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HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

C S TI THNH PH H CH MINH

KHOA VIN THNG II


_____________

N
TT NGHIP I HC
CHUYN NGNH: IN T - VIN THNG
H: HON CHNH KIN THC I HC CHNH QUY

ti:

THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH


MNG QUANG TH NG
M s ti:

09407360001

Sinh vin thc hin:

HNG NG NGC N

MSSV:

407360001

Lp:

07VTH1

Gio vin hng dn: Thc s VN VIT EM

TPHCM 2009

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG


C S THNH PH H CH MINH

-------- o0o --------

CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

c lp T Do Hnnh Phc
-------- o0o --------

Thnh ph H Ch Minh, ngy thng nm 2009

PHIU NHN XT N TT NGHIP H I HC


( Dnh cho ngi hng dn )
1. Tn ti tt nghip: .................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................. M ti: ..................
2. H tn sinh vin thc hin: .................................................... Lp: ..........................
Ngy sinh: ............................................................................. MSSV: ......................
3. Tng qut v s liu cc kt qu thc hin:
S trang: ............................................................ S chng (phn): ........................
S bng s liu: ................................................. S hnh v: ...................................
S ti liu tham kho: ........................................ Phn mm s dng: ......................
Hin vt (sn phm phn mm, phn cng): ..............................................................
4. Nhng u im chnh ca n tt nghip:
4.1. Ni dung thc hin: ...........................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
4.2. Kt qu sn phm: ..............................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
4.3. Kh nng p dng: ..............................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
4.4. Hnh thc trnh by:............................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
5. Nhng thiu st chnh ca n tt nghip:

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
6. ngh: c bo v B sung thm bo v Khng c bo v
7. nh ga chung: im s : ................ /10 ; im ch: ..............................................
Xc nhn ca B mn/Khoa

Gio vin hng dn

HC VIN CNG NGH BU CHNH VIN THNG

CNG HA X HI CH NGHA VIT NAM

C S THNH PH H CH MINH

c Lp T Do Hnh Phc

------ -- o0o --------

------ -- o0o --------

Thnh ph H Ch Minh, ngy .. thng .. nm 2009

PHIU NHN XT N TT NGHIP H I HC


( Dnh cho ngi c duyt )
1. Tn ti tt nghip: ...........................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................. M ti: ............................
2. H tn sinh vin thc hin: .................................................... Lp: ....................................
Ngy sinh: ............................................................................. MSSV: ................................
3.

Tng qut v s liu cc kt qu thc hin:


S trang:.................................................................. S chng: .......................................
S bng s liu: ....................................................... S hnh v: .......................................
S ti liu tham kho: .............................................. Phn mm s dng: ..........................
Hin vt (sn phm phn mn, phn cng): .........................................................................

4. Nhng u im chnh ca n tt nghip:


4.1. Ni dung thc hin: ......................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
4.2. Kt qu sn phm: ........................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
4.3. Kh nng p dng: ........................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
4.4. Hnh thc trnh by:......................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
5. Nhng thiu st chnh ca n tt nghip:
............................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
6. ngh: c bo v
B sung thm bo v
Khng c bo v
7. 3 cu hi sinh vin phi tr li trc Hi ng:
a).........................................................................................................................................

............................................................................................................................................
b) ........................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
c).........................................................................................................................................
............................................................................................................................................
8. nh gi chung: im s: ................. /10 ; im ch: ......................................................
( Ghi ch: Trong trng hp thay i im chm gio vin phi k tn xc nhn ).
Xc nhn ca B mn/Khoa

Gio vin c duyt

Vi lng bit n su sc em xin gi n:


Ba m v gia nh ngi h tr khng nhng v vt cht m
cn l tinh thn v l ngun ng vin rt ln ca em trong sut
qu trnh hc tp.
Cc qu thy c ca trng Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh vin
thng c s ti Tp.HCM ni chung v cc thy c khoa in t Vin thng ni ring nhng ngi ging dy truyn t
nhng kin thc b ch cho em trong sut 2 nm hc qua.
Thy Vn Vit Em_ngi hng dn, ch bo tn tnh
hng dn em trong sut thi gian thc hin v hon thnh
lun n tt nghip ny.
Cc bn ng lp in t - Vin thng nin kha 2007 2009
h tr, ng vin nhau trong qu trnh hc tp cng nh
trong thi gian lm lun vn tt nghip ny.

Mt ln na em chn thnh cm n!
Tp.H Ch Minh, ngy 01 thng 10 nm 2009
Sinh vin thc hin
HNG NG NGC N

LI M U
Cc k thut trong thng tin quang c th cung cp gii php ng dng cho hin ti v
tng lai. Thng qua s pht trin ca si quang th kin trc mng vin thng cng ngy
cng pht trin mnh m, cung cp tc rt cao truyn d liu c dung lng ln. Mt s
thun li ca h thng thng tin quang l: dung lng bng thng cao, truyn dn di, ng
tin cy.
Nhng nm gn y, vic gia tng dung lng mng truyn dn cng vi vic pht trin
cc ng dng v dch v mi n khch hng to ra hin tng gi l tht c chai trong
mng truy nhp. Khng nghi ng g na mng quang l mt gii php cn thit v quan trng
trong vn truyn dn. Trong , mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical Network) l
mt gii php trin vng y ha hn trong mng truy nhp lm gim bt hin tng tht
c chai. Mng PON l mng im n a im m khng c cc thnh phn tch cc trong
tuyn truyn dn t ngun n ch, c bn th n bao gm si quang v cc thit b th ng.
iu ny lm tit kim chi ph bo dng, phn phi thit b, cp ngun v tn dng c
kin trc mng quang.
Hin nay c 2 mng PON c chun ha ty theo k thut lp 2 c s dng l ITU-T
and IEEE. Chun PON u tin da vo ATM nh l APON v BPON v da vo giao thc
ng gi GFP c bit nh l GPON. Th 2 l chun IEEE 802.3ah ni ln nh l mt ng
c vin y ha hn cho mng truy nhp bng rng th h k tip, l EPON.
Lun n tt nghip ny c trnh by gm 4 chng vi ni dung nh sau:
Chng 1:

Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON (Passive Optical

Network). Chng ny gii thiu v mng PON, cc thnh phn c bn trong mng
PON v phn loi cc loi PON.
Chng 2:

Tm hiu FTTH (Fiber to the home). Chng ny tm hiu c th cc

loi PON chun theo ITU-T: APON/BPON, GPON v EPON, sau gii thiu mun
m rng mng PON chun ny bng cch s dng b khuch i quang nh th no?
Chng 3:

M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH. Chng ny nu ra m

hnh thit k, bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng quang th ng PON
theo chun ITU-T v hng m rng ca mng PON.
Chng 4:

Chng trnh thit k. Gii thiu chng trnh thit k. p dng Visual

basic. Net gii quyt chng trnh.


Do thi gian nghin cu khng nhiu v qu trnh thit k chc chn khng trnh khi
mt s thiu st nht nh. Mong c s gp ph bnh qu bu ca qu thy c sau ny
em tip tc nghin cu su hn.

Tp.HCM, ngy 01 thng 10 nm 2009


Sinh vin thc hin
HNG NG NGC N

MC LC
MC LC .............................................................................................................................. i
DANH MC CC HNH V ............................................................................................... iv
DANH MC CC BNG .................................................................................................... vi
CHNG 1
TM HIU CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH NG PON......................................... 1
1.1. Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON ............................................................................. 1
1.1.1. Cng ngh PON ........................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2. c im chnh ca h thng PON ............................................................................... 1
1.2. Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON ........................................................ 2
1.2.2. OLT ............................................................................................................................. 4
1.2.2.1. Phn li OLT ............................................................................................................. 4
1.2.2.2. Phn dch v OLT ..................................................................................................... 5
1.2.2.3. Phn chung OLT ....................................................................................................... 5
1.2.3. ONU ............................................................................................................................ 5
1.2.3.1. Phn li ONU ............................................................................................................ 5
1.2.3.2. Phn dch v ONU .................................................................................................... 6
1.2.3.3. Phn chung ONU ...................................................................................................... 6
1.2.4. ODN ............................................................................................................................ 6
1.2.4.1. Si quang v cp quang ............................................................................................. 6
1.2.4.2. Splitter ...................................................................................................................... 7
1.3. Ti sao PON li pht trin ............................................................................................... 8
1.4. Phn loi PON................................................................................................................. 9
Chng 2
TM HIU FIBER TO THE HOME .................................................................................... 11
2.1. APON/BPON ................................................................................................................ 11
2.1.1. M t h thng APON/BPON..................................................................................... 12
2.1.2. Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON ............................................................................... 13
2.1.3. Khung truyn dn APON/BPON ................................................................................ 13
2.1.4. Bc sng trong APON.............................................................................................. 16
2.1.5. Kin trc chuyn mch bo v .................................................................................... 17
2.2. GPON ........................................................................................................................... 18
2.2.1. M t h thng GPON ................................................................................................ 18
2.2.2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC)........................................................................... 19
2.2.3. Khung truyn dn GPON ........................................................................................... 20
2.2.3.1. Cu trc khung down............................................................................................... 20
2.2.3.2. Cu trc khung up ................................................................................................... 24
2.2.3.3. nh x lu lng vo ti GTC................................................................................. 28
2.2.4. Sp xp giao thc GPON............................................................................................ 30
2.2.5. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON .................................................................. 32
2.2.6. Bo mt ...................................................................................................................... 33
2.2.7. Sa li FEC ................................................................................................................ 33
2.3. EPON............................................................................................................................ 34

2.3.1. Kin trc tng Ethernet v EPON ............................................................................... 34


2.3.2. Lp ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD ca EPON....................................................... 36
2.3.3. Hot ng burst mode v Loop Timing trong EPON .................................................. 36
2.3.4. Khung Ethernet .......................................................................................................... 37
2.3.5. Giao thc iu khin a im ..................................................................................... 37
2.3.5.1. Ranging trong EPON ............................................................................................... 38
2.3.5.2. Hot ng Gate v Report ....................................................................................... 38
2.3.5.4. Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im ............................................................... 40
2.3.5.5. T ng khm ph ONU ......................................................................................... 41
2.3.5.6. M phng P2P trong EPON..................................................................................... 42
2.3.6. So snh EPON v GPON ............................................................................................ 45
2.4. SuperPON ..................................................................................................................... 46
2.5. Phn b bng tn ........................................................................................................... 47
2.5.1. Phng php phn b bng tn c nh ...................................................................... 47
2.5.2. M t hot ng phn phi bng tn ng c bn ...................................................... 48
2.5.3. IPACT ........................................................................................................................ 49
2.5.4. Phn phi bng thng ti thiu c m bo ............................................................ 52
2.5.5.3. Phn b bng thng ng......................................................................................... 40
2.5.5.7. M ha v bo v .................................................................................................... 45
2.6. Chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong mng quang th ng PON ............. 53
2.6.1. Qun l mng c bn................................................................................................... 54
2.6.2. Cc chc nng qun l ................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.1. Qun l thc thi........................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.2. Qun l cu hnh ...................................................................................................... 55
2.6.2.3. Qun l k ton ........................................................................................................ 55
2.6.2.4. Qun l li ............................................................................................................... 55
2.6.2.5. Qun l bo mt ....................................................................................................... 56
2.6.3. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong FTTH ............................................................ 57
2.7. ng dng ...................................................................................................................... 58
2.7.1. Trn th gii ............................................................................................................... 58
2.7.2. Ti Vit Nam.............................................................................................................. 59
Chng 3
M HNH THIT K V BI TON THIT K FFTH DA TRN CNG NGH
MNG QUANG TH NG PON ............................................................................ 61
3.1. tng m hnh thit k ............................................................................................... 61
3.2. Bi ton thit k ............................................................................................................ 62
3.2.1. Bi ton 1
Thit k FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng PON ........................................ 62
3.2.2. Bi ton 2
Tnh cng sut thu c OLT v ONU v so snh vi nhy ca thit b sau a ra
kt lun c thit k c FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng PON khng?62
3.2.3. Bi ton 3
S dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut pht ca OLT trong m hnh thit k
FTTH da trn mng PON ........................................................................................... 64
3.2.4. Bi ton 4
ii

S dng b khuch i quang b suy hao do t l b chia splitter gy nn trong m hnh


thit k FTTH da trn mng PON ............................................................................... 65
3.3. Gi s mt s thit b OLT v ONU .............................................................................. 67
Chng 4
CHNG TRNH THIT K ......................................................................................... 69
4.1. Gii thiu chng trnh ................................................................................................. 69
4.2. Hng dn thc hin chng trnh ................................................................................ 69
PH LC ............................................................................................................................ 79
TI LIU THAM KHO .................................................................................................... 81
T VIT TT ..................................................................................................................... 82

iii

DANH MC CC HNH V
Hnh 1. 1 : M hnh h thng mng PON [1]. ......................................................................... 2
Hnh 1. 2 : Giao din kt ni OLT n mng li v giao din kt ni ONU n khch hng
[9]. ......................................................................................................................................... 3
Hnh 1. 3 : Cc khi chc nng OLT [6]. ............................................................................... 4
Hnh 1. 4 : Cc khi chc nng ONU [6]................................................................................ 5
Hnh 1. 5 : c tuyn suy hao ca si quang [1]. .................................................................... 7
Hnh 1. 6 : Cc loi splitter..................................................................................................... 8
Hnh 1. 7 : Vic trin khai si quang trong mng truy nhp [10]............................................. 9
Hnh 2. 1 : M hnh h thng BPON [1], [10] ...................................................................... 11
Hnh 2. 2 :Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON ........................................................................ 13
Hnh 2. 3 : Cu trc khung download v up load ca APON ................................................ 16
Hnh 2. 4 : K hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T G.983.3 ............................................... 17
Hnh 2. 5 : Kin trc chuyn mch bo v c a ra trong ITU-T G.983.1 ....................... 18
Hnh 2. 6 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON [5]..................................................... 20
Hnh 2 .7 : Khung down GTC [5] ......................................................................................... 20
Hnh 2. 8 : M t chi tit khung down GTC.......................................................................... 21
Hnh 2. 9 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU [5] .................................................................... 22
Hnh 2. 10 : Khung up GTC [5]............................................................................................ 24
Hnh 2 .11 : M t chi tit khung up GTC [1] ....................................................................... 25
Hnh 2. 12 : Cc cell ATM hng up ln [5] ..................................................................... 27
Hnh 2. 13 : Cc khung GEM hng up ln [5] ................................................................. 27
Hnh 2. 14 : Bo co DBA hng up ln [5] ...................................................................... 27
Hnh 2. 15 : Cu trc header v khung GEM [5]................................................................... 28
Hnh 2. 16 : C ch trng thi m t GEM [5] ...................................................................... 29
Hnh 2. 17 : nh x v phn on d liu ca user thnh ti GEM [5] .................................. 30
Hnh 2. 18 : Ghp d liu khn cp s dng th tc phn khung GEM [5] ........................... 30
Hnh 2. 19 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 1 : Th tc ng k s serial cho ONU mi [1]
............................................................................................................................................ 31
Hnh 2. 20 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 2 : Th tc o tr [1] ................................ 32
Hnh 2. 21 : V d khung down cho tc 2.488 Gbps [5] ................................................... 33
Hnh 2. 22 : V d khung up ln [5] ...................................................................................... 34
Hnh 2. 23 : Kin trc lp P2P Ethernet v lp P2MP EPON [1] .......................................... 35
Hnh 2. 24 : Khun dng khung Ethernet chun. .................................................................. 37
Hnh 2. 25 : Th tc sp xp EPON [1]. ............................................................................... 38
Hnh 2. 26 : Hot ng Gate ca EPON [1] .......................................................................... 39
Hnh 2. 27 : Hot ng Report ca EPON ............................................................................ 40
Hnh 2. 28 : Khun dng ca khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im MPCPDU .............. 41
Hnh 2. 29 : Th tc d tm t ng trong EPON ................................................................. 41
Hnh 2. 30 : Cc ONU khng thy lu lng trc tip vi nhau m phi thng qua OLT ..... 42
Hnh 2. 31 : M phng P2P trong EPON .............................................................................. 43
iv

Hnh 2. 32 : Nhn khung MAC trong EPON ........................................................................ 44


Hnh 2. 33 : M phng hot ng OLT qung b lu lng v ONU truyn P2P trong EPON
............................................................................................................................................ 45
Hnh 2. 34 : MAC P2P v qung b trong EPON ................................................................. 45
Hnh 2. 35 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t sau b OLT ............................................ 47
Hnh 2. 36 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t gn splitter b suy hao cho splitter ..... 47
Hnh 2. 37 : Phn b khe thi gian c nh [3] ..................................................................... 48
Hnh 2. 38 : M hnh phn b bng tn ng c bn [1] ....................................................... 48
Hnh 2. 39 : Cc bc thut ton polling [3] ......................................................................... 52
Hnh 2. 40 : Cc bc ca giao thc phn b bng thng ti thiu........................................ 53
Hnh 2. 41 : Cc thnh phn h thng qun l mng in hnh v mi quan h ca chng [13]
............................................................................................................................................ 54
Hnh 2. 42 : Cc tin trnh qun l li [13] ............................................................................ 56
Hnh 2. 44 : Bng cp nht xp hng s dng FTTH chu ............................................. 58
Hnh 2. 43 : OLT khi to loop-back iu khin t xa [13] .................................................. 58
Hnh 3. 1 : M hnh thit k mng PON ............................................................................... 61
Hnh 3. 2 : Minh ha khong cch truyn cn tng v v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi
ton mun tng cng sut pht ............................................................................................. 64
Hnh 3. 4 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi ton b suy hao cho splitter .... 66
Hnh 3. 5 : Lu gii thut ca bi ton s 2, 3 v 4 ............ Error! Bookmark not defined.
Hnh 4. 1: Giao din chnh ca chng trnh ........................................................................ 71
Hnh 4. 2 : Giao din ca chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty ..... 71
Hnh 4. 3 : Giao din xut hin bng thng bo khi khng nhp vo s thu bao .................. 72
Hnh 4. 4 : Giao din kt qu chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty 72
Hnh 4. 5 : Giao din chng trnh thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh quang th ng ......... 73
Hnh 4. 6 : Giao din c s d liu ca chng trnh thit k mng PON chun theo ITU-T. 73
Hnh 4. 7 : Giao kt qu chng trnh thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T ....................... 75
Hnh 4. 8 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut
pht ...................................................................................................................................... 75
Hnh 4. 9 : Giao din kt qu tnh ton khi s dng b khuch i tng cng sut pht. .. 76
Hnh 4. 10 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang b suy hao cho
splitter. ................................................................................................................................. 77
Hnh 4. 11 : Giao din kt qu ca chng trnh thit k PON s dng b khuch i quang
b suy hao cho splitter.......................................................................................................... 78

DANH MC CC BNG
Bng 1. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia splitter tng ng. ............................................... 8
Bng 1. 2 : M t s khc nhau ca APON/BPON, GPON v EPON. .................................. 10
Bng 2. 1 : Tc down v up ca APON/BPON. ............................................................... 12
Bng 3. 1 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b OLT trong PON. .......................................... 67
Bng 3. 2 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b ONU trong mng PON. ................................ 68

vi

Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON

THIT K FTTH DA TRN CNG NGH


MNG QUANG TH NG
Chng 1:

TM HIU CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH


NG PON

Chng ny gii thiu v mng quang th ng PON, cc thnh phn c bn ca mng


quang th ng PON v phn loi cc loi PON.

1.1.

Gii thiu mng quang th ng PON

1.1.1. Cng ngh PON


PON l t vit tt ca Passive Optical Network tm dch l mng quang th ng.
Cng ngh mng quang th ng PON cn c hiu l mng cng ngh quang truy nhp
gip tng cng kt ni gia cc nt mng truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v ngi s
dng. Cng ngh PON c bit ti u tin l TPON (Telephony PON) c trin khai
vo nhng nm 90, tip nm 1998, mng BPON (Broadband PON) c chun ha da
trn nn ATM. Hai nm 2003 v 2004 nh du s ra i ca hai dng cng ngh Ethernet
PON (EPON) v Gigabit PON (GPON), c th ni hai cng ngh ny m ra c hi mi cho
cc nh cung cp dch v gii quyt hng lot vn truy nhp bng thng rng ti ngi s
dng u cui. Thnh vin mi nht trong gia nh PON l WDM PON (Wavelength
Division Multiplexer PON).
Trong cng ngh PON, tt c thnh phn active gia tng i CO (Central Office) v
ngi s dng s khng cn tn ti m thay vo l cc thit b quang th ng, iu
hng cc traffic trn mng da trn vic phn chia nng lng ti cc im u cui trn
ng truyn chnh v vy m ngi ta gi l cng ngh mng quang th ng (PON).
V tr ca h thng PON trong mng truyn dn: Mng quang th ng PON l mt dng
ca mng truy nhp quang. Mng truy nhp h tr cc kt ni n khch hng. N c t
gn u cui khch hng v trin khai vi s lng ln. Mng truy nhp tn ti nhiu dng
khc nhau do nhiu l do khc nhau v PON l mt trong nhng dng . So vi mng truy
nhp cp ng truyn thng, si quang hu nh khng gii hn bng thng (hng THz). Vic
trin khai si quang n tn nh thu bao s l mc ch pht trin trong tng lai.

1.1.2. c im chnh ca h thng PON


c trng ca h thng PON l thit b th ng phn phi si quang n tng nh
thu bao s dng b chia splitter c th ln ti 1:128.
PON h tr giao thc ATM, Ethernet.
PON h tr cc dch v voice, data v video tc cao.
Kh nng cung cp bng thng cao.
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 1

Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON


Trong h thng PON bng thng c chia s cho nhiu khch hng iu ny s lm
gim chi ph cho khch hng s dng.
Kh nng tn dng cng ngh WDM, ghp knh phn chia theo di tn v cung cp
bng thng ng gim thiu s lng cp quang cn thit kt ni gia OLT v
splitter.
PON thc hin truyn dn 2 chiu trn 2 si quang hay 2 chiu trn cng 1 si quang.
PON c th h tr topo hnh cy, sao, bus v ring.

1.2.

Thnh phn c bn ca mng quang th ng PON

1.2.1. M hnh h thng

ODN
ONU
ONU

Splitter

ONU

Si quang
ONU

Si quang
Splitter

Mng
li/
metro

OLT
Central
Office

ONU

Splitter
ONU

ONU
Splitter

ONU

ONU

Hnh 1. 1 : M hnh h thng mng PON [1].

Mt h thng mng PON biu din trn hnh 1.1 bao gm cc thit b kt cui ng
quang (OLTs Optical line terminators) t ti trm trung tm (CO- Central Office) v b cc
thit b kt cui knh quang (ONUs Optical network units) c t pha ngi s dng.
Gia chng l h thng phn phi mng quang (ODN Optical distribution network) bao
gm cp quang, cc thit b ghp/tch th ng.

OLT c kt ni n mng li/metro thng qua giao tip (hnh 1.2):


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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON

V5: giao tip ny ni n mng PSTN/ISDN.

E1: giao tip vi mng DDN.

FE/GE v ATM: giao tip vi mng IP/ATM.

Hnh 1. 2 : Giao din kt ni OLT n mng li v giao din kt ni ONU n khch hng [9].

Giao din kt ni n cc thit b ca khch hng gm c cc loi sau (hnh 1.2):

POTS (Plain Old Telephone Service): l h thng in thoi tng t ch gi mt


tn hiu tng t trn mi cp dy, mi tn hiu ring bit ny c coi l mt
knh. S dng POTS v modem gi tn hiu tng t cung cp mt knh
64kbit/s. Modem v ng dy in thoi truyn thng kh ph hp cho mc ch
s dng Internet gi th in t. Tuy nhin, nu chng ta cn gi v nhn mt
khi lng d liu ln th s mt kh nhiu thi gian.
Dch v POTS c nhng c im sau y:
o Cc ng dy hin thi ch s dng hai cp dy xon.
o Tn hiu trn cp ni chng cui l tn hiu tng t.
o Cn modem chuyn tn hiu s thnh tn hiu tng t.

xDSL: cung cp kt ni xDSL bng thng cao kh nng ti a ln 50Mbps, vi


yu cu khong cch cp ng khong 500m v ti a n 1000m.

FE (Fast Ethernet): cung cp cc dch v tc ln ti 100Mbps cho khch hng.

2B+D: cung cp 2 knh B c tc mi knh l 64 kbps c dng cho thoi, fax,


truyn d liu v truy cp Internet; 1 knh D c tc 16 kbps c dng
truyn tn hiu iu khin.

V.24/V.35: ni vo cc thit b.

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON

1.2.2. OLT
OLT cung cp giao din quang v pha mng phi quang ODN v cung cp t nht mt
giao din quang trn mng pha mng truy nhp quang. OLT c th c t bn trong
tng i hay ti mt trm t xa.
S khi chc nng ca OLT c m t hnh 1.3.
Phn dch v OLT

Mng
li/metro

Chc nng
port dch v

Phn li OLT

Chc nng
giao din ODN

Chc
nng
kt ni
cho
c
s ha

Chc nng
ghp knh
truyn dn

ODN

Chc nng
giao din ODN

V5, E1,
ATM,
FE/GE
Chc nng
OAM

Chc nng cp
ngun

Phn chung OLT


Hnh 1. 3 : Cc khi chc nng OLT [6].

Mt OLT c th c chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung.


1.2.2.1. Phn li OLT
Phn li OLT bao gm:

Chc nng kt ni cho c s ha cung cp cc kt ni gia phn mng li/metro


vi phn mng phi quang ODN.

Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp vic truyn v ghp cc knh trn mng
phi quang ODN. V d nh d liu i t mng li/metro n mng phi quang ODN
th n c nhim v l truyn cn d liu i t mng phi quang ODN n mng
li/metro th n phi c ghp knh trc khi truyn n mng li/metro.

Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang kt ni OLT vi
mt hoc nhiu ONU bng vic s dng thit b th ng. N iu khin qu trnh
chuyn i quang/in v in/quang. c th thc hin c ch chuyn mch bo v
v lm d dng cho vic x l thit b th ng splitter th OLT s c cc chc nng
giao din ODN ging nh phn mng phi quang ODN.

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON


1.2.2.2. Phn dch v OLT
Phn dch v OLT th c chc nng port dch v. Cc port dch v s truyn t nht tc
ISDN v s c th cu hnh mt s dch v hay c th h tr ng thi hai hay nhiu dch v
khc nhau v d nh dch v truyn hnh phn gii cao (HDTV- high definition TV), game
online, truyn d liu... Bt k khi TU (tributary unit) cng u cung cp hai hay nhiu port
c tc 2 Mbps ph thuc vo cch cu hnh trn mi port. Khi TU c nhiu port c th
cu hnh mi port mt dch v khc nhau.
1.2.2.3. Phn chung OLT
Phn chung OLT bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo
dng (OAM-Operation, Administration and Maintenance). Chc nng cp ngun chuyn i
ngun ngoi thnh ngun mong mun. Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu
khin hot ng, qun l v bo dng cho tt c khi OLT. Trong iu khin ni b, mt
giao din c th c cung cp cho mc ch chy th v giao din Q3 cho mng truy nhp
n h thng ang hot ng thng qua chc nng sp xp.

1.2.3. ONU
ONU t ti pha khch hng, ONU cung cp cc phng tin cn thit phn phi cc
dch v khc nhau c iu khin bi OLT. M hnh cc khi chc nng ca ONU c m
t hnh 1.4.
Phn li ONU

ODN

Chc nng giao


din ODN

Phn dch v ONU

Chc nng
ghp knh
truyn dn

Chc
nng
ghp
khch
hng v
dch v

Chc nng
port user

Khch
hng

POTS,
V24/V35,
xDSL,
2B+D
Chc nng
OAM

Chc nng cp
ngun

Phn chung ONU


Hnh 1. 1 : Cc khi chc nng ONU [6].

Mt ONU c th chia lm 3 phn: phn li, phn dch v v phn chung.


1.2.3.1.

Phn li ONU

Phn li ONU gm:

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON

Chc nng ghp khch hng v dch v c nhim v nu v pha khch hng th d
liu s c ghp trc khi truyn n ODN cn nu v pha ODN th cc dch v s
tch ra ph hp cho tng user yu cu dch v.

Chc nng ghp knh truyn dn cung cp cc chc nng phn phi tn hiu gia
ODN v khch hng.

Chc nng giao din ODN cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i quang/in hay
in/quang.

1.2.3.2. Phn dch v ONU


Phn dch v ONU cung cp cc chc nng port ca user.
Chc nng port ca user cung cp cho cc giao din dch v ca khch hng v b thch
nghi ca chng l 64 kbps hay n64 kbps. Chc nng ny c th c cp bi mt khch
hng hay mt nhm khch hng. N cng cung cp cc chc nng chuyn i tn hiu ty
thuc giao din vt l (v d nh rung chung, bo hiu, chuyn i A/D v D/A).
1.2.3.3. Phn chung ONU
Phn chung ONU bao gm chc nng cp ngun v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo
dng OAM. Chc nng cp ngun cung cp ngun cho ONU (v d nh chuyn i AC
thnh DC hay ngc li). Ngun c th c cp ti ch hay t xa. Nhiu ONU c th chia s
ngun. ONU c th hot ng bng ngun d phng.
Chc nng OAM cung cp cc phng tin iu khin cc chc nng hot ng, qun
l v bo dng cho tt c khi ca ONU.

1.2.4. ODN
Mng phi quang ODN cung cp mi trng truyn dn quang cho cc kt ni vt l t
ONU n OLT.
ODN bao gm cc thnh phn sau:

Si quang v cp quang.

Cc connector.

Cc thit b th ng nh splitter.

Mi ni.

1.2.4.1. Si quang v cp quang


Si quang l mt thnh phn quan trng trong mng n to s kt ni gia cc thit b.
Hai thng s c bn ca si quang l suy hao v tn sc tuy nhin si quang ng dng trong
mng PON th ch cn quan tm n suy hao khng quan tm n tn sc bi khong cch
truyn ti a ch l 20 km v tn sc th nh hng khng ng k. Do ngi ta s dng
si quang y l si quang c suy hao nh ch yu l s dng si quang theo chun G.652
(theo khuyn ngh G.982).

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON

Hnh 1. 2 : c tuyn suy hao ca si quang [1].

Nhn vo c tuyn suy hao ca si quang hnh 1.5 ta thy bc sng 1310 nm th suy
hao si quang khong 0.4 dB/km v bc sng 1490 nm th suy hao si quang khong
0.3 dB/km.
Cc loi cp quang s dng trong mng PON:

Cp gc (cp phn b t OLT n splitter): thng l loose-tube loi cp ny th


c khuyn ngh ng dng hu ht mng PON.

Cp phi (cp phn b t splitter n dy drop): c th s dng cp loose-tube hoc


ribbon.

Dy drop (ko n nh thu bao).

1.2.4.2. Splitter
Thnh phn c nhc ch yu trong mng PON l splitter. Splitter l thit b th ng,
cng dng ca n l chia cng sut quang t mt si ra nhiu si khc nhau.
T OLT n ONU c th s dng nhiu dng splitter c t b chia l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8;
1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128. Hnh 1.6 s dng mt splitter c t l chia ln nh 1:32 hay 1:64 hay
c th s dng splitter nhiu lp vi lp th nht s dng splitter 1:2 v lp th 2 s dng 2
splitter 1:4.
Hu ht h thng PON c b chia splitter l 1:16 v 1:32. T l chia trc tip nh hng
qu suy hao ca h thng v suy hao truyn dn. T l ca splitter cng cao cng c ngha l
cng sut truyn n mi ONU s gim xung do suy hao ca b chia splitter 1:N tnh theo
cng thc 10logN (dB) nn nu t l b chia m tng ln gp i th suy hao s tng ln 3
dB.

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON


ONU
ONU

Splitter

ONU

ONU
ONU

Splitter

ONU

OLT

ONU

OLT

Splitter
ONU

Splitter

ONU

ONU

ONU

ONU

(a)

(b)

ONU

Hnh 1. 3 : Cc loi splitter


(a) S dng Splitter c t l b chia 1:32 hay 1:64
(b) S dng Splitter c t l b chia 1:2 v hai splitter c t l b chia 1:4.

Da vo cc b chia nh l 1:2; 1:4; 1:8; 1:16;1:32; 1:64; 1:128 ta c suy hao tng ng
lit k bng 1.1.
Bng 1. 1 : Lit k suy hao ca cc b chia splitter tng ng.

1.3.

S port

Suy hao splitter (dB)

16

12

32

15

64

18

Ti sao PON li pht trin

Trong FTTH nu da vo mng quang ch ng th si quang s c ko t trm trung


tm n nh thu bao. y l kiu kin trc n gin s dng k thut P2P nhng chi ph
ko mt si quang t trm trung tm n nh khch hng l v cng c . Ta gi s c N
thu bao vi khong cch truyn L tnh t trm trung tm CO th ta cn c 2N b thu pht v
NL chiu di si quang ( y gi s rng si quang truyn 2 hng) (hnh 1.7a). gim
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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON


vic trin khai si quang, ta c th s dng trm chuyn mch t xa; iu ny lm gim vic
s dng chiu di si quang nhng li tng s b thu pht ln thnh 2N+2 bi c thm mt
lin kt thm vo mng (hnh 1.7b). Thm vo , trm chuyn mch t xa ny th cn ngun
in hot ng. Mt trong nhng chi ph cao nht ca mng l cung cp v duy tr ngun
in hot ng trong mng. Do , vic thay th trm chuyn mch t xa ny thnh splitter th
s tit kim rt nhiu chi ph bi splitter hot ng m khng cn cp ngun. Mng PON ti
u b thu pht quang, trm trung tm v trin khai si quang. B thu pht trong mng PON
ch cn N+1v si quang trin khai c di L (hnh 1.7c). Bi nhng li ch ca n va tit
kim chi ph va d trin khai nn mng PON pht trin rt nhanh chng trong mng truy
nhp.

Hnh 1. 7 : Vic trin khai si quang trong mng truy nhp [10]

1.4.

Phn loi PON

Xt v k thut th mng PON c th chia lm 2 loi: th nht l da vo k thut ghp


knh phn chia theo thi gian s dng hng down v k thut truy cp ghp knh theo thi
gian hng up th ta c cc loi nh sau APON/BPON (ATM PON/Broadband PON,
GPON(Gigabit PON) v EPON(Ethernet PON); th hai da vo k thut ghp knh theo bc
sng th ta c WDM PON. Trong n tt nghip ny ch yu nghin cu v ATM/BPON,
GPON v EPON.
Bng 1.2 m t s khc nhau ca BPON, GPON v EPON ta c ci nhn khi qut v 3
loi mng PON ny s c trnh by c th chng k tip.

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Chng 1: Tm hiu cng ngh mng quang th ng PON


Bng 1. 2 : M t s khc nhau ca APON/BPON, GPON v EPON.

Thng s
Tc bit

APON/BPON

GPON

Down: 155, 622, 1244


Mbps

Down: 155, 622, 1244,


2488 Mbps
Up: 155, 622, 1244
Mbps

Down v up: 1250


Mbps

Ti a: 20 km

Up: 155, 622 Mbps

EPON

Khong cch

Ti a: 20 km

Ti a: 60 km

Qu suy hao

10-25 / 10-28 / 15-30


dB

5-20 / 10-25 / 13-28 / 155-21 / 10-26 dB


30 dB

B chia

Ti a: 1:64

Ti a: 1:128

Ti a ln hn 1:16

Bc sng

Down:1480-1500nm
Up: 1260-1360 nm
Cung cp tn hiu video
1550 nm

Down:1480-1500nm
Up: 1260-1360 nm
Cung cp tn hiu video
1550 nm

Down:1480-1500nm
Up: 1260-1360 nm
Cung cp tn hiu video
1550 nm

Giao thc

Cell ATM

Khung GEM

Khung Ethernet

Dch v

Ethernet, TDM, POTS

Ethernet, TDM, POTS

Ethernet

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

Chng 2:

TM HIU FIBER TO THE HOME

Chng ny s m t c th cc loi APON/BPON, GPON, EPON nh s dng k thut


g, cu trc khung ca tng loi, gm c cc th tc g n hot ng ra sao theo chun ITU-T
v cch m rng mng PON bng cch s dng b khuch i ra sao trong superPON.

2.1.

APON/BPON

APON/BPON c chun ha bi ITU-T. APON (ATM-PON) v BPON (Broadband


PON) l tn khc nhau ca kin trc TDM-PON da trn ITU-T G.983. Tn BPON phc v
cho mc ch tip th, cn tn APON th ni r khung ATM c dng truyn trong chun
ITU-T G.983. ATM c 53 cell trong 5 cell header v 48 cell ti. Bi v kch c c nh,
ATM c th m bo cht lng dch v v d nh phn b bng thng, m bo
trATM c thit k h tr c thoi v d liu v th m n ph hp cho ng dng FTTH.

2.1.1. M t h thng APON/BPON


Hnh 2.1 ch ra kin trc ca BPON (Broadband PON). Trong kin trc ny, OLT kt ni
n ONU qua splitter 1:N. Khong cch truyn dn ti a l 10-20 km. Lu lng up ln t
ONU c truyn bc sng 1310 nm v down t OLT l bc sng 1490 nm v bc
sng 1550 nm c dng down video. D liu down xung s truyn tt c cc gi d liu
n tt c ONU v n s nhn gi m ng a ch ca n cn hng up ln th cc gi t
cc ONU s truyn ln lt cc gi n OLT thng qua s iu khin ca OLT. OLT s qui
nh khe thi gian m ONU no c truyn ti thi im c th trnh c s ng
.
OLT dnh cho video

1
ONU 1

B kt hp bc sng

CO
1550 nm

1 1

TDM

1490 nm

2 1 Splitter

1
ONU 2

1310 nm

1 1

TDMA

1
ONU N

OLT dnh cho


thoi/d liu

20 km
Hnh 2. 1 : M hnh h thng BPON [1], [10]

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Trong thit b, OLT thng c to thnh line card v c ghp vo trong b khung v
kt ni n mng li/metro. Cn ONU th c mt hay nhiu port dnh cho kt ni thoi
(T1/E1) v data (10/100BASE-T Ethernet) n khch hng.
G.983.1 l khuyn ngh cho APON/BPON ra i nm 1998 vi tc 155.52Mbps v
622.08Mbps. Phin bn mi hn ra i nm 2005 thm vo tc truyn dn 1244.16 Mbps.
Nh cung cp dch v APON/BPON c th la chn thc thi tc truyn dn down v up
i xng hay bt i xng. Bng 2.1 ch ra s kt hp tc down v up ca APON/BPON.
Bng 2. 1 : Tc down v up ca APON/BPON.

Tc down (Mbps)

Tc up (Mbps)

155.52

155.52

622.08

155.52

622.08

622.08

1244.16

155.52

1244.16

622.08

C G.983.1 v G.984.1 ghi r gii php 2 si quang vi si quang down v up chuyn


dng. Bc sng 1310nm c dng c 2 hng trong gii php 2 si. Tuy nhin, trn thc
t khng h thng no trin khai gii php 2 si quang. Th nht l do hng down ta s
dng bc sng 1490 nm v up s dng bc sng 1310 nm, hai bc sng ny khc nhau ta
c th s dng trn cng mt si quang m khng gy nhiu trn ng truyn; th hai ta c
th tit kim c chi ph v n gin hn trong vic lp t.
Tt c chun ITU-T PON c 3 loi thit k lp truyn dn quang gia OLT v ONU vi
suy hao mng phn phi quang ODN khc nhau. 3 loi c ch nh trong ITU-T G.982 l:

Loi A: 520 dB

Loi B: 1025 dB

Loi C: 1530 dB

Thit k loi C th yu cu qu cng sut rt nghim ngt v si quang. V cc l do thc


t v chi ph, loi B+ vi suy hao 28 dB c gii thiu hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v.

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

2.1.2. Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON


M hnh phn lp mng ATM c trnh by trn hnh 2.2 gm c lp ng v lp mi
trng truyn dn, lp mi trng truyn dn phn chia thnh lp mi trng vt l v lp
hi t truyn dn TC.
Trong mng ATM-PON lp ng tng ng vi lp ng o ca lp ATM. Lp vt l
thc hin giao tip quang ca mng (hay chnh l mng phn phi quang ODN). Lp ny thc
hin cc chc nng: chuyn i in-quang, nhn/truyn cc tn hiu n/i lp vt l ti
mt trong ba bc sng 1310, 1490, 1550nm, kt ni vi si quang ca ODN.
Lp hi t truyn dn TC tng ng vi lp 2 trong m hnh OSI. Lp TC c phn chia
thnh lp con truyn dn PON v lp con thch ng. Lp con thch ng c chun ha da
trn chun ATM trn c s cp ng truyn thng [ITU I.732]. Chc nng ca lp ny l
chuyn i khung 125s thnh cell ATM. Lp con truyn dn PON th thc hin cc chc
nng nh sp xp, cp pht khe thi gian, cp pht bng tn, bo mt, ng chnh khung,
ng b burst, ng b bit/byte.
Lp ng
Lp mi trng
truyn dn

Lp hi t truyn dn TC

Lp con thch ng
Lp vt l
Lp con truyn dn
PON

Hnh 2. 2 :Kin trc phn lp APON/BPON

Trong h thng APON/BPON, cc kt ni gia ONU v OLT c thit lp nh l mt


mch o ATM. Mi mch o c ch nh bi s nhn dng ng o (VPI- Virtual Path
Identifier) v nhn dng knh o (VCI- Virtual Channel Identifier) m n c ghi vo trong
cell bao gm lung d liu ca n. VPI v VCI l s liu cung cp cc cp khc nhau ca tn
hiu ATM c ghp hay chuyn mch. Nhiu mch o VC c th tn ti ng o ring.
Mt kt ni ATM c ch nh bi cp VPI/VCI.

2.1.3.

Khung truyn dn APON/BPON

ITU-T G.983.1 nh r kin trc tham chiu, c im ca b thu pht, cu trc khung
truyn ti v cc chc nng sp xp trong APON/BPON. Tn hiu APON/BPON c truyn
trong khe thi gian. Mi khe thi gian cha mt cell ATM hay mt cell hot ng, qun l v
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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


bo dng lp vt l (PLOAM - Physical Layer Operation, Administration and Maintenance).
Cell PLOAM c dng truyn thng tin qun l ca lp vt l nh l cc bn tin giao thc
dng cho vic sp xp, trn key vi d liu v cp nht.
Cc khe thi gian download l cc cell ATM v PLOAM c di mi cell l 53 byte.
Mt cell PLOAM c chn vo c mi 28 khe thi gian (hay 27 cell ATM). tc
155.52Mbps, APON/BPON quy nh khung down c 54 cell ATM l truyn d liu nh vy
tc down thc s l:
54/56 155.52 Mbps = 149.97 Mbps
V 2 cell PLOAM dnh cho ng b, iu khin li, bo mt, bo dng v phn phi bng
thng.
Khung up ln c 53 khe nh vy khung up ln thc s tc d 155.52 Mbps l:
53/56 155.52 Mbps = 147.19 Mbps
V mi khe up ln c chia thnh nhiu khe con, mi khe con cha 3 byte overhead t
trc cell ATM v PLOAM. Bn cnh mi khe up ln c th c chia thnh nhiu khe
nh. Hnh 2.3 (a,c) m t khung down v up ca APON/BPON ti 155.52 Mbps. Cu trc
khung ti 622.08 Mbps v 1244.16 Mbps th tng t ngoi tr s khe thi gian trn khung
tng ln ln lt 4 v 8 ln.
Cu trc PLOAM down m t hnh 2.3 (b) n gm cc phn sau:

5 byte header c th c m t bn di:

Header cell
PLOAM

Byte 1

Byte 2

Byte 3

Byte 4

Byte 5

0000 0000

0000 0000

0000 0000

0000 1101

HEC = 0111
0110

Vng IDENT c nm v tr u tin trong PLOAM down.

K tip l 2 byte ng b.

PLOAM c 27 grant, c mi 6-7 grant th c kim tra CRC.

MSG_PON_ID nh a ch cho mi ONU. Trong th tc sp xp ONU c gn s


nhn dng PON_ID. S nhn dng ny c gi tr t 0 n 63.

MSG_ID m t loi bn tin.

MESSAGE_FIELD cha bn tin cnh bo, x l cc bn tin nhn c ONU lin


quan n th tc sp xp.

BIP8 (bit-interleaved parity) c 8 bit cho php ONU kim tra tc li bit BER.Mi
bit ca BIP8 s XOR vi tt c bit cng v tr trong mt byte. ONU s so snh vi

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 14

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


BIP8 nhn c vi BIP8 c tnh trn lung nhn c, mi bit khng ging s
c tnh ton.
Vic truyn cell ATM, cell PLOAM hng up ln c iu khin bi OLT thng qua
cell PLOAM truyn hng down. G.983 yu cu ti thiu c mi 100 ms c mt cell
PLOAM trn mt ONU. 3 byte u hng up ln cha thi gian ngh, li m u v ranh
gii bt u cell.

APON/BPON ch nh thi gian ngh ti thiu l 4 bit. N cung cp thi gian ngh
gia 2 cell hay khe con lin k trnh ng .

Li m u ly pha ca cell n hay khe con ng b bit v khi phc bin .

Ranh gii l phn ch nh bt u cell ATM hay khe con, m c th c dng


thc hin ng b byte.

Ni dung ca vng ny c lp trnh v c nh r trong OLT trong bn tin c t


u ca khung hng up ln.

(a)

SYNC

7 grant

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

6 grant

10 message field

27 28-33 34 35 36

Lp: 07VTH1

MESSAGE_ID

19 20-26

MSG_PON_ID

11 12-18

CRC

4-10

7 grant

CRC

2-3

7 grant

47 48

Trang 15

BIP

khe thi gian (53 byte)

IDENT

HEC

(b)

ATM
54

ATM
28

CRC

Header
(5 byte)

PLOAM
2

ATM
27

CRC

ATM
1

CRC

PLOAM
1

56 khe thi gian download

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


(c)
PLOAM

53 khe thi gian upload

ATM hay
PLOAM

3 byte
overhead

ATM hay
PLOAM

Khe th
k

khe thi gian


(53 byte)

Chia thnh cc khe con


ONU x

ONU y

ATM hay
PLOAM
1

ONU z

Mt khe con
3 byte
overhead

(d)
khe thi gian (53 byte)
10 message field

4-13

14

16 byte iu khin b thu

15-31

32-47

CRC

3
MSG_ID

IDENT
MSG_PON_ID

HEC

1 2

17 byte iu khin ngun


laser

Hnh 2. 3 : Cu trc khung download v up load ca APON


(a) Khun dng khung down tc 155 Mbps ; (b) Khun dng bn tin PLOAM down ; (c)
Khun dng ca bn tin up ln ; (d) Khun dng bn tin PLOAM up ln [4]

Khun dng cell PLOAM up ln c m t hnh 2.3 (d) bao gm cc phn sau:

Ging nh khung down n cng c 5 byte header v 1 byte IDENT bt u khung up.

MSG_PON_ID v MSG_ID phc v cho vic nhn dng ONU.

Byte CRC truyn cnh bo cc thng tin hot ng, qun l v bo dng t ONU.

17 byte iu khin ngun laser: s dng cho ONU bo co cc mc cng sut v t


l extinction cho mi ngun laser ca ONU chng c th duy tr gi tr thch hp.

16 byte iu khin b thu c dng b thu ca OLT hiu chnh mc ngng


cho vic pht hin mc 0 v mc 1.

BIP cng c chc nng tng t nh khung down.

2.1.4. Bc sng trong APON/BPON


Trng hp h thng truyn 2 si quang, h thng APON/BPON dnh vng ca s bc
sng 1260-1360 nm cho c hng down v up. Trng hp truyn mt si, vng bc sng
1480-1500 nm c dng hng down, vng bc sng 1260-1360 nm dng hng up v
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

48
BIP

Header
(5 byte)

Thi gian
ngh

153 byte

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 16

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


vng m rng. Vng m rng gm 2 phn: phn 1 bc sng 1539-1565 nm cung cp cc
dch v k thut s v phn 2 bc sng 1550-1560 nm dng cho vic phn phi video. Hai
bng 1360-1480 nm, t 1565 nm tr i c dnh cho nghin cu tng lai. Hnh 2.4 m t
k hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T G983.3.

APON
upstream

1260

S dng
cho tng lai

1360

APON
downstream

1480

Bng m
rng
S dng dch
v s ha

Bng m rng
S dng phn
phi video
S dng
cho tng lai

1500 1539 1550 1560 1565

Bc sng (nm)

Hnh 2. 4 : K hoch phn b bc sng ca ITU-T G.983.3

2.1.5. Kin trc chuyn mch bo v


Hu ht mng APON/BPON, GPON v EPON u theo cu trc hnh cy cung cp cc
kt ni im n a im. Splitter c trin khai chia tn hiu quang nhn c n tt c
si quang c phn b. Hnh 2.5 ch ra 4 loi kin trc bo v vi cc cp bo v khc
nhau. V c bn th chng lm ging ht ng link si quang gc v cc thit b chnh.
Hnh 2.5 (a) c 2 si quang gc gia OLT v splitter, trong c mt si d phng, cu
hnh ny ch c si quang gc c bo v. Hai si quang ny c s phi hp vi nhau do
m khi si quang chnh b t th n chuyn sang si d phng. Trong sut qu trnh chuyn
mch th suy hao tn hiu thm ch l suy hao cc cell truyn l tt yu, do tt c kt ni
gia cc node dch v v thit b u cui s c gi li trong lc chuyn mch si quang.
OLT khng c thit b d phng do nu OLT b li th mng s ngng hot ng. Tt c
ONU v si quang d phng u tr nn v dng khi OLT b li. Trong loi bo v ny ngi
ta s dng splitter 1:N.
Hnh 2.5 (b) c 2 b thu pht quang ti OLT v 2 si quang gc gia OLT v ONU. Cu
hnh ny yu cu mch d phng nng trong OLT v khng c d phng trong ONU. OLT li
hay si quang gia OLT v splitter b t th n chuyn mch sang b d phng thng qua b
iu khin t OLT. Suy hao tn hiu v suy hao cc cell l tt yu trong qu trnh chuyn
mch. Trong loi bo v ny ngi ta s dng splitter 2:N.
Hnh 2.5 (c) khng ch c 2 b thu pht OLT m cn c 2 b thu pht ONU v 2 b
splitter. y l mt kin trc bo v y ca FTTH. Mch d phng nng c t ti
OLT v ONU. Trong cu hnh ny, li bt k im no cng c th c khi phc bng vic
chuyn mch n thit b d phng. Do chi ph cho cu hnh ny l rt cao v n khng
kinh t khi mch d phng ch c dng khi mng chnh c li.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 17

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


ONU#1
ONU#1

OLT

OLT

Si quang

Si quang

Splitter

Splitter
2:N

1:N

ONU#N

ONU#N

(b)

(a)

ONU#1

OLT

Si quang

2:N
Splitter
2:N

ONU#N

(c)
Hnh 2. 5 : Kin trc chuyn mch bo v c a ra trong ITU-T G.983.1

2.2.

GPON

GPON vit tt ca t Gigabit Passive Optical Network. GPON l s pht trin ca


APON/BPON n hot ng tc ln ti hng Gbps v c chun ha thnh ITU-T
G.984. GPON khng ph thuc vo ATM, GPON s dng lp con truyn dn hi t (GTCGPON Transmission Convergence), khung GTC c th ng gi cc cell ATM. Khng ging
nh APON/BPON, khung GTC c th ng gi trc tip cc gi d liu thng qua phng
php ng gi GPON (GEM- GPON Encapsulation Method). Phn ti khung GTC cha c
ATM v GEM.

2.2.1. M t h thng GPON


Kin trc GPON th tng t APON/BPON c m t phn 2.1.1. Tuy nhin, i
vi h thng GPON th tc tng ln n hng Gigabit v ng thi b chia splitter y
ln ti 1:128 trong khi b chia splitter ca APON/BPON ch c 1:32 v khong cch ti a
gia OLT v ONU ln ti 60 km ch khng phi l 20 km nh trong APON/BPON.
Bng 2.2 lit k tc bit ca GPON trong G.984.3.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 18

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Bng 2. 2 : Lit k tc d bit ca GPON trong G.984.3

Tc down (Mbps)

Tc up (Mbps)

1244.16

155.52

1244.16

622.08

1244.16

1244.16

2448.32

155.52

2448.32

622.08

2448.32

1244.16

2448.32

2448.32

Khi tc bit tng ln n hng gigabit th cn c b pht cng sut cao v do dn n


l cng cn c b thu c nhy cao hn. iu ny c th c khc phc bng cch s dng
c ch cn bng cng sut. C ch cn bng cng sut h tr cho vic iu chnh cc mc
cng sut ca ONU lm gim vng chnh lch cng sut nhn c OLT. Mt ONU gn
OLT th suy hao thp, s khi to cng sut nh hn ONU xa.

2.2.2. Lp truyn dn hi t GPON


Chc nng chnh ca lp truyn dn hi t GPON (GTC- GPON Transmission
Convergence) l cung cp ghp knh vn chuyn gia OLT v ONU. Cc chc nng khc
bao gm:

Thch nghi vi giao thc tn hiu lp con.

Cc chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM.

Giao din phn phi bng tn ng.

Sp xp v ng k ONU.

Sa li (mc nh).

Mt m lung d liu down xung (mc nh).

Knh thng tin cho OMCI.

Chc nng GTC:


H thng GTC cung cp iu khin a truy nhp cho lu lng up ln. Trong khi nim
c bn, cc khung down ch th vng c php truyn lu lng up ln trong khung up ln
ng b vi khung down.
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 19

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON c m t hnh 2.6. OLT gi cc con tr
trong khi iu khin vt l PCBd, cc con tr ny ch th thi gian bt u v kt thc m mi
container truyn dn (T-CONT) c th dng truyn d liu up ln. Bng cch ny, ch c
mt ONU truy nhp mng ti bt k thi im no khng c s tranh chp trong hot ng
bnh thng. Cc con tr c a vo cc khi byte, cho php OLT iu khin mi trng
mng vi tc 64 kbps. Tuy nhin, chun cho php nh khai thc dch v thm cc tc
ln hn.
Header khung (PCBd)
Ti hng down

B nh BW

Down
AllocID

Bt u

Kt
thc

AllocID

Bt u

Kt
thc

AllocID

Bt u

Kt
thc

100

300

400

500

520

600

Up

T-CONT1
(ONU1)
Khe
100

T-CONT2
(ONU2)
Khe
300

Khe
400

T-CONT1
(ONU3)

Khe Khe
500 520

Khe
600

Hnh 2. 6 : Khi nim iu khin a truy nhp GPON [5]

2.2.3. Khung truyn dn GPON


2.2.3.1. Cu trc khung down
Mi khung down GTC di 125 s c tc khung down l 1.24416 Gbit/s v 2.48832
Gbit/s, cha khi iu khin vt l (PCBd- downstream Physical Control Block) v phn ti
c m t hnh 2.7.
Khung down 125 s
PCBd
n

Ti n

PCBd
n+1

PCBd
n+2

Ti n + 1

ATM

GEM

N 53 byte
Hnh 2 .7 : Khung down GTC [5]

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 20

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Header ca khi iu khin vt l bao gm phn c nh v phn c th thay i. Phn c
nh cha vng ng b vt l, vng ID v vng PLOAM. Phn c th thay i bao gm chiu
di ti hng down (Plend-Payload length downstream) v b nh bng thng up ln. Chi
tit cc vng c m t hnh 2.8.

ng b vt l (4 byte)
ID (4 byte)

P
C
B
d

P
L
O
A
M
d

ONU ID (1 byte)

1 bit ch th FEC
1 bit dnh
30 bit b m
siu khung

Bn tin ID (1 byte)
D liu (10 byte)

13 byte

CRC (1 byte)
BIP (1 byte)
Plend (4 byte)
Plend (4 byte)
B nh BW up ln
(N8byte)

Ti

12 bit chiu di b nh
BW
12 bit chiu di phn
ATM
8 bit CRC

Truy cp
1 8 byte
Truy cp
2 8 byte

12 bit v tr
12 ID
bit c
2 byte SStart
2 byte SStop
1 byte CRC

Truy cp
N 8 byte

Bi
t
11

Chc nng

bi
10
t
bi
9
t
B
7
W
8

Gi PLOAMu

Gi PLSu

S dng FEC
00: khng gi DBRu
01: gi mode 0 DBRu
10: gi mode 1 DBRu
11: gi mode 2 DBRu

06

dnh

Hnh 2. 8 : M t chi tit khung down GTC

a. Vng ng b vt l
Vng ng b vt l c c nh l 4 byte v n bt u mi khi PCBd. ONU s dng
phn ny tm v tr bt u khung. M ca vng Psync 0xB6AB31E0. ONU thc hin c
ch ng b nh hnh 2.9. ONU bt u trng thi tm kim. ONU tm ra Psync trong hng
i. Mi ln n tm ra Psync th n s chuyn thnh pre-sync v thit lp b m ci gi tr l
1. Sau ONU s tm Psync khc sau chu k 125 s. C mi Psync ng, b m s tng
thm 1. Nu Psync khng ng, ONU s truyn ngc li trng thi tm kim. Trong trng
thi pre-sync, nu b m truyn ng ti M1 th ONU s truyn n trng thi ng b sync.
Mi ln ONU n trng thi sync, ONU biu th n tm ra cu trc khung down v bt u
x l thng tin PCBd. Nu ONU pht hin vng Psync M2 k tip khng ng, n s biu th
l mt khung v tr v trng thi tm kim.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 21

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Trng
thi tm
kim
Psync ng

Psync khng
ng M2
Psync khng ng

Trng
thi Presync

Psync ng lin tc ti (M1 1)

Trng
thi
Sync

Hnh 2. 9 : C ch trng thi ng b ONU [5]

b. Vng ID
Vng ID c 32 bit tron mt bit dng kim tra li khung FEC hng down, mt bit
dnh v 30 bit ch th cu trc khung ln hn. B m siu khung ny c dng cho h
thng m ha d liu ca user v cng c th c dng cung cp tn hiu tham chiu
ng b tc thp. 30 bit ca vng ID dng m v mi ID ca khung s ln hn khung
trc . Bt c khi no b m tng ti gi tr ti a th n s quay v 0 cho khung tip theo.
c. Vng PLOAM
Vng PLOAM c 13 byte trong khi iu khin vt l, n cha cc bn tin OAM lp vt
l. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng OAM lin quan n cc cnh bo gy ra bi cc s kin
c truyn qua cc bn tin trong vng PLOAM 13 byte. Tt c kch hot u lin quan n
bn tin c nh x trong vng PLOAM.

ONU ID nh a ch cho mi ONU ring. Trong lc sp xp, ONU s c gn


mt s gi l ONU ID. S ny c gi tr t 0 n 253. Lc cha c sp xp vng
ny c gi tr l 0xFF qung b cho tt c ONU.

Bn tin ID ch th loi bn tin.

Data c dng cho phn ti ca bn tin truyn dn hi t GPON GTC.

CRC dng kim tra li khung.

d. Vng BIP
Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i, u thu
cng tnh s bit c chn vo l chn hay l sau so snh vi kt qu ca BIP c truyn
o s li trn ng link.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 22

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


e. Vng chiu di ti hng down
Vng chiu di ti hng down (Plend- Payload Length downstream) ch nh chiu
di b nh bng thng v phn dnh ring cho ATM trong container truyn dn. Vng ny
c gi 2 ln.
12 bit u biu din chiu di b nh bng thng. iu ny gii hn s ID phn b c th
c gn ch ln ti 4095.
Chiu di phn dnh ring cho ATM c biu din 12 bit tip theo. iu ny cho php
up ln 4095 cell ATM trong mt khung v tc ln ti 10 Gbps.
8 bit cui kim tra CRC. u thu ca vng Plend s thc hin pht hin v sa li.
f. Vng b nh bng thng
Vng b nh bng thng l mt mng c cu trc 8 byte. Mi vng trong mng ny biu
th phn bng thng cho mt container truyn dn ring. Ton b s vng trong b nh c
biu din chiu di ti Plend. Khun dng mi vng c m t hnh 2.8.

Vng phn b ID cha 12 bit ch th CON-T ring m n c gn thi gian up


ln ca mng PON.

Vng c cha 12 bit ch th cch phn phi dng (hnh 2.8 biu din cc chc
nng ca 12 bit c)
o Bit 11 gi PLSu (power levelling sequence upstream): nu bit ny c ci
t, ONU s gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th
ONU s khng gi thng tin PLSu trong lc phn b.
o Bit 10 gi PLOAMu: nu bit ny c ci t, ONU s gi thng tin
PLOAMu trong lc phn b. Nu khng c ci t th ONU s khng gi
thng tin PLOAMu trong lc phn b.
o Bit 9 s dng sa li FEC (forward error correction): nu bit ny c ci t
ONU s tnh ton v chn FEC trong lc phn b.
o Bit 7 v 8 gi DBRu (Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream): ph thuc vo
ni dung 2 bit ONU s gi DBRu ph hp vi v tr ID hay khng.
00: khng gi DBRu
01: gi DBRu mode 0 (2 byte)
10: gi DBRu mode 1 (3 byte)
11: gi DBRu mode 2 (5 byte)
o Bit 0-6: dnh.

Vng StartTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian bt u phn b. Thi gian ny tnh
bng byte, bt u khung l zero. iu ny gii hn kch thc ca khung up ln l
65,536 byte. iu ny nh a ch cho tc up ln ti 2.488 Gbps. Thi

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 23

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


gian bt u tr n ni bt u truyn d liu khng bao gm thi gian overhead
ca lp vt l.

Vng StopTime cha 16 bit ch th thi gian kt thc phn b. Thi gian ny c
tnh bng byte, bt u khung l zero. Thi gian kt trc tr n byte d liu cui
cng c kt hp vi vic phn b ny.

Vng CRC: cu trc phn b c bo v s dng CRC-8.

g. Vng ti
Vng ti truyn dn hi t c 2 phn: phn dnh ring cho ATM v phn dnh ring cho
GEM.

Phn dnh ring cho ATM: cha 53 cell ATM. Kch thc phn ny c a vo
vng Plend dnh cho ATM. Do vng ny cng c kch thc l bi s 53 byte.
Cc cell down th c lc ONU da vo VPI cha mi cell.

Phn dnh ring cho GEM: cha mt s khung GEM phc ha thnh a khung.
Kch thc ca phn dnh ring GEM th bng ton b chiu di khung tr i khi
iu khin PCBd v phn ATM. Khung down c lc ONU da vo12-bit
Port-ID cha trong mi phn on khung.

2.2.3.2. Cu trc khung up


Cu trc khung up ln c biu din hnh 2.10. Chiu di khung th ging nh khung
down. Mi khung cha mt s truyn dn t mt hay nhiu ONU. B nh bng thng ch
nh vic sp xp truyn dn ny. Mi chu k phn phi phi theo s iu khin ca OLT,
ONU c th truyn mt n bn overhead v d liu user. Bn loi overhead l:

Overhead lp vt l (PLOu- Physical layer overhead).

Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l (PLOAMu-Physical layer


operations, administration and management upstream).

San bng cng sut (PLSu- Power levelling sequence upstream).

Bo co bng thng ng (DBRu-Dynamic Bandwidth Report upstream).


Khung up

PLO
u

PLOAM
u

PLS
u

DBR
u
X

Ti X

T-CONT X

DBR
u
Y

Ti Y

PLO
u

DBR
u
Z

Ti Z

T-CONT Y
ONT B

ONT A
Hnh 2. 10 : Khung up GTC [5]

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 24

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

Li m u (a byte)
P
L
O
u

Ranh gii (b byte)


BIP (1 byte)
ONU ID (1 byte)
ID (1 byte)

P
L
O
A
M
u

ONU ID (1 byte)
Bn tin ID (1 byte)

Chc nng

7
bit
bit
6
B
W
5

PLOAMu khn cp ang i

Trng thi RDI 0-pht hin, 1-OK

Lu lng ang i trong T-CONT loi 2

Lu lng ang i trong T-CONT loi 3

Lu lng ang i trong T-CONT loi 4

Lu lng ang i trong T-CONT loi 5

dnh

FEC 1-m, 0-tt

Data (10 byte)


CRC (1 byte)

Mc nh nh l
ch th trong c
ca OLT

PLSu
(120 byte)
D
B
R
u
M
d

Bit

DBA (1, 2, 4 byte)


CRC (1 byte)

Ti

Hnh 2 .11 : M t chi tit khung up GTC [1]

Hnh 2.11 ch ra chi tit cc overhead.


OLT ch th thng qua c trong b nh bng thng c hay khng thng tin vng
PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu c gi trn mi vng phn b. Lp trnh OLT cn nm gi
bng thng v nhu cu cc knh l thuc thnh trng mc khi ci t tn s truyn dn.
Trng thi ca PLOu th n trong vng sp xp khi phn phi. Quy lut l mi ln mt
ONU chuyn qua mi trng mng PON, n phi gi bn sao PLOu. Trong trng hp ONU
c 2 v tr ID lin tip, ONU s chn khng gi PLOu cho Alloc-ID th 2. Vic chn ny c
th xy ra li khi c nhiu Alloc-ID lin tc c gn bi OLT. Ch vic chn ny ch xy
ra khi OLT truyn n cng mt ONU.
a. Vng overhead lp vt l up ln
Vng overhead lp vt l up ln gm cc vng l li m u, vng ranh gii v 3 vng d
liu tng ng vi ONU. D liu ny c gi ni bt u bt k burst truyn dn no ca
ONU. Ch rng duy tr kt ni vi ONU, OLT s th cp vic truyn up ln ca mi
ONU trong khong thi gian ti thiu. Khong thi gian ny c xc nh bi cc thng s

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 25

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


dch v ca ONU. OLT s nh dng v iu khin li m u v ranh gii trong cc bn tin
overhead.
Vng BIP c 8 bit cha s bit chn l c chn vo ca tt c byte truyn i cho n BIP
cui cng ca ONU, ngoi tr cc byte li m u v ranh gii. u thu ca OLT s tnh s
bit c chn vo l chn hay l cho mi burst ONU sau so snh vi kt qu ca BIP nhn
c tnh ra s li trn ng link.
Vng ONU-ID c 8 bit cha s nhn dng duy nht ca ONU. ONU-ID c gn cho
ONU trong th tc sp xp. Trc khi ONU-ID c gn, ONU t gi tr khng xc nh l
255 trong vng ny. OLT c th kim tra vng ny xc nhn a ch phn b v truyn
ng n ONU.
Vng ID cung cp trng thi ONU thi gian thc bo co cho OLT. Vng ID c m t
hnh 1.22.
Ch rng khi ONU ch ra mt PLOAM khn cp ang i, OLT s cp mt v tr up ln
cho php ONU gi bn tin PLOAM. Thi gian p li s t hn 5 ms.
b. Vng PLOAMu
Cc hot ng, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAMu c 13 byte cha cc bn tin
PLOAM c m t phn PLOAMd.
c. Vng san bng cng sut PLSu
Trnh t san bng cng sut PLSu c kch thc 120 byte, ONU s dng cho vic o cng
sut. Chc nng gip iu chnh mc cng sut ONU. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c.
C ch iu khin cng sut th c li trong 2 trng hp l khi to cng sut ban u
ca b pht ONU (ch xy ra lc kch hot ONU) v thay i cng sut ca b pht ONU (xy
ra lc hot ng cng nh lc kch hot). PLSu c th c yu cu bt k thi im no.
nhiu trng hp trong lc kch hot, OLT c th ci t bit PLSu qung b cho
php ONU thit lp b pht. Nu ONU khng s dng vng PLSu th ONU s khng kch
hot b pht. iu ny lm gim s ng .
d. Vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu
Cu trc DBRu cha thng tin T-CONT. Vng ny c gi khi c ch th c.
Vng DBA cha trng thi lu lng ca T-CONT. Vng 8, 16 hay 32-bit c dng cho
mc ch ny.
Vng CRC: cu trc DBRu c bo v s dng CRC-8. u thu ca DBRu s thc hin
pht hin v sa li CRC-8. Nu CRC ch th rng li khng th sa c th thng tin trong
DBRu s b loi b.
e. Phn ti
Phn ti up ln c th l cell ATM, khung GEM hay bo co DBA.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 26

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Phn ti ATM up ln c 53 byte. Chiu di ca phn ti ny phi nh hn chiu di
overhead c yu cu. OLT sp xp cc con tr phn ti ATM lun l 53 byte. Nu ti
khng 53 cell th n s n thm cho 53 byte (hnh 2.12).
PLOu

Cell ATM

PLOAMu

DBRu

Ti

Cell ATM

Cell ATM

Cell ATM

Cell ATM

Hnh 2. 12 : Cc cell ATM hng up ln [5]

Phn ti up ln GEM cha mt s khung GEM (hnh 2.13). Chiu di ca phn ti ny


phi nh hn chiu di overhead c yu cu.
PLOu

Header
GEM

PLOAMu

on khung

Header
GEM

DBRu

Ti

Khung y

Header
GEM

on khung

Hnh 2. 13 : Cc khung GEM hng up ln [5]

Phn ti up ln DBA cha bo co phn b bng thng ng t ONU (hnh 2.14). Bo co


bng thng ng u tin c xp hng cc byte u tin ti v tr bt u phn b. Tt c
bo co th lin tip. Nu chiu di phn b khng khp vi ton b chiu di bo co th
ONU s b bt phn cui ca bo co hay m thm cc bit zero phn cui nu khng .
Ch rng ONU phi phn hi vic phn b ti DBA thm ch nu mode ny ca DBA
khng h tr th n vn duy tr phn ti ny.
PLOu

PLOAMu

DBRu

Ti

Bo co DBA

Hnh 2. 14 : Bo co DBA hng up ln [5]

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


2.2.3.3. nh x lu lng vo ti GTC
S a dng ca nhiu loi d liu user c th c truyn trong phn ti GTC. Cc giao
thc chnh l ATM v GEM. Bn trong mi loi giao thc ny, cc dch v khc nhau c th
c truyn.
a. nh x cell ATM vo GTC
Lu lng ATM c truyn trong sut vo giao thc GTC. hng down, cell c
truyn t OLT n ONU s dng phn ti dnh ring cho ATM, OLT c th phn phi nhiu
cell m n cn. Khung ONU s lc cell n da v VPI v phn phi cc cell ph hp n
phn ATM trong ONU. hng up, cc cell c truyn t ONU n OLT s dng thi gian
phn phi ATM c cu hnh. ONU m thm cc cell ATM cho y khung v sau
gi chng n OLT trong thi gian c phn b. OLT s nhn cell v ghp cell ca cc
ONU vi nhau v truyn n phn ATM trong OLT.
Cc dch v c trong ATM l voice, cc dch v PDH, Ethernet v cc dch v khc da
vo mch ATM.
b. nh x GEM vo GTC
GEM (G-PON Encapsulation Method) l phng php ng gi d liu trong GPON.
GEM c truyn trong sut trong vo giao thc GTC. hng down, khung c truyn t
OLT n ONU s dng phn ti dnh ring cho GEM. hng up, cc khung c truyn t
ONU n OLT s dng thi gian phn b GEM c cu hnh.

PLI
12 bit

Port ID
12 bit

PTI
3 bit

HEC
13 bit

Ti
L byte

Hnh 2. 15 : Cu trc header v khung GEM [5]

Giao thc GEM c 2 chc nng: cung cp phc ha khung d liu ca user v cung cp
port nhn dng ghp knh. Ch rng thut ng khung d liu ca ngi dng biu th khung
n v i ca user. iu ny c thc hin da vo vic s dng header GEM nh biu din
hnh 2.15. Header GEM cha ch th chiu di ti (PLI-Payload length indicator), port ID,
ch th loi ti (PTI-Payload type indicator) v 13 bit vng iu khin li header (HEC- header
error control).
PLI ch th chiu di c kch thc L (byte) ch th phn ti c phn on sau phn
header ny. PLI c dng tm header k tip trong lung d liu. 12 bit vng ny cho
php phn on ln ti 4095 byte. Nu khung d liu ca user ln hn th chng s tch ra
phn thnh on nh hn 4095 byte.
Port ID c dng cung cp nhn dng lu lng cho 4096 ONU trong mng PON,
cung cp vic ghp knh lu lng.
Vng PTI c dng ch th ni dung loi ti c phn on v cch x l ph hp
vi n. M ca vng 3 bit ny th c dng tng t trong header ATM.
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 28

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


M PTI
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111

ngha
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn khng xy ra, cha kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn khng xy ra, kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn xy ra, cha kt thc khung
Phn on d liu user, tt nghn xy ra, kt thc khung
Hot ng, qun l v bo dng GEM
dnh
dnh
dnh

HEC cung cp cc chc nng pht hin v sa li.

Trng
thi tm
kim
HEC khng ng

HEC ng

HEC khng ng

Trng
thi Presync

Trng
thi
Sync

HEC ng

Hnh 2. 16 : C ch trng thi m t GEM [5]

Tin trnh m t trong GPON yu cu s c mt ca header GEM ti ni bt mi khung


down dnh ring cho GEM v mi phn ti GEM up ln. Pha thu th chc chn tm thy
header u tin v c th tm thy header k tip bng vic s dng PLI nh l con tr. Ni
cch khc pha thu s chuyn tip lp tc n trng thi sync ti ni bt u phn ti. Tuy
nhin, trong trng hp li khng th sa c trong header, th tin tr nh m t s mt ng
b vi lung d liu. Sau pha thu s th yu cu li vic ng b bng vic thc hin c
ch trng thi biu din hnh 2.16. Trong trng thi tm kim, u thu tm kim HEC header
GEM trong hng i (bit hay byte). Khi n tm thy HEC, n s chuyn tip n trng thi
pre-sync ni m n tm thy HEC ti v tr c ch th trong header c tm thy trc. Nu
HEC khp th sau n s chuyn tip n trng thi sync. Nu khng khp th n s quay
v trng thi tm kim.
h tr vic tch tc , khung GEM nhn ri c nh ngha. Nu khng c khung
user c gi, qu trnh truyn c th pht ra cc khung nhn ri lm y thi gian trng.
Pha thu s s dng cc khung ny duy tr ng b v tt nhin l khng c d liu trong
GEM. Header ca GEM nhn ri quy nh tt c u l zero. iu ny ng rng kiu c
truyn tht s l 0xB6AB31E055, bi hot ng cng XOR trc khi truyn.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 29

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

Khung y

PTI
001

Khung user

Khung user

Khung user

PTI
000

#1

PTI
001

PTI
000

#2

#
1

PTI
000

PTI
001

#2

Hnh 2. 17 : nh x v phn on d liu ca user thnh ti GEM [5]

Bi v cc khung d liu user l chiu di ngu nhin, giao thc GEM phi h tr phn
on khung d liu ca user cho php chn header GEM ti v tr u tin ca mi phn
dnh ring v phn ti. Ch rng vic phn on c th xy ra hng down v up. Bit t
quan trng ca vng PTI trong header GEM c dng cho mc ch ny. Mi khung d liu
ca user c chia lm mt s phn on. Mt on tng ng mt header v vng PTI ch
th khung cha phn kt thc khung d liu ca user. Mt vi trng hp v cch dng ca
PTI c m t hnh 2.17.
Khung
i
PLOu

Header

GEM

PTI
001

Khung i+1
Khung user

Khung
khn cp

Header

GEM

PTI
000

PLOu

Khung d
liu
#1 ca
khung 2

Header

GEM

Khung user

Khung
khn cp

PTI
001

Header

GEM

Khung d
liu
#2 ca
khung 2

PTI
000

Hnh 2. 18 : Ghp d liu khn cp s dng th tc phn khung GEM [5]

Ch rng mi phn khung c to ra th truyn lin tip. Mt phn khung khng th


ng gia vng ranh gii ca khung. mi khung y hay phn khung th u cn phi c
header ng trc. Ngoi ra cn c cch chia phn khung khc c m t hnh 2.18.

2.2.4. Sp xp giao thc GPON


ITU-T Rec. G.983.2 B-PON v ITU-T Rec. G.984.3 G-PON s dng th tc sp xp
tng t nhau. Th tc sp xp GPON c chia lm 2 giai on. Giai on u, ng k s
serial cho ONU mi v cp ID cho ONU. S serial l s nhn dng ca mi ONU ring v l
s duy nht. Ni cch khc s nhn dng ONU c dng iu khin, kim tra v o th
ONU, v th n l s duy nht trn trong mi mng PON.
Trong giai on u, n gm cc bc sau (hnh 2.19):
(1)

OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt).

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 30

#
3

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


(2)

OLT s truyn s serial cho ONU cha c s nhn dng (serial_number request).

(3)

Lc nhn c serial_number request, ONU ny s truyn s serial (SN-transmission)


sau khi i thi gian ngu nhin (ti a l 50 ms).

(4)

OLT s gn s nhn dng v gi li bn tin assign ONU-ID cho ONU mi cha ng


k.

Trong giai on k tip, tr round-trip c o mi ONU ng k mi. Hn na, giai


on ny cng ng dng cho cc ONU m b mt tn hiu trong lc truyn. Cc bc chi tit
c m t nh sau (hnh 2.20):
(5)

OLT ch nh tt c ONU tm dng vic truyn dn hng up ln (ONU halt).

(6)

S dng s serial ng k, OLT quy nh ch c mt ONU c truyn tn hiu


o tr (Ranging request).

(7)

ONU c s serial khp vi s serial c ch nh s truyn tn hiu o tr


(Ranging transmission) n bao gm s nhn dng ONU c gn giai on u.

(8)

OLT s o tr round-trip RTD ty thuc vo thi gian m tn hiu o tr thu


c. Hn na, sau khi xc nhn s serial v s nhn dng ONU khp vi nhau th n
cho bit tr cn bng (=Teqd - RTD) ti ONU (thng qua bn tin Ranging_time).
y Teqd l hng s v RTD l gi tr tr round-trip ti a ci t trong mng
PON. V d trong trng hp tr round-trip ti a ca 20 km th Teqd l 200 ms.

(9)

ONU ghi nh tr cn bng m n tip nhn v lm chm li thi gian truyn up ln


thng qua gi tr tr cn bng (Delay equalization).

Thng qua cc tin trnh ny, tt c ONU c sp xp tr nn tng ng vi mt


tr round-trip (= tr round-trip gc + tr cn bng).

Ca s sp xp

OLT

Data#
2

Data#
1

(1) ONU halt


(2) Serial_number
request

Thi gian

(4) Assign ONUID

ONU#1
Thi gian
ONU#2
Thi gian
(3) SN
transmission
ONU mi

Thi gian

tr ngu nhin

Hnh 2. 19 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 1 : Th tc ng k s serial cho ONU mi [1]

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 31

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Ca s sp xp
RTD ca ONU mi

Data#2

Data#1

OLT
Thi gian

(5) ONU halt

(8) Ranging time

(6) Ranging
request
ONU#1

Thi gian
ONU#2
Thi gian
(7) Ranging transmission
(9) Delay
equalization

Thi gian

Hnh 2. 20 : Th tc sp xp GPON giai on 2 : Th tc o tr [1]

2.2.5. Phn b bng tn ng DBA trong GPON


Phng php c bn nht ca phn phi bng thng up ln l phn b bng nhau gia cc
ONU. Phng php ny th khng hiu qu, c bit l lu lng gi bi nhu cu bng thng
ca cc ONU th him khi bng nhau ti mi thi im. Vic tn dng ton b bng thng c
th c thc hin nu bng thng up ln c phn phi ng ty theo nhu cu ca ONU.
Trong khi ITU-T khng quy nh thut ton DBA, G.983.4 quy nh khung v c ch thc
hin DBA trong h thng BPON v GPON.
G.983.4 quy nh 2 c ch gn bng tn ng:
Vi phng php u, ONU ng vai tr l b ng, OLT gim st bao nhiu bng
thng ca mi ONU c s dng, da trn s cell ATM nhn ri v khung GEM
nhn ri m n nhn trong khung GTC up ln. V l do ny, phng php ny c coi
nh l iu chnh cell nhn ri. Phng php ny cn c gi l bo co khng
trng thi (NSR-Non-Status Reporting). C nhiu bng thng hn c gn cho ONU
nu vic tn dng bng thng vt qu ngng quy nh. Thun li ca phng php
ny l lm n gin ha ONU v trnh vic s dng bng thng up ln cho vic bo
co nhu cu bng thng.
Vi phng php th 2, ONU bo co trng thi b m n OLT. Do vy n c
gi l bo co trng thi b m hay bo co trng thi SR (Status Reporting). Ch th
nhu cu bng thng trong loi T-CONT th c truyn trong vng overhead lp vt l
c th hn l vng bo co bng thng ng DBRu. OLT s dng thng tin bo co
trng thi quyt nh phn b bng thng ph hp cho mi v tr ID.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 32

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

2.2.6. Bo mt
Trong h thng PON th hng down d liu c truyn broadcast n tt c ONU.
Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu user no c nh ph hoi th c
th gi ONU ca user khc truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt PON th ngn chng vic
nghe ln ny. Ging nh cc mng khc GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic
nghe trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem,
trong mng PON bt k ONU no cng khng th thy c lu lng up ln ca ONU khc.
iu ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn mt m hng
down d liu. Th 2 l d liu up ln c th truyn key mt m.
GPON s dng chun mt m AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). l mt khi mt
m m n hot ng trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128 bit). c bit mode counter c s
dng. Khi mt m gi ngu nhin 16 byte c pht ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra
d liu mt m OLT. ONU d liu c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin
16 byte tng t nh OLT to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt
m, vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM c mt m.
OLT khi to vic trao i key bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM.
Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra key v pht ngc tr v OLT. N nhn key 128, 192
v 256 byte.

2.2.7. Sa li FEC
Sa li FEC (Forward error correction) c quy nh l s dng m h thng m FEC
c mc nh b thu OLT hay ONU. M FEC l m RS (Reed Solomon) hay cn gi l
m RS(255, 239). y l m khi c 239 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li to thnh khi
d liu c 255 byte. M RS(255, 239) cho php pht hin v sa nhiu li, kt qu l lm tng
li ln 3-4 dB. Nh biu din hnh 1.32, khung up v down l cc khi 255 byte trong
c 239 byte d liu v 16 byte kim tra li, nu khng c cc byte kim tra li th cc byte
ny s tr thnh byte d liu. Do vy s dng FEC lm gim bng thng ti ca tn hiu trong
hy vng l lm tng hiu sut bng thng bng vic gim vic truyn li cc gi d liu do li
truyn dn.

239 byte

Cc byte d
liu

16

Cc byte
d liu
104 byte

T m #1

T m #152

38880 byte

Lp: 07VTH1

16

T m cui cng

Hnh 2. 21 : V d khung down cho tc 2.488 Gbps [5]

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

KTL

Cc byte d
liu

KTL

Cc byte
d liu

KTL

PCB
d

255 byte

KTL

255 byte

n thm
135 byte 0

Trang 33

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Hnh 2.21 m t vic chia khung down thnh cc khi 255 byte. T m trong 255 byte u
tin bao gm khi PCBd. Bi v cc khung down khng c chia thnh cc khi 255 byte
sn nn khi cui cng s t hn 255 byte. V d nh ti tc 2.488 Gbps chiu di khung l
38,880 byte th ta c 152 khi c 255 byte v khi cui cng c 120 byte bao gm 104 byte d
liu v 16 byte kim tra li do m thm 135 byte d liu 0 vo. Cc byte 0 ny th khng
c truyn nhng n c chn vo b thu khi n thc hin tnh ton kim tra li khi
ny.

239 byte

Cc byte d
liu

KTL

KTL

Cc byte d
liu

KTL

Cc byte
d liu

KTL

BIP

RG

LMD

Overhead ONT

n thm
cc byte 0

255 byte

255 byte

16
Hnh 2. 22 : V d khung up ln [5]

hng up, m t hnh 2.22 tng t nh khung down ngoi tr t m u tin khng
bao gm overhead lp vt l. T m u tin bt u vi vng BIP khng cha vng m u
v vng ranh gii. Mi burst c phn thnh khi ti 239 byte v c nh x thnh cc
khi t m 255 byte. Ging nh khung down t m cui cng cha t hn 239 byte th s m
thm vo cc byte 0.

2.3.

EPON

EPON l t vit tt ca Ethernet passive optical network. EPON th tng t nh mng


quang ch ng Ethernet, n c chun ha bi IEEE 802.3. Giao thc s dng trong EPON
l s m rng ca IEEE 802.3 hot ng tc ln ti Gbps. EPON s dng giao thc iu
khin a im (MPCP-Multipoint control protocol) s dng lp con m phng P2P vi 2
byte nhn gi Ethernet v vng nhn dng ng link c s ha (LLID-Logical link
identification).

2.3.1. Kin trc lp Ethernet v EPON


Ethernet bao gm lp vt l v lp lin kt d liu ca m hnh OSI. Hnh 2.23 biu din
s so snh m hnh cc lp ca Ethernet P2P truyn thng v kin trc P2MP EPON.
T hnh 2.23 ta thy lp EPON th tng t vi Ethernet P2P truyn thng. Chun
Ethernet chia lp vt l v lp lin kt d liu thnh nhiu lp con. Lp vt l kt ni vi lp
lin kt d liu s dng giao din MII (Media-independent Interface) hay GMII (Gigabit
Media-independent Interface).

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 34

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Lp Ethernet P2MP

Lp Ethernet P2P

M hnh OSI

Lp cao hn

Lp cao hn

LLC

LLC

LLC

OAM (mc nh)

OAM (mc nh)

OAM (mc nh)

MAC (mc nh)

MAC (mc nh)

Lp ng dng

MAC

MAC

Lp trnh by

RS

RS

Lp phin

MII/GMII

Lp vn chuyn

PMA

Lp lin kt d
liu
Lp vt l

MAC (mc nh)


O
L
T

GMII

PCS

Lp mng

Lp cao hn

RS
GMII

PCS

Vt l

O
N
U

MAC

PMA

PCS

Vt
l

PMA

PMD

PMD

PMD

MDI

MDI

MDI

Mi trng

Vt
l

Mi trng PON

MAC: Media access control


control
MDI: Medium-dependent interface
MII: Media-independent interface
interface
PMA: Physical medium attachment
PMD: Physical medium-dependent

MPMC: Multipoint media access


PCS: Physical coding sublayer
GMII: Gigabit media-independent
PHY: Physical-layer device
RS: Reconciliation sublayer

Hnh 2. 23 : Kin trc lp P2P Ethernet v lp P2MP EPON [1]

Lp con MAC mc nh trong Ethernet P2P c thay bng lp iu khin a truy nhp
(MPMC- Multipoint media access control) c tnh bt buc trong EPON. Lp MPMC chy
giao thc iu khin a im (MPCP- Multipoint control protocol) sp xp truy cp n
mi trng mng quang th ng PON b chia s gia cc ONU trong EPON. Mc d cc
ngn xp ca OLT v ONU trng c v gn ging nhau (hnh 2.23), MPCP trong OLT ng
vai tr l ch cn MPCP trong ONU ng vai tr l t. S thng nht lp con cng c m
rng trong EPON iu khin chc nng m phng P2P m IEEE 802.1 c th dng tip
trong EPON.
Giao thc truyn dn EPON da trn cu trc chun ca khung Ethernet, n khai thc k
thut TDM hng down v TDMA hng up ln. EPON qui nh thng lng i xng
c 2 hng up v down vi tc 1 Gbps, v k tha m ng dy 8B/10B (ph lc A)
c dng trong chun Etherne gigabit IEEE802.3z. Vic m ha 8B/10B thm vo tc
tng ln 1.25 Gbps, m 8B/10B lm cho ng ra cn bng in p DC v truyn cho vic
khi phc xung clock d dng.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 35

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


D liu c truyn trong khung Ethernet v mi ONU ch nhn khung c nh a ch
l n. hng up mi ONU c cp cho mt khe thi gian ring v ONU c th truyn trn
khe c dnh ring ny.
Bc sng hot ng ca EPON l 1490 nm hng down v 1310 nm hng up.

2.3.2. Lp ph thuc mi trng vt l PMD ca EPON


Lp PMD qui nh cc c im vt l ca b thu pht quang. Ethernet l thit k c s k
tha chi ph thp y mnh vic trin khai rng ri. iu ny l cha kha cho s pht trin
thnh cng ca Ethernet.
Tri ngc vi t l chia 1:32 s dng trong GPON, IEEE 802.3ah qui nh t l chia ti
thiu l 1:16. S thng nht ca lp con c h tr ln ti 32,768 ONU khc nhau thng qua
15 bit nhn dng ng link c s ha (LLID- Logical link identifier).
Hai im khc nhau gia OLT v ONU, 10 km v 20 km c nh ngha trong chun
EPON. Lp PMD 1000BASE-PX10-D v 1000BASE-PX10-U nh ngha cc tnh cht ca
b thu pht OLT v ONU vi khong cch l 10 km. 1000BASE-PX-20-D v 1000BASEPX-20-U qui nh khong cch gia OLT v ONU l 20 km. EPON k tha c bn bc sng
ca ITU G.983.3. Ch rng cc c im ONU cho khong cch truyn dn 10 km v 20
km hu nh ging ht nhau. Hu ht s thay i u c thc hin OLT khi khong cch
truyn dn tng t 10 km ln 20 km. iu ny gip tn dng c chi ph thit b ONU. N
cng to c hi cho u cui user c th tip tc s dng li ONU khi tng khong cch
truyn dn.

2.3.3. Hot ng burst mode v Loop Timing trong EPON


Giao thc Ethernet l giao thc kiu burst. Tuy nhin, Ethernet P2P hin i s dng cc
knh thu v pht chuyn dng gia hub v trm Ethernet. Mt h thng duy tr xung ng b
gia b thu v pht bng vic truyn cc symbol nhn ri khi khng c d liu c gi.
Thm ch khi giao thc Ethernet xut hin t ngt, lp vt l ca Ethernet P2P hin i cng
cho n l bnh thng. Mc d li m u c gi trong Ethernet P2P hin i nhng n
chng c ngha g ngoi tr tnh tng thch b gim i so vi thit b Ethernet ban u.
Khi kt ni vt l up ln ca EPON t ngt xut hin, mt ln na li m u th cn
thit gip b thu OLT ng b vi ONU. Hn th na, li m u c m phng trong
EPON dng truyn ID lin kt c s ha (LLID-Logical link ID) s dng trong m
phng P2P.
gi chi ph thp, tt c b pht Ethernet u chy bt ng b trong mi vng ni b
ring, khng c s ng b chung ton b. Mt b thu nhn c tn hiu ng h t gating
ca d liu nhn c. S tng thch gia cc ngun tn hiu ng h c tnh ton bi s
iu chnh khe h lin tip gia cc khung Ethernet.
Trong h thng EPON, lin kt vt l down xung duy tr lung tn hiu v ng b clock
lin tc. hng up ln, gi tn hiu ng h tham chiu OLT, ONU s dng ng h
loop vng cho truyn dn burst hng up ln.
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 36

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

2.3.4. Khung Ethernet


EPON truyn d liu nh l khung Ethernet t nhin trong mng quang th ng PON.
Khung Ethernet c kch c khc nhau. Dng khung Ethernet chun c biu din hnh
1.35. Bt u khung l li m u v 1 byte bt u ranh gii (SFD-start frame delimiter)
bo hiu bt u khung. Chun EPON sp xp li ta c th thay i truyn LLID cho
ONU.
Mi khung truyn a ch MAC ch v ngun, mi vng ny chim 6 byte. 2 byte ch
chiu di/loi c dng m t chiu di ti khi gi tr ca n trong khong 0-1500. Khi
gi tr ca n chy t 1,536-65,535, n c dng m t loi khung Ethernet. Mc ch
ca vng ny biu din chiu di v loi khung. Tip theo sau ti l 4 byte kim tra khung
(FCS-Frame Check Sequence) s dng CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check).
7 byte

Li ta

1 byte

SFD

6 byte

a ch ch

6 byte

a ch ngun

2 byte

Chiu di/loi

Ti
( 400-1500 byte)

MAC d liu
client
Pad

4 byte

Kim tra khung

Hnh 2. 24 : Khun dng khung Ethernet chun.

Hnh 2.24 m t khung Ethernet truyn cc byte m u ti thiu truyn thng tin qun
l v giao thc. Trong vng Ethernet, thng tin qun l v OAM c truyn s dng cc khi
d liu giao thc (PDU-Protocol Data Unit) v cc khung OAM, chng l cc khung Ethernet
chun nhn dng bi gi tr chiu di/loi ring. Thng tin giao thc v OAM c truyn
trong vng ti ca khung PDU v OAM. Cc khung ny c ghp trong di bng vi cc
khung Ethernet khc truyn d liu ca user thc s.

2.3.5. Giao thc iu khin a im


Giao thc iu khin a im trong lp MPMC s dng khi d liu giao thc iu khin
a im (MPCPDU- Multipoint Control Protocol Data Unit) thc hin tm ra ONU v cc
chc nng sp xp. N cng h tr c ch phn x iu khin truy nhp hng up ln
gia cc ONU.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 37

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


2.3.5.1. Sp xp trong EPON
T5 T1
Gate
T1

T5

OLT
T1

T4
T3-T2

ONU
T2

T1

Report

T4

Gate

T3 - T2 = T4 - T1
RTT = T2 - T1 + T5 - T3
= T5-T4

T3 Report
Hnh 2. 25 : Th tc sp xp EPON [1].

Tin trnh sp xp o thi gian RTT gia OLT v ONU, OLT c th b cc khe thi gian
ph hp cho ONU trnh s ng hng up ln. N t c thng qua khi
MPCPDU Gate v Report c biu din hnh 2.25. C OLT v ONU u gi b m 32
bit vi thi gian 16 ns. Trong tin trnh sp xp, OLT gi bn tin Gate vi nhn T1 biu din
thi gian thc. ONU nhn bn tin Gate ti T2 sau tr truyn dn v khi ng li thi gian
T1. Sau mt thi gian tr hon tin trnh, ONU gi bn tin Report vi thi gian l T3 vi nhn
T4 = T1 + (T3 - T2). OLT nhn bn tin Report vi nhn T4 vi thi gian thc l T5 c ch
nh trong hnh 1.36. RTT ch n gin l T5-T4.
2.3.5.2. Hot ng Gate v Report
Hot ng Gate cung cp c ch cho OLT ch nh khe thi gian m ONU c th
truyn. Hnh 2.26 m t hot ng Gate EPON. Chc nng Gate ph thuc vo ng h cc
b m c ng b vi ng h ca OLT. Bn tin Gate quy nh thi gian bt u v chiu
di truyn dn up ln ca ONU. ONU s bt laser khi ng h cc b bng vi thi gian bt
u khung c ch nh trong bn tin Gate. Vng chiu di a ra s chu k bit ONU c
php truyn trong burst ny. trn khung Gate nhn, ONU cp nht vo thanh ghi clock,
thanh ghi bt u khe v thanh ghi chiu di khe.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 38

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


OLT

ONU

MAC client
Pht ra bn
tin Gate

MAC client
Bt u
Chiu di

MA_CONTTROLrequest(GATE)

MA_CONTROLindication(GATE)
MA_DATArequest(
)
MAC

MAC

Thanh ghi Clock

Thanh ghi clock

TS

TS

Bt u
Nhn thi gian
bn tin Gate

Kt thc

Cc
thanh
ghi

Bt u

Thanh ghi bt u khe

Kt thc
Thanh ghi kt thc khe

Laser
ON/OFF
Laser
tt/m
MAC

MAC

PHY

PHY

Hnh 2. 26 : Hot ng Gate ca EPON [1]

Trong hot ng Report, ONU ch dn cho OLT vi di xp hng v cung cp thng


tin thi gian tnh ton thi gian RTT c gi t MPCPDU Report. trn MPCPDU
Report, OLT cp nht vo b nh di xp hng v RTT c biu din hnh 2.27.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 39

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


OLT

ONU

MAC client

MAC
client
Q1

Q1

Qn

Qn

MA_CONTROLrequest(REPORT)

MAC
Thanh ghi
clock
Thanh ghi RTT

MA_CONTROLindication(REPORT)

MAC
TS

TS

Q1

Q1

Qn

Qn

Thanh ghi Clock


Nhn thi gian bn
tin Report

o thi gian round trip


MAC

MAC

PHY

PHY

Hnh 2. 27 : Hot ng Report ca EPON

2.3.5.3. Phn b bng thng ng


Chun EPON khng nh r cc chi tit b sung ca DBA. Tuy nhin, hot ng Gate v
Report cung cp giao din v c ch cn thit cho iu khin bng thng ONU. N ty vo
nh cung cp dch v thit k vch k hoch v thut ton phn phi bng thng ng
DBA.
2.3.5.4. Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im
Khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im (MPCPDU - Multipoint Control Protocol Data
Unit) c di khung MAC l 64 byte khng c VLAN. Khun dng chung ca MPCPDU
m t hnh 2.28. MPCPDU c nhn dng bi khung MAC loi 088-08. Vng 2 byte
nh r loi bn tin MPCPDU. Hnh 1.39 ch ra m ca tt c loi MPCPDU c nh ngha
trong EPON. Mi bn tin MPCPDU cha 4 byte OLT v ONU c th cp nht lin tc
hiu chnh chnh lch thi gian v d nh s thay i nhit trong si quang.
Phn chia data/pad ca MPCPDU cha cc thng s MAC c dng trong MPCP v
vng m zero gi kch c khung l 64 byte.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 40

64 byte

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

6 byte

a ch ngun

6 byte

a ch ch

2 byte

Loi

2 byte

4 byte

Nhn thi gian


Cc thng s
MAC

M MPCPDU
Gate
Report
Register-Report
Register

02
03
04
05

Register-Ack

06

D liu/m

m
4 byte

FCS

Hnh 2. 28 : Khun dng ca khi d liu giao thc iu khin a im MPCPDU

2.3.5.5. T ng khm ph ONU


Tin trnh d tm t ng cho php ONU EPON ng k v tham gia vo h thng sau khi
cp ngun. OLT cp cho MAC o v gn LLID cho ONU trong m phng P2P. Trong sut
qu trnh d tm t ng, ONU v OLT trao i kh nng vi nhau nh l ng b thi gian.
ng b thi gian l thi gian c yu cu bi OLT sau khi nhn t ngt d liu, kha
ng h pht ONU v xt ngng quyt nh m s sai khc cc mc cng sut nhn
c t cc ONU khc nhau.
OLT

ONU
D tm Gate

Ca s
d tm

Register Request

Bt u grant
tr ngu nhin

Register
Gate
Register Ack

Hnh 2.29 : Th tc d tm t ng trong EPON


thc hin d tm t ng, OLT qung b d tm khung Gate theo chu k. Nh trong
hnh 2.29, ca s d tm c dnh ring cho vic d tm Gate. OLT cng truyn thi gian
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 41

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


ng b b thu kiu burst n ONU trong cng d tm m ONU bit nh dng tn hiu up
ln vi cc symbol nhn ri trong lc khi to thi gian ng b burst. ONU nhn cng d
tm v gi Register Request sau khi i vi tr ngu nhin. OLT nhn Register Request v
cp cho ONU mt LLID. Sau OLT gi khung gate khc cng nhn khe thi gian up ln
t ONU vi LLID c cp mi v sau ONU truyn khung Register Ack biu th vic
hon tt tin trnh nh k.
Trong ca s d tm, nhiu ONU c ng k trong mt thi im v gy ra s ng ti
OLT. S tranh chp trong ca s d tm c gii quyt bng cch thm vo tr ngu
nhin trc khi cho mi ONU truyn khung Register. N cng c th cho OLT nhn nhiu
khung Register trong ca s d tm.
2.3.5.6. M phng P2P trong EPON
Giao din MAC Ethernet c kt ni vi switch lp 2 hay router lp 3. Switch lp 2 kt
ni trc tip vi thit b mng trn lp Ethernet v do n hiu qu hn, chi ph t hn v d
qun l hn trong mi trng mng LAN. Ni cch khc, b nh tuyn dng trong mng din
rng kt ni mng lp 2. Trong mi trng Ethernet, kt ni lp 2 t c khi s dng
IEEE802.1 da vo switch. Switch Ethernet truyn lu lng gia cc port. Mi port c
kt ni vi vng qung b khc nhau cha mt hoc nhiu thit b MAC. Mt switch gi s
rng bn trong cng thit b MAC c th truyn lu lng trc tip vi nhau m khng cn s
gip . N thc hin chc nng chuyn mch lp 2 bng vic kim tra a ch ch v a ch
ngun ca mi khung nhn c. Nu c 2 trong chng ph thuc vo mt vng (v d nh
c kt ni cng mt port), n s lc gi m khng truyn gi. iu ny gip gi bng
thng trong cc phn khc ca mng v tn dng hiu sut mng.

ONU 1

ONU 2

OLT
Splitter
ONU 3

ONU N

Hnh 2. 30 : Cc ONU khng thy lu lng trc tip vi nhau m phi thng qua OLT

Trong h thng EPON, kt ni Ethernet i xng P2P c thay bng kt ni P2MP bt


i xng. Bi cc hng ca node t xa cc ONU khng th thy lu lng up ln trc tip

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 42

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


vi nhau (hnh 2.30). Trong mng thu bao, c tnh ny cung cp thun li cho bo mt. N
yu cu OLT tham gia vo vic truyn dn ca cc ONU khc nhau.
Khng c phng php no switch IEEE 802.1 kt ni OLT thy a ch ngun v a
ch ch trong MAC ca tt c ONU kt ni n cng mt port kt qu l switch khng truyn
c lu lng gia cc ONU m c kt ni n cng mt OLT.
OLT
Bt cu 802.1
MAC1
client

MAC2
client

MAC3
client

MAC a im
MAC1

MAC2

MAC3

M phng P2PE

PCS
PMA
PMD

P2PE

P2PE

P2PE

MAC

MAC

MAC

ONU 1

ONU 1

ONU 1

Hnh 2. 31 : M phng P2P trong EPON

gii quyt iu ny m bo s kt ni lin tc vi mng Ethernet khc, thit b c


nh km trong EPON s c mt lp con c thm vo thc hin chc nng m phng im
im (P2PE- Point-to-Point Emulation), n nm bn di lp MAC duy tr hot ng
MAC Ethernet v ang tn ti nh ngha trong chun IEEE P802.3 (hnh 2.31). Hot ng
ca lp m phng ny da vo nhn khung Ethernet v nhn ny l duy nht mi ONU.
Nhn ny c gi l LLID v c t u ca mi khung (hnh 2.32).
Nhn khung bt u vi vng ranh gii LLID (SLD-start LLID delimiter), tip theo l 2
byte trng v 2 byte LLID. Mt byte kim tra CRC bo v d liu t ranh gii bt u n ht
LLID. Bit u tin ca LLID l bit ch nh lu lng broadcast hay unicast. 15 bit c kh
nng h tr 32,768 ONU khc nhau.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 43

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


8 byte
2

0 5555

SDL
0 d5

0 5555

LLID

CRC

Mode
bit

Khung MAC

ID [14;0]

Hnh 2. 32 : Nhn khung MAC trong EPON

Bit u tin ca LLID c ci t l 0 dnh cho hot ng P2PE. Hnh 1.42 m t khi
nim EPON P2PE. Trong hot ng m phng P2P, OLT c N port MAC. Khi gi khung
down t OLT n ONU, lp con m phng P2P trong OLT s chn LLID ph hp vi port
MAC ring v pha nhn ch c mt ONU khp vi LLID ca khung m n c gn trc
mi nhn khung cn cc MAC ca ONU khc s khng thy c khung ny. hng
up, ONU s chn LLID c gn vo nhn ca mi khung truyn. Lp m phng P2P trong
OLT s tch cc khung n port MAC ph hp da vo LLID duy nht (hnh 2.31). Trong
trng hp 2 ONU kt ni vi nhau th phi thng qua cu 802.1 OLT. V d nh ONU1 v
ONU3 mun kt ni vi nhau th u tin tn hiu i t ONU1 n OLT sau i qua cu
802.1 ri mi n ONU3.
Khi bit u tin ca LLID c ci t l 1, OLT qung b lu lng n tt c ONU
(hnh 2.33). iu ny thun li cho EPON hot ng qung b hng down. ngn nga
qung b trn lan switch lp 2, chun EPON ngh trnh kt ni ca port qung b n
switch 802.1, v ch dng kt ni router lp 3 hay server cho vic ph bin thng tin. Hnh
2.34 m t MAC qung b v MAC P2P trong EPON.
Mt ch y l khi nim LLID trong EPON v cp ID trong GPON. Trong GPON,
mt ONU c th c cp vi nhiu container truyn dn vi s ID khc nhau. ONU ca
EPON c th c cp nhiu LLID thc hin cc lp cht lng dch v khc nhau.

ONU

OLT
Down

LLID = 1

Lp vt l

Qung b

LLID = 1
ONU 2

LLID = 1
Splitter

LLID = 1
ONU 3

MAC

MAC

MAC

ONU 1

LLID = 1
ONU N

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 44

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


ONU
OLT

LLID = 0

Up

Lp vt l

Qung b

ONU 2

LLID = 0
Splitter

ONU 3

MAC

MAC

MAC

ONU 1

ONU N

Hnh 2. 33 : M phng hot ng OLT qung b lu lng v ONU truyn P2P trong EPON

Router/Server
Bt cu (802.1D)

MAC
1

MAC
2

Router/PC

MAC
3

MAC
QB

MAC ONU

M phng P2PE

M phng P2PE

Lp vt l EPON

Lp vt l EPON

Hnh 2. 34 : MAC P2P v qung b trong EPON

2.3.5.7. M ha v bo v
Chun IEEE802.3ah khng quy nh c ch m ha v bo v trong EPON. M ha th
quan trng m bo s ring t khi ONU kt ni trc tip n user nh l cc ng dng
trong FTTH. Bo v th quan trng khi ONU b chia s gia nhiu nhm user nh l cc ng
dng trong FTTB/FTTC.

2.3.6. So snh EPON v GPON


T quan im k thut, mt im khc nhau c bn gia GPON v EPON l cch h tr
mch TDM. GPON chia tn hiu up v down thnh khung 125s. Khung d liu c ng
gi s dng k thut ng gi GEM. Cn trong EPON khung Ethernet c chiu di c th thay
i c dng lp vn chuyn. M phng mch th cn thc hin mch TDM c bng
thng c nh.
Trong khi EPON th ti u ha vn chuyn gi Ethernet, ng gi GEM cho php thch
nghi hn vi dng tn hiu khc. Trong h thng EPON, chc nng bo co v chp nhn
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 45

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


bng thng c b sung s dng MPCPDU. Mi port ONU vi LLID khc nhau yu cu
khung Gate v Report ring, m chng l khung Ethernet. Cng nhiu ID c phn phi th
cng c nhiu overhead ca giao thc iu khin a im MPCP. Tri ngc li, cc chc
bng bo co v nhn bng thng GPON c th c i ln thnh phn u ca khi iu
khin vt l PCB ca khung GTC. Mi PCBd cha thng tin phn phi bng thng cho tt c
container truyn dn c phn b. iu ny lm cho GPON hiu qu hn so vi EPON.
B chia 1:32 cho EPON v GPON, h thng EPON cung cp bng thng trung bnh l
31.25 Mbps trn mi ONU c hng down v up, trong khi GPON vi tc truyn
2488Mbps i xng hng down v up th bng thng cp cho mi ONU l 77.75 Mbps.

2.4.

SuperPON

Nh trnh by cc mc trn th mng PON in hnh th khong cch truyn l 20 km


v t l chia ti a l 1:64 (trong GPON), vy ta c th tng khong cch truyn c th tng
ln v t l b chia ny c th tng ln c na khng? Cu hi ny s c gii p trong
phn SuperPON. Ta hon ton c th lm c iu ny bng cch s dng b khuch i.
T ta c khi nim superPON l mng PON m rng bng vic tng khong cch truyn
v tng t l b chia splitter vi vic s dng b khuch i. C nhiu b khuch i quang
c xem xt:

B khuch i quang si pha trn Erbium (EDFA-Erbium-doped fiber amplifier).

B khuch di quang si pha trn Thulium dnh cho hng down (TDFA-Thuliumdoped fiber amplifier) v b khuch i quang si pha trn Praesodymium dnh cho
hng up (PDFA-Praesodymium-doped fiber amplifier).

B khuch i quang bn dn (SOA-Semiconductor optical amplifier).

Trong mng th v mng ng di th b khuch i EDFA c s dng rng ri bi


li t cao nht trong vng bc sng 1530-1565 nm. Tuy nhin trong mng PON th bc
sng hot ng hng down l 14801500 nm v hng up l 12601360 nm, do b
khuch i EDFA khng c a chung lm trong mng PON tuy nhin n cng c xem
xt bi vng bc sng 15501560 nm cng c dng down tn hiu video. hng
down vng bc sng hot ng 1480-1500 nm th n ph hp khi s dng b khuch i
TDFA bi vng bc sng hot ng ca b khuch i ny l 1440-1520 nm, cn hng
up vng bc sng hot ng 12601360 nm th n ph hp khi s dng b khuch i
PDFA bi vng bc sng hot ng ca b khuch i l 1280-1340 nm. Cn b khuch i
quang bn dn SOA th khng c li cao nh trong b khuch i EDFA nhng n hot
ng vng bc sng rng do m n c s dng trong mng PON. Cu hi t ra tip
theo ta nn t b khuch i v tr no?
Trong mng PON th thng ngi ta s dng b khuch i quang bn dn SOA, m c
im ca b khuch i quang ny l cn ngun nui cung cp hot ng do m nu t
b khuch i ny trn ng truyn th cn phi c i trm hot ng, qun l v bo
dng iu ny th s gp tr ngi khi trin khai mng truy nhp vi s lng ln trong khi
mc ch ca mng PON l n gin c th thit k vi s lng ln. Cn nu b khuch
i t cc ONU th li khng kh thi lm v nh th ta s phi lp t N b khuch i nu
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 46

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


c N thu bao. Cn 2 v tr ta c th t b khuch i l ti trm trung tm ngay sau b OLT
v ti b splitter. V tr ta xt u tin l ngay sau b OLT (hnh 2.35), ti v tr ny ta s tit
kim c b khuch i lp t ng thi s d dng hn trong vic thit k, hot ng,
qun l v bo dng, khng nhng th ngi ta cn lp t 2 b khuch i 1 b dnh cho
hng down v 1 b dnh cho hng up c th tit kim c chi ph trong lp t, hot
ng, qun l v bo dng.
L
ONU

B khuch i hng down

OLT

ONU
Splitter
B khuch i hng up

ONU
Hnh 2. 35 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t sau b OLT

V tr th hai ta xt l t ngay ti b splitter. Khi b khuch i t v tr ny th mc


ch ca ngi thit l mun b suy hao cho splitter tc l mun tng t l chia ca b splitter
(hinhg 2.36).
L
ONU
Splitter
OLT

ONU

ONU
Hnh 2. 36 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i t gn splitter b suy hao cho splitter

2.5.

Phn b bng tn

C 2 phng php phn b bng tn l: phng php phn b bng tn c nh v phng


php phn b bng tn ng.

2.5.1. Phng php phn b bng tn c nh


Phng php phn b bng tn c nh l phn b chiu di khe thi gian c nh cho mi
ONU vi thi gian nh nhau bt chp nhu cu bng thng ca n. Nh biu din hnh 2.37,
vi phng php phn b bng tn c nh, bng thng v tr th gi c nh, iu ny s
khng hiu qu bi bng thng s b chim hu thm ch l khi n khng c d liu up ln.
khc phc mt hn ch ny th giao thc phn b bng tn ng (DBA-Dynamic
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

Trang 47

Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


bandwidth allocation) c trin khai gim hiu sut truyn dn v gim tr gi bng
vic phn phi ng cc khe thi gian up ln ty thuc vo nhu cu bng thng ca cc ONU.
Mc d tng a ra l tt nhng nu khng c thit k hp l th n s dn ti lm tng
tr thm ch l gim bng thng.
Chu k n

OLT

Chu k n+1

Tx
Rx

t
Thi gian ngh
ONU1

Tx
Rx

ONU2

Tx
Rx

ONU3

Khe lng ph

i chu k k tip

Tx
Rx
T2

T1

T3

T4

T5

Hnh 2. 37 : Phn b khe thi gian c nh [3]

2.5.2. M t hot ng phn phi bng tn ng c bn


Hot ng phn phi bng tn ng DBA n gin c m t hnh 2.38.

Data

OLT

Thi gian
G

Data

ONU

u cui
user

Thi gian

Data
Thi gian
G Grant

R Request

Hnh 2. 38 : M hnh phn b bng tn ng c bn [1]

(1) ONU lu cc d liu nhn c t cc user trong b m.


(2) Khi d liu c lu trong b m bo cho OLT nh l request ti thi im OLT
quy nh.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


(3) OLT s bo thi gian bt u truyn v khong thi gian c th s dng (ca s truyn
dn) cho ONU cha trong grant.
(4) ONU s i thi gian c cp v sau truyn khi d liu c quy nh n OLT.

2.5.3. IPACT
Kim sot vng vi chu k thi gian ph hp (IPACT- Interleaved polling with adaptive
cycle time) l phng php phn b bng tn ph bin c th c thc hin vi chi ph thp.
Trong IPACT, OLT thm d ONU gn bng thng ty theo nhu cu ca n, ONU phn phi
bng thng m khng cn thng bo cho OLT bit. OLT gn request cho ONU da vo chu k
kim sot vng ng trc- l l do ti sao cc gi n sau request b tr t nht l mt
chu k kim sot vng k tip, thm ch l n cng mt chu k kim sot vng. Chu k vng
iu chnh cc yu cu bng thng ca ONU v nh ngha ca s truyn dn ti a cho php
ONU vi lu lng cao khng chim gi ton b ti nguyn bng thng.
M t thut ton IPACT: ti thi im bt u, OLT bit l c bao nhiu gi ang ch
trong b m ca ONU v tng ng vi tr round trip v th OLT s qung b bn tin
Grant. Do ONU bt u truyn vi ca s c gn v tip tc nhn v gi cc gi mi,
ti im kt thc truyn dn, chng pht ra Request mi da vo cc gi nhn c. OLT bit
khi no th mi gi ONU s truyn n, v th n c th lp trnh Grant cho ONU k tip
nhng c khong thi gian ngh gia. Thng tin nhn c t ONU v thi gian round trip
RTT c lu trong bng polling. Mi ONU thc hin th tc ging nhau tiu biu l bn tin
Grant, thut ton lp trnh v phn phi bng tn ng c cp v thc hin OLT.
hiu r hn ta hy xem xt mt v d h thng ch c 3 ONU.
(1) Chng ta hy tng tng ti mt s thi im t0 OLT bit chnh xc c bao nhiu byte
ang ch trong b m mi ONU v thi gian round trip n mi ONU. OLT gi d liu
ny trong bng polling biu din hnh 2.39 (a). Ti thi im t0, OLT gi bn tin iu
khin n ONU1, cho php gi 6000 byte ( hnh 2.39 (a)). Chng ta gi n nh l bn tin
Grant. hng down, OLT qung b d liu n tt c ONU, Grant cha ID ca ONU
ch cng nh kch thc ca s c cp (byte).
(2) Lc nhn c bn tin Grant t OLT, ONU1 bt u gi d liu up ln vi kch thc
ca s c cp ( hnh 2.39 (b)). Trong v d, up ln 6000 byte. Ti cng mt thi
im, ONU gi cc gi d liu mi nhn c t cc user. Ti im cui cng ca ca s
truyn dn, ONU1 s pht ra bn tin iu khin ring (Request). ONU1 s gi Request
bo cho OLT bit c bao nhiu byte trong b m ca ONU1 ti thi im Request c
pht ra. Trong trng hp ny c 550 byte.
(3) Thm ch trc khi OLT nhn c hi p t ONU1 th n bit bit cui cng ca
ONU s truyn n. Cch OLT tnh ton:

Bit u tin s n chnh xc sau thi gian round trip RTT. RTT trong tnh ton bao
gm thi gian round trip thc s, thi gian x l Grant, thi gian pht ra Request v
nhn OLT thc hin xp hng trn d liu nhn c v d nh l khong thi
gian chnh xc gi Grant n ONU v nhn d liu t ONU .

Bi OLT bit c bao nhiu byte (bit) cho php ONU gi, n bit bit cui cng ca
ONU s truyn n. Tip , bit c thi gian RTT ca ONU2, OLT c th lp

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


trnh Grant cho ONU2 bit u tin ca ONU2 s truyn vi khong thi gian ngh
nh nht sau khi truyn bit cui cng ca ONU1(hnh 2.39 (b)). Khong thi gian ngh
cung cp khong bo v cho s dao ng thi gian round trip v thi gian x l bn tin
iu khin ca cc ONU khc nhau. Ngoi ra, u thu OLT cn mt t thi gian
iu chnh li nhy ca n bi trn thc t cc tn hiu t cc ONU khc nhau c
th c cc mc cng sut khc nhau bi ONU c phn phi ti cc khong cch
khc nhau tnh t OLT.
(4) Sau mt thi gian, d liu t ONU1 truyn n. Ti im kt thc vic truyn ca
ONU1, c mt Request mi cha thng tin c bao nhiu byte trong b m ONU1 c
u tin trong vic truyn Request. OLT s s dng thng tin ny cp nht bng polling
( hnh 2.39 (c)).
Bng vic duy tr thi gian khi Grant c gi v d liu c nhn, OLT cp nht lin tc
ton b thi gian round trip cho cc ONU tng ng.
(5) Tng t nh bc (4), OLT c th tnh ton thi gian bit cui cng ONU truyn n. Do
n cng bit c khi no gi Grant cho ONU3 d liu ca n ni ui n im
kt thc ca d liu ONU2. Sau mt thi gian di hn, d liu ONU2 s truyn n. OLT
mt ln na cp nht bng ny, thi gian ny nhp vo ONU2 (hnh 2.39 (d)).
ONU

Byte

RTT

6000

200

3200

170

1800

120

OLT

Tx
Rx

ONU1

Tx
Rx

Bng polling

6000

6000 byte

550

6000

ONU2

Tx
Rx

ONU3

Tx
Rx

Grant

Request

(a)

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


ONU

Byte

RTT

6000

200

3200

170

1800

120

OLT

Tx
Rx

ONU1

Tx
Rx

3200

6000

6000 byte

550

6000

ONU2

Tx
Rx

ONU3

Tx
Rx

Grant

Request

(b)

OLT

ONU1

ONU2

ONU3

Byte

RTT

550

200

170

3200

170

120

1800

120

ONU

Byte

RTT

6000

200

3200

1800

Tx
Rx

6000

ONU

3200

1600
6000 byte

Tx
Rx

6000 byte

t
550

550

6000

Tx
Rx

3200 byte
3200

5700
0

Tx
Rx

Grant

Request

(c)

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


ONU

Byte

RTT

ONU

Byte

RTT

ONU

Byte

RTT

6000

200

550

200

550

200

3200

170

3200

170

5700

170

1800

120

1800

120

1800

120

OLT

Tx
Rx

ONU1

Tx
Rx

ONU2

ONU3

3200

6000

1600
6000 byte

6000 byte

t
3200 byte

550

5700
0

550

6000

Tx
Rx

3200 byte
3200

5700
0

Tx
Rx

t
1600 byte
1600

Grant

4400
0

Request

(d)
Hnh 2. 39 : Cc bc thut ton polling [3]

Nu mt ONU hon ton rng trong b m, n s bo co cc byte 0 v cho OLT. Do


v d vi cc chu k k tip ONU s c gn cc byte 0 do n c cho php gi cc
Request mi nhng khng c d liu.
Nu OLT cho php mi ONU gi ni dung ton b b m trong mt truyn dn, cc
ONU vi d liu tc cao c th chim gi ton b bng thng. trnh iu ny, OLT s
gii hn kch thc truyn dn ti a. Do vy mi ONU s ly mt Grant gi nhiu byte
m n c yu cu trong chu k trc nhng khng nhiu hn gii hn ti a (kch thc
ca s truyn dn ti a). C nhiu cch khc nhau quy nh gii hn kch thc ca s
truyn dn ti a v d nh dch v b gii hn thut ton ny phn b bng thng n mt
ONU nhng khng nhiu hn gi tr c xc nh trc; thut ton cng gn Request m
khng cn bt k gii hn no; thut ton cho n gn Request cng vi s n c nh v cui
cng l thut ton co gin ch c mt gii hn duy nht l thi gian chu k ti a.

2.5.4. Phn phi bng thng ti thiu c m bo


Hn ch ca cc kt qu IPACT l tr gi khng cn thit c a vo mng, ton b
cc yu cu bng thng t cc ONU trong mt chu k th t hn ton b dung lng mng
nhng yu cu bng thng cho cc ONU ring c th vt qu gii hn truyn dn ti a.
Theo IPACT, nhu cu thm vo s c m vo cho n chu k kim sot k tip. Hn na,
thi gian x l tn hiu OLT v ONU cng nh thi gian ngh gia hai ca s up ln lin k
c gi c nh. Thm ch nu chu k kim sot lu lng ONU b gim xung bi vic gn
cc khe thi gian ngn hn, th t l thi gian ngh v thi gian x l tn hiu trong mt chu k
vn tng i di hn. Dn n kt qu, hiu sut mng trong phm vi tn dng tc knh
up ln tr nn ti t. vt qua hn ch gy ra bi tc tn dng knh thp v tr gi
di, khi nim bng thng c m bo bng cch cung cp thi gian c nh c a ra
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


xc nh gii hn truyn dn ti thiu, thay v ti a trong IPACT cho mi ONU tha
cc nhu cu dch v c bn. Vi c ch ny, OLT u tin phi nhn tt c bn tin bo co t
ONU trc khi n khi to qu trnh phn b bng thng, thc t n dn n kt qu cc khe
thi gian b lng ph trong 2 chu k kim sot lin k. Hnh 2.40 gii thch r hn nu chc
chn ONU khng hot ng v d nh ONU1, OLT s gn khe thi gian khng s dng n
ONU ny v c th thm bng thng cho ONU khc m n vt qu bng thng ti thiu
c gn ban u. Tuy nhin s tha thun v s khc nhau cc cp dch v ONU khng
c xem xt trong vic hn ch bng thng ONU vt qu cho php dn n khng cho
php u tin mng.

Chu k n

Chu k n+1

Thi gian ngh

Tx
Rx

OLT

Khe b lng ph

Grant

t
Report

ONU1 Tx
Rx

ONU2

Tx
Rx

ONU3

Tx
Rx
T1

T2

T3

T4 T5
Cc gi n sau

Hnh 2.40 : Cc bc ca giao thc phn b bng thng ti thiu

2.6. Chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong mng quang th
ng PON
Trong mng truyn thng, nh cung cp dch v c nhim v l cung cp v qun l cp
truyn dn v cc thit b u cui mng. Vic thc thi, hot ng v qun l ca mng yu
cu kh nng cu hnh v kim tra cc thit b mng mt cch nhanh chng v d dng cc
kt ni v dch v lun c sn sng. Vic pht hin ra cc trng thi hot ng bt thng
trong mng s khc phc c cc s c ang tim n v c th dn n s c ln hn nh l
h mng. Trong mng PON th khc vi mng truyn thng ch ti u cui pha khch
hng th n l thit b nm trong nh khch hng v n thuc quyn s hu ca khch hng, v
th m khch hng phi t bo dng thit b ca mnh v nh cung cp dch v ch c trch
nhim vi thit b trm trung tm v cp bn ngoi khng thuc quyn s hu ca khch
hng. Trong phn ny, chng ta s ni v chc nng hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong
mng quang th ng PON.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

2.6.1. Qun l mng c bn


Hnh 2.41 ch ra cc thnh phn h thng qun l mng in hnh v cc mi quan h ca
chng. Ni iu khin qun l mng l mt trm lm vic vi phn mm qun l mng chuyn
bit. Ti trm lm vic ngi lm vic c th quan st c cc trng thi ca mng, c
th kim tra tt c thit b ang hot ng, cc thit b ny c cu hnh ng hay cha v
phn mm ng dng c c cp nht khng? Ngi qun l mng c th nhn thy mng
ang hot ng v d lu lng ti v cc li trong thit b v cp. Thm vo trm lm vic
c th iu khin ngun ti nguyn mng.

Trm qun
l mng

H thng qun l mng NMS

Agent

H thng qun l chung EMS

MIB

A
A

ONU
Splitter

OLT

A
ONU

Hnh 2. 41 : Cc thnh phn h thng qun l mng in hnh v mi quan h ca chng [13]

Thit b c qun l trong mng PON l OLT, ONU, ngun d phng v b ngun. Mi
thit b c gim st v iu khin bi h thng qun l chung (EMS - Element Management
System). im quan trng y mc d pha khch hng t bo dng thit b ONU nhng
hot ng trong mng PON th thit b ny cng phi c h tr truy vn trng thi v
iu khin cc chc nng t h thng EMS.
Cc module phn mm qun l c gi l agent nm trong b vi x l bn trong n thu
thp v bin dch thng tin lin tc v cc trng thi v vic thc thi cc thit b. Cc agent
ny s lu cc thng tin da trn thng tin qun l (MIB - Management Information Base) ti
trm trung tm v sau n cung cp thng tin qun l cc thc th bn trong h thng
qun l mng (NMS - Network Management System) t trm lm vic. MIB th da trn
thng tin c s ha, n xc nh d liu v s nhn dng thch hp nh l cc vng trong
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


c s d liu. Thng tin ny c lu trong bng, b m. MIB khng vch r cch thu thp
v s dng d liu nhng n ch nh r nhng g m agent c th thu thp v cch t chc d
liu h thng khc c th s dng chng.
Khi agent thng bo cc vn m n ang gim st v d nh c s gim cng sut ng
ra OLT hay ONU, trng thi ngun d phng bt thng hay tc li b vt qu gii
hnn s gi cc cnh bo n thc th qun l. Vo lc nhn c cnh bo, cc thc th
qun l c th khi to mt hay nhiu hot ng nh l thng bo hot ng, ghi s kin, thot
khi h thng hay t ng th cch li hay sa li. H thng EMS cng c th truy vn v
thm d trong h thng kim tra cc trng thi. Vic thm d ny c th t ng hoc c
khi to bi ngi qun l.

2.6.2. Cc chc nng qun l


2.6.2.1. Qun l thc thi
H thng vin thng s dng th tc qun l thc thi gim st v iu khin cc thng
s chnh m bo cht lng dch v QoS n cc u cui mng. Trong mng FTTH, cc
thng s ny bao gm chc nng loop-back iu khin t xa, gim st li, thng k li
ONU v chuyn mch ngun trong trng hp c s c ONU. V d cc thng s c
gim st ti lp vt l l tc li bit v cc mc cng sut quang OLT v ONU. Th tc
qun l thc thi gn gi tr ngng cho cc thng s v thng bo cho h thng qun l hay
pht ra cnh bo khi n tin n ngng.
2.6.2.2. Qun l cu hnh
Mc tiu ca qun l cu hnh l gim st thng ci t v cu hnh thit b mng. Mc
ch ca iu ny l kim tra v qun l hiu sut hot ng mng cu thnh t phn mm
v phn cng khc nhau. Qun l cu hnh cho php h thng cung cp ti nguyn v dch v
mng, gim st v iu khin cc trng thi v thu thp thng tin trng thi. Vic cung cp
ny bao gm ci t cc mc cng sut quang t ng (v d nh trong GPON ng ra ca
ONU c th c ci t mt trong ba mc khc nhau), gn bng thng hay ci t cc tnh
nng ring c yu cu bi khch hng, phn phi phn mm, nng cp agent v cu hnh
thit b c lp li. Qun l cu hnh lu tt c thng tin ny trong c s d liu c th truy
cp d dng khi c s c n c tm thy d dng gii quyt vn .
2.6.2.3. Qun l k ton
Chc nng qun l k ton l o cc thng s khi to mng ring mt c nhn hay
mt nhm khch hng trong mng c th iu chnh v ng nhp vo cc dch v ph hp.
Do , qun l k ton o t, thu thp v thng k ti nguyn v vic s dng mng. Thm
vo , qun l k ton c th kho st cc mu s dng hin thi phn phi mng. T vic
thng k, nh cung cp dch c th pht ha n v nh thu cho vic s dng dch v.
2.6.2.4. Qun l li
Li trong mng nh l t cp trong truyn dn si quang, s c OLT hay ONU c th
xy ra trong mng FTTH. Li trong mng c th do bi thi gian cht ca h thng hay do s
gim st ca mng, qun l li l mt trong nhng chc nng quan trng v c b sung y
nht. Khch hng th mong i cch gii quyt nhanh chng v ng tin cy khi mng c
li. Hnh 2.42 m t qun l li bao gm quy trnh sau:
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


(1)

Gim st cnh bo c dng bo co cc cnh bo v cc nguyn nhn c th xy


ra cho h thng qun l mng. Qun l li c th tm lc cc cnh bo v cho php
nh qun l truy tm quan st thng tin cnh bo t log cnh bo.

(2)

K thut c lp li quyt nh ngun gc, v tr v cc nguyn nhn c th gy nn li


c th l do t ng hoc c s can thip ca nh iu hnh mng. N bao gm chc
nng cnh bo lin quan n t cc phn khc nhau trong mng v chy th.

(3)

Th s c c cp bi h thng qun l mng. Cc th ny cho bit l li g v


cch gii quyt n. Khi li c cp thnh th th chng s c th nh s can thip ca
nh iu hnh mng hoc t ng sa li. Khi c li th cch gii quyt l cp cho th
sau n c lu trong c s d liu.

(4)

Kim tra th c thc hin mi ln khi c s c. Trong th tc sa li th vic kim


tra th l cng vic ch yu trong mng. N bao gm kim tra thc thi, kim tra tin
trnh x l v ghi li kt qu.
Trm lm vic
qun l li

Kh nng qun l mng:

Quan st bn mng.
Theo di cnh bo.
Mi tng quan cc
cnh bo.
iu khin cch li li.
Gim st li.

Cnh bo
Cnh bo log
?

H thng qun l li

Cc th s c
Chc nng qun l li:

iu khin vic d li.


iu khin cc cnh bo.
Cch li li.
Cp cc th s c.
Lu cc th s c.

Gii quyt bi
nh iu hnh

T ng
gii quyt

C s d liu ca
cc th s c

Hnh 2. 42 : Cc tin trnh qun l li [13]

2.6.2.5. Qun l bo mt
Trong mng PON, d liu hng down t OLT qung b n tt c ONU, mi bn tin
c truyn trong cng mt OLT u ging nhau. BPON, GPON v EPON u c cc
phng php ring m bo rng user ch truy cp c d liu ca mnh. Mt k thut
chun c gi l mt m, n s chuyn d liu thnh dng kh hiu ti u gi bo v
chng vic truy cp tri php, vic sa i, vic s dng min ph hay s ph hoi khi d liu
truyn qua mng.
SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


Chun BPON ITU-T G.983 m t k thut c ch bo mt gi l trn (churning), n ch
mt m d liu hng down. C ch ny s dng s khng thay th cho mi 4 bit trn v
di ca mi byte v mt m s dng t kha ring. Mi t kha c trn c ci t v
cp nht t nht mt ln mi giy t mi ONU ring v hng up th mi ONU s gi t
kha ny cho OLT OLT s dng lm t kha mt m. OLT cng c th yu cu mt
khu t mi ONU ngn chng vic ph hoi cc ONU khc. (ngi s dng khc).
hng up th khng mt m bi vic nghe ln hng ny l rt kh do mi ONU khng th
nhn thy nhau tc khng th lin lc trc tip vi nhau m u phi thng qua OLT.
Chun GPON m t vic s dng c ch mt m im- im P2P. y l chun mt m
cao cp, c dng bo v thng tin d liu cho khung GPON. Thut ton mt m cao cp
ny mt m v gii m khi d liu 128 bit t khun dng d liu gc. Cc t kha zero c
th c chiu di 128, 192 hay 256 bit lm mt m cc k kh v gii m chuyn li
thnh d liu gc.
Giao thc Ethernet khng c bt k c ch bo mt no, tuy nhin vic pht trin EPON
kt hp cht ch vi c ch bo mt im n a im P2MP. C ch ny da trn c ch bo
mt a tng nh l bc tng la, k thut mng ring o v bo mt giao thc Ethernet.

2.6.3. Hot ng, qun l v bo dng trong FTTH


tha mn nhu cu ca khch hng v p ng dch v triple-play cht lng cao, mng
FTTH phi trin khai th tc hot ng qun l v bo dng ng tin cy. Th tc ny h tr
vic tnh cc, bo mt, bo dng, cung cp v gim st hiu sut mng. N c th thc hin
vic s dng cc chun hay dng c phn mm h thng h tr hot ng m rng trong h
thng qun l mng. C nhiu chng trnh h tr hot ng c th cp quyn thng qua trnh
duyt web v vic chn la cc ng dng rng ri, n cho php qun l mng cu hnh v iu
khin hng trm phn t trong .
Vic cung cp phn phi cc mc dch v cung cp v cu hnh khc nhau cho cc loi
dch v thoi, d liu v video cho khch hng. Nh iu hnh mng cng nh c ch t ng
cn xc nh nu thit b ti u cui khch hng c th cung cp cc dch v c yu cu.
V d nh vic cung cp phi xc nh nu ONU c kh nng iu khin tc d liu ca
mnh d c kh nng kt hp vi kim tra hay khng th n cng h tr hot ng t xa. iu
ny th quan trng i vi nh cung cp dch v, vic qun l v xc nh cc vn t xa c
th ngn nga vic yu cu cc dch v chi ph c .
Chc nng bo dng hay qun l li trnh cc li tim n v s gim st trong mng
FTTH. Nu li xy ra, tin trnh bo dng cn xc nh v lm r cng nhanh cng tt
tha mn nhu cu khch hng.
Kh nng kt hp vi kim tra thay i thng tin trng thi gia ONU v OLT bao
gm chc nng loop-back iu khin t xa pht hin li trn mch hay cp, thng k li
ONU v thot khi ngun trong trng hp c s c ti ONU. Hnh 2.43 m t tn hiu iu
khin trng thi loop-back, n c khi to OLT v truyn n ONU sau ONU bo co
trng thi v truyn ngc v OLT. Vic bo co ny ch th mi th hot ng tt hay
chng c th c dng xc nh nguyn nhn tc li bit cao.

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

Lp: 07VTH1

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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home

Trm
qun l

Bo co
trng thi

Tn hiu kim tra loopback c gi t OLT

Loop-back
ti ONU

OLT

ONU
Bo co trng thi ca ONU

Hnh 2. 43 : OLT khi to loop-back iu khin t xa [13]

2.7.

ng dng

2.7.1. Trn th gii


Bng xp hng mi c cng b ngy 27/02/2008 trong hi ngh thng nin ca Hi
ng FTTH (Fiber to the home) Chu u ti Paris v da trn cc kt qu thng k thc hin
vo cui nm 2007. Danh sch mi ny lit k 14 nc c t l h dn tip cn trc tip vi
mng truyn thng quang cao hn 1 %. So vi bng xp hng u tin ca ba hi ng FTTH
hi thng 7/2007, nm 2008 xut hin thm ba thnh vin mi vt qua mc 1 % s h dn
c FTTH l Slovenia, Iceland v Singapore.
Nhn chung, nm 2007 l nm thnh cng rc r ca cc dch v FTTH, vi s tng
trng mnh m v s lng ng k dch v, ch yu l ba nc Nht Bn, Trung Quc v
M. Trong nm 2007, tnh ring ba nc trn c thm khong 6 triu thu bao ng k
dch v FTTH.

Hnh 2. 44 : Bng cp nht xp hng s dng FTTH chu

Nhng con s ny ni ln sc mnh ca nn cng nghip FTTH Chu u - ni c trn


mt triu ng k - v trn ton th gii. Hin tng ny ang c thc y bi mt yu t
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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


khng bao gi gim, l s thm mun ca ngi dng ti vin thng bng thng rng" ,
Joeri Van Bogaert, ch tch Hi ng FTTH Chu u pht biu.
Bn cp nht ca bng xp hng cng ch ra Chu tin nhanh hn so vi th gii trong
vic trin khai FTTH (hnh 2.44). Hn Quc vt ln v tr u bng vi t l 31,4 % s h
dn kt ni, tip theo l Hng Kng vi 23,4 % v Nht Bn vi 21,3 %. Mt s cch bit
ln gia v tr th 3 (Nht Bn) vi v tr th 4 (Thy in) ch vi 7,1 % s h dn tip cn
FTTH, theo sau rt st l i Loan vi 6,8 % v Nauy 6 %. an Mch vi 2,5 % chim v tr
th 7.
M, vi t l s h dn kt ni FTTH tng hn gp i ln 2,3 %, nhy ba bc ln v tr
th 8 trong bng xp hng, theo ngay pha sau l hai gng mt mi Slovenia vi 1,8 % v
Iceland vi 1,5 %. Trung Quc tt t v tr th 10 xung v tr th 11, khi t l h dn kt ni
ch tng nh ln 1,5 %. H Lan, Italy v Singapore xp cc v tr cui cng vi t l trin
khai t 1,1 n 1,4 %.
Ba hi ng FTTH khu vc cng nhau cho ra i bng xp hng th gii u tin vo
nm 2007 nhm cung cp cho nn cng nghip vin thng, cc chnh ph v cc nh iu tit
th trng mt ci nhn ton vn v duy nht v s trin khai mng truy cp bng cp quang
trn ton th gii.
"Chng ti rt vui mng khi thy M i ln trong bng xp hng th gii, iu ny cho
thy chng ti i ng hng. Nhng ng li ch o FTTH ch ra rng vic trin
khai FTTH trn ton quc l thc hin c, vi dn chng l s thnh cng ca cc nc i
u trong lnh vc ny" Joe Savage, ch tch hi ng FTTH Bc M, pht biu. "Tng lai
thuc v nhng nc no lm tha mn c yu cu v tc ng truyn ca khch hng
bng thng rng. Nhng thnh vin ca chng ti - cc nh cung cp thit b cng nh dch
v FTTH - sn sng gip thc hin c iu trn din rng."
"Khng phi ngu nhin m cc nc Chu Thi Bnh Dng tr thnh nhng nc i
u th gii v trin khai FTTH, vi s lng kt ni nhiu hn tng s lng kt ni ca tt
c cc ni khc gp li" Schoichi Hanatani, Ch tch hi ng FTTH Chu Thi Bnh
Dng ni. "S ra i ca FTTH c c s ng h ca cc chnh ph c tm nhn xa
trng rng cc nc Chu Thi Bnh Dng trong nhiu nm tr li y. H hiu rng
FTTH chnh l cha kha then cht ca vic pht trin c s h lp vin thng quc gia."
Bng xp hng ton cu c thit lp theo nhng thut ng thng nht v FTTH cng b
bi ba hi ng FTTH nm 2007. Nhng thut ng v khi nim ny to nn nn tng cho
vic nghin cu th trng hin ti ca mi Hi ng FTTH. cho y v chnh xc,
bng xp hng bao gm s liu ca c FTTH v FTTB (fiber-to-the-building), trong khi
nhng cng ngh truy cp bng thng rng khc da trn si ng (DSL, FTT-Curb, FTTNode) khng c tnh n.

2.7.2. Ti Vit Nam


Trn th gii FTTH khng cn xa l vi ngi dng internet, c bit l cc nc pht
trin nh: Hn Quc, Hng Kng, Nht... Tuy nhin Vit Nam hin nay do c s h lp
vin thng cha pht trin mnh nn vic ng dng cng ngh FTTH vo i sng i hi s
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Chng 2: Tm hiu Fiber to the home


u t nghim tc t nh cung cp dch v, m bo cht lng ng truyn cng nh
cc dch v.
Hin ti Vit Nam c 4 nh cung cp dich v FTTH l: VIETTEL, VNPT, SPT v FPT,
trong FPT l n v trin khai sm nht. Nm 2006, FPT bt u cung cp dch v
FTTH cho khch hng thu bao nhng vo thi im cc khch hng a dng dch v
ADSL thay cho dch v kt ni Internet gin tip (Dial-up).

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON

Chng 3:
M HNH THIT K V BI TON THIT
K FFTH DA TRN CNG NGH MNG QUANG TH
NG PON
chng 1 th ta a ra m hnh thit k mng PON chun theo ITU-T v chng 2
th ta m t chi tit tng loi ATM/BPON, GPON v EPON.T nhng l thuyt nu 2
chng trn, chng ny s thit k da trn m hnh chun sau m rng m hnh thit k
bng vic tng khong cch truyn hoc tng t l b chia splitter hoc kt hp c hai bng
vic s dng b khuch i quang.

3.1.

tng thit k

V mt k thut, FTTH th c 2 loi c bn l thit k mng quang ch ng v thit k


mng quang th ng. Trong thit k mng quang ch ng th c cc thnh phn ch ng
nh b khuch i, b chuyn mch, b nh tuyn, b ghp knh t gia trm trung tm
CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng, trong khi mng quang th ng th cc thnh phn
ch ng va k trn t gia trm trung tm CO (Central Office) v ngi s dng s
khng cn tn ti m thay vo l thit b quang th ng gi l splitter, mt tn hiu quang
s c chia s cho nhiu thu bao. T ta c m hnh thit k mng quang th ng PON
nh trn hnh 3.1. m hnh ny ta gi s mt ONU tng ng vi mt ngi s dng.
N

1
ONU 1

1 1

TDM

CO
OLT 1

1
ONU 2

OLT 2

Splitter
1 1

OLT N

TDMA

1
ONU N

Hnh 3. 1 : M hnh thit k mng PON

Hnh 3.1 l m hnh chun theo ITU-T n bao gm OLT, splitter c t l chia 1:N, cc
ONU v khong cch truyn t OLT n ONU l 20 km.

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON

3.2.

Cc bi ton thit k

3.2.1. Bi ton 1: Thit k FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng PON
Bi ton ny t ra vn l thit k FTTH da trn m hnh chun ca mng PON gm
c OLT, ONU v splitter vi khong cch truyn dn gia OLT v ONU l 20 km v s dng
splitter c b chia 1:N chun theo ITU-T. Thng s nhp vo gm c s thu bao M ( y ta
gi s s thu bao tng ng s ONU) c a vo, s splitter cho trc. Ta tnh ton cn
bao nhiu OLT, bao nhiu s splitter, t OLT ti splitter s dng bao nhiu si quang v t
splitter ti ONU cn bao nhiu si quang.
Gii quyt bi ton:
Nu chn splitter (1:N) th s splitter c b chia 1:N s dng l:
S = M/N, vi S: s splitter s dng

(3.1)

Nu chia d th kt qu s splitter S s dng tng thm 1, bi nu ta ly lm trn xung


th s thu bao phc v s b gim xung nh th s khng p ng c ht s thu bao yu
cu do bi ton t ra.
Kt qu:
S OLT cn dng s bng vi s splitter s dng bi ta thit k mt OLT s kt ni
n mt splitter thng qua mt si quang.
S splitter cn dng th c tnh ton trn.
S si quang s dng t OLT v splitter bi ch cn mt si quang ni mt OLT ti
mt splitter.
S si quang s dng t splitter n ONU th bng vi s splitter s dng nhn vi t
l b chia splitter, n tng ng vi s thu bao c th phc v ti a vi t l b chia
1:N (s ny ln hn hoc bng s thu bao nhp vo).
Bi ton 1 ch mang tnh cht tham kho bi khi p dng vo trong thc t th mt thit b
s b gii hn bi card PON tc s OLT c th p ng c v n li ph thuc vo thit b
lp t th c cng sut pht nhy l bao nhiu v nhiu thng s khc na nh l b chia
splitter, suy hao si quang...

3.2.2. Bi ton 2: Tnh cng sut thu c OLT v ONU v so snh vi


nhy ca thit b sau a ra kt lun c thit k c FTTH da trn m hnh
chun ITU-T ca mng PON khng?
Bi ton 2 ny ta gi s cc thit b OLT v ONU c cc thng s tc bit, cng sut
pht v nhy, thit b splitter c t l b chia 1:N v khong cch truyn t OLT n ONU
theo chun ITU-T, suy hao si quang cc bc sng tng ng ( y ch thit k cho 1
OLT v ONU ti a tng ng vi t l b chia splitter).
d dng cho vic tm hiu v tnh ton ta sp xp cc gi thit nh sau:
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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON
S ONU (K).

B chia splitter (1:N).

Suy hao splitter As (dB).

Down (t OLT n ONU):


o Cng sut pht PTx1 (dBm) ca OLT (trong thit b OLT).
o nhy S1 (dBm) ca OLT (trong thit b ONU).
o Suy hao si quang bc sng down 1 (dB/km).

Up (t ONU n OLT):

o Cng sut pht PTx2 (dBm) ca ONU (trong thit b ONU).


o nhy S2 (dBm) ca ONU (trong thit b OLT).
o Suy hao si quang bc sng up 2 (dB/km).

Khong cch truyn dn L t OLT n ONU (km).

Suy hao do thit b Atb (dB) (ph lc B).

Tnh cng sut thu c ONU PRx1 v OLT PRx2 sau so snh vi nhy S1 v S2
ca thit b a ra kt lun c thit k c FTTH da trn m hnh chun ITU-T ca mng
PON khng?
Gii quyt bi ton:
Tnh cng sut thu hng down (trong mt thit b ONU):
PRx1(dBm) = PTx1 As 1L - Atb
Nu PRx1 S1 (tha)

(3.2)
(3.3)

Tnh cng sut thu hng up (trong thit b OLT):


PRx2(dBm) = PTx2 As 2L - Atb
Nu PRx2 S2 (tha)

(3.4)
(3.5)

Nu tha (3.3) v (3.5) th ta c m hnh thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T (hnh 3.1).
Nu khng tha th ta kt lun khng th thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T. Vn y
c th do cng sut pht khng ln hay do splitter c t l chia ln dn n l suy hao ln.
Cc vn ny c th c gii quyt bng cch t b khuch i. Vy b khuch i nn
t u? i vi vn th nht l tng cng sut pht th nn t b khuch i trm trung
ngay sau b pht. Vn ny c gii quyt trong bi ton 3.

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON

3.2.3. Bi ton 3: S dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut pht ca OLT
trong m hnh thit k FTTH da trn mng PON
Bi ton ny t ra vn l cng sut thu c nh hn nhy b thu vy mun ci
thin iu ny ta phi lm th no? Vi gi thit:

B chia splitter (1:N).

Suy hao splitter As (dB).

Cng sut pht PTx (dBm).

nhy S (dBm).

Suy hao si quang (dB/km).

Suy hao do thit b Atb (dB).

Gii quyt bi ton:


Cch gii quyt l tng cng sut pht.Trong m hnh thit k FTTH da trn mng PON
th cng sut pht nm trong khong cho php ca thit b do mun ci thin cng sut
pht ny th cn t b khuch i ngay sau thit b. Sau khi t b khuch i ngay sau thit
b th khng nhng ci thin c cng sut pht m cn c th tng khong cch truyn dn
ln (hnh 3.2).
L
ONU
PTx
OLT

Pout

PRx

B khuch i

Splitter

ONU
S
ONU

Hnh 3. 2 : Minh ha khong cch truyn cn tng v v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi ton
mun tng cng sut pht

Khi cha t b khuch i th cng sut thu c PRx nh hn nhy S b thu:


PRx(dBm) = PTx As L - Atb S
PTx S + As + L + Atb

(3.6)
(3.7)

PRx: cng sut thu c u thu.


Khi t b khuch i vo th li ti thiu Gmin cng sut thu c PRx bng nhy
S b thu l:
Gmin = S - PRx

(3.8)

Gmin: li ti thiu ca b khuch i (dB).


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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON
i vi b khuch i th thng s chng ta cn quan tm khng ch l li G m cn
c cng sut ng ra bo ha Pout. li b khuch i b gii hn bi c ch bo ha li,
iu ny lm gii hn cng sut quang ng ra ca b khuch i. h thng hn ch nh
hng ca hiu ng phi tuyn do hiu ng bo ha li th cng sut ng ra ca b khuch
i ca b khuch i khng vt qu Pout dBm [11].
G + PTx Pout (dBm)

(3.9)

G Pout - PTx

(3.10)

Gmax = Pout - PTx

(3.11)

Trong :
Pout: cng sut ng ra ca b khuch i (dBm).
Gmax: li ti a ca b khuch i (dB).
Nh vy li ca b khuch i b gii hn l:
Gmin G Gmax

(3.12)

Khi t b khuch i vo th cng sut thu c PRx ln hn nhy S b thu:


PRx(dBm) = PTx As L - Atb + G S

G S + P Tx A s A tb

G max S + P Tx A s A tb

(3.13)
(3.14)
(3.15)

PRx: cng sut thu sau khi t b khuch i (dBm).


Lmax: khong cch truyn dn ti a t b pht n b thu khi lp t b khuch i (km).
Bi ton ny gii quyt vn khi cng sut thu c nh hn nhy b thu th ta c
gii php l tng cng sut pht ngoi ra cn c gii php no khc th c trnh by bi
ton 4.

3.2.4. Bi ton 4: S dng b khuch i quang b suy hao do t l b chia


splitter gy nn trong m hnh thit k FTTH da trn mng PON
Gi thit bi ton 4 tng t nh bi ton 3 nhng c cch gii quyt no khc khng?
Gii quyt bi ton:
Cng sut thu c nh hn nhy ca b thu c th l do t l b chia splitter ln dn
n suy hao ln. Trong m hnh thit k FTTH da trn mng PON th suy hao splitter ln
tc l ta cn b suy hao s b mt i khi i qua b splitter. Cch b suy hao l dng b
khuch i t ngay trc splitter (hnh 3.4). Ta t b khuch i ti v tr nh hnh 3.4 th ta
ch cn t mt b khuch i cn nu ta t sau b chia splitter th ta phi t N b khuch
i nh th th hon ton khng c li trong lc x l cng nh lp t.

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON

L
ONU
OLT

PTx

Pout

Pin
Ls

Splitter

B khuch i

PRx

ONU
S
ONU

Hnh 3. 4 : Minh ha v tr ca b khuch i trong trong bi ton b suy hao cho splitter

Khi cha t b khuch i th cng sut thu PRx nh hn nhy S b thu:


PRx(dBm) = PTx As L - Atb S

(3.16)

Khi t b khuch i vo th li ti thiu Gmin cng sut thu c PRx bng nhy
S b thu l:
Gmin = S - PRx
Gmin: li ti thiu ca b khuch i (dB).
Tng t nh trn th h thng hn ch nh hng ca hiu ng phi tuyn do hiu ng
bo ha li th cng sut ng ra ca b khuch i ca b khuch i khng vt qu Pout
dBm [11].
Ta c:

Pin + G Pout (dB)

(3.17)

G Pout Pin

(3.18)

Vy Gmax = Pout Pin

(3.19)

Vi Pin = PTx Ls Atb

(3.20)

Ls: khong cch t v tr trm pht n v tr t splitter (km).


Gmax: li gii hn ca b khuch i (dB).
Khi suy hao splitter b gii hn bi:

M:

As PTx L - Atb + Gmax - S

(3.21)

Asmax = PTx L - Atb + Gmax - S

(3.22)

Asmax = 10logNmax

(3.23)

Nmax = 10 Amax/10

(3.24)

Ls: khong cch t trm pht n splitter (km).

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON
Asmax: suy hao ti a ca splitter (dB).
Nmax: tng ng vi splitter c t l b chia ti a 1:Nmax.
V A l thng l s l do ta s dng bng 3.1 sau tra tm t l b chia splitter s d
dng hn v chnh xc hn.
Bng 3. 1 : Bng tra t l b chia splitter.

S port (N)

Suy hao splitter (dB)

32

15

64

18

128

21

256

24

512

27

1024

30

2048

33

4096

36

Nh vy li ca b khuch i b gii hn l:
Gmin G Gmax

3.3.

(3.25)

Gi s thit b OLT v ONU trong mng PON

gii quyt bi ton th hai (mc 3.2.2) v hn ch cc thng s u vo ta cn gi thit


mt vi thit b mng PON c cc thng s gii hn d dng cho vic thit k.
Gi s thit b OLT trong thit k PON c cc thng s nh bng 3.2.
Bng 3. 1 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b OLT trong PON.

n v

Thng s

Truyn 2 chiu trn


cng mt si quang

B pht OLT
Bc sng hot ng

SVTH: Hng ng Ngc n

nm

1480-1500

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON
M ng dy

NRZ

Cng sut khi to ti thiu (PTx1)

dBm

Cng sut khi to ti a (PTx1)

dBm

+7

B thu ONU
nhy ti thiu (S2)

dBm

-24

Khong cch truyn ti a

km

20

Gi s thit b ONU trong thit k BPON c cc thng s nh bng 3.3.


Bng 3. 3 : Lit k cc thng s gi s thit b ONU trong mng PON.

n v

Thng s

Truyn 2 chiu trn


cng mt si quang

B pht ONU
Bc sng hot ng

nm

M ng dy

1260-1360
NRZ

Cng sut khi to ti thiu (PTx2)

dBm

Cng sut khi to ti a (PTx2)

dBm

+7

B thu OLT
nhy ti thiu (S1)

dBm

-24

Khong cch truyn ti a

km

20

Trong thit k FTTH th c 2 hng down v up, hng down th tng ng tn hiu i
t thit b OLT n thit b ONU do b pht OLT (trong thit b ONU) c cng sut khi
to tng ng thng s trong bi ton s 2 ( trnh by phn 3.2.2) l cng sut pht PTx1
v b thu OLT (trong thit b ONU) c nhy ti thiu th tng ng thng s trong bi ton
s 2 l nhy S1 ; hng up th tng ng tn hiu i t thit b ONU n thit b OLT do
b pht ONU (trong thit b ONU) c cng sut khi to tng ng trong bi ton s 2 l
cng sut pht PTx2 v b thu ONU (trong thit b OLT) th tng ng thng s trong bi ton
s 2 l nhy S1.

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Chng 3: M hnh thit k v bi ton thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh mng PON
Vi cc thng s ca cc thit b c sn cng vi tng ca cc bi ton thit k ta i
vit chng trnh thit k FTTH.

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k

Chng 4: CHNG TRNH THIT K


4.1.

Gii thiu chng trnh

Mc ch ca chng trnh
Chng trnh thit k c vit minh ha cho 2 bi ton thit k FTTH da trn
cng ngh quang th ng c trnh by chng 3. Chng trnh gip cho bi
ton thit k c r rng v thc t hn. Chng trnh c th c dng cho vic
kho st thit k h thng FTTH. Cc thng s nhp vo chng trnh c gii
hn trong mt khong gi tr h thng sau khi thit k hot ng tng i tt.
Ngn ng lp trnh ca chng trnh
Chng trnh thit k c vit vi ngn ng lp trnh Microsoft Visual
Studio.Net. Vi kh nng ha v giao din mnh, gn nh, d s dng ng thi d
dng lp trnh vi c s d liu nn Microsoft Visual Studio.Net c s dng l ngn
ng lp trnh cho chng trnh thit k bi ton FTTH trnh by chng 3. C s
d liu ca chng trnh l Microsoft Access 2003.
Cch s dng chng trnh
s dng chng trnh ny bn phi ci Microsoft Visual Studio.Net vo my
tnh ca bn, nu bn mun hiu chnh v ci tin chng trnh mc cao hn.
Cn ch s dng bn ch cn chy file .exe v bn cn c th vin Framework 1.1.
Hn ch ca chng trnh
Ch thit k c h thng vi mt OLT. Ch xt ch yu mt hng down trong
khi mng PON c 2 hng down v up.

4.2.

Hng dn thc hin chng trnh

Khi chy chng trnh giao din s xut hin nh hnh 4.1.

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k

Hnh 4. 1: Giao din chnh ca chng trnh

Nu ta mun vo chng trnh ca bi ton th ta nhp TIP TC. Khi giao din s
xut hin nh hnh 4.2.

Hnh 4. 2 : Giao din ca chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty

Nu khng nhp s liu vo S thu bao m nhp nt THC HIN th chng trnh
hin ra bng thng bo nh trn hnh 4.3.
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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k

Hnh 4. 3 : Giao din xut hin bng thng bo khi khng nhp vo s thu bao

Nu ta nhp s liu vo S thu bao th n s tnh ton ra kt qu.


Gi s ta nhp vo s thu bao l 1000, chn splitter 1:32.
Tnh ton:
S splitter s dng:
S = N/32 = 1000/32 = 31.25
Nu chia d th kt qu s splitter S s dng tng thm 1 do s splitter s dng trn
thc t l 12.
Kt qu:
S OLT cn dng: 32.
S splitter cn dng: 32.
S si quang s dng t OLT v splitter: 32.
S si quang s dng t splitter n ONT:
S t l b chia ca splitter = 32 32 = 1024.
Kt qu ging nh tnh ton s xut hin trn giao din hnh 4.4.

Hnh 4. 4 : Giao din kt qu chng trnh thit k h thng da vo s thu bao nhp ty

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k


Nu ta chn nt THOT th chng trnh s t ng thot khi chng trnh.
Nu ta chn nt THIT K th s xut hin giao din nh hnh 4.5.

Hnh 4. 5 : Giao din chng trnh thit k FTTH da trn cng ngh quang th ng

Nu chn TR V th ta s tr v giao din trc .


Nu chn THIT K MNG PON THEO CHUN ITU-T s vo giao din chng
trnh thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T nh hnh 4.6.

Hnh 4. 6 : Giao din c s d liu ca chng trnh thit k mng PON chun theo ITU-T

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k


Bn hy ly s liu, nu khng bn c th t nhp s liu. Sau nhp nt thc hin
n thc hin tnh ton, tip theo nhp nt kt lun n hin th kt qu.
Kt qu ny l da trn s tnh ton vi cc gi thit hin th trn giao din 4.6. S ONU:
64.

B chia splitter: 1:64

Suy hao splitter As: 18 dB.

Down (OLT n ONU).


o Cng sut pht PTx1: 6 dBm.
o nhy S1: -24 dBm.
o Suy hao si quang bc sng down 1: 0.3 dB/km.

Up (t ONU n OLT)
o Cng sut pht PTx2: 7 dBm.
o nhy S2: -24 dBm.
o Suy hao si quang bc sng up 2: 0.4 dB/km.

Chiu di si quang L: 20 km.

Suy hao do thit b Atb: 5 dB

Loi iu ch: NRZ

Tnh ton:
Tnh cng sut thu hng down:
PRx1 = PTx1 As A1 L - Atb
= 6 18 0.25 20 5 = -23 dBm
M nhy S1 = -24 dBm
Vy PRx1 P1 (tha) (1)
Tnh cng sut thu hng up:
PRx2 = PTx2 As A2 L - Atb
= 7 18 0.4 20 5 = -24 dBm
M nhy S2 = -24 dBm
Vy PRx2 S2 (tha) (2)
Tha (1) v (2) th ta c m hnh thit k l GPON xut hin nh trn giao din hnh 4.7.

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k

Hnh 4. 7 : Giao kt qu chng trnh thit k mng PON theo chun ITU-T

Nu khng tha mt trong 2 iu kin th ta nhn nt TIP TC sang giao din


chng trnh hnh 4.8 gii quyt vn ti sao khng th thit k mng PON theo chun ITUT.

Hnh 4. 8 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang tng cng sut pht

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k


Nu bn nhp thng s vo Gii hn cng sut ng ra bo ha ca b khuch i Pout
(dBm) , sau nhn nt THC HIN n s kt qu nh hnh 4.9.

Hnh 4. 9 : Giao din kt qu tnh ton khi s dng b khuch i tng cng sut pht.

Kt qu hin trn hnh 4.9 l da trn s tnh ton:

Suy hao splitter As: 18 dB.

Cng sut pht PTx: 4 dBm.

nhy S: -24 dBm.

Suy hao si quang A (): 0.3 dB/km.

Suy hao do thit b Atb: 5 dB.

Cng sut thu c ONU l:


PRx = PTx As L - Atb
= 4 - 18 0.320 5 = -25 dBm
li ti thiu ca b khuch i l:
Gmin = S - PRx
= -24 (-25) = 1 dB
li ti a ca b khuch i l:
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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k


Gmax = Pout - PTx
=10 4 = 6 dBm
Khong cch truyn ti a t OLT n ONU sau khi t b khuch i l:
=
=

Gmax S + PTx As Atb

6 (24) + 4 18 5
0.3

= 36.6666 km
Nu mun thot th nhn nt THOT nu nhn nt TIP TC th ta s vo giao din nh
hnh 4.10.

Hnh 4. 10 : Giao din thit k mng PON c s dng b khuch i quang b suy hao cho splitter.

Nu bn nhp thng s vo 2 Khong cch t trm pht n splitter Ls (km) v


Gii hn cng sut ng ra bo ha ca b khuch i Pout (dBm), sau nhn nt THC
HIN th kt qu s xut hin nh hnh 4.11.

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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k

Hnh 4. 11 : Giao din kt qu ca chng trnh thit k PON s dng b khuch i quang b suy hao
cho splitter.

Kt qu hin trn hnh 4.11 l da trn s tnh ton:

Suy hao splitter As: 18 dB.

Cng sut pht PTx: 3 dBm.

nhy S: -24 dBm.

Suy hao si quang A (): 0.3 dB/km.

Suy hao do thit b Atb: 5 dB.

Cng sut thu c ONU l:


PRx = PTx As L - Atb
= 3 - 18 0.320 5 = -26 dBm
li ti thiu ca b khuch i l:
Gmin = S - PRx
= -24 (-26) = 2 dB
li ti a ca b khuch i l:
Gmax = Pout Pin
= Pout (PTx Ls Atb)
= 10 (3 0.315 -5) = 16.5 dBm
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Chng 4: Chng trnh thit k


Suy hao ti a ca splitter l:
Asmax = PTx L - Atb + Gmax - S
= 3 0.320 -5 + 16.5 (-24) = 32.5 dB
Tra bng suy hao ta c N = 2048.
Nhng v t l b chia lun l chn v l bi ca 4 nn ta chn Nmax = 2048 nn ta c t l b
chia 1:N l 1:2048.

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Ph lc

PH LC
Ph lc A: M ha 8B/10B
y l thut ton m d liu truyn dn, c 8 bit d liu th chuyn thnh 10 bit truyn
dn. M ha 8B/10 h tr truyn lin tc vi s bit 1 v bit 0 cn bng v pht hin cc li
truyn dn. 20% d liu c thm vo overhead m ha d liu, bn cnh cn c cc
phn khc. Tng cng phn overhead chim 25% d liu truyn i. Trong EPON tc d
liu l 1 Gbps, vic m ha 8B/10B thm vo tc tng ln 1.25 Gbps.
Tin trnh m ha
D liu

M ha

Khi n m ha n thm vo 2 bit, bit thm vo ny th thay i m bo rng s bit 1 v bit


0 xp x bng nhau. Th tc m ha cung cp s cn bng ca bit 1 v bit 0 c truyn.

Ph lc B: Suy hao ca thit b


Suy hao do thit b bao gm suy hao vt mc ca splitter, suy hao do ch treo si quang,
suy hao do conector, suy hao do s lo ha cc thit b, s thay i nhit hay nhiu do mi
trng bao gm cc phn t i vo conector
Bn di hnh 3.2 trnh by mt ng dng c th thy r suy hao trong truyn dn
FTTH.
V d nh trong EPON vi b chia 1:32. Cng sut pht 1 mW, tc bit 1.25 Gbps
truyn bc sng 1490 nm hng down. Cng sut thu c l -24 dBm trong :

Suy hao do b chia splitter 1: 32 l 15.05 dB.

Suy hao vt mc (Excess Loss) ca splitter l 0.3 dB, vi suy hao vt mc Pex(dB)
= -10 log (tng cng sut ng ra / cng sut ng vo)

Suy hao do 3 ch treo si quang 3 0.07 = 0.21 dB, trong mi ch ni suy hao
0.07 dB.

Suy hao do 3 conector 3 0.5 = 1.5 dB, vi 1 conector suy hao 0.5 dB.

Suy hao do link margin 3 dB, cn gi l h s an ton d phng cho nh hng s lo


ha cc thit b, s thay i nhit hay nhiu do mi trng bao gm cc phn t i
vo conector.

Suy hao do si quang 2.5 dB, vi suy hao trung bnh l 0.25 dB/km v truyn 10 km.

Vy ta c th thy y suy hao do thit b = 0.3 + 0.21 + 1.5 + 3 = 5.01 dB

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Ph lc

Hnh 3. 3 : M t si quang ko t OLT n nh thu bao.

Trong thit k y ta chn suy hao do thit b l 5 dB.

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Ti liu tham kho

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1]

CEDRIC F. LAM , Passive Optical Networks Principles and Practice, October


2007.

[2]

Paul E. Green Jr, Fiber To The Home The New Empowerment, Wiley, 2006.

[3]

Ching-Hung Chang, Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation MAC Protocols for Gigabitcapable Passive Optical Networks, July 2008.

[4]

ITU-T Recommendation G.983.1, Broadband optical access systems based on


Passive Optical Networks (PON), 2005.

[5]

ITU-T Recommendation G.984.3, Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer, 02/2004.

[6]

ITU-T Recommendation G.982, Optical Acess Networks to support services up to


the ISDN primary rate or equivalent bit rates, 1996.

[7]

Steve Gorshe, Introduction to Passive Optical Networks (PON), White Paper,


October 2006.

[8]

Glen Kramer, Interleaved Polling with Adaptive Cycle Time (IPACT): A Dynamic
Bandwidth Distribution Scheme in an Optical Access Network, July 2001.

[9]

ZTE, IP DSLAM MSAN, 2006.

[10] Huan Song, Long-Reach Passive Optical Networks, 2009.


[11] Leo Spiekman, David Piehler, Pat Iannone, Ken Reichmann, Han-Hyub Lee,
Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers for FTTx, 2007.
[12] Darren P. Shea and John E. Mitchell, Long-Reach Optical Access Technologies,
University College London.
[13] Gerd Keiser, FTTX Concepts and Applications,2006.

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T vit tt

T VIT TT
ADSL

Asymmetric digital subscriber line

APD

Avalanche photodiodes

APON

ATM-passive optical network

ATM

Asynchronous transfer mode

BOH

Burst overhead

BPON

Broadband passive optical network

CO

Centre office

CRC

Cyclic redundancy check

DBA

Dynamic bandwidth allocation

DBA

Dynamic bandwidth allocation

DBRu

Dynamic bandwidth report upstream

EMS

Element management system

EPON

Ethernet passive optical network

FCS

Frame check sequence

FEC

Forward error correction

FSAN

Full service access network

FTTB

Fiber to the building

FTTC

Fiber to the curb

FTTH

Fiber to the home

GEM

GPON encapsulation method

GEM

G-PON encapsulation mode

GPON

Gigabit-capable passive optical network

GTC

G-PON transmission convergence

HEC

Header error control

IEEE

Institute of electrical and electronics engineers

IPACT

Interleaved polling with adaptive cycle time

ITU-T

International
telecommunication
standardization

LLID

Logical link identifier

MAC

Medium access control

MIB

Management information base

MPCP

Multi-point control protocol

MPCPDU

Multi-point control protocol data unit

NMS

Network management system

OAM

Operation, Administration and maintenance

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union

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telecommunication

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T vit tt
ODN

Optical distribution network

OLT

Optical line terminal

OMCC

ONT management and control channel

OMCI

ONT management and control interface

ONT

Optical network terminal

ONU

Optical network unit

OSI

Open system interconnect

P2MP

Point-to-multi-point

P2P

Point-to-point

PCBd

Physical control block downstream

PDU

Protocol data units

PHY

Physical layer

PLI

Payload length indicator

PLOAM

Physical layer OAM

PLOAMu

Physical layer operations administration and maintenance upstream

PLOu

Physical layer overhead upstream

PLSu

Power leveling sequence upstream

PMD

Physical medium dependent

PON

Passive optical networks

POTS

Plain old telephone service

PTI

Payload type indicator

QoS

Quality of service

RTD

Round-trip delay

RTT

Signal round trip time

SFD

Start frame delimiter

SLA

Service level agreement

SLD

Start LLID delimiter

TDM

Time division multiplexing

VCI

Virtual Channel Identifier

VPI

Virtual path identifier

WDM

Wavelength division multiplexer

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