin iu ch, nhng tn hiu l tn hiu tng t ca cc knh. * Knh nghip v: Tn s (0,3 2,2) KHz vi mc a vo l OdBm/ 600. * Knh gim st: Tn s (2,7 5 ) KHz vi mc a vo l -10 dBm/600. * Tn hiu gi: (Tone) tn s 2 KHz mc vo 0dBm/600.

Cc tin hiu ny nh cc b lc, cc b khuych i, hn mc v b cng, tn hiu ra ca b cng nm trong di (0,3 - 5) KHz c a sang khi kch thch iu ch tn s vi b to dao ng VCO. - Mch khuch i logarit v cnh bo. Mch khuch i logarit thc hin bin i cc mu in p kim tra nhn t khi khuch i cng sut thnh cc gi tr logarit khc nhau cp cho mch hin th thp sng cc n (LED) trn mn hin th trc mt my pht, ng thi cung cp in p ALC (Automatic Level Control) cho khi kch thch. - Mch cnh bo kp hp cc tnh trng h hng ca ngn my pht cung cp cho mch hin th, ng thi iu khin cc rle ni ra ngoi trm cnh bo cho ngi trc my bit v tnh trng thit b. Mch ghp li ra cao tn (RF) ca khi khuch a cng sut my pht, trch mt phn tn hiu cao tn RF thng qua b nn mt chiu (DC), a n mch hin th mc cao tn ra (cng sut ra), v a ra u ra RF MONITOR c kim tra mc cao tn ra my pht. Ngoi ra mch cnh bo kt hp logc cc tnh trng ca cc mch khc nhau, cung cp cho mch hin th cnh bo s c ng thi tc ng cc rle cnh bo ra ngoi nh: * S c khi kch thch LFD Tx FAIL * S c d liu vo LED DATAIN * Mc cao tn gim LED * S khi Khi kch thch thc hin cc chc nng iu ch hai lung s liu 2Mbt/s t khi x l bng tn c s pht a sang vi tn s sng mang trung tn pht vi phng thc iu ch OQPSK (offset Quadrature Shift Keying). Sng mang c iu ch lung s c nng tn s bng tn s cng tc, bng cch a sng mang vo b trn vi tn s dao ng VCO c s iu khin bng in p do vng tng hp tn s thc hin. Tn s a ra ca b trn nm trong di (1427 MHz - 1535 MHz). Tn hiu c qua b lc, qua b khuch i iu khin mc t c + 8dBm, ri tip tc a sang khi khuch i cng sut. Khi kch thch cn thc hin iu ch bng tn ph vi phng thc iu ch tn s (FM) ngay ti b to dao ngVCO. Khi kch thch bao gm cc mch in sau: *, Khi kch thch (EXCITER). TxFAIL. RFLEVEL Tx FAIL.

* B iu ch 4PSK * B trn tn s. * B tng hp tn s.

(OQPSK)

Ton b cc mch in ny c t tm mch in trong hp bng kim loi pha di y hp.

Da ta In

+
Da ta In

220MHz VCO

V n g k h o ph a PLL

Chia 4 K/ CS

Chia 4

T i ALC

Hnh 4-9: Khi kch thch * Chc nng ca tng mch in. - B iu ch pha cu phng (OQPSK). Hai lung s liu 2,048 Mbt/s t khi bng tn c s pht c a qua cc mch khuch i so snh, hn mc sau c bin i mc t n cc thnh tn hiu lng cc ri a qua hai b lc v ti 2 b trn, ti y c tn hiu sng mang ca b dao ng sng mang trung tn pht IF = 220 MHz c to ra t b dao ng tinh th thch anh c tn s 73,333MHz ri c nhn tn s ln 3 ln, qua b khuch i a n b iu ch( trn tn s) v c lm lch nhau 90 .

u ra ca 2 b trn l tn hiu sng mang trung tn c iu ch hai pha, hai tn hiu c a b khuch i trc khi a vo b cng (trn ln 2). u ra ca b cng l tn hiu trung tn c iu ch 4 trng thi pha m ho trc tip ri a qua b lc, khuch i n b trn nng tn tip theo. * B trn nng tn: Tn hiu trung tn pht 220 MHz u ra ca b iu ch OQPSK c a ti b trn nng tn. ng thi b trn nng tn c tn hiu ca b to dao ng siu cao tn VCO cng a ti, hai tn hiu mang 2 tn s khc c trn vi nhau ti y. u ra ca b trn nng tn xut hin t hp tn s trong c tn s nm trong gii(1427-1535) MHz. Tn s nm trong di c b lc gi li, qua khuch i ri a sang khi khuch i cng sut cn cc tn s khc b loai b. B trn tn nng tn c nhim v to ra tn s sng mang siu cao tn nm trong gii c p dng theo phng thc trn tn: fCT = fIF + fVCO Trong : fCT : Tn s cng tc ca my pht. fIF: Tn s trung tn pht (220 MHz). fVCO: Tn s ca b to dao ng siu cao tn VCO. Tn s cng tc ca my pht : (1427 - 1535 ) MHz. Tn s trung tn pht l 220 MHz. Tn s ca b ta dao ng siu cao tn VCO nm trong gii t (1207- 1315) MHz. Tn hiu ca bng tn c s ph (knh nghip v, gim st, Tone gi, c tng hp li thnh gii tn t (0,3 5) KHz, c a vo iu ch ti b to dao ng VCO bng phng thc iu tn(FM), c s dng diode bin dung.Tn hiu dao ng siu cao tn VCO c a qua b khuch i, ri a vo b trn tn cng vi tn hiu iu ch sng mang trung tn pht, to ra tn s cng tc my pht, nh vy tn s nm trong gii tn (1427 1535)MHz. Tn hiu u ra ca b trn s c lc loi tr cc thnh phn khng cn thit, qua b lc, suy hao dng diode PIN iu chnh mc ra. Ri a sang cc b khuch i mc + 8dBm a sang kch thch cho khi khuch i cng sut siu cao tn(PA). * B tng hp tn s:

B tng hp tn s c thc hin bng k thut vng kho pha, ng thi cho php thay i tn s tn s cng tc ca my pht vi phn gii l 100 KHz. Mu tn s t (75 n 82)MHz c ly ra t b to dao ng VCO sau 2 ln chia, b chia do b m ECL Modun bin thin, mc c in khin c ni n chp chia vn nng CMOS. B chia vn nng c lp chng trnh vi 4 chuyn mch thp phn m BCD v mt diode lp chng trnh, tc l b m ECL chia mu ny cho 10 hoc 11 ln na. u ra s nhn c tn s t (7,5 n 8,2) KHz, tip tn s ny c a n vi mch chia lp trnh vn nng. S chia ca b chia ny. Tn s nhn c sau khi chia c a n b so snh vi tn s dao ng VCO(v tn s, pha), a ra mt in p DC iu chnh tn s dao ng, pha ca b to dao ng VCO. *Khi khuch i cng sut siu cao tn: PA (POWER AMPLYFIER) .

Khi k ch th ch T i m ch ALC

Ra ph n h- ng anten

Hnh 4-10. : Khi khuch i cng sut. - Khi khuch i cng sut nm trong mt hp bng nhm c cnh to nhit pha sau. Tn hiu cao tn trc khi a ra bc lc qua b cch ly, b cch ly bng phe rt nm bn cnh pha tri hp. u ni nm bn phi tn hiu cao tn ( RF) vo, tn hiu cao tn( RF) ra c u ni nm bn tri b cch ly. in p mt chiu cung cp a trn cp dp 10 dy. Pha trong ca hp c ngn lm 2 phn nm trn 2 tm mch in l: * Tm mch in PA (khuch i) * Tm mch in thin p. Hai tm mch in ny c ni vi nhau bng t xuyn. - Khi khuch i cng sut c nhim v nng cao mc tn hiu siu cao tn RF t +8dBm khi kch thch a sang ti mc tn hiu siu cao tn RF t +37 dBm u ra ca khi.

- Khi khuch i cng sut s dng 4 tng khuch i dng Transitor NPN ( ngc). Cc tng khuch i cng sut c cung cp in p mt chiu (DC) n nh cao, cng sut ra ca khi n nh. Trong khi khuch i cng sut cn c mch in iu chnh cng sut ra khi cn thit. Vic iu chnh cng sut c thc hin iu chnh cc in tr thin p (nh thin) ca 2 Transistor khuch i cng sut (4V3, 4V4) . Ngoi ra tng khuch i cng sut cn to ra in p mu t ng iu chnh mc ra (ALC: Automatic Level Control) v a mc ra kim tra o th mc cao tn RF, hin Th mc cng sut ra. *, Nguyn l lm vic: Hai lung s liu vo 2,048 M bt/s vi m HDB -3 t my ghp knh hoc t tng i in t c a vo u Av B. Trc ht c a n khi x l bng tn c s pht (Tx PBA). u vo ca khi x l bng tn c s l 2 bin p cch ly. Nh vy lung s ny i qua bin p phi hp tr khng v ngn thnh phn 1 chiu nu c ri a vo b bin i m( t m HDB -3 lng cc sang m NRZ n cc), qua b ghp lung t hai lung s ghp li thnh mt lung s c b xung cc bt chn, ch th chn, bt ng b. u ra ca b ghp l lung s c tc 4,245 Mbt/s. Sau c a qua b ngu nhin ho s liu (Scrambler), qua m ho vi sai, qua b chuyn i ni tip / song song, t mt lung s sang hai lung s song song c tc bt bng mt na. Hai lung s c a n b iu ch 4 pha m ho trc tip (OQPSK). khi kch thch vi tn s sng mang trung tn pht 220 MHz. Cng vi 2 lung s trn, tn hiu knh nghip v, tn hiu knh gim st v tn hiu bo gi (Tone) c x l khi x l bng tn c s ph c a n b tng hp tn s iu ch vi tn s sng mang VCO theo phng thc iu ch tn s. B iu ch lung s vo OQPSK lm vic tn s trung tn pht IF = 220 MHz. Sau tn hiu trung tn c iu ch a vo b trn nng tn ti b trn nng tn c tn s ca dao ng VCO a vo. Hai tn hiu mang 2 tn s thc hin trn ti y v u ra ca b trn nng tn c tn s nm trong gii (1427 n 1535) MHz. tn s cng tc c n nh cao th tn s ca b to dao ng VCO c iu chnh t ng bi b tng hp tn s c n nh bng vng kho pha (PLL). Tn hiu c tn s t (1427 n 1535)MHz u ra ca b trn c a qua b lc, qua b khuch i mc + 8dBm a qua khi

khuch i tn hiu siu cao tn ln v cng sut (+37dBm), qua b cch ly, qua b lc pht, qua phn hng anten (Circulator), qua phi n an ten bc x sng in t ra khng gian n my thu. b- My thu RMD - 1504 Rx (Receiver). *, S khi ngn my thu. My thu gm cc khi sau: - Khi i tn (Converter Module) - Khi khuch i trung tn (IF Module). - Khi x l bng tn c s thu PBA (Rx Base Band PBA). - Khi hin Th (Display). - Khi ngun cung cp PS (Power supply) *, Ch tiu k thut: - Ngng thu vi BER = 10- 3 - H s tp m (dB) - Tr khng vo () - n nh tn s (PPm) - p tuyn nhiu (dB) - Bc tng hp tn s (KHz) - Trung tn IF (MHz) - rng bng tn IF (mhz) - Phm vi AGC (dB) - Gii iu ch - Cng sut tiu th (W) *, Chc nng nhim v: My thu c nhim v thc hin gii iu ch tn hiu siu cao tn thu c iu ch lung s bn pht ly ra cc lung s liu, v tn hiu ca knh nghip v, knh gim st, Tone gi. Gii tn cng tc ca my thu nm trong khong t (1427 n 1535)MHz. thc hin c nhim v my thu c cc mch (khi) khc nhau nh phn s khi nu. Mi khi trong s thc hin mt s chc nng. C th sau y s phn tch cc chc nng ca tng khi trong my thu. * Khi i tn (Converter Module). -97/-94 dBm 2,8 dBm. 50 +15 PPm <-70 dBm 100KHz 35MHz 2,6 MHz 50 dBm Coherent 12W

Chc nng chnh l i tn s, t tn s nm trong khong t (1427-1535 MHz xung tn s trung tn thu (IF = 35 MHz). Nh vy thc hin c chc nng ny th tn hiu siu cao tn RF thu c c gii tn (1427 n 1535) MHz c a qua cc khi lc, khuch i tp m thp. mc tn hiu siu cao tn (RF) ln, sau a vo trn tn vi tn s t b to dao ng ni a n. Tn s trung tn sau i tn 35 MHz v c nh, nn c th tnh c tn s ca b to dao ng ni thu nm trong khong t (1392 n 1500) MHz.

RF In

T i K/ IF

V n g k h o ph a PLL

VCO

Chia 4

Chia 4

MONITOR

Hnh 4-11: Khi i tn Cc b lc trc khi i tn c nhim v, lc b cc tn s nh, tn s lt thng, tn s ln cn. Vic lc b cc tn s nh c thc hin bng cch, ly 2 tn hiu LO ng pha cng a vo 2 b trn cn bng, tn hiu siu cao tn RF c chia thnh hai tn hiu vung gc bng nhau, cc tn hiu ny c ghp trong mt mch vung gc to tn hiu vung gc trung tn l 35MHz. Tn hiu ca b to dao ng LO c to ra bi b tng hp tn s. B tng hp tn s s dng k thut Vng kho pha PLL c phn di l 100 KHz. B tng hp tn s ny c nguyn l ging nh b tng hp tn s bn my pht.

Nh vy trong khi i tn phi thc hin cc chc nng sau: - khuch a tn hiu siu cao tn (RF = 1427 - 1535) MHz. - To dao ng ni c tn s 1392 n 1500 MHz - Thc hin h tn s t (1427 - 1535) MHz xung 35 MHz. - Lc b tn s nh khi nh hng n tn hiu thu. Cc chc nng ny do cc mch in trong khi m nhn. * Khi khuch i trung tn. (IF Module). Khi khuch i trung tn c b tr trn 2 tm mch in. * Tm lc trung tn (IF FILTER). * Tm khuch i trung tn. Khi khuch i trung tn m nhn chc nng lc b tt c cc tn s khc ngoi tn s trung tn 35MHz khng nh hng n phn sau, v khuch i bin tn hiu trung tn ln theo qui nh, a sang khi gii iu ch. Chc nng ny c cc mch in ca khi m nhn c th nh sau:

t i n

B ng t n c s AGC Detector Logar t AMD

RF level

RF Monitor

Hnh 4-11: Khi khuch i trung tn

Khi khuch i trung tn, nhn tn hiu trung tn t khi i tn a sang. Trc ht qua cc b lc trung tn, vic lc c thc hin trn tm mch in lc IF filter. Tm lc gm c hai b lc LC, gia hai b lc c tng khuch i m s dng Transistor lng cc v Transistor trng c cc ca ni t, gim nh tp m. Tn hiu trung tn sau khi qua b lc c a n b khuch i.(Tm mch in khuch i)tm mch in ny gm5 tng khuch i. Tm mch in khuch i nhn mc tn hiu u vo nm trong khong(-105 n-50)dBm v a ra (u ra tm khuch i) c mc tn hiu 2 dBm, tm khuch i trung tn cn c trch mt phn in p tn hiu a ra kim tra o th. in p o th t l thun vi mc sng mang trung tn. Trong tm khuch i trung tn c 4 tng khuch i, u tin c a in p AGC (Automatic Gian Control), t ng iu chnh h s khuch i, n nh mc tn hiu ra. in p a ra kim tra o th mc RF, c ly t mch x l AGC v b khuch i logc. Tng khuch i cui cng ca tm khuch i trung tn, c khuch i nhng c hn ch (hn ch mc ra). Mc ch bin sng mang a sang khi bng tn c s c n nh. Mi mt tng khuch i trung tn, s dng hai Transistor ghp trc tip vi nhau, n nh h s khuch i tng tng. * Khi x l bng tn c s thu PBA (R x Base Band PBA) - S khi bng tn c s thu CKL
A In put 2,048Mbit/s HDB-3/ NRZ Ngu nhin ho B In put 2,048Mbit/s HDB-3/ NRZ M ho vi sai

NT/ SS

Out put

CKL

Hnh 4-12: S khi bng tn c s. Khi x l bng tn c s thu, nhn sng mang trung tn IF = 35 MHz t khi khuch i trung tn a sang. Thc hin gii iu ch ly ra tn hiu bng tn c s chnh ( hai lung s liu) v tn hiu bng tn c s ph. (Knh nghip v v knh gim st). Tn hiu ny c iu ch OQPSK v iu ch FM bn my pht. khi phc li cc tn hiu trn, khi x l bng tn c s thu thc hin cc chc nng sau: * Khi phc li sng mang * Gii iu ch (Costas). * Khi phc li xung ng b * Gii m vi sai * Bin i song song/ ni tip. * Kh ngu nhin ho (Descrambler). * Tch knh s. *Bin i m NRZ/ HDB -3 * Cnh bo v ci AIS. * Cp ngun cho my thu. Cc chc nng ny c cc mch in trong khi thc hin. C th nh sau: Tn hiu trung tn t khi khuch i trung tn a vo mch gii iu ch Costas. V ph ca tn hiu iu ch OQPSK u pht khng c thnh phn sng mang, nn u thu mch gii iu ch Costas phi khi phc li thnh phn sng mang. Vng Costas l h thng hi tip c s dng tch sng mang cn thit thc hin gii iu ch Tn hiu trung tn c tn s 35MHz c a vo b trn cng vi sng mang c khi phc, nhng c lm dch pha nhau mt gc 900 to ra tn hiu hon iu mi trc vung. Sau c lc qua b cc thnh phn khng mong mun bng 2 b lc thng thp, u ra ca 2 b lc ly c 2 tn hiu l I v Q a sang mch khi phc s liu STR (Symobol Timming Recovery) mch khi phc nh thi. ng thi ra ca 2 b lc li c a qua b

trn cho nhau mt ln na, sau a qua b tr tr vi nhau. u ra ch c mt tn hiu duy nht. Tn hiu ny qua b lc vng Costas ly ra tn hiu bng tn c s ph (knh nghip v, knh gim st tn hiu bo gi) cn thnh phn mt chiu bin i iu khin b to dao ng VCO, to ra ng tn s sng mang cn khi phc. Tn hiu ca bng tn c s ly ra, hai ng tn hiu I v Q c a qua mch khi phc s liu STR, khi phc li lung s liu. Qua b bin i song song/ni tip, qua mch gii m ngu nhin (Descramber), n mch bin i m NRZ/ HDB -3 (n cc sang lng cc), qua bin p cch ly, a v my ghp knh hoc l tng i s.

IF

900

T/H bng t c s n

VCO

B lc Costas 4 pha

Bng t c s ph n
Hnh 4 13: S khi vng Costas. Tn hiu bng tn c s ph c ly t ra ca mch vng Costas, qua b lc thng thp 5KHz. Sau knh nghip v v knh gim st c tch ra nh b lc thng thp 2,2 KHz, b lc cao 2,7 MHz. Tn hiu thoi knh nghip v c khuch i v lp mc theo yu c, cung cp cho t hp tai nghe, hoc a ra loa trc mt my. Mch nghip v cn mt ng qua b lc gii hp 2 KH z tch l tn hiu bo gi (Tone). Khi thu c tn hiu Tone, th rle K1 tc ng lm tip im K1/2 ng, loa c tn hiu bo gi (tt.tt). * Khi ngun cung cp:

Khi ngun cung cp cho my thu c b tr trong cng vi khi bng c s thu. cp in p mt chiu cho cc khi trong my thu v c n nh cao khi ngun c s dng cc mch n nh ch bng nguyn l iu rng xung nh ngun ca my pht. B ngun ca my thu lm vic trong gi 20V n -60Vv c t pha di ngn my thu, c cu ch bo v 1,5A , bo v chng ngc ngun, chng nhiu xung, chng qu p mc in p 68V DC. u ra ca khi ngun my thu a ra cc mc in p mt chiu (DC) nh sau: * +36 V cung cp in p cho khi i tn (mch tng hp tn s). * +10V cung cp cho cc Transistor ton my. * 5V cung cp

-48v/-24v
Bo v

+5v/3A -5v -12v/1A B so snh cnh bo

-48v, -24v

Cnh bo
* Khi hin Th:

Hnh 4-14: Khi ngun cung cp. Khi hin Th ca my thu c t sau mt trc ca my thu v nm pha bn phi ngn my. Khi hin th ma thu gm hai loi mch, mch cnh bo s c v bng hin Th. Ta xt cc mch c th nh sau: - Cc mch cnh bo: theo di v cc trng thi cng tc v cnh bo s c ca my thu, trong my thu c lp cc mch khuch i logc, x l tn hiu thng tin v trng thi, cnh bo v s c, cc mch bao gm: + Mch khuch i logarit v x l thng tin hin th s o mc cng sut thu. Thng tin ny c ly ti mch AGC (mch t ng iu chnh

h s khuch i) t khi trung tn ti, kch thch cho mt trong 20 LED c ch RF Level sng. + Mch ch th cnh bo s c v thu sng mang siu cao tn RF, mch ny cng ly thng tin t mch AGC a qua mch khuch i v so snh ngng. Nu ngng thu gim th lp tc ch th cho LED c ch RF Level sng. + Mch x l theo di cht lng tn hiu s. Thng tin ny ly t vi mch D1 khi x l bng tn c s chnh, ri a qua mch nh gi mc li bt (BER 10-3 hoc BER -10-6 sau a ti LED c ch BER sng nu nh ln hn. + Mch tp hp cc s c ca cc mch trong ma thu nu c xy ra mt s c no trong cc mch th n tc ng cho LED c ch RF FAILL sng. Cc n LED l: + 20 LED vch ch mc thu c ghi t -100 n -50 dBm khong cch gia hai LED l 5 dBm. + LED cnh bo BER : T s li bt vt qu mc quy nh. + LED RF Level: Cnh bo mc thu gim qu mc cho php. + LED RF FAILL: Cnh bo v my thu ni chung. S khi hin Th hnh (1-14).