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TURKISH GRAMMAR

ACADEMIC EDITION

2012 YKSEL GKNEL

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR
ACADEMIC EDITION

2012 YKSEL GKNEL

TURKISH GRAMMAR TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012


FOREWORD The Turkish Grammar book that you have just started reading is quite different from the grammar books that you read in schools. This kind of Grammar is known as traditional grammar. The main difference of a traditional grammar and that of a transformational one is that the first one describes a natural language as a static object, but the second one describes both the parts of the language engine and how it runs. This is like learning about a motionless car. There is something lacking in this description. It is the dynamics of the parts of a car that runs a hundred and twenty kilometers an hour. Traditional grammars describe only the physical appearance of a language; they do not mind what goes on behind the curtain. The mind of a human being works like the engine of a sports car. It arranges and chooses words matching one another, transforms simple sentence units to use in different parts of sentences, and recollects morphemes and phonemes to be produced by the human speech organs. All these activities are simultaneously carried out by the human mind. Another point that the traditional grammarians generally miss is that they write the grammar of a certain language to teach it to those who have been learning it from the time when they were born up to the time when they discover something called grammar. This is like teaching a language to professional speakers. Then, what is the use of a grammar? I believe most people were acquainted with it when they started learning a foreign language. Therefore, a grammar written for those who are trying to learn a second language is very useful both in teaching and learning a second language. I started teaching English as a second language in 1952, a long time ago. Years passed and one day I found myself as a postgraduate Fulbright student at the University of Texas at Austin in 1960. Although I studied there for only a short period, I learnt enough from Prof. Archibald A. Hill and Dr. De Camp to stimulate me to learn more about Linguistics. After I came back to Turkey, it was difficult to find books on linguistics in booksellers in Istanbul. Thanks to The American Library in Istanbul, I was able to borrow the books that attracted my attention. In those books, I discovered Noam Chomsky, whose name I had not heard during my stay in the U.S.A. I must confess that I am indebted to the scholars and the library above in writing this Turkish Grammar. I am also grateful to my son Dr. zgr Gknel who encouraged me to write this book and to Vivatinell Warwick U.K., which sponsored to publish it. YKSEL GKNEL

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012

TURKISH GRAMMAR
ACADEMIC EDITION

YKSEL GKNEL
Vivatinell Bilim-Kltr Yaynlar 2012
Grafik Tasarm Uygulamalar Vivatinell Press Selami Burhan GKAY

Vivatinell Cosmopharmaceutics
Fetih Mah. Tunca Sk. No:2 34704 Ataehir / stanbul / TRKYE Tel: +90 216 470 09 44 Faks: +90 216 470 09 48

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012 CONTENTS


Foreword Contents Logical, Morphemic, and Oral Sequencing The Turkish Grammar The Turkish Vowel and Consonant Harmony The Vowel Harmony Sequence The Consonant Harmony Morphemes and Allomorphs Derivational Morphemes and Their Allomorphs Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Nouns Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Adjectives Morphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce Nouns Morphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce Nouns Morphemes Attached to Verbs to Produce Adjectives Morphemes Attached to Nouns to Produce Verbs Morphemes Attached to Adjectives to Produce Verbs Inflectional Morphemes and Their Allomorphs Nominal Phrases Adverbs and Adverbials The Transformational Activity of the Logic Form and Function in Languages Using Adjectives as Adverbs The Inflectional Morphemes The Defining [] Morpheme and Its Allomorphs [i, , , u] The [LE], [LE.YIN] and [E], [DE], [DEN] Inflectional Morphemes [LE] allomorphs: [le, la] [LE.YIN]: [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] Morphemes [E] allomorphs: [e, a] [DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta] [DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan] Possessor + Possessed Noun Compounds (sim Tamlamalar) Definite Noun Compounds (Belirtili sim Tamlamalar) Indefinite Noun Compounds (Belirtisiz sim Tamlamalar) Noun Compounds Without Suffixes (Taksz Tamlamalar) Noun + Infinitive Compounds (sim Mastar Tamlamalar) Prepositions and Postpositions (Edatlar or lgeler) 3 7 13 16 17 17 19 22 23 23 24 27 28 32 33 34 34 37 40 41 43 45 48 48 53 53 54 54 56 62 64 66 66 73 73 75 76

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012


Primary Stress, Secondary Stress, and Intonation [E], [DE], [DEN] Morphemes + Postpositions The Inflectional Morphemes Attached to Verbs The Simple Present be The Present Modals with Verb be must be cant be may be may not be The "yes - no" Questions Used With Verb "be" have to be, should be, ought to be, neednt be have to be (zorundaym) neednt be (gerek yok) The Simple Past Verb be Interrogative Words [M] (Rumor, Inference) (sylenti, anlam karma) The Future Form of be (will be) there is, there are; have, (have got) there used to be, there used to have there must (may) be, there cant be, there is going to be Imperatves and Wshes Wsh The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) The Verbs Ending with Vowels or Consonants Some Nouns Used Together With et, `yap, ile to Produce Verbs The Negative Form of The Simple Present Tense The Simple Present Positive Question The Simple Present Negative Question The Question Words Used in the Simple Present Tense The Present Continuous and the Present Perfect Continuous The Verbs That Are Not Used in the Simple Present in Turkish Turkish Verb Frames (Trkede Fiil atlar) Transitive and Intransitive Verb Frames Reflexive Verb Frames The Passive Transformation of the Intransitive Verbs Reciprocal Verb Frames (te Fiiller) Both Transitively and Intransitively Used English Verbs The Simple Past and the Present Perfect Mili Past Tense (Rumor and Inference) (Mili Gemi) 77 86 93 94 103 103 105 106 107 108 109 109 110 111 114 118 120 121 122 123 123 125 127 131 132 134 135 137 139 141 146 148 148 149 150 152 153 159 167

TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012


The Simple Future and be going to The Past Continuous Tense The Past Perfect Continuous Tense Was (were) going to used to The Rumor Forms of The Simple Present and The Present Cont. The Past Perfect Tense The Future Continuous Tense The Future Perfect Tense Infinitives (Mastarar) The [mek, mak] Infinitives The [me, ma] Infinitives The [i, , , u] Infinitives The [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] Infinitives Where and How the Infinitives Are Used 1.(a) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Subject 1.(b) The [mak, mak] Infinitives Used before Postpositions 1.(c) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used as Objects of iste 1.(d) The [mek, mak] Infinitives Used Attached to [DEN] Morph. 2.(a) The [me, ma] Infinitives Used Attached to Noun Compounds 2.(b) noun+infinitive-[], and V-[me-/y/i], V-[ma]-/y/] 2.(c) noun+infinitive-[e, a] 2.(d) noun+infinitive Compounds Followed by [den, dan] 3.(a) noun+infinitive-[], [E], [DE], [DEN] 4.(a) possessor noun+ V-[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] The Passive Infinitive Modals Present Modals can, may [ebil, abil] must [meli, mal] have to (zorunda) neednt (dont have to) should (ought to) Past Modals Could was (were) able to would, could (polite request) Perfect Modals must have 171 174 178 178 179 181 182 183 184 185 185 185 185 185 187 187 187 189 189 190 192 196 196 197 198 199 201 201 201 205 207 208 209 211 211 212 213 214 214

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cant (couldnt) have should have (ought to have) may have might have neednt have didnt need to Transformations (English) The Nominalization of the Simple English Sentences The Transformation of the Simple Sentences into Determiners The Productivity of the Natural Languages TheTransformed Simple Sentences Used as Adverbial Clauses Turkish Sentence Nominalizations Turkish Simple Sentence Nominalization Transformed Nominal Phrases The infinitives with [me, ma]: The infinitives with [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]: Simple Sentence Nominalization 1: V - [DK] - [pers] - ([]) The Simple Future Tense: V-[ecek, acak]-[pers]-[] The Past Perfect: V-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-[] The Future Perfect V-[mi, m, m, mu] + ol-[duk]]-[pers]-[] Simple Sentences with the Verb root ol (be) Chain Noun Compounds 2. V- [DK]- [pers]-([]) V-[M] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-([]) Nominalized Sentences Containing question words Turkish Determiner + Determined Compounds Simple Sentences and Transformed Nominal Phrases The Passive Transformation and the Passive Verb Frames The Verb Frames The Structural Composition of the Causative Verb Frames A Short List of Verb Frames The Order of Morphemes Causative Verb Frame Examples The Passive Causative Syllabication Dividing the Verb Compositions into Syllables
The Rumor Forms of the Simple Present, Continuous and Future Tenses

Negative Verb Compositions Some Example Sentences of the Verb Frames

216 217 218 219 219 220 221 221 226 228 230 232 235 236 237 238 238 239 240 240 240 241 243 247 247 250 255 257 260 261 262 268 269 270 270 279 291 294 295

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Adverbial Clauses (Postpositional Adverbial Phrases) Time before after when and while while as soon as until by and by the time since Cause or Reason Contrast (Ramen) Purpose Place Manner as as if (as though) Result so that such that o kadar + adjective + noun-time + ki too + adjective + to + V + iin and adjective + enough + to + Verb Degree Comparative Degree Superlative Degree Positive or Negative Equality Parallel Proportion (Kout Uyum) Wish wish + would wish + past subjunctive wish + past perfect or perfect modal Conditional Sentences Present Real Supposition Present Unreal (contrary to fact) Supposition Past Real Supposition Past Unreal (contrary to fact) Supposition Orders and Requests Plain Orders and Requests Polite Requests Polite Refusals 340 340 340 345 346 349 352 353 356 357 359 361 363 367 368 368 369 371 372 373 373 375 375 377 378 379 380 380 381 382 383 383 386 387 388 390 390 391 392

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Offers { V + [P] } Question Tags ( deil mi?) So do I (Neither do I) Conjunctions and Transitional Phrases Intensifiers Reported Speech Roots, Stems and Verb Frames Rational Sequencing Morphemic Sequencing The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Nouns and Nominal Phrases The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Action Vebs Dual Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Verb Roots, Stems and Frames The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to "be" (ol) Verbs Modal Auxiliary Verbs Oral Harmonic Sequencing Morphemic and Oral Sequences Symbols and Abbreviations References 392 393 394 395 396 403 407 408 410 418 418 420 421 422 423 425 428 431 432

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TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012 LOGICAL, MORPHEMIC, AND ORAL SEQUENCING
Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker in their books assert that the human mind has an inborn logical ability which seperates a body of thought (a sentence) into two parts to produce sentences. A person thinks logically that a sentence should be about something or someone, and uses them as subjects, and uses all the information given about the subjects as predicates. Chomsky calls them Nominal Phrase and Verbal Phrase, in short "NP + VP". Additionally, the predicate part (VP) is also seperated into two parts as a verb, and an object 'V + NP'. These logical storages (parts) are empty before one starts learning his/her language. When someone starts hearing the sounds of his language, he loads these sounds with meaning and inserts them into these empty logical storages. The sequencing of the storages is also learned while someone is being exposed to his native language. Therefore the sequencing of the logical storages change from language to language. The logical storages and their learned sequencing are called the logical sequence of a sentence. The so called storages are also flexible enough to hold the shortest and the longest language units. The word verb "V" covers a verb root, a verb stem, or a verb frame, and all the inflectional suffixes attached to them such as "ed", "ing", "s", and auxiliary verbs such as "must", "may", "might", "can", "could", etc. preceded by them. The verbs together with these inflectional suffixes and auxiliary verbs constitude a verb composition concept and called a verb "V". All subjects and objects, whether long or short, are Nominal Phrases. If a verb is intransitive, it does not need an object (NP), so the predicate part has only a verb, and some adverbs or adverbials. The predicates that have "be" verbs are also considered Verbal Phrases. The sentences described above are of three kinds: 1. A subject, a transitive verb, and an object: Jack killed a mouse.
subj NP V obj (NP) VP

2. A subject and an intransitive verb: Jack sleeps.


subj NP subj NP V VP V VP

3. A subject and a "be" complement: Jack is brave.

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Although these logical storages are inborn, their sequencing is learned through the experiences of an individual. Therefore, the sequencing of the subject and predicate, and that of the subject, verb, and object change from language to language. For instance in English: I
Subj (NP)

am coming.
pred (VP)

(There are no personal suffixes attached to verbs in English.) In Turkish: Geliyor


V

um (ge*li*yo*rum)
subj (NP)

In Turkish, a personal concept is expressed by a personal suffix either attached to a verb at the end of a sentence, or expressed by both a pronoun in the beginning and a suffix at the end of a sentence. Using personal suffixes attached to the ends of the Turkish sentences (except the third person singular) is a grammatical necessity. Furthermore, the subject, verb, and object sequence of the English language differs in Turkish as subject (pronoun), object, verb, subject (suffix); or object, verb, subject (suffix): English: We are picking
V

flowers.
obj

subj (pron)

Turkish 1: Biz
subj (pron) obj

iek
obj

topuyor-uz. = We are picking flowers.


V-subj (suffix)

Turkish 2: iek topluyor-uz. = We are picking flowers.


V-subj (suffix)

The reason why there may be two identical alternative sentences in Turkish is that one should compulsorily use a personal suffix attached to the verb in a sentence, but if he wants to emphasize the subject, he could also use a pronoun in the beginning of a sentence as well as a personal suffix representing the pronoun at the end. If we use a sentence without a personal suffix, the sentence becomes ungrammatical although it is understandable: *Ben yarn Ankara'ya gidiyor. (ungrammatical) (Ben) yarn Ankara'ya gidiyor-um. (grammatical) (Ben could be ignored.) *Ben sen-i seviyor. (ungrammatical) (Ben) sen-i veviyor-um. (grammatical) (Ben could be ignored.) As a general syllabication rule in Turkish, the single underlined consonants of the words or allomorphs detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes as in the examples above. This

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operation of the oral sequence of the Turkish language reorganizes the morphemic sequence to produce harmonic syllable sequences. The lines put under the consonants are not used in writing. One could estimate that there exist empty inborn logical subject-predicate, and subject-verb-object storages in one's mind ready to be filled with the learned sequences of phonemes and morphemes in a newborn baby. A newborn baby hears the sounds of his/her native language, learns which sounds convey which words and morphemes. He/she also hears the sequences of subject-predicate, and subject-verb-object, and the syllables of his/her native language. All these sounds and information gather in its memory, and are inserted into the inborn storages to produce sensible sentences. All human beings are born eager to learn. This is an inherent instinct in everybody, which Steven Pinker calls it "Language Instinct". Children do not know what a subject, or an object is, but as soon as they learn the interrogative concepts who?, what?, when?, where?, why?, how?, etc., they start asking questions. In all languages, question words ask for the essential parts of a sentence such as subject, object, and adverbs of time, place, reason, etc. So, he logically knows that who and what asks for the subject, and whom and what asks for the object, and he also understands that all the answers to the questions who, and what are subjects, and whom and what are the objects. For instance: Jack found a watch.
who what

Jacks sister found a watch.


who what

The boy who was walking along the street found a watch.
who what

The boy who was walking along the street found the watch that I lost.
who what

Jack saw a rabbit in the garden yesterday.


who what where when

The house that Jack built collapsed suddenly last night.


what how when

Jack found a watch while he was walking down the streed.


who what when

Jack passed his examination with difficulty because he was lazy.


who what how why

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Jack saw Mary among the crowd.
who whom where

Jack bought some flowers for his mother.


who what for whom

Jack was coming from school.


who from where

The parts that are not underlined in the sentences above are verbs. If someone wants to ask about these verbs he says, what did jack do?, and for the underlined parts he says, From where was Jack coming?, Where was Jack coming from?, Whom did Jack see?, etc. Consequently, it is possible to say that a person fills the subject and predicate logical storages using interrogative instruments. As in all natural languages, the Turkish language production system governs three groups of sequences. The first sequence is the logical sequence which governs the basic network of a sentence in which all sentences take form. The second sequence is the morphemic sequence which arranges the sequence of the morphemes in the Turkish words. The third sequence is the oral or phonological sequence which arranges the syllables and the overall harmony of the allomorphs in a sentence.

THE TURKISH GRAMMAR


After the above short survey of the universal Transformational Generative Grammar (with some interpretations of my own), we can begin with the sound system of The Turkish language. Turkish has 29 letters in its alphabet. Some of these letters / o, u, a, / and / , , e, i / are vowels (nller), and the others / b, c, , d, f, g, , h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, , t, v, y, z / are consonants (nszler). All the letters above represent phonemes, that is why they are shown between / / signs. Phonemics is not interested in detailed phonetic differences. Some of the vowels / , , / do not exist in English. They are pronounced: // as in English again; // as in German schn; and // as in German htte respectively. Among the consonants, there are the / , , / phonemes, which are pronounced as ch as in church, sh as in fish; and to produce the //

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phoneme, which does not exist in English, first produce /g/ phoneme, and make it longer by letting your breath pass between your tongue and the hard palate of your mouth while vibrating your vocal cords.

THE TURKISH VOWEL AND CONSONANT HARMONY


Turkish is said to be an agglutinative language, which means that suffixes are attached to word roots or stems one following the other in a sequence to arrange words. To understand how these suffix chains are sequenced, one should understand the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language before one begins to attach suffixes to roots or stems, and to the suffixes following them.

THE VOWEL HARMONY SEQUENCE


A Turkish speaker follows two certain harmony chains to produce a vowel harmony sequence: 1. The hard vowel harmony chain 2. The thin vowel harmony chain 1. The hard (back) vowel harmony chain is o u a 2. The thin (front) vowel harmony chain is e i In both chains, the first vowels /o/ and // never repeat themselves. The other vowels can be repeated as many times as necessary. The arrow ( ) points to the vowel that will follow the previous one. The arrows ( ), pointing to both directions, show that /i/ may follow /e/, or /e/ may follow /i/. In the hard vowel harmony chain, /a/ and // do the same. Furthermore, besides the arrows, the letters r are put under repeatable vowels to complete our diagrams: 1. The hard (back) vowel harmony chain: 2. The thin (front) vowel harmony chain: o ur ar r

r er ir

As one could see, the two diagrams look exactly like one another. All the words in the Turkish language follow either the first or the second harmony sequences. The words borrowed from other languages do not follow these sequences as expected, but the suffixes that attach to them follow the vowels of the last syllables of such words. Consequently, one could build

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up meaningless chains made up of only vowels following the two vowel chains: o*u*u*a**a*, o*a**a, **e*e*i, *e*i*e For instance: kom*u*ya (o*u*a); kom*u*lar*dan (o*u*a*a); ge*le*cek*ler (e*e*e*e); o*lu*tur*duk*la*r*mz*dan (o*u*u*u*a***a); u*nu*ta*lm (u*u*a*); o*ku*la (o*u*a); ten*ce*re*ye (e*e*e*e); ka*a*ma*ya*cak (a*a*a*a*a) One could make up Turkish meaningless vowel chains as many as one wishes using the above vowel chains. I advise those who are interested in learning Turkish to make up vowel chains like the chains above, and repeat them loudly again and again. In doing so, they can memorize the Turkish vowel harmony sequences easily and soundly as they learn a piece of music. When they repeat them, they may even feel and sound as if they were speaking Turkish. As it has already been mentioned, borrowed words do not follow the vowel harmony sequences, but the last syllables of these words are attached to suffixes in accordance with the vowel harmony rules: patates-ler-i (pa*ta*tes*le*ri) the potatoes; televizyon-u (te*le*viz*yo*nu) the television; mandalina-/y/ (man*da*li* na*/y/) the tangerine; sigara-/y/ (si*ga*ra*/y/) the cigarette. The /y/ phonemes used above are glides (semivowels) inserted between two vowels to help them to pass the voice from one vowel to the following one smoothly and harmoniously. They do not carry meaning. One more thing to add to the explanation above is that the words that are formed of two separate words do not follow the above vowel harmony sequences: kahverengi (kahve + rengi) brown; buzdolab (buz + dolab) refrigerator; bilgisayar (bilgi + sayar) computer; tavanaras (tavan + aras) attic. Besides the vowel harmony rules above, there are three more essential vowel rules to consider: 1. The verbs ending with vowels drop these vowels when they attach to the allomorphs of [.YOR]. These vowels are double underlined. Besides the double underlimed vowels, there are some consonants that are single un-

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derlined which show that they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs to produce new syllables. Bekle-i.yor (bek*li*yor); bala-.yor (ba*l*yor); anla-.yor (an*l*yor); gizle-i.yor (giz*li*yor); oku-u.yor (o*ku*yor); atla-.yor (at*l*yor) ye-i.yor (yi*yor); gzle-.yor (gz*l*yor); gizle-i.yor (giz*li*yor) Gel-i.yor-um (ge*li*yo*rum); yz-.yor-uz (y*z*yo*ruz); i-er-im (i*e*rim): yaz-a.cak-m (ya*za*ca*m); yakalan-a.cak-z (ya*ka*la*na*ca*z); gl-er-im (g*le*rim); kork-ar-z (kor*ka*rz) 2. When the last syllables of the nouns (including the infinitives), the verbs, and the inflectional morphemes end with vowels, and the first vowels of the following allomorphs start with the same vowels, these two vowels combine and articulated as a single vowel. For example, when the last vowel of the word anne and the first vowel of the allomorph em happen to be articulated together, they combine and are articulated as a single vowel: anneem (an*nem): anne-en (an*nen); tarla-am (tar*lam); araba-a.nz (a*ra*ba*nz); kafa-an (ka*fan); git-ti-in (git*tin); bekle-di-ik (bek*le*dik); gl-dk (gl*dk); yakala-d-m (ya*ka*la*dm); git-me-em (git*mem); al-ma-am (a*l*mam); temizle-en-mek (te*miz*len*mek); Dinle-er mi-sin? (din*ler / mi*sin); ol-sa-am (ol*sam), bil-se-em (bil*sem) If the last vowel of a word and the first vowel of an allomorph happen to be different, these two vowels are generally linked by the /y/ glides: oku-ma-/y/z (o*ku*ma*yz); gel-me-/y/iz (gel*me*yiz);

tava-/y/a

(ta*va*ya); THE CONSONANT HARMONY SEQUENCE


Consonants are grouped into two subdivisions: voiced consonants: / b, c, d, g, , j, y, l, m, n, r, v, z / unvoiced consonants: / , f, k, p, s, , t / The voiced consonants are the phonemes that are produced by vibrating the vocal cords while the breath is passing through the throat. To understand the voiced and unvoiced difference, first produce the /v/ phoneme, which vibrates the vocal cords in your throat, and then, without changing the position of your teeth and lips, produce the same sound without vibrating the vocal cords to produce the unvoiced /f/ phoneme. In doing this, you feel no vibration in your throat. The consonants that vibrate the vocal cords are named voiced consonants; the unvoiced consonants do not vibrate

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them. By the way, one should keep in mind that all vowels and voiced consonants vibrate the vocal cords. The vowels and the voiced consonants, which vibrate the vocal cords, are called vocals. Only the unvoiced consonants do not vibrate them. In Turkish, the voiced consonants are called "yumuak (sedal) nszler", and the unvoiced consonants are called "sert nszler". The /p/, //, /k/, /t/ unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterparts /b/, /c/, //, /d/ when they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the [i, , , u], or [e, a] allomorphs: /p/ changes into /b/: kitap-, kitap-a (ki*ta*b, ki*ta*ba), sebep-i, sebep-e (se*be*bi, se*be*be), kebap-, kebap-a (ke*ba*b, ke*ba*ba), orap-, orap-a (o*ra*b, o*ra*ba), dolap- (do*la*b, do*la*ba), arap-, arap-a (a*ra*b, a*ra*ba), hesap-, hesap-a (he*sa:*b, he*sa:*ba). // changes into /c/: aa-, aa-a (a*a*c, a*a*ca), saya-, saya-a (sa*ya*c, sa*ya*ca), ama-, ama-a (a*ma*c, a*ma*ca), ayra-, ayra-a (ay*ra*c, ay*ra*ca), deme-i, deme-e (de*me*ci, de*me*ce). /k/ changes into //: sokak-, sokak-a (so*ka*, so*ka*a), tabak-, tabak-a (ta*ba*, ta*ba*a), krek-i, krek-e (k*re*i, k*re*e), bebek-i, bebek-e (be*be*i, be*be*e), kpek-i, kpek-e (k*pe*i, k*pe*e), ayak-, ayak-a (a*ya*, a*ya*a), bardak-, bardak-a (bar*da*, bar*da*a). /t/ changes into /d/: adet-i, adet-e (a*de*di, a*de*de), kanat-, kanat-a (ka*na*d, ka*na*da), umut-u, umut-a (u*mu:*du, u*mu:*da), yourt-u, yourt-a (yo*ur*du, yo*ur*da). As an exception: sepet-i, sepet-e (se*pe*ti, se*pe*te), nbet-i, nbet-e (n*be*ti, n*be*te). When the nouns or pronouns ending with /p, , k, t/ consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the [in, n, n, un] allomorphs, their last consonants /p, , k, t/ change into their voiced counterparts /b, c, , d/ respectively. kitap-n (ki*ta*bn), sebep-in (se*be*bin), kebap-n (ke*ba*bn), orap-n (o*ra*bn), aa-n (a*a*cn), ama-n (a*ma*cn), sokak-n (so*ka*n), krek-in (k*re*in), bebek-in (be*be*in), ayak-n (a*ya*n), kanat-n (ka*na*dn), yourt-un (yo*ur*dun). Some /t/ phonemes, however, do not change: hayat (ha*ya:*t), (ha*ya:*ta), (ha*ya:*tn); sanat (san*a*t), (san*a*ta), (san*a*tn); sfat (s*fa*t), (s*fa*ta), (s*fa*tn); saat (sa*a*ti), (sa*a*te), sa*a*tin); sepet (se*pe*ti), (se*pe*te), (se*pe*tin); glet (g*le*ti), (g*le*te), (g*le*tin); demet (de*me*ti), (de*me*te), (de*me*tin).

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The monosyllabic noun roots ending with unvoiced consonants do not change when they get the [], [E], [DE], [DEN] and the personal morphemes: ek (eki, eke, ekte, ekten, ekin); sap (sap, sapa, sapta, saptan, sapn); ip (ipi, ipe, ipte, ipten, ipin); hap (hap, hapa, hapta, haptan, hapn); tp (tp, tpe, tpte, tpten, tpn); top (topu, topa, topta, toptan, topun); sa (sa, saa, sata, atan, san); i (ii, ie, ite, iten, iin); g (g, ge, gte, gten, gn); ma (ma, maa, mata, matan, man); kk (kk, kke, kkte, kkten, kkn); ok (oku, oka, okta, oktan, okun ), yk (yk, yke, ykte, ykten, ykn); krk (krk, krke, krkte, krkn); Trk (Trk, Trke, Trkte, Trkten, Trkn); at (at, ata, atta, attan, atn); et (eti, ete, ette, etten, etin); st (st, ste, stte, stten, stn); ot (otu, ota, otta, ottan, otun); kart (kart, karta, kartta, karttan, kartn). However, the final consonants of some monosyllabic nouns do change when they are attached only to [i, , , u], [e, a] and [in, n, n, un] allomorphs. They do not change when they are attached to the allomorphs of the morphemes of [DE] and [DEN]: but (budu, buda, budun, butta, buttan); dip (dibi, dibe, dibin, dipte, dipten); ok (ou, oa, oun, okta, oktan); gk (g, ge, gn, gkte, gkten); kap (kab, kaba, kabn, kapta, kaptan); u (ucu, uca, ucun, uta, utan); yurt (yurdu, yurda, yurdun, yurtta, yurttan); kurt (kurdu, kurda, kurdun, kurtta, kurttan); tat (tad, tada, tadn, tatta, tattan). When [] or [E] morphemes come after the nouns ending with vowels, the /y/ linking consonants (glides) are inserted between these two vowels to provide a harmonious link: Testi (tes*ti*/y/i, tes*ti*/y/e); araba (a*ra*ba*/y/, a*ra*ba*/y/a); tarla (tar*la*/y/, tar*la*/y/a); salata (sa*la*ta*/y/, sa*la*ta*/y/a); mart (mar*t*/y/, mar*t*/y/a); tava (ta*va*/y/, ta*va*/y/a); teneke (te*ne*ke*/y/I, te*ne*ke*/y/e); makara (ma*ka*ra*/y/, ma*ka*ra*/y/a); kundura (kun*du*ra*/y/, kun*du*ra*/y/a); kafa (ka*fa*/y/, ka*fa*/y/a); su (su*/y/u, su*/y/a). When the nouns ending with vowels are attached to the possessor personal allomorphs of [N], [in, n, n, un], which are used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds, the /n/ glides are inserted between the two vowels such as: araba-/n/n testi-/n/in ordu-/n/un yk-/n/n (a*ra*ba*nn) (tes*ti*nin) (or*du*nun) (y*k*nn)

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sergi-/n/in kafa-/n/n makara-/n/n mart-/n/n (ser*gi*nin) (ka*fa*nn) (ma*ka*ra*nn) (mar*t*nn)

However, when pronouns are used in the possessor position, they are suffixed with the [im, in, un, im, in, n] allomorphs: ben-im (be*nim), sen-in (se*nin), o-un (o*/n/un), biz-im (bi*zim), siz-in (si*zin), o-lar-n (o/n/*la*rn) Note: The single underlined consonants in the examples above show the consonants that detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs while the syllabication process is going on. Exception: su (su*/y/un). Example: (a*ra*ba*/n/n / h*z), (su*/y/un / h*z)

MORPHEMES AND ALLOMORPHS


Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful language units in languages. For instance, the word um*brel*la has three syllables. None of these three syllables are significant units on their own; they have sense only when they are heard together. So, these three syllables form a single shortest meaningful unit together, and consequently, umbrella is both a morpheme and a word. Such words are called free morphemes. However, although the suffixes are also the smallest meaningful units, they do not convey any sense unless they are attached to roots or stems. Such morphemes are called bound morphemes. All the words have roots or stems like open, soft-en, clean, beauty, success, book, etc. Some morphemes (suffixes or prefixes) are attached to these roots or stems. For instance, open-ed, clean-ed, success-ful, beauti-ful, "whiten-ed" teach-er, ir-respons-ible, un-count-able, unne-necessari-ly, go-ing, etc. Look at page 408 for roots, stems and verb frames. As one could see, there are two kinds of suffxes and prefixes in the given examples above. Some of these morphemes change the meaning and the part of speech they belong with when they are attached to different roots or stems. Some others, however, add certain inflectional meanings to verb and noun roots or stems such as tense, voice, person, mood, number, direction or state without changing their root or stem meanings. A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a derivational morpheme (yapm eki); the other one, which does not change

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the meaning of a root or stem, is called an inflectional morpheme (ekim eki). Both the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes. Some bound morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation variants that bear the same meaning as the morphemes. For instance, in English, when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun book, it is pronounced as /s/; in boy-s as /z/; and in box-es as /iz/. As they are the different pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named as the allomorphs of the morpheme [S]. There are a lot more allomorphs in Turkish than there are in English. This is because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant changes according to the vowel and consonant rules of the Turkish language when they are attached to roots or stems and to one another, and this process causes different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain morpheme carry the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore they do not change the meaning of the morphemes because The Turkish sound system functions independently of the Turkish morphemic system.

THE DERIVATIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS


Anlaml Yapm Ekleri Ve Onlarn Altbiimbirimleri Derivational morphemes (suffixes) are bound morphemes that change the lexical meaning or the part of speech of a word used in a sentence: MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS TO PRODUCE NOUNS [C] allomorphs: [ci, c, c, cu, i, , , u] When the nouns ending with vocals (vowels or voiced consonants) are attached to the morpheme [C], the /i/ vowel in this morpheme changes into /i, , , u/ in accordance with the vowel harmony rules. However, if a noun ends with an unvoiced consonant, the /c/ voiced consonants also change into the // unvoiced consonants in agreement with the consonant harmony rules: peynir-ci (cheese seller), posta-c (postman), zm-c (grapes seller), turu-cu (pickles seller), sepet-i (basket maker), balk- (fisherman), st- (milkman), ok-u (archer), a- (cook), kale-ci (goal-keeper), kahve-ci (coffee seller), saat-i (watch repairer or seller), mobilya-c (furniture seller), kaak- (smuggler), musluk-u (plumber), yaban-c (foreigner), iek-i (florist), yol-cu (traveler), sanat- (artist), gz-c (watch, watchman), szc (spokesman), politika-c (politician), milliyet-i (nationalist), di-i (dentist), kira-c (tenant), ark-c (singer), brek-i (someone who sells pies), boya-c (painter), demir-ci (blacksmith), halter-ci (weight lifter).

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[LK] allomorphs: [lik, lk, lk, luk] meyve-lik (a bowl where fruit is kept), kitap-lk (bookcase), gz-lk (eyeglasses), odun-luk (a place where firewood is kept), az-lk (cigarette holder), kulak-lk (headphones), aydan-lk (tea pot), mezar-lk (graveyard), eker-lik (a bowl in which candies are kept), okevli-lik (polygamy), tuz-luk (saltshaker), ocuk-luk (childhood), maskara-lk (farce, foolery), soytar-lk (clowning), dost-luk (friendship), dman-lk (enmity), gece-lik (pajamas, nightgown), n-lk (apron), gven-lik (safety), anne-lik (motherhood), evlat-lk (adopted child), kahraman-lk (heroism). [C-LK] allomorphs: [ci-lik, c-lk, c-lk, cu-luk, i-lik, -lk, -lk, u-luk] av-c.lk (hunting), meyve-ci.lik (selling fruit), n-c.lk (leadership), yol-culuk (traveling), a-.lk (cooking), fal-c.lk (fortune telling), tefe-ci.lik (usury), iek-i.lik (selling flowers), if-i.lik (farming), hava-c.lk (aviation), balk-.lk (fishing), kaak-.lk (smuggling), p-.lk (scavenge) [CK] allomorphs: [cik, ck,ck,

cuk, ik, k, k, uk] (diminutive)

ev-cik (small house), kap-ck (small door), kpr-ck (small bridge), kutucuk (small box), eek-ik (small donkey), aa-k (small tree), kadn-ck (little woman), tosun-cuk (big and healthy newborn baby). [CE.IZ] allomorphs: [ce.iz, ca.z, e.iz, a.z] (innocence) kedi-ceiz (innocent cat), kz-caz (innocent girl), hayvan-caz (innocent animal), kpek-eiz (innocent dog), ku-az (innocent bird). [CE] allomorphs: [ce, ca, e, a] ngiliz-ce (English), Alman-ca (German), Trk-e (Turkish), Rus-a (Russian), spanyol-ca (Spanish), Japon-ca (Japanese), in-ce (Chinese), Arap-a (Arabic), Fransz-ca (French), talyan-ca (Italian), Rum-ca (Greek). MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS TO PRODUCE ADJECTIVES [CL] allomorphs: [cil, cl, cl, cul, il, l, l, ul] ev-cil (domestic), insan-cl (humane), ben-cil (selfish), ot-ul (herbivorous)

[L] allomorphs: [li, l, l, lu]

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ev-li (married), ocuk-lu (with children), emsiye-li (with an umbrella), bahe-li ev (house with a garden), iyah ceket-li adam (the man in a black coat), krmz-l kadn (the woman in red), grg-l (having good manners, polite), iek-li aa (a tree in blossom), yamur-lu (rainy), kar-l (snowy), sis-li (foggy, misty), gne-li (sunny), bulut-lu (cloudy), tuz-lu (salty), at-l (man on horseback), istek-li (willing), becerik-li (skillful), amur-lu (muddy), hesap-l (economical), sayg-l (respectful), su-lu (criminal), hata:-l (faulty), tat-l (sweet), mayo-lu (in a bathing suit), st-l (with milk, milky), paha-l (expensive), ta kafa-l (stone headed), Adana-l (from Adana), srek-li (continuous), hiddet-li (outrageous), kl-l (hairy), bilin-li (intentional, conscious), zarar-l (harmful), tehlike-li (dangerous), phe-li (suspicious, suspect), yer-li (native), iki bacak-l (two legged), kanat-l (winged), kayg-l (anxious), umut-lu (hopeful), gerek-li (necessary), yetenek-li (talented), bam-l (addicted, dependent), silah-l (armed), renk-li (colored), kr-l (profitable), zehir-li (poisonous), denge-li (balanced), nee-li (joyful), kusur-lu (faulty), grlt-l (noisy), deer-li (precious), gerek-li (necessary), dnce-li (thoughtful), yrek-li (brave), ayrnt-l (detailed, in detail), sorum-lu (responsible), mantk-l (rational), g-l (strong), rt-l (covered), his-li (sensitive), hrs-l (ambitious), hz-l (fast), tertip-li (tidy), tuz-lu (salty), buz-lu (icy), amur-lu (muddy), kir-li (dirty), pasak-l (untidy), korku-lu (frightening, scary), hak-l (right, fair), kast-l (intentional), hesap-l (economical), meme-li (mammal), tecrbe-li, deneyim-li (experienced), falso-lu (erroneous), kasvet-li (gloomy, doleful), kuku-lu (dubious, suspicious), onur-lu, gurur-lu (proud), dayank-l (durable), dikkat-li (careful), becerik-li (skillful), yama-l (patchy), dokunak-l (pungent), grev-li (on duty), yarar-l (useful), karar-l (firm, determined), grkem-li (magnificent), atafat-l (pompous), akl-l (intelligent), rahmet-li (deceased), ya-l (aged) dert-li (in trouble, miserable), eker-li (sweet), su-lu (saucy), faydal (useful), gizem-li (mysterious), korku-lu (frightening, horrifying), duygu-lu (emotional, sensitive), heyecan-l (exciting, nervous), tertip-li (tidy), ileri gr-l (foreseeing), huzur-lu (peaceful), keyif-li (cheerful), yetki-li (authorized), balant-l (related, agglutinative), boya-l (painted), cila-l (ci*l:*l) (finished, varnished), cilt-li (hardback), yay-l (with springs), ayrnt-l (detailed, in detail), l-l (restrained), g-l (strong), tr-l tr-l (all sorts of), besbel-li (obvious), isabet-li (i*sa:*bet*li) (right, to the purpose), geer-li (valid), baar-l (successful), inan-l (confident), diren-li (resistive), kant-l (proven, supported by evidence), yn-l (woollen), pamuk-lu (cotton), ate-li (fiery, zealous), izgi-li (lined, striped), yldz-l (starry, starlit), boya-l (painted), kyma-l brek (mince pie), gne-li (sunny), toz-lu (dusty), aa-l (wooded), iek-li (flowered), desen-li (patterned, figured), yaldz-l (gilded), ss-l (ornamented), kymet-li (precious, valuable), kuy-

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ruk-lu (tailed), zahmet-li (difficult, hard), temkin-li (cautious).

[SZ] allomorphs: [siz, sz, sz, suz]


korku-suz (fearless), istek-siz (unwilling), yamur-suz (rainless), aasz (treeless), defo-suz (flawless), uyku-suz (sleepless), bilin-siz (uncon-scious), karar-sz (hesitant), sorum-suz (irresponsible), dikkat-siz (care-less), ama-sz (aimless), kalp-siz (heartless), yrek-siz (timid), nee-siz (ne*e*siz) (sad), mit-siz, umut-suz (desperate, hopeless), taban-sz (timid), sayg-sz (disrespectful), mantk-sz (irrational), temel-siz (unsound, baseless), renk-siz (colorless), gerek-siz (unnecessary), bamsz (inde-pendent), perva:-sz (reckless), kafa-sz (stupid), sevgi-siz (loveless), terbiye-siz (impolite, rude), grg-sz (impolite), becerik-siz (incompetent), imkn-sz (impossible), deer-siz (worthless), ses-siz (silent), eker-siz (without sugar), gerek-siz (unnecessary), dn-ce-siz (thoughtless), so-rum-suz (irresponsible), mesnet-siz (baseless), tasa-sz (carefree), ahlk-sz (immoral), yz-sz (impudent), huy-suz (perverse), akl-sz (foolish), dayanak-sz (baseless), dayank-sz (not durable), duygu-suz (senseless), kusur-suz (faultless), ta:lih-siz (unfortunate), kymetsiz (worthless), teh-like-siz (safe), tat-sz (tasteless), haya-sz (shameless, impudent), tertip-siz (untidy), yarar-sz (useless), tutar-sz. (inconsistent), ama-sz (aim-less), deer-siz (worthless), zarar-sz (harmless), koku-suz (odorless), neden-siz (causeless), acma-sz (merciless), taraf-sz (impartial), yetenek-siz (incompetent), su-suz (innocent), denge-siz (unbalanced), keyif-siz (low-spirited), kayg-sz (indifferent), tasa-sz (carefree), deneyim-siz (inexperienced), kuku-suz (without doubt), uygun-suz (inappropriate), surat-sz (sour faced), denge-siz (unbalanced), kontrolsuz (uncontrolled), kymet-siz (worthless), anlam-sz (insignificant, nonsense), eitim-siz (uneducated), bilgi-siz (ignorant), inan-sz (faithless), huzur-suz (fidgety), annes-siz (motherless), leke-siz (stainless), kaygsz (without anxiety). [SEL] allomorphs: [sel, sal] bilim-sel (scientific), evren-sel (universal), deney-sel (experimental, empirical), yzey-sel (superficial), duygu-sal (emotional, sensational), sanat-sal (artistic), yap-sal (structural), gelenek-sel (traditional), dn-sel (mental), tarih-sel (historical), tarih (historic), kavram-sal (conceptual), kimya-sal (chemical), fizik-sel (physical), ant-sal (monumental), yaam-sal (vital), din-sel (religious), ulus-sal (u*lu*sal) (national), evre-sel (environmental), kalt-sal (hereditary), onur-sal (honorary), bitki-sel (herbal), hayvan-sal

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(zoological), tarm-sal (agricultural), us-sal (us*sal) (mental, rational), tanr-sal (divine, celestial), yrnge-sel (orbital), kurum-sal (institutional, corpo-rate), kamu-sal (public), kre-sel (global, spherical), kr-sal (rural), rgt-sel (organizational), toplum-sal (social, common), belge-sel (documental), kurgu-sal (fictional), ruh-sal (psychological), beden-sel (corporal), birey-sel (individual), alg-sal (perceptual), say-sal (numerical, digital). MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO ADJECTIVES TO PRODUCE NOUNS

[LK] allomorphs: [lik, lk, lk, luk]


iyi-lik (favor), scak-lk (temperature), zgr-lk (freedom), uzun-luk (length), geni-lik (width), gzel-lik (beauty), irkin-lik (ugliness), drstlk (honesty), aptal-lk (stupidity), sessiz-lik (silence), evli-lik (marriage), baya-lk (meanness), iyimser-lik (optimism), ktmser-lik (pessimism), uak-lk (servitude), yalnz-lk (loneliness), misafirsever-lik (hospitality), kahraman-lk (heroism), vatansever-lik (patriotism), kaba-lk (rudeness), duygusal-lk (sensitivity), dost-luk (frienship), kepaze-lik (scandal), retken-lik (productivity), kresel-lik (globalism), aalk kompleksi (inferiority complex), arsz-lk (impudence), geveze-lik (chattering), dnce-siz-lik (inconsiderateness), mutsuz-luk (unhappiness), a-lk (hunger, starvation), g-lk (difficulty), saydam-lk (transparency), utanga-lk (shyness), uzak-lk (distance), yakn-lk (closeness, sympathy), kstah-lk (insolence), kurak-lk (drought), rkek-lik (shyness), sersem-lik (dizziness), hovardalk (debauchery), alkan-lk (addiction), yksek-lik (height), derin-lik (depth), krmz-lk (redness), kt-lk (wickedness, evil), kurnaz-lk (craftiness), drst-lk (honesty), karamsar-lk (moodiness), kolay-lk (ease, facility), tembel-lik (lazyness), kira-lk (ki*ra:*lk) (to let, for hire) zel-lik (speciality), zgn-lk (originality, genuineness), kararsz-lk (hesitation, uncertainty, instability, inconsistency), bol-luk (abundance), srekli-lik (continuity), kararl-lk (determination, avare-lik (a:*va:*re*lik) (idleness), yzeysel-lik (shallowness, superficiality), kt-lk (famine), sarknt-lk (molestation), kibar-lk (kindness, politeness), dayankl-lk (durability), bo-luk (emptiness), yok-luk (poverty, absence, nonexistence), yal-lk (aged-ness), sorumlu-luk (responsibility), sorumsuz-luk (irresponsibility), gayret-ke-lik (zeal), vurdumduymaz-lk (callousness), tutarsz-lk (inconsistency), deli-lik (madness), bilgisiz-lik (cahil-lik) (ignorance), benzer-lik (resemblance), karamsar-lk (moodiness), gzel-lik (beauty), kzgn-lk (anger), bak-lk (immunity), dman-lk (enmity, hostility), budala-lk (stupidity, idiocy)

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MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS TO PRODUCE NOUNS In agreement with the oral sequence of the Turkish sound system, the last consonants of the last syllables of the verbs detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following derivational allomorphs while forming new syllables. These consonants are single underlined:

[] allomorphs: [i, , , u]
diz-i (di*zi) (string, chain, serial, sequence ), yaz- (ya*z) (script, text), l- (l*) (measurement, size), ko-u (ko*u) (run), duy-u (du*yu) (sense), gez-i (ge*zi) (trip), a- (a*) (angle), yap- (ya*p) (building), tak- (ta*k) (jewelry, jewels), drt- (dr*t) (stimulus), tart- (tar*t) (scales), art- (ar*t) (plus), baar- (ba*a*r) (success), kork-u (kor*ku) (fear), sor-u (so*ru) (question), rt- (r*t) (any cloth covering), at- (a*t) (framework), yet-i (ye*ti) (mental power, faculty), yat- (ya*t) (overnight stay), l- (*l), (corpse), gm- (g*m) (treasure), kok-u (ko-ku) (scent, smell, aroma, perfume), bl- (b*l) (slash mark), dinlet-i (concert), gldr- (comedy) do-u (do*u) (east), bat- (ba*t) (west), arp- (cross, times), bl- (b*l)

[M] allomorphs: [im, m, m, um, em, am]


se-im (se*im) (election), al-m (a*lm) (purchase), l-m (*lm) (death), yk-m (y*km) (disaster, demolition), yut-um (yu*dum) (gulp), ek-im (e*kim) (October), ak-m (a*km) (current), ret-im (*re*tim) (production), geli-im (ge*li*im) (improvement), kar-m (ka*r*m) (mixture), dnm (d*n*m) (transformation), ek-im (e*kim) (attraction), geril-im (ge*ri*lim) (tension), tasar-m (ta*sa*rm) (plan, design), kavra-am (kav*ram) (concept), denkle-em (denk*lem) (equation), ekle-em (ek*lem) (joint), tket-im (t*ke*tim) (consumption), yakla-m (yak*la*m) (approach), benze-im (ben*ze*im) (similarity, resemblance), ileti-im (i*le*ti*im) (communication), bili-im (bi*li*im) (informatics), de/y/-im (de*yim) (expres--sion, idiom), say-m (sa*ym) (census), giy-im (gi*yim) (clothing), z-m (*zm) (solution), ky-m (k*ym) (massacre), al-m (a**lm) (expansion), yatr-m (ya*t*rm) (investment), al-m, sat-m (a*lm, sa*tm) (buying and selling, trade, commerce), giy-im (gi*yim) (attire), salk-m (sal*km) (bunch), bir salkm zm (a bunch of grapes), uy-um (u*yum) (accordance). dn-em (d*nem) (period), yaa-am (ya*am) (life), anla-am (an*lam) (meaning), devin-im (de*vi*nim) (movement), dene-/y/im (de*ne*yim) (experience), gzle-em (gz*lem) (observation), syle-em (sy*lem) (expression), ge-im (ge*im) (living), iz-im (i*zim) (drawing, design), al-m (a*lm) (feint), al-m (a*lm) (purchase), sr-m (sale), yatr-m (ya*t*rm) (investment), yalt-m (ya*l*tm) (insulation).

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When the identical vowels in bold face follow each other, they combine and are pronounced as a single vowel; and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs in agreement with the oral sequence of the Turkish sound system.

[K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak]


del-ik (de*lik) (hole), art-k (ar*tk) (left over), ksr-k (k*s*rk) (cough tkr-k (t*k*rk) (spit, saliva), aksr-k (ak*s*rk) (sneeze), bula-k (bu*la*k) (dirty dishes), kayna-ak (kay*nak) (source, spring, origin), belleek (bel*lek) (memory), tara-ak (ta*rak) (comb), yama-ak (ya*mak) (apprentice), de-ek (d*ek) (mattress), kapa-ak (ka*pak) (lid), e-ik (e*ik) (threshold), dene-ek (de*nek) (experimental subject, object, or animal), tekerle-ek (te*ker*lek) (wheel), kay-k (ka*yk) (boat), bat-k (ba*tk) (submerged), iz-ik (i*zik) (scratch), atla-ak (at*lak) (crack) [EK] allomorphs: [ek, ak] Tapn-ak (ta*p*nak) (temple), kay-ak (ka*yak) (ski), sa-ak (sa*ak) (fringe), u-ak (u*ak) (airplane), yat-ak (ya*tak) (bed), ka-ak (ka*ak) (escaped), dayan-ak (da*ya*nak) (support), kes-ek (ke*sek) (a lump of earth), l-ek (l*ek) (scale), ben-ek (be*nek) (spot), dn-ek (d*nek) (someone whom you cannot trust, incredulous), yan-ak (ya*nak) (cheek), dzen-ek (d*ze*nek) (mechanism)

[G] allomorphs: [gi, g, g, gu, ki, k, k, ku]


sev-gi (love, affection); al-g (music instrument); sr-g (bolt); sor-gu (interrogation); bas-k (pressure); as-k (hanger); r-g (knitting); gr-g (good manners); dol-gu (filling); ver-gi (tax); et-ki (impression); sar-g (bandage); ser-gi (exhibition); ez-gi (melody); say-g (respect); yanl-g (mistake); vur-gu (accent, stress); kur-gu (abstract thought, speculation); yer-gi (satire); der-gi (periodical, magazine); yar-g (judgment); yaz-g (fate, destiny); ol-gu (fact); duy-gu (sensation); i-ki (alcoholic beverage, drink); at-k (scarf); et-ki (impression, stimulus); kat-k (aid, help, additive); gr-g (experience, good manners); kork-ku (fright) (The double underlined "k" drops.); yet-ki (authority); co-ku (excitement); tep-ki (response, reaction); al-g (perception); sal-g (secretion); kes-ki (chisel); tut-ku (ambition, pas-sion); sez-gi (intuition); iz-gi (line); diz-gi (composition, string); bit-ki (plant); bul-gu (discovery, finding). [E] allomorphs: [e, a]

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sr-e (s*re) (process, procedure), tk-a (t*ka) (plug, wag, stoppage), deme-e (de*me) (statement), sark-a (sar*ka) (pendulum), ayr-a (ay*ra) (bracket) [EY] allomorphs: [ey, ay] dene-ey (de*ney) (experiment), yap-ay (ya*pay) (artificial), ol-ay (o*lay) (event), d-ey (d*ey) (vertical), yat-ay (ya*tay) (horizontal), yz-ey (y*zey) (surface), uza-ay (u*zay) (space).

[.C] allomorphs: [i.ci, .c, .c, u.cu]


Dinle-i.ci (din*le*yi*ci) (listener), sat-.c (sa*t*c) (seller), yz-.c (y*z*c) (swimmer), ko-u.cu (ko*u*cu) (runner), bl-.c (b*l*c) (separatist), tara-/y/.c (ta*ra*y*c) (scanner), al-.c (a*l*c) (receiver), bak-.c (ba*k*c) (companion), bebek bakcs (baby sitter), tut-u.cu (tu*tu*cu) (conservative), kal-.c (ka*l*c) (lasting, durable) (adj), yaz-.c (ya*z*c) (printer), doyur-u.cu (do*yu*ru*cu) (satisfactory) (adj), inandr-.c (i*nan*d*r*c) (persuasive) (adj), ldr-.c (l*d*r*c) (adj) (deadly, fatal). If a verb ends with vowel, and the allomorph starts with a different vowel, the /y/ glide is inserted between these vowels by the oral sequence.

[E.CEK] allomorphs: [e.cek, a.cak]


sil-e.cek (si*le*cek) (wiper), gel-e.cek (ge*le*cek) (future), a-a.cak (a*a*cak) (opener), ek-e.cek (e*ke*cek) (shoehorn), yak-a.cak (ya*ka*cak) (fuel).

[MEK] allomorphs: [mek, mak]


ye-mek (meal), ak-mak (lighter), ek-mek (bread), kay-mak (cream)

[ME] allomorphs: [me, ma]


dondur-ma (ice cream), dol-ma (green peppers, eggplants or marrows stuffed with mince, rice, etc.), kavur-ma (fried pieces of meat), hala-ma (boiled meat), dene-me (essay), dv-me (tattoo), as-ma (vine), kaz-ma (pickax), aydnlan-ma (enlightenment). ky-ma (ky*ma) (minced meat), inme (in*me) (stroke), bas-ma (bas*ma) (printed cloth), yz-me (yz*me) [K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak] kes-ik (ke*sik) (cut), k-k (*kk) (dislocated joint), yar-k (ya*rk) (slash), iz-ik (i*zik) (scratch), r-k (*rk) (decay), sar-k (sa*rk) (turban), kaz-k (ka*zk) (stake, unreasonably expensive), yrt-k (yr*tk) (tear), del-

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ik (de*lik) (hole) ele-ek (e*lek) (sieve), ada-ak (a*dak) (oblation), kay-ak (ka*yak) (ski).

[CE] allomorphs: [ce, ca]


dn-ce (d*n*ce) (thought), elen-ce (e*len*ce) (entertainment), bilme-ce (bil*me*ce) (riddle, word puzzle), dzme-ce (dz*me*ce) (lie, fake), ek-me-ce (ek*me*ce) (drawer), gl-me-ce (gl*me*ce) (comedy) [N.T] allomorphs: [in.ti, n.t, n.t, un.tu, en.ti, an.t] ak-n.t (a*kn*t) (current), al-n.t (a*ln*t) (quotation), bala-an.t (ba*lan*t) (connection, link), bekle-en.ti (bek*len*ti) (expectation), bula-an.t (bu*lan*t) (qualm), bul-un.tu (bu*lun*tu), (antique), arp-n.t (ar*pn*t) (palpitation), k-n.t (*kn*t) (bulge) k-n.t (*kn*t) (collapse), dk-n.t (d*kn*t) (rubbish, rash), ekle-en.ti (ek*len*ti) (addition), esin.ti (e*sin*ti) (breeze), gez-in.ti (ge*zin*ti) (tour, walk), gir-in.ti (gi*rin*ti) (dent), gr-n.t (g*rn*t) (image), il-in.ti (i*lin*ti) (relation), kal-n.t (ka*ln*t) (remnant), ka-n.t (ka*n*t) (itching), kaz-n.t (ka*zn*t) (scrapings), kes-in.ti (ke*sin*ti) (subtraction, stoppage, interruption), kr-n.t (k*rn*t) (crumb), kur-un.tu (ku*run*tu) (anxiety), rastla-an.t (ras*lan*t) (coincidence), salla-an.t (sal*lan*t) (quake), sk-n.t (s*kn*t) (boredom), sz-n.t (s*zn*t) (leakage), tak-n.t (ta*kn*t) (fixation, obsession), syleen.ti (sy*len*ti) (rumor), topla-an.t (top*lan*t) (meeting), sapla-an.t (sap*lan*t) (obsession) [] allomorphs: [i, , , u] ak- (a*k) (fluency), al- ver-i (a*l / ve*ri) (shopping), anla-/y/ (an*la*y) (understanding, sympathy), bak- (ba*k) (look, looking) , at- (a*t), (gunfire, throw, round), bekle-/y/i (bek*le*yi) (waiting), benze/y/i (ben*ze*yi) (resemblance), bul-u (bu*lu) (discovery), k- (*k) (exit, outlet), k- (*k) (collapse, fall), davran- (dav*ra*n) (behavior), diren-i (di*re*ni) (resistance, disobedience), diril-i (di*ri*li) (resurrection, revival), dizil-i (di*zi*li) (sequence), dokun-u (do*ku*nu) (touch), dn- (d*n) (return), dur-u (du*ru) (position), d- (d*) (decline, downfall), gel-i (ge*li) (arrival, coming), gir-i (gi*ri) (entry, entrance), git-i (gi*di) (going, departure), grn- (g*r*n) (appearance), gr- (g*r) (view, opinion), gr- birlii (g*r / bir*li*i) (agreement, consensus), haykr- (hay*k*r) (scream), ka- (ka*) escape, kapan- (ka*pa*n) (closing, closure), kurtul-u (kur*tu*lu) (liberation), kurul-u (ku*ru*lu) (foundation), sat- (sa*t) (sale), sr- (s*r) (drive, driving), tken-i (t*ke*ni) (exhaustion),

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yakar- (ya*ka*r) (appeal), yalvar- (yal*va*r) (beseeching), ykseli (yk*se*li) (rise, growth), yr-/y/ (y*r*y) (walk) MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS TO PRODUCE ADJECTIVES

[.C] allomorphs: [i.ci, .c, .c, u.cu]


del-i.ci (de*li*ci) (piercing), kal-.c (ka*l*c) (lasting), sars-.c (sar*s*c) (shocking), yarat-.c (ya*ra*t*c) (creative), bula-.c (bu*la**c) (contagious), art-.c (a*r*t*c) (confusing), yak-.c (ya*k*c) (burning), t-.c (**t*c) (grinding), tazele-/y/i.ci (ta*ze*le*yi*ci) (refreshing), it-i.ci (i*ti*ci) (repulsive), aldat-.c (al*da*t*c) (deceptive), z-.c (*z*c) (saddening), doyur-u.cu (do*yu*ru*cu) (satisfying), ge-ici (ge*i*ci) (temporary), ez-i.ci ounluk (overwhelming majority), sk-.c (s*k*c) (boring), yk-.c (y*k*c) (destructive, devastating), koru-/y/u.cu (ko*ru*yu*cu) (protective), kr-.c (k*r*c) (injurious, unkind), yan-.c (ya*n*c) (inflammable)

[K] allomorphs: [ik, k, k, uk, ek, ak]


a-k (a*k) (open), kr-k (k*rk) (broken), bat-k (ba*tk) (sunken), g-k (g*k) (collapsed), del-ik (de*lik) (pierced, hole), ez-ik (e*zik) (mashed), e-ik (e*ik) (bent), r-k (*rk) (decayed), art-k (ar*tk) (left over), ka-k (ka*k) (silly), atla-ak (at*lak) (crack), ka-ak (ka*ak) (escaped) ek-ik (e*kik) (slanting), k-k (*kk) (dislocated), rk-ek (r*kek) (timid, shy), kork-ak (kor*kak) (coward(ly), geve-ek (gev*ek) (loose) Note: The last syllables are stressed.

[KN] allomorphs: [gin, gn, gn, gun, kin, kn, kn, kun]
se-kin (se*kin) (exclusive, choice), kes-kin (sharp), a-kn (astonished), ili-kin (concerning, connected), sus-kun (silent), pi-kin (well done, impudent), et-kin (functional), ger-gin (tight), az-gn (fierce), dz-gn (smooth), ol-gun (ripe, mature), sol-gun (faded), yay-gn (common), bit-kin (discouraged, depressed, exhausted), yor-gun (tired), bas-kn (unexpected attack (noun), dominant), ks-kn (offended), ge-kin (overripe), dur-gun (stagnant), dol-gun (plump), z-gn (original), say-gn (honorable), yay-gn (common, widespread), kz-gn (angry), bez-gin (wretched), uy-gun (suitable, convenient), z-gn (sorry), et-kin (effective), yat-kn (inclined to do)

[R] allomorphs: [er, ar]


al-ar saat (a*lar) (alarm clock), ak-ar su (running water), gl-er yz (smiling face), ko-ar adm (running pace), uyu-ur gez-er (sleep walker).

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[EN] allomorphs: [en, an]
ko-an (ko*an) (running), sol-an (so*lan) (fading), al-an (a*l*an) (working), yr-/y/en (y*r*yen) (walking), konu-an (ko*nu*an) (talking), dilimle-/y/en (di*lim*le*yen) (slicing), kes-en (ke*sen) (cutting), p-en (*p*en) (kissing), bekle-/y/en (bek*le*yen) (waiting), art-an (ar*tan) (increasing), geli-en (ge*li*en) (developing), dn-en (d*nen) (turning, circling), glmse-/y/en (g*lm*se*yen) (smiling), bala-/y/an (ba*la*yan) (tying, connecting), bitme-/y/en (bit*me*yen) (unending) Note: The morpheme above and its allomorphs are also used in transforming simple sentences into determiner+noun compounds. Therefore, they are also inflectional suffixes.

[M] allomorphs: [mi, m, m, mu]


sol-mu (faded), dei-mi (changed), kar-m (mixed), beyazla-m (whitened), balan-m (tied, connected), ertelen-mi (postponed), kzartlm (fried), tasarlan-m (planned), ykan-m (washed), gelitiril-mi (improved), dm-len-mi (knotted), aydnlan-m (enlightened), zorlanm (forced), boan-m (divorced), unutul-mu (forgotten), rl-m (knitted), kzar-m (fried, reddened), retil-mi (produced), bayl-m, (fainted), unutulma-m (unforgotten), kayna-m (boiled), don-mu (frozen), geli-mi (developed), dei-mi (modified), koku-mu (foul). Note: The allomorphs of the morpheme [MI] are stressed. This morpheme is also used as an inflectional morpheme.

[SEL] allomorphs: [sel, sal]


gr-sel (visual), uy-sal (complaisant), dn-sel (mental), iit-sel (audial) MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS TO PRODUCE VERBS

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


el-le (el*le) (touch), ba-la (ba*la) (tie), ba-la (ba*la) (bein, start), teker-le (te*ker*le) (roll), gz-le (gz*le) (observe), kutu-la (ku*tu*la) (put in boxes), damga-la (dam*ga*la) (stamp), tuz-la (tuz*la) (salt), leke-le (le*ke*le) (stain), tekme-le (tek*me*le) (kick), sr-g-le (sr*g*le) (bolt), dzen-le (d*zen*le) (arrange), ya-la (ya*la) (lubricate, oil), ta-la (ta*la) (throw stones), yel-le (yel*le) (fan), denge-le (den*ge*le) (balance), sergi-le (ser*gi*le) (exhibit), ba-la (forgive), su-la (water), kak-la (spoon into greedily), kazk-la (cheat), yarg-la (judge), kalbur-la (sift), ila-la (apply pesticide), ak-la (acquit), kstek-le (hamper), bes-le (feed), alg-la (detect), fra-la (brush up), orta-la (centre), ezber-le (memorize), uygu-la (apply),

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ar-la (show hospitality), av-la (hunt), ba-la (tie, connect), su-la (condemn), yol-la (send), ate-le (fire), belge-le (certify), kilit-le (lock), ter-le (perspire), imdik-le (pinch), gz-le (observe), fi-le (blacklist someone), ile (work), aba-la (strive). ek-le (add), yk-le (load), iz-le (follow), giz-le (hide), ezber-le (memorize), mhr-le (seal), yarg-la (judge), sra-la (put in order), gr-le (thunder, roll), n-la (ring), ot-la (graze), kol-la (watch, protect), sol-la (overtake), oy-la (vote), omuz-la (shoulder), hiza-la (hi*za:*la) (align), para-la (tear up), gaga-la (peck), dz-le (flatten), giz-le (hide) MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO ADJECTIVES TO PRODUCE VERBS

[R] allomorphs: [ir, r, er, ar]


deli-ir (de*lir) (get mad), sar-ar (sa*rar) (turn yellow), kara-ar (ka*rar) (blacken, darken, or get dark), mor-ar (mo*rar) (get, turn purple)

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


gzel-le (get beautiful), sk-la (get oftener, get tighter), ar-la (get heavier), sar-la (get deaf), derin-le (deepen, get deeper), kaba-la (get ruder), yeil-le, yeil-len (turn green). Some adjectives like krmz may be either krmz-la or kzar (get or turn red). Ksa becomes ksal (get shorter). Uzun becomes uza (get longer). Examples: Gnler ksalyor. Days are getting shorter. Gnler uzuyor. (*not uzayor) Days are getting longer. In Turkish, make something + adjective "Make it shorter." is expressed in an adjective + morpheme mixture which is too long to analyze in detail. Some examples may explain them easily: Uzun uzat (u*zat) Onu uzat. (Make it longer.); ksa ksalt (k*salt) Onu ksalt. (Make it shorter.); byk byt (b*yt) Onu byt. (Make it larger.); Kk klt (k*lt) Onu klt. (Make it smaller.); kara karart (ka*rart) Onu karart. (Make it darker.); derin derinletir (de*rin*le*tir) Onu derinletir. (Make it deeper.) I made him work, I had him work, I had the work done and I got him to do the work types of sentences will be explained in the following chapters.

THE INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES AND THEIR ALLOMORPHS


Inflectional morphemes and their allomorphs are the suffixes in Turkish attached to nouns, pronouns, nominal phrases verbs, and verb frames

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signalling change in such grammatical functions as tense, voice, mood, person, number, etc. The inflectional morphemes that are attached to nouns, pronouns, and nominal phrases are the following: [] allomorphs: [i, , , u] 1. These allomorphs are attached to the pronouns, common nouns, proper nouns, and nominal phrases when they are used as objects in senteces: O ben-i gr-d. O sen-i gr-d. O o-/n/u gr-d. O biz-i gr-d.
obj obj obj obj obj obj obj obj obj obj obj

O siz-i gr-d. O o/n/-lar- gr-d. In English: He saw me. He saw you. He saw him. He saw us. He saw them. Note: The single underlined consonants at the ends of the pronouns "ben-i", "sen-i", "biz-i", "siz-i", "o/n/-lar-" detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes in speech such as (be*ni), (se*ni), (bi*zi), (si*zi), (on*la*r). The /u/ consonant in (o*/n/u) is a glide produced by the oral system of the Turkish language to maintain the harmonic sequence of the language. The proper nouns in Turkish, contrary to English, have to be attached by one of the "i, , , u" allomorphs in accordance with the Turkish vowel harmony rules when they are used as objects: Ahmet Aye-/y/i gr-d. Fatma Hasan- bul-du. retmen Ahmet-i yakala-d.
object object object object object object

In English: Ahmet saw Aye. Fatma found Hasan. The teacher caught Ahmet. Note: The /y/ glide (semivowel), which is a product of the Turkish sound system, is inserted between two vowels to provide a harmonious link. As a general rule, when a definite noun, pronoun, or a nominal phrase is used in the object position in a sentence, it is compulsorily attached by one of the [i, , , u] allomorphs. If the common nouns are not definite, they may be preceded by some indefinite determiners as the ones in English: Ahmet Hasan- grd. Ahmet ben-i grd. Ahmet tavan- grd.
definite obj definite obj definite obj

Ahmet saw Hasan.


definite obj

Ahmet saw me.


definite obj

Ahmet saw the rabbit.,


definite obj

Ahmet bir araba ald.


indefinite obj

Ahmet kitap okuyor.


indefinite obj

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TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012


Ahmet bought a car.
indefinite obj any book indefinite obj

Ahmet is reading a book.


indefinite obj any books indefinite obj

Ahmet kitap okumaz. Ahmet does not read books.

[E] allomorphs: [e, a] When these allomorphs attach to nouns, pronouns, or nominal phrases (nominals), they signify the direction of an action, and change these nominals into adverbial phrases. These adverbial phrases are generally called adverbials. For instance: Aye mart-lar-a bakyor. Aye is looking at the seagulls.
adverbial prepositional phrase adverbial adverbial adverbial

Biz deniz-e bakyoruz. We are looking at the sea.


adverbial adverbial

Fatma biz-e bakyor. Fatma is looking at us. [DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta] These allomorphs signify the place, the state of a pronoun, or a noun by changing their function into an adverbial: Ahmet ev-de. Ahmet is at home. Postac kap-da.The postman is at the door.
adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial adverbial

Aye masa-da otur-u.yor Aye is sitting at the table. Her ey aklm-da. Evrything is in my mind. Jane mutfak-ta. Jane is in the kitchen. Kitap-n ben-de. Your book is with me. Onun ba- dert-te. He is in trouble. When the [de, da, te, ta] suffixes attach to nouns, pronouns or nominal phrases they function as adverbials in sentences. The same adverbials in English are structurally prepositionai phrases functioning as adverbials. [DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan] When one of the allomorphs of the [DEN] morpheme is attached to a noun, a pronoun or a nominal phrases, it signifies the starting point of an action, and changes the function of the nominal into an adverbial: Aye okul-dan geliyor. Aye is coming from school.
adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial

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retmen pencere-den bakyor. The teacher is looking out of the window.
adverbial adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial

Ahmet Amerika-dan dnd. Ahmet came back from The U.S.A.. On-dan yirmi-/y/e kadar say. Count from ten to twenty.
adverbial adverbial postp adverbial adverbial

NOMINAL PHRASES
It is considered that the mind has a logical system which manages three rational storages to fill to produce a sentence. These storeges are out of order before someone is born. When he begins learning his native language, these orderless storages sequence according to one's native language. For an English speaking person his logical sequence is "subject + verb + object", but for a Turkish spaking person this sequence is "(subject) + object + verbpersonal suffix". For instance: English sequence: I love you.
object subj verb

Turkish sequence: (Ben)


subj

sen-i

seviyor-um.

object verb+personal suffix

In Turkish, using "ben", "sen", "biz", "siz" pronouns at the beginning of a sentence is optional, these pronouns are only used when they are stressed. However, using the personal suffixes representing these pronouns at the ends of the sentences is a grammatical rule. Therefore, these pronouns are showed in parentheses. However, although the third person singular has the pronoun "o", which means "he", "she", or "it", the sentences containing this pronoun does not need a personal suffix representing "o" pronoun. A sentence without a personal suffix at the end of a sentence means that the sentence is the third person singular. For instance the followig two Turkish sentences are identical: (O) sen-i seviyor-.. He, she, or it loves you. Sen-i seviyor-. He, she, or it loves you. Although the sentenes given above are all simple sentences, the human mind uses the same flexible subject, verb, object storages to produce all the sentences in a language whether they are long or short. 1a: All pronouns can be used as subjects such as: "ben", "sen", "o", "biz", "siz", "o/n/-lar". (I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they)

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1b: All pronouns can be used as objects such as "ben-i", "sen-i", "onu", "biz-i", "siz-i", "o/n/-lar-" (me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them) 2a: All proper nouns can be used as subjects such as: Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Aye, Mary. (English: (Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Aye, Mary.) 2b: All proper nouns can be used as objects such as: Ahmet-i, Hasan-, Jak-i, Aye-/y/i, Mary-/y/i. (English: Ahmet, Hasan, Jack, Aye, Mary.): Ahmet Hasan- grd. Ahmet saw Hasan. Hasan Ahmet-i buldu. Hasan found Ahmet. 3a: All common nouns can be used as subjects such as: Zil alyor. Martlar uuyor. Gne dou-dan doar. Polis hrsz- yakalad. English: The bell is ringing. The seagulls are flying. The sun rises in the east. The police caught the thief. As it is seen, when the common nouns are used as subjests in Turkish, they are considered defined and used without definite articles. In English, however, they are all used with the definite article "the". If indefinite nouns are used as subjects, or objects, they are used like indefinite nouns in English:. 'Bir adam sen-i kap-da bekliyor. A man is waiting for you at the door. Baz kular sonbahar-da gney-e g ederler. Some birds migrate to south in autumn. Bahede bir saat buldum. I found a watch in the garden. Aye bir kompozisyon yazyor. Ay is writing a composition. All infinitives, which are nominals, are of four kinds: 4a: The verbs that are suffixed by [mek, mak] allomorphs. 4b: The verbs that are suffixed by [me, ma] allomorphs. 4c: The verbs that are suffixed by [i, , , u, e, a] allomorphs. 4d: The verbs that are suffxed by [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk] allomorphs. 4aa: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as subjects in the sentences using "be" (is, are, was were, etc) verbs: Bekle-mek skcdr. Waiting is boring, Yr-mek salkldr. Walking is healthful. Btn gn televizyon izle-mek zaman kaybdr. Watching television all day long is a vaste of time. 4ab: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used as the objects of the verb "iste":

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Jack Trke gren-mek istiyor. Jack wants to learn Turkish. Fatma balk kzart-mak istemiyor. Fatma doesn't want to fry fish. Uyu-mak istiyorum. I want to sleep. 4ac: The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used before the postposition "iin": Herkes ben-i gr-mek iin ayaa kalkt. Everybody stood up to see me. retmen ben-i daha iyi gr-mek iin gzlklerini takt. The teacher put on her glasses to see me better. Bir spor araba al-mak iin para biriktiriyor. She is saving money to buy a sports car. Sen-i ikna et-mek iin ne yapmalym? What should I do to convince you? 4ba: The [me, ma] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as subjects: Mary-/n/in ala-ma-/s/ hepimiz-i zd. Mary's crying made us sorry.
(noun compound) subj (NP) subject (NP) obj (NP) verb predicate (VP)

Ahmet'in okul-a ge gel-me-/s/i retmen-i kzdrd.


(noun compound) subject (NP) subject (NP) object (NP) verb predicate (VP)

Ahmet's coming to school late made the teacher angry. 4bb: The [me, me] infinitives can be used in noun compounds as objects: (Ben-im) baba-am (ben-im) futbol oyna-ma-am- istemiyor.
(noun compound) subj NP (nound compound-) object NP VP | verb

Definite noun compounds in Turkish are suffixed by possessor personal allomorphs both at the possessor and the possessed parts of a noun compound. As these two possessor personal allomorphs bear the same meaning, the possessor pronouns in the possessor parts of a noun compound could be ignored because the allomorphs attached to the possessed parts bear the same meaning as the allomorphs attached to the possessor parts of a compound. Namely, "baba-am" means, "ben-im babaam", and "futbol oyna-ma-am" means, "ben-im futbol oyna-ma-am". The sentence above is generally said and written as follows: Baba-am
noun comp subj NP

futbol oynama-am- istemiyor.


noun compound obj NP VP | verb

(Biz) ma-n bit-me-/s/i-/n/i bekledik. We waited until the match ends.


subj NP (noun compound) obj-/n/i VP verb

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4ca: The [i, , , u, es, a] infinitives can be used in noun compouns in a limited number in certain expressions: (Ben-im) dn--m muhteem olacak. My return will be spectacular.
noun compound (subj) subject (NP) adjective verb (be) predicate (VP)

Oyuncular ma-n bit-i dd-/n/ bekledi. subject noun compound-/n/ |


NP object (NP) verb

(predicate) VP The players waited until the final whistle of the match. 4da: The [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] infinitives can be used in noun compounds: "(ben-im) git-tik-im", "(sen-in) git-tik-in", "(o-/n/un) git-tik-i", "(biz-im git-tiki.miz", "(siz-in) git-tik-i.niz", "o/n/-lar-n git-tik-i". (be*nim / git*ti*im), (se*nin / git*ti*in), (o*nun / git*ti*i), etc. "(ben-im) gr-dk-m", "(sen-in) gr-dk-n". "(biz-im / gr-dk-.mz)", etc. The noun compounds above can be used as objects: (Ben) (o-/n/un) iit-tik-i-/n/i sanmyorum. I don't think that he heard.
subj NP noun compound-i-/n/i (object) NP (predicate ) VP | verb

The same noun compounds can also be used as determiners: Ben-im gr-dk-m araba beyazd. The car that I saw was white.
(noun compound) noun | determined determiner determiner determined | subject subject predicate NP NP VP verb predicate VP

Detailed examples are given in the transformational section.

ADVERBS AND ADVERBIALS


A number of adverbs and adverbials may additionally take place in a logical simple sentence. These adverbs or adverbials give further information about the time, pleace, reason, manner, frequency, purpose, etc. of an action or being. For instance: Ahmet her zaman okul-a ge gelir, Ahmet always comes to school late.
subj NP adverbial adverbial adverb verb (predicate) VP subj NP adverb verb adverbial (predicate) VP adv

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Kzlar snf-a nee-/y/le girdi. The girls entered the class cheerfully.
subj NP adverbial adverbial (predicate) VP verb subj NP verb object adverbial (predicate) VP

Fatma kap-/y/ a-n.ca bir iskelet grd.


subj NP obj of "a" adverbial | adverbial of time obj of "gr" VP verb object | verb

Fatma saw a skeleton when she opened the door.


subj NP adverbial clause of time (predicate) VP

THE TRANSFORMATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE LOGIC


The human mind can logically transform a simple sentence into a learned nominal or adverbial phrase or clause in order to insert them in the "subject + predicate", or "subject + verb + object" storages in which all sentences take form. Thought and language are mental faculties that are independent of one another, but they act interdependently. One stores morphemes, which are the only language units loaded with meaning, into his memory anyhow without a certain sequence. However, when the time comes to produce a sentence, the mind searches through its memory to find the most suitable morphemes matching his sets of thought. He divides his thought into two logical parts called subject and predicate (Nominal Phrase "NP", and Verbal Phrase "VP"). To understand how these two logical parts are expressed in sign language, let us take an imaginary journey to the long past to fancy how our ancestors used "NP + VP" basic sentence producing device. As human beings did not know how to communicate in words on those days, perhaps one of them pointed to some birds, and imitated a bird fluttering its wings trying to mean "Birds fly" or "The birds are flying" In the above imaginary sentences, there are two main parts,"birds", and "fly" (subject and predicate), which Chomsky calls them "NP + VP". From then on, throughout centuries, human beings have been busy inserting what they want to say into these two basic sentence components. The human intellect is so sklllful that it can logically transform simple sentences into learned nominal phrases to fit them into the "NP" segment of the "NP + VP" sentence-prodcing pattern. It manages this activity in such a way that although their forms are transformed into different structures,

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these structures stay loaded with the same meaning in different inflectional (grammatical) patterns. Consider the following:
.

1. The birds were flying. the birds that were flying


NP NP 3. Birds NP NP NP NP NP VP VP VP VP VP NP VP VP NP. NP NP NP NP NP

2. The birds were flying. that the birds were flying eat insects. the birds that eat insects

4. Birds eat insects. that birds eat insects 5. Birds eat insects. the insects that the birds eat 6. Roses are beautiful. the roses that are beautiful the beautiful roses 7. Roses are beautiful. that roses are beautiful The human mind can insert the nominalized phrases above into the "NP" segment of the phrase structure rules. The "VP" segment contains either an intransitive verb "Vi", which does not need an object, or a transitive verb "Vt" that needs a "NP" (an object). Therefore, a "NP + VP" base sentence producing logical pattern may be rewritten either as "NP + Vi" or "NP + Vt + NP" for an English speaking person. However, a person speaking Turkish uses a different sequence "NP + NP + Vt" in the "VP" segment of the "NP + VP" basic sentence-producing pattern. Moreover, adverbs and adverbials should also be included in a Verbal Phrase (predicate) because their function is to add some significant concepts to verbs. The following example sentences show how transformed nominalized sentences above are used as nominal phrases in the "NP + VP" logical pattern: 1. I saw the birds that were flying above my head
NP V NP VP adverbial

2. My boss said that the birds were flying in my head.


NP V NP VP adverbial

3. The birds that eat insects are useful.


NP NP V VP NP VP

4. Everybody knows that birds eat insects.

5. The insects that the birds eat are harmful.


NP VP

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6. The roases that are beautiful smell sweet.
NP VP VP V NP

The beautiful roses smell sweet.


NP NP

7. Everybody thinks that roses are beautiful. In general, as soon as thought is materialized in morphemes in a language, they are seperated into words, and placed into the linear logical phrase structure sequence. While this process is going on, the phonological rules of the language simultaneously divide the words into syllables and harmonze them in agreement with the general sound system of a language. The logical , morphemic, and oral (phonological) sequences behave independantly of one another in coordination to produce sentences. A morpheme that changes the meaning of a root or stem is called a derivational morpheme (yapm eki); the other one, which does not change the meaning of a stem, is called an inflectional morpheme (ekim eki). Both the derivational and inflectional morphemes are bound morphemes. Some morphemes (suffixes in Turkish) have different pronunciation variants that bear the same meaning as their morphemes. For instance, in English, when the plural [S] morpheme is attached to the noun book, it is pronounced as /s/; in boy-s as /z/; and in box-es as /iz/. As they are the different pronunciation variants of the same morpheme [S], they are named as the allomorphs of the morpheme [S]. Turkish sound system produce a lot more morphemes than English. This is because bound morphemes go through some vowel and consonant changes due to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language when they are attached to roots or stems, and to one another, and this process causes different allomorphs to arise. All the allomorphs of a certain morpheme carry the same meaning vocalizing differently, and therefore they do not change the meaning of the morphemes. The Turkish sound system functions independently of the Turkish morphemic system.

FORM AND FUNCTION IN LANGUAGES


Form and function are different notions in languages. Form is the physical structure of a language unit, but function is the syntactic role of the same unit in a sentence. We can see this difference between the two notions in the following English and Turkish sentences:

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Jane is dancing on the table: On the table is a prepositional phrase. Its form (structure) is prepositional, but its function is adverbial because it shows where the verb dancing is taking place. The books on the table are mine: In this sentence, on the table is also a prepositional phrase, but its function is determiner because it answers the question Which books?, so it is a determiner implied by the determiner the. Jack is running to school: To school is a prepositional phrase in form, but its function is adverbial because it shows the direction of the action running". I read the books that I borrowed from the library: In this sentence, that I borrowed from the library is a language unit that defines the books, and therefore it is a determiner. However, when we consider the books that I borrowed from a library, we see that it functions in a sentence as a noun. Therefore, it is a Nominal Phrase transformed from the simple sentence I borrowed some books from the library. When we use the transformed phrase above as an object, we get the sentence: I read the books that I borrowed from the library. By the way, it is necessary to remember that all subjects and objects are nouns whether they contain only one word such as (books), two words (the book, Jacks book), or more than two words (the books on the table, or the books that I borrowed and read). Such nominal phrases are infinite. For instance, the fish that Jack caught that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mrs. Brown fried that Jane ate is a nominal phrase treated in a sentence as a single noun. Besides the Nominal Phrase above, there is another language unit called noun compound, which may be made up of two or more nouns such as the lights of the street, the traffic lights, or the color of the walls of my room. Such compounds whether they are made up of two or more nouns (infinite), are treated as single nouns (Nominal Phrases) in sentences. In Turkish, the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes (in fact their allomorphs) are attached to nouns, pronouns or infinitives. When these nouns, pronouns, or infinitives are used without these allomorphs, they may be used as subjects, or objects in sentences. These nouns are structurally and syn-

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tactically nouns. However, when these nouns, pronouns or infinitives are attached to the allomorphs above, they are structurally noun-e, noun-de, noun-den and noun-le units (In Turkish, ismin e, de and den hali), which syntactically function as adverbs and called adverbials in sentences: Ben bir kitap aldm.
subj NP det + noun | (obj) NP verb VP

I bought a book
subj NP | verb det + noun object VP

In the sentence above, Ben and kitap are structurally and syntactically nouns. In the following sentences, however, the noun roots attached to [E], [DE], [DEN], or [LE] morphemes undertake the role of adverbs in sentences. Adverbial means a word or words that function as an adverb. Jack
noun subj

okul-a gitti.
noun-[E] adverbial V

Jack went to school.


noun V prep + noun prep phrase adverbial

Jack okul - da - dr.


noun noun - [DE] subj adverbial V

Jack is at school.
noun subj V prep + noun prep phrrase adverbial

Jack okul - dan


noun noun - [DEN] subj adverbial

ev - e

otobs - le geldi.
V

noun-[E] noun - [LE] adverbial adverbial

Jack came home from school by bus


noun subj V noun adverb prep + noun prep + noun prep phrase prep phrase adverbial adverbial

The other transformed nouns and adverbs could be found in the transformation section.

USING ADJECTIVES AS ADVERBS


Nearly all adjectives in Turkish can be used as adverbs without changing their forms, for instance: O iyi bir kzdr. (adjective) She is a good girl. (adjective) O iyi yzer. (adverb) She swims well. (adverb) Bu yava bir arabadr. (adjective) This is a slow car. (adjective) Bu araba yava gider. (adverb) This car goes slowly. (adverb)

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O gzel bir kzdr. (adjective) She is a beautiful girl. (adjective) O gzel ark syler. (adverb) She sings beautifully (well). (adverb) As it is seen in the examples above, no ly kind of suffix is attached to Turkish adjectives when they are used adverbially. However, when it is necessary to stress the adverbs, they may be repeated: O yava yava yryor. He is walking slowly. Biz hzl hzl yrdk. We walked quickly. Onlar tenbel tembel oturuyorlar. They are sitting lazily. Arsz arsz srtyordu. He was grinning impudently. Gzel gzel oynayn. Play like good children. Dont be mischievous. Onlar sk sk ziyaret ettim. I visited them frequently. Kara kara dnyordu. He was thinking hopelessly. Derin derin dnd. He thought deeply. Likewise, some words produced out of imitated sounds are repeated and used in Turkish sentences as adverbials of manner, which do not exist in English. Some of these expressions and their meanings are given in the following sentences: akr akr yamur ya-.yor. (a*kr / a*kr / ya*mur / ya**yor ) It is raining cats and dogs. (heavily) Ml ml u.yu-u.yor. (m*l / m*l / u*yu*yor ) She is sleeping soundly. Bebek tp tp y.r-.yor. (be*bek / t*p / t*p / y*r*yor ) The baby is toddling. Kkr kkr gl-.yor. (k*kr / k*kr / g*l*yor ) She is giggling. Kara kara dn-.yor. (ka*ra / ka*ra / d**n*yor ) He is thinking gloomily.

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Adamlar harl harl a.l-.yor-lar-d. (a*dam*lar / ha*rl / ha*rl /a*l**yor*lar*d ) The men were working like hell. Boaz Kprsnn klar geceleyin l l lda-ar. (bo*az / kp*r*s*nn / *k*la*r / ge*ce*le*yin / *l / *l / *l*dar ) The lights of the Bosphorus Bridge glitter at night. Beni apr upur p-me-/s/i/n/-den holan-ma-.yor-um. (be*ni / a*pur / u*pur / p*me*sin*den / ho*lan*m*yo*rum ) I dont like her kissing me noisily. Televizyon seyret-er-ken boyuna tr tr patates cipsi ye-i.yor. (te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*der*ken / bo*yu*na / pa*ta*tes / cip*si / yi*yor ) She is always crunching potato chips while watching television. Dn eve dn-er-ken srl sklam ol-du-um. (dn / e*ve / d*ner*ken / s*rl / sk*lam / ol*dum ) I got wet through (soaked) while I was coming back home yesterday. Bu sabah kalktmda lapa lapa kar ya-.yor-du. (dn / sa*bah / kalk*t*m*da / l*pa / l*pa / kar / ya**yor*du ) When I woke up this morning, it was snowing in large flakes. Hl horul horul uyu-u.yor. (ha:*l: / ho*rul / ho*rul / u*yu*yor ) He is still sleeping like a top (snoring loudly).. Kular cvl cvl t-.yor-du. (ku*lar / c*vl / c*vl / *t*yor*du ) The birds were twittering. Hapr hupur ye-i.yor-du. (ha*pr / hu*pur / yi*yor*du ) He was eating greedily. Takr takr Trke konu-u.yor. (tak*kr / ta*kr / trk*e / ko*nu*u*yor ) He speaks Turkish fluently. He is speaking Turkish fluently. Hrsz sinsi sinsi oda-am-a gir-di. (hr*sz / sin*si / sin*si / o*da*ma / gir*di ) The thief sneaked into my room.

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akr akr yamur ya-.yor-du. (a*kr / a*kr / ya*mur / ya**yor*du) It was raining heavily.

THE INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES


ekim Ekleri THE DEFINING [] MORPHEME AND ITS ALLOMORPHS: [i, , , u]
This morpheme functions in Turkish like the definite article the in English, but it is only used when the noun is in the object position in a sentence: Avc tavan- grd. The hunter saw the rabbit. As it is seen in the English sentence above, both hunter and rabbit have definite articles preceding them. Yet, in the Turkish sentence, only the word tavan has a defining morpheme attached to it. This example shows us that the defining [] morpheme can only be used when the definite nouns or pronouns are in the object position. When a noun is in the subject position, although it is defined, it does not need a defining morpheme [] attached to it. When the monosyllabic nouns or pronouns ending with consonants attach to the allomorphs of [i, , , u], their last consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the allomorphs of the phoneme []: ben-i (be*ni) (me); sen-i (se*ni) (you); o-/n/u (o*nu) (him, her, it); biz-i (bi*zi) (us); siz-i (si*zi) (you); o/n/lar- (on*la*r) (them); ek-i (e*ki) (the suffix); yk- (y*k) (the load); at- (a*t) (the horse); ip-i (i*pi) (the rope); ek-i (e-ki) (the check); i-i (i*i) (the inside); ot-u (o*tu) (the grass); kk (k*k) (the root); g- (g*) (the migration); st- (s*t) (the milk); ak- (a*k) (the love); ak- (a*k) (the white); st- (s*t) (the upper side); ad- (a*d) (the name); hap- (ha*p) (the pill); it-i (i*ti) (the dog); krk- (kr*k) (the fur); ay- (a*y) (the tea); sap- (sa*p) (the handle); et-i (e*ti) (the meat); sa- (sa*) (the hair); ek-i (e*ki) (the suffix); yk- (y*k) (the load); a- (a*) (the hungry); tok-u (to*ku); Trk- (Tr*k) However, some /p, t, , k/ consonans change to /b, d, c, , or g/ voiced consonants: kap- (ka*b) (the cover); gk- (g*) (the sky); dert-i (der*di) (the trouble); denk-i (den*gi) (the equal); renk-i (ren*gi) (the color); tat- (ta*d) (the taste), akl- (ak*l) (the wisdom), ekil-i (ek*li) (the shape)

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If the polysyllabic nouns end with //, /k/, /p/, or /t/ consonants, these unvoiced consonants change into their voiced allophones /c/, //, /b/, or /d/ respectively when they take the [i, , , u] allomorphs. These allomorphs are also used attached to the third person possessed nouns: orap- (o*ra*b) (the sock, his sock); arap- (a*ra*b) (the wine, his wine); dolap- (do*la*b) (the cupboard, her cupboard); tarak- (ta*ra*) (the comb, her comb); eek-i (e*e*i) (the donkey, his donkey); ekmek-i (ek*me*i) (the bread, his bread); yzk- (y*z*) (the ring, her ring); terlik-i (ter*li*i) (the slipper, her slipper); tfek-i (t*fe*i) (the gun, his gun); kpek-i (k*pe*i) (the dog, her dog); bebek-i (be*be*i) (the baby, her baby); yemek-i (ye*me*i) (the meal, his meal); kabak- (ka*ba*) (the marrow); gzlk- (gz*l*) (the eyeglasses); parmak- (par*ma*) (the finger); iek-i (i*e*i) (the flower); bcek-i (b*ce*i) (the insect); yasak- (ya*sa*) (the prohibition); kllk- (kl*l*) (the ashtray); bacak- (ba*ca*) (the leg); bak- (b*a*) (the knife); bardak- (bar*da*) (the glass); delik-i (de*li*i) (the hole); ak-mak- (ak*ma*) (the lighter); aa- (a*a*c) (the tree); byte-i (b*y*te*ci) (the magnifier); dneme-i (d*ne*me*ci) (the corner); yourt-u (yo*gur*du) (the yogurt) The polysyllabic nouns that end with the /t/ consonants do not change when they are suffixed to the allomorphs of the morpheme []: saat-i (sa*a*ti) (the watch or his watch); sepet-i (se*pe*ti) (the basket or his basket); demet-i (de*me*ti) (the bunch or his bunch); kasket-i (kas*ke*ti) (the cap or his cap); surat- (su*ra*t) (the face or his face). The polysyllabic nouns that end with consonants take the allomorphs of [] following the vowel harmony rules: Okul-u (o*ku*lu) (the school or his school); tavan- (ta*va*n) (the ceiling or its ceiling); orman- (or*ma*n) (the forest or his forest); kalem-i (ka*le*mi); defter-i (def*te*ri) (the notebook or his notebook); pantolon-u (pan*to*lo*nu) (the trousers or his trousers). The polysyllabic nouns that end with vowels take the /y/ glides together with the allomorphs of the morpheme [] to maintain the harmonious link between the last vowels: araba-/y/ (a*ra*ba*y) (the car); pencere-/y/i (pen*ce*re*yi) (the window); kahve-/y/i (kah*ve*yi) (the coffee); testi-/y/i (tes*ti*yi) (the jug); fare-/y/i (fa:*re*yi) (the mouse); kedi-/y/i (ke*di*yi) (the cat); torba-/y/ (tor*ba*y) (the sack); elma-/y/ (el*ma*y) (the apple); kasaba-/y/ (ka*sa*ba*y) (the

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town); yk-/y/ (y*k*y) (the story); salata-/y/ (sa*la*ta*y) (the salad); mart-/y/ (mar*t*y) (the seagull); sprge-/y/i (s*pr*ge*yi) (the broom); su-/y/u (su*yu) (the water); sene-/y/i (se*ne*yi) (the year); hal-/y/ (ha*l*y) (the carpet); kamera-/y/ (ka*me*ra*y) (the camera); havlu-/y/u (hav*lu*yu) (the towel); duygu-/y/u (duy*gu*yu) (the feeling); duyu-/y/u (du*yu*yu) (the sense); poaa-/y/ (po*a*a*y) (a kind of pastry). Note: When the third person possessed allomorphs [i, , , u] are attached to the nouns ending with consonants, they take one of these allomorphs, but when they end with vowels, they take the same allomorphs together with the glide /s/: onun okul-u, onun masal-, onun ku-u, onun yk-; onun giysi-/s/i, onun hala-/s/, onun kale-/s/i, onun ke-/s/i, onun ene-/s/i. When the pronouns are considered, however, Turkish and English objective pronouns act differently from one another. In English, the pronouns: me, you, him, her, it, us, them, and proper nouns: Jack, Mary" and "Mehmet are never used with defining or non-defining articles, but in Turkish, contrary to English, both pronouns such as ben-i, sen-i, o-/n/u, bizi, siz-i, o/n/-lar-, and proper nouns such as Jacki, Ahmeti, Mary-/y/i are all used with the allomorphs of [] attached to them when they are used in the object position. Common nouns, however, can be used with non-defining articles, such as; Ben dn bahede bir tavan grdm I saw a rabbit in the garden yesterday. Turkish pronouns ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar; proper nouns, such as Jack, George, Ahmet, Mehmet; and common nouns avc, balk, avclar, balklar, ocuk, ocuklar are never used with defining [i, , , u] allomorphs when they are in the subject position. However, in English, the common nouns such as the hunter, the hunters, the boy, the boys, etc. can all be used with definite articles when they are in the subject position. The indefinite articles like "bir" (a, an) and "baz" (some) are used as they are used in English. For instance: Bir avc ormanda bir tavan grd. A hunter saw a rabbit in the forest. Compare the following sentences: O ben-i grd. She saw me. Ben onlar- grdm. I saw them. Biz Jack-i grdk. We saw Jack. Avc tavan- grd. The hunter saw the rabbit. ocuklar geldi. The children have arrived.

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The indefinite articles, such as the ones in the following examples, bir avc, tm avclar, baz avclar are the equivalents of a hunter, all hunters, some hunters respectively. Avclar-dan baz-lar-, baz.mz, baz-lar-.mz, baz-lar-.nz, baz-lar- are the equivalents of some of the hunters, some of us, some of you and some of them. As in all suffixes, one of the [i, , , u] allomorphs are attached to definite nouns or pronouns following the vowel harmony rules when they are in the object position: ev-i (e*vi) (the house); et-i (e*ti) (the meat); arslan- (ars*la*n) (the lion); okul-u (o*ku*lu) (the school); telefon-u (te*le*fo*nu) (the telephone); televizyon-u (te*le*viz*yo*nu) (the television); ben-i (be*ni) (me); sen-i (se*ni) (you); o-/n/u (o*nu) (him, her, it); biz-i (bi*zi) (us); siz-i (si*zi) (you); o/n/lar- (on*la*r) (them); tm avclar- (tm / av*c*la*r) (all the hunters); baz-lar-.mz (ba:*z*la*r*mz) (some of us); baz-lar-.mz- (ba:*z*la*r*m*z) (some of us); hep-i.miz (he*pi*miz) (all of us); hep-i.miz-i (he*pi*mi*zi) (all of us); hep-i.niz (he*pi*niz) (all of you); hep-i.niz-i (he*pi*ni*zi) (all of you); baz-lar- (ba:*z*la*r) (some of them); baz-lar--/n/ (ba:*z*la*r*n) (some of them); kim-i (ki*mi) (whom). If noticed, some English expressions are identical when they are in the subject or in the object position, but in Turkish they are different: Some of us did not understand the lesson. Bazlarmz dersi anlamad. The teacher wanted to see some of us. retmen bazlarmz- grmek istedi. All of us were eager to go to the concert. Hepimiz konsere gitmeye istekliydik. The teacher punished all of us. retmen hepimiz-i cezalandrd. Consider and compare the Turkish sentences with the English ones: Baz renci-ler dn okul-a gel-me-di. (ba:*z / *ren*ci*ler / dn / o*ku*la / gel*me*di ) Some students didnt come to school yesterday. renci-ler-den baz-lar- dn okul-a gel-me-di. (*ren*ci*ler*den / ba:*z*la*r / dn / o*ku*la / gel*me*di ) Some of the students didnt come to school yesterday. retmen renci-ler-den baz-lar--/n/ gr-mek iste-di. (*ret*men ~/ *ren*ci*ler*den / ba:*z*la*r*n / gr*mek / is*te*di ) The teacher wanted to see some of the students.

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retmen, baz-lar-.mz- grmek istedi. (*ret*men~ / ba:*z*la*r*m*z / gr*mek / is*te*di ) The teacher wanted to see some of us. Note: The (~) sign shows a sustained juncture (duraklama aral) in a sentence. The syllables printed in bold face show the primarily stressed syllables, and the syllables printed in italics show the secondarily stressed ones. Te weak or unstressed syllables are showed in normal letters. The primarily stressed syllables are far more important for the learners of Turkish. Therefore, they may ignore the secondarily stressed syllables until they reach an advanced level. Another point that the readers should consider is that, in this book, while the morphemes are showed written in capital letters in square brackets like [DEN], the allomorphs of the same morpheme are written in small letters in square brackets such as [den, dan, ten, tan]. If a noun root or stem, or an infinitive ends with a vowel, the /y/ glide is inserted between the vowel and the allomorphs of the morpheme [] to maintain the harmonious link between the successive vowels: araba-/y/ (a*ra*ba*y), testi-i (tes*ti*yi), trk-/y/ (tr*k*y), u-ma-/y/ (u*-ma*y/), bekle-me-/y/i (bek*le*me*yi), sev-il-me-/y/i (se*vil*me*yi), ala-ma-/y/ (a*la*ma*y), anla-ma-/y/ (an*la*ma*y), tart-l-ma-/y/ (tar*tl*ma*y) If a noun root or stem ends with /k/, it changes into its voiced counterpart // when it is attached to one of the allomorphs of the morpheme []: tfek-i (t*fe*i) (the gun); kpek-i (k*pe*i) (the dog); bebek-i (be*be*i) (the baby); eek-i (e*e*i) (the donkey); yemek-i (ye*me*i) (the meal); kabak- (ka*ba*) (the marrow); gzlk- (gz*l*) (the eyeglasses); parmak- (par*ma*) (the finger); iek-i (i*e*i) (the flower); bcek-i (b*ce*i) (the insect); yasak- (ya*sa*) (the prohibition); tarak- (ta*ra*) (the comb); ekmek-i (ek*me*i) (the bread); kllk- (kl*l*) (the ashtray); bacak- (ba*ca*) (the leg); bak- (b*a*) (the knife); bardak- (bar*da*) (the glass); delik-i (de*li*i) (the hole); akmak- (ak*ma*) (the lighter); yzk- (y*z*) (the ring); kak- (ka**) (the spoon); ocuk-u (o*cu*u) (the child) The noun roots or stems ending with /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants also change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, , c/ respectively: kebap- (ke*ba*b) (the kebap); kasap- (ka*sa*b) (the butcher); aa- (a* a*c) (the tree); t- (**d) (the advice); orap- (o*ra*b) (the

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sock); sebep-i (se*be*bi) (the reason); dert-i (der*di) (the trouble); sokak- (so*ka*) (the street); uzak- (u*za*) (the distance); ayak- (a*ya*) (the foot). When the words above and below are not thought important, the last syllables of these words are secondarily stressed. However, most nouns ending with /t/ unvoiced consonants do not change: saat-i (sa*a*ti) (the watch); sanat- (san*a*t) (the art); hayat- (ha*ya:*t) (the life); demet-i (de*me*ti) (the bunch); kabahat-i (ka*ba*ha*ti) (the fault); sepet-i (se*pe*ti) (the basket) Although some borrowed words do not follow the Turkish harmony rules, the allomorphs of morphemes attach to their last syllables in accordance with the usual harmony rules: kanun-u (ka:*nu:*nu); ruhum-u (ru:*hu*mu); usul- (u*su:*l); vicdan- (vic*da:*n); ahbap- (ah*ba:*b); kitap- (ki*ta*b); kaza-/y/ (ka*za:*y). THE [LE], [LE.YN] and [E], [DE], [DEN] INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO NOUNS TO PRODUCE ADVERBIALS le postposition (English preposition) is generally shortened and attached to nouns as [le, la] inflectional allomorphs to produce adverbials in Turkish. The equivalents of these adverbials are represented by some prepositions used before nouns or [ly] suffixes attached to adjectives in English. The examples are as follows:

[LE] allomorphs: [le, la]


ben-im-le (be*nim*le) (with me), sen-in-le (se*nin*le) (with you), o-/n/un-la (o*nun*la) (with him, with her, with it), biz-im-le (bi*zim*le) (with us), siz-inle (si*zin*le) (with you), o/n/-lar-la (on*lar*la) (with them), uak-la (u*ak*la) (by airplane), otobs-le (o*to*bs*le) (by bus), sayg/y/-la (say*gy*la) (with respect), hiddet-le (hid*det*le) (in rage), sopa/y/-la (so*pay*la) (with a stick), at-la (at*la) (on horseback), acele/y/-le (a*ce*ley*le) (in a hurry), dikkat-le (dik*kat*le) (carefully, with care), (sa*br*la) (patiently, with patience), inat-la (obstinately), korku/y/-la (kor*kuy*la) (fearfully), itah-la (greedily), hz-la (quickly), kayg/y/-la (kay*gy*la) (with anxiety), gurur-la (proudly), ac/y/-la (painfully, in pain), cesa:ret-le (bravely), nee/y/-le (ne*ey*le) (cheerfully), Jack-le (with Jack), kl-la (with a sword), glk-le (with difficulty), kolaylk-la (easily), yanllk-la (by mistake), mrekkep-le (in ink), kurun kalem-le (in pencil), bir kurun kalem-le (with a pencil), genellik-le (generally), drstlk-le (honestly), kolaylk-la (easily, with ease), istek-le (willingly), hm-la (furiously, angrily), zen-le (careful-

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ly), zlem-le (longingly), tren-le (with ceremony), el-le (el*le)(manually), istek-le (ambitiously, eagerly), para/y/-la (pa*ray*la) (in cash), ek-le (ek*le)(by cheque), sabr-la (sa*br*la), inat-la (i*nat*la) (obstinately) O sinema-/y/a ben-im-le git-ti. (o / si*ne*ma*ya / be*nim*le / git*ti ) Sh went to the cinema with me. Ahmet compozisyon-u dikkat-le yaz-d. (ah*met / kom*po*zis*yo*nu / dik*kat*le / yaz*d ) Ahmet wrote the composition carefully. The stresses are on the syllables preceding the [le, la] allomorphs. [LE.YN]: sabah-le.yin (in the morning), le-le.yin (*le*yin) (at noon), akamle.yin (ak*am*le*yin) (in the evening), gece-le.yin (ge*ce*le*yin) (at night).

[E], [DE], [DEN] AND [LE] MORPHEMES


The [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] morphemes are attached to nouns, pronouns, infinitives and noun compounds. The English equivalents of these morphemes are different prepositions, but sometimes no prepositions are used as those in the following examples. When the allomorphs of the morphemes above attach to nouns, pronouns, infinitives and noun compounds, they turn them into adverbials. The pronouns that take the allomorphs of the morphemes above are as follows: ben ban-a (ba*na), ben-de (ben*de), ben-den (ben*den), ben-im-le (be*nim*le) sen san-a (sa*na), sen-de (sen*de), sen-den (sen*den), sen-in-le (se*nin*le) o biz siz o-/n/a (o*na), o/n/-da (on*da), o/n/-dan (on*dan), o-/n/un-la (o*nun*la) biz-e (bi*ze), biz-de (biz*de), biz-den (biz*den), biz-im-le (bi*zim*le) siz-e (si*ze), siz-de (siz*de), siz-den (siz*den), siz-in-le (si*zin*le)

onlar o/n/-lar-a (on*la*ra), o/n/-lar-da (on*lar*da), onlar-dan (on*lar*dan), onlar-la The infinitives that take the allomorphs of the morphemes above are as follows: bekle-mek beklemek-e (This form is not used; bekle-me/y/-e (bek*le*me*ye) is used insted.), bekle-mek-te (bek*le*mek*te), bekle-mek-ten (bek*le*mek*ten)

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bekle-me bekleme-/s/i-/n/e (bek*le*me*si*ne), bekleme-/s/i/n/-de (bek*le*me*sin*de), bekleme-/s/i/n/-den (bek*le*me*sin*den). These are the possessed parts of the noun compounds, such as: (Ben) onun bekle-me-/s/i/-/n/e alknm. I am accustomed to his waiting.
NP noun compound + e adverbial V

(Ben) onun bekle-me-/s/i/n/-den bktm. I am tired of his waiting.


NP noun compound - den adverbial V

The following interrogative adverbs which ask for the adverbials, and the adverbials themselves are some of the fundamental language concepts in all natural languages: Nere-/y/e? (nere*ye) (Where?); Nere-/y/e gitti? (nere*ye / git*ti) (Where did he go?); Okul-a (To school.); Nere-de? (Where?); O nere-de? (Where is he?); Okul-da. (In school.); Nere-den? (From where?); O nereden geli-yor? (Where is he comimg from?); Okul-dan. (From school.); Neden bk-tn? (What are you tired of?) (I am tired of waiting.); Kim-le? (kimle) (with whom?) Sinema-/y/a kim-le gittin? (With whom did you go to the cinema?; Ne/y/-le? (neyle) (How?) Ankara-/y/a ne/y/-le gittin? (By train.) As it is seen in the examples above, the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes follow nouns contrary to English prepositions, therefore, they are called postpositional allomorphs as all the suffixes of the Turkish language. Some language learners might not know the difference between form and function in a grammar. For instance, to school, until Sunday, at night, at the table expressions are structurally prepositional phrases in English. In other words, their forms are prepositional. However, when we consider what role they play in a sentence, we can see that their function in a sentence is either adverbial or determinative: They are playing in the garden. The boys in the garden.
adverbial determinative

Okul-a gitti. noun - [a] (noun-morpheme) (smin [E] hali)


adverbial adverbial (zarf bei)

He went to school. to + noun (preposition + noun) (prepositional phrase)


prepositional phrs adverbial

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[E] allomorphs: [e, a]
The English equivalents of this morpheme are generally "to" or "at", but they may differ according to the different verbs of the English language. When Turkish nouns ending with vowels are attached to the [e, a] allomorphs, they take the /y/ glides, but when the compounds ending with vowels are suffixed with them, they take the /n/ glides to maintain the harmony of the vowel link. However, there is an important fact to keep in mind that while some English verbs are transitive, which take direct objects; the equivalents of the same verbs in Turkish are intransitive, which may be supported by adverbs and adverbials. Such verbs are explained in parentheses: Jack okul-a git-ti. (Git is intransitive.) (jack / o*ku*la / git*ti ) Jack went to school. Ahmet ev-e gel-di. (Gel is intransitive, (e*ve) is an adverbial.) (ah*met / e*ve / gel*di ) Ahmet came home. (No preposition is used because "home" is an adverb here.) Onu biz-e ver. (Ver is transitive, onu is its object, biz-e is an adverbial.) (o*nu / bi*ze / ver ) Give it to us. Onu bana ver. (Onu is the object of ver, bana is an adverbial.) (o*nu / ba*na / ver ) (As an exception, instead of *(ben-e), "bana" is used.) Give it to me. Onu bura-/y/a getir. (o*nu / bu*ra*ya / ge*tir ) ("Bura"is a noun.) (Getir is transitive, onu is its object, bura-/y/a is an adverbial.) Bring it here. ("Here" is an adverb in English.) Onu bahe-/y/e gtr. (o*nu / bah*e*ye / g*tr ) (Gtr is transitive, onu is its object, baheye is an adverbial.) Take it to the garden. Onu ora-/y/a gtr. ("Ora" is a noun in Turkish,) (o*nu / o*ra*ya / g*tr) (Ora-/y/a is an adverbial.) Take it there. ("There" is an adverb in English, so no preposition is needed.)

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O-/n/u bana getir. (o*nu / ba*na / ge*tir ) (Getir is transitive, o-/n/u is its object, bana is an adverbial.) Bring it to me. (Bring is transitive, it is its object, and to me is a prepositional phrase used as an adverbial.) O/n/-lar okul-a ko-tu-lar. (on*lar / o*ku*la / ko*tu*lar ) They ran to school. Ahmet vazo-/y/u masa-/y/a koy-du.
subj obj adverbial V

(ah*met / va*zo*yu / ma*sa*ya / koy*du ) Ahmet put the vase on the table. (Sen) o-/n/u masa-/n/n st--/n/e koy.
subj obj noun comp-/n/e adverbial phrase V

(o*nu / ma*sa*/n/n / s*t*ne / koy) Put it on the table Fare (sen-in) yatak-n-n alt--/n/a sakla-an-d.
NP chain noun compound-/n/a adverbial phrase V

(fa:*re / ya*ta**nn / al*t*na / sak*lan*d ) The mouse hid under your bed. (reflexive) Jack kz-lar-a bak-.yor. (kzlar-a is an adverbial.) (jack / kz*la*ra / ba*k*yor ) Jack is looking at the girls. (Biz) siz-e yardm et-me-/y/e karar ver-di-ik.
NP adverbial adverbial V

(si*ze / yar*dm / et*me*ye / ka*rar / ver*dik ) We decided to help you. ("To help" is a prep phrase used as an adverbial.) Jack'le George otobs dura-/n/a ko-tu-lar. (Ko is intransitive, otobs dura is a noun compound, otobs dura-/n/a is an adverbial.) (jack*le / george~/ o*to*bs / du*ra**na / ko*tu*lar ) Jack and George ran to the bus stop. retmen bana bak-t. (Bak is intransitive, bana is an adverbial.) (*ret*men / ba*na / bak*t ) The teacher looked at me. ("At me" is a prep phrs used as an adverbial.)

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Jack top-u bana at-t. (jack~ / to*pu / ba*na / at*t ) (At is transitive, topu is its object, and bana is an adverbial.) Jack threw the ball to me. ("To me" is an adverbial.) Jack kedi-/y/e bir ta at-t. ("Kedi-ye" is an adverbial.) (jack / ke*di*ye / bir / ta / at*t ) Jack threw a stone at the cat. ("At the cat" is a prepositional phrase fonctioning as an adverbial.) Jack, Mary-/n/in kedi-/s/i-/n/e bir ta at-t.
noun comp-/n/e adverbial phrase

(jack~ / mary*nin / ke*di*si*ne / bir / ta / at*t ) Jack threw a stone at Marys cat. retmen biz-e kz-d. (biz-e is an adverbial.) (*ret*men / bi*ze / kz*d ) The teacher got angry with us. O bana k. (Bana is used instead of *ben-e: adverbial.) (o / ba*na / a:*k ) She is in love with me. Biz Allah'a inan-r-z. (biz / al*la:*ha / i*na*n*rz ) We believe in God. Sana gven-i.yor-um. (sa*na / g*ve*ni*yo*rum ) I trust you. ("sana" is used instead of *"sen-e".) O bana akl ver-di. (o / ba*na / a*kl / ver*di) He advised me. (Vermek is a transitive verb, akl is its object, bana is an adverbial.) O bana cevap ver-me-di. (In this sentence cevap is the object of vermek.) ( o / ba*na / ce*vap / ver*me*di ) He didn't answer me. (Answer is transitive) He didnt reply to me. (Reply is intransitive.) Biz ehir-e yakla-t-k. (Yakla is intransitive in Turkish.) (ehre is an adverbial.) (biz / eh*re / yak*la*tk ) We approached the city. (Approach is transitive, so it does not need a preposition.)

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Dman biz-e saldr-d. (Saldr is an intransitive verb.) (d*man / bi*ze / sal*dr*d ) The enemy attacked us. (Attack is transitive, so no preposition is needed.) O/n/-lar da-a trman-d-lar. (Trman is intransitive in Turkish.) (on*lar / da*a / tr*man*d*lar ) They climbed the mountain. (Climb is transitive in English.) Bir avukat-a dan. (Dan is intransitive in Turkish.) (Avukat-a is an adverbial.) (bir / a*vu*ka*ta / da*n ) Consult a lawyer. (Consult is transitive in English.) -i tamamla-ma-/y/a karar ver-di-ler. (Tamamla-ma-/y/a is an adverbial.) (i*i / ta*mam*la*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler ) They decided to complete the work. Deniz-e dal-d. (de*ni*ze / dal*d ) He dived into the sea. Onu bana akla. (o*nu / ba*na / a*k*la ) Explain it to me. Onu bana tasvir et. (liaison) (o*nu / ba*na / tas*vi:*ret ) Describe it to me. Ben olum-a yz-me ret-ti-im. (ben / o*lu*ma / yz*me / *ret*tim) (ret is transitive, yz-me is its object, olum-a is an adverbial.) I taught my son to swim. (Teach is transitive in English.) O ben-i tekmele-di. (be*ni / tek*me*le*di ) He kicked me. Kpek kk kz-a saldr-d. (k*pek / k*k / k*za / sal*dr*d ) The dog rushed at the little girl. (kz-a is an adverbial.) Kpek, kk kz-n bacak--/n/ sr-d. (k*pek~ / k*k / k*zn / ba*ca**n / *sr*d ) The dog bit the little girls leg.

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Avc kaplan-a ate et-ti. (av*c / kap*la*na / a*te / et*ti ) The hunter shot at the tiger. (Both "ate etmek and shoot are intransitive.) Avc kaplan- vur-du. (av*c / kap*la*n / vur*du ) The hunter shot the tiger. (Both English and Turkish verbs are transitive.) Annem bana bar-d (beni azarlad). (an*nem / ba*na / ba*r*d ) (Barmak is intransitive.) Mother shouted at me. Babam bana, "Dikkatli ol!" diye bar-d. (ba*bam / ba*na / dik*kat*li / ol / di*ye / ba*r*d ) "Be careful!" father shouted to me. Trafik Polis-i src-ler-e dur-ma-lar- iin iaret etti. (Turkish is intransitive.) (tra*fik / po*li*si / s*r*c*le*re / dur*ma*la*r / i*in / i*a:*ret / et*ti ) The traffic police officer signaled the drivers to stop. (English is transitive.) ocuk-lar ko-ma-/y/a bala-d. (o*cuk*lar / ko*ma*ya / ba*la*d ) The children started running (to run). O biz-e dn telefon et-ti. (Turkish is intransitive.) (o / bi*ze / dn / te*le*fon / et*ti ) He telephoned us yesterday. (English is transitive.) Jack bana kz-d. (jack / ba*na / kz*d ) Jack got angry with me. O bana gl-d. (Glerek benimle alay etti.) (o / ba*na / gl*d ) She laughed at me. Sana katl-.yor-um. (sa*na / ka*t*l*yo*rum ) I agree with you. O/n/-lar dokuz-da ev-e var-d-lar. (on*lar / sa*at / do*kuz*da / e*ve / var*d*lar ) They arrived home at nine. (No preposition)

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O/n/-lar, zaman-n-da uak alan--/n/a var-d-lar. (on*lar ~/ za*ma:*nn*da / u*ak / a*la*n*na / var*d*lar ) They arrived at the airport in time. Erken kalk-ma-/y/a alkn-m. (er*ken / kalk*ma*ya / a*l*k*nm ) I am accustomed to getting up early. ocuklar--/n/a dkn-dr. (o*cuk*la*r*na / d*kn*dr ) She is fond of her children. (ocuklar- is the second part of a noun compound: kendi ocuklar-.) Everest Tepe-/s/i-/n/e trman-ma-/y/a karar verdiler. (e*ve*rest / te*pe*si*ne / tr*man*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler ) They decided to climb Mount Everest. Sigara i-me-em-e itiraz et-er mi-sin? (si*ga*ra / i*me*me / i:*ti*ra:z / e*der / mi*sin ) Do you object to my smoking? Para-/n/ gereksiz ey-ler-e harca-ma. (pa*ra*n / ge*rek*siz / ey*le*re / har*ca*ma ) Don't spend your money on unnecessary things. Cumhuriyetiler-e oy ver-di. (cum*hu:*ri*yet*i*le*re / oy / ver*di ) He voted for the Republicans. Kaza-/y/ yaya-/n/n st--/n/e at-t. (ka*za:*y~ / ya*ya*nn / s*t*ne / at*t ) He blamed the accident on the pedestrian. Bir renci dev-i-/n/e odaklan-ma.l-dr. (bir / *ren*ci / *de*vi*ne / o*dak*lan*ma*l*dr ) A student should concentrate on his homework. Tm para-/s/-/n/ araba-/s/-/n/a harcar. (tm / pa*ra*s*n ~/ a*ra*ba*s*na / har*car ) He spends all his money on his car. (In this sentence, arabas is the second part of a compound: kendi arabas.) Tm src-ler trafik-te youn karbon diyoksit gaz--/n/a ma:ruz kal-r-lar. All drivers are exposed to dense carbon monoxide smoke in heavy traffic. Note: The /n/, and /y/ phonemes used in the examples above are glides.

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The noun compounds in the above sentences are all written in italics. When the nouns, pronouns and infinitives above are attached to [e, a] allomorphs, they form adverbials that generally show or imply the direction of a verb. Note: As the glides "/s/, /n/, /y/, and //" are the property of the sound system of the Turkish language, they do not take place in the Turkish sentences written in bold face above, which are formed of morphemes. Therefore, they are put in the syllables section written between parentheses below them.

[DE] allomorphs: [de, da, te, ta]


The English equivalents of these allomorphs are "in", "at" or "on". However, different prepositions may be used in English in place of the [DE] morpheme of the Turkish language. However, if a [K] morpheme, which has no allomorphs, is attached to [DE] morpheme, these two produce determiners: Jack okul-da. (adverbial) (jack / o*kul*da ) Jack is at (in) school. Karde-im ev-de. (kar*de*im / ev*de ) My brother is at home. Mary masa-da otur-u.yor. (mary / ma*sa*da / o*tu*ru*yor ) Mary is sitting at the table Mr. Brown hastane-de. (mis*tr / brown / has*ta:*ne*de ) Mr. Brown is in hospital. (He is there to be cured.) Mrs. Brown koca-/s/-/n/ gr-mek iin hastane-/y/e git-ti. (mi*sis / brawn / ko*ca*s*n / gr*mek / i*in / has*ta:*ne*ye / git*ti ) Mrs. Brown went to the hospital to see her husband. Sen-in kitap-n ben-de. (se*nin / ki*ta*bn / ben*de ) Your book is with me. Postac kap-da. Kap-da-ki postac-/y/ tan-.yor mu-sun? (pos*ta*c / ka*p*da ) (ka*p*da*ki / pos*ta*c*y / ta*n*yor / mu*sun ) The mail carrier is at the door. Do you know the mail carrier at the door? Okul-da-ki ocuk-lar- gr-.yor mu-sun?
determiner

Can you see the boys in the school?


determiner phrase

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O-/n/un ba- dert-te. (o*nun / ba* / dert*te ) He is in trouble. Jack bura-da (jack / bur*da ) Jack is here. (No preposition.) O/n/-lar ora-da (or*da) deil-ler. (on*lar / or*da / de*il*ler ) They are not there. (No preposition.) Ben on yldr stanbul-da otur-u.yor-um. (ben / on / yl*dr / is*tan*bul*da / o*tu*ru*yo*rum ) I have been living in stanbul for ten years. Kitap-lar masa-da. (ki*tap*lar / ma*sa*da ) The books are on the table. Kalem-ler kutu-da. (ka*lem*ler / ku*tu*da ) The pencils are in the box. Papaan kafes-te. (pa*pa*an / ka*fes*te ) The parrot is in the cage. O hapis-te. (o / ha*pis*te ) He is in jail. Fiyat-ta uzla-t-k (anlatk). (fi*yat*ta / uz*la*tk ) We agreed on the price. Kzlar, yabanc dil ren-mek-te erkek ocuk-lar-dan daha yetenekli-dir-ler. (kz*lar~ / ya*ban*c / dil / *ren*mek*te ~/ er*kek / o*cuk*lar*dan / da*ha / ye*te*nek*li*dir*ler ) (infinitive-[DE]) Girls are more talented than boys at learning foreign languages, Hzl sr-mek-te srar et-ti. (hz*l / sr*mek*te / s*ra:*ret*ti ) (infinitive-[DE]) He insisted on driving fast. Masa-da-ki kitap-lar sen-in mi? (ma*sa*da*ki / ki*tap*lar / se*nin / mi ) Are the books on the table yours? Kutu-da-ki kalem-ler kim-in? (ku*tu*da*ki / ka*lem*ler / ki*min ) Whose are the pencils in the box? Kafes-te-ki papaan rengarenk. (ka*fes*te*ki / pa*pa*an / ren*ga*renk ) The parrot in the cage is colorful.

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Ev-den (saat) sekiz-de ayrl-d-m. (ev*den / se*kiz*de / ay*rl*dm ) I left home at eight (oclock). Okul-un kap-/s//n/-da bulu-al-m. (o*ku*lun / ka*p*sn*da / bu*lu*a*lm ) (noun compound-[DE]) Lets meet at the door of the school.

[DEN] allomorphs: [den, dan, ten, tan]


These allomorphs generally show the starting point of a noun or an infinitive. They are expressed in various prepositions in English. The compounds ending with vowels take /n/ glides when they attach to the allomorphs of the morpheme [DEN]: Jack okul-dan ev-e gel-di. (jack / o*kul*dan / e*ve / gel*di ) Jack came home from school. Dn ktphane-den birka kitap al-d-m. (dn / k*t*pa:*ne*den / bir*ka / ki*tap / al*dm ) I borrowed several books from the library yesterday. Okul ktphane-/s/i/n/-den birka kitap aldm. (o*kul / k*t*pa:*ne*sin*den ~/ bir*ka / ki*tap / al*dm ) I borrowed several books from the school library. (noun compound-[DEN]) Ge kal-dk-m iin o/n/-dan zr dile-di-im. (ge / kal*d*m / i*in ~/ on*dan / *zr / di*le*dim ) I apologized to her for being late. ou kadn-lar fare-den kork-ar. (o*u / ka*dn*lar / fa:*re*den / kor*kar ) Most women are afraid of mice. Olum-un tembellik-i/n/-den rahatsz-m. (o*lu*mun / tem*bel*li*in*den / ra*hat*s*zm ) I am annoyed at my son's laziness. (noun compound-[DEN) Bizim irket-in sorun-lar-/n/-dan haber-in yok mu? (bi*zim / ir*ke*tin / so*run*la*rn*dan / ha*be*rin / yok / mu ) Aren't you aware of the problems of our company?

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Bir retmen, renci-ler-i-/n/in soru-lar-/n/-dan bk-ma-ma.l-dr. (bir / *ret*men / *ren*ci*le*ri*nin / so*ru*la*rn*dan / bk*ma*ma*l*dr) A teacher shouldn't be tired of his students' questions. (noun comp-[DEN]) Onlar sabah-tan akam-a kadar al-t-lar. (on*lar / sa*bah*tan / ak*a*ma / ka*dar / a*l*t*lar ) They worked from morning until night. Su, hidrojen-le oksijen-den olu-mu-tur. (su~ / hid*ro*jen*le / ok*si*jen*den / o*lu*mu*tur ) Water is composed of oxygen and hydrogen. Bu heykel mermer-den yap-l-m-tr. (bu / hey*kel / mer*mer*den / ya*pl*m*tr ) This statue is made of marble. Yourt st-ten yap-l-r. (yo*urt / st*ten / ya*p*lr ) Yogurt is made from milk. Hapishane-den iki mahkm ka-t. (ha*pi*sa*ne*den / i*ki / mah*km / ka*t ) Two prisoners escaped from prison Yanllk yap-mak-tan kan-ma-an gerek. (yan*l*lk / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*man / ge*rek ) You should avoid making mistakes. (infinitive-[DEN]) Kendin-den utan-ma.l-sn. (ken*din*den / u*tan*ma*l*sn ) You must be ashamed of yourself. O ben-den zr dile-di. (o / ben*den / *zr / di*le*di ) He apologized to me. Onlar-dan yardm iste-mek zorunda-/y/z. (on*lar*dan / yar*dm / is*te*mek / zo*run*da*yz ) We have to ask them for help. Ekonomi-den anla-ma-am. (Turkish is intransitive.) (e*ko*no*mi*den / an*la*mam ) I dont understand economics. (English is transitive.)

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Yalan syle-mek-ten utan-ma-.yor mu-sun? (ya*lan / sy*le*mek*ten / u*tan*m*yor / mu*sun ) Arent you ashamed of telling lies? (infinitive-[DEN]) Gramer kitap-lar- oku-mak-tan bk-t-m. (gra*mer / ki*tap*la*r / o*ku*mak*tan / bk*tm ) Im tired of reading grammar books. (infinitive-[DEN])

POSSESSOR + POSSESSED NOUN COMPOUNDS


sim Tamlamalar
All noun compounds function as nominal phrases "NP" in sentences.These compounds also play a considerable part in transforming Turkish simple sentences to be used in Phrase Structures. Therefore, they have to be considered before going on with further explanations. Although these compounds are called noun compounds, they naturally cover pronouns and infinitives, as well. A noun compound is composed of two parts: the possessor part (tamlayan), and the possessed part (tamlanan). When a pronoun is used in the possessor part of a compound, its possessor personal allomorphs change according to the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language as follows:

DEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS


Belirtili sim Tamlamalar Possessor Personal Suffixes Attached to the Possessor Parts of the Compounds: ben-im (be*nim) (my), sen-in (se*nin) (your), o-/n/un (o*nun) (his, her, its), biz-im (bi*zim) (our), siz-in (si*zin) (your), onlar-n (on*la*rn) (their), okulun (o*ku*lun), sandalye-/n/in (san*dal*ye*nin), grme-/n/in(g*r*me*nin) Note: Although all the words used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds function as determiners, they are called "possessor adjectives" in traditional grammars. As it is seen in these examples, the possessor personal morphemes following the personal pronouns are ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un, biz-im, siz-in, onlarn. If a noun is used in place of the third person singular pronoun, the allomorphs of the possessed nouns change according to the vowel rules. When these pronouns, common nouns, or proper nouns end with consonants, they take these suffixes, but when they end with vowels, they need

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the /n/ glides to attach to the same possessor personal morphemes to produce possessor determiners. ben-im (be*nim), sen-in (se*nin), o-un (o*/n/un), biz-im (bi*zim), siz-in (si*zin), on.lar-n (on*la*rn), o.kul-un (o*ku*lun), rt-/n/n (r*t*/n/n), al-ma-/n/n (a*l*ma*/n/n), yksel-me-/n/in (yk*sel*me*/n/in) All pronouns, common nouns, proper nouns, and infinitives can be used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds:
ben-im okul-um; okul-un kap-/s/; Ali-/n/in anta-/s/; al-ma-/n/n sonu-u
pronoun common N proper N infinitive

All common nouns, infinitives, and transformed nominalized sentences can be used in the possessed parts of the noun compounds, such as:
ben-im okul-um
common N

Ahmet-in gel-me-/s/i Aye-/n/in gl- ben-im git-tik-im


infinitive infinitive infinitive

The transformed nominalized sentences are used as subjects and objects, but the last noun + infinitive compound (ben-im git-tik-im) can be used both as subjects, objects, and as determiners in sentences: Onun al-tk--/n/ biliyorum.
nominalized phrs (obj) V D

onun al-tk-
nominalized phrs (det) noun

irket
noun

I know that he works.


nominalized sent (obj)

the company where he works


nominalized sent (det)

Posessor Personal Suffixes Attached to the Possessed Parts of the Compounds: (ben): [im, m, m, um, em, am]: (ben-im sepet-im), (ben-im baba-am) When the nouns end with consonants, these consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the allomorphs following them, but when they end with vowels, they combine with the first vowels of the identical vowels of the following allomorphs, which are showed in bold face. (ben): [im, m, m, um, em, am]: ben-im sepet-im (be*nim / se*pe*tim); ben-im okul-um (be*nim / o*ku*lum); ben-im araba-am (be*nim / a*ra*bam); ben-im baba-am (ba*bam); ben-im gl-me-em (be*nim /gl*mem); ben-im bala-ma-am (ba*la*mam); ben-im turu-um (be*nim / tur*um); ben-im ene-em (be*nim / e*nem) (sen): [in, n, n, un, en, an]:

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sen-in defter-in (se*nin / def*te*rin), sen-in mesele-en (me*se*len), sen-in kutu-un (ku*tun), sen-in tarla-an (tar*lan), sen-in ev-in (e*vin), sen-in gzler-in (se*nin / gz*le*rin), sen-in yz-me-en (se*nin / yz*men) (o), or a proper noun, or a common noun): [i, , , u]: In the possessor part of a noun compound, either o, or a "noun", or an "infinitive" can be used. The possessor personal allomorphs attached to both the possessor and the possessed parts of the compouns are as follows: possessor possessed example Jack-in okul-u Jack-in araba-/s/ perde-/n/in kuma- Aye-/n/in anne-/s/i

C-[in, n, n, un]; C-[i, , , u] . ..C-[in, n, n, un] V-[/s/i, /s/, /s/, /s/u] V-[/n/in, /n/n, /n/n, /n/un] C-[i, , , u] V-[/n/in, /n/n, /n/n, /n/un] V-[/s/i, /s/, /s/, /s/u]

In the table above, C represents a noun ending with a consonant; V represents a noun or a pronoun ending with a vowel. In the examples below, the identical vowels that combine are written in bold face, and the consonants that detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes are single underlined. o-/n/un kalem-i (o*nun / ka*le*mi); ky-n deli-/s/i (k*yn / de*li*si); ev-in kedi-/s/i (e*vin / ke*di*si); cmle-/n/in son-u (cm*le*nin / so*nu); okul-un ark-/s/ (o*ku*lun / ar*k*s); deli-/n/in gl-me-/s/i (de*li*nin / gl*me*si); al-ma-/n/n sonu-u (a*l*ma*nn / so*nu*cu); ala-ma-/n/n neden-i (a*la*ma*nn / ne*de*ni); kz-n gzel.lik-i (k*zn / g*zel*li*i) (biz): [i.miz, .mz, .mz, u.muz, e.miz, a.mz]: biz-im okul-u.muz (bi*zim / o*ku*lu*muz); biz-im tencere-e.miz (bi*zim / ten*ce*re*miz); biz-im baba-a.mz (bi*zim / ba*ba*mz); biz-im ky-.mz (bi*zim / k*y*mz); biz-im sorun-u.muz (so*ru*nu*muz), biz-im bahee.miz (bah*e*miz), biz-im anla-ma-a.mz (an*la*ma*mz). (siz): [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz, e.niz, a.nz]: siz-in davul-u.nuz (si*zin / da*vu*lu*nuz); siz-in araba-a.nz (a*ra*ba*nz); siz-in kz-.nz (k*z*nz); siz-in kafa-a.nz (ka*fa*nz), siz-in bahe-e.niz (si*zin / bah*e*niz); siz-in torba-a.nz (tor*ba*nz); siz-in konu-ma-a.nz (ko*nu*ma*nz). (onlar): [i, , , u] or ([ler-i, lar-]): o/n/-lar-n okul-u (on*la*rn / o*ku*lu); o/n/-lar-n iek-ler-i (on*la*rn /

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i*ek*le*ri); onlar-n konu-ma-lar- (on*la*rn / ko*nu*ma*la*r); o/n/-lar-n anne-/s/i (on*la*rn / an*ne*si); o/n/-lar-n kedi-/s/i (on*la*rn / ke*di*si) (ben-im) defter-im (be*nim / def*te*rim) (my notebook) (ben-im) ba-m (ba*m) (my head) (ben-im) gz-m (g*zm) (my eye) (ben-im) sakal-m (sa*ka*lm) (my beard) (ben-im) sorun-um (so*ru*num) (my problem) (ben-im) ku-um (ku*um) (my bird) Jackin okul-u (ce*kin / o*ku*lu) (Jacks school) Since a personal possessor morpheme in the possessed part of a compound is enough to help someone understand the possessor pronoun in the possessor part of a compound, the parts in the brackets above may be ignored unless they are intentionally stressed. One can say (ki*tabm) in place of (be*nim / ki*ta*bm). If only the possessed part of the compound is used, the stress is on bm. If both parts are used, the stress is on nim. If a possessed noun in a compound ends with a vowel, and the first vowel of a personal possessor morpheme starts with the same vowel, these two identical vowels combine, and are verbalized as a single vowel: ben-im araba-am (be*ni*ma*ra*bam); (a*ra*bam) (my car) liaison) ben-im mesele-em (be*nim / me*se*lem); (me*se*lem) (my problem) ben-im tarla-am (be*nim / tar*lam); (tar*lam) (my field) ben-im kafa-am (be*nim / ka*fam); (ka*fam) (my head) ben-im sandalye-em (be*nim / san*dal*yem); (san*dal*yem) (my chair) ben-im pipo-um (be*nim / pi*pom); (pi*pom) (my pipe) (The u drops.) ben-im kar-m (be*nim / ka*rm); (ka*rm) (my wife) ben-im deri-im (be*nim / de*rim); (de*rim) (my skin) ben-im su-/y/um (be*nim / su*/y/um); (su*/y/um) (my water) ben-im anne-em (be*ni*man*nem); (an*nem) (my mother) (liaison) . If the possessed noun of a compound ends with unvoiced /p/, /k/, //, or /t/ consonants, they change into their counterpart voiced consonants /b/, //, /c/, or /d/ respectively: Bebek-im (be*be*im) (my baby) (The /k/ changes into //) Kpek-im (k*pe*im) (my dog) (The /k/ changes into //) orap-m (o*ra*bm) (my sock) (The /p/ changes into /b/) ara-m (a*ra*cm) (my vehicle) (The // changes into /c/)

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dert-im (der*dim) (my trouble) (The /t/ changes into /d/) All the monosyllabic roots, and most words ending with /t/ do not change their last consonants when they are suffixed: at-m (a*tm) (my horse); st-m (s*tm) (my milk); krk-m (kr*km) (my fur); ip-im (i*pim) (my rope); sa-m (sa*m) (my hair); hap-m (ha*pm) (my pill); sepet-im (se*pe*tim) (my basket); saat-im (sa*a*tim) (my watch); demet-im (de*me*tim) (my bunch); krk-n (kr*kn) (your fur); at-lar-.mz (at*la*r*mz) (our horses). When senin is used in the possessor position, the possessed nouns are suffixed with [in, n, n, un, en, an] possessor personal allomorphs: defter-in (def*te*rin) (your notebook) ba-n (ba*n) (your head) gz-ler-in (gz*le*rin) (your eyes) tuz-un (tu*zun) (your salt) baba-an (ba*ban) (your father) sandalye-en (san*dal*yen) (your chair) If possessed nouns end with vowels or /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants, they undergo the same changes as they do in the examples above: kpek-in (k*pe*in), orap-n (o*ra*bn), gmlek-in (gm*le*in), bak-n (b*a*n); but st-n (s*tn), sepet-in (se*pe*tin), araba-an (a*ra*ban) The third person possessed nouns are suffixed with [i, , , u] allomorphs: ev-i (e*vi), okul-u (o*ku*lu), kalem-i (ka*le*mi), ceket-i (ce*ke*ti), dn- (d**n), gz- (g*z), ba- (ba*), ka- (ka*), oul-u (o*lu) When a third person possessed noun ends with a vowel, it takes an /s/ glide when it is attached to a possessor personal suffix: araba-/s/ (a*ra*ba*s) (his car); bahe-/s/i (bah*e*si) (his garden); tarla-/s/ (tar*la*/) (his farm); hal-/s/ (ha*l*s) (his carpet); leke-/s/i (le*ke*si) (its stain); fke-/s/i (f*ke*si) (his rage); kap-/s/ (ka*p*s) (his door); gaga-/s/ (ga*ga*s) (its beak); anne-/s/i (an*ne*si); baba-/s/ (ba*ba*s); eme-/s/i (e*me*si) (its tap); yama-/s/ (ya*ma*s) (its patch); gel-me-/s/i (gel*me*si) (his coming) If the possessor adjectives are used together with the possessed parts of the compounds, the possessor adjectives become dominant and the stress goes onto the possessor adjectives:

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Onun arabas (o*nun / a*ra*ba*s); onun bahesi (o*nun / bah*e*si) The /p, t, k, / unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, , c / respectively as in the examples below: o-/n/un corap- (o*nun / o*ra*b) (his sock); o-/n/un dolap- (o*nun / do*la*b) (his cupboard); o-/n/un ama- (o*nun / a*ma*c) (his goal); onun sokak- (o*nun / so*ka*) (his street); onun kapak-, (o*nun / ka* pa*) (its lid); onun bacak- (o*nun / ba*ca*) (his leg); onun ip-i (o*nun / i*pi); onun st- (o*nun / s*t) A noun (or an infinitive) in a possessor position is used just like a third person possessor pronoun. When a noun in the possessor position ends with a vowel, it needs an /n/ glide to attached to [in, n, n, un] allomorphs. As the third person singular pronoun is o, which has only one vowel, it also needs the same /n/ glide to be attached to [un] allomorph. Interrogative possessors can also be used in the possessor parts of the compounds: o-/n/un kap-/s/ (o*nun / ka*p*/s/) (its door); oda-/n/n kap-/s/ (o*da*nn / ka*p*s) (the door of the room); o-/n/un yakt- (o*/n/un / ya*k*t) (its fuel); araba-/n/n yakt- (a*ra*ba*nn / ya*k*t) (the fuel of the car); okul-un otobs- (o*ku*lun / o*to*b*s) (the bus of the school); bahe-/n/in kap-/s/ (bah*e*nin / ka*p*s) (the gate of the garden); Kim-in tarla-/s/? (ki*min / tar*la*s) ifti-/n/in tarla-/s/ (ift*i*nin / tar*la*s) (the farm of the farmer); Nere-/n/in hal-/s/? (nere*nin / ha*l*s); oda-/n/n hal-/s/ (o*da*nn / ha*l*/) (the carpet of the room); Kim-in kar-/s/? (ki*min / ka*r*s/); Jackin kar-/s/. (ja*kin / ka*r*s) (Jacks wife); yr-me-/n/in yarar- (y*r*me*nin / ya*ra:*r) (the benefit of walking); Ne-/y/in renk-i? (ne*yin / ren*gi) arap-n renk-i (a*ra*bn / ren*gi) (the color of the wine); iek-in gzellik-i (i*e*in / g*zel*li*i) (the beauty of the flower) When the noun compounds ending with vowels are suffixed with the allomorphs of the [], [E], [DE], or [DEN] morphemes, they take the /n/ glides: Jack, Mary-/n/in kpek-i-/n/i sr-d. (jack ~/ me*ri*nin / k*pe*i*ni / *sr*d ) Jack bit Marys dog. Jack, Mary/n/in kpek-i-/n/e bir ta at-t. (jack~ / mary*nin / k*pe*i*ne / bir / ta / at*t ) Jack threw a stone at Marys dog.

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Kpek, Mary/n/in bahe-/s/i/n/-de. (k*pek~ / mary*nin / bah*e*sin*de ) The dog is in Marys garden. Ben, Mary/n/in okulu/n/-dan gel-i.yor-um. (ben / mary*nin / o*ku*lun*dan / ge*li*yo*rum ) Im coming from Marys school. The inflectional plural allomorphs [ler, lar] are attached to noun roots or stems first, and then the other allomorphs follow: ocuk-lar-m (o*cuk*la*rm), okul-lar-.mz (o*kul*la*r*mz), iek-ler-i (i*ek*le*ri), araba-lar-.nz (a*ra*ba*la*r*nz), komu-lar-.mz (kom*u*la*r*mz), saat-ler-im (sa*at*le*rim), sepet-ler-i.niz (se*pet*le*ri*niz) The personal allomorphs below are attached to the plural allomorphs above: (ben-im) kitap-lar-m (ki*tap*la*rm) (my books); (sen-in) iek-ler-in (i*ek*le*rin) (your flowers); (biz-im) oyuncak-lar-.mz (o*yun*cak*la*r*mz) (our toys). As the possessor pronouns in the compounds are generally ignored, only the possessed parts of the compounds are used. When the possessor parts are used together with the possessed parts of a compound, the possessor parts are stressed. However, when only the possessed parts are used, the stress goes onto the possessed part: "ben-im kitaplar-m" (be*nim / ki*tap*la*rm); "kitaplar-m (ki*tap*la*rm) Kitap-lar-m (ki*tap*la*rm) (my books); kedi-ler-i.miz (ke*di*le*ri*miz) (our cats); kpek-ler-i (k*pek*le*ri) (his dogs); sepet-ler-i.miz (se*pet*le*ri*miz) (our baskets); dost-lar-m (dost*la*rm) (my friends); soru-lar-m (so*ru*la*rm) (my questions); sorun-lar-.mz (so*run*la*r*mz) (our problems); kafa-am (ka*fam) (my head); pencere-em (pen*ce*rem) (my window); kafaan (ka*fan) (your head); kafa-/s/ (ka*fa*/s/) (his head); okul-u (o*ku*lu) (his school); giysi-/s/i (giy*si*s/i) (her dress); araba-a.nz (a*ra*ba*nz) (your car); kap-.nz (ka*p*nz) (your door); yz--.nz (y*z*nz) (your face). Contrary to the English intonation, in a Turkish adjective + noun compound, the stressed syllable is on the adjective, not on the noun. In Turkish: sar gl (sa*r / gl); in English: "yellow rose" (ye*low / rose). When the first, the second or the third person plural possessor pronouns are used in the possessor part of a noun compound such as

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bizim, sizin, and onlarn, both the singular and the plural possessed nouns can be used in the possessed part of a noun compound: bizim arabamz, or bizim arabalarmz; sizin kediniz, or sizin kedileriniz; onlarn odas, or onlarn odalar; bizim evimiz, or bizim evlerimiz.

INDEFINITE NOUN COMPOUNDS


Belirtisiz sim Tamlamalar The possessor + possessed compounds described above are all definite. When odann kaps is said, it means the door of the room. However, when we say kap zil-i instead of kap-/n/n zil-i, we mean door bell, where door is indefinite. The indefinite Turkish noun compounds are structurally different from the English indefinite noun compounds. For instance, in the Turkish compounds, the allomorphs of [] are attached to the second parts of the compounds, such as okul anta-/s/, but in English, only two nouns are used as school bag. When the possessed parts end with consonants, they take the allomorphs of [], but when they end with vowels, they take the /s/ glides together with the allomorphs of []. The indefinite interrogative possessors can also be used in the possessor parts of these compounds: Here are some examples of the indefinite noun compounds: Ne anta-/s/? (ne / an*ta*s); Okul anta-/s/ (o*kul / an*ta*s) (school bag); Ne soru-lar-? (ne / so*ru*la*r); Snav soru-lar- (s*nav / so*ru*la*r) (examination questions); renci kavga-/s/ (*ren*ci / kav*ga*s) (student fight); otomobil yar- (o*to*mo*bil / ya*r*) (car race); insan hak-lar- (in*san / hak*la*r) (human rights); Ne reel-i? elma reel-i (el*ma / re*e*li) (apple jam); Ne kaza-s/? (ne / ka*za:*s); araba kaza/s/ (a*ra*ba / ka*za:*s) (car accident); kalem kutu-su (ka*lem / ku*tu*su) (pencil box); k bahe-/s/i (k / bah*e*si) (winter garden); isizlik sorun-u (i*siz*lik / so*ru*nu) (unemployment problem); yaz elence-/s/i (yaz / e*len*ce*si) (summer entertainment); gne gzlk-ler-i (g*ne / gz*lk*le*ri) (sunglasses); patates salata-/s/ (pa*ta*tes / sa*la*ta*s) (potato salad); hava kirlilik-i (ha*va / kir*li*li*i) (air pollution); ba ar-/s/ (ba*a*r*s) (headache); it dala- (it / da*la*) (dog fight); mrekkep leke-si (m*rek*kep / le*ke*s/) (ink stain)

NOUN COMPOUNDS WITHOUT SUFFIXES


Taksz Tamlama There are some other noun compounds that are made up of two nouns:

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tahta kutu (tah*ta / ku*tu) (wooden box); altn bilezik (al*tn / bi*le*zik) (golden bracelet); porselen fincan (por*se*len / fin*can) (china cup); demir kap (de*mir / ka*p) (iron door); ta bina (ta / bi*na:) (stone building); plastik oyuncak (plas*tik / o*yun*cak) (plastic toy); bakr tel (ba*kr / tel) (copper wire); mermer heykel (mer*mer / hey*kel) (marble statue); kz arkada (k*zar*ka*da) (girl friend); erkek arkada (er*ke*kar*ka*da) (boy friend); gm para (g*m / pa*ra) (silver coin); tahta kpr (tah*ta / kp*r) (wooden bridge); Beyaz Saray (be*yaz / sa*ray) (The White House). The pronouns used in the possessor position of the noun compounds are also used in place of mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs and Jacks as in the following: Bu kitap benim. This book is mine.

u ayakkablar onun. Those shoes are hers. Bu araba Jackin. u gmlek senin. u eyler onlarn. Bu yanllar bizim. This car is Jacks. That shirt is yours. Those things are theirs. These mistakes are ours.

This similarity could be seen in the following two sentences: Bu benim kitabm. This is my book. Bu kitap benim. This book is mine. Bu senin araban. This is your car. Bu araba senin. This car is yours. Sometimes the [K] morpheme, which does not follow the vowel harmony rules and consequently has no allomorphs, is attached to benim, senin, o-nun, Jackin possessor pronouns. This morpheme generally means this one among others: Bu anta benim-ki. (bu / an*ta / be*nim*ki ) This bag is mine among others. u koltuk sizin-ki. (u / kol*tuk / si*zin*ki ) This seat is yours among others. Bu masa Jackin-ki. This table is Jacks among others. Bu araba Ouzun-ki. This car is Ouzs among others.

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The first parts of the noun compounds are syntactically determiners. For instance, in the expressions, the car, this car, all cars, and my car; the, this, all, and my have determining functions. Therefore, one cannot put a, an,the, or some before these words, such as *the this car, *the all cars, *a my car. The possessor parts of the definite noun compounds are words like the and some; therefore, in English, people say the gate of the garden, but in Turkish, people say bahe-/n/in kap-/s/, where bahe-/n/in is a determiner, so we can formulate bahce-/n/in kap-/s/ as D + N.

NOUN + INFINITIVE COMPOUNDS


sim + Mastar Tamlamalar The infinitives, as they are nouns, are also used in the possessor + possessed compounds. All noun compounds are of several kinds: pronoun + noun o/n/un araba-/s/ (his car) noun + noun oda-/n/n kap-/s/ (the door of the room) pronoun + infinitive o/n/un anla-ma-/s/ (his understanding), o/n/un okul-a ge gel-me-/s/i (his coming to school late) infinitive + noun gecik-me-/n/in ceza-/s/ (the punishment of being late) infinitive+infinitivede-me-/n/in gecik-me-/s/i (the delay of the payment) Some examples are as follows: ben-im git-me-em (my going); o-/n/un bak- (her looking); siz-in git-tik-i.niz (git*ti*i*niz) (that you went); biz-im bulu-ma-a.mz (our meeting); biz-im al-ma-a.mz-n sonu-u (bi*zim / a*l*ma*m*zn / so*nu*cu) (the result of our working); isizlik-in art-ma-/s/ (i*siz*li*in / art*ma*s/) (the increase of the unemployment); okul-a ge kal-ma-/n/n sonu-u (o*ku*la / ge / kal*ma*/n/n / so*nu*cu) (the result of coming to school late). In the compounds above, the identical vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes while the oral system of the Turkish language is reorganizing the morphemes in harmony with the Turkish sound system. The parallelism between the above compounds and those of the following ones are obvious:

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ben-im tencere-em, onun ba-, siz-in bilet-i.niz, ben-im ev-im As it is seen, the infinitives are nouns that are produced from verb roots, stems and frames by adding [me, ma], [i, , , u], and [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs. These infinitives, except the [mek, mak] infinitives that are used in the possessor parts, are used in noun compounds in sentences as Nominal Phrases such as: ben-im gl-me-em, sen-in gl--n, o-/n/un ala-dk-I (a*la*d*), biz-im bekle-me-e.miz, Ahmet-in al-ma-ma/s/, onlar-n gel-me-me-/s/i, ocuk-un bul-un-ma-/s/, biz-im bul-u-ma-a.mz, araba-/n/n al-n-ma-/s/ It is possible in Turkish to produce chain noun compounds by lengthening the compounds above as far as the word that ends the chain because all natural languages are infinitely productive within the framework of the NP + VP innate logical sentence pattern: genler-in spor yap-ma-/s/ possessor + possessed yapma-/s/-/n/n nem-i possessor + possessed nem-i-/n/n anla-l-ma-/s/ possessor + possessed gerek-ir. VP Genler-in spor yapma-/s/-/n/n nem-i-/n/in anla-l-ma-/s/ gerek-ir.
NP VP

(gen*le*rin / spor / yap*ma*s*nn / *ne*mi*nin / an*la*l*ma*s / ge*re*kir) It is necessary to understand the importance of the youngsters playing sports.

PREPOSITIONS (ENG) and POSTPOSITIONS (TURK) (edatlar)


The English prepositions on, in, under, near, behind, in front of are all nouns in Turkish: st (on), alt (under), yakn (near), i (in), arka (behind, back), n (front) As all the words above can be attached to the allomorphs of the morphemes [], [E], [DE] and [DEN], they are nouns. Besides these morphemes, the allomorphs of [], which are also the allomorphs of the possessed morpheme [], can be attached to the above nouns to form the possessed parts of noun compounds: Masa-/n/n st- (ma*sa*/n/*ns*t) (the upper side of the table) (liaison) Kutu-/n/un i-i (ku*tu*/n/u*ni*i) (the inside of the box) (liaison) Karyola-/n/n alt- (kar*yo*la*/n/*nal*t) (the underside of the bed) (liaison) Sandalye-/n/in arka-/s/ (san*dal*ye*/n/i*nar*ka*/s/) (the back of the chair)

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The two parts of the compounds above can also be separately said: (ma*sa*nn / s*t), (ku*tu*nun / i*i), (kar*yo*la*nn / al*t), (san*dal*ye*nin / ar*ka*s). When the above compounds are used as objects, they take the allomorphs of the defining [] morpheme linked by the /n/ glides: Masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizledi-im. (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim ) I cleaned the surface of the table. In the sentence above, the first // is the possessed allomorph; the second // is the defining morpheme, and the /n/ phonemes are the glides linking the successive /a/ // and // // vowels. In such compounds, either of the stressable syllables of the possessor or the possessed parts of a compound can be stressed. The dominant word syllables are symbolized in bold face, and the secondarily stressed syllables are showed in italics. The weakly stressed syllables are printed in regular type. See how the meanings of the sentences change when the primarily stressed words change in the following sentences: (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the upper side of any other furniture. (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, not the underside or the legs of it. (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*dim ) I have cleaned the upper side of the table, so I have done my work.

PRIMARY STRESS, SECONDARY STRESS, AND INTONATION


The syllables printed in bold face in the sentences above are primarily stressed syllables. The secondarily stressed syllables of the words are slightly heard in speech, which are printed in italics. The final syllables of all positive and negative sentences have junctures that have slightly rising and sharply falling syllables showed by rising and falling arrows (). When the words of the Turkish language are considered independently, not in sentences, we can see that each word can have only one primarily stressed syllable. For instance:

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(o*to*mo*bil), (a*l**yor*lar*d), (ke*di), (do*ku*zun*cu), (ka*ran*lk) (*ret*men), (san*dal*ye), (ki*raz), (gel*mi*ye*cek*ler), (an*la*dm), (an*la*m*yo*rum), (ka*za*na*ca*z), (de*mok*ra*tik*le*ti*re*ce*iz), (kork*ma*ma*l*sn), (kah*ve*ren*gi), (kas*ka*t), (d*pe*dz), (ye*ni). If a whole sentence is considered, however, we can hear that there may be one or more primarily stressed words in a sentence.The secondarily stressed syllables of the words are fixed and they are nearly always combined to the suffixes following them. The last syllables of the words in sentences, which are secondarily stressed, have slightly rising and falling intonations that imply the hearer the end of a word and the expectation of a following one. (ba*bam~ / ge*en / haf*ta~ / bur*sa*da / de*il*di ) In the sentence above, the word (ba*bam) is the subject of the sentence. If we think none of the words is important or dominant in this sentence, we use only a secondary stress on the bam syllable with a rising intonation implying that another word will be following it such as biii~r, ikiii~, If we put a primary stress on the syllable (ba*bam), the sentence means, especially my father was not in Bursa; someone else might have been there. As a rule, if the subject of a sentence is rather far from the verb, a comma is generally put after the subject in a text, but in speech a secondary stress with a rising sustained intonation (~) is applied to the same word. If the second syllable en of the word (ge*en) is primarily stressed, the sentence means only last week, not weeks ago. If the stressable syllable bur is primarily stressed in the word (bur*sa*da), the sentence means My father was not in Bursa last week, but perhaps he was somewhere else. When the stressable syllable *il* of the word (de*il*di) is thought dominant, the sentence means, You are mistaken; he was not there. (1). In general, the first syllables of all words are weakly stressed, and printed n regular type. The syllables following the first weakly stressed syllables are all secondarily stressed and printed in italics. The syllables in all verb compositions are all secondarily stressed. However, in some geographical names the primarily stressed syllables may be on the first or the second syllable. In general, the last secondarily stressed syllables of all words may be primarily stressed, except for the ones in the verb compositions where the primarily stressed syllables change in different tenses, and they

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are are all fixed. All the primarily stressed syllables are showed in verb compositions: 1. (e*me); (tes*ti); (e*ker); (o*cuk); (te*pe); (ar*mut); (ka*sap); (y*rek), (pat*l*can), (ar*ka*da), (te*ker*lek), (yu*var*lak), (s*lak) 2. (e*me); (tes*ti); (e*ker); (o*cuk); (te*pe); (ar*mut); (ka*sap); (y*rek), (pat*l*can), (ar*ka*da), (te*ker*lek), (yu*var*lak), (s*lak) The last syllables in the above words are secondarily or primarily stressed, and they are printed in italics. When the derivational or inflectional morphemes are suffixed to these words, these morphemes are also secondarily stressed together with the last syllables of the words: 3. (e*me*yi), (e*me*ye), (e*me*de), (e*me*den), (e*me*nin), (e*me*si), (e*me*si*nin), (e*me*sin*de), (e*me*sin*den), (e*me*le*rin*den), (pat*l*ca*n), (ar*ka*da*n*dan), (te*ker*lek*le*ri) If the words in the above sentences are thought dominant, the last syllables of them are primarily stressed: 2. (e*me*yi); (e*me*ye); (e*me*de); (e*me*den); (e*me*si*nin); (e*me*sin*de); (e*me*sin*den); (e*me*le*rin*den), (ar*ka*da*n*dan) If a word is monosyllabic, this syllable is naturally the last syllable, so it is secondarily stressed if it is not thought dominant. Nevertheless, if it is attached to an allomorph, it may be devided into two syllables if the following morpheme starts wirh a vowel. If the following morpheme starts with a consonant, this morpheme is secondarily or primarily stressed: 3. (ku), (ku*u), (ku*a), (ku*ta), (ku*tan); (ta), (ta*), (ta*a), (ta*ta), (ta*tan); (sen), (se*ni), (sa*na), (se*nin), (sen*de), (sen*den), (ben*den) If these words are thought dominant, the last syllables are primarily stressed: (ku), (ku*u), (ku*a), (ku*ta), (ku*un), (ku*tan), (ku*um) (ben), (be*ni), (ba*na), (ben*de), (ben*den), (be*nim), (o*nun) When some monosyllabic words are suffixed with [] or [E] morphemes, these words are divided into two syllables, the second of which is secondarily stressed: biz-i (bi*zi), biz-e (bi*ze); ders-i (der*si), ders-e (der*se); k- (k*) (k*a); muz-u (mu*zu), (mu*za); kz- (k*z), (k*za); ben-i (be*ni), (ba*na); sen-i (se*ni), (sa*na); ta- (ta*), ta-a (ta*a); ba- (ba*); e-i (e*i), e-e (e*e). If the last secondarily stressed syllables are thought dominant, they may be primarily stressed.

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Considering the complicated explanations above, we have demonstrated nearly all the syllables in sentences between parentheses so that the learners might see the primarily and secondarily stressed syllables in sentences. By the way, a learner should keep in mind that these are only example sentences, and consequently, the primarily stressed syllables may change according to a speakers preference in a sentence: (ba*bam / ge*en / haf*ta / bur*sa*da / de*il* di ) In the sentence above, there may be one or more secondarily stressed syllables in each word printed in italics. The last syllables of the above words can be primarily stressed in proportion to the main concern of a speaker. He can use a primary stress on one, two, or more words in a sentence. If he wishes, he may leave all the words in a sentence without primarily stressed. In short, we can say that the primarily stressed syllables completely depend on the speakers choice. However, the secondarily stressed syllables of the words in a sentence do not depend on the speakers choice; they are nearly always fixed. The words whose all syllables are secondarily stressed are the verb compositions. Only one of these syllables in a verb composition can be primarily stressed. To overcome this difficulty, nearly all the syllabication, stress and intonation of the example sentences are given in parentheses. In these example sentences, the words are separated by slashes (/). The internal open junctures implying very short pauses with a rising sustained intonation after subjects, objects, or adverbs, etc., are showed by tildes (~). The junctures symbolizing slightly rising and sharply falling terminal stops of the indicative sentences are showed by rising and falling arrows () in this book. The interrogative sentences containing question words like nereye?, niin?, nasl?, etc. are illustrated by rising () arrows, but the interrogative sentences, whose answers are yes or no, also have falling terminal junctures in their last syllables. Therefore, they are also showed by rising and falling arrows (). However, if a speaker wants to express astonishment, these terminal junctures () may change into rising () arrows: (ba*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor ) Some girls are swimming in the river. (None of the words in this sentence is primarily stressed.) (ba*z / kz*lar ~/ ne*hir*de / y*z*yor ) They are swimming in the river, not in the sea or in a lake. (sa:*de*ce / kz*lar / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) Only the girls are swimming in the sea.

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(de*niz*de / kz*lar/ m / y*z*yor) Are the girls swimming in the sea? (surprise!) (o*cuk*lar ~/ nere*de / oy*nu*yor*lar) Where are the children playing? (The question word nerede (where) is used.) The stress and the intonation of some compounds are as follows: Sandalye-/n/in arka-/s/-/n/ krd. (san*dal*ye*nin / ar*ka*s*n / kr*d ) He broke the back of the chair. When the allomorphs of the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes are attached to the above compounds, these compounds become adverbial phrases (zarf bekleri): (Sen) (sen-in) amur-lu ayakkab-lar-n-la hal-/n/n st--/n/e bas-ma. NP noun compound-la (adverbial) noun comp-e (adverbial) V (a*mur*lu / a*yak*ka*b*la*rn*la~/ ha*l*n*ns*t*ne / bas*ma ) (You) dont step on the carpet with your muddy shoes.
NP V prep phrs (adverbial) prep phrs (adverbial)

Dn kk bir ocuk ukur-un i-i-/n/e d-t. (dn / k*k / bir / o*cuk~ / u*ku*run / i*i*/n/e / d*t) Yesterday a little boy fell into the ditch. Top karyola-/n/n alt--/n/a git-ti. (top / kar*yo*la*nn / al*t*na / git*ti) The ball went under the bed. Masa-/n/n st-/n/-de dans-et-ti. (ma*sa*nn / s*t/n/*de / dan*set*ti ) She danced on the table. Kedi, karyola-/n/n alt-/n/-da uyu-u.yor. (The /u/ drops.) (ke*di ~/ kar*yo*la*nn / al*tn*da / u*yu*yor ) The cat is sleeping under the bed. ocuklar, aalar-n alt-/n/-da oyna-u.yor.lar. (The /a/ drops.) (o*cuk*lar~/ a*a*la*rn / al*tn*da / oy*nu*yor*lar ) The children are playing under the trees.

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Anahtar delik-i/n/-den bak-ma. (a*nah*tar / de*li*in*den / bak*ma ) Dont look through the key hole. Bu masa-/n/n st-/n/-den atla-/y/a.bil-ir mi.sin? (bu / ma*sa*nn / s*tn*den / at*la*ya*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can you jump over this table? Koca-/s/-/n/n homurdan-ma-/s//n/-dan nefret et-er. (ko*ca*s*nn / ho*mur*dan*ma*sn*dan / nef*ret / e*der ) She hates her husbands grumbling. The allomorphs of [i] are [i, , , u]; of [E] are [e, a]; of [DE] are [de, da, te, ta], of [DEN] are [den, dan, ten, tan] and of [LE] are [le, la]. The allomorphs of [] follow nouns, pronouns, noun compounds, adjective compounds and nominalized sentences when they are used in the object position. The other four morphemes [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] follow the same units to produce adverbials. Consider the following sentences: (Ben) masa-/n/n st-/n/-den atla-d-m. Kedi masa/n/n alt-/n/-da uyu-u.yor.
NP noun compound - /n/ den adverbial V NP noun compound - /n/da adverbial V

(Ben) masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizle-di-im. I cleaned the upper side of the table.
NP noun compound (obj) NP V NP V noun compound (obj) NP

(Biz) kutu-/n/un i-i-/n/i boalt-t-k. We emptied inside the box.


NP noun comp (obj) NP V NP V (obj) NP

The [] and [i] are the allomorphs of the defining morpheme []. When the possessor part of a compound ends with a consonant, it takes one of the [in, n, n, un] allomorphs in agreement with the vowel harmony rules; but when it ends with a vowel, it takes one of the same allomorphs together with the glide /n/. Additionally, the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the allomorphs following them: Words ending with consonants: eker-in (e*ke*rin), dil-in (di*lin), hamal-n (ha*ma*ln), sakal-n (sa*ka*ln), gl-n (g*ln), kz-n (*k*zn), okul-un (o*ku*lun), somun-un (so*mu*nun), armut-un (ar*mu*dun), kitap-n (ki*ta*bn), sokak-n (so*ka*n), et-in (e*tin), st-n (s*tn), dert-in (der*din) Words ending with vowels:

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tencere-/n/in (ten*ce*re*nin); gece-/n/in (ge*ce*nin); masa-/n/n (ma*sa*nn); kap-/n/n (ka*p*nn); sng-/n/n (sn*g*nn); grg-/n/n (gr*g*nn); kutu-/n/un (ku*tu*nun); soru-/n/un (so*ru*nun); fare-/n/in (fa*re*nin); testi-/n/in (tes*ti*nin); vazo-/n/un (va*zo*nun), al-ma-/n/n (a*l*ma*nn) When the possessed part of a compound ends with a consonant, it takes one of the allomorphs of [i, , , u] according to the vowel harmony rules; but if it ends with a vowel, it takes one of the same allomorphs together with the glide /s/: Words ending with consonants: i-i (i*i), ip-i (i*pi), sap- (sa*p), alt- (al*t), st- (s*t), kz- (*k*z), okul-u, torun-u, at-, kusur-u, eker-i, sepet-i, ay-, nefret-i, duman- hayran-, kurban-, tavan-, tavan-, rapor-u, teker-i, saman-, zaman-, kmes-i, motor-u, ot-u (o*tu) Words ending with vowels: Sevgi-/s/i, tencere-/s/i, atk-/s/, bask-/s/, sng-/s/, grg-/s/ korku-/s/u, koku-/s/u, kuku-/s/u, iki-/s/i, fke-/s/i, tatl-/s/, yavru-/s/u, kuzu-/s/u, denge-/s/i, uyku-/s/u, duygu-/s/u, oda-/s/, tapu-/s/u, boya-/s/, foya-/s/, dosya-/s/, al-ma-/s/, but (su-/y/u) When the possessor and the possessed parts are used together, the compounds become as follows: dil-in u-u (di*lin / u*cu) (the tip of the tongue); hamal-n aka-/s/ (the joke of the porter); sakal-n boy-u (the length of the beard); kap-/n/n srg/s/ (the bolt of the door); masa-/n/n alt- (the underside of the table); kz-n boynuz-lar- (the horns of the ox); gece-/n/in karanlk- (ka*-ran*l*) (the darkness of the night); gl-n koku-/s/u (the smell of the rose); dolap-n i-i (do*la*bn / i*i) (inside the cupboard); sorun-un nem-i (the importance of the problem); tartma-/n/n sonu-u (tar*t*ma*nn / so*nu*-cu) (the result of the discussion); kedi-/n/in korku-/s/u (the fright of the cat). Generally, the last syllables of the compounds are stressed. However, when needed, the last syllables of the possessor parts of the compounds can also be stressed. As all of the examples above are the third person singular, the possessor adjectives should also be included in the examples above:

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ben-im kedi-im (be*nim / ke*dim) (my cat); ben-im uyku-um (be*nim / uy*kum); (my sleep); ben-im okul-um (be*nim / o*ku*lum) (my school) ben-im kayg-m (kay*gm) (my anxiety); ben-im deneyim-im (de*ne*yi*mim) (my experience); ben-im arzu-um (ar*zum) (my wish); ben-im baba-am (ba*bam) (my father); ben-im kusur-um (ku*su*rum) (my fault) sen-in amca-an (se*nin / am*can) (your uncle); sen-in ev-in (se*nin / e*vin) (your house); sen-in kz-n (k*zn) (your daughter); sen-in rya-an (r*yan) (your dream); sen-in pantolon-un (pan*to*lo*nun) (your trousers); sen-in karar-n (ka*ra:*rn) (your decision); sen-in yardm-n (your help); sen-in konuma-an (se*nin / ko*nu*man) (your talk); sen-in kulak-lar-n (ku*lak*la*rn) (your ears); sen-in sabr-n (sab*rn) (your patience); sen-in cesaret-in (ce*sa:*re*tin) (your courage); sen-in gzellik-in (g*zel*li*in) (your beauty); sen-in anne-en (an*nen) (your mother); sen-in para-an (pa*ran) (your money). o-/n/un renk-i (o*nun / ren*gi) (its color); o-/n/un cesaret-i (ce*sa:*re*ti) (his courage); o-/n/un araba-/s/ (his car); o-/n/un koku-/s/u (its smell); o-/n/un yetenek-i (ye*te*ne*i) (his ability); o-/n/un gel-me-/s/i (his coming); o-/n/un gl-- (o*nun / g*l*) (her way of smiling). biz-im ev-i.miz (bi*zim / e*vi*miz) (our house); biz-im kitap-lar-.mz (ki*tap*la*r*mz) (our books); biz-im lke-e.miz (l*ke*miz) (our country); biz-im hrriyet-i.miz (hr*ri*ye*ti*miz) (our freedom); biz-im kar-lar-.mz (*kar*la*r*mz) (our interests); biz-im mlk-.mz (ml*k*mz) (our property); biz-im ocuk-lar-.mz (o*cuk*la*r*mz) (our children). siz-in arzu-u.nuz (si*zin / ar*zu*nuz) (your wish); siz-in okul-u.nuz (o*ku*lu*nuz) (your school); siz-in bahe-e.niz (bah*e*niz) (your garden); siz-in kader-i.niz (ka*de*ri*niz) (your destiny); siz-in gel-me-e.niz (your coming); sizin kahkaha-a.nz (your laughter); siz-in proje-e.niz (pro*je*niz) (your project), siz-in bala-ma-a.nz (your starting) onlar-n araba-/s/ (on*la*rn / a*ra*ba*s) (their car); onlar-n ev-i (on*la*rn / e*vi) (their house); onlar-n ocuk-lar- (o*cuk*la*r) (their children); onlar-n oyuncak-lar- (o*yun*cak*la*r) (their toys); onlar-n yiyecek-i (yi*ye*ce*i) (their food); onlar-n at-lar- (at*la*r) (their horses); onlar-n yzme havuz-u (yz*me / ha*vu*zu) (their swimming pool); onlar-n g- (g*c) (their power); onlar-n aka-/s/ (a*ka*s) (their joke); onlar-n arzu-/s/u (ar*zu:*su) (their wish); onlar-n zarar- (za*ra:*r) (their harm, or loss); onlar-n savunma-/s/ (sa*vun*ma*s) (their defense); onlar-n istek-i (is*te*i) (their wish); onlar-n kor-ku-/s/u (kor*ku*su) (their fright).

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The sentences containing the examples above and their English equivalents are in the examples below: Vazo masa-/n/n st-/n/-de. (va*zo / ma*sa*nn / s*tn*de ) The vase is on the table. Vazo-/y/u masa-/n/n st--/n/e koy. (va*zo*yu~ / ma*sa*nn / s*t*ne / koy ) Put the vase on the table. Vazo-/y/u masa-dan al. (va*zo*yu~ / ma*sa*dan / al ) Take the vase from the table. Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da. (ke*di ~ / ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da ) (ke*di ~/ ma*sa*n*nal*tn*da ) (liaison) The cat is under the table. Top masa-/n/n alt--/n/a git-ti. (top / ma*sa*nn / al*t*na / git*ti ) The ball went under the table. Vazo-/y/u kutu-/n/un i-i-/n/e koy-du. (va*zo*yu / ku*tu*nun / i*i*ne / koy*du ) He put the vase into the box. Tren tnel-in i-i/n/-den ge-i.yor. (Tren tnel-den geiyor.) (tren / t*ne*lin / i*in*den / ge*i*yor ) (tren / t*nel*den / ge*i*yor ) The train is going through the tunnel. Ahmet deniz-e atla-d. (ah*met / de*ni*ze / at*la*d) Ahmet jumped into the sea. Ben mikroskop-la bak-t-m. (ben ~ / mik*ros*kop*la / bak*tm) I looked through the microscope. Uak bulut-lar-n st-/n/-de. (u*ak~ / bu*lut*la*rn / s*tn*de ) The plane is above the clouds.

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Masa-/n/n st--/n/ temizle-di. (ma*sa*nn / s*t*n / te*miz*le*di ) She cleaned the surface of the table. Jack, Mary ile Janein ara-/s//n/-da otur-u.yor. (Jack ~/ me:*ri / i*le / cey*nin / a*ra*sn*da / o*tu*ru*yor ) Jack is sitting between Mary and Jane. Gzlk-ler-im ayna-/n/n n-/n/-de. (gz*lk*le*rim / ay*na*nn / *nn*de ) My glasses are in front of the mirror. Hoparlrler perde-/n/in arka-/s//n/-da. (ho*par*lr*ler / per*de*nin / ar*ka*sn*da ) The loudspeakers are behind the curtain. Note: The /n/, /s/ and /y/ glides above are showed between slashes, and the noun compounds are printed in italics in bold face. The Turkish equivalents of the English adverbial particles are used as follows in Turkish: "The cat went out." "Kedi diar (dar-/y/a) kt. (ke*di / d*a*r / k*t) "The children came in." "ocuklar ieri (ieri-/y/e) (i*e*ri) geldi (girdi)." "Look down." "Aa (aa-/y/a) bak." (a*a* / bak ) "Look up." "Yukar (yukar/y/a) bak." (yu*ka*r / bak ) As it is seen, the words "dar, ieri, aa, yukar", which are nouns, can also be used as "dar-/y/a, ieri-/y/e, aa-/y/a". In Turkish, when nouns are suffxed with [e, a] allomorphs, they become adverbials such as "ev-e, okul-a, ar-/y/a", ieri-ye, dar-ya All the noun compounds above are printed in italics. If they are considered together with the [E], [DE], [DEN] and [LE] morphemes, they become (function) as adverbials (zarf bekleri) in sentences.

[E], [DE], [DEN] MORPHEMES + POSTPOSITIONS


The postpositions and the [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes follow nouns and noun compounds in Turkish contrary to English prepositions that precede nouns. In Turkish, when these morphemes and postpositions follow nouns and noun compounds they produce adverbials or postpositional phrases that function in sentences as either determiners (adjectival phrases) or adverbial phrases. In the following example sentences, the functions of these language units are showed below the lines to clarify their functions. As some of

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the postpositions follow nouns and noun compounds that end with certain morphemes, we have to approach them one by one.

adverbials: [E], [DE] and [DEN]


Jack okul-da.
adverbial adverbial

Jack is at school.
(prep phrs) adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial

Jack okul-a gitti. Jack went to school.

jack deniz-e dt. Jack fell into the sea.


adverbial adverbial adverbial noun compound -/n/[a] adverbial noun comp - /n/[den] adverbial adverbial noun compound - /n/[den] adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial prep phrs adverbial prep phrs adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial prep phrs adverbial

Biz bulutlar-a baktk. We looked at the clouds. Jack okul-dan geldi. Jack came from school. Top masa-/n/n alt--/n/a gitti. The ball went under the table. Kpek it-in st-/n/-den atlad. The dog jumped over the fence. Tren tnel-den geiyor. The train is passing through the tunnel. Jack anahtar delik-i/n/-den bakyor. Jack is looking through the key hole. Byk kamyon kpr-/n/n alt-/n/-dan geemedi.
noun compound - /n/[den] adverbial

The huge lorry could not pass under the bridge.


prep phrs adverbial

Dolap-n i-i-/n/e bak. Look into the cupboard. (do*la*bn / i*i*ne)


noun compound - /n/[e] adverbial (prep phrs) adverbial

In the examples above, the underlined English parts of the sentences are structurally prepositional phrases, but they are syntactically adverbials as they are in the Turkish sentences.

baka, gayr: noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan] + baka (determiner) Sen-den baka kimse ben-i anlayamaz.
determiner NP noun NP V

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(sen*den / ba*ka / kim*se / be*ni / an*la*ya*maz ) No one can understand me but you (except you).

beri: noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan] + beri (adverbial phrase)
(Ben) sabah-tan beri alyorum.
NP postp adverbial phrs VP V

I have been working since morning. (Ben) sen-i (ben-im) ilk gr-dk-m-den beri seviyorum. NP NP (noun comp) nominal phrs postp V
postpositional adverbial phrs of time

(se*ni / ilk / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / se*vi*yo*rum ) I have been in love with you since I saw you first.

boyunca: noun + boyunca (adverbial phrase)


(Biz) nehir boyunca yrdk.
NP postp adverbial phrs VP V

(ne*hir / bo*yun*ca / y*r*dk ) We walked along the river.

bu yana: noun or noun compound-[den, dan, ten, tan] + bu yana (adverbial phrase) Fiyat-lar geen ay-dan bu yana ykseliyor.
NP postp adverbial phrs VP V

(fi*yat*lar / ge*en / ay*dan / bu / ya*na / yk*se*li*yor ) The prices have been going up since last month. Ayak--/n/ incit-tik-i/n/-den bu yana Jack okul-a gidemiyor
noun comp-den postp postpositional adverbial phrase NP adverbial V

(a*ya**n / in*cit*ti*in*den / bu / ya*na~ / cek / o*ku*la / gi*de*mi*yor) Jack hasnt been able to go to school since he injured his foot.

dair: noun or noun compoumd-[e, a] + dair (adjectival)


(Ben) geen hafta dinazor-lar-a dair bir makale okudum.
NP adverbial prep phrs adjectival NP noun V

(ge*en / haf*ta / di*na*zor*la*ra / da:*ir / bir / ki*tap / o*ku*dum ) I read an article about dinosaurs last week.

dek, kadar: noun or nound comp-[e,a] + dek (kadar) (adverbial phrase) 88

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(Ben) sabah-a dek uyu-/y/a.ma-d-m.
NP postp adv phrs VP V

(sa*ba*ha / dek / u*yu*ya*ma*dm ) I couldnt sleep until morning. Koca-/s/-/n/n ev-e dn-me-/s/i-/n/e dek kaynana-/s//y/-la tartt
nominal phrs (noun comp)-/n/e postp postpositional adverbial phrase of time adverbial V

(ko*ca*s*nn / e*ve / dn*me*si*ne / dek~ / kay*na*na*sy*la / tar*t*t ) She had a row with her mother in law until her husband came back home.

diye: sentence + diye (postp adverbial phrase)


(O) ev-de-dir diye kap-/y/ aldm.
nominal sent postp postp adverbial phrase NP V

(ev*de*dir / di*ye / ka*p*y / al*dm ) I knocked at the door thinking that he was at home. Aye telefon et-er diye (ben) ev-den ayrlmadm.
sentence used as a NP postp NP adverbial postpositional adverbial phrase sentence V

(ay*e / te*le*fon / e*der / di*ye / ev*den / ay*rl*ma*dm ) I didnt leave home hoping that Aye might telephone.

dar: noun - [den, dan, ten, tan] + dar (adverb)


(O), para-/y/ de-me-den lokanta-dan (dar) kt.
NP infinitive- den adverbial | adverbial VP | adverb | V

(pa*ra*y / *de*me*den / lo*kan*ta*dan / k*t ) He left the restauraunt without paying. Dar k! (d*a*r / k )
order

Go out!

doru: noun or noun comp-[e, a] + doru (adverbial)


(Biz) ada-/y/a doru krek ektik.
NP adverbial phrase V

We rowed towards the island. Baba-am-n ev-e gel-me-/s/i-/n/e doru anne-em sofra-/y/ hazrlad.
noun compound-/n/e postp postpositional adverbial phrase NP NP V

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(ba*ba*mn / gel*me*si*ne / do*ru~ / an*nem / sof*ra*y / ha*zr*la*d ) Mother laid the table about the time father came back home.

dolay: noun or noun comp-[den. dan, ten, tan] + dolay (postp adv phrs)
Youn trafik-ten dolay okul-a ge kaldm.
adj + noun-den postp adverbial postp adverbial phrs V

(yo*un / tra*fik*ten / do*la*y / o*ku*la / ge / kal*dm ) I was late for school because of the heavy traffic. (Ben-im) okul-a ge gel-me-em-den dolay mdr ben-i cezalandrd.
possessor adverbial adv possessed -den | noun compound-den postp postpositional adverbial phrase of cause NP NP V

(o*ku*la / ge / gel*mem*den / do*la*y~ / m*dr / be*ni / ce*za:*lan*dr*d) The principal punished me because of my coming to school late.

gee: noun-[i, , , u] + noun + gee (adverbial phrse)


(Ben) saat dokuz-u be gee hava alan--/n/a vardm.
NP adverbial phrase adverbial V

(sa*at / do*ku*zu / be / ge*e~ / ha*va / a*la*n*na / var*dm ) I got to the airport at five minutes past nine.

geri: noun-[den, dan, ten, tan] + geri


Annem spermarket-ten (geri) dnd.
NP adverbial adv V

(an*nem / s*per*mar*ket*ten / dn*d ) Mother came back from the supermarket.

gibi: noun + gibi (adjectival)


(Onlar) biz-im ev-in n--/n/e kule gibi bir bina dikiyorlar.
NP chain noun comp -/n/e adverbial phrs noun posp adjectival NP V

(bi*zim / e*vin / *n*ne~ / ku*le / gi*bi / bir / bi*na: / di*ki*yor*lar ) They are erecting a buiding like a tower in front of our house. (Sen) bir centilmen gibi davranmalsn.
NP postp adverbial phrs V

(bir / cen*til*men / gi*bi / dav*ran*ma*l*sn ) You should behave like a gentleman.

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Kz karde-im-e gre kadn-lar erkek-ler-den (daha) yeteneklidir.
noun-e postp postp adverbial phrs advebial phrs adv adverbial phrs of comparison V

(kz / kar*de*i*me / g*re~ / ka*dn*lar / er*kek*ler*den / da*ha / ye*te*nek*li*dir ) According to my sister, women are more talented than men. Bana gre o ok iyimser.
postp adv phrs NP intens pred adj

(ba*na / g*re / o / ok / i*yim*ser ) In my opinion, she is very optimistic.

hakknda: noun + hakknda (adjectival)


Jack futbol hakknda bir kompozisyon yazyor.
NP noun + postp adjectival NP V

(cek / fut*bol / hak*kn*da / bir / kom*po*zis*yon / ya*z*yor ) Jack is writing a composition about football.

halde: verb-[dik-i, dk-, dk-, duk-u] + halde (infin-[] + halde (adverbial)


Biz-im voleybol takm-(mz) ok iyi oyna-dk- halde ma- kazan-a.ma-d.
chain noun compound NP noun (infinitive) postp postp phrase of contrast NP V

(bi*zim / vo*ley*bol / ta*k*m*mz~ / i*yi / oy*na*d* / hal*de / ma* / ka*za*na*ma*d) Although our volleyball team played well, they couldnt win the game.

ieri: ieri-(/y/e) + V (adverb)


eri gir. (i*e*ri / gir ) Come in. ocuk-lar ieri gir-di. (o*cuk*lar / i*e*ri / gir*di ) The boys came in.

iin: ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un + iin; verb-[mek, mak] + iin


Baba-am ben-im iin bir bilgisayar al-d.
NP postp phrase adverbial NP V

(ba*bam / be*nim / i*in / bir / bil*gi*sa*yar / al*d ) My father bought a computer for me. Herkes kralie-/y/i gr-mek iin ayaa kalk-t.
NP infinitive postp postp adverbial phrs V

(her*kes~ / k*ra*li*e*yi / gr*mek / i*in / a*ya*a / kalk*t )

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Everybody stood up to see the queen.

kadar: noun + kadar (adjectival); noun-[e, a] kadar (adverbial)


Dev kadar bir adam gkgrlts gibi grle-di.
noun postp D + noun adjectival noun NP noun postp postp adverbial phrs VP | V

(dev / ka*dar / bir / a*dam~ / gk*g*rl*t*s / gi*bi / gr*le*di) A man as big as a giant roared like thunder.

kala: noun-[e, a) + noun + kala (adverbial)


Ma dokuz-a eyrek kala bala-d.
NP noun comp postp postp adverbial phrase V

(ma~ / do*ku*za / ey*rek / ka*la / ba*la*d ) The game started at a qarter to nine.

kar: noun or noun comp-[e, a] + kar


Biz onlar-n teklif-i-/n/e kar-/y/z.
NP noun compound -[E] postp phrs. adverbial phrs prep predicate VP

(biz / on*la*rn / tek*li:*fi*ne / kar**yz ) We are against their proposal.

karn: noun comp-[e,a] + karn (adverbial)


(Biz) (Biz-im) al-ma-a.mz-a karn baar-a.ma-d-k.
NP noun compound-a postp postp adverbial phrase of contrast V

(a*l*ma*m*za / kar*n / ba*a*ra*ma*dk ) We couldnt succeed in spite of our working.

nazaran: noun or noun comp-[e,a] + nazaran (adverbial)


Sen teki kz-lar-a nazaran daha gzel-sin.
NP nominal phrs postp adverb adjective postp adverb phrs of comparison predicate VP

(sen / *te*ki / kz*la*ra / na*za*ran / da*ha / g*zel*sin ) You are more beautiful compared to other girls.

nedeniyle, yznden: noun compound + nedeniyle (adverbial)


Youn kar ya- nedeniyle renci-ler-in ok-u okul-a ge gel-di.
adj noun comp postposition postpositional adverbial phrase noun compound NP adverbial adv V

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(yo*un / kar / ya** / ne*de*niy*le / *ren*ci*le*rin / o*u / o*ku*la / ge / gel*di ) Most of the students came to school late because of the heavy snow fall.

nce, evvel: noun or infinitive)-[den, dan, ten, tan] + nce (adverbial)


(Ben) yat-ma-dan nce (ben-im) ev dev-im-i bitir-mi-ti-im.
NP inf (noun)-[DEN] postp postp adverbial phrase noun compound-i NP V

(yat*ma*dan / n*ce / e*v*de*vi*mi / bi*tir*mi*tim ) (liaison) I had finished my homework before I went to bed.

ramen: noun or noun comp-[e, a] + ramen


(Biz) yorgun olma-a.mz-a ramen al-ma-/y/a devam et-me.li-/y/iz.
NP noun compound-[a] postp postpositional adverbial phrase adverbial V

(yor*gun / ol*ma*m*za / ra*men~ / a*l*ma*ya / de*vam / et*me*li*yiz ) We have to go on working although we are tired.

srece: noun comp + srece (adverbial)


(sen-in) al-tk-n srece (sen) baar-a.bil-ir-sin.
noun compound postp postpositional adverbial phrs NP V

(a*l*t*n / s*re*ce / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin ) You can succeed as long as you work.

zere: [mak, mak] infinitive + zere (adverbial)


Misafir-ler gel-mek zere.
NP infinitive postp postp predicate

(mi*sa:*fir*ler / gel*mek / *ze*re ) The visitors are about to arrive.

THE INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES ATTACHED TO VERBS


Fiillere Eklenen ekim Ekleri
Time and personal inflectional morphemes are attached to nouns, noun compounds, adjectives, prepositional phrases, and verbs. The grammar term noun includes proper nouns such as: Jack, Mehmet, stanbul, Germany, English; common nouns such as: book, table, school, television, and abstract nouns such as: poverty, laughter, happiness, kindness, bravery, curiosity, etc.

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Pronouns are also considered as nouns because they occupy the places of nouns, and act as nouns in sentences. Adjectives are words like good, clever, hardworking, wealthy, attractive, etc. A prepositional phrase in English is a group of words that begins with a preposition and ends either with a noun (a pronoun, or a gerund), or a nominal phrase: On the table", at the table, in the box, at ten oclock, at school, at the door, behind the curtain, in front of the mirror, next to the station, above the clouds, under the table, until morning, since Sunday, and before buying are all prepositional phrases. In Turkish, however, the equivalents of these prepositions are the [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] morphemes, which follow nouns attached to them. When compared, English prepositions are prepositional (they are used before nouns) in sentence order, but in Turkish, the [], [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] morphemes are postpositional because they follow nouns attached to them. The first category of time morphemes are used attached to nouns, adjectives, adverbials or prepositional phrases, to which [dir, dr,dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] (present); [di, d, d, du ti, t, t, tu] (past), [mi, m, m, mu] (rumor, inference) morphemes are attached. The olacak word is separately used to convey the meaning of will be. The [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] allomorphs are not normally used in Simple Present Tenses, but when they are used, they add different concepts to such sentences. These sentences will be explained in the following paragraphs. The equivalents of these morphemes in English are is, are, was, were, has been, have been, will be, will have been, had been and going to be verb compositions.

THE SIMPLE PRESENT BE


The personal allomorphs used with verb be are as follows: (ben): [im, m, m, um]; (sen): [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o): []; (biz): [iz, z, z, uz]; (siz): [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz]; (on.lar): [ (ler, lar)] 1. Nouns: Ben bir retmen-im. (*ret*me*nim) I am a teacher. Sen bir doktor-sun. (dok*tor*sun) You are a doctor. O bir doktor. (dok*tor)

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She is a doctor. Biz doktor-uz. (dok*to*ruz) We are doctors. Siz bir retmen-si.niz. (siz / *ret*men*si*niz) You are a teacher. Onlar asker. (on*lar / as*ker) They are soldiers. 2. Adjective: Ben tembel-im. (tem*be*lim) I am lazy. Sen alkan-sn. (a*l*kan*sn) You are hardworking. O mutlu(dur). (o / mut*lu) She is happy. Biz iyi-/y/iz. (biz / i*yi*/y/iz) We are allright. Yorgun-su.nuz. (yor*gun*su*nuz) You are tired. Onlar istek-siz. They are unwilling. 3. Prepositional phrase: The allomorphs [de, da, te, ta] are expressed in English in the prepositions of in, at or on. For example: ev-de (at home); okul-da (at school, in school); masa-da (on the table, at the table); kap-da (at the door); kutu-da (in the box); bahe-de (in the garden); hastane-de (in hospital, in the hospital); uak-ta (on the plane). The other [e, a] and [den, dan, ten, tan] allomorphs are not used with the verb be; they are used together with action verbs like go, come, wait, sleep, etc. When the expressions above end with vowels, they are linked to the personal allomorphs by the /y/ glides: Postac kap-da. The postman is at the door. Onlar imdi uak-ta. They are on the plane now. Ben kap-da-/y/m. I am at the door. Sen akll-sn. You are clever. O mutfak-ta. She is in the kitchen. Biz hakl-/y/z. We are right. Siz gzel-si.niz. You are beautiful. Onlar irkin. They are ugly. The same [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes are also used attached to n, arka, yan, st, kar, sol, sa, alt, bitiik nouns, such as n-e, arka-/y/a, yan-a, st-e, kar-/y/a, yukar-/y/a, n-de, arka-da, yan-da, alt-ta, st-te, kar-da, sa-da, sol-da, bitiik-te, n-den, arka-dan, yan-dan, st-ten, kar-dan, sa-dan, yakn-dan. These words are all nouns when they are without suffixes; if they were not, the [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes would not be attached to them. When they are together with these suffixes, they function as adverbials in sentences. Consequently, as these words are all nouns, they are also used in noun compounds like the simple noun compounds such as oda-/n/n kap-/s/; perde-/n/in arka-/s/; ayna-/n/n n-; vazo-/n/un yan-; yata-n alt-; bakkal-n bitiik-i; koltuk-un sa-; bakkal-n kar-/s/; ev-in arka-/s/.

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When the above [E], [DE] and [DEN] morphemes are attached to the noun compounds above, they take the /n/ glides. The compounds are showed between parentheses. Compare and consider the following sentences: Kedi perde-/n/in arka-/s//n/-da. (perde-/n/in arka-/s/)
NP noun compound - /n/da (adverbial predicate) VP

(ke*di / per*de*/n/in / ar*ka*/s//n/*da ). The cat is behind the curtain. Gzlk-ler-im ayna-/n/n n-/n/-de. (ay*na*nn / *n) (gz*lk*le*rim / ay*na*nn / *nn*de ) My glasses are in front of the mirror. Terlikler-in karyola-/n/n alt-/n/-da. (kar*yo*la*nn / al*t) (ter*lik*le*rin / kar*yo*la*nn / al*tn*da ) Your slippers are under the bed. Ben-im ev-im bakkal-n bitiik-i/n/-de. (bak*ka*ln / bi*ti*i*i) (be*nim / e*vim / bak*ka*ln / bi*ti*i*in*de ) My house is next to the grocer. Sen-in dkkn-n bakkal-n kar-/s//n/-da. (bak*ka*ln / kar**s) (se*nin / dk*k*nn / bak*ka*ln / kar**sn*da ) Your shop is opposite (to) the grocer. stasyon sol-da. (is*tas*yon / sol*da ) The station is on the left. stasyon, bakkal-n sol-u/n/-da. (bak*ka*ln / so*lu) (is*tas*yon / bak*ka*ln / so*lun*da ) The station is on the left of the grocer. Kar-m ev-de. (ka*rm / ev*de ) My wife is at home. Ben, postane-/n/in n-/n/-de-/y/im. (pos*ta*ne*nin / *n) (ben / pos*ta:*ne*nin / *nn*de*yim ) I am in front of the post office. In the sentences above, there are no time morphemes attached to the words arkasnda, nnde, karsnda, evde, etc.The absence of these

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time morphemes in the above sentences imply that the time is present. The other [E] and [DEN] morphemes are attached to action verbs: Herkes pencere-/y/e bak-.yor (her*kes / pen*ce*re*ye / ba*k*yor ) Everybody is looking at the window. Jane pencere-den bak-.yor. (jane / pen*ce*re*den / ba*k*yor ) Jane is looking out of the window. Jack okul-dan gel-i.yor. (Jack / o*kul*dan / ge*li*yor ) Jack is coming from school. renci-ler okul-a ko-u.yor-lar. (*ren*ci*ler / o*ku*la / ko*u*yor*lar ) The students are running to school. When one of the allomorphs of the [DR] morpheme attaches to the last words of one of the sentences above, the sentences mean either perhaps" or "I am sure". This difference of meaning can be heard in speech. When a syllable printed in bold face is stressed, the sentence means, I am sure, when it is not, it means "perhaps". The allomorphs of this morpheme are [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur]: (ka*r*mev*de*dir ) (perhaps); (ka*rm / ev*de*dir ) (I am sure) The personal morphemes used in this category are as follows: (Ben) ev-de-/y/im. I am at home; (Sen) ev-de-sin. You are at home; (O) ev-de-. She is at home; (Biz) ev-de-/y/iz. We are at home; (Siz) ev-desi.niz. You are at home; (Onlar) ev-de(ler). They are at home. "Bura, "ura", "ora", bu, u, o could all be used as nouns. When these nouns are attached to the allomorphs of the [E], [DE], and [DEN] morphemes, they become adverbials; but if they are attached to the allomorphs of the phoneme [], they can be used in the object position in sentences: O bura-da (bur*da).
pred adverbial

(o / bur*da) He is here. ("Here" is a predicate adverb.)

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Ben bura-da-/y/m (ben / bur*da*ym ) I am here. Kedi ura-da (ur*da). (ke*di / ur*da ) or (ke*di / ur*da ) The cat is there. Onlar ora-da (or*da). (on*lar / or*da ) or (on*lar / or*da ) They are there. Onlar bura-dan (burdan) git-ti-ler. (on*lar / bur*dan / git*ti*ler ) They left here. Bura-dan (burdan) ayrl-ma. (bur*dan / ay*rl*ma ) Don't leave here. Onlar ora-dan ayrl-.yor-lar. (on*lar / or*dan / ay*r*l*yor*lar ) They are leaving there. Ben bura-/y/ hi gr-me-di-im. (ben / bu*ra*y / hi / gr*me*dim ) I have never seen here. ("Buray" is the object of the sentence.) Ben bu-/n/u anla-ma-d-m.
nominal (obj)

(ben / bu*nu / an*la*ma*dm ) I didnt understand this. Ben bu/n/-lar- anla-ma-d-m. (ben / bun*la*r / an*la*ma*dm ) I didnt understand these. The same [DEN] morpheme can be used after bu and o preceded by the postpositions byle, nce and sonra to form postpositional phrases, which function as adverbials:

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bu/n/-dan byle (bun*dan / by*le) (from now on); bu/n/-dan sonra (bun*dan / son*ra) (after this); (bun*dan / n*ce) (before this) When the nouns, adjectives or adverbials ending with vowels attach to the [de, da, te, ta] allomorphs, they take /y/ glides when they attach to the first person singular and plural personal allomorphs: Ben iyi-/y/im. I am all right. Ben bura-da-/y/m. I am here. Biz iyi-/y/iz. We are all right. Biz evde-/y/iz. We are at home. However, the nouns and adjectives ending with consonants do not need the /y/ glides when they are suffixed with personal allomorphs. Besides, the final consonants of the preceding words detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, which are showed by single underlines: Ben retmen-im. (ben / *ret*me*nim ) I am a teacher. Ben tembel-im. (ben / tem*be*lim ) I am lazy. Biz alkan-z. (biz / a*l*ka*nz ) We are hardworking. The personal allomorphs used in this tense are as follows: [im, m, m, um,] [sin, sn, sn, sun] [] [iz, z, z, uz] [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz] [] ([ler, lar])

(ben) (sen) (o) (biz) (siz) (onlar)

Ben (bir) retmen-im. (ben / bi*r*ret*me*nim ) (liaison) I am a teacher. Sen (bir) doktor-sun. (sen / bir / dok*tor*sun ) You are a doctor. O (bir) mimar. (o / bir / mi:*mar ) She is an architect.

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The /i:/ in the last example shows that the /i:/ vowel is lengthened, and the hyphen (-) is used to separate morphemes, not syllables. The syllables are separated by asterisks (*). However, dots are used when inflectional or derivational morphemes having two or more syllables such as [ME.L]. [E.BL], [E.CEK] are separated. Biz retmen-iz. (liaison) (biz / *retme*niz ) or (bi*z*ret*me*niz ) (liaison) We are teachers. Siz-ler retmen-si.niz. (siz*ler ~/ *ret*men*si*niz ) or (siz*le*r*ret*men*si*niz ) (liaison) You are teachers. Onlar retmen. (on*lar / *ret*men ) or (on*la*r*ret*men ) (liaison) They are teachers. Ben iyi-/y/im. (ben / i*yi*yim) or (be*ni*yi*yim ) (liaison) I am allright. (The /y/ glide is inserted between the two successive /i/ vowels.) Ben ev-de-/y/im. (ben / ev*de*yim ) or (be*nev*de*yim ) (liaison) I am at home. (The /y/ is a glide inserted between /e/ and /i/ vowels.) Onlar tiyatro-da. (on*lar / ti*yat*ro*da ) They are at the theater. Biz stanbul-da-/y/z. (biz / is*tan*bul*da*yz ) or (bi*zis*tan*bul*da*yz ) (liaison) We are in stanbul. Note: "Liaison" means connecting two or more words by detaching the last consonant of a word from its syllable and attaching it to the first vowel of the following word while articulating. Although this consonant transposition helps to improve the fluency of the oral communication, it is not showed in writing. The /y/ glides in the sentences above are used to link the successive vowels /i/ and /i/ in "iyi-/y/im", /e/ and /i/ in "ev-de-/y/im", and /a/ and // in "stanbul-da-/y/z" harmoniously.

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The Present Tense verb composition of the Turkish language above is also used to express The Present Perfect Tense concept of the English language. In languages, tense and time are different notions. The tense is the physical structure of a verb composition, but time is a thought produced by the mental activity. In other words, one can use the same verb composition to express two different time concepts. For instance, English people say, "I have been here for an hour, but Turkish people say "*I am here for an hour". This shows us that Turkish people use The Simple Present verb form of the verb "be" both for the Simple Present and for the Present Perfect tenses of the English language. Compare and consider the following sentences: (Ben) imdi ev-de-/y/im. (ben / im*di / ev*de*yim ) I am at home now. (Ben) iki saat-tir ev-de-/y/im. (ben / i*ki / sa*at*tir / ev*de*yim ) I have been at home for two hours. (Ben) saat sekiz-den beri ev-de-/y/im. (ben / sa*at / se*kiz*den / be*ri / ev*de*yim ) I have been at home since eight oclock. Aye on sene-dir retmen. (ay*e / on / se*ne*dir / *ret*men ) Aye has been a teacher for ten years. (Ben) iki saat-tir bur(a)-da-/y/m. (ben / i*ki / sa*at*tir / bur*da*ym ) I have been here for two hours. As it is seen in the sentences above, two different concepts of time of the English language are expressed in only one verb composition in Turkish. imdi, iki saattir and saat sekizden beri expressions are enough to convey the difference of time. The personal pronouns in the sentences above are optional elements because they can be understood from the personal morphemes attached to the verbs of the sentences. However, when the third person singular or plu-

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ral pronouns are used in place of proper nouns, one cannot understand whom those pronouns stand in for. For example, when I say, I went to Ankara you do not need to ask, Who went to Ankara?" However, when I say, She went to Ankara you immediately ask who she is. Therefore, in the sentence, Ankaraya gitti, the zero morpheme [], which stands for o, does not clearly express who the real person is being talked about. However, if the name of the real person has already been mentioned, the personal pronoun o can naturally be used. To change the above sentences into the negative form, the word deil is used together with personal morphemes: deil-im, deil-sin, deil, deil-iz, deil-si.niz, degil-(ler) Ben doktor deil-im. (ben / dok*tor / de*i*lim ) I am not a doctor. ocuk-lar ev-de deil. (liaison) (Liaisons can only be used in speech; they cannot be used in writing.) (o*cuk*la*rev*de / de*il ) The children are not at home. Baz ocuk-lar bahe-de deil. (ba*z / o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / de*il ) Some boys are not in the garden. Biz Ankara'da deil-iz. (biz / an*ka*ra*da / de*i*liz ) We are not in Ankara. Siz istek-li deil-si.niz. (siz / is*tek*li / de*il*si*niz ) You are not willing. When one of the allomorphs [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] of the morpheme [DR] is used, the sentence gains either the concepts of perhaps or I am sure: (o*cuk*lar / ev*de*dir ) (perhaps) (o*cuk*lar / ev*de*dir ) (Im sure)

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Btn kz-lar gzel-dir. (b*tn / kz*lar / g*zel*dir ) Im sure all girls are beautiful. (certainty) Btn kz-lar gzel mi-(dir)? (b*tn / kz*lar/ g*zel / mi*dir ) Are all girls beautiful? (What is your opinion?) Btn kz-lar gzel deil mi? (b*tn / kz*lar / g*zel / de*il / mi ) Arent all girls beautiful? Sen retmen deil mi-sin? (sen / *ret*men / de*il / mi*sin ) Arent you a teacher? O (bir) retmen deil. (o / *ret*men / de*il ) She is not a teacher. (certainty) O bir retmen deil-dir. (o / bir / *ret*men / de*il*dir ) Perhaps, she is not a teacher. (uncertainty) Kocam yorgun. My husband is tired. Kocam yorgun deil. (de*il ) My husband is not tired. Kocam yorgun-dur. (Kocam yorgun olabilir.) (possibility) Perhaps my husband is tired, or he may be tired. Ahmet ev-de deil-dir. (ah*met / ev*de / de*il*dir ) I guess Ahmet is not at home. (uncertainty) Sanrm o, o kadar aptal deil-dir. (sa*n*rm / o~ / o / ka*dar / ap*tal / de*il*dir ) I guess that he is not so stupid.

THE PRESENT MODALS WITH THE VERB BE must be (ol-ma.l) (certainty)


When ol-ma.l is used after nouns, adjectives, adverbials or postpositional phrases, it means must be:

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Koca-am yorgun ol-ma.l. (ko*cam / yor*gun / ol*ma*l ) My husband must be tired. (I am sure he is tired.) Bu araba pahal ol-ma.l. (bu / a*ra*ba / pa*ha*l / ol*ma*l ) This car must be expensive. (I am sure it is expensive.) (Sen) yorgun ol-ma.l-sn. (yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must be tired. (I am sure you are tired.) (Biz) saat sekiz-de okul-da ol-ma.l-/y/z. (sa*at / se*kiz*de / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*/y/z ) We must be at school at eight. (obligation) Zaman-/n/-da hazr ol-ma.l-sn. (za*ma:*n/n/*da / ha*zr / ol*mal*sn ) You must be ready in time. (obligation) Onlar cahil ol-ma.l. (on*lar / ca:*hil / ol*ma*l ) They must be ignorant. (I am sure that they are ignorant.) aka yap-.yor ol-ma.l-sn. (a*ka / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must be joking. (certainty) Ben deli ol-ma.l-/y/m! (ben / de*li / ol*ma*l*/y/m ) I must be crazy. I am certain that I am crazy. Onlar-a yardm et-me.li-/y/iz. (on*la*ra / yar*dm / et*me*li*/y/iz ) We must help them. (advice) Teklif-i kabul et-me.li-/y/iz. (tek*li:*fi / ka*bu:l / et*me*li*/y/iz ) We must accept the proposal. (advice) As one can see, both the concepts of obligation and certainty can be expressed by using the same modal sentence structure. This proves that the semantic component chooses the most suitable and available sentence patterns in its store to express one of these two different concepts in a sentence.

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To change the ol-ma.l sentences into the negative form, ol-a.maz-am (o*la*mam), ol-a.maz-sn (o*la*maz*sn), "ol-a.maz (o*la*maz), ol-a.ma/y/z (o*la*ma*/y/z), ol-a.maz-s.nz (o*la*maz*s*nz), ol-a.maz-(lar) (o*la*maz*lar) words are separately used. The double underlined "z" in ol-amaz-am drops, and the remaining a-a vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs: Kocam yorgun ol-a.maz. (ko*cam / yor*gun / o*la*maz ) My husband cant be tired. (impossibility) ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-ma.l. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ol*ma*l ) The children must be in the garden. (certainty or obligation) ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-a.maz. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / o*la*maz ) The children cant be in the garden. (impossibility) Film ilin ol-ma.l. (film / il*gin / ol*ma*l ) The film must be interesting. (certainty) O film ilgin ol-a.maz. (o / film / il*gin / o*la*maz ) That film cant be interesting. (impossibility) Ben tembel ol-a.maz-am. (ben / tem*bel / o*la*mam ) I cant be lazy. (impossibility) Biz o saat-te okul-da ol-a.ma-/y/z. (biz / o /sa*at*te / o*kul*da / o*la*ma*/y/z ) We cant be at school at that hour. (impossibility) Onlar hakl ol-a.maz-(lar). (on*lar / hak*l / o*la*maz*(lar) ) They cant be right. (impossibility) (Sen) saat dokuz-da bro-da ol-a.maz m-sn? (sen / sa*at / do*kuz*da / b*ro*da / o*la*maz / m*sn ) Can't you be at the office at nine? (Isn't it possible?)

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O bir geri zek-l ol-a.maz. ( o / bir / ge*ri / ze*k:*l / o*la*maz ) She cant be a fool.

may be ol-a.bil-ir (o*la*bi*lir) (possibility)


When ol-a.bil-ir (o*la*bi*lir) is used after a noun, an adjective, or a noun[DE] adverbial, it means may be. The [ir] allomorph conveys the present concept, which has no allomorphs as a result of the [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs preceding it. The [e.bil] allomorph can also be used with the verb et: ocuk-lar bahe-de ol-a.bil-ir. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / o*la*bi*lir ) The children may be in the garden. (possibility) Bu iek demet-i siz-in iin ol-a.bil-ir. (bu / i*ek / de*me*ti~ /si*zin / i*in / o*la*bi*lir ) This bunch of flowers may be for you. (possibility) Konser ilgin ol-a.bil-ir. (kon*ser / il*gin / o*la*bi*lir ) The concert may be interesting. (possibility) Kedi, kap-/n/n arka-/s//n/-da ol-a.bil-ir. (ke*di / ka*p*nn / ar*ka*sn*da / o*la*bi*lir ) The cat may be behind the door. (possibility) Uak bulut-lar-n zeri/n/-de ol-a.bil-ir. (u*ak / bu*lut*la*rn / *ze*rin*de / o*la*bi*lir ) The plane may be above the clouds. (possibility) (Ben) mutsuz ol-a.bil-ir-im. (mut*suz / o*la*bi*li*rim ) I may be unhappy. (possibility) Sen inat ol-a.bil-ir-sin. (sen / i*nat* / o*la*bi*lir*sin ) You may be obstinate. (possibility) Onlar yanl-m ol-a.bil-ir-ler. (on*lar / ya*nl*m / o*la*bi*lir*ler ) They may be mistaken. (possibility)

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Saat dokuz-da bro-da ol-a.bil-ir mi-sin? (sa*at / do*kuz*da / b*ro*da / o*la*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can you be at the office at 9? (Is it possible for you?) Saat on-da bana telefon et-e.bil-ir mi-sin? (sa*at / on*da / ba*na / te*le*fon / e*de*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can you ring me up at 10? (request) Bu mektup-u imdi daktilo et-e.bil-ir mi-sin? (bu / mek*tu:*bu / im*di / dak*ti*lo / e*de*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can you type this letter now? (request)

may not be: ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir (ol*ma*/y/a*bi*lir);


To put the above sentences into the negative possibility form, ol-ma-/y/a.bilir-im (ol*ma*ya*bi*li*rim), ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-sin (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*sin), ol-ma/y/a.bil-ir (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir), ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz(ol*ma*ya*bi*li*riz), ol-ma/y/a.bil-ir-si.niz (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*si*niz), ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-ler (ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*ler), and "et-me-/y/e.bil-ir-ler" (et*me*ye*bi*lir*ler) words are separately used: Sen hakl ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-sin. (sen / hak*l / ol*ma*ya*bi*lir*sin) You may not be right. (negative possibility) Sen hakl ol-a.maz-sn. (sen / hak*l / o*la*maz*sn ) You cant be right. (impossibility) Yarn hava iyi ol-a.bil-ir mi? (ya*rn / ha*va / i*yi / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Is it likely to be fine tomorrow? Yarn hava iyi ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir. (ya*rn / ha*va / i*yi / ol*ma*ya*bi*lir ) It may not be fine tomorrow. (negative possibility) Biz yarn stanbul-da ol-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz. (biz / ya*rn / is*tan*bul*da / ol*ma*ya*bi*li*riz ) We may not be in stanbul tomorrow. (negative possibility) Onlar biz-e yardm et-me-/y/e.bil-ir-ler. (on*lar / bi*ze / yar*dm / et*me*ye*bi*lir*ler ) They may not help us.

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THE "YES - NO" QUESTION FORMS OF THE VERB "BE"
In all "yes - no" questions having verbs "be", the allomorphs of [M]: [mi, m, m, mu] are used separately followed by the personal allomorphs: ocuk-lar okul-da m? (o*cuk*lar / o*kul*da / m ) Are the children at school? Saat dokuz-da ev-de mi-sin? (sa*at / do*kuz*da / ev*de / mi*sin ) Are you at home at nine? Deli mi-sin? (de*li / mi*sin ) Are you crazy? Cocuklar ev-de ol-a.bil-ir mi? (o*cuk*lar / ev*de / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Can the children be at home? (possibility) O hakl ol-a.bil-ir. (o / hak*l / o*la*bi*lir ) He can be, or may be right. O hakl ol-a.bil-ir mi? (o / hak*l / o*la*bi*lir mi ) Can he be right? (possibility) Ben hakl ol-a.maz m-/y/m? (ben / hak*l / o*la maz / m*/y/m ) Cant I be right? Zaman-/n/-da ev-de ol-a.maz m-sn? (za*ma:*nn*da / ev*de / o*la maz / m*sn ) Cant you be home in time? Hava yarn yamur-lu ol-a.bil-ir mi? (ha*va / ya*rn / ya*mur*lu / o*la*bi*lir mi ) Is it likely to be rainy tomorrow? Saat sekiz-de bro-da ol-a.bil-ir mi-si.niz? (sa*at / se*kiz*de / b*ro*da / o*la*bi*lir / mi*si*niz ) Can you be at the office at 8?

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Consider and compare the following examples: Yorgun ol-ma.l-sn. (yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must be tired. (I am sure you are tired.) Yarn saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma.l-sn. (ya*rn / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must be at school at nine. (I want you to be at school at 9.) (obligation) Sen saat dokuz-da bura-da ol-ma-ma.l-sn. (sa*at / do*kuz*da / bur*da / ol*ma*ma*l*sn ) You mustnt be here at nine. (I dont want you to be here at nine.) (obligation) Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma.l-/y/m. (sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l*/y/m ) I must be at school at nine. (internal obligation) (I want to be at school at nine.) Ben saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-a.ma-am. (sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / o*la*mam ) I cant be at school at nine. (impossibility)

have to be (ol-mak + zorun-da-[/y/m, -sn, -, -/y/z, -s.nz, -lar])


Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda-/y/m. I have to be at school at nine.
infinitive infinitive

(sa*at / do*kuz*da~ / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da*/y/m) (They want me to be at school at nine. (This is the rule.) (external obligation) renci-ler alkan ol-mak zorunda. (*ren*ci*ler ~/ a*l*kan / ol*mak / zo*run*da ) Students have to be hardworking. (This is their duty.) (external obligation) (Ben) saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda deil-im. (ben~ / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da / de*i*lim ) I don't have to be (or neednt be) at school at nine tomorrow. (absence of external obligation) Saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-mak zorunda m-/y/z? (sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*mak / zo*run*da / m*/y/z ) Do we have to be at school at nine?

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Bu yeni szck-ler-i ren-mek zorunda-/y/m. (bu / ye*ni / sz*ck*le*ri / *ren*mek / zo*run*da*/y/m ) I have to learn these new words. (external obligation)

neednt be (noun compound - [e, a] + gerek yok )


Ben okul-da olur-um. ben-im okul-da ol-ma-am
simple sentence noun compound-a noun compound

(Ben-im) saat dokuz-da okul-da ol-ma-am-a gerek yok. (be*nim / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*kul*da / ol*ma*ma / ge*rek / yok ) I neednt be at school at nine. I dont have to be at school at nine. Note: The last [a] is one of the allomorphs of the morpheme [E]. (lack of external obligation) (Ben-im) yarn leden sonra bro-da ol-ma-am-a gerek yok. (be*nim / ya*rn / *le*den / son*ra / b*ro*da / ol*ma*ma /ge*rek / yok ) I neednt be at the office tomorrow afternoon. I dont have to be (Siz-in) hazr ol-ma-an-z gerek-i.yor. (ha*zr / ol*ma*nz / ge*re*ki*yor ) You have to be ready. You should be ready. You ought to be ready. (external obligation) (onun) kayglan-ma-/s/-/n/a gerek yok. (o*nun / kay*g*lan*ma*s*na / ge*rek / yok ) She neednt be anxious. (Biz-im) yeni bir araba al-ma-a.mz-a gerek yok.
noun compound-a adverbial phrase

(ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*ma*m*za / ge*rek / yok ) We neednt buy a new car. (Sen-in) kz-ma-an-a gerek yok. (kz*ma*na / ge*rek / yok ) You neednt be angry. (Sen-in) bar-ma-an-a gerek yok; sar deil.im. (ba*r*ma*na / ge*rek / yok ) (sa*r / de*i*lim ) You neednt shout; I am not deaf. Note: The noun compounds in the sentences above are all underlined.

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The past morpheme of [DR] is [D], which has eight allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu]. These allomorphs are naturally followed by personal allomorphs: (ben) (sen) (o) (biz) (siz) (onlar) : : : : : : [im, m, m, um] [in, n, n, un] [] [ik, k, k, uk] [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz] [] (ler, lar)

Note: There are two kinds of first person plural personal morphemes "[Z] and [K]" attached to time morphemes in Turkish. The time morphemes ending with consonants attach to the [iz, z, z, uz] allomorphs such as git-eriz, "kal-r-z, ksr-r-z, gel-i.yor-uz, etc. However, when the past allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], which end with vowels, attach to the personal allomorphs, the first person plural allomorphs [ik, k, k, uk] are used. As the last phonemes of the [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], and the first phonemes of the [ik, k, k, uk] are vowels, the vowels of the past allomorphs coinciding with the vowels of the [ik, k, k, uk] allomorphs combine and are verbalized as a single vowel such as: gel-di-ik (gel*dik), gr-d-k (gr*dk), yen-di-ik (yen*dik), anla-d-k (an*la*dk), l-d-k (l*dk). As the condition allomorphs [se] and [sa] also end with vowels, they take the [ek] and [ak] personal allomorphs, such as: al-sa-ak (a*l*sak), yr-seek (y*r*sek), anla-sa-ak (an*la*sak), bekle-se-ek (bek*le*sek), konusa-ak (ko*nu*sak), bala-sa-ak (ba*la*sak), dinle-se-ek, ezberle-se-ek Note: The glides "/n/, /s/, // and /y/" are the consonants (semivowels) produced by the phonological system of the Turkish language. These semivowels do not carry meaning. They only help to harmonize the speech production. Therefore, they are showed between slashes in the sentences in this book. They are not showed in ordinary writing. Follow the example sentences: Dn hasta/y/-d-m. (dn / has*tay*dm ) I was ill yesterday. (The /y/ is a glide.)

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Siz dn sinema-da/y/-d-.nz. (siz / dn / si*ne*ma*day*d*nz ) You were at the cinema yesterday. (The /y/ is a glide.) Oyun ilgin-ti. (o*yun / il*gin*ti ) The play was interesting. Biz hazr-d-k. (biz / ha*zr*dk ) We were ready. Onlar zengin-di-ler. (on*lar / zen*gin*di*ler ) They were wealthy. To put the above sentences into the negative form, deil-di-im, deil-diin, deil-di, deil-di-ik, deil-di-i.niz, deil-ler-di words are separately added to the sentences: Dn hasta deil-di-im. (dn / has*ta / de*il*dim ) I wasnt ill yesterday. Siz dn okul-da deil-di-i.niz. (siz / dn / o*kul*da / de*il*di*niz ) You werent at school yesterday. Dn hava gzel deil-di. (dn / ha*va / g*zel / de*il*di ) It wasnt fine yesterday. Biz geen hafta Bursa-da deil-di-ik. (biz / ge*en / haf*ta ~ / bur*sa*da / de*il*dik ) We werent in Bursa last week. Onlar birka yl nce varlk-l deil-ler-di. (on*lar / bir*ka / yl / n*ce / var*lk*l / de*il*ler*di ) They werent wealthy a few years ago. The following words are used to put the above example sentences into the positive question form: (ben) (sen) (o) : mi/y/-di-im, m/y/-d-m, m/y/-d-m, mu/y/-du-um : mi/y/-di-in, m/y/-d-n, m/y/-d-n, mu/y/-du-un : mi/y/-di, m/y/-d, m/y/-d, mu/y/-du

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(biz) (siz) : mi/y/-di-ik, m/y/-d-k, m/y/-d-k, mu/y/-du-uk : mi/y/-di-i.niz, m/y/-d-.nz, m/y/-d-.nz, mu/y/-du-u.nuz.

(onlar) : mi/y/-di-ler, m/y/-d-lar, m/y/-d-ler, mu/y/-du-lar The identical vowels that follow one another combine and verbalize as single vowels: i-i i; - ; - ; u-u u; e-e e; a-a a Although these words follow the vowel harmony rule patterns when they are articulated and written, they are considered to be words, and so they are separately written. The /y/ consonants used above are all glides. Dn hasta m/y/-d-n? (dn / has*ta / my*dn ) Were you ill yesterday? Ma skc m/y/-d? (ma / s*k*c / my*d ) Was the match boring? ocuk-lar mutlu mu/y/-du-(lar)? (o*cuk*lar / mut*lu / muy*du*lar ) Were the children happy? Sorular zor mu/y/-du? (so*ru*lar / zor / muy*du ) Were the questions difficult? Onlar zengin mi/y/-di-(ler)? (on*lar / zen*gin / miy*di*ler ) Were they wealthy? Mutlu mu/y/-du-un? (mut*lu / muy*dun ) Were you happy? The [mi, m, m, mu] question allomorphs can also be used after the primarily stressed words: (dnm / has*tay*dn); muy*du ) (so*ru*larm / zor*du); (so*ru*lar / zor*-

In order to form negative questions, deil and the above mi/y/-di-im, mi/y/-di-in, mi/y/-di, mi/y/-di-ik, mi/y/-di-i.niz, mi/y/-di-ler words are separately used:

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Dn okul-da deil mi/y/-di-in? (dn / o*kul*da / de*il / miy*din ) Werent you at school yesterday? Ma heyecanl deil mi/y/-di? (ma / he*ye*can*l / de*il / miy*di ) Wasnt the match exciting? Manzara gzel deil mi/y/-di? (man*za*ra / g*zel / de*il / miy*di ) Wasnt the scenery beautiful? Arkada-lar-n toplant-da deil-ler mi/y/-di, or de-il mi/y/-di-ler? Konser pahal deil mi/y/-di? (kon*ser / pa*ha*l / de*il / miy*di ) Wasnt the concert expensive? Sen ev-de deil mi/y/-di-in? (sen / ev*de / de*il / miy*din ) Werent you at home? Jack doum gn- parti-/s/i/n/-de deil mi/y/-di? (jack / do*um / g*n / par*ti*sin*de / de*il / miy*di) (surprise) Wasnt Jack at the birthday party? The Turkish Past form of be is also used in place of the Past Perfect be had been of the English language. Compare the following: Baba-am l-dk-n-de ben yirmi be yl-dr retmen-di-im. (ba*bam / l*d*n*de ~/ ben / yir*mi / be / yl*dr / *ret*men*dim ) I had been a teacher for twenty five years when my father died. kinci Dnya Sava son-a er-dik-in-de ben yedi yl-dr renci/y/-di-im. (i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va* / so*na / er*di*in*de~/ ben / ye*di / yl*dr / *ren*ciy*dim ) I had been a student for seven years when the Second World War ended.

INTERROGATIVE WORDS
There are two kinds of interrogative words in Turkish: Simple interrogative words like "kim?" (who?), "ne?" (what?), "nasl?" (how?), "niin?" (why?), and the simple interrogative words that are followed by some inflectional morphemes such as "kim-sin?" (who?), "kim-im?" (who?), "kim-iz? (who?),

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"kim-i?" (whom?), "kim-e?" (to whom?), "kim-den?" (from whom?), "kim-le?" (with whom?), "kim-de?" (?), "kim-in?" (whose?), "ne/y/-le?" (how?), (with what instrument?), "ne-den? (why?), "nere-/y/e?" (where?), "nere-de? (where?), "nere-den?" (from where?). For instance: (Sen) kim-sin? Who are you? Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap vermek iste-i.yor? Who wants to answer this question? O ne de-di? What did he say? Ne gr-dn? What did you see? Nasl anlad-n? How did you understand? Oraya nasl git-ti-in? How did you go there? Kim-i gr-d-n? Whom (who) did you see? Oraya kim-le git-ti-in? With whom did you go there? Nere-den gel-i.yorsun? Where are you coming from? Nere-/y/e git-i.yor-sun? Where are you going? Nere-de otur-u.yor-sun? Where do you live? Ne-den sus-u.yor-sun? Why are you keeping quiet? Bu araba kim-in? Whose is this car? O kimmi? Who do they say he is? The interrogative sentences having the question words above are pronounced with a rising intonation () both at the end of the interrogative sentences, and after the people or things that the question words are inquiring. Sen kim-sin? (sen / kim sin) Who are you? Ben Jackim. (ben / Ja* kim ) Im Jack. Sen-in meslek-in ne? (se*nin / mes*le*in / ne) What are you? What is your profession? Ben renci-/y/im. (ben / *ren*ci*/y/im ) I am a student. Anneniz nasl? (an*ne*niz / na*sl) How is your mother? ok iyi, teekkr et-er.im. (liaison) (o*ki*yi / te*ek*k*re*de*rim ) She is quite well, thank you.

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stanbulda hava nasl? (is*tan*bul*da / ha*va / na*sl) What is the weather like in stanbul? Yamur-lu. (ya*mur*lu ) Rainy. Kz karde-in-in ad- ne? (liaison) (kz / kar*de*i*ni*na*d / ne) What is your sisters name? Onun ad- Jane. (liaison) (o*nu*na*d /Jane ) Her name is Jane. Bu iek-ler kim iin? (liaison) (bu / i*ek*ler / ki mi*in) Who are these flowers for? Onlar annem iin. (on*lar / an*nem / i*in ) They are for my mother. Vazo ne-/y/in st-/n/-de? (va*zo / ne*y/n / s*tn*de) What is the vase on? Kpek ne-/y/in arka-/s//n/-da? (k*pek / ne*yin / ar*ka*sn*da) What is the dog behind? (The /y/, /s/. and /n/ are glides.) Dn sen kim-le/y/-di-in? (dn / sen / kimley*din) Who were you with yesterday? Ne zaman-dan beri bura-da-sn? (ne / za*man*dan / be*ri / bur*da*sn) Since when have you been here? Ne kadar zaman-dr bur(a)da-sn? ( ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / bur*da*sn) How long have you been here?

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Hangi kitap sen-in? (hangi / ki*tap /se*nin) Which book is yours? Hangi-/s/i sen-in? (hangi*si / se*nin) Which is yours? Hangi-/s/i daha hesapl? (hangi*si / da*ha / he*sap*l) Which is more economical? Kedi ne-/y/in alt-/n/-da? (ke*di / ne*yin / al*tn*da) What is the cat under? iek-ler ne-/y/in i-i/n/-de/y/-di? (i*ek*ler / ne*yin / i*in*dey*di) What were the flowers in? Hangi-/s/i-/n/i tercih et-er-sin? (hangi*si*ni / ter*cih / e*der*sin) Which do you prefer? Nere-de-sin? (nerde*sin) Where are you? Okul-un nasl? (o*ku*lun / na*sl) What is your school like? Araba-an ne renk? (a*ra*ban / ne / renk) What color is your car? Hangi kitap daha iyi? (hangi / ki*tap / da*ha / i*yi) Which book is better? Kim-le beraber-sin? (kim le / be*ra:*ber*sin) Who are you with?

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Jack niin ev-de deil? (Jack / ni in / ev*de / de*il) Why isnt jack at home? stanbulda ne kadar kalma-/y/ pilanla-.yor-sun? (is*tan*bul*da / ne / ka*dar / kal*ma*y / pi*ln*l*yor*sun) How long do you plan to stay in stanbul? Hangi-i.miz daha yakkl-/y/z? (hani*miz / da*ha / ya*k*k*l*yz) Which one of us is more handsome? Ankara-/y/a niin git-ti-in? (an*ka*ra*ya / niin / git*tin ) Why did you go to Ankara?

[M] (RUMOR, INFERENCE) (SYLENT, ANLAM IKARMA)


This morpheme gives the predicates the meaning of rumor or inference. It has four allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], and the usual personal allomorphs follow them: O bir mimar-m. (o / bir / mi:*mar*m ) They say (I have heard) that he is (was) an architect. Mahkm susuz-mu. (mah*km / su*suz*mu ) They say (I have been informed) that the prisoner is (was) innocent. O tembel-mi. (o / tem*bel*mi ) People say that he is (was) lazy. Okul-da/y/-m. (o*kul*da/y/*m ) They say that he is (was) at school. O bir casus-mu. ( o / bir / ca:*sus*mu ) They say that he is (was) a spy.

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Ben tembel-mi-im. (ben / tem*bel*mi*im ) They say that I am (was) lazy. Ben eski-den tembel-mi-im. (ben / es*ki*den~ / tem*bel*mi*im ) They say (I have heard) that I was lazy in the past. Sen-in kz-lar-n yaramaz-m. (se*nin / kz*la*rn~ / ya*ra*maz*m ) Everybody says that your daughters are naughty. Siz okul-da/y/-m-s.nz. (siz / o*kul*da/y/*m*s*nz ) They say that you were at school. In the sentences above, the origin, and the time of the rumor is either unknown, unimportant or concealed. As who says is unknown or unimportant, such sentences can also be used in reported speech: Snav-lar--/n/ ge-mi. They say that he has passed his examinations. Araba-/s/ sat-l-m. They said (I heard) that his car had been sold. Toplant ertelen-mi. They say (I have heard) that the meeting has been postponed. Kim-mi?, nere-de/y/-mi?, nere-de/y/-mi-sin?, ne/y/-mi?, nasl-m, kaa/y/-m question words are naturally used in these sentences: O ne/y/-mi? (o / ne/y/mi) What do they say he (is) was? Mimar-m. (mi:*mar*m ) They say that he (is) was an architect. Ben ne/y/-mi-im? (ben / ne/y/ mi*im) What do they say I am (was)?

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Tembel-mi-sin. (tem*bel*mi*sin ) They say you are (were) lazy. Kim-in kz-lar- yaramaz-m? (ki*min / kz*la*r / ya*ra*maz*m) Whose daughters do they say are (were) naughty? Jack nere-de/y/-mi? (Jack / ner dey*mi) Where do they say Jack is (was)? Kim hakl/y/-m? (kim / hak*ly*m ) Who do they (you) say is (was) right? Fatma nere-dey-mi? (fat*ma / nere*dey*mi ) Where do they say Fatma was?

THE FUTURE FORM OF BE: WILL BE


The future form of the verb be is ol-[a.cak]-pers in Turkish: Yarn hava gne-li ol-a.cak. (ya*rn / ha*va / g*ne*li / o*la*cak ) It will be sunny tomorrow. Bir gn zengin ol-a.cak-sn. (bir / gn / zen*gin / o*la*cak*sn ) You will be wealthy some day. Yarn okul-da ol-ma-/y/a.cak-m. (ya*rn / o*kul*da / ol*ma*ya*ca*m ) (ol*my*cam) I wont be at school tomorrow. Saat sekiz-de hazr ol-a.cak m-sn (ol-ur mu-sun)? (sa*at / se*kiz*de / ha*zr / o*lur / mu*sun ) Will you be ready at eight oclock tomorrow? (request) Saat ka-ta hazr ol-a.cak-sn? (liaison) (sa*at / ka*ta / ha*z*ro*la*cak*sn) What time will you be ready?

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As the verb root is always ol, only the [a.cak] allomorph is used. The other [ecek] allomorph is used with action verbs: gel-e.cek, kal-a.cak.

THERE IS, THERE ARE; HAVE, HAVE GOT


Var & Yok
The equivalents of the above expressions in Turkish are -de var, -da var, and ben-im, sen-in, o-/n/un var. Consider the following sentences: Garaj-da bir araba var. (liaison) (ga*raj*da / bi*ra*ra*ba / var ) There is a car in the garage. (exist) Garajda (ben-im) sadece bir araba-am var.
noun compound

(ga*raj*da / sa:*de*ce / bir / a*ra*bam / var ) I have (got) only one car in the garage. (possess) Uak-ta on yolcu var. (u*ak*ta / on / yol*cu / var ) There are ten passengers on the plane. (exist) (Ben-im) iki kz-m var.
noun compound

(be*nim / i*ki / k*zm / var ) Ive (got) two daughters. (possess) (Sen-in) ka erkek karde-in var?
noun compound

(se*nin~/ ka / er*kek / kar*de*in / var) How many brothers have you? (Sen-in) ka para-an var?
noun compound

(se*nin / ka / pa*ran / var) How much money have you got? (possess) The negative of var is yok: Garaj-da hi araba yok. (ga*raj*da / hi / a*ra*ba / yok ) There arent any cars in the garage. (not exist) (Ben-im) araba-am yok.
noun compound

(be*nim / a*ra*bam / yok ) I havent got a car. (not possess)

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The past form of the above expression is var-d; there was, had got: Garaj-da sadece bir araba var-d. (ga*raj*da / sa:*de*ce / bir / a*ra*ba / var*d ) There was only one car in the garage. (exist) (Ben-im) ok para-am var-d. I had (got) a lot of money. (possess)
noun compound

Uak-ta on yolcu var-d. There were ten passengers on the plane. (exist) The negative form of var-d is yok-tu: there wasnt, didnt have: Yirmi sene nce (ben-im) ok para-am yok-tu.
noun compound

I didnt have much money twenty years ago. (not possess) Mutfak-ta bir masa yok-tu. (mut*fak*ta / bir / ma*sa / yok*tu ) There wasnt a table in the kitchen. (not exist) Duvar-lar-da hi resim yok-tu. (du*var*lar*da / hi / re*sim / yok*tu ) There werent any pictures on the walls. (not exist) There were no pictures Onun hi ocuk-u yok-tu. (o*nun / hi / o*cu*u / yok*tu ) He didnt have any children. (not possess) He had no children. Garaj-da hi araba var m/y/-d? (ga*raj*da / hi / a*ra*ba / var / m/y/*d ) Were there any cars in the garage?

THERE USED TO BE, AND USED TO HAVE


The Turkish equivalent of there used to be and "used to have" is also var-d: Ke-de bir postane var-d. (k*e*de / bir / pos*ta:*ne / var*d ) There used to be a post office on the corner. (existed in the past, not now) Snf-lar-da ok renci var-d. (s*nf*lar*da / ok / *ren*ci / var*d ) There used to be a lot of students in classes. (existed in the past, not now) (Ben-im) ok para-am var-d
noun compound

(be*nim / ok / pa*ram / var*d ) I used to have a lot of money.

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THERE MUST (MAY) (SHOULD) BE, THERE CANT BE, THERE IS GOING TO BE, THERE WILL BE
Ol-ma.l (ol*ma*l) (there must be); ol-a.maz (o*la*maz) (there cant be); ol-a.cak (o*la*cak) (there is going to be, there will be); "ol-a.bil-ir" (o*la*bi*lir) (there may be); ol-ma-/s/ gerek-ir (ol*ma*s / ge*re*kir) (there should be) expressions should also be included in the above sentence types: leri-de bir kaza ol-ma.l. (i*ler*de / bir / ka*za: / ol*ma*l ) There must be an accident ahead. Bir yanl anla-ma ol-ma.l. (bir / yan*l / an*la*ma / ol*ma*l ) There must be a misunderstanding. Bu mektup-ta bir yanllk ol-a.maz. (bu / mek*tup*ta / bir / yan*l*lk / o*la*maz ) There cant be a mistake in this letter. Kavga k-a.cak (ol-a.cak). (kav*ga / *ka*cak ) There is going to be a fight. Bir hava saldrs ol-a.cak. (bir / ha*va / sal*d*r*s / o*la*cak ) There is going to be an air raid. Bu mektup-ta baz yanl-lar ol-a.bil-ir. (bu / mek*tup*ta~ / ba:*z / yan*l*lar / o*la*bi*lir ) There may be some mistakes in this letter. Bura-da bir trafik polis-i ol-ma-/s/ gerek-ir. (bur*da / bir / tra*fik / po*li*si / ol*ma*/s/ / ge*re*kir ) There should (must) be a traffic police officer here.

IMPERATIVES AND WISHES


Direct orders are given to a second person by using a verb root, a verb stem or a verb frame without using any suffixes, such as "Bura-/y/a gel" (Come here); "Ku-lar-a bak" (Look at the birds); "St-n- i (Drink your milk); "Pencere-den bak" (Look out of the window); "Bir fincan kahve buyur!" (Have a cup of coffee!); "Elen-me-en-e bak!" (e*len*me*ne / bak) (Have a nice time!) (Enjoy yourself!).

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One cannot usually give orders to himself or herself, so there is not a first person order form. Orders are given to the second person as a rule. However, an order may also be given to the third person indirectly. A speaker gives orders to the second person to be transferred to a third person. The last syllable of an imperative sentence is primarily stressed and dropped sharply, which is symbolized with a falling arrow (): Git-sin. (git*sin ) Tell him to go; let him go. Araba-am- yka-sn. (a*ra*ba*m / y*ka*sn ) Tell him to wash my car. Grlt-/y/ kes-sin-ler! (g*rl*t*y / kes*sin*ler ) Tell them to stop making a noise! The orders that are given with the verb "ol" and et (be) are widely used in both English and Turkish. In such sentences the primarily stressed syllables are the last syllables of the adjectives and adverbials: Sabr-l ol! (sa*br*l / ol ) Be patient! Dikkat et! (Dikkat-li ol!) (liaison) (dik*ka*tet ) (dik*kat*li / ol ) Be careful! Hemen hazr ol! (he*men / ha*zr / ol ) Be ready soon! Hemen hazr ol-sun-lar! (he*men / ha*zr / ol*sun*lar ) Tell them to be ready soon! Negative orders are given by attaching [me, ma] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames:

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Pencere-den sark-ma! (pen*ce*re*den / sark*ma ) Don't lean out of the window! Cadde-/y/i ko-a.rak ge-me! (cad*de*yi / ko*a*rak / ge*me ) Don't run across the street! Ge kal-ma! (ge / kal*ma ) Don't be late! Ik-lar- kapat-ma-/y/ unut-ma! (*k*la*r / ka*pat*ma*y / u*nut*ma ) Don't forget to turn off the lights! Sabr-sz ol-ma! (liaison) (sa*br*s*zol*ma ) Don't be impatient! anta-an- al-dr-ma! (an*ta*n / al*dr*ma ) Be careful not to have your handbag stolen! The [me, ma] negation allomorphs are added to verb roots, stems and frames followed by the third person personal allomorphs [sin, sn] to change the verb composition into the negative form: Bura-/y/a gel-me-sin. (bu*ra*ya / gel*me*sin ) Tell him not to come here. "Don't let him come here." For the third person plural [ler, lar] allomorphs are added to the negative verbs such as: "Gel-me-sin-ler" (gel*me*sin*ler), "Bala-ma-sn-lar" (ba*la*ma*sn*lar).

WISH (stek)
To turn a verb root, stem or frame into the wish mood, [e, a] and the personal allomorphs are added:

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Al-a-/y/m. (a*la*ym ) Let me take. Bak-a-/y/m! (ba*ka*ym ) Let me see! (Let me have a look!) Git-e-/y/im. (gi*de*yim ) Let me go. All the verb roots used above end with consonants, but when they end with vowels, the /y/ glides are inserted between their last vowels and the [e, a] allomorphs: Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*ye*yim ) or (bek*li*ye*yim ) Let me wait. However, in speech, the /y/e syllable attached to bekle drops, and the word becomes (bek*le*yim ). Bekle-/y/e-/y/im. (bek*le*yim ) Let me wait. Ertele-/y/e-/y/im. (er*te*le*yim ) Let me postpone. Anla-/y/a-/y/m. (an*la*ym ) Let me understand For the first person plural, [li-im], or [l-m] personal allomorphs are used after the [e, a] allomorphs: Al-a-l-m. (a*la*lm ) Let us take (buy). Se-e-li-im. (se*e*lim ) Let us choose. Bala-/y/a-l-m. (ba*la*ya*lm ) Let us begin. Oku-/y/a-l-m. (o*ku*ya*lm ) Let us read. Bekle-/y/e-li-im. (bek*le*ye*lim ) Let us wait. The verb roots, stems or frames above ending with vowels, such as "bala", "oku", and "bekle" are attached to the [e, a] wish allomorphs with the /y/ glides. Sometimes "gidem", "olam", "gidesin","olasn","gide","ola" words are heard in prayers and curses, such as "Cehennem-e gide-sin!" (Go to Hell!), "Tuttuun altn ola!" (I wish what you hold be gold!) To make the verbs negative, the [me, ma] allomorphs are added as usual: "Bekle-me-/y/e-lim" (bek*le*me*ye*lim) (Let us not wait.); "Git-me-/y/elim" (git*me*ye*lim) Let us not go. When the question forms of the wish mood are used, the wish form changes into an offer:

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Televizyon-u a-a-/y/m m? (te*le*viz*yo*nu / a*a*ym / m ) Shall I turn the TV on? If the sentence above ends with a rising intonation (), (te*le*viz*yo*nu / a*a*ym / m), the sentence means, I didnt understand you well; please repeat what you said. Bu szck-ler-i tahta-/y/a yaz-a-/y/m m? (bu / sz*ck*le*ri / tah*ta*ya / ya*za*ym / m ) Shall I write these words on the blackboard? Bir restoran-da akam yemek-i ye-/y/e-li-im mi? (bir / res*to*ran*da / ak*am / ye*me*i / yi*ye*lim / mi ) Shall we have dinner at a restaurant? Sana bir fincan kahve yap-a-/y/m m? (sa*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*pa*ym / m ) Shall I make you a cup of coffee? iek-ler-i sula-/y/m m? (i*ek*le*ri / su*la*ym / m ) Shall I water the flowers?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


Geni Zaman
The Turkish Simple Present Tense is generally used like the English Simple Present Tense only with some exceptions. They will be dealt with after the general explanations. The time morpheme of this tense is [R], which has the allomorphs of [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]. These allomorphs are followed by the personal allomorphs as usual: (Ben) (Sen) (O) (Biz) (Siz) (Onlar) : : : : : : [im, m, m, um] [sin, sn, sn, sun] [] morpheme. (No personal allomorphs are attached.) [iz, z, z, uz] [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz] [ler, lar]

When the verb roots, stems or frames ending with vowels are attached to the simple present tense allomorphs above, the first vowels of the simple present tense allomorphs coincide with the last vowels of the verbs, and therefore they combine and are verbalized as a single vowel. However,

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when they end with consonants, these consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following time allomorphs: Bekle-er-im (bek*le*rim); bala-ar-m (ba*la*rm); yr-r-m (y*r*rm); koru-ur-um (ko*ru*rum); bekle-er-sin (bek*ler*sin); bala-ar (ba*lar); ye-er (yer); bekle-er-iz (bek*le*riz); bala-ar-s.nz (ba*lar*s*nz); yr-r-ler (y*rr*ler); u-ar (u*ar); gez-er (ge*zer); gel-ir (ge*lir); sat-ar (sa*tar) The coinciding vowels above written in bold face combine. The transplaced consonants are single underlined. This verb composition is formed as follows: (Ben) yz-er-im. (y*ze*rim ) I swim. (Ben) bekle-er-im. (bek*le*rim ) I wait. (Ben) anla-ar-m. (an*la*rm ) I understand. (Ben) al-r-m. (a*l*rm ) I take or buy. (Ben) gtr-r-m. (g*t*r*rm ) I take ... to. (Ben) otur-ur-um. (o*tu*ru*rum ) I sit. (Ben) se-er-im. (se*e*rim ) I choose. (Ben) ka-ar-m. (ka*a*rm ) I run away. (Ben) se-il-ir-im (e*i*li*rim ) I am elected, chosen. (passive) (Sen) yz-er-sin. (y*zer*sin ) You swim. (Sen) al-r-sn. (a*lr*sn ) You take, you buy. (Sen) gtr-r-sn. (g*t*rr*sn ) You take ... to (Sen) anla-ar-sn. (an*lar*sn ) You understand. (Sen) otur-ur-sun. (o*tu*rur*sun ) You sit. (Sen) yakala-ar-sn. (ya*ka*lar*sn ) You catch. (Sen) sat-ar-sn. (sa*tar*sn ) You sell. (Sen) se-il-ir-sin. (se*i*lir*sin ) You are elected, chosen. (passive) The "he", "she", and "it" pronouns are all expressed in "o" pronoun inTurkish: (O) yz-er. (y*zer ) He swims. (O) al-r. (a*lr ) He takes. He buys. (O) gtr-r. (g*t*rr ) He takes ... to. (O) otur-ur. (o*tu*rur ) He sits.

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(O) bak-ar. (ba*kar ) He looks. (O) bekle-er. (bek*ler ) He (or she and it) waits. (O) gr-l-r. (g*r*lr ) It is seen. (passive) (O) ye-er. (yer) He eats. (Biz) yz-er-iz. (y*ze*riz ) (Biz) al-r-z. (a*l*rz ) We swim.

We take or buy.

(Biz) gtr-r-z. (g*t*r*rz ) We take ... to. (Biz) otur-ur-uz. (o*tu*ru*ruz ) We sit. (Biz) bekle-er-iz. (bek*le*riz ) We wait. (Biz) bala-ar-z. (ba*la*rz ) We start. (Biz) yen-il-ir-iz. (ye*ni*li*riz ) We are beaten, defeated. (passive) (Siz) yz-er-si.niz. (y*zer*si*niz ) You swim. (Siz) al-r-s.nz. (a*lr*s*nz ) You take or buy. (Siz) gtr-r-s.nz. (g*t*rr*s*nz ) You take ... to (Siz) otur-ur-su.nuz. (o*tu*rur*su*nuz ) You sit. (Siz) oku-ur-su.nuz. (o*kur*su*nuz ) You read. (Siz) u-ar-s.nz. (u*ar*s*nz ) You fly. (Siz) anla-a-r-s.nz. (an*la*r*s*nz ) You reach an agreement. (reciprocal) (Onlar) yz-er-ler. (y*zer*ler ) They swim. (Onlar) al-r-lar. (a*lr*lar ) They take or buy. (Onlar) sakla-ar-lar. (sak*lar*lar ) They hide. (Onlar) gtr-r-ler. (g*t*rr*ler ) They take ... to (Onlar) otur-ur-lar. (o*tu*rur*lar ) They sit. (onlar) yr-r-ler. (y*rr*ler ) They walk. (onlar) ka-ar-lar. (ka*ar*lar ) They run away. (Onlar) anla-a-r-lar. (an*la*r*lar ) They reach an agreement. (reciprocal) (Onlar) bekle-er-ler. (bek*ler*ler ) They wait. The verbs that are used in this and in the following tenses are of two kinds: Transitive verbs, and intransitive verbs. Transitive verbs need objects, which may be pronouns, nouns, or noun compounds, but Intransitive

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verbs do not need them. They are preceded by adverbs, or nouns attached to [E], [DE], [DEN], or [LE] morphemes, which function as adverbials. Kz-m saat dokuz-da okul-a git-er.
subj adverbial adverbial intr verb

(k*zm / sa*at / do*kuz*da / o*ku*la / gi*der ). My daughter goes to school at nine. (intransitive) Ben genellik-le yedi-de kalk-ar-m.
subj adverbial adverbial intr verb

(ben / ge*nel*lik*le / ye*di*de / kal*ka*rm ) I generally get up at 7. (intransitive) Karde-im her sabah oda-/s/-/n/ tertiple-er.
subj adverbial object transitive verb

(kar*de*im / her / sa*bah / o*da*s*n / ter*tip*ler ) My sister tidies her room every morning. (transitive) In Turkish, the order of a VP is different from that of an English VP. In English, its order is VP V + NP, but in Turkish, the order is VP NP + V. For instance: Ben elma sev-er-im.
NP NP VP V

I
NP

like apples
V VP NP

(Ben) kitap oku-ur-um.


NP NP VP V

I read books.
NP V VP NP

As it is noticed, in the Turkish sentences above, the words elma and kitap are not in plural form as they are used in their English equivalents. This is because, if a common noun represents all of its own kind and covers all books or apples, these nouns do not need plural allomorphs "[ler] or [lar]" attached to them when they are used in the object or subject position. For instance: Benim kzm kitap okumaz. My daughter doesnt read books. Halbuki, kitap faydaldr. Books are useful, however. Gmlek-ler-im-i ben tle-er-im. I iron my shirts. In the last example above, the pronoun ben is not in the beginning of the sentence, which is its usual position. It is used after the object to emphasize the subject, and it is stressed in speech In English, which is done with myself". This sort of sequence is possible in Turkish by putting

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kendim after ben. However, if someone says, "Gmleklerimi ben kendim tlerim, you may think that he is boasting about his abilities. The subject + object + verb order of the same sentence, Ben gmlek-lerim-i (gm*lek*le*ri*mi) tlerim can also change places in poetry and literature: Although, tlerim ben gmleklerimi, tlerim gmleklerimi ben, and Gmleklerimi tlerim ben kinds of sentences are quite understandable and acceptable in Turkish, such sentences are generally used in poetry.

THE VERBS ENDING WITH VOWELS OR CONSONANTS


When the verbs ending with vowels attach to The Simple Present Tense allomorphs [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar], the last vowels of the verbs and the first vowels of the allomorphs coincide and combine. The verbs ending with consonants are single underlined. They detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs if they start with vowels. tle-er-im. (*t*le*rim ) I iron. Ertele-er-iz. (er*te*le*riz ) We postpone. Yakala-ar-lar. (ya*ka*lar*lar ) They catch. Ara-ar-z. (a*ra*rz ) We search, look for. Uyu-ur-uz. (u*yu*ruz ) We sleep. Yr-r-z. (y*r*rz ) We walk. Tara-ar-m. (ta*ra*rm ) I comb. Besle-er-im. (bes*le*rim ) I feed. Oku-ur-uz. (o*ku*ruz ) We read. Anla-ar-s.nz. (an*lar*s*nz ) You understand. Uyu-ur-uz. (u*yu*ruz ) We sleep. Kurula-ar-z. (ku*ru*la*rz ) We dry. Yr-r-z. (y*r*rz) We walk. Bekle-en-ir-iz. (bek*le*ni*riz ) We are waited. U-ar-z. (u*a*rz) We fly. Yen-er-iz. (ye*ne*riz) We defeat. Gez-er-iz. (ge*ze*riz) We walk round. Bak-ar-s.nz. (ba*kar*s*nz) You look. t-er-im. (i*te*rim) I push. Yak-ar-s.nz. (ya*kar*s*nz) You burn. -er. (i*er) He drinks. Ta-ar. (ta*ar) It boils over. It overflows. Se-er-iz. (se*e*riz) We choose.

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i-er. (i*er) It swells. Git-er-iz. (gi*de*riz) We go. Anla-r-z. (an*la**rz ) We reach an agreement. Gl--r-ler. (g*l*r*ler ) They laugh all togetger. Kayna-r-z. (kay*na**rz ) We become friendly at once. nsanlar dn-r. (in*san*lar / d**nr ) Human beings think. al-an baar-r. (a*l*an / ba*a*rr ) Those who work succeed.

SOME NOUNS USED TOGETHER WITH ET, YAP, LE, OL, AL TO PRODUCE VERBS
In Turkish, some noun roots (which are generally borrowed words) are used together with the verbs et, ol, yap, al or ile to produce verbs:

et:
alay et (a*la*yet) (make fun of), affet (af*fet) (forgive), armaan et (ar*ma*ga*net) (present as a gift), ba et (ba*et) (manage, cope with), beraat et (be*ra*a*tet) (be acquitted), beyan et (be*ya:*net) (declare), buyur et (bu*yu*ret) (invite someone to), davet et (da:*ve*tet) (invite), dahil et (da:*hi*let) (include something in), daktilo et (dak*ti*lo / et) (type), dans et (dan*set) (dance), deli et (de*li / et) (make someone mad), dert et (der* det) (occupy oneself with problems), devam et (de*va:*met) (continue), dikkat et (dik*ka*tet) (pay attention to, be careful), dua et (du*a: / et) (pray, say ones prayers), elde et (el*de / et) (obtain), gayret et (gay*re*tet) (try hard, do ones best), g et (g*et) (migrate), haberdar et (ha*ber*da:*ret) (inform someone), hakaret et (ha*ka:*re*tet) (insult), hapset (hap*set) (put in prison, imprison), hareket et (ha*re*ke*tet) (act, behave, start), hata et (ha*ta: / et) (make a mistake), hayl et (ha*y:*let) (dream, imagine, picture in ones mind), hazmet (haz*met) (digest), hizmet et (hiz*me*tet) (serve, assist), idare et (i*da:*re* / et) (manage, control), iftira et (if*ti*ra: / et) (slander), ihanet et (i*ha:*ne*tet) (betray), ikram et (ik*ra:*met) (offer someone to eat or drink something), ihll et (ih*l:*let) (violate), ikna et (ik*na: / et) (convince, persuade), ihra et (ih*ra:*cet) (export, expel), ikaz et (i:*ka:*zet) (warn), Imza et (im*za: / et) (sign), iml et (i:*m:*let) (manufacture), intihar et (in*ti*ha:*ret) (commit suicide), iptal et (ip*ta:*let) (cancel), isabet et (i*sa:*be*tet) (hit the mark), israf et (is*ra:*fet) (vaste), istifa et (is*ti*fa: / et) (resign), istifade et (is*ti*fa:*de / et) (benefit from), istirahat et (is*ti*ra*ha*tet) (have a rest), itaat et (i*ta:*a*tet) (obey), ithl et (it*h:*let) (import), itiraf et (i:*ti*ra:*fet) (confess), iyi et (i*yi / et) (cure, do the right thing), iyilik et (i*yi*li*ket) (do a favor), kabalk et (ka*ba*l*ket) (be rude),

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kabul et (ka*bu:*let) (accept), kr et (k:*ret) (profit from), kavga et (kav*ga /et) (fight, quarrel), kontrol et (kon*tro*let) (check), koordine et (ko*or*di*ne / et) (coordinate), kfr et (kf*ret) (swear), mecbur et (mec*bu:*ret) (oblige), megul et (me*gu:*let) (occupy someone), memnun et (mem*nu:*net) (make someone happy), muhafaza et (mu*ha:*fa*za / et) (keep, preserve), mutlu et (mut*lu / et) (make happy), nefret et (nef*re*tet) (hate), niyet et (ni*ye*tet) (intend), nderlik et (n*der*li*ket) (lead), raz et (ra:*z / et) (persuade), sabret (sab*ret) (be patient), sakat et (sa*ka*tet) (make physically disabled), seyret (sey*ret) (watch, observe), sohbet et (soh*be*tet) (chat, talk), sz et (s*zet) (talk about), tamir et (ta:*mi:*ret) (repair, mend, fix), tahsil et (tah*si:*let) (be educated), takip et (ta:*ki:*bet) (follow), taklit et (tak*li:*det) (imitate), rahatsz et (ra*hat*s*zet) (disturb), tasarruf et (ta*sar*ru*fet) (economize on), tasvir et (tas*vi:*ret) (describe), tavsiye et (tav*si*ye / et) (recommend), tedavi et (te*da:*vi: / et) (cure), teklif et (tek*li:*fet) (offer), telefon et (te*le*fo*net) (telephone, make a telephone call, ring up), tembellik et (tem*bel*li*ket) (act or behave lazily), tembih et (tem*bi:*het) (warn), tekraret (tek*ra:*ret) (repeat), tenkit et (ten*ki:*det) (criticize), tercih et (ter*ci:*het) (prefer), terk et (ter*ket) (abandon, leave, desert), tesadf et (te*sa:*d*fet) (meet by chance, come across), teslim et (tes*li:*met) (deliver, hand over), teebbs et (te*eb*b*set) (make an attempt), teekkr et (te*ek*k*ret) (thank), tevik et (te*vi:*ket) (encourage). When the above "et" verbs are attached to the allomorphs of [ER], [.YOR], [E.CEK], which all begin with vowels, the /t/ consonants change into the voiced /d/; but when they are attached to the allomorphs of [D] and [M], which begin with consonants, they do not change. For example: acele eder, acele ediyor, acele edecek, acele etti, acele etmi, teklif etti, teklif etmi, istifa etti, istifa etmi, tercme etti, tercme etmi. If the [me] negation allomorph is used, the stress goes onto the verb et: alay etme (a*lay / et*me) (a*la*yet*me), affet me (af*fet*me), armaan etme (ar*ma*a*net*me), yardm etme (yar*d*met*me), terk etme (ter*ket*me).

yap:
alveri yap (do shopping), arama yap (carry out a search), by yap (cast a spell on someone), ay yap, kahve yap (make tea or coffee), cmle yap (make a sentence), elinden geleni yap (do your best), ev ii yap (do housework), giri yap (enter), hazrlk yap (get ready), hesap yap (calculate), i yap (do work, do business with), ibirlii yap (work together), iyilik

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yap (do a favour), kaza: yap (have an accident), konuma yap (make a speech), makyaj yap (do ones make up), dev yap (do homework), rejim yap (go on a diet), aka yap (make a joke), tatil yap (have a holiday, vacation), tica:ret yap (trade), toplant yap (hold a meeting), yanllk yap (make a mistake), yatak yap (make the bed), yemek yap (cook, do the cooking), yorum yap (comment on something). The other verbs that are used together with nouns are ol, ile, and kaydet. Their examples are as follows:

ol:
abone ol (a*bo*ne / ol) (subscribe to), destek ol (des*te*kol) (support, back up), gerek ol (ger*e*kol) (come true) kayt ol (kay*dol) (enroll), raz ol (ra:*z / ol) (be willing to, consent to), sahip ol (sa:*hi*bol) (possess), ahit ol (a:*hi*tol) (witness), ehit ol (e*hi:*dol) (die while fighting for Islam or his country), teslim ol (tes*li:*mol) (surrender to), ye ol (*ye / ol) (be a member), drst ol (d*rs*tol) (be honest to), kahrolmak (be depressed)

ile, kaydet, sala:


baar sala (succeed), cinayet ile (commit a murder) gnaha gir (g*na:*ha / gir) (commit a sin), ilerleme kaydet (make a progress), su ile (commit a crime), n kazan (be famous), yara gir (take part in a race)

THE NEGATIVE FORM OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


The vowels and consonants used in the negative form of this tense undergo some changes. The composition of this tense is as follows: In the first person singular, a verb root, stem or a verb frame is used first, and then the negation allomorphs either [mez] or [maz] are attached to the verbs, and they are followed by the personal allomorphs: gel-mez-em. Although this verb configuration is acceptable in some Turkish dialects, in modern Turkish, the /z/ phonemes drop. When this happens, the remaining e-e and a-a identical vowels combine, and the verb chain becomes gelmem, "dn-mem", "uyu-mam", etc. Gel-mez-em. (gel*mem ) I dont come. Oku-maz-am. (o*ku*mam ) I dont read. al-maz-am. (a*l*mam ) I dont work. Yr-mez-em. (y*r*mem ) I dont walk. Konu-maz-am. (ko*nu*mam ) I dont speak.

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Tart-maz-am. (tar*t*mam ) I dont discuss. tle-mez-em. (*t*le*mem ) I dont iron. Yaz-maz-am. (yaz*mam ) I dont write. Yen-il-mez-em. (ye*nil*mem ) I am not defeated (beaten). (passive) In the second person singular, one of the [mez] or [maz] allomorphs is used after the verb, which is followed by one of the personal allomorphs [sin, sn, sn, sun]: Gel-mez-sin. (gel*mez*sin ) You dont come. al-maz-sn. (a*l*maz*sn ) You dont work. Oku-maz-sn. (o*ku*maz*sn ) You dont read. Konu-maz-sn. (ko*nu*maz*sn ) You dont speak. Atla-maz-sn. (at*la*maz*sn ) You dont jump. Ala-maz-sn. (a*la*maz*sn ) You dont cry. Ka-n-maz-sn. (ka*n*maz*sn ) You dont avoid. (reflexive) As the third person singular takes a [] zero personal morpheme, only the negation allomorphs [mez, maz] are used: al-maz. (a*l*maz ) He doesnt work. Oku-maz. (o*ku*maz ) He doesnt read. Yaz-maz. (yaz*maz ) He doesnt write. Gr-mez. (gr*mez ) He doesnt see. Anla-maz. (an*la*maz ) He doesnt understand. Gl-mez. (gl*mez ) He doesnt laugh. Ye-mez. (ye*mez ) He doesnt eat. -mez. (i*mez ) He doesnt drink. Uyu-maz. (u*yu*maz ) He doesnt sleep. Ka-n-maz. (ka*n*maz ) He doesnt avoid. (reflexive) The negative form of the first person plural takes [me, ma] negation allomorphs followed by [/y/iz, /y/z] personal allomorphs: Ta-ma-/y/z. (ta**ma*yz ) We dont carry. A-ma-/y/z. (a*ma*yz ) We dont open. Ala-ma-/y/z. (a*la*ma*yz ) We dont cry. Dzenle-me-/y/iz. (d*zen*le*me*yiz ) We dont arrange. Ka-ma-/y/z. (ka*ma*yz ) We dont escape. Ka-n-ma-/y/z. (ka*n*ma*yz ) We dont avoid. (reflexive) Ertele-me-/y/iz. (er*te*le*me*yiz ) We dont postpone. -me-/y/iz. (i*me*yiz ) We dont drink. v-n-me-/y/iz. (*vn*me*yiz ) We dont boast. (reflexive)

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The negative form of the second person plural takes [mez, maz] allomorphs according to the vowel harmony rules: Gel-mez-si.niz. (gel*mez*si*niz ) You dont come. Oku-maz-s.nz. (o*ku*maz*s*nz ) You dont read. al-maz-s.nz. (a*l*maz*s*nz ) You dont work. Ta-maz-s.nz. (ta**maz*s*nz ) You dont carry. Seyret-mez-si.niz. (sey*ret*mez*si*niz ) You dont watch. Ara-maz-s.nz. (a*ra*maz*s*nz ) You dont search. Se-il-mez-si.niz. (se*il*mez*si*niz ) You are not elected. (passive) The third person plural form takes [mez, maz] negation allomorphs followed by [ler, lar] personal allomorphs: Gel-mez-ler. (gel*mez*ler ) They dont come. Kal-maz-lar. (kal*maz*lar ) They dont stay. Dinle-mez-ler. (din*le*mez*ler ) They dont listen. Konu-maz-lar. (ko*nu*maz*lar ) They dont speak. U-u-maz-lar. (u*u*maz*lar ) They dont fly about. (reciprocal) Yr-mez-ler. (y*r*mez*ler ) They dont walk. Ala-maz-lar. (a*la*maz*lar ) They dont cry. Ertele-mez-ler. (er*te*le*mez*ler ) They dont postpone. Kz-maz-lar. (kz*maz*lar ) They dont get angry. ek-in-mez-ler. (e*kin*mez*ler ) They dont avoid. (Turkish is reflexive.)

THE SIMPLE PRESENT POSITIVE QUESTION


In all of the positive and negative question forms of all tenses, the [mi, m, m, mu] question allomorphs are separately used followed by personal allomorphs in Turkish: (ben) (sen) (o) (biz) (siz) (onlar) : : : : : : mi-/y/im?, m-/y/m?, m-/y/m?, mu-/y/um? mi-sin?, m-sn?, m-sn?, mu-sun? mi?, m?, m?, mu? mi-/y/iz?, m-/y/z?, m-/y/z?, mu-/y/uz? mi-si.niz?, m-s.nz?, m-s.nz?, mu-su.nuz? ler mi?, lar m?

The /y/ phonemes above are all glides. Although these words follow the vowel harmony rules, they are considered words, and therefore, they are separately written:

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Bekle-er mi-/y/im? (bek*ler / mi*yim ) Do I wait? ksr-r m-/y/m? (k*s*rr / m*ym ) Do I cough? Bekle-er mi-sin? (bek*ler / mi*sin ) Do you wait? Gel-ir mi? (ge*lir / mi ) Does he come? Git-er mi-/y/iz? (gi*der / mi*yiz ) Do we go? Yz-er mi-si.niz? (y*zer / mi*si*niz ) Do you swim? Anla-ar-lar m? (an*lar*lar / m ) Do they understand? Ta-r-lar m? (ta*r*lar* / m ) Do they carry?

THE SIMPLE PRESENT NEGATIVE QUESTION


To form a Simple Present negative question verb composition, [mez, maz] negation allomorphs are used after the verb roots, stems or frames; and then mi-/y/im?, mi-sin?, mi?, mi-/y/iz?, mi-si.niz?, ler mi? words are separately written. Although the following two sentences are structurally The Simple Present Tense, they generally express reproach. Sana yardm et-mez mi-/y/im? (stersin de yardm etmez miyim?) (sa*na / yar*dm / et*mez / mi*yim ) Dont I help you? (Wont I help you if you ask me?) Ben-im-le al-maz m-sn? (be*nim*le / a*l*maz / m*sn ) Dont you work with me? (Wont you work with me if I ask you?) Although the sentences above are structurally Simple Present (Geni Zaman), Turkish people generally prefer using (imdiki Zaman) The Present Continuous English Tense verb composition in place of the Turkish sentences above: Sana hep yardm et-me-i.yor mu-/y/um? (The /e/ drops, and the /m/ detaches and attaches to the /i/ vowel.) (sa*na / hep / yar*dm / et*mi*yor / mu*yum ) Am I not always helping you? (complaint) Gn boyunca al-ma-.yor mu-sun? (gn / bo*yun*ca~ / a*l*m*yor / mu*sun ) Dont you work all day long? Arent you working all day long? Klasik mzik sev-me-i.yor mu-sun? (kl*sik / m*zik~/sev*mi*yor / mu*sun ) Dont you like classical music?

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Karde-in senin-le oyna-ma-.yor mu? (kar*de*in / se*nin*le~/ oy*na*m*yor / mu ) Doesnt your sister play with you? As it is seen, The Turkish Present Continuous verb formation is used more frequently than the usual Simple Present Tense. Compare the following sentences: Her gn rmakta yz-.yor-um or yz-er-im. (her / gn / r*mak*ta / y*z*yo*rum ) I swim in the river everyday. E-im ngilizce ret-i.yor. (e*im / in*gi*liz*ce / *re*ti*yor ) My wife teaches English. Patates presi sev-me-i.yor-um or sevmem. (pa*ta*tes / p*re*si / sev*mi*yo*rum ) I dont like mashed potatoes. retmen-ler yaramaz ocuk-lar-dan holan-maz(lar). (*ret*men*ler / ya*ra*maz / o*cuk*lar*dan / ho*lan*maz ) Teachers dont like naughty children. Bazen bir lokanta-da akam yemek-i ye-i.yor-uz, or yer-iz. Sometimes we have dinner at a restaurant. Pop mzik sev-i.yor mu-sun? (pop / m*zik / se*vi*yor / mu*sun ) Do you like pop-music? Okul-a (her gn) yr-/y/e.rek mi git-i.yor-sun? (o*ku*la / y*r*ye*rek / mi / gi*di*yor*sun ) Do you walk to school (every day)? The position of the question word mi can be changed and put after an important and stressed word in an interrogative sentence: Okul-a otobs-le mi git-i.yor-sun? (o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / mi / gi*di*yor*sun ) Do you go to school by bus? Otobs-le okul-a m git-i.yor-sun)? (o*to*bs*le / o*ku*la / m / gi*di*yor*sun ) Do you go to school by bus?

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Okul-a otobs-le git-i.yor mu-sun? (o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / gi*di*yor / mu*sun ) Do you go to school by bus? However, when the (Geni Zaman) The Simple Present Tense question form is used, the sentence changes into an offer: Okul-a otobs-le git-er mi-sin? (o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / gi*der / mi*sin ) How about going to school by bus? (offer) Ben-im-le sinema-/y/a git-er mi-sin? (be*nim*le / si*ne*ma*/y/a / gi*der/ mi*sin ) How about going to the cinema with me? (offer)

THE QUESTION WORDS USED IN THE SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE


The question words kim? (who?); kim-i? (ki*mi) (whom?); nasl? (how?); nere-de, nere-/y/e? (ne*re*/y/e) (where?); kim-in? (ki*min) (whose?); ne sklk-ta?" (how often?); ne zaman? (when?); saat kata? (what time?); niin?, ne-den? (why?); ne eit? (what kind of?) can be used in this tense as they are used in the other tenses. The inflectional morphemes attached to these interrogative words are the defining allomorph [i] in kim-i?, the allomorphs of the morpheme [DE] in nere-de?, ne sklk-ta?, ka-ta?; the possessor allomorph [in] in kim-in?, "ne/y/in?", the [DEN] morpheme in kim-den?, ne-den? and "nere-den?", and [LE] morpheme kim-le?, ne/y/-le?. In order to make up Turkish sentences containing one of the interrogative words above, one can put one of these words in a positive or negative sentence without changing its order. In other words, one can use such interrogative words in Turkish positive or negative sentences without changing their positive or negative sentence structures. Brona nasl git-i.yor-sun? Brona . gidiyorsun. (b*ro*na / na sl / gi*di*yor*sun) (not *nasl gidiyor musun) How do you go to your office? Otobsle. By bus. Nerde ngilizce ret-i.yor-sun? (ner de / n*gi*liz*ce / *re*ti*yor*sun) Where do you teach English? Nerde ngilizce retirsin? is an offer. It means, Where do you want to teach English?

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Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap vermek iste-i.yor? (bu / so*ru*ya~ / kim / ce*vap / ver*mek / is*ti*yor) Who wants to answer this question? Tiyatro-/y/a ne sklk-ta git-i.yor-sun? (ti*yat*ro*/y/a / ne / sk*lk*ta / gi*di*yor*sun ) How often do you go the theatre? Her sabah saat ka-ta kalk-.yor-sun? ( her / sa*bah / sa*at / ka*ta / kal*k*yor*sun) What time do you get up every morning? In traditional Turkish grammars, some consonants such as /m/, /n/, /k/, /z/, are considered personal allomorphs, which are inconsistent with the rest of the bound morphemes and syllables of the Turkish language. The Turkish bound morphemes, and their allomorphs are all made up of at least one vowel such as []; consonant + vowel such as [D]; vowel + consonant such as [L], [M], [N], [K] or [Z]; vowel + consonant + consonant such as art, rt; consonant + vowel + consonant such as [M], or consonant + vowel + consonant + consonant such as tirt, drt, dirt, trt, or they are made of two syllables such as, [i.yor], [me.li], [e.cek], [a.maz], There are no bound morphemes in Turkish without vowels. However, some of these vowels drop and they are ignored in speech and writing, or when they coincide, they combine, and are verbalized as single vowels. To shorten these syllable structures, the first letters of them can be used as v, c.v, v.c, v.c.c, c.v.c or c.v.c.c. The only exception to this rule is the [T] morpheme used in the causative verb frames as in (ge*tirt), (al*drt). All Turkish morphemes and syllables are formed of one of these six syllable types. In short, there are no morphemes in Turkish without vowels, but the phonological system drops or combines some of them while rearranging the syllables of the morphemes to maintain the Turkish syllabication sequence. One important rule to add to the explanations above is that the morphemes and syllables in Turkish do not follow a parallel pattern. While the words are divided into syllables, the morphemes comply with the syllable rules of the Turkish language. For instance, the last consonants of some words or morphemes detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, such as: ku-u (ku*u), ben-i (be*ni), oda-am-a (o*da*ma), defter-im (def*te*rim), tarla-am (tar*lam), gr-l-mek (g*rl*mek), kes-i-mek (ke*si*mek), etc.

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Furthermore, The Simple Present Tense allomorphs are [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar] such as in: gel-ir (ge*lir), al-r (a*lr), gr-r (g*rr), otur-ur (o*tu*rur) a-ar (a*ar), bekle-er (bek*ler), yakala-ar (ya*ka*lar). The Simple Present Tense allomorphs above attach to the verbs ending with consonants. However, if the verbs end with vowels, the first vowels of the Simple Present Tense allomorphs coincide with the last vowels of the verbs, combine, and are vocalized as single vowels: Bekle-er (bek*ler), incele-er (in*ce*ler), hazrla-ar (ha*zr*lar), yakala-ar (ya*ka*lar), yr-r (y*rr), uyu-ur (u*yur), yakala-ar-m (ya*ka*la*rm) Likewise, when the personal allomorphs [im, m, m, um], [in, n, n, un], [ik, k, k, uk], [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz] follow the Simple Past Tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], their vowels coincide and combine, and verbalized as single vowels. For instance: Gel-di-im (gel*dim), al-d-m (al*dm), gr-d-m (gr*dm), otur-du-um (o*tur*dum), bekle-di-in (bek*le*din), konu-tu-un (ko*nu*tun), p-t-n (*p*tn), bekle-di-ik (bek*le*dik), otur-du-uk (o*tur*duk), konu-tu-u.nuz (konu*tu*nuz), ka-t-.nz (ka*t*nz).

THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND THE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSES


The Present Continuous (imdiki Zaman) time morpheme is [.YOR], which has four allomorphs: [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor]. When these allomorphs are attached to verbs ending with consonants, they are attached to them following the vowel harmony rules. However, when they are attached to the verb roots, stems or frames ending with vowels, the end vowels of these verbs drop, so the allomorphs of the [.YOR] morpheme follow the vowels that precede the dropped vowels. Note: The vowels that are said dropped are the vowels that are overlooked by the Turkish language sound system while the previous vowels are being linked to the following ones. This is because it is not harmonious for the Turkish-speaking people to pronounce two vowels attached to one another, so they either skip one of them, or combine them or link them with glides.

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The verb roots, stems or frames ending with consonants: gel-i.yor (ei) (ge*li*yor), bak-.yor (a) (ba*k*yor), otur-u.yor (uu) (o*tu*ru*yor), ksr-.yor () (k*s*r*yor), yana-.yor (a) (ya*na**yor), bekle-i.yor (ei) (bek*le*i*yor), beklen-i.yor-lar (ei) (bek*le*ni*yor*lar), art-.yor (a) (ar*t*yor), it-i.yor (ii) (i*ti*yor) The verb roots, stems or frames ending with vowels: bekle-i.yor (ei) (bek*li*yor), ertele-i.yor (ei) (er*te*li*yor), yr-.yor () (y*r*yor), atla-.yor (a) (at*l*yor), alkala-.yor (a) (al*ka*l*yor), akla-.yor (a) (ak*l*yor), dengele-i.yor (ei) (den*ge*li*yor), oku-u.yor (ou) (o*ku*yor), ta-.yor (a) (ta**yor), oyna-u.yor (ou) (oy*nu*yor). The last vowels of the verbs above are double underlined. When these last vowels drop, the first vowels of the [.YOR] morpheme follow the vowels preceding the dropped vowels according to the vowel harmony rules: bekliyor, erteliyor, yryor, atlyor, alkalyor, aklyor, dengeliyor When one of the allomorphs of the morpheme [.YOR] is attached to the negation allomorphs [me] or [ma], these negation allomorphs also drop their last vowels, and the [.YOR} morpheme follow the vowels preceding the dropped vowels according to the vowel harmony of the Turkish language: gel-me-i.yor (ei) gelmiyor, oku-ma-u.yor (uu) okumuyor, bekle-me-i.yor (ei) beklemiyor, al-ma-.yor () almyor, gl-me-.yor () glmyor, ertele-me-i.yor (ei) ertelemiyor. The [.YOR] morpheme is composed of two syllables: i*yor. The second syllable of this morpheme yor never follows the vowel harmony rules, and consequently, the personal morphemes that follow them do not have different allomorphs: gel-i.yor-um, bala-.yor-sun, ko-u.yor, gez-i.yor-uz, al-.yor-su.nuz, gl-.yor-lar, bekle-i.yor, anla-.yor, kovala-.yor, besle-i.yor As a rule, the last consonants of the verbs detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes. However, when the /p, t, , k/ unvoiced consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the following morphemes, they also change into their voiced forms /b, d, c, /. The Present Continuous and The Present Perfect Continuous tenses of the English language are expressed in imdiki zaman (The Present Continuous Tense) in Turkish. Compare the following sentences:

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O gel-i.yor. (e i) (ge*li*yor ) He is coming. (now or later) O bir mektup yaz-.yor. (a) (o / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor ) He is writing a letter. (now) O bir saat-tir bir mektup yaz-.yor. (a) (o / bir / sa*at*tir / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor ) He has been writing a letter for an hour. Jack bahe-de oyna-u.yor. (ou) (Jack / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor ) Jack is playing in the garden. (The /a/ drops, and the /n/ ataches to /u/.) Jack sabah-tan beri bahe-de oyna-u.yor. (ou) (Jack / sa*bah*tan / be*ri / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor ) Jack has been playing in the garden since morning. Mehmet bahe-de ko-u.yor. (ou) (meh*met / bah*e*de / ko*u*yor ) Mehmet is running in the garden. (now) Mary nehir-de yz-.yor. () (ma*ri / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor ) Mary is swimming in the river. (now) Okul-un n-/n/-de bekle-e-i.yor-uz. (ei) (o*ku*lun / *nn*de / bek*le*i*yo*ruz ) We are waiting together in front of the school. (reciprocal) Jack boyuna televizyon seyret-i.yor. (ei) (Jack ~/ bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor ) Jack is always watching television. (complaint) (Ben) televizyon seyret-i.yor-um. (ei) (ben / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yo*rum ) I am watching television. The single underlined consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes during syllabication. Moreover, the /p, t, , k/ single underlined unvoiced consonants both detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and change into their voiced counterparts /b, d, c, /.

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(Biz) bahe-de oyna-u.yor-uz. (ou) (biz / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yo*ruz ) We are playing in the garden. (Biz) Trke ren-i.yor-uz. (ei) (biz / Trk*e / *re*ni*yo*ruz ) We are learning Turkish. (now) (Biz) aydr Trke ren-i.yor-uz. (ei) (liaison) (biz / *ay*dr / trk*e / *re*ni*yo*ruz ) We have been learning Turkish for three months. Mart-lar gkyz-/n/-de u-u.yor-lar. (uu) (mar*t*lar / gk*y*zn*de / u*u*yor*lar ) The seagulls are flying in the sky. (now) Onlar sen-i bekle-i.yor-lar. (e) (The /e/ drops, and the /l/ attaches to /i/.) (on*lar / se*ni / bek*li*yor*lar ) They are waiting for you. (now) (Biz) le yemek-i ye-i.yor-uz. (ei) (The /e/ drops, and the /y/ attaches to /i/.) (biz / *le / ye* me*i / yi*yo*ruz ) We are having lunch. (now) renci-ler saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bek.le-i.yor-lar. The students have been waiting for their teacher since eight. Ne kadar zaman-dr televizyon seyret-i.yor-sun? (ei) (ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*sun) How long have you been watching television? Gnler uza-u.yor. (uu) (liaison) (gn*le*ru*zu*yor ) Days are getting longer. Olum ev dev-i-/n/i yap-.yor. (a) (liaison) (o*lum / e*v*de*vi*ni / ya*p*yor ) My son is doing his homework. saattir al-.yor-um. () ( / sa*at*tir / a*l**yo*rum ) I have been studying for three hours. Bir saat-tir sen-i bek.le-i.yor-um. (ei) (bir / sa*at*tir / se*ni / bek*li*yo*rum ) I have been waiting for you for an hour.

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Sabah-tan beri ne yap-.yor-sun? (a) (sa*bah*tan / be*ri / ne / ya*p*yor*sun) What have you been doing since morning? imdi ne yap-.yor-sun? (a) (im di / ne / ya*p*yor*sun) What are you doing now? The morpheme [DR] can also be used after The Present Continuous Tense (imdiki Zaman) in Turkish to express estimation: Jack ne yap-.yor? (a) (jack / ne / ya*p*yor) What is Jack doing? Ders al-.yor-dur. () (ders / a*l**yor*dur ) I think he is studying. The near future concept can also be expressed in the Present Continuous Tense (imdiki Zaman) in Turkish as it is done in English: Uak biraz-dan havalan-.yor. (a) (u*ak / bi*raz*dan / ha*va*la*n*yor ) The plane is taking off soon. Misafir-ler yarn gel-i.yor-lar. (ei) (mi*sa:*fir*ler / ya*rn / ge*li*yor*lar ) The visitors are coming tomorrow. Misafirler biraz-dan gel-i.yor. (ei) (mi*sa:*fir*ler / bi*raz*dan / ge*li*yor ) The visitors are coming soon. Yarn Londra/y/a git-i.yor-uz. (ii) (ya*rn / Lon*dra*ya / gi*di*yo*ruz ) We are going to London tomorrow. Birazdan k-.yor-uz. () (bi*raz*dan / *k*yo*ruz ) We are leaving soon. Yarn yeni bir araba satn al-.yor-um. (a) (liaison) (ya*rn / ye*ni / bi*ra*ra*ba / sa*t*na*l*yo*rum ) Im going to buy a new car tomorrow.

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Yarn tan-.yor-uz. () (ya*rn / ta**n*yo*ruz ) We are moving tomorrow. (reflexive) Yarn sigara-/y/ brak-.yor-um. (a) (ya*rn / si*ga*ra*y / b*ra*k*yo*rum ) I am going to stop smoking tomorrow.

THE VERBS THAT ARE NOT USED IN SIMPLE TENSES IN TURKISH


Some verbs that are not normally used in continuous tenses in English are especially used in continuous tenses in Turkish, and strange to say, these verbs are not generally used in simple tenses. These verbs are as follows: adore, appreciate, believe, care, desire, forgive, hate, hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, miss, recall, refuse, remember, see, smell, seem, think, trust, understand, want, wish. Consider and compare the following sentences: Sen-i affet-i.yor-um. (se*ni / af*fe*di*yo*rum ) I forgive you. (The /t/ changes into /d/.) Sen-i sev-i.yor-um. (se*ni / se*vi*yo*rum ) I love you. Sana tap-.yor-um. (sa*na / ta*p*yo*rum ) I adore you. Hepiniz-i hatrla-.yor-um. (he*pi*ni*zi / ha*tr*l*yo*rum ) I remember all of you. Hepiniz-e gven-i.yor-um. (he*pi*ni*ze / g*ve*ni*yo*rum ) I trust all of you.

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Siz-i anla-.yor-um. (si*zi / an*l*yo*rum ) I understand you. Siz-i an.la-ma-.yor-um. (si*zi / an*la*m*yo*rum ) I dont understand you. Bir fincan kahve iste-i.yor-um. (bir / fin*can / kah*ve / is*ti*yo*rum ) I want a cup of coffee. Gramer kitap-lar- oku-mak-tan nefret et i.yor-um. (liaison) (gra*mer / ki*tap*la*r / o*ku*mak*tan / nef*re*te*di*yo*rum ) I hate reading grammar books. Ben-i zle-.yor mu-sun? (be*ni / z*l*yor / mu*sun ) Do you miss me? Sana inan-ma-.yor-um. (sa*na / i*nan*m*yo*rum ) I dont believe you. Hibir ey iit-me-i.yor-um. (hi*bir / ey / i*it*mi*yo*rum ) I dont hear anything. Umursa-ma-.yor-um. Umur-um-da deil. (Bana ne?) (u*mur*sa*m*yo*rum) (u*mu*rum*da / de*il ) (ba*na* / ne ) I dont care. Bu proje uygulan-a.bil-ir gr-n-.yor. (bu / pro*je / uy*gu*la*na*bi*lir / g*r*n*yor ) This project seems (looks) (sounds) feasible. Siz-i takdir et.i.yor-um. (liaison) (si*zi / tak*di:*re*di*yo*rum ) I appreciate you. The verbs that are given above can be used in The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) in conditional sentences:

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Tekrar ge kal-ma-ma-/y/a sz ver-ir-se-en sen-i affet-er-im. (tek*rar / ge / kal*ma*ma*ya / sz / ve*rir*sen~ / se*ni / af*fe*de*rim ) If you promise not to be late again, I will forgive you. Bana yeni bir araba al-r-sa-an sen-i daha ok sev-er-im. (ba*na / ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / a*lr*san ~/ se*ni / da*ha / ok / se*ve*rim ) If you buy me a new car, I will love you more.

TURKISH VERB FRAMES


The suffixes that form Turkish verb frames make them indivisible units, and so they are used as if they were verb stems. The other suffixes, such as: negation, time and personal allomorphs follow them in succession. There are five kinds of verb frames: Transitive verb frames (geili fiiller), intransitive verb frames (geisiz fiiller), passive verb frames (edilgen fiiller), reflexive verb frames (dnl fiiller), and reciprocal verb frames (ite fiiller).

TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERB FRAMES Transitive verb frames are the verbs that take direct objects:
Annem her hafta ev-i temizler. Mother cleans the house every week.
subj adverbial obj tran verb subj tran verb obj adverbial phrs

Ahmet bir hikye kitab- okuyor. Ahmet is reading a story book.


subj obj tran.verb subj tran verb obj

Ben her sabah odam- tertiplerim. I


subj adverbial obj tran verb

tidy my room every morning.


obj adverbial phrs

subj tran verb

Intransitive verb frames do not take objects:


Ben
subj

bazen nehir-de yzerim. I sometimes


adverb adverbial intr verb adverbial

swim
intr verb

in the river.
adverbial

Olum gn-de sekiz saat uyur. My son sleeps eight hours a day.
subj adverbial adverbial intr verb subj intr verb adverbial

Olum okul-a her sabah otobs-le gider.


subj adverbial adverbial adverbial intr verb

My son goes to school by bus every morning.


subj intr verb adverbial adverbial adverbial

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REFLEXIVE VERB FRAMES (DNL FIILLER)
A reflexive verb frame is a verb whose action in a sentence has its effect on a person or thing that does the action. The most commonly used inflectional suffix that turns verb roots and stems into reflexive verbs is [N], which has six allomorphs: [in, n, n, un, en, an]. The other one, which has only a few examples in Turkish, is [L], which has four allomorphs [il, l, l, ul], such as Gmleime ay dk-l-d, Deniz ek-il-di. As a rule the identical a-a, e-e, -vowels combine, and the single underlined consonants /n/ detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels. Olum yka-an-.yor. (o*lum / y*ka*n*yor ) My son is having a bath. (He is washing himself.) Aye tara-an-.yor. (ay*e / ta*ra*n*yor ) The meaning is Aye is combing herself (her hair). Bam ka-n-.yor. (ba*m / ka**n*yor ) My head is itching. Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da ka-n-.yor. (ke*di / ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da / ka**n*yor ) The cat is scratching under the table. Yaz sil-in-di. (Turkish is reflexive.) (ya*z / si*lin*di ) The writing has been ereased. (English is passive.) v-n-.yor. (*v*n*yor ) He is boasting or praising himself. Aye sa--/n/ tara-.yor. (Transitive.) (ay*e ~/ sa**/n/ / ta*r*yor ) Aye is combing her hair. (The double underlined /a/ drops.) (transitive) Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr ) Shops close at seven oclock. (They close themselves.) Aye kap-/n/n arka-/s//-/n/a sakla-an-.yor. (ay*e / ka*p*nn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*n*yor ) Aye is hiding behind the door. (She is hiding herself.)

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Yer sars-l-.yor. (yer / sar*s*l*yor ) The ground is shaking. (It is shaking itself.) z-l-e.cek-sin. (*z*le*cek*sin ) You will be sorry. The allomorphs that are used to form reflexive verbs are also used with verbs when they are transformed into the passive voice. As these allomorphs sometimes cause confusion, one should be careful when one defines them: Kara gr-n-d. (ka*ra / g*rn*d ) (reflexive) The land has showed itself. Kara gr-l-d. (ka*ra / g*rl*d ) (passive) The land has been seen by someone.

THE PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION OF THE INTRANSITIVE VERBS


Some Turkish intransitive verbs can also be transformed into the passive forms without being put into the passive voice. While these verbs are being shaped, the passive transformation allomorphs are attached to these verb roots or stems. In doing this, the verbs ending with vowels and the /L/ phonemes attach to the [in, n, n, un, en, an] allomorphs; the others ending with consonants attach to the [il, l, l, ul] allomorphs. Although this form does not exist in English, it is expressed in a different sentence structure, which does not exist in Turkish. Consider the following: Deniz-de yz-l-r. (de*niz*de / y*z*lr ) It is possible (natural) to swim in the sea, or "The sea is a place where one can naturally swim." (passive shaped intransitive) -e saat sekiz-de bala-an-r. (i*e / sa*at / se*kiz*de / ba*la*nr ) It is a rule to start work at eight. (passive shaped intransitive) Pazar gnleri dinlen-il-ir. (pa*zar / gn*le*ri / din*le*ni*lir ) It is customary to have a rest on Sundays. (passive shaped intransitive)

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Byle gne-li bir gn-de piknik-e git-il-ir. (by*le / g*ne*li / bir / gn*de~/ pik*ni*e / gi*di*lir ) It is advisable (natural) to go for a picnic on such a sunny day. (passive shaped intransitive) Gzel-e bak-l-r. (g*ze*le / ba*k*lr ) It is natural to look at the beautiful. (passive shaped intransitive) Pazartesi gn-ler-i erken kalk-l-r. (pa*zar*te*si / gn*le*ri / er*ken / kal*k*lr ) It is a rule to get up early on Mondays. (passive shaped intransitive) To use the negative forms of the above sentences, [mez, maz] allomorphs are used after the verbs: Byle bir grlt-de uyu-un-maz. by*le / bir / g*rl*t*de ~ / u*yun*maz ) It is impossible to sleep in such a noise. (passive shaped intransitive) Bu sokak-ta yr-n-mez. (bu / so*kak*ta / y*rn*mez ) It is impossible to walk in this street. (passive shaped intransitive) Onun laf--/n/a bak-l-maz. (o*nun / l*f*na / ba*kl*maz ) It is natural (advisable) not to mind what he says. (passive shaped intr.) Bu otel-de kal-n-maz. (bu / o*tel*de / ka*ln*maz ) It is impossible to stay in this hotel. (passive shaped intransitive) Onun akl-/n/a uy-ul-maz. (o*nun /ak*l*na /u*yul*maz ) It is inadvisable to follow his advice. (passive shaped intransitive) Bu gl-de yz-l-r m? (bu / gl*de / y*z*lr/ m ) Is it possible to swim in this lake? (passive shaped intransitive) ngiltereye tren-le git-il-mez mi? (in*gil*te*re*ye / tren*le / gi*dil*mez / mi ) Isnt it possible to go to England by train?

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RECIPROCAL VERB FRAMES (TE FLLER)
1. A reciprocal verb expresses an action which is exchanged between two or more people. The reciprocal morpheme is [], which has [i, , , u, e, a] allomorphs. When the verbs end with vowels, and the allomorphs start with vowels, these two vowels coincide and combine and are verbalized as a single vowel: Onlar bak--.yor-lar. (on*lar / ba*k**yor*lar ) They are looking at each other. Kucakla-a-.yor-lar. (ku*cak*la**yor*lar ) They are hugging (each other). Tokala-a-.yor-lar. (to*ka*la**yor*lar ) They are shaking hands. Dv--.yor-lar. (d*v**yor*lar ) They are fighting. (They are beating each other.) p--.yor-lar. (*p**yor*lar ) They are kissing. Onlar Pazar gn-ler-i gr--r-ler. (on*lar / pa*zar / gn*le*ri / g*r*r*ler ) They meet and talk on Sundays. 2. Some verbs that are attached to reciprocal allomorphs convey the concept of (all) together: Haber-i duy-un.ca bar--t-lar. (ha*be*ri / du*yun*ca~/ ba**r*t*lar ) or (ba*r*t*lar) They shouted all together when they heard the news. Polis-i gr-n.ce ka--t-lar. (po*li*si / g*rn*ce / ka**t*lar ) They ran away all together when they saw the police-officer. ocuklar futbol takm-lar- hakknda tart--.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / fut*bol / ta*km*la*r / hak*kn*da / tar*t**yor*lar ) The boys are discussing about their football teams.

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Baz ocuk-lar kap-da bekle-e-i.yor-lar. (ba*z / o*cuk*lar / ka*p*da / bek*le*i*yor*lar ) Some children are waiting together at the door. 3. Some other verbs that are attached to the above allomorphs convey the idea of about: Ku-lar gkyz/n/-de u-u-u.yor-du. (ku*lar / gk*y*zn*de / u*u*u*yor*du ) The birds were flying about in the sky. ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-u-u.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*u*u*yor*lar ) The children are running about in the garden. rdek-ler havuz-da yz--.yor-lar. (r*dek*ler / ha*vuz*da / y*z**yor*lar ) The ducks are swimming about in the pool.

BOTH TRANSITIVELY AND INTRANSITIVELY USED ENGLISH VERBS


(The Ambitransitive English Verbs)
Some English verbs are both transitive and intransitive. There are few verbs used in this fashion in Turkish. Therefore, those who are studying English or Turkish as a second language face some difficulties in learning them. In the following list, you can find frequently used English verbs that are used both transitively and intransitively. The Turkish equivalents of such verbs and how their allomorphs change are given in the examples below. As it has already been noted, the identical vowels following each other combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs during the syllabication process: Yumurta-lar kayna-.yor. (yu*mur*ta*lar / kay*n*yor ) The eggs are boiling. (The Turkish and the English verbs are intransitive.) Fatma yumurta kaynat-,yor. (fat*ma / yu*mur*ta / kay*na*t*yor ) Fatma is boiling eggs. (transitive) In the first Turkish sentence above, the intransitive verb kayna has changed into kaynat transitive verb frame to take the object yumurta.

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However, the English verb boil has not changed. This shows us that the English verb boil can be used both transitively and intransitively. In the following sentences, the explanations in parentheses are about the Turkish sentences. However, when necessary, both Turkish and English verbs are explained in parentheses: Ate yan-.yor. (a*te / ya*n*yor ) The fire is burning. (intr.) Ate parmaklarn yak-ar. (a*te / par*mak*la*r*n / ya*kar ) Fire burns your fingers. (tran.) Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapan-r. (dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr ) Shops close at seven. (reflexive) (They close themselves.) Onlar dkkn-lar- yedi-de kapat-r-lar. (on*lar / dk*kn*la*r / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*tr*lar ) They close the shops at seven. (tran.) Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapatl-r. (dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*t*lr ) The shops are closed at seven. (passive) Renk-ler sonbahar-da dei-ir. (renk*ler / son*ba*har*da / de*i*ir ) The colors change in the autumn. (intr) (O) giysi-ler-i-/n/i deitir-i.yor. (o ~/ giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*ti*ri*yor ) He is changing his clothes. (tran.) imdi mutfak-ta yemek piir-i.yor. (im*di / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor ) She is cooking in the kitchen now. (Turkish tran.) (English intr.) O, balk piir-i.yor. (o / ba*lk / pi*i*ri*yor ) She is cooking fish. (tran.)

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Yemek pi-ti. (ye*mek / pi*ti ) The meal has cooked. (intr) Meyve-ler olgunla-n.ca aa-lar-dan d-er. (mey*ve*ler / ol*gun*la*n*ca / a*a*lar*dan / d*er ) Fruits drop from trees when they ripen. (intr.) Kalem-i-/n/i dr-d. (ka*le*mi*ni / d*r*d ) She dropped her pencil. (tran.) Baz nehir-ler yaz-n kuru-ur. (ba*z / ne*hir*ler / ya*zn / ku*rur ) Some rivers dry up in the summer. (intr.) El-ler-i-/n/i ben-im havlu-um-la kurula-ma. (el*le*ri*ni / be*nim / hav*lum*la / ku*ru*la*ma ) Dont dry your hands on my towel. (tran.) Sava son-a er-di. (sa*va / so*na / er*di ) The war ended. (intr.) Sava- son-a erdir-di-ler. (sa*va* / so*na / er*dir*di*ler ) They ended the war. (tran.) Bir bomba patla-d. (bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d ), or (bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d ) A bomb exploded. (intr.) Onlar bir bomba patlat-t-lar. (on*lar / bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar ) They exploded a bomb. (tran.) nekler tarla-da beslen-i.yor-lar. (i*nek*ler / tar*la*da / bes*le*ni*yor*lar ) The cows are feeding (grazing) in the field. (reflexive) Kpek-im-i her sabah besle-er-im. (k*pe*i*mi / her / sa*bah / bes*le*rim ) I feed my dog every morning. (tran.)

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Sokak-lar k-n amur-la dol-ar. (so*kak*lar / k*n / a*mur*la / do*lar ) The streets fill up with mud in winter.(intr.) Kalem-im-i siyah mrekkep-le doldur. (ka*le*mi*mi / si*yah / m*rek*kep*le / dol*dur ) Fill my pen with black ink. (tran.) henz bit-me-di. (i / he*nz / bit*me*di ) The work hasnt finished yet. (intr.) -im-i henz bitir-me-di-im. (i*i*mi / he*nz / bi*tir*me*dim ) I havent finished my work yet. (tran.) Ku-lar hava-da u-ar. (ku*lar / ha*va*da / u*ar ) Birds fly in the sky. (intr.) ocuk-lar uurtma uur-u.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / u*urt*ma / u*u*ru*yor*lar ) The boys are flying kites. (tran.) Patates-ler kzar-.yor. (pa*ta*tes*ler / k*za*r*yor ) The potatoes are frying. (intr.) O, balk kzart-.yor. (o~ / ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor ) She is frying fish. (tran.) Pamuk Adanada yeti-ir. (pa*muk / a*da*na*da / ye*ti*ir ) Cotton grows in Adana. (intr.) Adanada pamuk yetitir-ir-ler. (a*da*na*da / pa*muk / ye*ti*ti*rir*ler ) They grow cotton in Adana. (tran.) Kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-.yor. (ka*p*nn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*n*yor ) He is hiding behind the door. (reflexive) (He is hiding himself.)

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Mektup-lar--/n/ sakla-ar. (mek*tup*la*r*n / sak*lar ) She hides her letters. (tran.) Zorluk-lar-.mz art-.yor. (zor*luk*la*r*mz / ar*t*yor ) Our difficulties are increasing. (intr.) Hz-n- artr-ma. (h*z*n / ar*tr*ma ) Dont increase your speed. (tran.) iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. (i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar ) Flowers open in the morning. (intr.) Sabah-le.yin pencere-ler-i a-ar-z. (sa*bah*le*yin / pen*ce*re*le*ri / a*a*rz ) We open the windows in the morning. (tran.) (The verb "a" is used both transitively and intransitively in Turkish as it is used in English.) At-lar yar-.yor. (at*lar / ya*r**yor ) The horses are racing. (intr.) At-lar- yartr-.yor-lar. (at*la*r / ya*r*t*r*yor*lar ) They are racing the horses. (tran.) Elma-lar scak hava-da olgunla-r. (el*ma*lar / s*cak / ha*va*da / ol*gun*la*r ) Apples ripen in warm weather. (intr.) Scak hava elma-lar- olgunlatr-r. (s*cak / ha*va / el*ma*la*r / ol*gun*la*t*rr ) Warm weather ripens the apples. (tran.) Zil al-.yor. (zil / a*l*yor ) The bell is ringing. (intr.) Zil-i al. (zi*li / al ) Ring the bell. (tran.)

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(Both "al " and "ring" verbs are used transitively and intransitively in Turkish and English.) Bazen kaya-lar tepe-ler-den aa yuvarlan-r. (ba:*zen / ka*ya*lar ~/ te*pe*ler*den / a*a* / yu*var*la*nr ) Sometimes rocks roll down the hills. (reflexive) Baz kimse-ler tepe-den aa kaya-lar- yuvarla-.yor-lar. (ba:*z / kim*se*ler~ / te*pe*den / a*a* / ka*ya*la*r / yu*var*l*yor*lar ) Some people are rolling rocks down the hill. (tran.) Baz kz-lar nehir-de yz-.yor-lar. (ba:*z / kz*lar / ne*hir*de / y*z*yor*lar ) Some girls are swimming in the river. (intr.) ocuk-lar model kayk-lar--/n/ yzdr-.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / mo*del / ka*yk*la*r*n / yz*d*r*yor*lar ) The children are sailing their modal boats. (tran.) Yer sarsl-.yor. (yer / sar*s*l*yor ) The ground is shaking. (reflexive) la- i-me-den nce ie-/y/i alkala (sars). (i*la*c / i*me*den / n*ce / i*e*yi / al*ka*la ) Shake the bottle before taking the medicine. (tran.) kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi bat-t. (i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t ) A lot of ships sank during The Second World War. (intr.) kinci Dnya Sava/n/-da birok gemi batr-d-lar. (i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da~ / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar ) They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War. (tran.) Gmlek-im-e ay dkl-d. (gm*le*i*me~ / ay / d*kl*d ) Tea spilled on my shirt. (reflexive) Seyhan Nehri Akdeniz-e dkl-r. (sey*han / neh*ri / ak*de*ni*ze / d*k*lr ) The Seyhan River pours into the Mediterranean Sea. (reflexive) Limonata-/y/ yer-e dk-t-m. (li*mo*na*ta*y / ye*re / dk*tm ) I have spilled (spilt) the lemonade on the floor. (tran.)

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Araba-lar dur-du. (a*ra*ba*lar / dur*du ) The cars stopped. (intr.) Polis araba-lar- durdur-du (po*lis / a*ra*ba*la*r / dur*dur*du ) The police officer stopped the cars. (tran.) Tekerlek-ler dn-.yor. (te*ker*lek*ler / d*n*yor ) The wheels are turning. (intr.) Motor tekerlek-ler-i dndr-r. (mo*tor / te*ker*lek*le*ri / dn*d*rr ) The engine turns the wheels. (tran.) Parmak--/n/a bir ine bat-t. (par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / bat*t ) A needle stuck in her finger. (intr.) Parmak--/n/a bir ine batr-d. (par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d ) She stuck a needle into her finger. (tran.) Bu pul iyi yap-ma-.yor. (bu / pul / i*yi / ya*p*m*yor ) This stamp doesnt stick well. (intr.) Mektup-un st--/n/e bir pul yaptr. (mek*tu:*bun / s*t*ne / bir / pul / ya*p*tr ) Stick a stamp on the letter. (tran.)

THE SIMPLE PAST AND THE PRESENT PERFECT


Dli Gemi Zaman
Both The Simple Past and The Present Perfect tenses are expressed in Dili Gemi Zaman in Turkish. In other words, the Turkish Dili Gemi Zaman covers these two English tenses. The time morpheme of this tense is [D], which has eight allomorphs: [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu]. One of these allomorphs is used attached to verb roots, stems or verb frames in accordance

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with the Turkish vowel and consonant harmony rules. The verbs ending with vowels and voiced consonants are followed by the allomorphs written in bold face; the verbs followed by unvoiced consonants are written in regular type. The personal allomorphs are as follows: ben sen o biz siz onlar [im, m, m, um] [in, n, n, un] [] [ik, k, k, uk] [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz] [] or [ler, lar]

Naturally, as all the allomorphs of the [D] morpheme [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu] end with vowels, and the personal allomorphs [im, m, m, um; in, n, n, un; ik, k, k, uk; i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz] start with vowels, the first vowels of the personal allomorphs coincide with the allomorphs of the morpheme [D] and combine such as in di-im (dim), d-m" (dm), d-m" (dm), du-um" (dum), ti-im (tim), "t-m" (tm), "t-m" (tm), "tu-um" (tum); "di-in" (din), "ti-in" (tin), "ti-ik" (tik), "di-i.niz" (di*niz), "ti-i.niz" (ti*niz). (Ben) iki saat nce i-im-i bitir-di-im. (ben / i*ki / sa*at / n*ce / i*i*mi / bi*tir*dim ) I finished my work two hours ago. (Ben) i-im-i bitir-di-im. (ben / i*i*mi / bi*tir*dim ) I have finished my work. (My work is ready now.) Onlar geen hafta sinema-/y/a git-ti. (on*lar / ge*en / haf*ta / si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti ) They went to the cinema last week. Onlar sinema-/y/a git-ti. (on*lar / si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti ) They have gone to the cinema. (They are at the cinema or on the way to the cinema.) O kitap- geen sene oku-du-um. (o / ki*ta*b / ge*en / se*ne / o*ku*dum ) I read that book last year. Kitap- oku.du-um. (ki*ta*b / o*ku*dum ) I have read the book. (I have finished reading it.)

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(Siz) biz-e inan-ma-d-.nz. (siz / bi*ze / i*nan*ma*d*nz ) You didn't believe us. Bulak-lar yka-an-d bile. (bu*la*k*lar / y*kan*d / bi*le ) The dishes have already been washed. (The dishes are clean now.) (passive)

negative:
The negation allomorphs [me, ma] are put after verb roots, stems or verb frames, and then they are followed by the [di, d] time allomorphs, which are followed by the personal allomorphs respectively. The other time allomorphs that are used in positive forms [d, du, ti, t, t, tu] are not used here as a result of the [me, ma] negation allomorphs: Fatma-/y/ pazar-dan beri gr-me-di-im. (fat*ma*y / pa*zar*dan / be*ri / gr*me*dim ) I havent seen Fatma since Sunday. Fatma-/y/ bir hafta-dr gr-me-di-im. (fat*ma*/y/ / bir / haf*ta*dr / gr*me*dim ) I havent seen Fatma for a week. Fatma-/y/ geen hafta gr-me-di-im. (liaison) (fat*ma*y / ge*e*naf*ta / gr*me*dim ) I didnt see Fatma last week. Daha ev dev-im-i yap-ma-d-m. (liaison) (da*ha / e*v*de*vi*mi / yap*ma*dm ) I havent done my homework yet. Dn bu oda-/y/ temizle-me-di-ler. (dn / bu / o*da*y / te*miz*le*me*di*ler ) They didnt clean this room yesterday. Bu oda-/y/ gn-dr temizle-me-di-ler. (bu / o*da*y / / gn*dr / te*miz*le*me*di*ler ) They havent cleaned this room for three days Geen hafta futbol oyna-ma-d-k. (ge*en / haf*ta / fut*bol / oy*na*ma*dk ) We didn't play football last week.

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Kayp ocuk daha bul-un-ma-d. (ka*yp / o*cuk / da*ha / bu*lun*ma*d ) The lost child hasnt been found yet. (passive)

positive question:
The question allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], which are separately written, are used either after the verbs, or they may be used after the stressed words in sentences: Ahmet mi okul-a otobs-le git-ti? (ah*met / mi / o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / git*ti ) Has Ahmet gone to school by bus? Ahmet okul-a otobs-le mi git-ti? (ah*met / o*ku*la~ / o*to*bsle / mi / git*ti ) Has Ahmet gone to school by bus? Ahmet otobs-le okul-a m git-ti? (ah*met / o*to*bs*le /o*ku*la / m / git*ti ) Has Ahmet gone to school by bus? Ahmet okul-a git-ti mi? (ah*met / o*ku*la / git*ti / mi ) Has Ahmet gone to school? (All of the sentences are yes-no questions.) If the last syllable in a sentence is used with a rising intonation (), the sentence means, I am surprised to hear it, or I could not hear you well. If it is used with a falling intonation (), the question is a yes-no question. Mektuplar- at-t-n m? (mek*tup*la*r / at*tn / m ) Have you posted the letters? Pazar gn futbol ma--/n/a git-ti-in mi? (pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / ma**na / git*tin / mi ) Did you go to the football match on Sunday? Pazar gn futbol ma--/n/a m git-ti-in? (pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / ma**na /m / git*tin) (I am surprised.) Did you go to the football match on Sunday?

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Kpek-i yka-d-.nz m? (k*pe*i / y*ka*d*nz / m ) Have you washed the do? Araba-/y/ m yka-d-.nz? (a*ra*ba*y / m / y*ka*d*nz) (I am surprised.) Have you washed the car? (I didnt want you to wash the car; you should have washed the dog instead.) iek.ler-i sula-d-n m? (i*ek*le*ri / su*la*dn / m ) Have you watered the flowers? Patates-ler-i soy-du-un mu? (pa*ta*tes*le*ri / soy*dun / mu ) Have you peeled the potatoes? In the negative question form, the [me, ma] allomorphs are attached to the verbs first, and then the [di, d] time allomorphs (the others are not used as a result of the [me, ma] allomorphs) are used, and finally, the above-mentioned personal allomorphs follow them. The [mi, m] question words (or allomorphs) are separately written. They are words because they are separately written; they are allomorphs because they follow the vowel harmony rules: Pazar gn- futbol oyna-ma-d-.nz m? (pa*zar / g*n / fut*bol / oy*nama*d*nz / m ) Didnt you play football on Sunday? (negative question) Ahmet daha ev-e gel-me-di mi? (ah*met / da*ha / e*ve / gelme*di / mi ) Hasnt Ahmet come home yet? Ayn yanl-lk- tekrar yap-ma-d-n m? (ay*n / yan*l*l* / tek*rar / yapma*dn / m ) Havent you made the same mistake again? The verb git and the same dili past tense are also used in place of have (has) been to: Ben birka kez Londra/y/a git-ti-im. (ben / bir*ka / kez / lon*dra*ya / git*tim ) I have been to London several times.

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Ben hi Tokyo-/y/a git-me-di-im. (ben / hi / tok*yo*ya / git*me*dim ) I have never been to Tokyo. Sen hi Paris-e git-ti-in mi? (sen / hi / pa*ri*se / git*tin / mi ) Have you ever been to Paris? Bugn nere-/y/e git-ti-in? (bu / gn / nere*ye / git*tin) Where have you been today? In Turkish, The Simple Present is also used in place of have (has) had: Bu araba-/y/a ben be yl-dr sahip-im. ( bu / a*ra*ba*ya / ben / be / yl*dr / sa:*hi*bim ) I have had this car for five years. Bu araba-/y/a ne kadar zaman-dr sahip-sin? (bu / a*ra*ba*ya / ne / ka*dar / za*man*dr / sa:*hip*sin) How long have you had this car? All the question words can be used in the dili past tenses as they are used in others, but in doing this, the sentence order should be taken into account. In English, after the question words, the question order of a sentence is kept in question form, but in Turkish, when the question words are used, the rest of the sentence is not in question form: Ne zaman Ankaraya gittin? In this sentence, the underlined part of the sentence is not a question. However, in the English sentence When did you go to Ankara?, the underlined part of the sentence is a question. This rule is applied to all interrogative sentences containing question words in Turkish. Onu dn grdn. Onu ne zaman grdn? As it is seen in the sentences above, the verbs grdn do not change although the second sentence is a question. This shows us that when someone uses a question word in a Turkish sentence, the sentence is automatically changes into an interrogative sentence concept without the word order being changed.

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O-/n/u ne zaman gr-d-n? (o*nu / ne / za*man / gr*dn) When did you see her? Sen-i kim gr-d? (se*ni / kim / gr*d) Who saw you? When the question word who asking for the subject is used, the sentence order in English is the same as it is in Turkish. Sen kim-i gr-d-n? (sen / ki*mi / gr*dn) Whom (who) did you see? (The [i] in "kim-i" is the defining allomorph, so kim-i asks for the object.) Onlar toplant-/y/ niin ertele-di-ler? (on*lar / top*lan*t*y / niin / er*te*le*di*ler) Why did they postpone the meeting? Bu kahve-/y/i kim yap-t? ( bu / kah*ve*yi / kim / yap*t ) Who has made this coffee? Niin patates-ler-i soy-ma-d-n? (niin / pa*ta*tes*le*ri / soy*ma*dn) Why havent you peeled the potatoes? Kim-in araba-/s/-/n/ dn al-d-n? (ki*min / a*ra*ba*s*n / *dn / al*dn) Whose car did you borrow? Onlar nerde bul-u-tu-lar? (on*lar / ner de / bu*lu*tu*lar) Where did they meet? Amerika-da ne kadar kal-d-n? (a*me*ri*ka*da / ne / ka*dar / kal*dn) How long did you stay in The U.S.A.? Anne-en-le baba-an- ne sklk-ta ziyaret et-ti-in? (an*nen*le / ba*ba*n / ne / sk*lk*ta / zi*ya:*ret / et*tin) How often did you visit your parents?

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Ne de-di-in? (ne / de*din) What did you say? If noticed, when the question words are taken out of all the Turkish interrogative sentences, the remaining parts are good grammatical positive or negative sentences. For instance: Onu ne zaman grdn? Onu grdn. Onlar toplanty niin ertelediler? Onlar toplanty ertelediler. Likewise, one can also produce interrogative sentences by inserting question words in all Turkish positive or negative sentences: Onlar toplanty ertelediler. Onlar toplanty niin ertelediler? Sen stanbula gideceksin. Sen stanbula nasl gideceksin? Onu grdn. Onu nerede grdn? Bu kitab satn alacaksn. Bu kitab ne zaman satn alacaksn? Londraya gittin. Londraya ka kez gittin?. Bizi ziyaret etmedin. Bizi niin ziyaret etmedin? The places of the interrogative words are changeable in Turkish, but this characteristic of the Turkish language does not exist in English: Niin onlar ma ertelediler? (niin / on*lar / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler) Onlar niin ma ertelediler? (on*lar / niin / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler) Onlar ma niin ertelediler? (on*lar / ma* / niin / er*te*le*di*ler) Onlar ma ertelediler. Niin? (on*lar / ma* / er*te*le*di*ler) (niin) There is only one English equivalent of the above first three Turkish interrogative sentences: Why did they postpone the meeting? The mi, m, m, mu question words can also be put into the positive or negative sentences without changing the sentence order as the other question words: Onlar toplanty ertele-di-ler. Onlar m toplanty ertelediler? Onlar toplanty m ertelediler? Onlar toplanty ertelediler mi?

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Onlar toplanty ertele-me-di-ler. Onlar m toplanty ertelemediler? Onlar toplanty m ertelemediler? Onlar toplanty ertelemediler mi? The [M] morpheme can also be used accordingly in all other Turkish sentences.

ML PAST TENSE (Mili Gemi)


(Rumor, Inference)
This tense does not exist in English. The concept of this tense is inferred from the context in which it is used. The inference allomorphs of this tense are [mi, m, m, mu], which are followed by the personal morphemes: (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o) []; (biz) [iz, z, z, uz]; (siz) [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz]; (onlar) [] or [ler, lar]). Compare the Turkish with the English sentences to understand the difference: O git-mi. They say (that) he has gone or I am surprised to see (hear) that he has gone. They say (that) he went. I think (that) he has gone. He says (that) he has gone. Somebody says (that) he has gone. He is said to have gone. All these English sentences are expressed in the Turkish sentence O gitmi. In such sentences the origin and the time of the rumor is unknown, but inferred: Sen snav- ge-mi-sin. People say that you have passed the examination. -i/n/-den kov-mu-lar. People say, or he himself says that they (have) fired him. -i/n/-den kov-ul-mu. (ko*vul*mu) They say that he has been fired, or was fired. (He himself says (that) he has been fired, or was fired.) When one of the [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] allomorphs is attached to one of the allomorphs of [M], the verb composition gains the meaning of possibility or certainty . Consider the following: Bu film-i gr-m-sn-dr. (bu / fil*mi / gr*m*sn*dr ) You are likely to have seen this film. (possibility) You must have seen this film. (certainty) Zil al-m-tr. (zil / al*m*tr ) The bell must (may) have rung. (possibility or certainty)

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Anne-em ev-den k-m-tir bile. (an*nem / ev*den / k*m*tr / bi*le ) Mother must have already left home. (certainty) Yeni ders-i ren-mi-si.niz-dir. (ye*ni / der*si / *ren*mi*si*niz*dir ) You may or must have learned the new lesson. Ben-i anla-m-sn-dr. (be*ni / an*la*m*sn*dr) You must (may) have understood me. Ben-i anla-m ol-ma.l-sn. (be*ni / an*la*m / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must have understood me. Otobs ge kal-m ol-ma.l. (o*to*bs / ge / kal*m / ol*ma*l ) The bus must have been late. Program- iptal et-mi-ler-dir. (prog*ra*m / ip*ta:l / et*mi*ler*dir ) They must (may) have canceled the program.. Onu yanl anla-m-m-dr. (o*nu / yan*l / an*la*m*m*dr ) I must (may) have misunderstood it. Onu gr-me-mi-sin-dir. (o*nu / gr*me*mi*sin*dir ) You may not have seen him. Onu gr-m ol-a.maz-sn. (o*nu / gr*m / o*la*maz*sn ) You cant have seen her. Ylan- ldr-m-ler-dir. (y*la*n / l*dr*m*ler*dir ) They must have killed the snake. -i/n/-den kovul-mu-tur. (i*in*den / ko*vul*mu*tur ) He must (may) have been fired.

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negative:
After the verb roots, stems or frames, one of the [me, ma] negation allomorphs is used; and then only the [mi, m] allomorphs follow them according to the vowel harmony rules, and finally the personal allomorphs are added: O, al-ma-/y/a bala-ma-m bile. (o~/ a*l*ma*/y/a / ba*la*ma*m / bi*le ) They say he hasnt started working yet. (astonishment and complaint) Sen snav- ge-me-mi-sin. (sen / s*na*v / ge*me*mi*sin ) They say you didnt pass, or havent passed the examination. Olun dn okul-a git-me-mi. (o*lun / dn / o*ku*la / git*me*mi ) They say, or I heard that your son didnt go to school yesterday. Mektup-u at-ma-m. (mek*tu*bu / at*ma*m ) I heard that he didnt post the letter. Teklif-i kabul et-me-mi-ler. (tek*li:*fi / ka*b:I / et*me*mi*ler ) I heard that they hadnt accepted the proposal. Ben-im oul-um dn okul-a git-me-mi. (be*nim / o*lum / dn / o*ku*la / git*me*mi ) I heard that my son didnt go to school yesterday. This type of verb structure is also used to express surprise: Kedi papaan-m- ye-mi! (ke*di / pa*pa*a*n*m / ye*mi~) The cat has eaten up my parrot! (astonishment and anger)) Kek yan-m! (kek / yan*m~) The cake has been burned (burnt)! (astonishment)

positive question:
In positive questions, [mi-/y/im, m-/y/m, m-/y/m, mu-/y/um]; [mi-sin, m-sn, m-sn, mu-sun]; [mi, m, m, mu]; [mi-/y/iz, m-/y/z, m-/y/z, mu-/y/uz]; [mi-si.niz, m-s.nz, m-s.nz, mu-su.nuz] and [ler mi, lar m] words are separately used in accordance with the harmony rules:

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Olun dn ma-a git-mi mi? (o*lun / dn / ma*a / git*mi / mi ) Tell me whether your son went to the football match yesterday. Kap-/y/ kilit-le-mi mi-/y/im? (ka*p*y / ki*lit*le*mi / mi*yim ) Tell me whether I have locked the door. (The /y/ glides are inserted between the successive vowels.) Yen-il-mi-ler mi! (ye*nil*mi*ler / mi) Have they been beaten! (astonishment) Araba-am tamir et-il-mi mi? (a*ra*bam / ta:*mir / e*dil*mi / mi ) Do they say (have you heard) that my car has been repaired? (passive)

negative question:
In negative questions, [me, ma] negation allomorphs are attached to verb roots, stems or frames: Kap-/y/ kilit-le-me-mi-ler mi?! (ka*p*y / ki*lit*leme*mi*ler / mi) Didn't they lock the door? (Im shocked to hear that.) Ben-i gr-me-mi mi? (be*ni / grme*mi / mi) Does he say that he didn't see me? (I can't believe!) (Incredible!) Ev dev-i-/n/i yap-ma-m m? (ev / *de*vi*ni~ / yapma*m / m) Does he say that he hasn't done his homework? (anger and astonishment) Daha kalk-ma-m-m? (da*ha / kalkma*m / m) (surprise) Do you say that he hasnt got up yet? (How lazy he is!) Olun Trke bil-me-i.yor mu/y/-mu? (o*lun / trk*e / bilmi*yor / muy*mu) Do you say that your son doesnt know Turkish? (I am surprised to hear that.) Ben-i tan-ma-.yor mu/y/-mu? Hayret bir ey! (be*ni / ta*nm*yor / muy*mu) (hay*ret / bi*ey~) Does he say that he doesnt know me? Unbelievable! Ridiculous!

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Gelecek Zaman
The two different English time concepts above are expressed in [e.cek, a.cak] time allomorphs in Turkish. The personal allomorphs follow these two time allomorphs as usual such as: (ben) [im, m]; (sen) [sin, sn]; (o) []; (biz) [iz, z]; (siz) [si.niz, s.nz]; (onlar) [] or [ler, lar] in Turkish. The same concepts can also be expressed in The Present Continuous Tense (imdiki Zaman), as well. Consider the following: Yeni bir araba satn al-a.cak-z. (ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / sa*tn / a*la*ca*z ) We are going to buy a new car. We will by a new car.
.

Bir gn ben-i anla-/y/a.cak-sn. (bir / gn / be*ni / an*la*ya*cak*sn ) You will understand me some day. (The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive /a/ vowels.) Param ol-un.ca sana yardm et-er-im. (pa*ram / o*lun*ca ~/ sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*rim ) I will help you when I have enough money. (The /t/ consonant changes into the voiced /d/.) (promise) Param olunca sana yardm et-e.cek-im. (pa*ram / o*lun*ca ~/ sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*ce*im ) I will certainly help you when I have enough money. (strong promise) The underlined /t/ and /k/ unvoiced consonants above change into the voiced /d/ and // consonants respectively. Baz hayvan-lar bir gn yok ol-a.cak. (liaison) (ba:*z / hay*van*lar / bir / gn / yo*ko*la*cak ) (liaison) Some animals will be extinct some day. (Kap-/y/) ben a-ar-m. (liaison) (ka*p*y / be*na*a*rm ) Ill open (the door). (One can use this form as soon as one hears the doorbell.)

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(Telefon-a) ben cevap ver-ir-im. (te*le*fo*na / ben / ce*vap / ve*ri*rim ) Ill answer (the phone). (This expression is used as soon as one hears the telephone ring.) Mr. Brown yarn niversite-de bir konferans ver-e.cek. (ve*re*cek) Mr. Brown is going to give a lecture at the university tomorrow.

negative:
The negation allomorphs of this tense are [me] or [ma], which are followed by [e.cek] or [a.cak] allomorphs. When "me-/y/e.cek" or "ma-/y/a.cak" allomorphs follow one another, the successive /e/ or /a/ vowels are linked by the /y/ glides to maintain the harmonious link between these vowels: Toplant-/y/a git-me-/y/e.cek-im. (top*lan*t*ya / git*me*ye*ce*im ), or informally, (git*miy*cem) I wont go to the meeting. (refusal)). The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive /e/ vowels, and the unvoiced consonant /k/ changes into the voiced form //. Onlar-n teklif-i-/n/i kabul et-me-/y/e.cek-iz. (on*la*rn / tek*li:*fi*ni / ka*bl / et*me*ye*ce*iz ) We wont accept their proposal. (The /n/ and /y/ are the glides inserted between the successive /i/ and /e/ vowels. The /k/ unvoiced consonant in ecek changes into the voiced //.) Yamur ya-ma-/y/a.cak. (ya*mur / ya*ma*ya*cak ) It is not going to rain. (The /y/ glide is inserted between the successive /a/ vowels.)

positive question:
In positive questions, mi-/y/im, mi-sin, mi, mi-/y/iz, mi-si.niz, (ler)mi or their allomorphs are separately used: Bu mektup-lar- daktilo et-e.cek mi-sin? (bu / mek*tup*la*r / dak*ti*lo / e*de*cek / mi*sin ) Are you going to type these letters?

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Yarn git-e.cek mi-sin?, or Yarn git-i.yor mu-sun? (ya*rn / gi*de*cek / mi*sin ) (ya*rn / gi*di*yor / mu*sun ) Are you leaving tomorrow? (The /t/ changes into /d/.) Onlar biz-i ziyaret et-e.cek-ler mi? (on*lar / bi*zi / zi*ya:*ret / e*de*cek*ler / mi ) Are they going to visit us? In polite requests, geni zaman (The Simple Present Tense) is used in Turkish in place of The Simple Future Tense (will) of the English language: Bu mektup-lar- ben-im iin ltfen daktilo et-er mi-sin? (bu / mek*tup*la*r / be*nim / i*in / lt*fen / dak*ti*lo / e*der / mi*sin ) Will you please type these letters for me? (polite request) Lutfen ben-im iin bir fincan kahve yap-ar m-sn? (lt*fen / be*nim / i*in / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*par / m*sn ) Will you please make a cup of coffee for me? (polite request)

negative question:
In the negative question form, [me] or [ma] negation allomorphs follow the verb roots, stems or frames: Biz-im-le gel-me-/y/e.cek mi-sin? (bi*zim*le / gel*me*ye*cek / mi*sin ) Wont you come with us? (The /y/ glide links the successive /e/ vowels.) When the question words are involved, mi-/y/im, mi-sin, etc. are not used: Saat ka-ta ev-e dn-e.cek-sin? (sa*at / ka*ta / e*ve / d*ne*cek*sin ) What time will you come back home? Yarn nere-/y/e git-i.yor-sun? (ya*rn / ne re*ye / gi*di*yor*sun ) Where are you going tomorrow? (The /t/ changes into /d/.) Yarn hava nasl ol-a.cak? (ya*rn / ha*va / na sl / o*la*cak ) What is the weather going to be like tomorrow?

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Soru-um-a kim cevap ver-e.cek? (so*ru*ma / kim / ce*vap / ve*re*cek ) Who is going to answer my question? Soru-um-a sen mi cevap ver-e.cek-sin? (so*ru*ma / sen / mi / ce*vap / ve*re*cek*sin ) Are you going to answer my question? (If this question is asked with a rising () intonation, it becomes sarcastic.) Toplant-/y/ nere-de yap.a.cak.lar? (top*lan*t*y / nere*de / ya*pa*cak*lar ) Where are they going to hold the meeting? Bu kim-in kitap-? (bu / ki*min / ki*ta*b) Whose book is this? (The /p/ transplaces, and changes into the voiced /b/.) Size nasl yardm et-e.bil-ir-im? (si*ze / nasl / yar*dm / e*de*bi*li*rim ) How can I help you? (The /t/ changes into /d/, and all the single underlined consonants detach and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes.)

THE PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


imdiki Zamann Hikyesi
This tense is used like The Past Continuous Tense of the English Language. The time morpheme of this tense is a combination of [.YOR] morpheme followed by the [D] morpheme, which are followed by the usual personal allomorphs. The allomorphs of these morphemes are simultaneously chosen by the phonological component in accordance with the Turkish harmony rules as usual. The allomorphs of [.YOR] are [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor] as they are in The Present Continuous Tense. As all the allomorphs of [.YOR] morpheme end with yor syllables, only the [du] allomorph of the morpheme [D] is used after the allomorphs of [.YOR]. For instance: i.yor-du, .yor-du, .yor-du, u.yor-du. Although the personal morphemes are [M], [N], [], [K], [.NZ], and [LER.D], only their allomorphs [um], [un], [], [uk], [u.nuz] and [lar-d] are used due to the [du] past time allomorph. As the vowels of the [du] allo-

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morphs coincide with the vowels of the personal allomorphs, they combine and are verbalized as single vowels: (ben) [du-um] (dum); (sen) [du-un] (dun); (o) [du] (du); (biz) [du-uk] (duk); (siz) [du-u.nuz] (du*nuz); (onlar) [du] (du) or [lar-d] (lar*d). As all these allomorphs are attached to [i.yor-du] allomorphs, they become i.yor-du-um, i.yor-du-un, i.yor-du, i.yor-du-uk, i.yor-du-u.nuz, i.yorlar-d: Ankara-/y/a git-i.yor-du-um. (an*ka*ra*ya / gi*di*yor*dum ) I was going to Ankara. Onlar biz-e yardm et-i.yor-lar-d. (on*lar / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*di*yor*lar*d ) They were helping us. Sen televizyon seyret-i.yor-du-un. (sen / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*dun ) You were watching television. Arkada-lar-.mz- ara-.yor-du-uk. (ar*ka*da*la*r*m*z / a*r*yor*duk ) We were looking for our friends. Ben bir problem z-.yor-du-um. (ben / bir / prob*lem / *z*yor*dum ) I was solving a problem. Biz onlar- bekle-i.yor-du-uk. (biz / on*la*r / bek*li*yor*duk ) We were waiting for them. O ben-i sev-i.yor-du. (o / be*ni / se*vi*yor*du ) She was in love with me. renci-ler retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-i.yor-lar-d. (*ren*ci*ler / *ret*men*le*ri*ni / dik*kat*le / din*li*yor*lar*d ) The students were listening to their teacher carefully. (The double underlined /e/ drops and the /l/ attaches to /i/.) Uyu-u.yor-du-uk. (The /u/ drops, the /y/ attaches to /u/, and the /u-u/ combine.) (u*yu*yor*duk ) We were sleeping.

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negative:
Although the negation allomorphs of this tense are [me] and [ma], their last vowels drop when they are attached to the allomorphs of [.YOR]: Gel-me-i.yor-lar-d. (The /e/ drops, and the /m/ attaches to /i/.) (gel*mi*yor*lar*d ) They were not coming. Onlar- bekle-me-i.yor-du-uk. (on*la*r / bek*le*mi*yor*duk ) We were not waiting for them. O ben-i sev-me-i.yor-du. (o / be*ni / sev*mi*yor*du ) She wasnt in love with me. O ben-i anla-ma-.yor-du. (O beni anlamad.) (o / be*ni / an*la*m*yor*du ) She didnt understand me. Ben uyu-ma-u.yor-du-um. (ben / u*yu*mu*yor*dum ) I wasn't sleeping.

positive question:
The question allomorphs of this tense are [mi, m, m, mu]. Each one of these allomorphs is separately used after any stressed word in a sentence: Ahmet okul-a otobs-le mi git-i.yor-du? (ah*met / o*ku*la / o*to*bsle*mi / gi*di*yor*du ) Was Ahmet going to school by bus? Ahmet otobsle okul-a m git-i.yor-du? (ah*met / o*to*bs*le / o*ku*la m / gi*di*yor*du ) Was Ahmet going to school by bus? Telefon al-dk-/n/-da kahvalt m et-i.yor-du-nuz? (te*le*fon / al*d*n*da / kah*val*t / m / e*di*yor*du*nuz ) Were you having breakfast when the telephone rang? Telefon al-dk-/n/-da m kahvalt et-i.yor-du-u.nuz (te*le*fon / al*d*n*da / m / kah*val*t / e*di*yor*du*nuz ) Were you having breakfast when the telephone rang?

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Telefon al-dk-/n/-da kahvalt et-i.yor mu/y/-du-u.nuz? (te*le*fon / al*d*n*da / kah*val*t / e*diyor / muy*du*nuz ) Were you having breakfast when the telephone rang? When the verb is stressed, the question allomorph [mu] attaches to [du] allomorph: "Gidiyor mu/y/-du-u.nuz?" "Bakyor mu/y/-du-u.nuz?" "Gryor mu/y/-duu.nuz?" "Uyuyor mu/y/-du-unuz?" "alyor mu/y/-du-uk?" "Glyor mu/y/du-um?"

negative question :
The [me, ma] negation allomorphs are used in negative questions as usual: Onlar otobs-le git-me-i.yor mu/y/-du-lar? (on*lar / o*to*bs*le / git*mi*yor / muy*du*lar ) Werent they going by bus? The double underlined /e/ drops, the /m/ attaches to /i/ and the /y/ glide is inserted between [mu] and [du]. Instead of gitmiyor muydu-lar?, gitmiyorlar myd? is often heard. When the question words are involved, the [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs are not used, and the verbs are in positive form: Ne yap-.yor-du-un? (ne / ya*p*yor*dun) What were you doing? Sana kim yardm et-i.yor-du? (sa*na / kim / yar*dm / e*di*yor*du) Who was helping you? (The /t/ changes into the voiced /d/.) Nere-/y/e git-i.yor-du-un? (nere*ye / gi*di*yor*dun) Where were you going? The /t/ changes into the voiced /d/, and the /u-u/ vowels combine. Cadde-de bir kadn niin ko-u.yor-du? (cad*de*de / bir / ka*dn / niin / ko*u*yor*du) Why was a woman running along the street? The intonation patterns of the Turkish and English interrogative sentences are different when the question words are involved. In the Turkish sen-

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tences, the stress is on the question words, but in English, the stress is on the verbs: (nere*ye / gi*di*yor*sun ); (where / are / you / gowing )

THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


imdiki Zamann Hikyesi
The past continuous verb structure of the Turkish language is also used in place of the Past Perfect Continuous Tense of the English language. Consider and compare the following sentences: Ahmet gel-dik-i/n/-de ben onu bir saat-tir otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-du-um. (ah*met / gel*di*in*de~/ ben / o*nu / i*ki / sa*at*tir / o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da /bek*li*yor*dum) I had been waiting for Ahmet at the bus stop for an hour when he arrived. Snav son-a er-dik-i/n/-de iki saattir soru-lar-a cevap ver-me-/y/e al-.yordu-um. I had been trying to answer the questions for two hours when the exam ended. Iklar sn-dk-n-de iki saat-tir ev dev-im-i yap-.yor-du-um. (*k*lar / sn*d*n*de~/ i*ki / sa*at*tir / ev / *de*vi*mi / ya*p*yor*dum) When the lights went off, I had been doing my homework for two hours. Otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-du-um. (o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / bek*li*yor*dum ) I was waiting at the bus stop. (Past Continuous) Otobs durak-/n/-da iki saat-tir bekle-i.yor-du-um. (o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / i*ki / sa*at*tir / bek*li*yor*dum ) I had been waiting at the bus stop for two hours. (Past Perfect Continuous) Sabah-le.yin kalk-tk-m-da saat-ler-dir yamur ya-.yor-du. (sa*bah*le*yin / kalk*t*m*da / sa*at*ler*dir / ya*mur / ya**yor*du ) It had been raining for hours when I got up in the morning. As it is seen in the examples above, only The Past Continuous Tense is used in Turkish to express both The Past Continuous and The Past Perfect continuous Tenses of the English language.

WAS (WERE) GOING TO


Gelecek Zamann Hikyesi
This tense expresses an action that was going to be done in the past, but was interrupted for some reason. The same tense exists in the English language, as well.

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To form this tense in Turkish, the [e.cek] or [a.cak] allomorphs are attached to verb roots, stems or frames first, and then they are followed by [ti, t] past allomorphs, and finally personal allomorphs (ben) [im, m]; (sen) [in, n]; (o) []; (biz) [ik, k]; (siz) [i.niz, .nz]; (onlar) [ler-di, lar-d] are added: Ev dev.im-i yap-a.cak-t-m, ama birden elektrik-ler sn-d. (ev / *de*vi*mi / ya*pa*cak*tm / a*ma ~/ bir*den / e*lek*trik*ler / sn*d ) I was going to do my homework, but suddenly the lights went out. Tam retmen-in soru-/s/u-/n/a cevap ver-e.cek-ti-im, ama zil ald. (tam / *ret*me*nin / so*ru*/s/u*/n/a / ce*vap / ve*re*cek*tim / a*ma ~/ zil / al*d) I was just going to answer the teachers question, but the bell rang. Tam uyku-/y/a dal-a.cak-t-m, telefon al-d. (tam / uy*ku*ya / da*la*cak*tm~/ te*le*fon / al*d ) Just as I was going to sleep, the telephone rang. This tense is also used in conditional unreal past tenses in Turkish: Bilet bul-sa/y/-d-m, tiyatro-/y/a git-e.cek-ti-im. (bi*let / bul*say*dm~/ ti*yat*ro*/y/a / gi*de*cek*tim ) If I had found a ticket, I would have gone to the theatre. retmen ben-i kopya ek-er-ken yakala-ma-sa/y/-d, tm soru-lar-a cevap ver-e.cek-ti-im. I would have answered all the questions if the teacher hadnt caught me cheating.

USED TO
Geni Zamann Hikyesi
The equivalent of the expression of used to is used in Turkish as it is used in English. To form this expression, the simple present tense allomorphs of [R], [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar], are used followed by [di, d, d, du] past allomorphs; and finally, (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [in, n, n, un]; (o) []; (biz) [ik, k, k, uk]; (siz) [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz]; (onlar) [ler-di, lar-d] personal allomorphs are added. The identical i-i, -, -, u-u vowels combine and are verbalized as single vowels: Onsekiz ya-m-da/y/-ken futbol oyna-ar-d-m. (on*se*kiz / ya*m*day*ken / fut*bol / oy*nar*dm ) I used to play football when I was eighteen.

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Biz her akam televizyon seyret-er-di-ik. (biz / her / ak*am / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*der*dik) We used to watch television every evening.

negative:
The negation allomorph, which is used without the /z/ consonant for the first person in The Simple Present Tense (Geni Zaman) negative, is used with the phoneme /z/ in negative used to tenses, such as git-mez, oku-maz. After this, the allomorphs of the morpheme [D] and the personal allomorphs follow: Gen-ken basketbol oyna-maz-d-m. (gen*ken / bas*ket*bol / oy*na*maz*dm ) I didnt use(d) to play basketball when I was young. Okul-a otobs-le git-mez-di-ik. (o*ku*la / o*to*bs*le / git*mez*dik ) We didnt use(d) to go to school by bus. Babam gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-ma-am-a izin ver-mez-di. (ba*bam / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*ma*ma / i*zin / ver*mez*di ) My father didnt use(d) to let me wear his eyeglasses.

positive question:
To produce a positive question, one of the Simple Present Tense allomorphs is attached to a verb root, stem or frame, and then, as a separate word, one of the question allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu], and one of the Simple Past Tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du] is linked to the question allomorphs by the /y/ glide, and finally a suitable personal allomorph follows them: Siz her gn ngilizce al-r m/y/-d-.nz?, or (alyor muydunuz?) (siz / her*gn / in*gi*liz*ce / a*l*r / my*d*nz ) Did you use(d) to study English every day? (The /y/ glide is inserted between [m] and [d].) Mutfak-ta anne-en-e her gn yardm et-er mi/y/-di-in? (mut*fak*ta / an*ne*ne / her / gn / yar*dm / e*der / miy*din ) Did you use to help your mother in the kitchen every day? Sen gen-ken kz-lar futbol oyna-ar m/y/-d? (sen / gen*ken / kz*lar / fut*bol / oy*nar/ m/y/*d ) Did girls use to play football when you were young?

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This verbal composition is also used in conditional sentences: Sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am baba-am-n t--/n/ dinle-er-di-im. (se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam / ba*ba*mn / **d*n / din*ler*dim ) If I were you, I would listen to my fathers advice. (advice) Jack burda ol-sa biz-e yardm et-er-di. (Jack / bur*da / ol*sa~ / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*der*di ) If Jack were here, he would help us.

THE RUMOR FORMS OF THE SIMPLE PRESENT AND CONTINUOUS TENSES


The rumor forms of The Simple Present, The Present Continuous, The Simple Future, and double rumor forms are also possible in Turkish. To form these tenses, one of the allomorphs of The Simple Present Tense [ir, r, r, ur, er, or ar], the allomorphs of The Present Continuous [i.yor, .yor, .yor, or u.yor], the Simple Future [e.cek, or a.cak], or the rumor suffixes [mi, m, m, or mu] are attached to a verb root, stem or frame. Then, one of the rumor allomorphs [mi, m, m, or mu] is used followed by the personal allomorphs: (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [sin, sn, sn, sun]; (o) []; (biz) [iz, z, z, uz]; (siz) [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz]; (onlar) [ler,lar]: Jack her yl yeni bir araba satn al-r-m. (jack / her / yl / ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / sa*t*na*lr*m ) (liaison) They say that Jack buys a new car every year. (The Simple Present) Jack her gn Trke al-.yor-mu. (jack / her / gn / trk*e / a*l**yor*mu ) They say that Jack is (was) studying Turkish every day. (The Present Cont.) Jack gelecek yl yeni bir araba satn al-a.cak-m. (jack~ / ge*le*cek / yl ~ / ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / sa*tn / a*la*cak*m ) They say that Jack is going to buy a new car next year. (The Simple Future) Jack araba-/s/-/n/ bir yl nce al-m-m. (jack / a*ra*ba*s*n~/ bir / yl / n*ce / al*m*m ) They said that Jack had bought his car a year before. (double rumor) The double rumor allomorphs above express unbelievable rumor.

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In all of the sentences above, as in all rumor sentences, the origin and the time of the rumor are either unknown or unimportant. Some examples are as follows: Sen o kz-a ak-m-sn. (sen / o / k*za~/ a:*k*m*sn ) They say that you are (were) in love with that girl. kinci el araba sat-.yor-mu-sun. (i*kin*ci / el / a*ra*ba / sa*t*yor*mu*sun ) They say you are selling second-hand cars. Jack bir Rus kz--/n/ sev-i.yor-mu. (jack~ / bir / rus / k*z*n / se*vi*yor* mu ) They say that Jack is (was) in love with a Russian girl. Ben bir Rus kz--/n/ sev-i.yor-mu-um. (ben / bir / rus / k*z*n / se*vi*yor*mu*um ) They say that I am (was) in love with a Russian girl. Btn kzlar Jack'e a.k-m-m. (b*tn / kz*lar / jac*ke / a:*k*m*m ) Jack says (or I have heard) that all girls are in love with him, which is unbelievable. (double rumor) (unbelievable rumor) Ben bilgisayar kullan-a.ma-.yor-mu-um. (ben / bil*gi*sa*yar / kul*la*na*m*yor*mu*um ) They say that I cant use a computer. Sen-i gr-me-mi. (se*ni / gr*me*mi ) She says she didn t see you.

THE PAST PERFECT TENSE


Mili Gemiin Hikyesi
This tense is generally used in complex sentences. To form this tense, one of the allomorphs of [mi, m, m, or mu] is used after a verb root, stem or frame, then one of the [ti, t, t, tu] past allomorphs is added, and finally they are followed by one of the personal allomorphs. The personal allomorphs used in this tense are: (ben) [im, m, m, um]; (sen) [in, n, n, un]; (o) []; (biz) [ik, k, k, uk]; (siz) [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz]; (onlar) [] or [ler-di, lar-d]. All these suffixes follow the vowel and consonant harmony rules while they are being suffixed. The coinciding past and personal allomorphs combine and are used as single vowels:

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Yat-ma-dan nce ev dev-im-i bitir-mi-ti-im. (yat*ma*dan / n*ce ~/ ev / *de*vi*mi / bi*tir*mi*tim ) I had finished my homework before I went to bed. Misafir-ler gel-me-den nce akam yemek-i.miz-i ye-mi-ti-ik. (mi*sa:*fir*ler / gel*me*den / n*ce / ak*am / ye*me*i*mi*zi / ye*mi*tik ) We had eaten our lunch before the visitors arrived. Birisi baba-am-a telefon et-tik-i/n/-de baba-am ev-den yeni k-m-t. (bi*ri*si / ba*ba*ma / te*le*fon / et*ti*in*de~ / ba*bam / ev*den / ye*ni / k*m*t ) When somebody telephoned my father, he had just left home. (Ben-im) hava alan--/n/a var-dk-m-da uak havalan-m-t bile
noun + infinitive compound - [da] adverbial phrs of time sentence

When I arrived at the airport, the plane had already taken off. (O) (ben-im) hangi lke-ler-e git-tik-im-i ren-mek iste-di.
NP (noun compound) (object of renmek) NP inf V

He wanted to know which countries I had been to. Daha nce (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) ben-im-le karla-m ol-duk-u-/n/u syle-di. (da*ha / n*ce / be*nim*le / kar**la*m / ol*du*u*nu / sy*le*di ) He said that he had met me before. The /k/ phonemes in [dik, dk, dk, duk] change into the voiced // phonemes.

THE FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


This tense expresses an action going on at a certain time in the future. To compose this tense, one of the progressive allomorphs [i.yor, .yor, .yor, or u.yor] is attached to verb roots, stems or frames first, and then, as a separate word, the verb ol is used attached to [a.cak] allomorph, which is followed by one of the personal allomorphs: Yarn saat sekiz-de sen-i bek.le-i.yor ol-a.cak-m. (ya*rn / sa*at / se*kiz*de / se*ni / bek*li*yor / o*la*ca*m ) I will be waiting for you at eight oclock tomorrow. The double underlined /e/ drops, and the /k/ in olacak changes into its voiced form //, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syl-

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lables, and attach to the first vowels of the first syllables of the following inflectional morphemes. Yarn bu saat-te al-.yor ol-a.cak-m. (ya*rn / bu / sa*at*te / a*l**yor / o*la*ca*m ) I will be working at this hour tomorrow. (The /k/ changes into //.) Yarn bu saat-te ne yap-.yor ol-a.cak-sn? (ya*rn / bu / sa*at*te / ne / ya*p*yor / o*la*cak*sn) What will you be doing at this hour tomorrow? The same verb composition above can also be used in Turkish when The Future Perfect Continuous Tense verb expression is needed: Gel-e.cek yl bu zaman bir yl-dr Trke ren-i.yor ol-a.cak-m. (ge*le*cek / yl / bu / za*man ~/ bir / yl*dr / trk*e / *re*ni*yor / o*la*ca*m ) I will have been studying Turkish for a year by this time next year. Misafir-ler gel-dik-in-de e-im saat-tir mutfak-ta yemek piir-i.yor ol-a.cak. My wife will have been cooking in the kitchen for three hours by the time the visitors arrive.

THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


(mi ol-acak)
Both in English and Turkish, this tense expresses an action that will have been finished before a certain time in the future. To form this tense, one of the [mi, m, m, or mu] allomorphs is attached to a verb root, stem or frame, and then, as a separate word, one of the [e.cek or a.cak] allomorphs is attached to the ol verb root, and finally the verb composition is ended with one of the personal allomorphs: Saat be-te i-im-i bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m. (sa*at / be*te / i*i*mi / bi*tir*mi / o*la*ca*m ) I will have finished my work by five oclock. (The underlined /k/ is replaced by its voiced form //.) Televizyon-da ben-im favori program-m baladk-/n/-da ev odev-im-i yapm ol-a.cak-m. I will have done my homework by the time my favorite program starts on TV. (Sen) hava alan--/n/a var-dk-n-da uak havalan.m ol-a.cak. (sen / ha*va / a*la*n*na / var*d*n*da~/ u*ak / ha*va*lan*m / o*la*cak) The plane will have taken off by the time you arrive at the airport.

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In Turkish, the grammar term infinitive (mastar) covers both the gerunds and the infinitives of the English language. Therefore, we will talk about only infinitives. All infinitives are nouns made up of verb roots, verb stems or verb frames. All infinitives are timless. There are four kinds of infinitives in Turkish: 1. The [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems or frames: oku-mak (reding, to read); yz-mek (swimming, to swim); yardm et-mek (helping, to help); konu-mak (talking, to talk); temizle-mek (cleaning, to clean); oyna-mak (playing, to play); tart-mak; tart-l-mak (tar*tl*mak); tart-mak (tar*t*mak); ka-mak; ka-n-mak (ka*n*mak; ka--mak (ka**mak); srt-mek; srt-l-mek (sr*tl*mek); srt-n-mek (sr*tn*mek); srt--mek (sr*t*mek); dv-mek; dv-l-mek (d*vl*mek); dv-n-mek (d*vn*mek); dv--mek; ek-mek; ek-il-mek; ek-inmek; ek-i-mek; at-mak; at-l-mak; at--mak; sev-mek; sev-il-mek; sev-in-mek; sev-i-mek; de-mek; de-in-mek; de-il-mek. 2. The [me, ma] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems and frames: git-me (going, to go); gel-me (coming, to come); al-ma (working, to work); eletir-me (criticizing, to criticize); anla-ma (understanding, to understand); ezberle-me (memorizing, to memorize); tart-ma, tart-l-ma (tar*tl*ma), tart--ma (tar*t*ma); gr-me, gr-l-me (g*rl*me), gr-n-me (g*rn*me), gr--me; ka-ma; ka-n-ma; ka--ma. 3. The [i, , , u, e, a] allomorphs attached to verb roots or stems: gl- (g*l) (way of smiling); bak- (ba*k) (way of looking); anla/y/ (an*la*y) (ability of understanding), gel-i (ge*li) (way of) coming); dav-ran- (dav*ra*nu) (way of behaving). 4. The [dik. dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems and frames: yz-dk, gel-dik, oku-duk, temizle-dik, bekle-dik, al-tk; soy-un-duk (so*yun*duk), anla-a-tk (an*la*tk), kes-i-tik, sev-il-dik, yz-le-tik, bek-le-e-tik, tart--tk. The Nr. 4 infinitives are used in transforming sentences into possessor + possessed (noun + infinitive) compounds such as: ben-im gr-dk-

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m (be*nim / gr*d*m); Hasann a-l-tk- (ha*sa*nn / a*l*t*); biz-im bekle-e-tik-i.miz (bi*zim / bek*le*ti*i*miz). In the examples above, the [ dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk ] allomorphs are not the allomorphs used in "Futbol oyna-d-k." For instance, when the sentence "O futbol oynuyor" is transformed into a nominal phrase (noun + infinitive compound), it becomes "onun futbol oyna-dk-". This transformed phrase can be used as the object of "gryorum". "Onun futbol oyna-dk-/n/ (oynuyor olduunu) gryorum." In this sentence, the allomorph [dk] does not convey a past time concept. This infinitive does not convey a time concept as the other infinitives. Consequently, "oynuyor, oynar, oynard, oynad, oynuyordu" tenses are all transformed into a noun + infinitive compound as "oyna-dk-" (oy*na*d*): O futbol oynuyor. onun futbol oynad O futbol oynar. onun futbol oynad O futbol oynad. onun futbol oynad O futbol oynuyordu. onun futbol oynad When all the four sentences above are transformed and nominalized, they can be used in the following sentences as objects: Onun futbol oyna-dk--/n/ gryorum. I can see that he is playing football. Onun her gn futbol oyna-dk--/n/ biliyorum. I know that he plays football every day. Onun dn futbol oyna-dk--/n/ grdm. I saw that he was playing football yesterday. These examples clearly prove that the [DK] morpheme is not the past time [D] morpheme. It is a morpheme attached to a verb to produce an infinitive: Onun araba-/y/ aldk- is a noun + infinitive compound like onun araba-/y/ al-ma-/s/. Generally speaking, "ben-im al-ma-am", "ben-im al--m", "ben-im al-dk-m" expressions are all possessor + possessed noun compounds like "benim kap-m". The "V-[mek, mak]" infinitives are timeless as the other infinitives are, but they are not used in compounds. For instance *onun git-mek-i is not used in Turkish; the V-[me, ma] infinitives are used instead. Note: You can find further explanations in the article written by Eser Erguvanl Taylan, Boazii niversitesi, (Trke'de Tmce Yapsna Sahip Tmle Yantmceleri)

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1 (a). The [mek, mak] infinitives can be used in the subject position in a sentence. They are timeless and have no personal possessor morphemes attached to them. Yz-mek salk iin yararl-dr. (yz*mek ~/ sa*lk / i*in / ya*rar*l*dr ) Swimming is good for health. Sigara i-mek zararl-dr. (si*ga*ra / i*mek ~/ za*rar*l*dr ) Smoking is harmful. Gnde sekiz saat uyu-mak salkl bir kii iin yeterlidir. (gn*de / se*kiz / sa*at / u*yu*mak~/ sa*lk*l / bir / ki*i / i*in / ye*ter*li*dir) Sleeping eight hours a day is enough for a healthy person. (It is enough for.. Btn gn televizyon seyret-mek zaman kaybdr. (b*tn / gn / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / za*man / kay*b*dr ) Watching television all day long is a waste of time. Onu ikna et-mek kolaydr. (o*nu / ik*na: / et*mek / ko*lay*dr ) To convince him is easy. It is easy to convince him. He is easy to convince

1 (b).The same [mek, mak] infinitives are used before yerine and iin postpositions:
Bahede al-mak yerine tenis oyna-d-k.
infinitive (noun) postp postp phrs (adverbial)

(bah*e*de / a*l*mak / ye*ri*ne~/ te*nis / oy*na*dk ) We played tennis instead of working in the garden. (Yerine is a postposition.) Televizyon seyret-mek yerine i-in-i yap. (te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*mek / ye*ri*ne~ / i*i*ni / yap ) Do your work instead of watching television. Okul-a git-mek yerine sinema-/y/a git-ti-ler (o*ku*la / git*mek / ye*ri*ne~/ si*ne*ma*ya / git*ti*ler ) They went to the cinema instead of going to school.

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The same [mek, mak] allomorphs are also used before iin postpositions to express purpose: Ev dev-im-i tamamla-mak iin sabah-le.yin erken kalk-t-m. (liaison) (e*v*de*vi*mi / ta*mam*la*mak / i*in~/ sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk* tm ) I got up early to complete my homework. Yepyeni bir araba al-mak iin para biriktir-i.yor-uz. (yep*ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*mak / i*in~ / pa*ra / bi*rik*ti*ri*yo*ruz ) We are saving money to buy a brand new car. Onlar- gr-mek iin pencere-den bak-t-m. (on*la*r / gr*mek / i*in ~/ pen*ce*re*den / bak*tm ) I looked out of the window to see them. Onu bitir-mek iin zaman-a ihtiya-.mz var. (o*nu / bi*tir*mek / i*in ~/ za*ma:*na / ih*ti*ya:*c*mz / var ) We need time to finish it. Cumhurbakan-/n/ gr-mek iin herkes ayak-a kalk-t, (a*ya*a) Everybody stood up to see the president. Yabanc dil ren-mek iin ok al-mak zorunda-sn. (ya*ban*c / dil / *ren*mek / i*in~ / ok / a*l*mak / zo*run*da*sn ) You have to study hard to learn a foreign language. Ben-i anla-mak iin dikkat-le dinle. (be*ni / an*la*mak / i*in ~/ dik*kat*le / din*le ) Listen carefully to understand me. Islan-ma-mak iin emsiye-/s/i-/n/i al-d. (negative infinitive) (s*lan*ma*mak / i*in / em*si*ye*si*ni / al*d ) She took her umbrella not to get wet. Beni daha iyi gr-mek iin gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-t. (be*ni / da*ha / i*yi / gr*mek / i*in / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*t ) She put her glasses on to see me better. Biz-e yardm et-mek iin (et-mek-te) israr et-ti. (liaison) (bi*ze / yar*dm / et*mek / i*in / is*ra:r / et*ti ) (is*ra*ret*ti) He insisted on helping us. Otobs-e yeti-mek iin ko-tu-uk. (o*to*b*se / ye*ti*mek / i*in / ko*tuk) We ran to catch the bus.

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1 (c). The infinitives with [mek, mak] are used as objects of the verb iste" and the adverbial "zoru/n/-da" ("want, wish" and "have to")
Trke ren-mek iste-i.yor-um. (trk*e / *ren*mek / is*ti*yo*rum ) I want to learn Turkish. Trke ren-mek zoru/n/-da-/y/m. (trk*e / *ren*mek / zo*run*da*ym ) I have to learn Turkish. Bulak-lar- yka-mak iste-me-i.yor-um. (bu*la*k*la*r / y*ka*mak / is*te*mi*yo*rum ) I dont want to wash the dishes. Bu kitab oku-mak iste-i.yor mu-sun? (ster misin?) (bu / ki*ta*b / o*ku*mak / is*ti*yor / mu*sun ) Do you want to read this book? Canm okul-a git-mek iste-me-i.yor. (ca*nm / o*ku*la / git*mek / is*te*mi*yor ) I dont feel like going to school.

1 (d). The [mek, mak] allomorphs attached to [ten, tan] allomorphs:


The [mek, mak] allomorphs can also be used attached to [ten, tan] allomorphs as all nouns can. The other two allomorphs of the phoneme [DEN] are not used here because the [mek, mak] allomorphs end with unvoiced consonants: Yanl-lk yap-mak-tan kan-ma.l-sn. (yan*l*lk / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*ma*l*sn ) You must avoid making mistakes. Gece-le.yin yalnz dar k-mak-tan kork-ar-m. (ge*ce*le*yin / yal*nz / d*a*r / k*mak*tan / kor*ka*rm ) I am afraid of going out alone at night. Tm kadnlar yalan-mak-tan kork-ar. (tm / ka*dn*lar / ya*lan*mak*tan / kor*kar ) All women are afraid of growing old. Btn gn evde otur-mak-tan bk-t-m (skldm). (b*tn / gn / ev*de / o*tur*mak*tan / bk*tm ) I am tired (bored) of staying at home all day long.

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Yalan syle-mek-ten utan-ma-.yor musun? (ya*lan / sy*le*mek*ten / u*tan*m*yor / mu*sun ) Arent you ashamed of telling lies? zl-mek-ten kendim-i al-a.ma-.yor-um. (*zl*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*m*yo*rum ) I cant help being sorry. Bekle-mek-ten neftet et-er-im. (bek*le*mek*ten / nef*ret / e*de*rim ) I hate waiting. ou renciler ev dev-i yap-mak-tan holan-maz. (o*u / *ren*ci*ler ~/ e*v*de*vi / yap*mak*tan / ho*lan*maz ) Most students dislike doing homework. Pervasz-ca araba sr-mek-ten kan-ma.l-sn. (per*va:*sz*ca / a*ra*ba / sr*mek*ten / ka*n*ma*l*sn ) You must avoid driving recklessly. Gl-mek-ten kendim-i al-a.ma-d-m. (gl*mek*ten / ken*di*mi / a*la*ma*dm ) I couldnt help laughing. Kzkarde-im ev i-i yap-mak-tan nefret et-er. (liaison) (kz*kar*de*im / e*vi*i / yap*mak*tan / nef*ret / e*der ) My sister hates doing housework. Aldat-l-mak-tan nefret et-er-im. (al*da*tl*mak*tan / nef*ret / e*de*rim ) I hate being cheated. (passive infinitive) Yardm iste-mek-ten ekin-me. (yar*dm / is*te*mek*ten / e*kin*me) Dont avoid asking for help. Tavla oyna-mak-tan sz et-ti-ik. (liaison) (tav*la / oy*na*mak*tan / s*zet*tik) We talked about playing backgammon. 2 (a). The [me, ma] infinitives are used in the second part of the possessor + possessed noun compounds. They are timeless, but they have possessor personal allomorps attached to them.

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Compare and consider the following: Kitap-n kapak- (ki*ta*bn / ka*pa*) (the cover of the book) ben-im pencere-em (be*nim / pen*ce*rem) (my window) ben-im git-me-em (be*nim / git*mem) (my going, me to go)
noun + inf compound

(Sen-in) gerek-i syle-me-en-i iste-i.yor-um. (se*nin~ / ger*e*i / sy*le*me*ni / is*ti*yo*rum) I want you to tell the truth. senin gerei sylemen is a transformed nominalized sentence: (Sen) gerei sylersin. (sen-in) gerek-i syle-me-en (Sen) gerei sylyorsun (sen-in) gerek-i syle-me-en (Sen) gerei syledin. (senin) gerei sylemen (Sen) gerei sylerdin. (senin) gerei sylemen (Sen) gerei syleyeceksin. (sen-in) gerek-i syle-/y/e.cek ol-ma-an (Sen) gerei sylemitin. "(sen-in) gerek-i syle-mi ol-ma-an" As the possessor personal allomorphs attached to both parts of a "noun + infinitive" compound mean the same person, the possessor parts can be ignored because the im in ben-im, and the em in gitme-em mean my. (ben-im) git-me-em, (ben-im) al-ma-am, (ben-im) bekle-me-em (sen-in) git-me-en, (sen-in) al-ma-an, (sen-in) bekle-me-en (o-/n/un) git-me-/s/i, (o-/n/un) al-ma-/s/, (o-/n/un) bekle-me-/s/i (biz-im) git-me-e.miz, (biz-im) al-ma-a.mz,(biz-im) bekle-me-e.miz (siz-in) git-me-e.niz, (siz-in) al-ma-a.nz, (siz-in) bekle-me-e.niz (on.lar-n) git-me-/s/I, (onlar-n) al-ma-/s/, (onlar-n) bekle-me-/s/I Note: In the first line above, all the im, em, am and em possessor personal allomorphs mean my. In the following lines, the allomorphs in inverted comas mean your, his, her, its, our, your, and their. All the identical e-e, a-a vowels combine, and the single underlined syllables detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs. As the possessor personal allomorphs used in the possessed parts of a compound are enough to express the possessor adjectives (ben-im, sen-in, etc.), these possessor adjectives may be ignored unless they are thought to be necessary to attract the listeners attention.

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Since the compounds like ben-im syle-me-em are noun compouns, they are nominal phrases, and so the [i, ], [e, a], [de, da], [den, dan] and [le, la] suffixes can be attached to the infinitive parts of the compounds: syle-me-en-i, syle-me-en-e, syle-me-en-le
NP

syle-me-en-de,

syle-me-en-den,

Baba-am (ben-im) daha ok al-ma-am- iste-i.yor. (is*ti*yor)


noun + infinitive comp (obj) NP V

My father wants me to study harder. A final rule to add to the previous explanations is that in Turkish certain verbs need certain morphemes such as [], [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] attached to nouns or pronouns. The allomorphs of these morphemes can also be attached to infinitives, or noun + infinitive (or infinitive + noun) compounds, which might be named as syntactic nouns or nominal phrases.

2 (b). The verbs that take noun + nfinitive compounds as objects: noun + infinitive - []
Yamur, (biz-im) zaman-n-da tiyatro-/y/a git-me-e.miz-i engelledi.
possessor adverbial adverbial possessed V noun + infinitive compound (object) NP (ya*mur / bi*zim / za*ma:*nn*da / ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*mi*zi / en*gel*le*di ) NP

The rain prevented us from going to the theatre in time.


NP V NP prep phrs adverbial prep phrs adverbial prep phrs adverbial

(Ben) (sen-in) byle davran-ma-an- anla-ma-.yor-um. (dav*ran*ma*n)


NP possessor adverb possessed noun + inf compound (obj) NP V

I dont understand your behaving like that. (Ben) (o/n/-dan) (Ben-im) siyah pantolon-um-u (o-/n/un) tle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica ettim.
NP adverbial possessor possessed possessor possessed noun comp + [] (obj of tle) noun comp + [] (obj of rica et) NP NP chain noun compound V

The mental development of this last sentence contains two simple sentences: 1 . O ben-im siyah pantolonum-u tlesin. 2. Ben ondan bu-/n/u rica ettim. The first simple sentence is transformed and nominalized as onun benim siyah pantolonumu tlemesi, and then it is embedded and used in place of the object bu-/n/u in the second sentence:

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(Ben) o/n/-dan (benim) siyah pantolon-um-u (onun) tle-me-/s/i-/n/i rica etti-im. (si*yah / pan*to*lo*nu*mu / *t*le*me*/s/i*/n/i / ri*ca: / et*tim ) I asked her to iron my black trousers. Ben, benim and onun words are optional because they are understood from the suffixes in etti-/im/", "pantolon-um and tle-me-/s/i (Ben) Mary/n/in
NP possessor

piyano

al-ma-/s/-/n/ seyrettim.
| V

N (obj of al) possessed NP VP

(ma*ri*nin / pi*ya*no / al*ma*s*n / sey*ret*tim ) I watched Mary playing the piano. (The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.) (Ben) (Sen-in) ev-e dn-me-en-i bekle-i.yor-um. (e*ve / dn*me*ni)
NP possessor adv possessed | noun compound (object) NP VP

I am waiting for your coming back home. O/n/un konu-ma-/s/-/n/ anla-ma-.yor-um. (o*nun / ko*nu*ma*s*n / an*la*m*yo*rum ) I dont understand his way of speaking. (The /n/, /s/ and /n/ glides are respectively used.) (Sen) (Ben-im) sana kahve getir-me-em-i iste-er mi-sin? (sa*na / kah*ve / ge*tir*me*mi / is*ter / mi*sin ) Would you like me to serve you coffee? (Ben-im) onun-la evlen-me-em imkn-sz.
possessor adverbial possessed noun compound (subject) V

(o*nun*la / ev*len*mem / im*kn*sz ) It is impossible for me to marry her. (Benim is optional.) (Ben) onu, (o-nun) bize yardm et-me-/s/i iin ikna et-ti-im. (ik*na: / et*tim)
subj obj noun + inf comp (object of iin) postp. postpositional phrase of purpose V

I convinced him to help us In the sentence above, the /s/ is a glide; onun is not necessary, it is put there to show the reader the deleted "possessor" part of the compound. Mektubu (ben-im) tekrar yaz-ma-am- rica etti. He asked me to write the letter again. (benim is optional)

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Tm erkekler tm kadn-lar-n gzel gr-n-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-er. (tm / er*kek*ler / tm / ka*dn*la*rn / g*zel / g*rn*me*si*ni / is*ter ) All men want all women to look beautiful. In the sentences above, bizim gitmemiz, senin davranman, onun tlemesi, beklemenin faydas, Marynin piyano almas, (senin) eve dnmen, (benim) getirmem, onun konumas, (benim) evlenmem, onun yardm etmesi, and tm kadnlarn gzel grnmesi are all noun + infinitive compounds that have been transformed from the simple sentences by the transformational component in order to be used in phrase structure patterns. The transformational component performs this mental activity to shape and use the simple sentences in phrase structure patterns. As the aim of this activity of the mind is to build up infinite oral sentences out of simple sentences, it may be reasonable to call such phrases as syntactic, which means that such oral nominal phrases have been built up for syntactic purposes. As important information, we have to assert that all the allomorphs used in transforming simple sentences are inflectional allomorphs because these allomorphs help simple sentences to be used in longer sentences without changing their simple sentence concepts. In the following lines the simple sentences are printed in italics, and the transformed noun + infinitive compounds are printed in bold face, which have been produced for syntactic purposes. By the way, it is necessary to remember that the meaning of an oral sentence is always hidden in the simple sentence underlying an oral sentence. Listeners and readers can understand an oral sequence so long as they realize the morphemic sequence underlying the oral sequence. Read the simple sentences, and the syntactic nominal phrases produced by the transformational rules of the Turkish language: Biz tiyatroya gidecektik. bizim tiyatroya gidecek ol-ma-a.mz Sen byle davranyorsun. senin byle davran-ma-an, davran-dk-n" (O) siyah pantolonumu tlesin. siyah pantolonumu tlemesi, tledii" Mary piyano alyordu. Marynin piyano al-ma-/s/, al-dk-" Sen eve dn-d-n. senin eve dn-me-en, dn-dk-n" O konuur. onun konu-ma-/s/, konu-tuk-u" Ben kahve getiririm. benim kahve getir-me-em, getirdik-im Ben onunla evlenirim. benim onunla evlen-me-em, evlen-dik-im O bize yardm eder. onun bize yardm et-me-si, et-tik-i

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Ben mektubu tekrar yazaym. benim mektubu tekrar yaz-ma-am Ben bir mektup yazmtm. benim mektup yaz-m ol-ma-am As it is seen in the noun compounds above, when sentences are transformed and nominalized, they lose their time concepts like all infinitives. The benim, senin parts of the compounds may be ignored, and so, only tiyattroya gitmemiz or mektubu tekrar yazmam can be used as noun compounds without the possessor adjectives. Bekle-me-/n/in fayda-/s/ yok. It is no use waiting. (Literally: "There is not the use of waiting") (beklemenin faydas is an infinitive + noun compound used as the subject of the sentence. (Sen) (ben-im) emsiye-em-i geri getir-me-/y/i unut-ma. (em*si*ye*mi / ge*ri / ge*tir*me*yi / u*nut*ma ) Dont forget to bring my umbrella back. In the example above, the /y/ glide is used between the /e/ phoneme and the [i] defining allomorph. The sen and benim words can naturally be ignored. Biz-im takm kazan-ma-/y/ haket-ti. (bi*zim / ta*km / ka*zan*ma*y / ha*ket*ti ) Our team deserved to win. Eski araba-a.mz- sat-ma-/y/ ertele-di-ik. (es*ki / a*ra*ba*m*z / sat*ma*y / er*te*le*dik ) We postponed selling our old car. Arabamz- is the object of satmak; eski arabamz satma/y/ is the object of ertelemek. Yz-me-/y/i bana baba-am ret-ti. (yz*me*yi / ba*na / ba*bam / *ret*ti ) My father taught me (how) to swim. (O) biz-im-le Bursaya git-me-/y/i kabul et-ti. (liaison) (bi*zim*le / bur*sa*ya / git*me*yi / ka*bu:*let*ti ) He agreed to go to Bursa with us. Hrsz kasa-/y/ a-ma-/y/ dene-di. (hr*sz / ka*sa*y / a*ma*y / de*ne*di ) The thief tried opening the safe.

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Yeni bir araba al-ma-/y/ dn-.yor-uz. (ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / al*ma*y / d**n*yo*ruz ) We are considering buying a new car. Note: The infinitives above are all printed in bold face.

2 (c). The verbs that need noun + infinitive compounds followed by [e], or [a] allomorphs:
Baba-am, (ben-im) futbol ma--/n/a git-me-em-e izin ver-di. (git*me*me)
NP noun + infinitive compound - [e] (adverbial phrs) V

My father allowed me to go to the football match. Babam, kzkarde-im-in gece yalnz sinema-/y/a git-me-/s/i-/n/e kzd.
NP possessor adv adv adverbial possessed noun + infinitive compound + [e] = adverbial phrs V

My father got angry about my sisters going to the cinema alone at night. Babam, araba-/s/-/n/ (ben-im) kullan-ma-am-a hi izin ver-me-i.yor. (ba*bam / a*ra*ba*s*n / kul*lan*ma*ma / hi / i*zin / ver*mi*yor ) My father is never allowing me to use his car. (Complaint) (Benim is optional.) Babam (benim) balk tut-ma-/y/a git-me-em-e itiraz et-ti (kar durdu). (ba*bam~ / ba*lk / tut*ma*ya / git*me*me / i:*ti*ra:z / et*ti ) My father objected to my going fishing. (benim is optional)

2 (d). noun + infinitive compounds can also be followed by [den, dan]:


Anne-em ben-im ev-e ge gel-me-em-den holan-ma-.yor.
NP possessor adv adv possessed noun + infinitive comp - [den] adverbial phrs V

My mother dislikes my (me) coming home late. There are two basic simpe sentences in the oral sentence above: 1. Ben eve ge geliyorum. 2. Annem bundan holanmyor. Sentence Nr.1 is transformed and nominalized as "benim eve ge gelmem". When this transformed-nominal phrase is put in the place of "bundan" in the second sentence, the new synonymous sentence "Annem benim eve ge gelmem-den holanmyor" oral sentence structure is produced. In this transformed phrase, "ev-e" is an adverbial, and "ge" is an adverb modifying the ifinitive gel-me. Ben-im ev-e ge gel-mem is a noun compound

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(nominal phrase). If the allomorph [den] is attached to this nominal phrase, it turns it into an adverbial phrase modifying "holanmyor". (Ben) onun
NP

her ey-i

anla-ma-/s//n/-dan korkuyorum.
V

possessor obj of anla possessed noun + infinitive compound nominal phrase-[DEN] adverbial phrs

I am afraid of her understanding everything. (The /s/ and /n/ glides are used.)

The [me, ma] infinitives attached to [e or a] allomorphs: V- [me/y/e, ma/y/a]


(Ben) klasik mzik dinle-me-/y/e dknm.
NP NP infinitive-[e] adverbial phrs V

I am fond of listening to classical music. -im-i tamamla-ma-/y/a alyorum. (i*i*mi / ta*mam*la*ma*ya / a*l**yo*rum ) I am trying to complete my work. Dert-et-me-/y/e demez. (liaison) (der*det*me*ye / de*mez ) It is not worth troubling about. al-ma-/y/a devam etti. (a*l*ma*ya / de*va:*met*ti ) He went on (continued) working. Yamur ya-ma-/y/a balad. (ya*mur / ya*ma*ya / ba*la*d ) It began to rain (raining).

3 (a). The third kind of noun + infinitive compounds are made by adding
[i, , , u] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames such as: ben-im gl--m, sen-in bak--n, which means my way of smiling, your way of looking etc. When these compounds take [], [E], [DE] or [DEN] morphemes, they become adverbials: (O) (ben-im) gl--m-e (g*l**me) hayran-dr. She adores my way of smiling. (Ben) (sen-in) bana bak--n- (ba*k**n) zle-di-im. I missed your way of looking at me.

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(O) (ben-im) gitar al--m- (a*l**m) sev-er. He likes my way of playing the guitar. (Onlar) (ben-im) ev-e dn--m-den mutlu ol-du-lar. They became happy about my coming back home. (ben. sen, o, benim, senin and onlarn words above are all optional because these words are represented by personal possessor allomorphs.)

4 (a). The following noun + infinitive compound is widely used in transforming simple sentences into syntactic nominal phrases or "determiners". The following example shows how a simple sentence is transformed into a noun + infinitive compound, and then how it is used as a syntactic nominal phrase in a sentence:

possessor noun + V - [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] [personal possessor]
(ben-im)
possessor

yz-dk-m
possessed

Ben denizde yzyordum. (benim) denizde yz-dk-m


sentence nominal phrase

(O) (ben-im) deniz-de yz-dk-m- gr-d. (yz*d**m)


NP NP VP V

He saw that I was swimming in the sea.


NP V VP NP

Note: In the sentence above, the /k/ phoneme changes into the voiced //, and the last [] is the determiner that defines the nominal phrase benim denizde yzdk-m. The same noun + infinitive compound can also be used as a determiner: Ben okula gidiyorum. ben-im git-tik-im okul
determiner + noun nominal phrs

benim gittiim okul


nominal phrs

the school that I go to


nominal phrs

Benim gittiim okul ok kalabalk. The school that I go to is very crowded.


NP (subj) VP NP (subj) VP

The possessed parts of the noun + infinitive compounds are also used as objects of postpositions (English prepositions):

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(Ben-im) her zaman okula ge geldik-im iin ngilizce gretmenim beni azarlad.
noun infinitive comp (object of iin) + postp postpositional adverbial phrase of cause NP (subj) NP (obj) V

My English teacher shouted at me because of my always coming to school late.


sentence (NP + VP) prep nominal phrs (object of because of prepositional adverbial phrase of cause

A final note that should be added to the above explanations is that as the infinitives are made up of verbs, they can take objects like verbs when they are transitive, but if they are intransitive, they can take only adverbs or adverbials. The sentences that contain infinitives are produced as follows: 1. O beni beklesin. o-/n/un ben-i bekle-me-/s/i 2. Ben bu-/n/u istiyorum. If the first nominalized phrase is used in the place of bunu in the second sentence, we produce the following sentence containing a noun compound: (Ben) (o-/n/un) ben-i bekle-me-/s/i-/n/i iste-i.yor-um. (be*ni / bek*le*me*si*ni / is*ti*yo*rum ) I want him to wait for me.

THE PASSIVE INFINITIVE


Only the transitive verbs can be put into the passive voice In English, but in Turkish, both transitive and intransitive verbs can be changed into the passive form. Therefore, the passive making allomorphs can be attached to all kinds of verb roots, stems or frames. If the passive making allomorphs are attached to transitive verbs, these verbs are put into the passive voice, but if the intransitive ones are put into the passive form, only their forms are changed; they are not put into the passive voice. For instance, if Bu hapishaneden ka-l-maz sentence is said, it can be literally written in English as "*This prison cant be escaped", which means, It is impossible to escape from this prison. In this book, such verbs are called passive shaped intransitive verbs. The passive making allomorphs are as follows: 1. The verbs ending with both vowels, and /L/ and /r/ phonemes are put into the passive form by using [in, n, n, un, en, an] passive making allomorphs such as bekle-en, dene-en, ba-la-an, yakala-an, yrn, doku-un, oku-un, al-n, al-n, gel-in, del-in, koru-un. 2. The verbs ending with consonants take [il, l, l, ul] passive making allomorphs such as ek-il, se-il, ge-il, sr-l, gr-l. When some of these verbs take [in, n, n, un, en, an] allomorphs, they also become reflex-

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ive verbs such as cek-in, ge-in, sr-n, gr-n, besle-en, yalaan.. All the verb frames above can take [me, ma] or [mek, mak] allomorphs to be used as infinitives: bala-an-ma(k), topla-an-ma(k), besle-en-me(k), temizle-en-me(k), ekle-enme(k), yr-n-me(k), doku-un-ma(k) (weave), oku-un-ma(k), oyala-anma(k), ge-il-me(k), ge-in-me(k), sr-l-me(k), sr-n-me(k), gr-l-me(k), gr-n-me(k), bak-l-ma(k), bak-n-ma(k), a-l-ma(k), se-il-me(k), yen-ilme(k), ed-il-me(k), ed-in-me(k), tap-l-ma(k), tap-n-ma(k), yap-l-ma(k), uyul-ma(k), konu-ul-ma(k), sr-l-me(k), sr-n-me(k). The identical vowels above combine, and the single underlined consonants detach from their syllablers and attach to the first vowels of the following inflectional morphemes. Consider the following: Kendi-/s/i/y/-le alay et-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret et-er. (ken*di*siy*le / a*lay / e*dil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ). She hates being made fun of her. In the sentence above, the /t/ is replaced by the voiced /d/; and the /s/ and /n/ consonants are used as glides. Kendi-/s/i-/n/e kaba davran-l-ma-/s//n/-dan holan-maz. (ken*di*si*ne / ka*ba / dav*ra*nl*ma*sn*dan / ho*lan*maz ) She dislikes being rudely treated. Takm--/n/n yen-il-me-/s/i/n/-den nefret eder. (ta*k*m*nn / ye*nil*me*sin*den / nef*ret / e*der ) He hates his team being beaten. Btn kadn-lar kendi-ler-i-/n/e yumuak davran-l-ma-/s//n/-dan holan-r. (b*tn / ka*dn*lar ~ / ken*di*le*ri*ne / yu*mu*ak / dav*ra*nl*ma*sn*dan / ho*la*nr ) All women like being tenderly treated. Rahatsz et-il-mek iste-me-i.yor-um. (ra*hat*sz / e*dil*mek / is*te*mi*yo*rum ) I dont want to be disturbed. (The /t/ changes into the voiced /d/ consonant.) Herkes kendi-/s/i-/n/e eit davran-l-ma-/s/-/n/ iste-er. (her*kes / ken*di*si*ne / e*it / dav*ra*nl*ma*s*n / is*ter ) Everybody wants to be equally treated.

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Bu cmle-ler dikkat-le oku-un-ma.l-dr. (bu / cm*le*ler / dik*kat*le / o*kun*ma*l*dr ) These sentences should be carefully read.

MODALS
PRESENT MODALS While English modals are made of auxiliary verbs, Turkish modals are made either of morphemes, or of words, or of both. They convey nearly the same concepts as they do in English. Therefore, instead of giving detailed boring explanations of the Turkish modals, we prefer giving English equivalents of them, which we think, might be more useful. Moreover, the English sentences given as the equivalents of the Turkish modals can be considered more satisfactory and precise than detailed English explanations of them, which may lead to misunderstanding.

(can) (may) [e.bil, a.bil]


The [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs convey ability, possibility or permission as can do in English. To form the Simple Present Tense concept of this modal morpheme, one of its allomorphs "[e.bil] or [a.bil]" is attached to a verb followed only by [ir] Simple Present Tense time allomorph. The other Simple Present Tense allomorphs are not used after [e.bil] or [a-bil] allomorphs due to the vowel harmony rules. The time allomorphs are naturally followed by suitable personal (suffixes) allomorphs: Yemek pi-ir-e.bil-ir-im. (ye*mek / pi*i*re*bi*li*rim ) I can cook. (ability) Bilgisayar-m- kullan-a.bil-ir-sin. (bil*gi*sa*ya*r*m / kul*la*na*bi*lir*sin ) You can (may) use my computer. (permission) Baz soru-lar zor ol-a.bil-ir. (ba*z / so*ru*lar / zor / o*la*bi*lir ) Some questions may be difficult. (possibility) Siz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir-iz. (si*ze / yar*dm / e*de*bi*li*riz ) We can help you. (ability, possibility) (The /t/ changes into /d/.) Dar k-a.bil-ir-sin. (d*a*r / *ka*bi*lir*sin ) You can go out. (permission)

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To change the [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs into the negative concept, [e.mez, a.maz] allomorphs are used in place of them with some phoneme removals and changes. They convey the concepts of inability, impossibility or prohibition: Piyano al-a.maz-am. (pi*ya*no / a*la*mam ). I cant play the piano. (inability) (The double underlined /z/ drops and the identical a-a vowels combine .) Bu kk harf-ler-i gzlk-sz gr-e.mez-em. (bu / k*k / harf*le*ri / gz*lk*sz / g*re*mem ). I cant see these small letters without glasses. (inability) Bekle-/y/e.mez-em. (bek*le*ye*mem ) I cant wait. (impossibility and inability) In the sentences above, the /y/ glide is put between the successive /e/ vowels. (impossibility) Bu leke sabun-la temiz-le-en-e.mez. (bu / le*ke / sa*bun*la / te*miz*le*ne*mez ) This stain cant be cleaned with soap. (impossibility) (passive) Bura-da bekle-/y/e.mez-sin. (bur*da / bek*le*ye*mez*sin ) You cant wait here. (prohibition) Bakteri-ler plak gz-le gr-l-e.mez. (bak*te*ri*ler / p*lak / gz*le / g*r*le*mez ) Germs cant be seen with the naked eye. (impossibility, passive) Yarn sen-i gr-e.mez-em. (ya*rn / se*ni / g*re*mem ) I cant see you tomorrow. (impossibility) Ev-de ol-a.maz. (ev*de / o*la*maz) He cant be at home. (impossibility)

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ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-u.yor ol-a.maz. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor / o*la*maz ) The children cant be playing in the garden. (impossibility) The same [e.bil] modal concept can also be used with The Present Continuous [.YOR] morpheme. In order to form this modal composition, [e.bil] or [a.bil] allomorphs are attached to verbs followed by the [i.yor] and the personal allomorphs: Kara tahta-/y/ gr-e.bil-i.yor-um. Tahtay gryorum. (ka*ra / tah*ta*y / g*re*bi*li*yo*rum ) I can see the blackboard. (ability) The Simple Present Tense of this modal form does not express ability. If it is used, it expresses possibility: Sen-i yarn gr-e.bil-ir-im. (se*ni / ya*rn / g*re*bi*li*rim ) I can see you tomorrow. (possibility) Kenar-a ekil-ir-se-en karatahta-/y/ gr-e.bil-ir-im. (ke*na*ra / e*ki*lir*sen~ / ka*ra*tah*ta*y / g*re*bi*li*rim ) If you move aside, I can see the blackboard. (possibility) In the negative forms of The Present Continuous modal tenses, the [e.me] or [a.ma] negation allomorphs are used followed by the [i.yor, .yor] progressive allomorphs, and naturally suitable personal allomorphs are attached to them: Sen-i an.la-/y/a.ma-.yor-um. (se*ni / an*la*ya*m*yo*rum ) I cant understand you. The /y/ glide is placed between the successive /a/ vowels. (inability) (Seni anlayamam is impossible here. It can be used in conditional sentences): Daha yksek ses-le konu-maz-sa-an sen-i anla./y/a.ma-am. (da*ha / yk*sek / ses*le / ko*nu*maz*san / se*ni / an*la*ya*mam ) I can't understand you unless you speak louder. Sen-i iit-e.me-i.yor-um. (se*ni / i*i*te*mi*yo*rum ) I cant hear you. (The double underlined /e/ drops as it is in imdi zaman.) (inability)

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Bek.le-/y/e.me-i.yor-um. (bek*le*ye*mi*yo*rum ) I cant wait. (inability) Bek-le-/y/e.me-em. (bek*le*ye*mem ) I cant wait. It is impossible for me to wait. (impossibility) Sen-i gr-e.me-i.yor-um. (se*ni / g*re*mi*yo*rum ) I cant see you. (inability) Sy.le-dik-ler-in anla-l-ma-.yor. (sy*le*dik*le*rin / an*la*l*m*yor ) What you are saying cant be understood. The [e.bil, a.bil] modal allomorphs, followed by the allomorphs of the morpheme [.YOR], are used attached to verbs in question forms, and finally mu-/y/um, mu-sun, mu, mu-/y/uz, mu-su.nuz, lar m, etc are separately added: Gzlk-sz televizyon seyret-e.bil-i.yor mu-su.nuz? (gz*lk*sz / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*bi*li yor / mu*su*nuz ) Can you watch television without glasses? (The /t/ changes into /d/.) (ability) When the intention of request is involved, The Simple Present Tense allomorphs of [R] are used after [e.bil or a.bil] allomorphs, and finally, mi/yim?, mi-sin?, mi?, mi-/y/iz?, mi-si.niz?, ler mi? question words are separately written. Bana yardm et-e.bil-ir mi-si.niz? (ba*na / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir / mi*si*niz ) Can you help me? (request) Siz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir mi-/y/im? (si*ze / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir / mi*yim ) Can I help you? (request) Ben-i gr-mek iin yarn bro-um-a gel-e.bil-ir mi-sin(iz)? (be*ni / gr*mek / i*in~ / ya*rn / b*ro*ma / ge*le*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can (could) you come to my office to see me tomorrow? (request)

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The Turkish equivalents of wh question words of English can also be used with [e.bil], [a.bil] allomorphs: Bu soru-/y/a kim cevap ver-e.bil-ir? (bu / so*ru*ya / kim / ce*vap / ve*re*bi*lir) Who can answer this question? (ability) Nere-de le yemek-i ye-/y/e.bil-ir-iz? (nerde / *le / ye*me*i / yi*ye*bi*li*riz) Where can we have lunch? (possibility) (*"Nerede le yemei yiyebiliyoruz?" is not used in Turkish.) Nasl baar-a.bil-ir-im? (na sl / ba*a*ra*bi*li*rim) How can I succeed?

must [me.li, ma.l]


This morpheme has two allomorphs; [me.li] and [ma.l], which can be attached to verb roots, stems or frames followed by personal suffixes. When it is used with the verb to be, it conveys the concepts of certainty or probability, but when it is used with action verbs like go, write, do, help, etc., it implies obligation imposed by the speaker: Snav-lar-da baar-l ol-mak iin daha ok al-ma.l-sn. (s*nav*lar*da / ba*a*r*l / ol*mak / i*in / ok / a*l*ma*l*sn ) You must study hard to succeed in the examinations. (strong advice or obligation imposed by the speaker.) Anne-en-e ev i-ler-i/n/-de yardm et-me.li-sin. (an*ne*ne / ev / i*le*rin*de / yar*dm / et*me*li*sin ) You must help your mother with the housework. (obligation imposed by the speaker or strong advice.) Ev dev.im-i bitirmek iin ge vakte kadar otur-ma.l-/y/m. (e*v*de*vi*mi / bi*tir*mek / i*in / ge / vak*te / ka*dar / o*tur*ma*l*/y/m) I must sit up late to finish my homework. (internal obligation) Src-ler trafik kural-lar--/n/a uy-ma.l-dr. (s*r*c*ler / tra*fik / ku*ral*la*r*na / uy*ma*l*dr ) Drivers must obey the traffic rules. (obligation) Yorgun ol-ma.l-sn. (yor*gun / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must be tired. (very probability or certainty)

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Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-l-ma.l. (sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kal*kl*ma*l ) It is necessary to get up early in the morning. (passive shaped intransitive) nem-li evrak-lar kasa-da saklan-ma.l. (*nem*li / ev*rak*lar / ka*sa*da / sak*lan*ma*l ) Important documents must be kept in a safe. (It is necessary to keep) Anne-en fke-li ol-ma.l. (an*nen / f*ke*li / ol*ma*l ) Your mother must be angry. (very probability or certainty) Matematik skc ol-mal. (ma*te*ma*tik / s*k*c / ol*ma*l ) Mathematics must be boring. The negative form of [me.li, ma.l] is [me-me.li, ma-ma.l] (must not), which conveys the concept of prohibition: Ben-im-le byle konu-ma-ma.l-sn. Benimle byle konu-a.maz-sn. (be*nim*le / by*le / ko*nu*ma*ma*l*sn ) You mustnt (cant) talk to me like that. (prohibition) Kz karde-in-in dev yap-ma-/s/-/n/ engel-le-me-me.li-sin. (kz / kar*de*i*nin / *dev / yap*ma*s*n / en*gel*le*me*me*li*sin ) You mustnt prevent your sister from doing her homework. (prohibition) Bir renci televizyon izle-/y/e.rek zaman--/n/ boa harca-ma-ma.l-dr. (bir / *ren*ci ~/ te*le*viz*yon / iz*le*ye*rek ~/ za*ma:*n*n / bo*a / har*ca*ma*ma*l*dr ) A student mustnt waste time watching television. Another negative form of [ol-ma.l] (must be) is ol-a.maz (cant be).This form is used with the verbs to be in sentences. Consider the following: Olum sinema-da ol-a.maz; okul-da ol-ma.l. (o*lum / si*ne*ma*da / o*la*maz / o*kul*da / ol*ma*l ) My son cant be at the cinema; he must be at school. (impossibility; certainty) Matematik ilgin ol-a.maz; skc ol-ma.l. (ma*te*ma*tik / il*gin / o*la*maz / s*k*c / ol*ma*l ) Mathematics cant be interesting; it must be boring. (impossibility; certainty) Mehmet hasta ol-a.maz; rol yap-.yor ol-ma.l. (meh*met / has*ta / o*la*maz / rol / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l ) Mehmet cant be ill; he must be pretending. (impossibility; certainty)

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Jack ders al-.yor ol-a.maz, futbol oyna-u.yor ol-ma.l (jack / ders / a*l**yor / o*la*maz) (fut*bol / oy*nu*yor / ol*ma*l ) Jack cant be studying; he must be playing football. Karde-in ciddi ol-a.maz; aka yap-.yor ol-ma.l. (kar*de*in / cid*di: / o*la*maz / a*ka / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l ) Your brother cant be serious; he must be joking. Bu hediye ben-im iin ol-a.maz; siz-in iin ol-ma.l. (bu / he*di*ye / be*nim / i*in / o*la*maz / si*zin / i*in / ol*ma*l ) This present cant be for me; it must be for you. Cidd ol-a.maz; rol yap-.yor ol-ma.l. (cid*d: / o*la*maz / rol / ya*p*yor / ol*ma*l ) He cant be serious; he must be pretending. Bu portre gerek ol-a.maz; kopya ol-ma.l. (bu / por*tre / ger*ek / o*la*maz / kop*ya / ol*ma*l ) This portrait cant be genuine; it must be a reproduction.

have to (verb-[mek, mak] + zorunda-pers)


This modal form expresses obligation imposed by an external authority or circumstances: -e gitmek iin her sabah saat alt-da kalk-mak zorunda-/y/m. (i*e / git*mek / i*in~ / her / sa*bah~ / sa*at / al*t*da / kalk*mak / zo*run*da*ym ) I have to get up at six oclock every morning to go to work. (The /y/ glide is inserted between /a/ and // vowels.) (external obligation) Patron-la konu.ur-ken dikkatli ol-mak zorunda-sn. (pat*ron*la / ko*nu*ur*ken~/ dik*kat*li / ol*mak / zo*run*da*sn ) You have to be careful when you are talking to the boss. (external obligation) Bu yaz dikkat-le yaz-l-mak zorunda. (bu / ya*z ~/ dik*kat*le / ya*zl*mak / zo*run*da ) This text has to be carefully written. (passive; external obligation) Oda-am- tertiple-mek zorunda-/y/m. (o*da*m / ter*tip*le*mek / zo*run*da*/y/m ) I have to tidy my room. (external obligation)

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Bu cmle-ler-i ren-mek zorunda m-/y/m? (bu / cm*le*le*ri / *ren*mek/ zo*run*da / m*ym ) Do I have to learn these sentences?

neednt or dont (doesn't) have to zorunda deil


Lack of necessity neednt or dont (doesnt) have to is expressed in Turkish with a negation allomorph "[me, or ma]" attached to a verb root, stem or a frame such as, git-me, yaz-ma, satn al-ma, al-ma, "temizle-en-me", and then one of the [e.bil, or a.bil] allomorphs is attached to the preceding [me, ma] negation allomorphs. After the [e.bil or a.bil] allomorphs, The Simple Present Tense allomorph [ir] is used, and finally personal allomorphs are added: Okul-a git-me-/y/e.bil-ir-im. (o*ku*la / git*me*ye*bi*li*rim ) I neednt (dont have to) go to school. (lack of necessity) imdi bala-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-iz. (im*di / ba*la*ma*ya*bi*li*riz ) We neednt (dont have to) start now. (lack of necessity) Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-im. (sa*bah*le*yin~ / er*ken / kalk*ma*ya*bi*li*rim ) I neednt get up early in the morning. (lack of necessity) Bugn bro temizle-en-me-/y/e.bil-ir. (bu / gn / b*ro / te*miz*len*me*ye*bi*lir ) The Office neednt be cleaned today. (passive) Gitmesem de olur, balamasak da olur, kalkmasam da olur, "kalkmama gerek yok", "gelmene gerek yok" expressions can also be used as alternatives to the sentences above: Sabah-le.yin erken kalk-ma-sa-am da olur. (sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk*ma*sam / da / o*lur ) I needn't get up early in the morning. (lack of necessity) When a question is asked with [me.li, ma.l], the answer to this question may be as follows: Konsere git-me.li mi-/y/im? Git-me-se-en de olur. Git-me-/y/e.bil-ir-sin. Must I go to the concert? No, you neednt."

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should or ought to (gerekir) (advice)
In order to compose this modal concept, one of the personal allomorphs is attached to the possessed part of a noun + infinitive compound. In the second parts of this compound, the second type of infinitives are used, which are made by attaching [me, or ma] allomorphs to verb roots, stems or frames such as: git-me, bekle-me, beklen-me, satn al-ma, satn alnma, ezberle-me, ezberlen-me, sprl-me, etc. The personal allomorphs attached to the infinitive parts of the noun + infinitive compounds are in the following list: (ben-im) (sen-in) (o-/n/un) (biz-im) (siz-in) (onlar-n) [em, am]] [en, an] [/s/i, /s/] [e.miz, a.mz] [e.niz, a.nz] [/s/i, /s/] or [leri, lar] (bekle-me-em) ( ko-ma-am) (bekle-me-en) (ko-ma-an) (bekle-me-si) (ko-ma-s) (bekle-me-e.miz) (ko-ma-a.mz) (bekle-me-e.niz) (ko-ma-a-.nz) (bekle-me-si) ( ko-ma-s)

Finally, after the above pronoun + infinitive compounds gerekir is used as a separate word: (Sen-in) daha ok al-ma-an gerek-ir. (se*nin / da*ha / ok / a*l*man / ge*re*kir ) You should (ought to) study harder. (advice) Senin is optional, senin alman is a noun + infinitive compound, and daha ok is an adverbial. rencilerin yeni kelimeleri ezberle-me-/s/i (ezberle-me-ler-i) gerekir.
(noun compound) (subj) NP V

The students should memorize the new words. (The /s/ glide is used between /e/ and /i/.) (advice) (Sen-in) baba-a-/n/n t--/n/ (sen-in) iyi dn-me-en gerekir.
chain noun comp obj of dnmek NP noun comp subj V

(ba*ba*nn / **d*n / i*yi / d*n*men / ge*re*kir ) You should think well about your fathers advice. Snav sonu-lar--/n/n bekle-en-me-/s/i gerek-ir. (s*nav / so*nu*la*r*nn / bek*len*me*si / ge*re*kir ) It is necessary to wait for the examination results. (passive)

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To make a negative advice, the [me] or [ma] negation allomorphs are inserted between verb roots, stems or frames and the [me, ma] infinitive allomorphs: (Sen-in) ok para harca-ma-ma-an gerek-ir. (se*nin / ok / pa*ra / har*ca*ma*man / ge*re*kir ) You shouldnt spend much money. (advice) Bir baba-/n/n ocuk-lar--/n/ ihml et-me-me-/s/i gerek-ir. (bir / ba*ba*nn / o*cuk*la*r*n / ih*ma:l / et*me*me*si / ge*re*kir ) A father shouldnt neglect his children. Vergi deme-/n/in ertele-en-me-me-/s/i gerek-ir. (ver*gi / *de*me*nin / er*te*len*me*me*si / ge*re*kir ) Paying tax shouldnt be postponed. (advice) (passive) In the senentence above, the /n/ glide is used between the first "e, i", and the /s/ glide is used between the last "e and i". May and can are both expressed in [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs in Turkish. Therefore, they can be used with the question tag mi in questions. Compare the following sentences: Haber doru ol-a.bil-ir. (ha*ber / do*ru / o*la*bi*lir ) The news may (can) be true. Haber doru ol-a.bil-ir mi? (ha*ber / do*ru / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Can the news be true? ocuk-lar ev-de ol-a.bil-ir. (o*cuk*lar / ev*de / o*la*bi*lir ) The children may (can) be at home. ocuklar ev-de ol-a.bil-ir mi? (o*cuk*lar / ev*de / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Can the children be at home? Hakl ol-a.bil-ir-sin. (hak*l / o*la*bi*lir*sin ) You may (can) be right. Hakl ol-a.bil-ir mi-/y/im? (hak*l / o*la*bi*lir / mi*yim ) Can I be right?

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orba scak ol-a.bil-ir. (or*ba / s*cak / o*la*bi*lir ) The soup may be hot. Tercme yanl ol-a.bil-ir. (ter*c*me / yan*l / o*la*bi*lir ) The translation may be incorrect.

PAST MODALS
Could
Could expresses ability in the past. To express the same concept in Turkish, V-[E.BiL]-[i.yor]-[du]-[pers] verb composition should be used: Yedi ya-m-da/y/-ken yz-e.bil-i.yor-du-um. (ye*di / ya*m*day*ken / y*ze*bi*li*yor*dum ) I could swim when I was seven years old. (ability in the past) Ahmet okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.bil-i.yor-du. (ah*met / o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce~ / o*ku*yup / ya*za*bi*li*yor*du ) Ahmet could read and write before he went to school. The negative form of this modal is V-[e.me, a.ma]-[.YOR]-[du]-[pers], which expresses both the negative of "could" and "was able to": Ben okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.ma-.yor-du-um. (ben / o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce~ / o*ku*yup / ya*za*m*yor*dum ) I couldn't read and write before I went to school. -im-i bitir-e.me-di-im. (i*i*mi / bi*ti*re*me*dim) I couldn't finish my work. (I wasn't able to finish my work.) Yeni ders-i anla-/y/a.bil-di-in mi? (ye*ni / der*si / an*la*ya*bil*din / mi) Were you able to understand the new lesson? Glk-ler-i a-a.bil-di-i.niz mi? (g*lk*le*ri / a*a*bil*di*niz / mi ) Were you able to overcome the difficulties? Tasar-/y/ bitir-e-bil-di-i.niz mi? (ta*sa*r*y / bi*ti*re*bil*di*niz / mi ) Were you able to finish the project?

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was (were) able to (V-[me-/y/i, ma-/y/] baardm)
When a past success is implied, the verb baar is used in Turkish in place of the was able to, the succeeded in, or the managed to expressions of the English language: Snav-da iyi bir not al-ma-/y/ baar-d-m. (s*nav*da / i*yi / bir / not / al*ma*y / ba*ar*dm) I was able to get a good grade in the examination. (I succeeded in getting a good grade.) (I managed to get a good grade.) Bizim takm, misafir takm- yen-me-/y/i baar-d. (bi*zim / ta*km~ / mi*sa:*fir / ta*k*m / yen*me*yi / ba*ar*d ) Our team succeeded in beating the visiting team. (The /y/ glide is inserted between /e/ and /i/.) -in-i bitir-me-/y/i baar-d-n m? or -in-i bitir-e.bil-di-in mi? (i*i*ni / bi*ti*re*bil*din / mi ) Were you able to complete your work? (The /y/ glide is used between [me] and [i].) As an alternative to the above sentence types, V-[e-bil, a-bil]-[di]-[pers] verb composition can be used: En son-u/n/-da (en nihayet) i-im-i bitir-e.bil-di-im. (en / so*nun*da / i*i*mi / bi*ti*re*bil*dim ) I was able to finish my work at last. V - [e.me, a.ma] - [di, d] - [pers] verb composition can be used in place of "couldn't, wasn't able to or didn't succeed in": Ma- kazan-a.ma-d-k. (ma* / ka*za*na*ma*dk ) We couldn't win the match. Bu problem-i z-e.me-di-im. (bu / prob*le*mi / *ze*me*dim ) I couldnt solve this problem. As could is used in English conditional clauses, so can V-[E-BiL]-[ir]-[di][pers] verb composition be used in Turkish conditional sentences: Yeter-in.ce vaktim ol-sa sana imdi yardm et-e.bil-ir-di-im. (ye*te*rin*ce / vak*tim / ol*sa~ / im*di / sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir*dim~) If I had enough time, I could help you now. (The /t/ in et changes into the voiced /d/.)

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Hava daha iyi ol.sa piknik-e git-e.bil-ir-di-ik. (ha*va / da*ha / i*yi / ol*sa~ / pik*ni*e / gi*de*bi*lir*dik~) We could go for a picnic if the weather were (was) better.

Would or could (polite request)


V-[R]-[M]/y/-[D]-[pers] verb composition is used to express a polite request in Turkish: In this verb composition, V symbolizes a verb root, a stem or a frame. [R] is a morpheme that includes all the allomorphs of the Simple Present Tense [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]. [M] includes all interrogative allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu]. [D] represents the simple past tense allomorphs [di, d, d, du];, and [pers] symbolizes all the personal allomorphs. Consider the following sentences: Bir saniye ben-i din-le-er mi/y/-di-i.niz? (bir / sa:*ni*ye / be*ni / din*ler / miy*di*niz ) Would you listen to me for a second? In fact, this sort of request is the second part of a conditional sentence: Rica et-se-em, bir saniye ben-i dinle-er mi/y/-di-i.niz? (ri*ca: / et*sem~ / bir / sa:*ni*ye / be*ni / din*ler / miy*di*niz ) Would you listen to me for a second if I asked? Ben-im-le bir fincan ay i-er mi/y/-di-iniz? Would you have a cup of tea with me? Bavul-um-u ta-ma-am-a yardm et-er mi/y/-di-i.niz? (ba*vu*lu*mu / ta**ma*ma / yar*dm / e*der / miy*di*niz ) Would you help me to carry my suitcase? In the last example above, the /t/ in et changes into /d/, and the /y/ glide is inserted between [mi] and [di]. If someone wishes to be politer, he can add the [E.BL] and [R] morphemes to the verb composition above: Ben-i bir saniye din.le-/y/e.bil-ir mi/y/-di-i-niz? (be*ni / bir / sa:*ni*ye / din*le*ye*bi*lir / miy*di*niz ) Could you listen to me for a second please? The [R] Simple Present, and [D] Simple Past Tense morphemes are also used together in Turkish conditional sentences:

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Bura-da ol-sa biz-e yardm et-er-di. (bur*da / ol*sa~ / bi*ze / yar*dm / e*der*di ) If he were here, he would help us. (The /t/ changes into the /d/ voiced consonant.) Sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am bu eski araba-/y/ sat-ar-d-m. (se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam~ / bu / es*ki / a*ra*ba*y / sa*tar*dm ) If I were you, I would sell this old car. (advice) retmen sen-i gr-se/y/-di kz-ar-d. (*ret*men / se*ni / gr*sey*di / k*zar*d ) If the teacher saw you, he would be angry.

PERFECT MODALS
must have V - [mi, m, m, mu] + [ol-ma.l]-[pers]
This perfect modal verb composition conveys a past concept of certainty. Consider the following: Grev-i-/n/i bitir-mi ol-ma.l. (g*re*vi*ni / bi*tir*mi / ol*ma*l ) He must have finished his duty. (I am sure he (has) finished it.) Ev-den ayrl-m ol-ma.l. (liaison) (ev*den / ay*rl*m*ol*ma*l ) He must have left home. (I am sure he has left home.) Uak in-mi ol-ma.l. (liaison) (u*ak / in*mi*ol*ma*l ) The plane must have landed. (I am sure it has landed. ) Ben-i anla-m ol-ma.l-sn. (liaison) (be*ni / an*la*m*ol*ma*l*sn ) You must have understood me. (I am sure you (have) understood me.) O-/n/u bir yer-de gr-m ol-ma.l-/y/m. (liaison) (o*nu / bir / yer*de / gr*m*ol*ma*l*ym ) I must have seen her somewhere. (I am sure I saw her somewhere.) Both certainty and possibility concepts can also be conveyed by V-[M][DR] verb composition:

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Grev-i-/n/i bitir-mi-tir. (g*re*vi*ni / bi*tir*mi*tir ) He must (may) have finished his duty. Ev-den ayrl-m-tr. (ev*den / ay*rl*m*tr ) He must (may) have left home. Haber-i duy-mu mu-dur? (ha*be*ri / duy*mu / mu*dur ) Is he likely to have heard the news? Haber-i duy-ma-m-tr. (ha*be*ri / duy*ma*m*tr ) He cant (couldnt) have heard the news. Haber duy-ul-ma-m-tr. (ha*ber / du*yul*ma*m*tr ) The news may not have been heard. (passive) Bu saat-te yat-m-tr bile. (bu / sa*at*te / yat*m*tr / bi*le ) He must have already gone to bed at this hour. Yamur dur-mu mu-dur? (ya*mur / dur*mu / mu*dur ) It it likely to have stopped raining? The same verb composition may be used in conditional sentences, as well: Paris-e git-ti/y/-se, Eyfel Kulesi-/n/i gr-m-tr. (pa*ri*se / git*tiy*se~ / ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / gr*m*tr ) If he went to Paris, he must have seen the Eiffel Tower. Bir yanllk yap-t/y/-sa zr dile-mi-tir. (bir / yan*l*lk / yap*ty*sa~ / *zr / di*le*mi*tir ) If he made a mistake, he must have apologized. Note: git-ti/y/-se means if he went, but git-se/y/-di means if he had gone: Paris-e git-se/y/-di Eyfel Kulesi-/n/i gr-r-d. (pa*ri*se / git*sey*di ~/ ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / g*rr*d ) If he had gone to Paris, he would have seen the Eiffel Tower. (He didnt go, and he didnt see.)

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Yeter-in.ce al-sa/y/-d kt bir not al-maz-d. (ye*te*rin*ce / a*l*say*d~ / k*t / bir / not / al*maz*d ) If he had studied hard enough, he wouldnt have got a poor mark. (He didnt study, so he got a poor mark.) Oyun-u seyret-se/y/-di-in ho-un-a git-er-di. (o*yu*nu / sey*ret*sey*din ~ / ho*u*na / gi*der*di ) If you had watched the play, you would have enjoyed it.

cant have

V - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol - [a-maz] - [pers]

The verb chain above is used to form a verb composition to convey past impossibility. In doing this, when [a.maz] negation allomorph is attached to the first person personal allomorph [am], the /z/ consonant drops, the /a-a/ vowels combine and are verbalized as a single vowel: Gr-m ol-a.maz-am. (gr*m / o*la*mam ) Gr-m ol-a.maz-sn. (gr*m / o*la*maz*sn ) Gr-m ol-a.maz. (gr*m / o*la*maz ) Gr-m ol-a.ma-/y/z. (gr*m / o*la*ma*yz ) Gr-m ol-a.maz-s.nz. (gr*m / o*la*maz*s*nz ) Gr-m ol-a.maz-lar. (gr*m / o*la*maz*lar ) Example sentences: O-/n/u yanl anla-m ol-amaz-am. (o*nu / yan*l / an*la*m / o*la*mam ) (o*nu / yan*l*an*la*m*o*la*mam ) (liason) I can't (couldnt) have misunderstood it. Sen-i yanl anla-m ol-a.maz m? (se*ni / yan*l / an*la*m / o*la*maz / m ) Isn't he likely to have misunderstood you? Sen-i iit-mi ol-a.maz. (se*ni / i*it*mi / o*la*maz ) (se*ni / i*it*mi*o*la*maz ) (liaison) He cant (couldnt) have heard you. Lastik-i patla-m ol-a.maz. (las*ti*i / pat*la*m / o*la*maz ) He cant (couldnt) have had a flat tire.

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Tm soru-lar-a cevap ver-mi ol-a.maz-sn. (tm / so*ru*la*ra / ce*vap / ver*mi / o*la*maz*sn ) You cant (couldnt) have answered all the questions. Fenerbahe yen-il-mi ol-a.maz m? (fe*ner*bah*e / ye*nil*mi / o*la*maz / m ) Isn't Fenerbahe likely to have been beaten?

should have (ought to have) noun + infinitive + gerek-ir-di


This perfect modal composition is used to express a past obligation or expectation that was not carried out: (Sen-in) ev dev-in-i yap-ma-an gerek-ir-di.
noun + infinitive compound

(ev / *de*vi*ni / yap*man / ge*re*kir*di ) You should (ought to) have done your homework. (But you didnt.) Bu araba-/y/ satn al-mak iin (sen-in) daha ok para biriktir-me-en gerek-ir-di. (bu / a*ra*ba*y / sa*tn / al*mak / i*in~ / da*ha / ok / pa*ra / bi*rik*tir*men / ge*re*kir*di ) You should have saved more money to buy this car. (But you didnt.) Snav-da (ben-im) daha dikkat-li ol-ma-am gerek-ir-di. (s*nav*da / da*ha / dik*kat*li / ol*mam / ge*re*kir*di ) I should have been more careful in the examination. (But I wasnt.) (Sen-in) dn bana telefon et-me-en gerek-mez mi/y/-di? (dn / ba*na / te*le*fon / et*men / ge*rek*mez / miy*di ) Shouldn't you have telephoned me yesterday? (Why didn't you telephone?) dev.in-i yap.ma-an gerek-mez mi/y/-di? (*de*vi*ni / yap*man / ge*rek*mez / miy*di ) Shouldn't you have done your homework?. (You haven't done your homework. Why?) To change the above modal composition into the negative form, the [me] or [ma] negation allomorphs are put after the verb roots, stems or frames, and then the [me] or [ma] infinitive allomorphs follow them preceding the personal allomorphs: (Sen-in) ekmek al-ma-ma-an gerek-ir-di.
noun + infinitive compound

(se*nin / ek*mek / al*ma*man / ge*re*kir*di ) You shouldnt (neednt) have bought bread. (But you did.) (advice)

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(Sen-in), kz karde-in-e bar-ma-ma-an gerek-ir-di. (kz / kar*de*i*ne / ba*r*ma*man / ge*re*kir*di ) You shouldnt have shouted at your sister. (But you did.) (advice) (O-/n/un) yalan syle-me-me-/s/i gerek-ir-di. (o*nun / ya*lan / sy*le*me*me*si / ge*re*kir*di ) He shouldnt have told a lie. (But he did.) Mehmet-in snav-da kopya ek-me-me-/s/i gerek-ir-di. (meh*me*din / s*nav*da / kop*ya / ek*me*me*si / ge*re*kir*di ) Mehmet shouldnt have cheated in the examination. (But he did.)

may have V - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol-a.bil-ir- [pers]


This modal adds possibility to verb roots, stems and frames: Dar k-m ol-a.bil-ir. (d*a*r / k*m / o*la*bi*lir ) He may have gone out. (Perhaps he has gone out.) Dar k-m-tr. (d*a*r / k*m*tr ) He must have gone out. (Im sure he has gone out.) Otobs- kar-m ol-a.bil-ir. (o*to*b*s / ka*r*m / o*la*bi*lir ) He may have missed the bus. (Perhaps he has missed it.) Otobs- kar-m ol-a.bil-ir mi? (o*to*b*s / ka*r*m / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Is he likely to have missed the bus? Sen-i yanl anla-m ol-a.bil-ir. (se*ni / yan*l*an*la*m*o*la*bi*lir ) (liaison) She may have misunderstood you. (Perhaps she misunderstood you.) Bro temizle-en-mi ol.a.bil-ir. (b*ro / te*miz*len*mi / o*la*bi*lir ) The office may have been cleaned. (Perhaps it has been cleaned.) Haber-i iit-mi ol.a.bil-ir-ler mi? (ha*be*ri / i*it*mi / o*la*bi*lir*ler / mi ) Are they likely to have heard the news? Vazo-/y/u kedi kr-m ol-a.bil-ir mi? (va*zo*yu / ke*di / kr*m / o*la*bi*lir / mi ) Is the cat likely to have broken the vase?

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Bir anlama-/y/a var-m ol-a.bil-ir-ler. (bir / an*la*ma*ya / var*m / o*la*bi*lir*ler ) They may have reached an agreement.

might have V-[e.bil, a.bil]-[ir]-[di]-[pers]


Kaza geir-e.bil-ir-di-ik. (ka*za: / ge*i*re*bi*lir*dik ) We might have had an accident. (It was probable, but we didnt.) Pencere-/y/i kr-a.bil-ir-di-in. (pen*ce*re*yi / k*ra*bi*lir*din ) You might have broken the window. (It was probable, but you didnt.) Ma kaybet-il-e.bil-ir-di. (ma / kay*be*di*le*bi*lir*di ) The match might have been lost. (It was probable, but it wasnt lost.) (The /t/ changes into /d/.) (passive) n-/n/-de-ki araba-/y/a arp-a.bil-ir-di-in. (*nn*de*ki / a*ra*ba*ya / ar*pa*bi*lir*din ) You might have hit the car in front of you. (But you didn't hit it.) n-/n/-de-ki araba-/y/a carp-ma-/y/a.bil-ir-di-in. (*nn*de*ki / a*ra*ba*ya / arp*ma*ya*bi*lir*din ) You might not have hit the car in front of you. (But you hit it.)

neednt have noun + infinitive-[e, a] + gerek yoktu


This modal composition is used to express absence of obligation or necessity. The noun compounds used in the following sentences are showed between inverted commas. Aye-/n/in acele et-me-/s/i-/n/e gerek yok-tu.
noun + infinitive comp - [E] (adverbial)

(ay*e*nin / a*ce*le / et*me*si*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu ) Aye neednt have hurried. (But she did.) (Sen-in) btn soru-lar-a cevap ver-me-en-e gerek yok-tu. (b*tn / so*ru*la*ra / ce*vap / ver*me*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu ) You neednt have answered all the questions. (But you did.) (Onlar-n) ma- ertele-me-ler-i-/n/e gerek yoktu. (on*la*rn / ma* / er*te*le*me*le*ri*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu ) They neednt have postponed the match. (But they did.)

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(Siz-in) iek-ler-i sula-ma-a.nz-a gerek yoktu. (i*ek*le*ri / su*la*ma*n*za / ge*rek / yok*tu ) You neednt have watered the flowers. (But you did.) (Sen-in) ift ayakkab al-ma-an-a gerek yoktu. ( / ift / a*yak*ka*b / al*ma*na / ge*rek / yok*tu ) You needn't have bought three pairs of shoes. Note: git-me-se de olurdu, sula-ma-sa-lar da olurdu sentence types can also be used as alternatives to the sentences above. The noun compounds in the sentences above and below are all showed between inverted commas.

didnt need to noun + infinitive - [e, a] + gerek kalmad


This form of modal is used to express unfulfilled necessity in the past: (Ben-im) uzun zaman bekle-me-em-e gerek kal-ma-d. (u*zun / za*man / bek*le*me*me / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) I didn't need to wait for a long time. (Biz-im) okul-a yr-/y/e.rek git-me-e.miz-e gerek kal-ma-d. (o*ku*la / y*r*ye*rek / git*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) We didnt need to walk to school. iek-ler-in sula-an-ma-/s/-/n/a gerek kal-ma-d. (i*ek*le*rin / su*lan*ma*s*na / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) The flowers didnt need to be watered. (passive infinitive) (The /s/ and /n/ glides are used after [ma] and [] allomorphs respectively.) (Biz-im) bir araba kirala-ma-a.mz-a gerek kal-ma-d. (bir / a*ra*ba / ki*ra:*la*ma*m*za / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) We didnt need to hire a car. Toplant yap-ma-a.mz-a gerek kal-ma-d. (top*lan*t / yap*ma*m*za / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) We didnt need to hold a meeting. Yardm iste-me-e.miz-e gerek kal-ma-d. (yar*dm / is*te*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) We didnt need to ask for help. (Biz-im) bekle-me-e.miz-e gerek kal-ma-d ) (bek*le*me*mi*ze / ge*rek / kal*ma*d ) We didnt need to wait.

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The transformational activity of the mind has two interactive functions. One of these functions is to recall the morphemes of his native language matching his set of thought before producing a simple sentence using the innate logical structures, and the other one is to transform the same simple sentence into a Nominal Phrase to use it in the same NP + VP logical sentence-producing pattern to produce a longer sentence. One of the language activities of the mind is to recall the morphemes stored up in its memory fitting to express ones sets of thought in a target language. During this mental activity the mind finds the most reasonable and available ones to fit into the NP + VP innate sentence producing system. Besides the innate sentence producing system (NP + VP), the memory of a human being possesses the phonemes, the syllabication and the transformational rules of his native language that have been stored up in his memory including some basic speculative concepts generalized in the question words in languages such as the English interrogative words who, whom, what, where, when, how, why, "whose", for whom, from whom, from where, to whom, by whom, since when and until what time, etc. One, or some of these inquisitive thoughts, or the answers to them, may also be chosen by the mind of a person to be reflected into a projected oral sentence. The simple sentences that are printed in italics in this book are presumed to possess these fundamental free morphemes (words) as well as all the bound morphemes (derivational and inflectional) of a language. These morphemes are illustrated with detailed tree diagrams in transformational grammars. As it is inconvenient and unnecessary to show all the sentences in tree diagrams in this book, we prefer taking simple sentences as a starting point. The aim of this book is not to teach Transformational Generative Grammar, but to put it into practice by using it as a new grammar approach.

THE NOMINALIZATION OF THE SIMPLE ENGLISH SENTENCES


If a speaker or writer wants to express him in longer sentences, he transforms the simple sentences that are also produced by the innate logical function of the language-producing system of the mind into syntactic nominal phrases to be used in the same "NP+VP" logical sentence pattern. By operating this function of the language-producing system, a speaker or writer can transform the simple sentences, which are the shortest NP+VP sentences, into longer sentences shaped and fitted into the same NP+VP logi-

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cal sentence-producing system. Sentences may be infinitely long within the framework of the NP+VP logical sentence-producing system. However, there is another important fact to keep in mind that when the logical system builds a simple sentence, it can simultaneously and interactively transform it into a nominal phrase, and can use it as a nominal phrase in the same logical pattern as a subject or an object. The simple sentence building, and building sentences containing transformed phrases, function one within the other interactively while someone is building sentences. For instance, Jack likes pop music is a simple sentence. If someone wants to use this sentence as an object in a sentence, he spontaneously transforms it into a nominal phrase that jack likes pop music, and uses it as an object in the sentence as I know that Jack likes pop music. Some boys are swimming in the lake is a simple sentence. If we want to produce a syntactic nominal phrase out of this sentence, we can produce the boys (who are) swimming in the lake to be used in any part of a NP + VP logical pattern where any noun or a pronoun can be used. For instance: The boys (who are) swimming in the lake are my sons.
NP (subject) VP

You can see the boys (who are) swimming in the lake.
NP V NP (object of see)

The explanations above are grammatical explanations, but thought acts more inclusively while producing a sentence. When somebody has an item of thought, such as "article" in his mind, he may have had two simple sentence alternatives in store in his mind to convey his thought to his listener or reader. It may be a sentence that he uttered before such as "I read an article in a newspaper". If he has uttered this sentence before, he goes on conveying his thought by saying that "It was interesting". If he did not utter the same sentence, but he already has it in store in his mind (in his memory), he transforms the same sentence into a noun + determiner compound such as, "an article, which I read in the newspaper", and completes his sentence saying that "An article, which I read in the newspaper, was interesting. On the other side, the person who has heard what the speaker said may go on saying, "Yes, I saw it, or Yes, I saw the article that you read in the newspaper". This shows us that the logic transforms the simple sentences into nominal phrases so that they may be used as subjects or objects in the NP+VP sentence pattern.

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In English, however, some transformations are also carried out within a simple sentence itself to change it into the question form such as, You like pop music Do you like pop music?; You haven't done your homework Haven't you done your homework? A passive transformation may also be carried out within a simple sentence so as the object to be used as if it were the subject of a sentence. It is also possible to transform the interrogative and passive simple sentences into Nominal Phrases:
.

Have you done your homework? whether I have done my homework Mother wants to know whether I have done my homework.
NP (obj)

Thieves stole a necklace. "A necklace was stolen by some thieves" "the necklace that was stolen by the thieves" The necklace that was stolen by the thieves hasn't been found yet.
NP (subj)

Transformational, phonological, and syllabication rules are specific for every language, which means that all languages have their own transformational, phonological, and syllabication rules. Without knowing these rules, one cannot produce sentences. To sum up, we can say that the semantic, the transformational, and the phonological rules in ones mind act in close coordination differently in different languages to produce sentences. Therefore, the same process in Turkish differs as follows: "Ben gazetede bir makale okudum." "O ilginti." (Ben-im) gazete-de oku-duk-um makale ilgin-ti.
noun + infinitive compound (determiner) NP noun VP

The sentences that contain only one finite verb (simple sentences) can be transformed into nominal phrases (noun compounds) to be used in the "NP + VP" sentence producing pattern as subjects, objects, and as objects of prepositions. Consider the following: Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children last week.
who V where (adverbial) how (adverbial) why (adverbial) for whom (adverbial) when (adverbial)

The question words under the lines and the answers to them on the lines are the basic conceptual elements of thought of simple sentences in languages. Therefore, I avoid using the term kernel sentence in this book. For instance, when you hear the word went, you want to find answers in your mind to the questions who? and where? because only the word went does not convey satisfactory information. If you hear the sentence Jane

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went to the supermarket, your mind accepts it as a reasonable and satisfactory sentence. Additionally, when the simple sentences are nominalized in Turkish, they are nominalized together with the adverbials that they contain. The interrogative words are "who", whom, where, to whom, for whom, "when", how, why, which, "whose", how long, from where, from whom, by whom, etc. These question words and/or the answers to them are the essential elements of a simple sentence. For instance, Did Jane go? does not make sense if it is not preceded by some other sentences. However, Where did Jane go? is a complete sentence as it is Jane went to the supermarket. The entire simple example sentence above can be nominalized only by putting that in the beginning of the sentence in English, and leaving the rest of the sentence unchanged: that Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children in the morning is a transformed, nominalized and vocalized sentence because it can occupy the place of any NP in S NP + VP basic sentence-producing system. The same sentence can also be nominalized by starting the sentence with the above-mentioned question words, and omitting the underlined phrases above them. The following sentences are all transformed nominalized sentences (nominal phrases): who: where: how: why: for whom: when: who went to the supermarket where Jane went how Jane went to the supermarket why Jane went to the supermarket for whom Jane wanted to buy toys when Jane went to the supermarket

As it is seen, the nominalized sentences (nominal phrases) beginning with question words are not in the interrogative form. They are transformed, and nominalized oral phrases ready to occupy the places of nouns or pronouns that can be used as subjects, or objects of verbs as all nouns and pronouns can. I
S

know
V

it.
obj

What do I know?

I know that Jane went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children.
NP V VP NP (obj of know)

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I know who went to the supermarket. (nominal phrase) I know where Jane went. (nominal phrase) I know how Jane went to the supermarket. (nominal phrase) I know why Jane went to the supermarket. (nominal phrase) I know for whom Jane wanted to buy toys. (nominal phrase) I know when Jane went to the supermarket. (nominal phrase) I know what Jane did. The parts that are printed in bold face in the sentences above are all used as the objects of the verb know. The same nominal phrases can also be used as the objects of the following verbs: know, guess, ask, tell, remember, say, and the like I guess (that) she went to the supermarket. He asked me when Jane went to the supermarket. She says (that) Jane went to the supermarket. They ask me how Jane went to the supermarket. Do you remember when Jane went to the supermarket? The parts of the sentences that are printed in bold face above are nominal phrases, and all of them are used as objects. When someone talks about the verb, he says: I can guess what Jane did yesterday, I dont know whether Jane went to the supermarket or not. The same nominal phrases can also be used as subjects: Who went to the supermarket is a mystery.
nominal phrase (subject)

When Jane went to the supermarket is unknown.


nominal phrase (subject)

How Jane went to the supermarket is not important.


nominal phrase (subject)

The same nominal phrases can be used as the objects of some prepositions, as well: It depends on what Jane says.
object of on

I am bored of what you are talking about.


object of of

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It reminds me of how we went to Bursa.
object of of

I was surprised at (by) what he said to me.


object of at

The interrogative simple sentences can also be nominalized: Have you done your work? whether I have done my work Mother asks me whether I have done my work.
NP (object)

Why didnt you come to the party? why I didnt come to the party Jane wonders why I didnt come to the party.
NP (object)

Where am I? where I am You cant guess where I am.


NP (object)

What am I interested in? what I am interested in You cant guess what I am interested in. NP (object) What is Jack doing? what Jack is doing Mother wants to know what Jack is doing. Are you ready? if I am ready Mother asks me if I am ready.

THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE SIMPLE SENTENCES INTO DETERMINERS


Simple sentences can be transformed into determiners in order to determine one of the nouns in the same simple sentences. These nouns, together with the transformed phrases, create noun + determiner compounds in order to be used as nominal phrases in sentences. These compounds are structurally compounds but syntactically nominal phrases. When needed, these nominal phrases are used as subjects, objects, or objects of prepositions, and as predicates in sentences. All noun compounds and determined + determiner compounds are structural units that have been transformed from simple sentences into Nominal Phrases to be used in NP + VP logical pattern. This operation is performed by the mind while producing sentences. To sum up, we can say that the first aim of transforming simple sentences is to restructure and fit them into syntactic nominal phrases to be used in NP + VP sentence pattern.

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First, let us see how a simple sentence transforms into a noun + determiner compound: Some girls were picking flowers in the garden.
N N N

To determine the underlined girls, the girls that (who) is put in the beginning of the sentence, and the rest of it is added to it without being changed: the girls who were picking flowers in the garden" is constructionally a noun + determiner compound, but syntactically it is a syntactic nominal phrase that can be used as a subject or an object in a sentence: The girls who were picking flowers in the garden were my students.
D N D synt nominal phrase (subject) (NP) predicate (VP)

The same simple sentence can also be transformed so as the noun flowers could be determined by the rest of the sentence. To carry out this transformation activity, the flowers that (which) is used as the head of the transformed phrase, and the rest of the sentence is left unchanged. In this way, the transformed phrase the flowers that the girls were picking in the garden can be used in "NP+VP" logical sentence pattern as a NP. Incidentally, it is necessary to say that all the suffxes used in transforming sentences into nominal phrases in Turkish are inflectional. The flowers that the girls were picking in the garden were beautiful.
D N NP D predicate (VP)

I
NP

saw the flowers that the girls were picking in the fields.
V NP

The same process above can also be initiated to determine the noun garden: the garden in which (where) the girls were picking flowers
D N NP D

The garden in which the girls were picking flowers was not in good condition.
syntactic nominal phrase (NP) predicate (VP)

The same transformed phrases can be used in other parts of different sentences, as well: I
NP

dont know
V

the girls who were picking flowers in the harden,


NP VP

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A woman was chasing the girls who were picking flowers in the garden.
NP (subj) V VP (predicate) NP

The simple sentences with verbs be and have (got) are transformed as follows: The roses were red the roses that were red the red roses
sentence transformed phrase transformed phrase

I picked the roses that were red


NP

I picked the red roses


NP

There are some books on the table. the books that are on the table
sentence nominal phrase

I want
NP V

the books (that are) on the table. NP (obj of the infinitive) The books (that are) on the table are mine
NP (obj of want) nominal phrase (subject) (predicate) VP

to borrow

I have got a car. the car that I have got my car


sentence NP NP (synt nominal phrs) VP NP(synt nominal phrs) NP VP

The car that I have got is a second-hand car. My car is a second-hand car.

THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE NATURAL LANGUAGES


All natural languages are infinitely productive so long as the sentences are kept within the framework of the Phrase Structure Rules: S NP + VP. Consider the following simple sentences: The girls were picking flowers in the garden. The girls were playing in the garden. The girls were singing in the garden. In the three sentences above, the girls and in the garden expressions are repeated. To avoid repeating them, a speaker or writer can delete the repeated four words, and use the necessary others in his speech or writing: The girls were picking flowers, singing, and playing in the garden. These simple sentences can also be transformed so as the girls should be determined by the rest of the sentence, and by doing so, the following oral sentence is produced.

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The girls who were picking flowers, playing and singing in the garden were happy.
NP VP

Now, consider the following four simple sentences: 1. Jack caught a fish. 2. Mr. Brown cleaned it. 3. Mary fried it. 4. Jane ate it. To transform and combine these four thoughts in a complex (syntactic) sentence, we begin with the last one, and delete the repeated understandable others: Jane ate the fish that Mary fried that Mr. Brown cleaned that Jack caught.
NP V noun NP successive determiners

Contrary to the above sentence production, if we start with the first basic sentence, the complex sentence will become as follows: Jack caught the fish that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mary fried that Jane ate. If you try to understand the sentence above, it sounds funny, doesnt it? How can Jack catch the fish that Jane ate? A fish cannot be caught after it has been eaten. This example shows us that while producing complex sentences out of simple sentences, one should be careful about the sequence of the determiners. Furthermore, only the words that jack caught that Mr. Brown cleaned that Mary fried that Jane ate do not make sense without the words the fish, which complete the chain of determiners as a NP although the words the fish are in the beginning of the sentence. Therefore, one can say that all natural languages may be infinitely long as long as they are approved by the Phrase Structure rules, and so long as the human short-term memory can tolerate them. An example from a Turkish sentence may clarify the above explanation: Jackin yakalad, Mr. Brownn temizledii, Marynin piirdii (?) sequence of words do not make sense without the word balk, which is the final word of the NP in Turkish. Moreover, to complete this nominal phrase, a person has to add a verbal phrase to produce a grammatically well-formed acceptable sentence:

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The fish that Jack caught that Mary fried that Jane ate was delicious.
NP VP

Whether sentences are infinitely long or short, they end up in NP + VP inborn logical sentence-producing system. A final point to add to the explanations above is that the final word in Turkish is at the end of a NP, but in English, it is in the beginning. The reason why we begin organizing the logical simple sentences beginning with the last simple sentence and going on to the first one in English is that the mind organizes the transformed phrases starting with the last one and going to the first. However, in Turkish, this process is just the opposite; the mind does not start with the last sentence, it starts with the first one, and goes on to the last because the final word balk is at the end of the NP.

TRANSFORMED SIMPLE SENTENCES USED AS ADVERBIAL CLAUSES


When one wants to transform a simple sentence into a basic general adverbial concept such as time, place, manner, degree, cause, contrast, purpose, comparison, result, or condition, it chooses a suitable word (subordinating conjunction) to put in the beginning of a simple sentence. When these words are used, the simple sentences are mentally transformed into adverbial clauses that can be used before or after the main clauses. The subordinating conjunctions that are chosen to convert these concepts into adverbial clauses are as follows:
TIME PLACE MANNER DEGREE COMPARISON CAUSE CONTRAST PURPOSE RESULT CONDITION:

when, while, before, after, as soon as, until, since, just as, where, wherever as, how as... as, not so ...as, the ... the, so long as, as long as adj (adv)-[ER] + than or more + adj (adv) + than because, as, since, for although, even though, even if, no matter how (who, when) so that, in order that, in case, lest so, so ... that if, unless
TIME

when:

Jane was beautiful when she was a baby.

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while: before: after: as soon as: until: by the time: just as: since: It began to rain while I was watering the flowers. Mary wants to buy a car before she gets old. Ill do these exercises after I go home. The students stood up as soon as the teacher arrived. Ill stay here until you promise to marry me. Ill have finished my work by the time the visitors arrive. The postman knocked at the door just as I was leaving home. I have been waiting here since you telephoned me.
PLACE

where: wherever:

Put my dictionary back where you found it. I will remember you wherever I go.
MANNER

as:

You can do it as you wish.


DEGREE

as ... as: not so... as: the ... the: so ... as:

You should study as hard as you can. You are not so careful as you ought to be. The easier they rise, the harder they fall. You can stay here so long as you keep quite.
COMPARISON

than:

The bus arrived earli-er than we expected. Turkish is more complicated than English. Mary studies hard-er than her brother.
CAUSE

because: as: since:

I cant help you now because Im busy watching television. As Im busy doing my homework, I cant help you right now. Since you are not interested in watching football, wed better go fishing. Mary cant drive, for she is only a baby. She is not ready yet, for she is stil doing her make up.

for:

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CONTRAST or CONCESSION

although:

Although she studied hard, she couldnt succeed in the examination I have to go on working although I am madly in love with you. We cant get to the bus stop in time even if we hurry. While some people are poor, others are wealthy.
PURPOSE

even if: while:

so that: in case:

They ran to the bus stop so that they shouldnt miss the bus. Take an umbrella in case it rains. Ring the bell in case of fire.
RESULT

so... that:

The book was so boring that I was able to read only a few pages.

such... that:

The children were making such a lot of noise that I had to leave home. He didnt study hard, so he failed.
CONDITION

so:

if :

If you dont understand, please ask me. If you were a fish, a cat would eat you. If you had passed the examination, I would have bought you
a new car.

unless:

She wont speak to you unless you apologize to her. Don't sign the document unless you read it carefully.

TURKISH SENTENCE NOMINALIZATIONS


A simple sentence, which contains only one finite verb (a simple sentence), can be transformed into various transformed phrases by following certain rules in both English and Turkish. First, it is necessary to say that there are no clauses in Turkish (except conditional clauses) as those of the English language; there are noun + infinitive and determiner + determined compounds, instead. Let us first consider the following Turkish simple sentence:

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Aye ocuklarna baz oyuncaklar almak iin sabahleyin otobsle spermarkete gitti.
kim? kime? niin? ne zaman? nasl? nereye? ne yapt?

When the whole sentence above is transformed into a syntactic nominal phrase (structurally into a noun compound), it results in as follows: Aye/n/in ocuk-lar--/n/a baz oyuncak-lar al-mak iin sabah-le.yin otobs-le supermarket-e git-me-/s/i or git-tik-i. (git*ti*i) As you notice, only the words Ayenin and git-me-/s/i or git-tik-i are different from Aye and gitti. The English equivalent of this transformed nominal phrase is the transformed nominal clause that Aye went to the supermarket by bus to buy some toys for her children in the morning. In English, only the word that is put in the beginning of the transformed nominal clause and the rest of the sentence is left unchanged. When Aye/n/in git-me-/s/i compound is considered, this transformation reminds us of the possessor + possessed noun compounds like Aye/n/in anta-/s/, okul-un kap-/s/, or Aye/n/in amca-/s/.These are structurally noun + infinitive compounds, but syntactically they are nominal phrases. A syntactic noun is a transformed simple sentence (nominal phrase) that can be used in any part of a sentence where nouns and pronouns can. These nouns and pronouns are the words like book, table, I, he, him, "it" and them. The units that are used between "Aye'nin" and "gitmesi", such as "ocuklarna", "baz oyuncaklar almak iin", "sabahleyin", "otobsle", "supermarkete" are all adverbials which are the answers to the basic interrogative adverbial concepts of for whom, why, how, where, when. Compare and consider the following sentences: (Ben) cevab- bil-i.yor.um. I know the answer.
subject object V S V object

(Ben) Aye/n/in okul-a git-tik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor-um. I know that Aye went to school.
NP NP (obj) VP V NP V VP NP (obj)

In the sentence above, Ayenin 0kula git-tik-i is structurally a noun+ infinitive compound, but syntactically it is a syntactic nominal phrase because it is a transformed simple sentence nominalized so as to be used in the NP+VP logial pattern as a NP. (A VP may contain a V and a NP). The phoneme changes in the above sentence are as follows: The /k/ changes into its voiced form //, the first [i] is the personal possessor allomorph [i], the /n/ is a glide, and the second [i] is the defining allomorph.

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These syntactic phrases can occupy the places of both nouns and determiners in sentences: Ayenin okula gittik-i biliniyor. That Aye goes to school is known.
NP (noun compound) passive V NP (synt nominal phrs) (passive) V

Ayenin gittik-i okul


determiner + noun NP (synt nominal phrs)

the school that Aye goes to


D N D NP (synt nominal phrs)

Ayenin gittii + okul is a determiner + noun compound, but when both parts of this compound is considered, it is a syntactic nominal phrase. In short, it is a NP. The reason why there are two different possessed infinitives in the end of the transformed phrases is that either git-tik-i or git-me-/s/i is used in accordance with the existence or nonexistence (absence) of the question words or the answers to them in the transformed phrases. In short, the compounds without question words can only be used when the compounds that have infinitives are used as the subject of a sentence. Some of the most frequently used question words that can be used in noun compounds are kim-in, kim-i, kim-e, kim-de, kim-den, kim-le, kim iin, ne zaman, nasl, nere-/y/i, nere/y/e, nere-de, ner(e)-den, niin, neden, ne kadar, ka para, ne, neyle, ne-/y/in i-i/n/-den, (alt/n/-dan), kim-in arka-/s//n/-dan, etc. Consider the following: Ayenin spermarkete otobsle git-me-si beni ilgilendirmez.
synt nominal phrs (noun compound) (subject) NP NP(obj) V

In the sentence above, no question words are used, and the noun compound is used as a subject. Kimin spermaket-e git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendirmez. (*Kimin gitmesi is not used.) (The question word kim-in is added.) Aye/n/in supermarket-e niin git-tik-i (git*ti*i) ben-i ilgilendirmez. (The question word niin is added.) Aye/n/in kim-e oyuncak al-mak iin spermarkete git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendirmez. (The question word kim-e is added.) Kim-in, niin, ne zaman, ne/y/-le, nere-/y/e, nasl git-tik-i ben-i ilgilendirmez. (Successive question words are added.)

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When the answers to the above questions are put into the sentences, the [tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs are also used in noun compounds: (Sen) Aye/n/in her hafta bir futbol ma--/n/a git-tik-i-/n/i biliyor musun?
NP(subj) NP (obj) V

Do you know that Aye goes to a football match every week? However, if a transformed noun compound is used as the subject of a sentence, a noun + V-[me-/s/i, ma-/s/] noun compound is used: Jackin basketbol oyna-ma-/s/ bizi ilgilendirmez.
NP (subj) NP (subj) NP(obj) V V NP(obj)

That Jack plays basketball doesnt concern us.

TURKISH SIMPLE SENTENCE NOMINALIZATIONS


As has been noted, there are no clauses in Turkish as those of the clauses in English. When English simple sentences are nominalized, (transformed into noun clauses) they do not lose their time concepts. On the contrary, when the Turkish simple sentences are nominalized, they are transformed into possessor + possessed noun compounds that result in losing their time concepts that they had before being transformed. The time concepts that they do not convey can be inferred from the time morphemes attached to the finite verbs used at the ends of the Verbal Phrases. Nominalizing English simple sentences are easier than nominalizing the Turkish simple sentences: I know (that) Jack likes pop music.
synt nominal phrs (object) NP NP (obj) VP V

I guess (that) she loves me.


synt nominal phrs (object)

(Ben) Jack'in pop mzik sev-dik-i-/n/i biliyorum.

(Ben) onun beni sev-dik-i-/n/i tahmin ediyorum.


NP NP VP V

When the Turkish simple sentences are nominalized, they are logically transformed into noun compounds, and used as Nominal Phrases in sentences. Although "(that) Jack likes pop music", and "(that) she loves me" subordinate English noun clauses do not look like physically transformed phrases, they can be considered as syntactically and mentally transformed phrases when they are used as Nominal Phrases.

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The Present Continuous, The Past Continuous, The Simple Present, The Simple Past, The Present Perfect, The Present Perfect Continuous and Used To tenses can all be transformed into noun clauses.

TRANSFORMED NOMINAL PHRASES


When simple sentences are nominalized in Turkish, they are transformed into noun compounds containing infinitives. Possessor personal allomorphs are attached to both parts of the possessor and the possessed parts of these timeless compounds. Although all infinitives are timeless, the [mek, mak] infinitives are both timeless and devoid of possessor allomorphs; therefore they are not used in noun compounds. There are two personal possessor allomorphs attached to both the possessor and the possessed parts of a noun compound representing the same person: In English there is only one possessor morpheme: the [s], which is generally used attached to proper nouns such as jacks, Ahmets, and common nouns such as the boys, the womans. This possessor morpheme is not attached to personal pronouns such as *Is *yous, *hes, *wes, theys. There are different words in English to express them: English speaking people use my, instead of *Is, your, instead of *yous, our instead of *wes, etc. However in Turkish, people use allomorphs like the English possessor allomorph [s] like [Is] attached to personal pronouns like *bens = ben-im, *sens= sen-in. In short, possessor personal allomorphs representing all personal possessor allomorphs are attached to both parts of a noun compound following the vowel harmony: ben-im al-ma-am: ben-im and am both mean my.. sen-in al-ma-an: sen-in and an both mean your. o/n/un al-ma-/s/: o-/n/un and /s/ both mean his, her, its. biz-im al-ma-a.mz: biz-im and a.mz both mean our. siz-in al-ma-a.nz: siz-in and a.nz both mean your.
o-/n/-lar-n al-ma-lar-: o/n/lar-n and lar- both mean their.

Although the personal possessor allomorphs attached to personal pronouns do not change, (do not have different allomorphs), the allomorphs attached to possessed parts of the compounds change following the harmony rules: ben-im gl-me-em, ben-im al-ma-am, , ben-im ev-im, ben-im at-m, benim gl-m, ben-im uyku-um. The allomorphs em, am, im, m, m, um in the possessed parts of the compounds all mean my.

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sen-in gl-me-en, sen-in al-ma-an, sen-in ev-in, sen-in at-n, sen-in gln, sen-in uyku-un. The allomorphs en, an, in, n, n, un in the possessed parts of the compounds all mean your. o-/n/un gl-me-/s/i, o-/n/un al-ma-/s/, o/n/un ev-i, o-/n/un at-, o-/n/un gl, o-/n/un uyku-/s/u. The i, , , u allomorphs all mean his, her, or its. The /n/ and /s/ phonemes are glides used between vowels. biz-im gl-me-e.miz, biz-im al-ma-a.mz, biz-im ev-i.miz, biz-im at-.mz, biz-im trk-.mz, biz-im okul-u.muz. The e.miz, a.mz, i.miz, .mz, .mz, u.muz all mean our. siz-in gl-me-e.niz, siz-in bala-ma-a.nz, siz-in ev-i.niz, siz-in at-.nz, siz-in trk-.nz, siz-in okul-u.nuz. The e.niz, a.nz, i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz all mean your. onlar-n bekle-me-/s/i, onar-n bala-ma-/s/, onlar-n ev-i, onlar-n ba-, onlar-n trk-.s, onlar-n uyku-u.su. onlar-n okul-u. The i, , , u all mean their. However, if the possessor pronons are not used, ler-i, lar- are used in place of i, , , u possessor personal allomorphs. As a rule, the /n/ glides are used between the vowels used in the possessor parts, and the /s/ glides are used between the vowels in the possessed parts of the noun compounds. The coinciding vowels combine, and the underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels as usual. Therefore, alma-am means benim alma-am (my working), almalar- means onlarn alma-lar-I (their working), etc. The other noun infinitive compounds are the same as the above compounds: al-tk-m = ben-im al-tk-m (be*nim / a*l*t*m) al-tk-n = sen-in al-tk-n (se*nin / a*l*t*n) gel-i-im = ben-im gel-i-im (be*nim / ge*li*im) gel-i-in = sen-in gel-i-in (se*nin / ge*li*in) Consequently, when the simple sentences are transformed into nominal phrases, they become timeless noun compounds, and lose the time concepts that they had before being transformed. However, the simple sentences with the [e.cek. a.cak] or [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs keep their time concepts. Follow the example sentences:

The infinitives with [me, ma]:


(Ben) balk tut-ar-m. (Simple Present) ben-im balk tut-ma-am

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(Ben) balk tut-u.yor-um. (Present Continuous) ben-im balk tut-ma-am (Ben) balk tut-u.yor-du-um. (Past Continuous) ben-im balk tut-ma-am (Ben) balk tut-ar-d-m. (used to) ben-im balk tut-ma-am (Ben) iki saat-tir balk tut-u.yor-um. ben-im iki-saat-tir balk tut-ma-am (Ben) balk tut-a.cak-m. (Simple Future) ben-im balk tut-a.cak ol-ma-am (Ben) balk tut-mu-tu-um. (Past Perfect) ben-im balk tut-mu ol-ma-am

The infinitives with [dik, dk, dk, duk]:


(Ben) balk tut-ar-m. (Simple Present) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um (Ben) balk tut-u.yor-um. (Present Continuous) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um (Ben) balk tut-u.yor-du-um. (Past continuous) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um (Ben) balk tut-ar-d-m. (used to) ben-im balk tut-tuk-um (Ben) iki saat-tir balk tut-u.yor-um. ben-im iki saat-tir balk tut-tuk-um (Ben) balk tut-a.cak-m. (Simple Future) ben-im balk tut-a.cak-m (Ben) balk tut-mu-tu-um. (Past Perfect) ben-im balk tut-mu ol-duk-um In the examples above, the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and if the e-e, a-a, i-i, -, -, u-u identical vowels follow one another, they combine and verbalize as single vowels e, a, i, , , u according to the harmony rule. Besides, the /k/ unvoiced consonants change into their voiced counterpart // when they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes. As the two parts of the noun compounds have personal possessor suffixes (allomorphs) loaded with the same meaning, only the possessed parts of the compounds can be used without the possessor parts (possessor adjectives). For instance: In the sentence, (Ben-im) baba-am (ben-im) al-ma-am- istiyor, babaam means, ben-im baba-am, and al-ma-am means, ben-im al-maam. Therefore, the ben-im parts are generally omitted unless they are emphasized: Baba-am al-ma-am- istiyor. (ba*bam / a*l*ma*m / is*ti*yor). SIMPLE SENTENCE NOMINALIZATION 1: V-[DK]-[pers]-() (Ben) dn bir balk tut-tu-um. ben-im dn bir balk tut-tuk-um Ben-im dn bir balk tuttuk-um (be*nim / dn / bir / ba*lk / tut*tu*um) is structurally a noun compound like ben-im okul-um. The only difference in this compound is that the possessed part of the compound is an infinitive.

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This noun compound can occupy any place of a noun or pronoun in a sentence. Annem (ben-im) bir balk tuttuum-u grd. My mother saw that I caught a fish.
(subj) NP (noun compound obj) NP VP V NP V VP NP

The [u] allomorph is one of the allomorphs of the defining [] morpheme. (Ben-im) bir balk tuttuum kocaman bir yalandr. That I caught a fish is a big lie.
(subject) NP (predicate) VP (subj) NP VP

(be*nim / bir / ba*lk / tut*tu*um ~/ ko*caman / bir / ya*lan*dr ) The nominalization of the rest of the above tenses result in the same noun + infinitive compounds because all infinitives are timeless: The noun + infinitive compounds (syntactic nominal phrases) above can be used in the following sentences: Herkes ben-im balk tut-tuk-um-u bil-ir. Everybody knows that I catch fish
NP NP (obj) VP NP NP VP V NP V VP V NP V VP NP NP

(Sen) balk tut-tuk-um-u grmyor musun? Don't you see that I am catching fish?

Baba-am gel-in.ce ben-im balk tut-tuk-um-u gr-d. (ba*bam / ge*lin*ce ~/ be*nim / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / gr*d ) When my father came, he saw that I was catching fish. Her gn balk tut-tuk-um-u bil.i.yor-sun. (her / gn / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / bi*li*yor*sun ) You know that I catch fish every day. ki saat-tir balk tut-tuk-um-u baba-am-a syle-me. (i*ki / sa*at*tir / ba*lk / tut*tu*u*mu / ba*ba*ma / sy*le*me ) Dont tell my father that I have been catching fish for two hours. The other three tenses are transformed as follows:

The Simple Future Tense: V - [e.cek, a.cak] - [pers] - ([])


Yarn onu satn al-a.cak-m. yarn onu satn alacam (No structural change as it is in the English nominalized phrases.) (Sen) (Ben-im) yarn onu satn al-a.cak-m- bil-i.yor-sun.
NP (noun compound) (object) NP V

(ya*rn / o*nu / sa*t*na*la*ca**m / bi*li*yor*sun ) (liaison)

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You know (that) I will buy it tomorrow.
NP V (noun clause) (obj) NP

Ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im? ne zaman bitireceim (no structural change) (Ben) (Ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-e.cek-im-i tahmin edemem.
NP (noun compound) (object) NP V

I
NP

cant guess
V

when I will finish it.


(noun clause) (object) NP

(Benim) onu ne zaman bitir-ecek-im kesin deil. (noun compound) (subject) NP VP When I will finish it is not certain.
(noun clause) (subj) NP VP

The (ben) and (benim) parts of the above compounds are optional. They are not used unless they are intentionally stressed.

The Past Perfect: V - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol - [duk]-[pers]-([])


(Ben) eve gel-mi-ti-im. (ben-im) eve gel-mi ol-duk-um (O) (Benim) eve gel-mi ol-duk-um-u bil-i.yor-du.
NP NP V (noun compound) (obj) NP (coun clause) (obj NP V

He knew that I had come home.

The Future Perfect: V - [mi, m, m, mu] + ol - [acak] - [pers]- ([])


(Ben) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m? (ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-acak-m (No structural change.) Ben bile (ben-im) onu ne zaman bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m- bilmiyorum.
NP possessor NP adverbial possessed (noun compound) (object of bilmiyorum) NP VP | V

Even I don't know when Ill have finished it. (Bile" is an intensifier.)
NP V (noun clause) (obj) NP

The examples of some frequently used tense nominalizations are as follows:

SIMPLE SENTENCES WITH THE VERB ROOT OL (BE)


One should use the following verb composition to nominalize a simple sentence that has a noun, an adjective, a prepositional phrase or a noun[DE] followed by [], [DR], [D], [M] inflectional morphemes used in a (predicate) VP.

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a noun, an adjective, a prep phrase, or a noun-[DE] + ol-[duk]-[pers]-([]) In this composition, as the verb stem is always ol, the allomorphs of the morpheme of [DK] are always [duk], and the personal allomorphs, and the defining [] morpheme follow the vowel harmony rules. When ol-up ol-madk- expression is used, the allomorphs in the chain also change according to the harmony rules: (Sen-in) anne-en evde(dir). (sen-in) anne-en-in ev-de ol-duk-u Your mother is at home. that your mother is at home Ben (sen-in) anne-/n/in ev-de ol-duk-u-/n/u tahmin ediyorum.
NP chain noun compound-/n/u (obj) NP VP V VP NP V

I guess that your mother is at home.


NP

CHAIN NOUN COMPOUNDS


There is a chain noun compound in the nominalized sentence above. Therefore, an example from the English language may be helpful to understand such noun compounds better: the cover of the book of your mother anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak- The first part of this chain is sen-in anne-en, which is a noun + noun compound. To lengthen this compound to a chain, (sen-in) anne-en compound is made the possessor part of another compound by attaching another [N] morpheme to it: (sen-in) anne-en-in. Now, this chain becomes the possessor part of another noun kapak-: sen-in
possessor

anne-en = NP (one possessor and one possessed)


possessed possessed possessed possessed NP

sen-in anne-en-in kitap- = NP (two possessors and one possessed)


chain possessors

sen-in anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak- = NP (three possessors and one posessed)


chain possessors chain possessors

sen-in anne-en-in kitap--/n/n kapak--/n/n renk-i = NP (four possessors, and one possessed)

(sen-in) anne-en-in kitp--/n/n kapak--/n/n renk-i (se*nin / an*ne*nin / ki*ta*b*nn / ka*pa**nn / ren*gi ) the color of the cover of your mothers book Although a noun + noun compound is a finite sequence, one can turn it into an infinite sequence by using successive possessor nouns. When we

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add a possessed noun to the end of the sequence, however, the sequence closes and becomes a Nominal Phrase. We can show this endless sequence with the following nonsense chain of possessors: ey-in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i-/n/in ey-i
infinite (determiners) possessors N O M I N A L P H R A S E possessed final

The last nonsense word ey-i ends the sequence and turns it into a NP. The possessor sequences that are not put into Nominal Phrases are incomplete chains of words. For instance that Jack built that Mary bought that Mr. Brown lived in is an incomplete infinite sequence of determiners if the house is not put in the beginning of the sequence. When this is done, the house that Jack built that Mary bought that Mr. Brown lived in becomes a NP suitable to be used in NP+VP logical sentence-producing system. In such English sequences, the noun that ends the infinite sequence of determiners is in the beginning of a NP contrary to a Turkish NP, where the final word is at the end. As it is seen in the meaningless chain, the infinite chain is ended with ey-i. All noun compounds, whether they are made up of two, three, or even more parts (chain noun compounds), they syntactically function as one single phrase (NP) in sentences: Ben onu hatrlyorum. I remember her.
NP NP V NP V NP

Ben sen-in anne-in-i hatrlyorum. I


NP (noun comp) (obj) NP V NP

remember your mother.


V (obj) NP

Ben (sen-in) anne-en-in gl--/n/ hatrlyorum.


NP (chain noun comp) (obj) NP V

I
NP

remember the smile of your mother.


V (chain noun comp) (obj NP)

(Ben) (sen-in) anne-en-in ev-de ol-duk-u-/n/u biliyorum.


NP (chain noun comp) (obj) NP V (noun clause) (obj) NP V

I
NP

know that your mother is at home.

The underlined parts of the last two sentences are chain noun compounds that act as syntactic nominal phrases in sentences. In the last Turkish sentence, the /k/ consonant changes into the // voiced consonant, and the /n/ glide link the last two vowels.

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Sen doktor-sun. sen-in doktor ol-duk-un (ol*du*un)
sentence NP NP (obj) NP V NP (subj) V NP (obj)

Herkes (sen-in) doktor ol-duk-un-u biliyor. Everybody knows that you are a doctor.

The [u] allomorph in the sentence above is the defining [] morpheme. Btn kzlar gzeldir. btn kzlar-n gzel ol-duk-u- (ol*du*u)
sentence sentence NP NP

All girls are beautiful. that all girls are beautiful (Ben) btn kz-lar-n gzel ol-duk-u-/n/u dn-.yor-um.
NP NP (obj) V

(b*tn / kz*la*rn / g*zel / ol*du*u*nu / d**n*yo*rum ) I think that all girls are beautiful.
NP V NP (obj )

1. (O) (ben-im) kalem-im-i iste-di. (ka*le*mi*mi / is*te*di ) 2. (O) (ben-im) bekle-me-em-i iste-di. (bek*le*me*mi / is*te*di ) 3. (O) (ben-im) gel-i-im-i gzle-di. (ge*li*i*mi / gz*le*di ) 4. (O) (ben-im) gel-dik-im-i gr-me-di. (gel*di*i*mi / gr*me*di ) 5. (O) (ben-im) ala-dk-m- iit-me-di. (a*la*d**m / i*it*me*di ) As has already been stated, the single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs. Sen bir grei-sin. sen-in bir grei ol-duk-un (ol*du*un)
sentence sentence NP (subj) NP (subj) NP NP VP (predicate) VP (predicate)

You are a wrestler. that you are a wrestler Sen-in bir grei olduk-un nemli deil. That you are a wrestler is not important. (It is not important that ocuklar hazr m? Are the children ready? ocuklar hazr m? ocuklar-n hazr ol-up ol-ma-dk- (ol*ma*d*)
sentence sentence NP NP

Are the children ready? "whether the children are ready" When someone hesitates over whether the verb is positive or negative, olup olmad positive and negative successive infinitives (ol-duk-u-/n/u ya da ol-ma-dk--/n/) are used as whether is used in English:

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(Ben) ocuklar-n hazr olup ol-ma-dk--/n/ bilmiyor-um.
NP NP (obj) V

(ben~ / o*cuk*la*rn / ha*zr / o*lup / ol*ma*d**n / bil*mi*yo*rum ) I dont know whether the children are ready (or not).
NP V NP (obj)

Karde-im nere-de? karde-im-in nere-de ol-duk-u (ol*du*u) Where is my sister? where my sister is Kardeimin nerede olduu-/n/u bilmiyorum. I dont know where my sister is. Ben kim-im? ben-im kim ol-duk-um (be*nim / kim / ol*du*um) Who am I? who I am (Sen) (ben-im) kim ol-duk-um-u tahmin edebilir misin?
NP NP V NP (obj) NP V

Can you guess who I am? The simple sentences containing verbs other than be are also nominalized using possessor + possessed noun compounds. As there are no clauses in Turkish, when simple sentences are transformed into noun compounds, they lose their time concepts as usual. However, some others keep them when they are nominalized. The tenses that result in the same transformed nominal phrases are as follows: (Ben) ev-i temizle-er-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Simple Present) (Ben) ev-i temizle-i.yor-um. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Present continuous or Present Perfect Continuous) (Ben) ev-i temizle-di-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Simple Past or Present Perfect) (Ben) ev-i temizle-i.yor-du-um. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Past Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous) (Ben) ev-i temizle-er-di-im. (benim) ev-i temizle-dik-im-(i) (Used to) As one can understand, all the five different tenses (simple sentences) are transformed and nominalized using the same transformational composition: The verb composition above covers only the morphemes, therefore the allomorphs of these morphemes are given as follows:

2. V-[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]-[pers]-([])


All the /k/ phonemes chance into //, except when they are preceded by [ler, lar].

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The personal possessor allomorphs that are attached to the nouns and infinitives are as follows: (ben-im): [im, m, m, um, em, am]; (sen-in): [in, n, n, un en, an]; (o/n/un): [i, , , u]; (biz-im): [i.miz, .mz, .mz, u.muz, e.miz, a.mz]: (siz-in): [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz, e.niz, a.nz]; (onlar-n): [i, , , u] or [ler-i, lar-]. Example: "ben-im git-tik-im", "onlar-n gr-dk-" The defining [] morpheme has naturally four allomorphs [i, , , u]. Only one of them is used following the harmony and syllable rules when a nominalized phrase is used in the object position: (Ben) her gn ev-i temizle-er-im. (ben-im) her gn ev-i temizle-dik-im (Sen) (ben-im) her gn ev-i temizle-dik-im-i bil-i.yor-sun.
NP NP V (obj) NP (noun clause) (object) NP V

You know that I clean the house everyday. (The last [i] is the defining [i] allomorph.) ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-u.yor-du. ocuk-lar-n bahe-de oyna-dk- (Ben) ocuk-lar-n bahe-de oyna-dk--/n/ gr-d-m.
NP NP VP V

I
NP

saw that the children were playing in the garden.


V VP NP

(Ben) (ben-im) ev dev-im-i yap-.yor-um. ev dev-im-i yap-tk-m (Sen) (ben-im) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m- gr-.yor-sun.
NP NP (obj) V

You can see that I am doing my homework. Seyahat ettiini biliyorum. = I know that he travels; I know that he is traveling; I know that he has traveled; I know that he has been traveling; I know that he traveled; I know that he used to travel. As it is seen, all the six English sentences above are expressed in the same transformed Turkish nominal phrase. To avoid this time ambiguity, suitable adverbs of time should be added to Turkish transformed phrases to make the meaning clearer. This is necessary because after the simple sentences are transformed and nominalized, they become noun + infinitive compounds. Like all infinitives, these compounds are timeless. u anda seyahat et-tik-i-/n/i biliyorum. I know that he is (you are) traveling right now.

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To avoid the above second ambiguity, either senin or onun possessor adjectives should be added to the above sentence: Senin (or onun) u anda seyahat ettiini biliyorum. Onun her yl seyahat ettiini biliyorum. I know that he travels every year. Onun btn yl bounca seyahat ettiini biliyorum. I know that he travels all the year round. Senin geen yl seyahat ettiini biliyorum. I know that you were traveling last year. Senin geen sene boyuna seyahat ettiini biliyorum. I know that you were always traveling last year. When boyuna or habire adverbs are added to continuous tenses, they imply that the speaker is complaining about something: Karm habire fiyat-lar-dan yakn-.yor. (ka*rm / ha*bi*re / fi*yat*lar*dan / ya*k*n*yor ) My wife is always complaining about the prices. Sen boyuna televizyon seyret-i.yor-sun. (sen / bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*sun ) You are always watching television. The seyahat ettiin nominal phrase above can naturally be used in the subject position, as well: Sen her sene seyahat et-er-sin. senin her sene seyahat ettiin or etmen Sen-in her sene seyahat et-tik-in mehur-dur.
NP (subj) VP (predicate)

That you travel every year is well known. Or "It is well-known that you travel every year." The Simple Future Tense allomorphs [e.cek, a.cak] are kept when such sentences are nominalized: (Ben) yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m. ben-im yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m
sentence NP (subj) sentence VP (predicate) NP (noun clause) NP

(Benim) yarn eski araba-am- sat.a.cak-m kesin deil. (sa*ta*ca*m) I will sell my old car tomorrow. that I will sell my old car tomorrow That I will sell my old car tomorrow is not certain. (It is not certain that NP (subj) (noun clause) VP (predicate)

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(Sen) (ben-im) yarn eski araba-am- sat-a.cak-m- bil-me-i.yor mu-sun?
NP NP (obj) V

(sen / be*nim / ya*rn / es*ki / a*ra*ba*m / sa*ta*ca**m / bil mi*yor / mu*sun) (astonishment) Dont you know that I will sell my old car tomorrow? (The /k/ consonants used in the satacak verbs change into the voiced //.) In The Past Perfect Tense, [M] and [D] morphemes are used one after the other. When the same tense is nominalized, the [M] morpheme is attached to the verb root, stem or frame, then the ol verb root is used atached to the [duk] allomorph, which is followed by a personal suffix.

V - [M] + ol - [duk] - [pers] - ([])


(Ben) ev-i temizle-mi-ti-im. (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um"
sentence adv NP NP (obj) NP V

Dn (sen) (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um-u gr-d-n. (dn / e*vi / te*miz*le*mi / ol*du*u*mu / gr*dn ) You saw that I had cleaned the house. NP V NP (obj) (Sen) (ben-im) ev-i temizle-mi ol-duk-um-u gr-.yor-sun.
NP NP (obj) V

(e*vi / te*miz*le*mi / ol*du*u*mu / g*r*yor*sun ) You (can) see that I have cleaned the house.
NP V NP (obj)

All nominal phrases can be used in the "NP + VP" = NP + NP + V syntactic pattern as Nominal Phrases.

NOMINALIZED PHRASES CONTAINING QUESTION WORDS


niin (why), nere-de (where), kim (who), kim-i (whom), kim-e (to whom), kim-den (from whom), kim-in (whose), ne (what), kim-le (with whom), ne kadar sre (how long), nasl (how) question words and the like are used between the possessor and the possessed parts of the noun compounds when sentences are nominalized: Sen niin bekliyorsun? sen-in niin bekle-dik-in Why are you waiting? why you are waitig (Ben) (sen-in) niin bekle-dik-in-i bil-i.yor-um.
NP (noun compound) (obj) NP VP V

(se*nin / ni*in / bek*le*di*i*ni / bi*li*yo*rum ) I know why you are waiting.

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(Ben) (Sen-in) nere-de bekle-dik-in-i gr-d-m.
NP NP (obj) V

(ner*de / bek*le*di*i*ni / gr*dm ) I saw where you were waiting.


NP V NP (obj)

(Ben) (sen-in) kim-e gl-dk-n- anla-d-m.


NP NP V NP (obj) NP (obj) V

I understood who you were laughing at.

(Sen) Jackin kim-i sev-dik-i-/n/i bil-i.yor mu-sun? (jac*kin / ki*mi / sev*di*i*ni / bi*li yor / mu*sun ) Do you know who Jack is in love with? (Ben) (o-/n/un) ne syle-dik-i-/n/i hatrla-ma-.yor-um. (o*nun / ne / sy*le*di*i*ni / ha*tr*la*m*yo*rum ) I dont remember what he said. (Sen) (ben-im) sana niin kz-dk-m- bil-i.yor mu-sun? (sa*na / ni* in / kz*d**m / bi*li yor / mu*sun ) Do you know why I am angry with you? (Ben-im) sen-i ne kadar zle-dik-im-i tahmin et-e.mez-sin. (se*ni / ne / ka*dar / z*le*di*i*mi / tah*min / e*de*mez*sin ) You cant guess how much I miss you. (Sen) (sen-in) ne ren-mek iste-dik-in-i bana akla. (ne / *ren*mek / is*te*di*i*ni / ba*na / a*k*la ) Explain to me what you want to learn. (Sen) (sen-in) ne kadar sre bekle-dik-in-i bana syle. (ne / ka*dar / s*re / bek*le*di*i*ni / ba*na / sy*le ) Tell me how long you have been waiting. (Ben) (o-/n/un) niin ala-dk--/n/ bil-me-i.yor.um. (o*nun / ni *in / a*la*d**n / bil*mi*yo*rum ) I dont know why she is crying. (Sen-in) ne satn al-dk-n- gr-d-m. (se*nin / ne / sa*t*nal*d**n / gr*dm ) I saw what you bought.

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All the transformed and nominalized phrases above are used in the object position, and the /k/ unvoiced consonants in [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs change into the // voiced consonants. The last allomorphs are the defining allomorphs. All the words in brackets above are optional, and may be ignored unless they are intentionally emphasized. The following nominalized phrases are used in the subject position: (O-/n/un) nasl zengin ol-duk-u bir sr-dr.
NP (subj) VP

(o*nun / na*sl / zen*gin / ol*du*u / bir / sr*dr ) How he became rich is a mystery.
NP (subj) VP

(Ben-im) ne dn-dk-m sen-i ilgilendir-mez.


NP (subj) NP V

(be*nim / ne / d*n*d*m / se*ni / il*gi*len*dir*mez ) What I am thinking about doesnt concern you.
NP (subj) V NP

Soru-lar-n niin bu kadar zor ol-duk-u retmen tarafndan aklan-ma.l-/y/d.


NP (subj) postp phrase (adverbial) V (passive)

(The reason) why the questions were so difficult should have been explained by the teacher. (Sen-in) dolap-ta gr-dk-n bir iskelet ol-a.maz.
NP (noun compound) (subj) VP (predicate)

(do*lap*ta / gr*d*n / bir / is*ke*let / o*la*maz ) What you saw in the cupboard cant be a skeleton.
NP (subj) VP (predicate)

(On-lar-n) ne iste-dik-ler-i anla-l-a.ma-d.


NP (subj) V (passive)

(on*la*rn / ne / is*te*dik*le*ri / an*la**la*ma*d ) (The /k/ does not change.) What they wanted couldn't be understood. NP (subj) V (passive) (O-/n/un) tm ye-dik-i sadece be sandvi-ti.
NP (subj) NP (predicate)

(o*nun / tm / ye*di*i ~/ sa:*de*ce / be / san*d*vi*ti ) All he ate was only five sandwiches. (O-/n/un) kim ol-duk-u polis tarafndan aratr-l-.yor.
NP (subj) (postp phrase) (adv) V (passive)

(o*nun / kim / ol*du*u / po*lis / ta*ra*fn*dan / a*ra*t*r*l*yor ) Who he is is being investigated by the police.
NP V (passive) adverbial

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(Sen-in) ara-dk-n (ey) ekmece-/n/in i-i/n/-de. (a*ra*d*n~/ ek*me*ce*nin / i*in*de ) What you are looking for is in the drawer. Banka-/y/ kim-in soy-duk-u hl bir sr. (ban*ka*y / ki*min / soy*du*u / ha:*l: / bir / sr ): Who robbed the bank is still a mystery. Fatma-/n/n niin ala-dk--/n/ bil-i.yor mu-sun? (fat*ma*nn / ni*in / a*la*d**n / bi*li*yor / mu*sun ) Do you know why Fatma is crying?

TURKISH DETERMINER + DETERMINED COMPOUNDS


After having given a short description of the possessor + possessed transformation of the simple English sentences, we can go on with the parallel determiner + determined or (determiner + noun) Turkish simple sentence transformations: Kzlar tarlalarda icek topluyor. The girls are picking flowers in the fields.
noun 1 noun 2 noun 3 1 3 2

1. tarlalar-da iek topla-/y/an kzlar the girls who are picking flowers in the fields
determiner determiner determiner determined determined determined 2 3 1

2. kzlar-n iek topla-dk- tarlalar the fields where the girls are picking flowers 3. kzlar-n tarlalar-da topla-dk- iekler the flowers that the girls are picking in the fiels We can derive the following rules from the transformed nominal phrases above: 1. When someone intends to determine the subject of a simple sentence, he transforms the sentence into a determiner + noun compound by using V - [en, an] + noun composition. This composition is a nominal phrase that can be used in the NP + VP logical sentence pattern. If a verb ends with a consonant, it takes one of these allomorphs such as "konu-an" (ko*nu*an), a-an (a*an), "bek-le-en (bek*le*en). However, if a verb ends with a vowel, it needs the /y/ glide to link the verb to one of the following [en] or [an] allomorphs: bekle-/y/en, oku-/y/an, bala/y/an. This transformational rule can be applied to the verbs in The Simple Present, The Simple Past, The Present Continuous, The Past Continuous Tenses and (imdiki Zamann Hikyesi) used to. However, the verbs in

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The Simple Future and The Past Perfect Tenses keep their forms when the verb ol is used: Kzlar yarn tarlalarda iek topla-/y/a.cak-lar. yarn tarlalarda iek topla/y/a.cak ol-an kzlar (o*lan) Kzlar tarlalarda iek topla-m-t. tarlalarda iek topla-m ol-an kzlar Consequently, Kzlar bahede koar, Kzlar bahede kotu, Kzlar bahede kouyor, Kzlar bahede kouyordu, and Kzlar bahede koard simple sentences are all transformed into the determiner + noun structure as bahede koan kzlar. As has already been noted, none of the time concepts in these tenses (except The Simple Future and the Past Perfect) is carried into the transformed Turkish nominal phrases. 2. and 3. When one wants to determine one of the nouns, other than the subject, he has to use V - [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] - [i, , , u] [possessor pers] + noun structure. In this transformation, the unvoiced /k/ consonants change into the voiced // consonants, except when they are followed by [ler, lar] plural allomorphs such as "topla-dk-lar-", yr-dkler-i, oku-duk-lar-, ek-tik-ler-i, where the /k/ consonants do not change. As in the examples above, none of the tenses carry their time concepts into the transformed nominal phrases. The time concepts of such nominal phrases are inferred from the time allomorphs of the finite verbs. 1. ki kz mutfakta patates soyuyor. mutfakta patates soy-an iki kz
1 2 2 3 3 determiner determiner determiner determined determined determined

2. ki kz mutfakta patates soyuyor. iki kz-n patates soy-duk-u mufak 3. ki kz mutfakta patates soyuyor. iki kz-n mutfakta soyduk-u patatesler As all the determiner + determined (Turkish), or determined + determiner (English) compounds are syntactic nominal phrases, they can be used in the NP + VP basic sentence pattern as Nominal Phrases: 1. Mutfakta patates soy-an iki kz ben-im kzlar-m-dr. (so*yan)
(subj) NP (subj) NP (subj) NP NP (object) (NP) VP V predicate VP predicate VP predicate VP

2. ki kz-n patates soy-duk-u mutfak ok geni-tir. (soy*du*u) 3. ki kz-n mutfakta soy-duk-u patates-ler ok kaliteli-dir. (soy*du*u) (Ben) mutfakta patates soy-an iki kz gr-d-m.

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If the simple sentences from which the transformed phrases were in different tenses, except the future and the past perfect tenses, the result would also be the same transformed phrases above: Mutfakta iki kz patates soyar, soyuyor, soydu, soyuyordu, soyard are all transformed as mutfakta patates soyan kzlar or kzlarn soyduu patatesler, or kzlarn patates soyduu mutfak. The English equivalents of the sentences above are as follows: 1. the two girls that are peeling potatoes in the kitchen
determined (1) determined (3) determined (2) determiner determiner determiner

2. the kitchen where the two girls are peeling potatoes 3. the potatoes that the girls are peeling in the kitchen As all the determined + determiner compounds are syntactic nominal phrases, they can be used in the NP + VP basic sentence pattern as Nominal Phrases: The two girls that are peeling potatoes in the kitchen are my daughters.
NP NP NP VP VP VP NP VP

The kitchen where the two girls are peeling potatoes is very large. The potatoes that the girls are peeling in the kitchen are of good quality. I
NP

saw the two girls that were peeling potatoes in the kitchen.
V

As an exception, the sentences in The Simple Future and The Past Perfect Tenses are transformed as follows: (Ben) bir problem z-e.cek-im. (ben-im) z-e.cek-im problem
sentence sentence NP (subj) determined VP determiner determiner (NP) (subj) VP determined

I will solve a problem. the problem that I will solve (Benim) zeceim problem ok zor. The problem that I will solve is very difficult. (Ben) bir problem z-m-t-m. (ben-im) z-m ol-duk-um problem I had solved a problem. the problem that I had solved zm olduum problem ok zordu.
NP (subj) NP (subj) VP VP

The problem that I had solved was very difficult.

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Some examples of the determiner + determined sentence transformations are as follows: O dn bir mektup yaz-d. onun dn yaz-dk- mektup = NP
determiner determined

Onun dn yazd mektup kayboldu.


NP NP VP VP

The letter that she wrote yesterday has been lost. Annem her gn ev-i tertiple-er. anne-em-in her gn tertiple-dik-i ev Annemin her gn tertipledii ev karmakark.
NP (subj) VP (predicate)

(an*ne*min / her / gn / ter*tip*le*di*i / ev~ / kar*ma*ka*r*k ) The house, which my mother tidies every day, is in a mess.
NP (subj) VP (predicate)

ocuk-lar havuz-da model kayk-lar yzdr-.yor-du. ocuk-lar-n havuz-da yz-dr-dk- model kayk-lar = NP ocuklarn havuzda yzdrd model kayklar el yapmyd.
NP (subt) VP (predicate)

(o*cuk*la*rn / ha*vuz*da / yz*dr*d* / mo*del / ka*yk*lar~ / el / ya*p*my*d ) The modal boats that the children were sailing on the pond were handmade.
NP (subj) VP (predicate)

Parmak-m-a bir ine bat-t. parmak-m-a bat-an ine Parmama batan ine kck-t.
(NP) (subj) (NP) (subj) VP (predicate) VP (predicate)

The needle that stuck in my finger was very small. Bir problem z-me-/y/e al-.yor-dum. "z-me-/y/e al-tk-m problem" zmeye altm problem ok gt
(NP) (subj) VP (pred)

(z*me*ye / a*l*t*m / prob*lem / ok / g*t ) The problem that I was trying to solve was very difficult.
(NP) (subj) VP (predicate)

Dn iek-ler-in hepsi-/n/I sula-d-m. dn sula-dk-m iek-ler-in hepsi


sentence NP (chain noun comp) VP

Dn suladm ieklerin hepsi soldu


NP (subj)

(dn / su*la*d*m / i*ek*le*rin / hep*si / sol*du ) All the flowers that I watered yesterday have faded.
NP (subj) VP

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Geen hafta bana bir cep telefon-u al-d-n. geen hafta bana al-dk-n cep telefon-u (Ben) (sen-in) geen hafta bana aldn cep telefon-u-/n/u kaybet-ti-im.
NP (subj) NP (obj) V

(ge*en / haf*ta / ba*na / al*d*n / cep / te*le*fo*nu*nu / kay*bet*tim ) I have lost the mobile telephone that you bought me last week. Amca-am patates yetitir-i.yor. amca-am-n yetitir-dik-i patates-ler Amcamn yetitirdii patatesler en st kalitedir.
(NP) (subj) VP (predicate)

The potatoes that my uncle grows are of top quality. When a simple sentence having a future tense is transformed, the [e.cek, a.cak] allomorphs do not change: Prof. Brown yarn niversite-de bir konuma yap-a.cak . yarn Prof. Brownn niversite-de yap-a.cak- konuma Yarn Prof. Brownn niversitede yapaca konuma-/y/ dinle-mek istiyor musun? Do you want to listen to the lecture that Prof. Brown is going to give at the university tomorrow? When someone wants to transform a simple sentence into a determiner that determines the subject, he begins the transformed phrase with the subject of the simple sentence using the above-mentioned Nr.1 kind of transformational rule: Mart-lar gkyz/n/-de uu-u.yor-lar. gkyz/n/-de uu-an mart-lar Gkyznde uuan martlar harikayd.
(NP) (subj) VP (predicate)

(gk*y*zn*de / u*u*an / mar*t*lar ~ / ha:*ri*kay*d) The seagulls that were flying about in the sky were fantastic.
(NP) (subj) VP (predicate)

renci-ler saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bekle-i.yor-lar. saat sekiz-den beri retmen-ler-i-/n/i bekle-/y/en renci-ler" Saat sekizden beri retmenlerini bekle/y/en renciler sabrszlanyor.
NP (subject) NP (subject) VP (predicate) VP

The students who have been waiting for their teachers for an hour are being impatient. Kedi masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da kan-.yor. masa-/n/n alt-/n/-da kan-an kedi Masann altnda kanan kedi senin mi ?
(NP) (subj) VP (predicate)

(ma*sa*nn / al*tn*da / ka**nan / ke*di / se*nin / mi ) Is the cat (that is) scratching under the table yours?
(NP) (subj) VP

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Renk-ler sonbahar-da dei-ir. sonbahar-da dei-en renkler Sonbahar-da dei-en renkler herkes-i byle-er. (son*ba*har*da / de*i*en / renk*ler / her*ke*si / b*y*ler ) The colors that change in the autumn fascinate everybody. iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. sabahleyin a-an iek-ler Sabahleyin aan iekler ho kokar. (sa*bah*le*yin / a*an / i*ek*ler / ho / ko*kar ) The flowers that open in the morning smell sweet. renci-ler retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-i.yor-lar-d . retmen-ler-i-/n/i dikkat-le dinle-/y/en renci-ler retmenlerini dikkatle dinle/y/en renciler mutlu grn-.yor-lar-d. The students who were listening to their teacher carefully were looking happy.

SIMPLE SENTENCES AND TRANSFORMED NOMINAL PHRASES


There is an important difference between a simple sentence and a transformed syntactic nominal phrase in Turkish. The words in a simple sentence may take different positions. The meanings of the following sentences are much less the same if the word stress and intonation are not taken into account: Ben dn bahede bir saat buldum. Bir saat buldum dn bahede ben. Bir saat buldum bahede dn ben. Buldum dn bahede bir saat ben. Bahede buldum ben dn bir saat. Buldum bahede bir saat dn ben. Although the first sentence is considered the valid grammatical order of the sentence, the other five are also understandable, but they are generally used in Turkish poetry to help rhyming. The only inseparable grammatical unit in these sentences is "bir saat", which is a "D + N" unit. However, when the same sentence is nominalized, the possessed part of the compound is always at the end of the nominalized phrase; the other words may change places: "ben-im dn bahe-de bir saat bulduum" "dn ben-im bahe-de bir saat bulduum" "bahe-de dn ben-im bir saat bulduum" "bahe-de ben-im dn bir saat bulduum (noun compound) (noun compound) (noun compound) (noun compound)

When the same sentence is transformed into the determiner+determined compound, the transformed phrases may change as follows:

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"ben-im dn bahe-de bulduum saat" (determiner + determined) "bahe-de ben-im dn bulduum saat" (determiner + determined) "dn ben-im bahe-de bulduum saat" (determiner + determined) "ben-im bahe-de dn bulduum saat" (determiner + determined) As one can notice, the indefinite determiner "bir" is not used in the above transformed phrases because the word "bulduum" becomes a definite determiner that determines the noun "saat", which proves that "benim dn bahede bulduum" and the following three are determiners. In the transformed phrases above, the last syllables before the words bulduum are primarily stressed which shows the importance given to these words. If the second noun "bahe" is determined, the transformed phrase becomes as follows: . "ben-im dn i-i/n/-de (bir) saat bulduum bahe" (determiner +determined) "i-i/n/-de ben-im dn (bir) saat bulduum bahe" (determiner + determined) "dn ben-im i-i/n/-de (bir) saat bulduum bahe" (determiner + determined) "ben-im i-i/n/-de dn (bir) saat bulduum bahe" (determiner + determined) We can give the following table to sum up the above transformational rules: 1. benim gitmem 2. benim gidiim 3. benim gittiim 4. benim gittiim 5. benim gideceim 6. benim gideceim noun + infinitive = noun comp= syntactic noun noun + infinitive = noun comp= syntactic noun = NP = NP

noun + infinitive = noun comp = syntactic noun = NP noun + infinitive = determiner+noun = syntactic noun= NP noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun = NP

noun + infinitive = determiner + noun = synt noun = NP = NP

7. benim gitmi olduum noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun 9. benim gitmi olacam noun + infinitive = noun comp = synt noun

8. benim gitmi oldugum noun + infinitive = determiner + noun = synt noun = NP = NP 10.benim gitmi olacam noun + infinitive = determiner + noun = synt noun = NP In the examples above, only the first person is given; the other persons might have been given accordingly, which would not change the result. Nr.1 and Nr.2 compounds can only be used as noun compounds such as Benim oraya gitmem olanaksz. or Benim gidiim-i bekliyor Nr. 3 and 4; 5 and 6; 7 and 8; and 9 and 10 are used both as noun compounds and as determiners such as: Benim gittiim-i grd. (syntactic nominal phrase). However, Benim gittiim okul" is structurally a deter-

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miner + noun compound, but syntactically it is a nominal phrase. Therefore, these noun compounds are used both as noun compounds and as determiners. As in all infinitives, the infinitive parts of these compounds may have one or more adverbials preceding to supply them with time, place, reason, etc: Benim geen hafta bir futbol ma seyretmek iin Bursaya gitme-em karm kzdrd.
possessor adverbial. postpositonl adverbial phrs adverbial possessed

My going to Bursa last week to watch a football match made my wife mad. (Ben-im) geen hafta bir ift ayakkab almak iin gittiim dkkn ok kalablkt.
possessor adverbial adverbial of reason determiner NP possessed noun VP (predicate) determined

The shop where I went to buy a pair of shoes last week was very crowded. Benim ..gittiim-i grdn. = noun compound (object) = nominal phrase
noun compound

Benim.. gittiim + okul = determiner + noun = nominal phrase


determiner determiner + determined

Okula koan + ocuk


determined

= determiner + noun = nominal phrase

THE PASSIVE TRANSFORMATION AND THE PASSVE VERB FRAMES


A speaker or writer generally prefers a passive sentence when he does not know the actual doer of an action, or when, for some reason, he does not want to mention it, or if he thinks it is unimportant, or if he begins his sentence with the object. This type of transformation is carried out within a simple sentence itself. It is not done to be used as a NP in the NP + VP sentence producing system. However, if necessary, a passive simple sentence can also be transformed to be used as a nominal phrase: Somebody stole a necklace. "A necklace was stolen." (passive sentence) A necklace was stolen. the necklace that was stolen" (nominalized phrase) "the necklace that was stolen" the stolen necklace" (nominalized phrase) The necklace that was stolen hasnt been found yet. The stolen necklace hasnt been found yet. To perform a passive transformation, the object of a sentence is used as if it were the real subject (mentally it is the object) of the sentence, and a passive making allomorph is attached to it. These allomorphs are as follows: When a verb ends with a consonant (V ), one of the [il, l, l, ul] allomorphs is attached to it before the time and personal allomorphs:
c

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object + Vc - [il, l, l, ul] - ([NEG]) - [time] - [pers]
kahve fincan- kr-l-d.
object passive verb VP

( / kah*ve / fin*ca*n / k*rl*d ) Three coffee cups have been broken.


object NP VP passive verb V

Davetiye-ler bas-l-.yor. (da:*ve*ti*ye*ler / ba*s*l*yor ) The invitations are being printed. imdi ne yap-l-a.bil-ir? (im*di / ne / ya*p*la*bi*lir ) What can be done now? Dn ne yap-l-d? (dn / ne / ya*pl*d ) What was done yesterday? Her ey bitir-il-di bile. (her*ey / bi*ti*ril*di / bi*le ) Everything has already been finished. Burada ttn sat-l-maz. (bu*ra*da / t*tn / sa*tl*maz ) Tobacco is not sold here. (Ben) aldat-l-d-m. (al*da*tl*dm ) I have been cheated. (Siz-in) araba-a.nz onar-l-d. (a*ra*ba*nz / o*na*rl*d ) Your car has been repaired. Nehir kenar-/n/-da byk bir ev yap-l-.yor. (ne*hir / ke*na*rn*da / b*yk / bir / ev / ya*p*l*yor ) A large house is being built by the river. (Sen) cezalandr-l-a.bil-ir-sin. (ce*za:*lan*d*r*la*bi*lir*sin ) You may be punished.

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Bahe henz spr-l-me-di. (bah*e / he*nz / s*p*rl*me*di ) The garden hasnt been swept yet. Mikroplar cplak gz-le gr-l-e-mez. (mik*rop*lar / p*lak / gz*le / g*r*le*mez ) Germs cant be seen with the naked eye. Bu pis yzme havuz-u/n/-da yz-l-mez. (bu / pis / yz*me / ha*vu*zun*da / y*zl*mez ) It is impossible to swim in this dirty swimming pool. (passive shaped intransitive) (Ben-im) saat-im bahe-de bul-un-du. (be*nim / sa*a*tim / bah*e*de / bu*lun*du ) My watch has been found in the garden. Bu kasa matkap-la del-in-e.mez. (bu / ka*sa / mat*kap*la / de*li*ne*mez ) This safe cant be drilled. Pazar gn-ler-i okul-a gel-in-mez. (pa*zar / gn*le*ri / o*ku*la / ge*lin*mez ) It is a general rule that students do not come to school on Sundays. (passive shaped intransitive) Akl supermarket-ten satn al-n-maz. (a*kl / s*per*mar*ket*ten / a*ln*maz ) Wisdom cant be bought from a supermarket. The verbs ending with vowels (V ) are put into the passive form by using the following verb composition. In this composition, as the last vowels and the first vowels of the passive making allomorphs are identical, they combine and used as single vowels:
v

Vv-[in, n, n, un, en, an]-(neg)-[time]-[pers]


Bu gmlek sadece lk su-da yka-an-r. (bu / gm*lek / sa:*de*ce / *lk / su*da / y*ka*nr ) This shirt is washed only in lukewarm water. Duvar-lar beyaz-a boya-an-.yor. (du*var*lar / be*ya*za / bo*ya*n*yor ) The walls are being painted white.

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Hrsz yakala-an-d. (hr*sz / ya*ka*lan*d ) The thief has been caught. Ben-im oda-am yarn temizle-en-e.cek. (be*nim / o*dam / ya*rn / te*miz*le*ne*cek ) My room is going to be cleaned tomorrow. Ma ertele-en-me-di. (ma / er*te*len*me*di ) The match hasnt been postponed. Bu yk ben-im kamyon-um-da ta-n-a-maz. (bu / yk / be*nim / kam*yo*num*da / ta**na*maz ) This load cant be carried in my lorry. As an exception to the above rule, the verb "anla" is put into the passive form with [l]: "Anla-l-d" (an*la*l*d) is used in place of *"anla-an-d".

THE VERB FRAMES


A list of frequently used verbs, and their intransitive, transitive, causative, passive, reflexive and reciprocal forms, which are called verb frames, is given in the following list. While using reflexive and reciprocal verb frames, one should be careful because these two forms may have meanings different from the verb roots or stems that they are attached. For instance, although anla means understand, anla means reach an agreement. Therefore, one should consult a dictionary before using them. Some of the most frequently used verb frames whose meanings are different from their root or stem meanings are as follows: aldrmak: care, care about; almak: get used to; atmak: have a row with; bozulmak: deteriorate, embarrass; bozumak: break up, fall out with; bulumak: meet with someone; atlatmak: make somebody jealous; znmek: dissolve; dalamak: fight; dayanmak: act in solidarity with; dnmek: transform; dvnmek: beat ones chest; durulmak: calm down, settle down; geinmek: get on well with, make a living; gelitirmek: improve, develop; gerinmek: stretch; kanmak: avoid; karmak: miss, abduct, frighten away, hijack, go out of ones mind; kapmak: fall out with; kayrmak: bestow a privilege on; kesimek: intersect; kestirmek: dose, have a short nap, estimate; krmak: become wrinkled; korunmak: protect oneself; rtmek: coincide, correspond to, match up with; sylenmek: grumble; sylemek: chat; srnmek: creep, live a dogs life; armak: be confused, be mixed up; iinmek: boast; tartmak: argue, discuss,

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dispute; uydurmak: fabricate, feign; karmak: put ones nose into something. The suffixes (inflectional allomorphs) used in producing verb frames are the first suffixes to be attached to verb roots or stems; the others such as the negation, time and personal suffixes follow them.

The Structural Composition of the Causative Verb Frames


All the monosyllabic verb roots, and all the other ones ending with /t/ phonemes take [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] inflectional allomorphs to change them into the causative verb frame. Examples of monosyllabic verbs: al-dr, at-tr, boz-dur, bul-dur, al-dr, arp-tr, ek-tir, z-dr, del-dir, dvdr, ger-dir, kap-tr, kes,tir, kr-dr, kur-dur, rt-tr, v-dr, soy-dur, et-tir, z-dr, yak-tr, yap-tr, yaz-dr, sat-tr, at-tr, tat-tr, a-tr, yak-tr, yrt-tr Examples of the polysyllabic (two or more syllables) verbs ending with /t/: iit-tir, ilet-tir, oturt-tur, kapat-tr, kzart-tr, patlat-tr, sarkt-tr, yaat-tr, ykselt-tir, tket-tir, tant-tr, boyat-tr, arat-tr, ykat-tr, ayklat-tr. All the polysyllabic verbs ending with /r/ take /t/ phonemes: Example: yaptr yap-trt; gldr gl-drt art*trt, bi*tirt, ge*tirt, at*trt, al*trt, *kart, dal*drt, dei*tirt, do*urt, dol*durt, dn*drt, dur*durt, d*rt, ge*irt, ge*tirt, geli*tirt, ger*dirt, gez*dirt, gl*drt, *srt, it*tirt, ka*rt, kan*drt, karla*trt, ka*yrt, kaz*drt, konu*turt, ko*part, ko*turt, o*nart, l*drt, pi*irt, sinirlen*dirt, sus*turt, s*prt, i*irt, ta*rt, uy*durt, yar*trt, yap*trt, ya*trt, ye*dirt, yz*drt The last syllables of the above causative forms are all four-phoneme syllables such as tirt, trt, trt, turt, drt, durt, etc. When the polysyllabic verbs ending with vowels are attached to [it, t, t, ut, et, at] allomorphs, the last vowels of the verb roots or stems, and those of the coinciding first vowels of the allomorphs combine and are verbalized as single vowels. boya-at (bo*yat), by-t (b*yt), atla-at (at*lat), daya-at (da*yat), yr-t (y*rt) dene-et (de*net), denetle-et (de*net*let), dinle-et (din*let), ertele-et (er*te*let), frala-at (fr*a*lat), hatrla-at (ha*tr*lat), hazrla-at (ha*zr*lat), kovala-at (ko*va*lat), ka-t (ka*t), kokla-at (kok*lat), kuru-ut (ku*rut), onaat (o*nat), sakla-at (sak*lat), sorgula-at (sor*gu*lat), syle-et (sy*let), taraat (ta*rat), ta-t (ta*t), temizle-et (te*miz*let), uyu-ut (u*yut), tle-et (*t*let), bekle-et (bek*let), sr-t (s*rt), yr-t (y*rt

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INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE PASSIVE REFLEXIVE RECIPROCAL

a ak

art

atla az bak bat bala bayl bekle

a akt al anla anlat ara artr as ar aykla at atlat azdr bas batr balat bayl bekle beklet besle bi bil bitir bktr boz bl bul bk caydr cotur al al(tr) arptr atlat ek iz

atr akttr aldr anlattr arat artrt astr art ayklat attr atlattr azdrt baktr bastr batrt balattr baylt beklet beklettir beslet bitir bildir bindir bitirt bktrt bozdur bldr buldur bktr caydrt coturt aldr altrt arptrt atlattr ektir izdir

bin bit bk

cay co al al arp atla

al aktl aln anlal anlatl aran artrl asl arl ayklan atl atlatl azdrl bakl basl batrl balatl bayltl beklen bekletil beslen biil bilin binil bitiril bkl bozul bln bulun bkl cayl aln altrl arpl atlatl ekil izil

al aln anla

at

bakn

bak

balan bekle beslen

bozul bln

bozu bl bulu

arp ekin eki

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INTRANSTIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE

PASSIVE rpl kertil zl daldrl dayatl dayanl damlatl denil deil deinil deitiril delin denen denetlen dengelen dikil dinlen dlan dourul dokun doldurul dondurul doyurul dkl dndrl dnl duyurul drtl drl dnl eklen ellen engellen ertelen estiril eitlen esnetil edil ezil

REFLEXIVE

RECIPROCAL

k dal dayan damla de dei

rp kert z daldr daya damlat de dedir dein deitir del dene denetle dengele dik dinle dila dour doku doldur dondur doyur dk dndr dndr duy drt dr dn ekle elle engelle ertele estir eitle esnet et ez

rptr kerttir zdr daldrt dayat damlattr dedirt dedirt deitirt deldir denet denetlet dengelet diktir dinlet dlat dourt dokut doldurt dondurt doyurt dktr dndrt dndrt duyurt drttr drt dndrt eklet ellet engellet ertelet estirt eitlet esnet ettir ezdir

rpn zn z dala dayan

dei

do dol don doy dn dn

dolu

dkn dn

drt

d dn

elle

es esne

esnen

esne

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INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE PASSIVE REFLEXVE RECIPROCAL

ge gel gez gir git

frlat ge ger getir gez gster

frlattr geir gerdir getirt gezdir gstert

gl

in sr

ile

ka kal kan

giy gr gster gldr hala hatrla hazrla hesapla i indir sr slat iit ilet inkr et it izle kar kandr kap kapat kapla karala kartr karlatr kas ka kat kaydet kayr

gstert gldrt halat hatrlat hazrlat hesaplat iir indirt srt slattr iittir ilettir inkr ettir ittir izlet kart kandrt kaptr kapattr kaplat karalat kartrt karlatrt kastr kat kattr kaydettir kayrt

kar karla

frlatl geil geril getiril gezdiril gsteril giril gidil giyil grl gsteril gln halan hatrlan hazrlan hesaplan iil indiril srl slatl iitil iletil inkr edil itil izlen karl kaln kandrl kapl kapatl kaplan karalan karl karlatrl kasl kan yaydedil kay()rl

gein gerin gezin giri giyin grn

gr
gl

hazrlan hesapla

slan

iti kan ka

kap kapan

kasl kan

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INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE PASSIVE REFLEXIVE RECIPROCAL

kzar kok kon konu kop kork ko

kaz kes kr ky kz kzart kokla kondur konutur kopar korkut koru koy kur kurut kurula kustur kstr kurut kurula lekele oku onar oturt oy oyala oyna l de ldr p r rt ttr v patlat piir san sakla

kuru kus ks kuru

oku otur

oyna

patla pi

kazdr kestir krdr kydr kzdr kzarttr koklat kondurt konuturt kopart korkut korut kotur koydur kurdur kuruttur kurulat kusturt kstrt kuruttur kurulat lekelet okuttur onart oturttur oydur oyalat oynat ltr det ldrt ptr rdr rttr ttrt vdr patlattr piirt saklat

kazl kesil krl kyl kzl kzartl koklan kondurul konuul koparl korkutul korun koul koyul kurul kurutul kurulan kusul ksl kurutul kurulan lekelen okun onarl oturul oyul oynan ll den ldrl pl rl rtl vl patlatl piiril sanl saklan

kesi kr kz kokla

korun kou

kurulan ks kurulan

oturu oyalan oyna l de ln p rtn vn rt t

saklan

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INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE PASSIVE REFLEXIVE RECIPROCAL

sap sark

s sz sin sou sol

saptr sar sarkt sars sat say se sev seyret sez sdr

saptrt sardr sarkt(tr) sarstr sattr saydr setir sevdir seyrettir sezdir sdrt

saptrl sarl sarktl sarsl satl sayl seil sevil seyredil sezil sl

sarn sarsl

say
sevin sevi

sn

sn sv

sk szdr sil sindir sout soldur sor sorgula soy sk sndr


syle sun sustur srt ssle sz art iir tak tara tar ta tat temizle tercih et tut

sktr szdrt sildir sindirt souttur soldurt sordurt sorgulat soydur sktr sndrt svdr sylet
susturt srttr sslet szdr arttr iirt taktr tarat tart tat tattr temizlet tercih ettir tuttur

skl szdrl silin sindiril soutul soldurul sorul sorgulan soyul skl sndrl
sylen sunul susturul srtl sslen szl artl iiril takl taran tarl tan temizlen tercih edil tutul

skn

sk

soyun

sylen

sv syle susu srt

sus

srtn sslen ar iin takn taran tan temizlen

a i

tak

ta

tutu

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INTRANSITIVE TRANSITIVE CAUSATIVE PASSIVE REFLEXIVE RECIPROCAL

uy

uyu uza

ya yan yaa

yerle yeti

yksel yr yz

uur um unut uydur uyar uygula uyut uzat fle tle z ver vur yadr yakala yak yaat yaz yedir yen yerletir yetitir y yka yldr yrt yut yor ykselt yrt yzdr

uurt unuttur uydurt uyart uygulat uyuttur uzattr flet tlet zdr verdir vurdur yadrt yakalat yaktr yaattr yazdr yedirt yerletirt yetitirt ydr ykat yldrt yrttr yuttur ykselttir yrttr yzdrt

uurul umul unutul uydurul uyarl uygulan uyutul uzatl flen tlen zl veril vurul yakalan yakl yaatl yazdrl yediril yenil yerleil yetiil yl ykan yldrl yrtl yutul yorul ykseltil yrtl yzl

uu

uyu

uyun uzan

vuru

yakn yaan yaz yeni

ykan yrtn yorul yrn yz

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Negative [ME] Time [R] [D] [.YOR] [M] [E.CEK] [R-D] [.YOR-DU] [E.CEK-TI] [M-T] [D/Y/-D] Personal Allomorphs: (ben) (sen) (o) (biz) (siz) (onlar) : : : : : : [im, m, m, um, em, am] [sin, sn, sn, sun], [in, n, n, un, en, an] [] [iz, z, z, uz], [ik, k, k, uk] [si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz], [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz] [], [ler, lar] Question [M] Personal [M] [SN] [] [Z], [K] [S.NZ] [] [LER] Question [M]

Time Allomorphs: Simple Present : Simple Past : [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar] [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu] [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor] [mi, m, m, mu] [e.cek, a.cak] [ir-di, r-d, r-d, ur-du, er-di, ar-d] [i.yor-du, .yor-du, .yor-du, u.yor-du] [e.cek-ti, a.cak-t] [mi-ti, m-t, m-t, mu-tu] *([di/y-di, d/y/-d, d/y/-d, du/y/-du, ti/y/-di, t/y/d, t/y/d, tu/y/-du])

Present Continuous: Rumor :

Simple Future: : Used To :

Past Continuous: Was Going To : Past Perfect :

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Note: There are two question columns in the table above because the order of question allomorphs change in some tenses. For example: gel-ir mi-/y/im?; gel-di-im mi?; bekle-i.yor mu/y/-du-un?; al-ma-.yor mu/y/-du-un? Although [mi-ti] and [di/y/-di] past perfect forms are identical in meaning, the [di/y/-di] form is not frequently heard. The Verb frames are units in themselves like the verb roots or stems that must be used first when arranging a verb composition. The other morphemes follow them in succession such as: gl gl-d, gl-.yor, gl-e.cek, gl-m-t, gl-me.li-/y/mi, gl-se-/y/mi gldr gldr-d, gldr-.yor, gldr-e.cek, gldr-m, gldr-me-meliy-mi, gldr-me-se/y/-mi, gldr-e.bil-ir-mi-mi, gldr-l-e.cek-ler-mi gl gl-t-ler, gl-e.cek-ler, gl-.yor-lar, gl-me-sin-ler The infinitive allomorphs [mek, mak] and [me, ma] can be added to all the verb roots, stems and verb frames: gl-me(k), gldr-me(k), gl-me(k), gln-me(k), sev-me(k), sevdirme(k), sevin-me(k), sevi-me(k), kes-me(k), kestir-me(k), kesil-me(k), kesi-me(k), tart-ma(k), tartl-ma(k), tart-ma(k), tarttr-ma(k), a-ma(k), al-ma(k), atr-ma(k), benze-me(k), benzet-me(k), benze-me(k), benzetil-me(k), kok-ma(k), kokla-ma(k), koku-ma(k), yzle-me(k)

CAUSATIVE VERB FRAME EXAMPLES


We use a causative verb frame when we do not carry out the action ourselves, but we are responsible for the action being done: Ahmete arabam ykamasn syledim; o da ykad. Ahmete araba-am- ykat-t-m I made Ahmet wash my car. I had Ahmet wash my car. I got Ahmet to wash my car.
.

I asked someone to wash my car. Araba-am- ykat-t-m. I had my car washed. (The doer of the verb is not mentioned.) As it is seen in the two sentences above, the two Turkish verb compositions are identical: ykattm. However, in the first sentence, the doer of the verb wash is mentioned, but in the second one, it is not. In English, when the

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doer of the verb is mentioned make somebody do something, or the alternatives ones above are used, but when the doer of the action is not mentioned, a different sentence type have something done is used.

THE PASSIVE CAUSATIVE


The passive causative frames are frequently used in both English and Turkish: Onlar bana kap-y/ a-tr-d-lar. (on*lar / ba*na / ka*p*y / a*tr*d*lar ) They made me open the door. (causative) Kap kim-e a-tr-l-d? (ka*p / ki*me / a*t*rl*d ) Who was made to open the door? (passive causative) Kap bana a-tr-l-d. (ka*p / ba*na / a*t*rl*d ) I was made to open the door.

Hrsz kasa-/y/ bana a-tr-d. (hr*sz / ka*sa*y / ba*na / a*tr*d ) The thief made me open the safe. (causative) Kasa kim-e a-tr-l-d? (ka*sa / ki*me / a*t*rl*d ) Who was made to open the safe? (passive causative) Kasa bana a-tr-l-d. (ka*sa / ba*na / a*t*rl*d ) I was made to open the safe.

Double causative forms are rarely used in Turkish, therefore they are not put in the verb frames list above: Araba-am- ykat-trt-t-m. (a*ra*ba*m / y*kat*trt*tm ) I asked someone to have my car washed. (double causative)

SYLLABICATION
As it is explained in the article "Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience / Memory and Language, wikibooks.org/wiki/", the memory is divided into three parts: Sensory memory, Short-term memory, and Longterm memory. Sensory memory holds information for milliseconds and is separated into two components. The iconic memory is responsible for visual information, whereas auditory information is processed in the echoic memory.

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To sum up, one can say that the morphemes, the phonemes, and the syllables of a language are carried into a human mind through his auditory system, and they are stored up in the echoic memory. Therefore, it is true to say that they are learned through the experiences of an individual. A human being hears the syllables of a language, and stores them in his memory as he stores a melody or the voice of a friend. He does not mind how these syllables are formed. He keeps them as they are in his memory. On the other hand, when a second language learner is trying to learn a second language, he has to learn how the syllables are formed and separated from one another if he is not exposed to a foreign language long enough. The syllabication rules of the inflectional morphemes (or their allomorphs) which are attached to nouns, adjectives or verbs are as follows: Rule Nr.1: If the last syllables of the words or morphemes end with consonants, these consonants detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes if the first syllables of the following morphemes start with vowels. The consonants that detach from their syllables, and attach to the following morphemes are single underlined in this book: okul-a (o*ku*la); ev-e (e*ve); ev-i (e*vi); okul-u (o*ku*lu); zm- (*z*m); su-u (su*u); esmer-i (es*me*ri); a-lkan- (a*l*ka*n); gzel-i (g*ze*li); kitap-lar- (ki*tap*la*r); tren-e (t*re*ne); gel-i.yor-um (ge*li*yo*rum); bitir-i*yor-uz (bi*ti*ri*yo*ruz); gl-.yor-uz (g*l**yo*ruz); otur-u.yor-um (o*tu*ru*yo*rum); al-n-r (a*l*nr); kes-il-ir (ke*si*lir) Rule Nr.2: If the last syllables of the words or morphemes end with vowels, and the first syllables of the following morphemes start with e, a, i, , , uvowels, these two vowels are linked to one another by the /y/ glides: dere-/y/e (de*re*ye); dere-/y/i (de*re*yi); kpr-/y/e (kp*r*ye); deve-/y/e (de*ve*ye); deve-/y/i (de*ve*yi); iyi-/y/i (i*yi*yi); iyi-/y/e (i*yi*ye); alma-/y/ (a*l*ma*y); renme-/y/i (*ren*me*yi); renme-/y/e (*ren*me*ye); okuma-/y/a (o*ku*ma*ya); trk-/y/ (tr*k*y); uyku-/y/u (uy*ku*yu). Rule Nr.3: As the phonological system of the Turkish language chooses the personal allomorphs identical with the last vowels of the [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu] allomorphs, the first vowels of the [im, m, m, um; in, n, n, un; ik, k, k, uk; i.niz, .nz, .nz. u.nuz] personal allomorphs happen to be identical, and therefore they combine to form c.v.c syllables:

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Git-ti-im (git*tim); gr-d-m (gr*dm); sor-du-u.nuz (sor*du*nuz) Rule Nr.4: When the [de, da, te, ta] allomorphs attach to the [se, sa] allomorphs, these two allomorphs are linked by the /y/ glides following the vowel and consonant rules: ev-de/y/-se-ek (ev*dey*sek); okul-da/y/-sa (o*kul*day*sa); i-te/y/-see.niz (i*tey*se*niz); tarla-da/y/-sa (tar*la*day*sa); uyku-da/y/-sa (uy*ku*day*sa), sknt-da/y/-sa (s*kn*t*day*sa) Rule Nr.5: If the last syllables of the words end with vowels, the [le, la] allomorphs attach to them with the /y/ glides, but if they end with consonants, the /y/ glides are not used: istek-le (is*tek*le); srar-la (s*rar*la); el-le (el*le); st-le (st*le); benim-le (be*nim*le); bilen-le (bi*len*le); at-la (at*la); iple (ip*le); uak-la (u*ak*la); istek-le (is*tek*le); eker-le (e*ker*le); bisiklet-le (bi*sik*let*le), istek-le (is*tek*le) araba/y/-la (a*ra*bay*la), fke/y/-le (f*key*le), besmele/y/-le (bes*me*ley*le), sopa/y/-la (so*pay*la), para/y/-la (pa*ray*la), tencere/y/-le (ten*ce*rey*le), kama/y/-la (ka*may*la), koma/y/-la (ko*may*la), Rule Nr. 6: The personal possessor allomorphs that are attached to the possessor and the possessed parts of the noun compounds are as follows: ben-im okul-um (be*nim / o*ku*lum), ben-im ev-im (be*nim / e*vim) As it is seen in the examples above, the last consonants of the pronouns "ben", and the last consonants of "okul" and "ev" detach from ther syllables, and attach to the following personal allomorphs "[im, m, m, um, em, am]" to produce "c.v.c" syllables. Although both the possessor and the possessed parts of the noun compounds end with "c.v.c" syllables, the possessed parts of the third person singular and plural noun compounds end without personal allomorphs: sen-in mal-n (se*nin / ma*ln), sen-in sr-n (se*nin / s*r*n) o-/n/un okul-u (o*nun / o*ku*lu), o-/n/un bisiklet-i (o*nun / bi*sik*le*ti) biz-im karde-i.miz (bi*zim / kar*de*i*miz), biz-im ev-i.miz (bi*zim /e*vi*miz) siz-in ev-i.niz (si*zin / e*vi*niz), siz-in ss-.nz (si*zin / s*s*nz) onlar-n otobs- (on*la*rn / o*to*b*s), onlar-n ba- (on*la*rn / ba*) In the examples above, all the nouns end with consonants. However, if they end with vowels, the coinciding vowels combine:

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Ben-im araba-am (be*nim / a*ra*bam), sen-in anne-en (se*nin / an*nen), o-/n/un baba-/s/ (o*nun / ba*ba*s), biz-im tarla-a.mz (bi*zim / tar*la*mz), siz-in git-me-e.niz (si*zin / git*me*niz), onlar-n gel-me-/s/i (on*la*rn / gel*me*si) One can use "nouns" or "infinitives" in the place of the pronoun "o" in noun compounds following the same syllabication rules: okul-un duvar- (o*ku*lun / du*va*r), duvar-n renk-i (du*va*rn / ren*gi), araba-/n/n alt- (a*ra*ba*nn / al*t), ku-un kanat- (ku*un / ka*na*d), okul-un bah.e-/s/i (o*ku*lun / bah*e*si), aye-/n/in araba-/s/ (ay*e*nin / a*ra*ba*s), gz-n renk-i (g*zn / ren*gi) yr-me-/n/in yarar- (y*r*me*nin / ya*ra:*r) arslan-n kkre-me-/s/i (ars*la*nn / kk*re*me*si) vazo-/n/un kr-l-ma-/s/ (va*zo*nun / k*rl*ma*s) alma-/n/n dur-ma-/s/ (a*l*ma*nn / dur*ma*s) As it is seen in the noun compounds above, when the possessor nouns ending with vowels attach to the possessor allomorphs whose first phonemes are vowels, these two vowels are linked by the /n/ glides. On the other hand, when the possessed nouns ending with vowels attach to the possessed allomorphs, whose first phonemes are vowels, these two vowels are linked by the /s/ glides. As it is possible to lengthen the noun compounds to produce infinite chains of noun compounds, it may be useful to see how they are divided into syllables: aye-/n/in kitap--/n/n kapak--/n/n renk-i (ay*e*nin / ki*ta*b*nn / ka*pa**nn / ren*gi) okul-un bahe-/s/i-/n/in temizlen-me-/s/i (o*ku*lun / bah*e*si*nin / te*miz*len*me*si) As the noun compounds whether they are formed of two or more parts are treated as nominal phrases, they may be attached to the [i, , , u], the [e, a], the [de, da, te, ta], the [den, dan, ten, tan] or the [le, la] allomorphs such as: Aye-/n/in araba-/s/-/n/ gr-d-n m? Duvar-n boya-/s/-/n/a bak-t-k.
noun compound-/n/ noun compound-/n/a

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Kpek kap-/n/n n-/n/-de uyuyordu. Aye-/n/in pencere-/s/i/n/-den bak-t-m.
noun compound-/n/de noun compound-/y/la noun compound-/n/-den

Aye-/n/in araba-/s//y/-la geldi-ik. (ay*e*nin / a*ra*ba*sy*la / gel*dik) The allomorphs starting with vowels: Each morpheme, bound or free, has its own meaning stored up in ones memory. However, if we want to teach them or see them separately, we can syllabize them artificially as (ba*la*a*bil*ir*iz), (ko*nu*a*ma**yor*um). If one wishes, he can verbalize these two words as it is seen, but the Turkish syllabication rule does not allow this sort of syllabication, and therefore, recomposes the morphemes keeping their meanings and forms while applying a different syllabication rhythm (code). In other words, the Turkish sound system recomposes them in such a way that the syllables are articulated along with the morphemes in agreement with the general syllabication rules of the Turkish language so that they could be smoothly, fluently, and harmoniously articulated by the speech organs. Although the recomposed syllables do not have meanings on their own, they still carry the meanings and the forms of the morphemes although their last consonants detach and attach to the following allomorphs, and even though a vowel drops or two identical vowels combine, or link to one another with glides. When the last syllable of a word or a morpheme ends with a consonant, this consonant detaches from its syllable and attaches to the first vowel of the following allomorph. All the free and bound morphemes ending with consonants may detach their last consonants and attach them to the first vowels of the following allomorphs. This process can be checked while reading the underlined consonants in the example sentences in this book. The inflectional morphemes, especially those in the verb compositions, may follow one another in succession detaching the last consonant and attaching them to the first vowels of the following morphemes such as: Tut-un-a.bil-i.yor-uz. (tu*tu*na*bi*li*yo*ruz) Bitir-e.me-i.yor-um. (bi*ti*re*mi*yo*rum) One can easily detach the single underlined consonants from their morphemes and attach them to the following vowels if one follows the single underlined consonants in the example sentences. The morphemes given below are either derivational or inflectional. The inflectional allomorphs which have only one vowel are as follows: [i, , , u]: (inflectional)

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ben-i (be*ni), adam- (a*da*m), atal- (a*ta*l), yk- (y*k), toz-u (to*zu), gelmem-i (gel*me*mi), konumam- (ko*u*ma*m), sorun-u (so*ru*nu), soan- (so*a*n), koruyan- (ko*ru*ya*n), dklen-i (d*k*le*ni), son-u (so*nu), sepet-i (se*pe*ti), okul-u (o*ku*lu), alt- (al*t), yz- (y*z) [e, a]: (inflectional) ev-e (e*ve), biz-e (bi*ze), akam-a (ak*a*ma), zm-e (*z*me), tavan-a (ta*va*na), gzel-e (g*ze*le), kum-a (ku*ma), laf-a (la*fa), su-a (su*a) k-a (k*a), n-e (*ne), be-e (be*e), uyuyan-a (u*yu*ya*na), ksen-e (k*se*ne), gelmeyen-e (gel*me*ye*ne), ba-a (ba*a), yz-e (y*ze) The allomorphs containing a vowel and a consonant: [im, m, m, um]: (derivational) se-im (se*im), yaz-m (ya*zm), z-m (*zm), kur-um (ku*rum), saym (sa*ym), al-m (a*lm), sat-m (sa*tm), dr-m (d*rm), yor-um (yo*rum) [ik, k, k, uk]: (derivational) del-ik (de*lik), a-k (a*k), k-k (*kk), u-uk (u*uk), kr-k (k*rk), yrt-k (yr*tk), ay-k (a*yk), at-k (a*tk), sk-k (s*kk), bur-uk (bu*ruk) [ek, ak]: (derivational) Tapn-ak (ta*p*nak), bin-ek (bi*nek), dayan-ak (da*ya*nak), dur-ak (du*rak), u-ak (u*ak), ka-ak (ka*ak), ba-ak (ba*ak), yut-ak (yu*tak) [i, , , u]: (inflectional) gel-i (ge*li), al- (a*l), gl- (g*l), otur-u (o*tu*ru), dur-u (du*ru), haykr- (hay*k*r), gr- (g*r), bul-u (bu*lu), ka- (ka*), in-i (i*ni), k- (*k), var- (va*r), p- (*p), u-u (u*u), yalvar- (yal*va*r), uyan- (u*ya*n), ek-i (e*ki), bit-i (bi*ti) [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]: (inflectional or derivational) bil-ir (bi*lir), al-r (a*lr), gr-r (g*rr), otur-ur (o*tu*rur), ekin-ir (e*ki*nir), bakn-r (ba*k*nr), giyin-ir (gi*yi*nir), avlan-r (av*la*nr), g-er (g*er), ak-ar (a*kar), yaz-ar (ya*zar), oku-ur (o*kur), boz-ar (bo*zar), gl-er (g*ler),
sat-ar (sa*tar), yak-ar (ya*kar), ek-er (e*ker), ek-er (e*ker), sz-er (s*zer)

[in, n, n, un]: (inflectional) gez-in-i.yor (ge*zi*ni*yor), ek-in-i.yor (e*ki*ni*yor), al-n-r (a*l*nr), dvn-e.cek (d*v*ne*cek), tut-un-a.bil-i.yor (tu*tu*na*bi*li*yor), sil-in-e.bil-ir (si*li*ne*bi*lir), bul-un-a.bil-ir (bu*lu*na*bi*lir), bil-in-ir (bi*li*nir)

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[il, l, l, ul]: (inflectional) sev-il-ir-im (se*vi*li*rim), bak-l-r-m (ba*k*l*rm), l-l-r-m (l**l*rm) tak-l-r (ta*k*lr), yut-ul-a.maz (yu*tu*la*maz), gr-l-e.cek (g*r*le*cek) The allomorphs starting with a vowel having two syllables: [e.cek, a.cak]: (derivational and inflectional) sil-e.cek (si*le*cek), a-a.cak (a*a*cak), yak-a.cak (ya*ka*cak), ek-e.cek (e*ke*cek), gel-e.cek (ge*le*cek), bat-a.cak (ba*ta*cak), u-a.cak (u*a*cak), gr-e.cek (g*re*cek), ol-a.cak (o*la*cak), d-e.cek (d*e*cek) [in.ti, n.t, n.t, un.tu, en.ti, an.t] (derivational) gir-in.ti (gi*rin*ti), al-n.t (a*ln*t), gr-n.t (g*rn*t), al-n.t (a*ln*t), gez-in.ti (ge*zin*ti), k-n.t (*kn*t), rp-n.t (r*pn*t), arp-n.t (ar*pn*t), es-in.ti (e*sin*ti), kur-un.tu (ku*run*tu), il-in.ti (i*lin*ti), z-n.t (*zn*t), kes-in.ti (ke*sin*ti), sz-n.t (s*zn*t), kas-n.t (ka*sn*t), bekleen.ti (bek*len*ti), salla-an.t (sal*lan*t),bagla-an.t (ba*lan*t). [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor]; (inflectional) gel-i.yor (ge*li*yor), al-.yor (a*l*yor), gr-.yor (g*r*yor), sun-u.yor (su*nu*yor), ol-u.yor (o*lu*yor), bala-.yor (ba*l*yor), anla-.yor (an*l*yor), yut-u.yor (yu*tu*yor), kazan-.yor (ka*za*n*yor), bekle-i.yor (bek*li*yor), kurut-u.yor (ku*ru*tu*yor), taran-.yor (ta*ra*n*yor), benze-i.yor (ben*ze*i*yor), srt-.yor (s*r*t*yor), balat-.yor (ba*la*t*yor), ekin-i.yor (e*ki*ni*yor), tan-.yor (ta**n*yor), beklen-i.yor (bek*le*ni*yor), sezil-i.yor (se*zi*li*yor), kurul-u.yor (ku*ru*lu*yor), zlen-i.yor (z*le*ni*yor), uyu-u.yor (u*yu*yor)

[e.bil, a.bil]: (inflectional) baar-a.bil-ir (ba*a*ra*bi*lir), bitir-e.bil-ir (bi*ti*re*bi*lir), ol-a.bil-ir (o*la*bi*lir), konu-a.bil-i.yor (ko*nu*a*bi*li*yor), tart-a.bil-ir-iz (tar*t*a*bi*li*riz), ba-ar-a.bil-i.yor (ba*a*ra*bi*li*yor), gel-e.bil-ir-ler (ge*le*bi*lir*ler), bala/y/a-bil-ir-sin (ba*la*ya*bi*lir*sin), uyu-/y/a.bil-ir-im (u*yu*ya*bi*li*rim) [e.rek, a.rak]: (inflectional) gr-e.rek (g*re*rek), ko-a.rak (ko*a*rak), dn-e.rek (d**ne*rek), bulu-a.rak (bu*lu*a*rak), yz-e.rek (y*ze*rek), anla-/y/a.rak (an*la*ya*rak) [ir-ken, r-ken, r-ken, ur-ken, er-ken, ar-ken]: (inflectional) gel-ir.ken (ge*lir*ken), al-r.ken (a*lr*ken), otur-ur.ken (o*tu*rur*ken), ksrr.ken (k*s*rr*ken), ko-ar.ken (ko*ar*ken), uyu-ur-ken (u*yur*ken), bala-ar-ken (ba*lar*ken)

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[in.ce, n.ca, n.ce, un.ca]: (inflectional) gel-in.ce (ge*lin*ce), bak-n.ca (ba*kn*ca), dn-n.ce (d**nn*ce), dur-un.ca (du*run*ca), al-n.ca (a*l*n*ca), bala-/y/n.ca (ba*la*yn*ca) If two identical vowels happen to be vocalized together, they combine and are vocalized as a single vowel: [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]: (inflectional) Gel-ir (ge*lir), al-r (a*lr), otur-ur (o*tu*rur), bekle-er (bek*ler), anla-ar (an*lar), yr-r (y*rr), oku-ur (o*kur), ta-r (ta*r), ertele-er (er*te*ler), uyu-ur (u*yur), ye-er (yer), by-r (b*yr). When a verb ending with a vowel happens to attach to one of the allomorphs of the morpheme [.YOR], the last vowel of the verb drop: [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor,]: (inflectional) bekle-i.yor (bek*li*yor), ye-i.yor (yi*yor), bala-.yor (ba*l*yor), by-.yor (b*y*yor), yr-.yor (y*r*yor), uyu-u.yor (u*yu*yor), anla-.yor (an*l*yor), besle-i.yor (bes*li*yor), katla-.yor-um (kat*l*yo*rum), kuru-u.yor (ku*ru*yor), ensele-i.yor-uz (en*se*li*yo*ruz), gevele-i.yor (ge*ve*li*yor) [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu]: (inflectional) When one of the allomorphs of the past morpheme [D] attaches to one of the personal allomorphs [im, m, m, um], [in, n, n, un], [ik, k, k, uk], [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz], these vowels coincide, combine, and are verbalized as single vowels: gel-di-im (gel*dim), anla-d-n (an*la*dn), gr-d-k (gr*dk), yr-d-k (y*r*dk), oku-du-uk (o*ku*duk), uyu-du-u.nuz (u*yu*du*nuz), l-d.nz (l*d*nz), anla-t-.nz (an*la*t*nz), saklan-d-k (sak*lan*dk) When the nouns ending with vowels attach to [i, , , u] or [e, a] allomorphs, they are linked to one another by the /y/ glides: Araba-/y/ (a*ra*ba*y), araba-/y/a (a*ra*ba*ya), dere-/y/i (de*re*yi), dere/y/e (de*re*ye), kuzu-/y/u (ku*zu*yu), kuzu-/y/a (ku*zu*ya), su-/y/u (su*yu), su-/y/a (su*ya), dana-/y/ (da*na*y), dana-/y/a (da*na*ya), pencere-/y/i (pen*ce*re*yi), pencere-/y/e (pen*ce*re*ye) If the verbs end with vowels, the [e.rek, a.rak] or [in.ce, n.ca, n.ce, un.ca] allomorphs attach to them with the /y/ glides:

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anla-/y/a.rak (an*la*ya*rak), bekle-/y/e.rek (bek*le*ye*rek), uyu-/y/a.rak (u*yu*ya*rak), yr-/y/e.rek (y*r*ye*rek), havla-/y/a.rak (hav*la*ya*rak) oku-/y/un.ca (o*ku*yun*ca), -/y/n.ce (**yn*ce), atla-/y/n.ca (at*la*yn*ca), kuru-/y/un.ca (ku*ru*yun*ca), ye-/y/in.ce (ye*yin*ce) When the [de, da, te, ta] allomorphs happen to be pronounced together with the personal allomorphs, the /y/ glides help them to join: ev-de-/y/im (ev*de*yim), okul-da-sn (o*kul*da*sn), bro-da-/y/z (b*ro*da*yz), sknt-da-/y/z (s*kn*t*da*yz), bekle-mek-te-ler (bek*le*mek*te*ler), uyku-da-s.nz (uy*ku*da*s*nz) The /n/ and /s/ glides are used in the noun compounds when a third person pronoun or nouns (including infinitives) are involved: ben-im araba-am (be*nim / a*ra*bam), sen-in araba-an (se*nin / a*ra*ban), biz-im araba-a.mz (bi*zim / a*ra*ba*mz) o-/n/un araba-/s/ (o*nun / a*ra*ba*s), o-/n/un ayna-/s/ (o*nun / ay*na*s) araba-/n/n kap-/s/ (a*ra*ba*nn / ka*p*s) deli-/n/in gl-me-/s/i (de*li*nin / gl*me*si) Mustafa-/n/n gel-me-/s/i (mus*ta*fa*nn / gel*me*si) kuyu-/n/un su-/y/u (ku*yu*nun / su*yu) ("su-/y/u" is an exeption.) karga-/n/n gl-me-/s/i (kar*ga*nn / gl*me*si) araba-/n/n boya-/s/ (a*ra*ba*nn / bo*ya*s) Look at page 65 for noun compounds. When the noun compounds are suffixed by the [i, , , u], the [e, a], the [de, da, te, ta] or the [den, dan, ten, tan] allomorphs, these compounds are linked to these allomorphs by the /n/ glides: O-/n/un gel-me-/s/i-/n/i bekle-i.yor-um. (o*nun / gel*me*si*ni / bek*li*yo*rum)
noun compound

O-/n/un oda-/s/-/n/a git. (o*nun / o*da*s*na / git)


noun compound

Kedi kap-/n/n arka-/s//n/-da. (ke*di / ka*p*nn / ar*ka*sn*da)


noun compound

O-/n/un bar-ma-/s//n/-dan kork-ma-am. (o*nun / ba*r*ma*sn*dan / kork*mam)


noun compound

O-/n/un al-tk-/n/-dan emin-im. (o*nun / a*l*t*n*dan / e*mi:*nim)


noun compound

Dropping a vowel, inserting the /y/, /n/, /s/ or // glides between two vowels, changing the /p/, /t/, // or /k/ unvoiced consonants to the /b/, /d/, /c/ or // voiced consonants, detaching consonants from the last syllables and attach-

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ing them to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and creating different allomorphs from the morphemes are all the function of the phonological system of the Turkish language. These activities of the phonological system do not damage the intelligibility of the morphemes.

DIVIDING THE VERB COMPOSITIONS INTO SYLLABLES AND THE PRIMARILY STRESSED SYLLABLES
The Simple Present Tense Positive verb "be": Although all the verb compositions in Turkish end with personal allomorphs such as "im, m, m, um"; "sin, sn, sn, sun; in, n, n, un"; "", "iz, z, z, uz; ik, k, k, uk"; "si.niz, s.nz, s.nz, su.nuz; i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz"; and "", or "ler, lar", these allomorphs, as a syllable rule, have to turn into "c.v.c" (consonant . vowel . consonant) syllables in Turkish except for the third person singular and plural, whose personal suffixes are () morphemes. If these allomorphs are made up of "c.v.c" syllables, they do not need to borrow any consonants to form "c.v.c" syllables. However, the allomorphs that are formed of "v.c" syllables need another "c" to form a "c.v.c" syllable. Either in order to fill this consonant deficiency, the "v.c" allomorphs borrow the last consonants of the preceding syllables, or if the preceding syllables end with vowels, they fill up this gap with the /y/ glides. Although these are the rules, however, the native speakers do not learn them intentionally. They only hear people speaking around, and memorize them unconsciously and effortlessly as they memorize a piece of melody. Consider how the last syllables form in the following examples: retmen-im (*ret*me*nim). akn-m (a*k*nm). Giriken-iz (gi*ri*ke*niz). Duygusal-z (duy*gu*sa*lz). Ben-im (be*nim). Ev-de-/y/im (ev*de*yim). Hakl-/y/m (hak*l*ym). yi-/y/iz (i*yi*yiz). Sevinli-/y/im (se*vi*li*yim). Sokakta-/y/m (so*kak*ta*ym) Bekle-er-im (bek*le*rim). Tart.r-m (tar*t**rm). Gven.ir-im (g*ve*ni*rim). Destekle-er-im (des*tek*le*rim), unut-ur-um(u*nu*tu*rum) Okul-da-sn (o*kul*da*sn). Gzel-sin (g*zel*sin). yi-sin. (i*yi*sin) Toplant-da-s.nz (top*lan*t*da*s*nz). Bitir.ir-si.niz (bi*ti*rir*si*niz). Temizle-er-sin (te*miz*ler*sin). Yaz-ar-sn (ya*zar*sn). Ko-ar-sn (ko*ar*sn). al-r-s.nz. (a*l*r*s*nz). Gl-er-si.niz (g*ler*si*niz).

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No personal allomorphs are used for the third person singular: Okul-da (o*kul*da). Bahe-de (bah*e*de). Ev-de (ev*de). Sokak-ta (so*kak*ta). Git.er (gi*der). Gel-ir (ge*lir). Anla-ar (an*lar). Ko-ar (ko*ar). zl-r (*z*lr). For the third person plural no personal allomorphs are used if a personal pronoun is used in the beginning of a sentence. However, if a personal pronoun is not used, the [ler, lar] plural allomorphs are used instead: Onlar her gn okul-a git-er. Her gn okul-a git-er-ler. Onlar sknt-da. Sknt-da-lar. The primarily stressed syllables in the verb compositions using the verb "be" are the syllables preceding the syllables that contain personal allomorphs: (ev*de*yim ) I am at home. (i*yi*yim) I am allright. (a*k*nm) I am confused. (kz*g*nm) I am angry. (*ret*me*nim) I am a teacher. (a*kl*l*sn) You are clever. (hak*l*sn) You are right. (bu*na*lm*da*sn) You are in depression. (i-yi) He is allright. (No personal allomorph is used.) (uy*ku*da) He is asleep. (No personal allomorph is used.) (ma*sa*da) It is on the table. He is at the table. (hak*l*yz) We are right. (o*kul*da*yz) We are at school. (ha*zr*s*nz) You are ready. (g*zel*si*niz) You are beautiful. (ev*de*ler) They are at home. (i*yi*ler) They are allright. (s*kn*t*da*lar) They are in trouble. The Simple Present Positive Action Verbs: "verb-[ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]-pers" In The Simple Present action verb compositions, the primary stresses are on the syllables preceding the last syllables containing the personal mor-

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phemes. However, as the third person singular verbs do not need personal morphemes, the last syllables are stressed as in the examples. While dividing this verb composition into syllables, a Turkish speaker detaches the last consonant of a verb root, a stem or a frame, and attaches it to one of the following [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar] allomorphs. Then, if the personal allomorph is formed of a "v.c" syllable, he detaches the /r/ phoneme from the [R] morpheme and attaches it to the "v.c" syllable to form a "c.v.c" syllable. If the last syllable is formed of a "c.v.c" syllable, it stays the same. All the last syllables of the verb compositions in this tense are formed of "c.v.c" syllables, and all of the syllables in the verb compositions are secondarily stressed. If necessary, only a specivic syllable can be primarily stressed. Consider the examples carefully: Gel-ir-im. (ge*li*rim), -er-im. (i*e*rim), Tut-ar-m. (tu*ta*rm) Ka-ar-sn. (ka*ar*sn), -er-sin. (i*er*sin), Tut-ar-sn. (tu*tar*sn) Gel-ir. (ge*lir), -er. (i*er), Tut-ar. (tu*tar), At-ar (a*tar) Gel-ir-iz. (ge*li*riz), -er-iz. (i*e*riz), Tut-ar-z (tu*ta*rz), At-ar-z. (a*ta*rz) Gel-ir-si.niz. (ge*lir*si*niz), -er-si.niz. (i*er*si*niz), Al-r-s.nz. (a*lr*s*nz) Gel-ir-ler. (ge*lir*ler), -er-ler. (i*er*ler), Ko-ar-lar. (ko*ar*lar) However, if the verb roots, stems or frames end with vowels, the first vowels of the [ir, r, r, ur, er,ar] allomorphs coincide with them and combine: Bekle-er-im. (bek*le*rim), Uyu-ur-um. (u*yu*rum) ("c.v.c" syllable) Bekle-er-sin. (bek*ler*sin), Uyu-ur-sun (u*yur*sun) (c.v.c" syllable) Bekle-er. (bek*ler), Uyu-ur. (u*yur), Ye-er (yer) Bekle-er-iz. (bek*le*riz), Uyu-ur-uz. (u*yu*ruz), (c.v.c" syllable) Bekle-er-si.niz.(bek*ler*si*niz), Uyu-ur-su.nuz. (u*yur*su*nuz) ("c.v.c") Bekle-er-ler. (bek*ler*ler), Uyu-ur-lar (u*yur*lar) ("c.v.c" syllable) The English equivalents of such sentences are as follows: Bekle-er-im. (bek*le*rim) I wait. (*c.v.c" syllable) Dengele-er-im. (den*ge*le*rim) I balanca. (*c.v.c* syllable) Yr-r-sn. (y*rr*sn) You walk. (*c.v.c* syllable] Anla-ar-sn. (an*lar*sn) You understand. (*c.v.c* syllable) U-ar. (u*ar) It flies. (*c.v.c* syllable)

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Ye-er (yer) He eats. (*c.v.c* syllable) Anla-ar. (an*lar) He understands. (*c.v.c* syllable) Atla-ar-z (at*la*rz) We jump. (*c.v.c* syllable) Tart-r-z. (tar*t**rz) We discuss. ("c.v.c* syllable) Ta-r-s.nz (ta*r*s*nz) You carry. (*c.v.c* syllable) Bekle-er-si.niz. (bek*ler*si*niz) You wait. (*c.v.c* syllable) Anla-ar-lar. (an*lar*lar) They understand. (*c.v.c* syllable) Gl-er-ler. (g*ler*ler) They laugh. (*c.v.c* syllable) The Simple Past Tense Positive: In The Simple Past Tenses containing verb "be", the last syllables of the nouns, adjectives, or adverbials are stressed. However, if they are formed of "c.v" syllables, they are turned into "c.v.c" syllables by adding /y/ glides as in the examples. The past allomorphs are [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu], and the personal allomorphs are (ben) [im, m, m, um], (sen) [in, n, n, un], (o) [], (biz) [ik, k, k, uk], (siz) [i.niz, .nz, .nz, u.nuz], or (onlar) [.(ler), .(lar)]. When the past allomorphs and the personal allomorphs attach to one another, the last vowels of the morpheme [D], and the first vowels of the personal allomorphs happen to be identical. As it is impossible to verbalize two vowels together in Turkish, these vowels combine and are verbalized as single vowels. The final syllable of this verb composition is "c.v.c" except for the third person singular: Yorgun-du-um. (yor*gun*dum). Hazr-d-n. (ha*zr*dn) Ev-de/y/-di-ik. (ev*de/y/*dik), nat/y/-d-.nz. (i*nat*y"d*nz) (ev*de/y/*dim) I was at home. (*c.v.c*) (yor*gun*dum) I was tired. (*c.v.c*) (f*ke*li/y/*din) You were angry. (*c.v.c*) (a:*k*tn) You were in love. (*c.v.c*) (i*nat*/y/*d) She was obstinate. (*c.v*) (uy*ku*da/y/*d) He was asleep. (*c.v*) (*nem*li/y/*di) It was important. (*c.v*) (ev*de/y/*dik) We were at home. (*c.v.c*) (me*gul*dk) We were busy. (*c.v.c*) (s*kn*t*da/y/*d*lar) or (s*kn*t*da*lar*d) They were in trouble. (*c.v.c*)

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(i*yi/y/*dim) I was all right. (*c.v.c*) (an*ka*ra*da/y/*d*lar) They were in Ankara. (*c.v.c*) (ha*va / ya*mur*lu/y/*du) It was rainy. (*c.v*) (ha*va / kar*l/y/*d) It was snowy. (*c.v*) (ku*sur*lu/y/*du*lar) They were faulty. (*c.v.c*) If an action verb is used in the simple past tense, the primary stress is on the last syllable: al-t-m. (al*l*tm), al-t-n. (a*l*tn), al-t. (a*l*t) al-t-k. (a*l*tk), al-t-.nz.(a*l*t*nz), al*t*lar. (a*l*t*lar) Baar-d-m. (ba*ar*dm) I succeeded. Ertele-di-im. (er*te*le*dim) I postponed. Bekle-di-in. (bek*le*din) You waited. Gr-d-n. (gr*dn) You saw. Git-ti. (git*ti) He went away. (*c.v*) Anla-d. (an*la*d) He understood. (*c.v*) Baar-d-k. (ba*ar*dk) We succeeded. Gl-t-k. (g*l*tk) We laughed together. Anla-d-.nz. (an*la*d*nz) You understood. Ka-t-.nz. (ka*t*nz) You ran away. Bekle-di-ler. (bek*le*di*ler) They waited. Gl-d-ler. (gl*d*ler) They laughed. Onar-d-m. (o*nar*dm) I repaired. Boyat-t-m. (bo*yat*tm) I had it painted. Anla-t-k. (an*la*tk) We agreed. The Present Continuous Tense Positive: "Verb- [.YOR]-pers" While dividing this verb composition into syllables, the verbal (oral) sequence detaches the final consonant of the verb root, stem or frame from the last syllable, and attaches it to the first vowel (i, , , u) of the [*YOR] morpheme to produce a "c.v" syllable, which is stressed in this verb composition, and it detaches the /r/ consonant of the "yor" syllable, and attaches it to the personal allomorphs "um" or "uz" to produce the "rum" or "ruz" syllables. However, if the personal allomorphs are "sun" or "su.nuz", they do not

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need a change because they end with "c.v.c" syllables. As the third person singular verb compositions do not take personal allomorphs, they end up with the "yor" syllables. The third person plural verb compositions may end with "ler" or "lar" syllables if no personal pronouns are used in their sentences. If the verb roots, stems or frames end with vowels in this verb compositions, these vowels drop as usual. Consider the following examples carefully: Gr -.yor-um. (g*r*yo*rum), Ta-.yor-um. (ta**yo*rum) iz-i.yor-um. (i*zi*yo*rum), Bayl-.yor-um. (ba*y*l*yo*rum) z-.yor-sun. (*z*yor*sun), Anla-.yor-sun. (an*l*yor*sun) Kork-u.yor. (kor*ku*yor), Bek.le-i.yor. (bek*li*yor), San-.yor. Gel-i.yor-lar. (ge*li*yor*lar), Dn-.yor-lar. (d**n*yor*lar) All words, whether they are roots or produced by the derivational allomorphs, have their own syllables produced by the general syllabication rules of the Turkish sound system. The verb roots, stems and frames have their own syllables. Only the last consonants of their last syllables detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes, and what is more, the last consonants of all the inflectional morphemes used in the verb compositions may detach and attach in succession. One can see how this consonant transposition takes place by following the single underlined consonants in the examples. Gel-i.yor-um. (ge*li*yo*rum), A-.yor-uz. (a**yo*ruz) Bitir-i.yor-um. (bi*ti*ri*yo*rum), Anlat-.yor-uz. (an*la*t*yo*ruz) Hazrlan-.yor-uz. (ha*zr*la*n*yo*ruz), Aldatl-.yor-uz. (al*da*t*l*yo*ruz) Demokratik-le-i.yor-uz. (de*mok*ra*tik*le*i*yo*ruz) Anla-.yor-uz. (an*la**yo*ruz), Uyu-u.yor-uz (u*yu*yo*ruz) The consonants that detach from the syllables and attach to the following sylables above are single underlined.The double underlines show the dropped vowels. Be careful of the single underlined consonants before the double underlined dropped vowels. Bekle-i.yor-um. (bek*li*yo*rum) I am waiting. Anla-.yor-um. (an*l*yo*rum) I understand. Tertiple-i.yor-um. (ter*tip*li*yo*rum) I am tidying. Temizle-i.yor-sun. (te*miz*li*yor*sun) You are cleaning. Anla-.yor-sun. (an*l*yor*sun) You understand.

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al-.yor-sun. (a*l**yor*sun) You are working. Desteklen-i.yor-sun. (des*tek*le*ni*yor*sun) You are being supported. Dn-.yor. (d**n*yor) She is thinking. Gel-me-i.yor. (gel*mi*yor) She is not coming. Temizlen-i.yor. (te*miz*le*ni*yor) It is being cleaned. Boya-u.yor-uz. (bo*yu*yo*ruz) We are painting. Anla-ma-.yor-uz. (an*la*m*yo*ruz) We do not understand. l-.yor-uz. (*l*yo*ruz) We are dying. Ta-.yor-su.nuz. (ta**yor*su*nuz) You are carrying. Tan-.yor-su.nuz. (ta**n*yor*su*nuz) You are moving. Ko-u.yor-su.nuz. (ko*u*yor*su*nuz) You are running. U-ma.u.yor-lar. (u*mu*yor*lar) They are not flying. Ka-.yor-lar. (ka**yor*lar) They are escaping. They are running away. Gel-me-i.yor-lar m? (gel*mi*yor*lar / m ) Aren't they coming? The Simple Future Tense Positive: If this verb composition is used, containing a verb "be", nouns, adjectives, or adverbials, one of which is primarily stressed on the last syllable, may precede it and therefore the verb composition is used without primarily stressed: (o*kul*da / o*la*ca*m) I will be at school. (adverbial) (dik*kat*li / o*la*ca*m) I will be careful. (adjective) (ha*zr / o*la*cak*sn) You will be ready. (adjective) (d*rst / o*la*cak*sn) You will be honest. (adjective) (ter*tip*li / o*la*cak) He will be tidy. (adjective) (ko*nu*kan / o*la*cak) She will be talkative. (adjective) (mut*lu / o*la*ca*z) We will be happy. (adjective) (ka*rar*l / o*la*ca*z) We will be determined. (adjective) (is*tek*li / o*la*cak*lar) They will be willing. (adjective) (dok*tor / o*la*ca*m) I will be a doctor. (noun) (bah*e*de / o*la*cak*lar) They will be in the garden. (adverbial) If this verb composition contains an action verb such as "go", "write", "clean", etc., its last consonant detaches from its syllable, and attaches to the first

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vowel of the following allomorphs "e.cek" or "a.cak", and the last consonants of the "cek" or "cak" syllables detach from them, and attach to the "v.c" personal allomorphs to produce "c.v.c" syllables while the /k/ phonemes change in real-time into their voiced form // consonants. The primarily stressed syllables are on "ce, ca" or "cek, cak". The consonants that change their positions between successive syllables are single underlined: Gel-e.cek-im. (ge*le*ce*im), Konu-a.cak-z. (ko*nu*a*ca*z) Sev-e.cek-sin. (se*ve*cek*sin), Gr-e.cek-sin. (g*re*cek*sin) Sus-a.cak. (su*sa*cak), Krl-a.cak. (k*r*la*cak), Unut-a.cak. Baar-a.cak-z. (ba*a*ra*ca*z), Unut-a.cak-z. (u*nu*ta*ca*z) Dn-e.cek-si.niz (d**ne*cek*si*niz), Gl-e.cek-si.niz. (g*le*cek*si*niz) Ko-a.cak-lar (ko*a*cak*lar), Git-e.cek*ler. (gi*de*cek*ler) The verbs that end with vowels are attached to "e.cek" or "a.cak" allomorphs by the /y/ glides to harmonize the link between the successive vowels: Anla-/y/a.cak-m.(an*la*ya*ca*m), Uyu-/y/a.cak-m. (u*yu*ya*ca*m) Ara-/y/a.cak-sn. (a*ra*ya*cak*sn), Bekle-/y/e.cek. (bek*le*ye*cek) Bala-/y/a.cak-z.(ba*la*ya*ca*z), Anla-/y/a.cak-snz.(an*la*ya*cak*s*nz) Koru-/y/a.cak-lar. (ko*ru*ya*cak*lar), Dinle-/y/e.cek-ler. (din*le*ye*cek*ler) al-a.cak-m. (a*l*a*ca*m) I will study or work. Bekle-/y/e.cek-im. (bek*le*ye*ce*im) I will wait. Anla-/y/a.cak-sn. (an*la*ya*cak*sn) You will understand. Baar-a.cak-sn. (ba*a*ra*cak*sn) You will succeed. Dn-e.cek. (d**ne*cek) She will think. Unut-a.cak. (u*nu*ta*cak) She will forget. Kazan-a.cak-z. (ka*za*na*ca*z) We will win. Sat-a.cak-z. (sa*ta*ca*z) We will sell. zl-e.cek-ler. (*z*le*cek*ler) They will be sorry. Delir-e.cek-ler. (de*li*re*cek*ler) They will be mad. The Rumor Form Positive: If a verb "be" is used in this verb composition, the last syllables of the nouns, the adjectives, or the adverbials preceding the "mi, m, m, mu" allomorphs are primarily stressed. To supply the "v.c" personal morpheme with an initial /c/ consonant, the last consonant // of the [MI] morpheme detaches, and attaches to the "v.c" syllable to complete the "c.v.c" personal syllable. If the nouns, adjectives, or adverbials end with vowels, they take the /y/ glides.

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Tembel-mi-im. (tem*bel*mi*im), Doktor-mu-um. (dok*tor*mu*um) Ev-de/y/-mi-im. (ev*dey*mi*im), Hasta/y/-m-im. (has*tay*m*m), Sknt-da/y/-m-m. (s*kn*t*day*m*m), Ben-mi-im. (ben*mi*im) ar-da/y/-m-sn. (ar**day*m*sn), Bekr-m. (be*kr*m) Toplant-da/y/-m-z. (top*lan*t*day*m*z), yi/y/-mi-ler (i*yiy*mi*ler) fkeli/y/-mi. (f*ke*liy*mi), stanbul.lu/y/-mu. (is*tan*bul*luy*mu) The Simple Present, The Present Continuous, The Simple Future tenses, and some modal forms can also be used with the [mi, m,m, mu] allomorphs: Yanl-m-m. (ya*nl*m*m) I think I was mistaken. (i*im*den / ko*vul*mu*um) They say that I have been dismissed. (a*ra*ba*n / sat*m*sn) They say that you (have) sold your car. (i*i*ni / ta*mam*la*m*sn) They say that you have completed your work. (l*dr*m) They say that she got crazy. (ba*yl*m) They say that she fainted. (bi*zim / ta*km / ye*nil*mi) They say that our team (was) has been defeated. (ka*n*m*z) They say that we avoided. (al*dan*m*z) They say that we were cheated. (u*nut*mu*lar) They say that they have forgotten. (an*la*m*lar) They say that they understood. (trk*e / *re*ni*yor*mu) They say that she is learning Turkish. (trk*e / bi*li*yor*mu) They say that she knows Turkish. (lon*dra*ya / gi*de*cek*mi) They say that she will go to London. (trk*e / *ren*me*liy*mi*im) They say that I should learn Turkish. (a*l*ma*ly*m*m) They say that I should work. (ko*vu*la*bi*lir*mi*sin) They say that you may be dismissed. (ar*tk / fut*bol / oy*na*ya*maz*m*m) They say that I can't play football any more. (top*lan*t*ya / git*me*me*liy*mi*iz) They say that we shouldn't go to the meeting. (ar*tk / fut*bol / oy*na*ya*bi*lir*mi*im) They say that I can play football from now on. The Past Perfect Tense Positive:

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Only the action verbs are used in this tense. As in the other verb compositions, the last syllables are always "c.v.c" syllables. However, as there are no personal allomorphs that stand for the third person singular, only the [M] and the [D] morphemes are used. The personal allomorphs are the allomorphs that are used in The Simple Past Tense. In this tense, the allomorphs of the [M] morpheme are always primarily stressed: Gr-m-t-m. (gr*m*tm), Anla-m-t-m. (an*la*m*tm) Gr-m-t-n. (gr*m*tn), Sakla-m-t-n. (sak*la*m*tn) Git-mi-ti. (git*mi*ti), Anla-m-t. (an*la*m*t),Ol-mu-tu. (ol*mu*tu) Bitir-mi-ti-ik. (bi*tir*mi*tik), Temizle-mi-ti-ik. (te*miz*le*mi*tik) Dur-mu-tu-u.nuz. (dur*mu*tu*nuz), Evlen-mi-ti-i.niz. (ev*len*mi*ti*niz) Uyu-mu-lar-d. (u*yu*mu*lar*d), Bekle-mi-ler-di. (bek*le*mi*ler*di) -im-i yap-m-t-m. (i*i*mi / yap*m*tm) I had done my work. Ev-den k-m-t-m. (ev*den / k*m*tm) I had left home. Uyku-/y/a dal-m-t-n. (uy*ku*ya / dal*m*tn) You had fallen asleep. (ev / *de*vi*ni / yap*m*tn) You had done your homework. (e*vi / ter*tip*le*mi*ti) She had tidied the house. Ben-i anla-m-t. (be*ni / an*la*m*t) She had understood me. (top*lan*t*y / er*te*le*mi*tik) We had postponed the meeting. (i*i*mi*zi / ta*mam*la*m*tk) We had completed our work. (bi*ze / te*le*fon / et*mi*ti*niz) You had telephoned us. Ev-den ayrl-m-t-.nz. (ev*den / ay*rl*m*t*nz) You had left home. (ev*den / ay*rl*m*lar*d) They had left home. (is*tas*yo*na / var*m*lar*d) They had got to the station. The Past Continuous Tense Positive: The [du] allomorph of The Simple Past Tense attaches to the preceding morpheme [.YOR], and then the personal allomorphs "um, un, , uk, u.nuz, lar.d" are used attached to the "du" allomorph. When these personal allomorphs attach to the "du" allomorphs, the last vowel of the du allomorph and the first vowels of the personal allomorphs happen to be identical vowels, and combine to prevent the two "u" vowels from being successively vocalized: Okul-a git-i.yor-du-um. (o*ku*la / gi*di*yor*dum) I was going to school. (te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor*dum) I was watching television.

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al-.yor-du-um. (a*l**yor*dum) I was working. (o*da*n / ter*tip*li*yor*dun) You were tidying your room. Uyu-u.yor-du-un. (u*yu*yor*dun) You were sleeping. Bana bak-.yor-du. (ba*na / ba*k*yor*du) He was looking at me. (o*kul*dan / ge*li*yor*du) She was coming from school. Yemek ye-i.yor-du-uk. (ye*mek / yi*yor*duk) We were having lunch. (o*to*bs / du*ra**na / ko*u*yor*duk) We were running to the bus stop. Dn-.yor-du-uk. (d**n*yor*duk) We were thinking. (bas*ket*bol / oy*nu*yor*du*nuz) You were playing basketball. al-.yor-du-u.nuz. (a*l**yor*du*nuz) You were working. (ku*la*ra / ba*k*yor*du*nuz) You were looking at the birds. (du*var*la*r / bo*yu*yor*lar*d) They were painting the walls. Tart-.yor-lar-d. (tar*t**yor*lar*d) They were discussing. Uyu-u.yor-lar-d. (u*yu*yor*lar*d) They were sleeping. Tart-.yor-du-uk. (tar*t**yor*duk) We were discussing. Was Going To Positive: "verb - [E.CEK] - [D] - pers" If the verb roots, stems or frames end with consonants when composing this verb composition, the "e.cek" or "a.cak" allomorphs attach to these verbs whose last consonants detach and attach to the /e/ or /a/ vowels of the "e.cek" or "a.cak" allomorphs, but if they end with vowels, the /y/ glides are inserted between the last vowels of the verbs and the "e.cak", or "a.cak" allomorphs. And then, the "ti", or "t" allomorphs attach to these allomorphs which are followed by the personal allomorphs: (ben) "im, m", (sen) "in, n", (o) "", (biz) "ik, k", (siz) "i.niz, .nz", (onlar) "ler*di, lar*d), whose first vowels combine with the last vowels of the ti, t allomorphs: Gel-e.cek-ti-im. (ge*le*cek*tim), Bitir-e.cek-ti-im. (bi*ti*re*cek*tim) Bul-a.cak-t-m. (bu*la*cak*tm), Topla-/y/a.cak-t-m. (top*la*ya*cak*tm), Uyu-/y/a.cak-t-m. (u*yu*ya*cak*tm), Tara-/y/a.cak-t-m. (ta*ra*ya*cak*tm) Gl-e.cek-ti-in. (g*le*cek*tin), Anla-/y/a.cak-t-n. (an*la*ya*cak*tn) Gel-e.cek-ti. (ge*le*cek*ti), Uyu-/y/a.cak-t. (u*yu*ya*cak*t) Gel-e.cek-ti-ik. (ge*le*cek*tik), Uyu-/y/a.cak-t-k. (u*yu*ya*cak*tk) Gel-e.cek-ti-i.niz.(ge*le*cek*ti*niz), Bala-/y/a.cak-t-nz.(ba*la*ya*cak*t*nz) Gel-e.cek-ler-di.(ge*le*cek*ler*di), Bala-/y/a.cak-lar-d. (ba*la*ya*cak*lar*d)

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Ka-a.cak-t-m. (ka*a*cak*tm) I was going to escape. (*de*vi*mi / ya*pa*cak*tm) I was going to do my homework. Bayl-a.cak-t-m. (ba*y*la*cak*tm) I was going to faint. Ka-a.cak-t-n. (ka*a*cak*tn) You were going to escape. (a*ra*ba*y / y*ka*ya*cak*tn) You said (promised) that you would wash the car, but you didn't. (complaint) (ba*na / yar*dm / e*de*cek*tin) You promised to help me, but you didn't. Ben-i ldr-e.cek-ti. (be*ni / l*d*re*cek*ti) He was going to kill me. (ma*ri / mo*bil*ya*nn / to*zu*nu / a*la*cak*t) Mary said that she would dust the furniture, but she didn't. (pik*ni*e / gi*de*cek*tik~) We were going to have a picnic, but (ye*ni / bir / a*ra*ba / a*la*cak*tk~) We were going to buy a new car, but (za*ma:*nn*da / ge*le*cek*ti*niz) You said that you would come on time, but you didn't. (complaint) (top*lan*t*ya / ge*le*cek*ti*niz) You said that you would come to the party. Why didn't you come? (ev*le*ri*ni / sa*ta*cak*lar*d~) They were going to sell their house, but (kur*ta*r*la*cak*lar*d~) They were going to be resqued, but (bi*ti*re*cek*tim ~) I was going to finish, but "Used To" positive containing a verb "be" or "have": ki araba-am var-d. (i*ki / a*ra*bam / var*d) I used to have two cars. ok para-an var-d. (ok / pa*ran / var*d) You used to have a lot of money. ok arkada- var-d. (ok / ar*ka*da* / var*d) He used to have a lot of friends. (bur*da / bir / hey*kel / var*d) There used to be a statue here. "Used To" containing action verbs: Kalk-ar-d-m. (kal*kar*dm) I used to get up. al-r-d-n. (a*l*r*dn) You used to work. Oyna-ar-d. (oy*nar*d) He used to play. Ko-ar-d-k. (ko*ar*dk) We used to run. Gl-er-di-i.niz. (g*ler*di*niz) You used to laugh.

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Gel-ir-ler-di. (ge*lir*ler*di) They used to come. (sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kal*kar*dm) I used to get up early in the morning. (es*ki*den / ok / a*l*r*dn) You used to work hard in the past. (fut*bol / oy*nar*d) He used to play football. (o*ku*la / y*r*ye*rek / gi*der*dik) We used to walk to school. (b*tn / gn / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / ya*par*d*nz) You used to cook in the kitchen all day long. (b*tn / gn / bah*e*de / oy*nar*lar*d) They used to play in the garden all day long.

The Rumor Forms of the Simple Present, the Present Continuous, and the Simple Future Tenses
The verb compositions containing these tenses and the allomorphs of the [M] morpheme are as follows. Anla-ar-m-m. (an*lar*m*m) They say that I understand. Anla-ar-m-sn. (an*lar*m*sn) They say that you understand. Anla-ar-m. (an*lar*m) They say that he understands. Anla-ar-m-z. (an*lar*m*z) They say that we understand. Anla-ar-m-s.nz. (an*lar*m*s*nz) They say that you understand. Anla-ar-lar-m. (an*lar*lar*m) They say that they understand. al-.yor-mu-um. (a*l**yor*mu*um) They say that I am working. Bil-i.yor-mu-sun. (bi*li*yor*mu*sun) They say that you know. Din.le-i.yor-mu. (din*li*yor*mu) They say that he is listening. Bekle-i.yor-mu-uz. (bek*li*yor*mu*uz) They say that we are waiting. Bekle-i.yor-mu-sun.uz. (bek*li*yor*mu*su*nuz) They say that you are waiting. Uyu-u.yor-lar-m. (u*yu*yor*lar*m) They say that they are sleeping. Bitir-e.cek-mi-im. (bi*ti*re*cek*mi*im) They say that I will finish. Sev-e.cek-mi-sin. (se*ve*cek*mi*sin) They say that you will like.

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Gel-e.cek-mi. (ge*le*cek*mi) They say that he will come. Gl-e.cek-mi-iz. (g*le*cek*mi*iz) They say that we will laugh. Bekle-/y/e.cek-mi-si.niz (bek*le*ye*cek*mi*si*niz)They say that you will wait. Gel-e.cek-ler-mi. (ge*le*cek*ler*mi) They say that they will come. While reading the sentences above, one should remember that the concept of the [M] morpheme is ambiguous because the origin and the time of the rumor are either unknown or concealed. Therefore, the English sentences given above might also be written as follows: Gr-m-m. (gr*m*m) They say that I saw. They said that I had seen. Everybody says that I saw. I remembered that I had seen, etc. The [M] morpheme can also be used followed by [ME.L], [E.BL], and [E.MEZ] morphemes: Git-me.li/y/-mi-im. (git*me*liy*mi*im) They say that I must go. Git-e.bil-ir-mi-im. (gi*de*bi*lir*mi*im) They say that I can go. Git-e.mez-mi-im. (gi*de*mez*mi*im) They say that I can't go. Can and may: [E.BL] Sat-a.bil-ir-im. (sa*ta*bi*li*rim) I can (may) sell. k-a.bil-ir-sin. (*ka*bi*lir*sin) You can (may) go out. Yardm et-e.bil-ir. (yar*dm / e*de*bi*lir) He can (may) help. Onu bul-a.bil-ir-iz. (o*nu / bu*la*bi*li*riz) We can (may) find it. Gr-e.bil-ir-si.niz. (g*re*bi*lir*si*niz) You (can) may see. Anla-/y/a.bil-ir-ler. (an*la*ya*bi*lir*ler) They can (may) understand. Must: [ME.L] Acele et-me.li-/y/im. (a*ce*le / et*me*li*yim) I must hurry up. Bro-um-a git-me.li-/y/im.(b*ro*ma / git*me*li*/y/im) I must go to my office. al-ma.l-sn. (a*l*ma*l*sn) You must work. Sus-ma.l. (sus*ma*l) She must stop talking. Konu-ma.l-/y/z. (ko*nu*ma*l*/y/z) We must talk. Ertele-me.li-si.niz. (er*te*le*me*li*si*niz) You must postpone. Anla-ma.l-lar. (an*la*ma*l*lar) They must understand. Must have: [M] ol-mal

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Unut-mu ol-ma.l-/y/m.(u*nut*mu / ol*ma*l*ym) I must have forgotten. Gr-m ol-ma.l-sn. (gr*m / ol*ma*l*sn) You must have seen her. Ev-den k-m ol-ma.l. (k*m / ol*ma*l) She must have left home. Yak-m ol-ma.l-/y/z. (yak*m / ol*ma*l*yz) We must have burned it. Bitir-mi ol-ma.l-s.nz.(bi*tir*mi / ol*ma*l*s*nz) You must have finished. Ka-m ol-ma.l-lar. (ka-m / ol*ma*l*lar) They must have escaped. Can't have: [M] ol-a.maz O-/n/u gr-m ol-a.maz-am.(o*nu / gr*m / o*la*mam) I can't have seen her. (bir / yan*l*lk / yap*m / o*la*maz*sn) You can't have made a mistake. Yat-m ol-a.maz (yat*m / o*la*maz) He can't have gone to bed. Yanl anla-m ol-a.ma-/y/z. (yan*l / an*la*m / o*la*ma*yz) We can't have misunderstood. Bitir-mi ol-a.maz-s-.nz (bi*tir*mi / o*la*maz*s*nz) You can't have finished. (ka*za: / ge*ir*mi / o*la*maz*lar) They can't have had an accident. Should have: gerek-ir-di (ge*re*kir*di) (sa*at / se*kiz*de~ / b*ro*da / ol*mam / ge*re*kir*di) I should have been at the office at eight. (ter*bi*ye*li / dav*ran*man / ge*re*kir*di) You should have behaved politely. (da*ha / sa:*kin / ol*ma*s / ge*re*kir*di) He should have been calmer. (da*ha / dik*kat*li / a*l*ma*mz / ge*re*kir*di) We should have worked more carefully. (bi*zi / an*la*ma*la*r / ge*re*kir*di) They should have understood us. May have: ol-a.bil-ir- [pers] (o*la*bi*li*rim) (ka*p*y / a*k / b*rak*m / o*la*bi*li*rim) I may have left the door open. (ge / kal*m / o*la*bi*lir*si*niz) You may have been late.

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(k*bus / gr*m / o*la*bi*lir) She may have had a nightmare. Needn't have: Kz-ma-am-a gerek yok-tu. (kz*ma*ma / ge*rek / yok*tu) I needn't have got angry. Cevap ver-me-en-e gerek yok-tu. (ce*vap / ver*me*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu). You needn't have answered. Bugn bitir-me-/s/i-/n/e gerek yok-tu. (bu / gn / bi*tir*me*si*ne / ge*rek / yok*tu) She needn't have finished it today.

NEGATIVE VERB COMPOSITIONS


In the negative verb compositions, the last syllables of the verb roots, stems, or frames preceding the [me, ma] negation allomorphs are primarily stressed. However, in The Simple Present Tense, the primary stress is on the negation allomorph: Git-mez-em. (git*mem), Anla-maz-am. (an*la*mam) Git-mez-sin. (git*mez*sin), Anla-maz-sn. (an*la*maz*sn) Git-mez. (git*mez), Anla-maz. (an*la*maz) Git.me-/y/iz. (git*me*yiz), Anla-ma-/y/z. (an*la*ma*yz) Git-mez-si.niz. (git*mez*si*niz), Anla-maz-s.nz. (an*la*maz*s*nz) Git-mez-ler. (git*mez*ler), Anla-maz-lar. (an*la*maz*lar) Git-me-di-im. (git*me*dim), Anla-ma-d-m. (an*la*ma*dm) Git-me-di-in. (git*me*din), Anla-ma-d-n. (an*la*ma*dn) Git-me-di. (git*me*di), Anla-ma-d. (an*la*ma*d) Git-me-di-ik. (git*me*dik), Anla-ma-d-k. (an*la*ma*dk) Git-me-di-i.niz. (git*me*di*niz), Anla-ma-d-.nz. (an*la*ma*d*nz) Git-me-di-ler. (git*me*di*ler), Anla-ma-d-lar. (an*la*ma*d*lar) Git-me-i.yor-um. (git*mi*yo*rum), (an*la*m*yo*rum)

Gel-me-/y/e.cek-im. (gel*me*ye*ce*im), ko*nu*ma*ya*ca*m)

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Gel-me-i.yor-du-um. (gel*mi*yor*dum), (ko*nu*mu*yor*dum) Gr-me-mi-im. (gr*me*mi*im), (an*la*ma*m*m) Gr-me-mi-ti-im. (gr*me*mi*tim), (an*la*ma*m*tm) D-me-me.li-/y/im. (d*me*me*li*yim), (u*yu*ma*ma*l*ym) Gr-e.me-i.yor-um. (g*re*mi*yo*rum), (an*la*ya*m*yo*rum) Git-me-/y/e.cek-ti-im. (git*me*ye*cek*tim), (ba*la*ma*ya*cak*tm)

SOME EXAMPLE SENTENCES OF THE VERB FRAMES


It may be useful to give further explanations on word stress before giving some more example sentences on the verb frames. There are three kinds of stresses in Turkish: weak stress, secondary stress, and primary stress. If a syllable is printed in normal type, it is weakly stressed. Turkish words generally have weak stress on the first syllables. The syllables following the weak syllables are all secondarily stressed, and when a word is thought important, the last secondarily stressed syllable is primarily stressed. If a root is monosyllabic, its single syllable is naturally the last syllable, so it is secondarily stressed. However, there may also be some other secondarily stressed syllables in the first syllables of some borrowed words. If a speaker thinks that a word is important, he strengthens the last secondarily stressed syllable of a word to make it dominant in a sentence. This definition, however, differs in verb compositions because the verb roots, stems or frames, whether monosyllabic or polysyllabic, are suffixed by several inflectional morphemes. In verb compositions, the verb roots, stems and frames, and the following syllables are all secondarily stressed. Only one of these syllables in the verb compositions can be primarily stressed, which does not depend on the speaker's choice. Besides, some of the morphemes used in the verb compositions are formed of two or more syllables such as me.li, ma.l, e.cek, a.cak, e.bi.lir. Only the last syllables of such morphemes can be primarily stressed, except for "e.mez", a.maz, which are negation allomorphs. One can change the meaning of a sentence by changing a secondary stress at the end of a word (except the ones in a verb composition) into a primary stress: (an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) In the sentence above, each word has several secondarily stressed syllables that are printed in italics. The last secondarily stressed syllables in each

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word are not only secondarily stressed, but they also imply the hearer a suspended juncture as if another word is going to follow it. The word roots and stems may have one or more syllables. If a word stem has only one syllable, it is naturally secondarily stressed. If it has two or more syllables, these syllables are secondarily stressed except for the first weak syllable. When the stems are suffixed with inflectional or derivational suffixes, these suffixes are also secondarily stressed together with the other secondarily stressed syllables. Consider the secondarily stressed syllables in the following words: (ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s) (ba*ba*s*nn), (ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den) However, when one wants to primarily stress one of these words, he can only primarily stress the last secondarily stressed syllable in a word such as: (ter*lik), (ter*lik*i), (ter*lik*i*lik); (ba*ba), (ba*ba*s), (ba*ba*s*nn), (ba*ba*sn*dan); (yz), (y*z), (y*z*ne), (y*zn*de), (y*zn*den) Compare the following sentences: (an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the sea; not any other woman. (an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the sea; not in a lake or a river. (an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) means, My mother is swimming in the sea; not sunbathing or chatting with her friends on the beach. Another point to consider in a language is its intonation, which is the music of a language that influences its meaning significantly. To describe a piece of music using words is almost impossible. Therefore, listening to native speakers speaking it in their own native languages is of vital importance for students of languages. The longer one is exposed to a foreign language, the easier and more soundly, he can learn it. In the following example sentences, some frequently used verb frames and their syllables are given in brackets. Most of the primarily stressable syllables are also printed in bold face, but this does not mean that the other important words in a sentence cannot be stressed. Any one of the words that is thought important in a sentence can be stressed accordingly. The open junctures (pauses) between words are showed by / slashes.

a:

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iek-ler sabah-le.yin a-ar. (i*ek*ler / sa*bah*le*yin / a*ar ) The flowers open in the morning. (intransitive) Jack kap-/y/ a-t. (jack / ka*p*y / a*t ) Jack opened the door. (transitive) Jacke kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (ce*ke / ka*p*y / a*tr*dm ) I made (had) Jack open the door. (causative) Kap-/y/ a-tr-d-m. (ka*p*y / a*tr*dm ) I had the door opened. (causative) Kap bil-in-me-/y/en bir kii tarafndan a-l-d. (ka*p / bi*lin*me*yen / bir / ki*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / a*l*d ) The door was opened by an unknown person. (passive) Hava a-l-d (at). (ha*va / a*l*d) The clouds scattered and the sun began to shine. (reflexive) Kap, Jacke a-tr-l-d. (ka*p /ce*ke / a*t*rl*d ) Jack was made to open the door. (passive causative)

al, aln
Kitap- al-d-m. (ki*ta*b / al*dm ) I have taken (received, bought) the book. (transitive) Kitap- satn aldr-d-m. (ki*ta*b / sa*t *nal*dr*dm ) (liaison) I (have) had the book bought. (causative) Kitap- satn al-drt-t-m. (double causative) (ki*ta*b / sa*t*nal*dr(t)*tm ) (liaison) I asked someone to have the book bought. (double causative). Kitap satn al-n-d. (ki*tap / sa*t*na*ln*d ) (liaison) The book has been bought. (passive)

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Kitap- satn al-dr-d-m. (ki*ta*b / sa*tn / al*dr*dm ) I have had the book bought. (causative) Aldr-ma! (al*dr*ma ) Never mind! (an expression) Elma-lar Ahmete al-dr-l-d. (el*ma*lar / ah*me*te / al*d*rl*d ) Ahmet was made to buy the apples. (passive causative) Elma-lar- Ahmete al-dr-d. (el*ma*la*r / ah*me*te / al*dr*d ) She had Ahmet buy the apples. (causative) Bu elma-lar geen hafta al-n-d. (bu / el*ma*lar~ / ge*en / haf*ta / a*ln*d ) These apples were bought last week. (passive) Bu elma-lar satn al-ma-/y/a de-mez. (bu / el*ma*lar / sa*tn / al*ma*ya / de*mez ) These apples are not worth buying. (infinitive) Yarn bana bir bilgisayar al-n-.yor. (ya*rn / ba*na~ / bir / bil*gi*sa*yar / a*l*n*yor ) A computer is going to be bought for me tomorrow. (O), sz-ler-im-den al-n-d. (sz*le*rim*den / a*ln*d ) She was offended by what I said. (reflexive)

anla:
Jack ders-i anla-d. (jack / der*si / an*la*d ) Jack understood the lesson. (transitive) Ders anla-l-d. (ders / an*la*l*d ) The lesson has been understood. (passive)

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Onlar anla-t-lar. (on*lar / an*la*t*lar ) They (have) reached an agreement. (reciprocal)

anlat:
Jack biz-e bir masal anlat-t. (jack / bi*ze / bir / ma*sa*lan*lat*t ) (liaison) Jack told us a story. (transitive) retmen masal- Ahmete anlat-tr-d. (*ret*men / ma*sa*l~/ ah*me*te / an*lat*tr*d ) The teacher made (had) Ahmet tell the story. (causative) Masal anlat-tr-d-m. (ma*sa*l / an*lat*tr*dm ) I had the story told. (causative) Masal dn anlat-l-d. (ma*sal / dn / an*la*tl*d ) The story was told yesterday. (passive) Masal Ahmete anlat-tr-l-d. (ma*sal~ / ah*me*te / an*lat*t*rl*d) Ahmet was made to tell the story. (passive causative) retmen bir konu anlat-.yor (retiyor). (*ret*men / bir / ko*nu / an*la*t*yor ) The teacher is teaching a subject. (transitive)

art:
Hz art-t. (hz / art*t) The speed increased. (intransitive) Hz- artr-d. (h*z / ar*tr*d ) He increased the speed. (transitive) Hz artr-l-d. (hz / ar*t*rl*d ) The speed has been increased. (passive)

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Ona hz--n ar-trt-t. (o*na / h*z*n / ar*trt*t ) He made him increase his speed. (causative) Hz- artrt-t. (h*z / ar*trt*t ) He had the speed increased. (causative) Hz Jacke artrt-l-d. (hz / ja*ke / ar*tr*tl*d ) Jack was made to increase the speed. (passive causative)

bala:
Oyun bala-d. (o*yun / ba*la*d ) The game (has) started. (intransitive) Hakem oyun-u balat-t. (ha*kem / o*yu*nu / ba*lat*t ) The referee started the game. (transitive) Hakem oyun-u Ahmete balat-t. (ha*kem / o*yu*nu~ / ah*me*de / ba*lat*t ) The referee made Ahmet start the game. (causative) Oyun Ahmete balat-l-d. (o*yun / ah*me*de / ba*la*tl*d ) Ahmet was made to start the game. (passive causative) Oyun balat-l-d. (o*yun / ba*la*tl*d ) The game was started. (by someone) (passive) Oyun-a bala-an-d. (o*yu*na / ba*lan*d ) The game was started. (passive shaped intransitive verb)

bat:
kinci Dnya Sava-/n/da birok gemi bat-t. (i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / bat*t ) A lot of ships sank during The Second World War. (intransitive)

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kinci Dnya Sava/n/da ok gemi batr-d-lar. (i*kin*ci / dn*ya: / sa*va*n*da / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*tr*d*lar ) They sank a lot of ships during The Second World War. (transitive) Sava-ta birok gemi batr-l-d. (sa*va*ta / bir*ok / ge*mi / ba*t*rl*d ) A lot of ships were sunk during the war. (passive) (O), parmak--/n/a bir ine batr-d. (par*ma**na / bir / i*ne / ba*tr*d ) She stuck a needle into her figer. (transitive) Parmak-m-a ine batt. (par*ma**ma / i*ne / bat*t ) A needle stuck into my finger. (intransitive)

bul:
Yzk--/n/ bul-du. (y*z**n / bul*du ) She has found her ring. (transitive) Yzk--/n/ koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-du. (y*z**n / ko*ca*s*na / bul*dur*du ) She got her husband to find her ring. (causative) Yzk koca-/s/-/n/a bul-dur-ul-du. (y*zk / ko*ca*s*na / bul*du*rul*du ) Her husband was made to find the ring. (passive causative) Yzk--/n/ bul-dur-du. (y*z**n / bul*dur*du ) She had her ring found. (causative) Yzk- bul-un-du. (y*z* / bu*lun*du ) Her ring has been found. (passive)

al:
Birisi o-/n/un anta-/s/-/n/ al-d. (bi*ri*si / o*nun / an*ta*s*n / al*d ) Somebody stole her handbag. (transitive)

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anta-/s/-/n/ al-dr-d. (an*ta*s*n / al*dr*d ) She had her handbag stolen. (causative) Geen hafta onun anta-/s/ al-n-d. (ge*en / haf*ta / o*nun / an*ta*s / a*ln*d ) Her handbag was stolen last week. (passive) Jack piyano al-a.bil-ir. (jack / pi*ya*no / a*la*bi*lir ) Jack can play the piano. (transitive) Hakem ddk--/n/ al-d. (ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d ) The referee blew his whistle. (transitive)

arp:
Top pencere-/y/e arp-t. (top / pen*ce*re*ye / arp*t ), or (top / pen*ce*re*ye / carp*t ) The ball hit the window.. (Turkish intransitive; English transitive) Klp-im sen-in iin arp-.yor. (kl*bim / se*nin / i*in / ar*p*yor ) My heart is beating for you. (intransitive) Araba-/s/-/n/ elektrik direk-i-/n/e arp-t. (a*ra*ba*s*n / e*lek*trik / di*re*i*ne / arp*t ) She hit her car to a lamppost. (intransitive) Kap-/y/ arp-t. (ka*p*y / arp*t ) He slammed the door. (transitive) Kap arp-l-d. (ka*p / ar*pl*d ) The door was slammed. (Passive) ki kamyon arp--t. (i*ki / kam*yon / ar*p*t ) Two lorries collided. (reciprocal)

al:

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Almanyada al-.yor. (al*man*ya*da / a*l**yor ) He is working in Germany. (intransitive) Motor-u al-tr-a.ma-d. (mo*to*ru / a*l*t*ra*ma*d ) He couldnt start the engine. (transitive) Kar-/s/-/n/ al-tr-ma-.yor. (ka*r*s*n / a*l*tr*m*yor ) He doesnt let his wife work. (causative) Eskiden otomobil motor-lar- el-le al-tr-l-r-d. (es*ki*den~ / o*to*mo*bil / mo*tor*la*r~ / el*le / a*l*t*r*lr*d ) In the past car engines used to be manually started. (passive) Bu fabrika-da kask-sz al-l-maz. (bu / fab*ri*ka*da / kask*sz / a*l*l*maz ) It is forbidden (dangerous) to work without helmets in this factory. (passive shaped intransitive verb)

atla:
Bardak atla-d. (bar*dak / at*la*d ) The glass (has) cracked. (intransitive) Kaynar su bardak- atla-at-t. (kay*nar / su / bar*da* / at*lat*t ) The boiling water cracked the glass. (transitive) Bardak- sen atla-at-t-n. (bar*da* / sen / at*lat*tn ) You made the glass crack. (causative) (You cracked the glass.) Bardak atla-at-l-d. (bar*dak / at*la*tl*d ) The glass was cracked. (passive)

ek, ekin
Bu baca iyi ek-er. (bu / ba*ca / i*yi / e*ker ) This chimney draws well. (intransitive)

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Anne-/s/i-/n/e ek-mi. (an*ne*si*ne / ek*mi ) She seems to have taken after her mother. (intransitive) Araba-/y/ iki at ek-i.yor-du. (a*ra*ba*y / i*ki / at / e*ki*yor*du ) Two horses were pulling the cart. (transitive) Kl--/n/ ek-ti. (k*l*c*n / ek*ti ) He drew his sword. (transitive) (O) ac ek-i.yor. (a*c / e*ki*yor ) He is suffering. (transitive) Eskiden insan-lar kuyu-lar-dan su cek-er-di. (es*ki*den / in*san*lar ~ / ku*yu*lar*dan / su / e*ker*di ) People used to draw water from wells in the past. (transitive) Teklif (ben-im) dikkat-im-i ek-ti. (tek*lif / dik*ka*ti*mi / ek*ti ) The proposal attracted my attention. (transitive) Araba-am ek-il-di. (a*ra*bam / e*kil*di), or (a*ra*bam / e*kil*di ) My car has been towed away. (passive) Araba-am- ek-tir-di-im. (a*ra*ba*m / ek*tir*dim ) I had my car towed. (causative) Bir di-im-i ektir-di-im. (bir / di*i*mi / ek*tir*dim ) I had a tooth pulled out. (causative) O ekin-i.yor. (o / e*ki*ni*yor ) She is avoiding. (reflexive) (*She is pulling herself) Onlar eki-i.yor-lar. (on*lar / e*ki*i*yor*lar ) They are struggling with each other. (reciprocal)

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Can eki-i.yor. (can / e*ki*i*yor ) He is in the death agony. (reciprocal)

k:
Ev-den k-t. (ev*den / k*t ) He (has) left home. (intransitive) Ceket-i-/n/i kar-d. (ce*ke*ti*ni / *kar*d ) He took off his coat. (transitive) apka-am- kart-t. (ap*ka*m / *kart*t ) He made me take off my hat. (causative) Dar k-ar-l-d. (d*a*r / *ka*rl*d ) He was taken out. (passive) Boyuna sorun kar-.yor. (bo*yu*na / so*run / *ka*r*yor ) He is always creating problems. (transitive)

z:
Bir problem z-.yor. (bir / prob*lem / *z*yor ) He is solving a problem. (transitive) Problem-i baba-/s/-/n/a z-dr-d. (prob*le*mi / ba*ba*s*na / z*dr*d ) She got her father to solve the problem. (causative) Tm sorun-lar-.mz z-l-d. (tm / so*run*la*r*mz / *zl*d ) All our problems have been solved. (passive) Bu dm- z-e.me-i.yor-um. (bu / d**m / *ze*mi*yo*rum ) I can't untie this knot. (transitive)

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daya:
Merdiven-i duvar-a daya-d. (mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*ya*d ) He leaned the ladder against the wall. (transitive) Merdiven-i duvar-a dayat-t. (mer*di*ve*ni / du*va*ra / da*yat*t ) He had the ladder leaned against the wall. (causative) Merdiven duvar-a daya-an-d. (mer*di*ven / du*va*ra / da*yan*d ) The ladder has been leaned against the wall. (passive)

dayan:
Bu ayakkab-lar daha ok daya-an-r. (bu / a*yak*ka*b*lar ~ / da*ha / ok / da*ya*nr ) These shoes last longer. (intransitive) Bu scak-a dayan-a.ma-.yor-um. (bu / s*ca*a~ / da*ya*na*m*yo*rum ) I can't endure (tolerate) this warm weather. (intransitive)

dal:
Deniz-e dal-d. (de*ni*ze / dal*d ) He dived into the sea. (intransitive) El-i-/n/i su-/y/a dal-dr-d. (e*li*ni / su*ya / dal*dr*d ) He plunged his hand into the water. (transitive) Onu deniz-e daldrt-t. (o*nu / de*ni*ze / dal*drt*t ) He got him to dive into the sea. (causative)

dei:
Sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri ok dei-ti-in (deimisin). (se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ok / de*i*tin ) You have changed a lot since I last saw you. (intransitive)

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Ev-e gel-in.ce giysi-ler-i-/n/i dei-tir-di. (e*ve / ge*lin*ce~ / giy*si*le*ri*ni / de*i*tir*di ) He changed his clothes when he came home. (transitive) Eski lastik-ler-im-i dei-tirt-i.yor-um. (es*ki / las*tik*le*ri*mi / de*i*tir*ti*yo*rum ) I am having my old tires changed. (causative) Kirli masa rt-/s/ dei-tir-il-di. (kir*li / ma*sa / r*t*s / de*i*ti*ril*di ) The dirty tablecloth has been changed. (passive) Futbol kural-lar- degi-tir-il-e.cek. (fut*bol / ku*ral*la*r / de*i*ti*ri*le*cek ) The football rules are going to be changed. (passive)

dinle:
Syle-dik-im-i din-le. (sy*le*di*i*mi / din*le ) Listen to what I say. (Turkish transitive; English intransitive) Bana, ark-/s/-/n/ dinle-et-ti. (ba*na / ar*k*s*n / din*let*ti ) She got me to listen to her song. (causative)

do:
Ben Adanada do-du-um. (ben / a*da*na*da / do*dum ) I was born in Adana. (Turkish intransitive, English passive) Gne alt-da do-du. (g*ne / al*t*da / do*du ) The sun rose at six. (intransitive) Geen ay bir olan dour-du. (ge*en / ay / bir / o*lan / do*ur*du ) She gave birth to a son last month. (transitive) Ay da dou-dan do-ar. (ay / da / do*u*dan / do*ar ) The moon also rises in the east. (intransitive)

dol:

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Okul hemen ocuk-lar-la dol-du. (o*kul / he*men / o*cuk*lar*la / dol*du ) The school soon filled with children. (intransitive) Sepet-i-/n/i elma/y/-la doldur-du. (se*pe*ti*ni / el*may*la / dol*dur*du ) She filled her basket with apples. (transitive) Sepet-i-/n/i bana elma/y/-la dol-durt-tu. (se*pe*ti*ni / ba*na / el*may*la / dol*durt*tu ) She made me fill her basket with apples. (causative) (onun) sepet-i elma/y/-la dol-dur-ul-du. (o*nun / se*pe*ti / el*may*la / dol*du*rul*du ) Her basked was filled with apples. (passive) Sepet bana dol-durt-ul-du. (se*pet / ba*na / dol*dur*tul*du ) I was made to fill the basket. (passive causative)

dn:
Tekerlek-ler yava yava dn-.yor. (te*ker*lek*ler / ya*va / ya*va / d*n*yor ) The wheels are turning slowly. (intransitive) Geri dn. (ge*ri / dn ) Turn back. (intransitive) Sa-a dn. (sa*a / dn ) (normal): (sa*a: ~ / dn ) (military order) Turn right. (intransitive) Sonbahar-da yaprak-lar sar-/y/a dn-er (sarar-r). (son*ba*har*da / yap*rak*lar / sa*r*ya / d*ner ), or (sa*ra*rr ) Leaves turn yellow in the autumn. (intransitive) Yz- kzar-d. (y*z / k*zar*d ) Her face turned red. She was ashamed. (intransitive) Kasa-/y/ a-mak iin anahtar- evir-di (dndrd). (ka*sa*y / a*mak / i*in / a*nah*ta*r / e*vir*di ) He turned the key to open the safe. (transitive)

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d:
Kalem-im yer-e d-t. (ka*le*mim / ye*re / d*t ) My pen fell on the floor. (intransitive) Kalem-im-i dr-d-m. (ka*le*mi*mi / d*r*dm ) I dropped my pencil. (transitive) Ben-i dr-d. (be*ni / d*r*d ) He made me fall down. (causative) Ar bavul-u-/n/u dr-d. (a*r / ba*vu*lu*nu / d*r*d ) He let his heavy bag fall. (transitive) Dr-l-d-m. (d**rl*dm ) I was made to fall down. (passive causative)

ge, gein:
Araba-lar n-m-den ge-i.yor. (a*ra*ba*lar / *nm*den / ge*i*yor ) Cars are passing in front of me. (intransitive) Snav- ge-e.me-di-im. (s*na*v / ge*e*me*dim ) I couldnt pass the exam. (transitive) Onlar iyi gein-i.yor-lar. (on*lar / i*yi / ge*i*ni*yor*lar ) They are getting on well with each other. (reflexive) n-m-de.ki araba-/y/ ge-ti-im. (*nm*de*ki / a*ra*ba*y / ge*tim ) I overtook the car in front of me. (transitive)

gr, gr-n:
Yanllk- gr-me-di-im. (yan*l*l* / gr*me*dim ) I didnt (notice) see the mistake. (transitive)

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Yorgun gr-n-.yor-sun. (yor*gun / g*r*n*yor*sun ) You look tired. (reflexive) Bu teklif ilgin gr-n-.yor. ( bu / tek*lif / il*gin / g*r*n*yor ) This proposal sounds (looks, seems) interesting. (reflexive) mkn-sz gr-n-.yor. (im*kn*sz / g*r*n*yor ) It seems (sounds) impossible. (reflexive)

gl:
Bebek gl-.yor. (be*bek / g*l*yor ) The baby is laughing. (intransitive) O ben-i her zaman gl-dr-r. (o / be*ni / her*za*man / gl*d*rr ) She always makes me laugh. (causative) Gl-dr-l-d-m. (gl*d*rl*dm ) I was made to laugh. (passive causative) Bu sorun-lar-a gl-n-mez. (bu / so*run*la*ra / g*ln*mez ) It is not decent to laugh at such problems. (passive shaped intransitive) Kz-lar bahe-de gl--.yor-lar-d. (kz*lar / bah*e*de / g*l**yor*lar*d ) The girls were giggling in the garden. (reciprocal)

hatrla:
Onun ismi-/n/i hatrla-.yor-um. (o*nun / is*mi*ni / ha*tr*l*yo*rum ) I remember her name. (transitive) Kar-m k-lar- kapat-ma-am- hatrlat-t. (ka*rm / *k*la*r / ka*pat*ma*m / ha*tr*lat*t ) My wife reminded me to turn the lights off. (transitive)

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Bu eski fotograf bana bykannem-i hatrlat-.yor. (bu / es*ki / fo*tog*raf~ / ba*na / b*y*kan*ne*mi / ha*tr*la*t*yor ) This old photograph reminds me of my grandmother. (transitive) Bu zafer uzun sre hatrla-an-a.cak. (bu / za*fer / u*zun / s*re / ha*tr*la*na*cak ) This victory will be remembered for a long time. (passive)

hazrla:
Annem le yemek-i-/n/i hazrla-d. (an*nem / *le / ye*me*i*ni / ha*zr*la*d ) Mother has prepared the lunch. (transitive) Annem yemek-i bana hazrla-at-t. (an*nem / ye*me*i / ba*na / ha*zr*lat*t ) Mother made me prepare the lunch. (causative) Yemek hazrla-an-d. (ye*mek / ha*zr*lan*d ) The lunch has been prepared. (passive) Hazrla-an-.yor-um. (ha*zr*la*n*yo*rum ) I am getting ready. (reflexive) (*I am preparing myself.)

i:
Annem her sabah bir bardak ay i-er. (an*nem / her / sa*bah / bir / bar*dak / ay / i*er ) Mother drinks a cup of tea every morning. (transitive) Annem bana her sabah iki bardak st i-ir-ir. (an*nem / ba*na / her / sa*bah / i*ki / bar*dak / st / i*i*rir ) Mother makes me drink two cups of milk every morning. (causative) Bu su i-il-ir. (bu / su / i*i*lir ) This water is drinkable. Literally (*This water is drunk.) (passive)

iit:
yi iit-e-bil-i.yor mu-sun? (i*yi / i*i*te*bi*li*yor / mu*sun ) Can you hear well? (intransitive)

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Onun Londrada olduk-u-/n/u iit-ti-im. (o*nun / Lon*dra*da / ol*du*u*nu / i*it*tim ) I heard that he is (was) in London. (transitive) Onun yalan syle-dik-i hi iit-il-me-di. (o*nun / ya*lan / sy*le*di*i / hi / i*i*til*me*di ) He has never been heard to tell a lie. (passive)

sr:
Havla-/y/an kpek sr-maz. (hav*la*yan / k*pek / *sr*maz ) A barking dog never bites. (intransitive) (a proverb) Sen-in kopek-in dn bacak-m- sr-d. (se*nin / k*pe*in / dn / ba*ca**m / *sr*d) Your dog bit my leg yesterday. (transitive) Kuduz bir kpek tarafndan sr-l-d. (ku*duz / bir / k*pek / ta*ra*fn*dan / *s*rl*d) She was bitten by a mad dog. (passive) Ben-i kopek-i-/n/e srt-t. (be*ni / k*pe*i*ne / *srt*t ) She made (let) her dog bite me. (causative)

ka:
ki hkml hapis-ten ka-t. (i*ki / h*km*l / ha*pis*ten / ka*t ) Two prisoners (have) escaped from prison. (intransitive) ki kii be ya-n-da bir ocuk-u kar-d. (i*ki / ki*i / be / ya*n*da / bir / o*cu*u / ka*r*d ) Two men kidnapped a five year old child. (transitive.) Herkes gen kadn-n kar-l-dk--/n/ dn-.yor. (her*kes~ / gen / ka*d*nn / ka**rl*d**n / d**n*yor ) Everybody thinks that the young woman has been abducted. (passive) ocuk-lar- bahe-den kart-t. (o*cuk*la*r / bah*e*den / ka*rt*t ) He frightened the children away from the garden. (causative)

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Grev-in-i yap-mak-tan ka-n-ma-ma.l-sn. (g*re*vi*ni / yap*mak*tan / ka*n*ma*ma*l*sn ) You shouldnt avoid doing your duty. (reflexive) Herkes dei-ik ynler-e ka--t. (her*kes / de*i*ik / yn*le*re / ka**t ) Everybody ran to different directions. (reciprocal) Akl-n ka-r-d. (ak*l*n / ka*r*d ) He went mad. (idiomatic) (transitive)

it:
Ben-i kenar-a it-ti. (be*ni / ke*na*ra / it*ti ) He pushed me aside. (transitive) Kenar-a it-il-di-im. (ke*na*ra / i*til*dim ) I was pushed aside. (passive) Araba-/s/-/n/ bana it-tir-di. (a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / it*tir*di ) She made me push her car. (causative) t-i-i.yor-lar. (i*ti*i*yor*lar ) They are pushing each other. (reciprocal) Ben-i kim it-ti? (be*ni / ki mit*ti ) (liaison) Who pushed me? (transitive)

kandr:
Adam ben-i kandr-d. (a*dam / be*ni / kan*dr*d ) The man cheated me. (transitive) Kandr-l-d-m. (kan*d*rl*dm ) I was cheated. (passive)

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Ben-i kandr-ma-/y/a al-ma! (be*ni / kan*dr*ma*ya / a*l*ma ) Don't try to deceive me! (transitive)

kap:
Kk bir ocuk anta-am- kap-t. (k*k / bir / o*cuk / an*ta*m / kap*t ) A little boy snatched my handbag. (transitive) anta-am- kap-tr-d-m. (an*ta*m / kap*tr*dm ) I had my handbag snatched. (causative) anta-am kap-l-d. (an*tam / ka*pl*d ) (an*tam / kap*l*d ) My handbag has been (was) snatched. (passive)

kapat:
Kap-/y/ kapat-t-m. (ka*p*y / ka*pat*tm ) I have closed the door. (transitive) Kap-/y/ bana kapat-tr-d. (ka*p*y / ba*na / ka*pat*tr*d ) She made me close the door. (causative) Bahe kap-/s/ hizmeti tarafndan kapat-l-d. (bah*e / ka*p*s / hiz*met*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ka*pa*tl*d ) The garden gate was closed by the servant. (passive) Dkkn-lar saat yedi-de kapa-an-r. (dk*kn*lar / sa*at / ye*di*de / ka*pa*nr ) Shops close at seven p.m. (reflexive) (They close themselves.) Gen kadn kapa-an-d. (gen / ka*dn / ka*pan*d ) The young woman veiled herself. (reflexive) Hava kapa-an-d. (ha*va / ka*pan*d ) It has got cloudy. (reflexive)

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karla:
Araba-/s/-/n/ ben-im-ki/y/-le karla-tr-d. (a*ra*ba*s*n~ / be*nim*kiy*le / kar**la*tr*d ) He compared his car with mine. (transitive) retmen bana ngilizce/y/le Franszca/y/ karla-trt-t. (*ret*men / ba*na / in*gi*liz*cey*le~ / fran*sz*ca*y / kar**la*trt*t ) The techer made me compare English to French. (causative) Mutluluk-la znt karlatr-l-a.maz. (mut*lu*luk*la / *zn*t / kar**la*t*r*la*maz ) Happiness and sorrow cant be compared. (passive) Onlar sokak-ta karla-t. (on*lar / so*kak*ta / kar**la*t ) They came across in the street. (reciprocal)

ka:
Ba--/n/ ka-d. (ba**n / ka**d ) He scratched his head. (transitive) Srt--/n/ kar-/s/-/n/a kat-t. (sr*t*n / ka*r*s*na / ka*t*t ) He got his wife to scratch his back. (causative) Srt-m ka-n-.yor. (sr*tm / ka**n*yor ) My back is itching. (intransitive) Kpek ka-n-.yor. (k*pek / ka**n*yor ) The dog is scratching. (reflexive) (It is scratching itself.)

kr:
Vazo-/y/u sen kr-d-n, deil mi? (va*zo*yu / sen / kr*dn / de*il / mi ) You broke the vase, didnt you? (transitive) Vazo dn kr-l-d. (va*zo / dn / k*rl*d ) The vase was broken yesterday. (passive)

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Sen ben-i kr-d-n. (sen / be*ni / kr*dn ) You hurt my feelings. You refused me. You broke my heart. (transitive) Klp-im-i kr-d-n. (kl*bi*mi / kr*dn ) You broke my heart. (transitive) Kr-l-d-m. (k*rl*dm ) I was hurt. (passive) Tahta kutu-/y/u bana kr-dr-d. (tah*ta / ku*tu*yu / ba*na / kr*dr*d ) She made me break the wooden box. (causative)

kz:
O bana kz-d. (o / ba*na / kz*d ) He got angry with me. (intransitive) O ben-i kz-dr-d. (o / be*ni / kz*dr*d ) He made me angry. (transitive.) (O) kz-dr-l-d. (kz*d*rl*d ) He was made angry. He was irritated. (passive) Bu-/n/a kz-l-maz. (bu*na / k*zl*maz ) This is not a matter to get angry. (passive shaped intransitive)

kzar:
Balk-lar kzar-.yor. (ba*lk*lar / k*za*r*yor ) The fish are frying. (intransitive) Balk kzart-.yor. (ba*lk / k*zar*t*yor ) She is frying fish. (transitive)

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Tm balk-lar- bana kzart-t. (tm / ba*lk*la*r / ba*na / k*zart*t ) She made me fry all the fish. (causative) Tm balk-lar kzart-l-d. (tm / ba*lk*lar / k*zar*tl*d ) All the fish have been fried. (passive) Yz- kzar-d. (y*z / k*zar*d ) Her face reddened. She blushed with shame.(intransitive)

kok:
Bu balk bayat kok-u.yor. (bu / ba*lk / ba*yat / ko*ku*yor ) This fish smells stale. (intransitive) Bu ekmek dilim-i sarmsak kok-u.yor. (bu / ek*mek / di*li*mi / sa*rm*sak / ko*ku*yor ) This slice of bread smells of garlic. (intransitive) Her sabah gl-ler-i-/n/i kokla-ar. (her / sa*bah / gl*le*ri*ni / kok*lar ) She smells her roses every morning. (transitive) Bana yeni parfm--/n/ koklat-t. (ba*na / ye*ni / par*f*m*n / kok*lat*t ) She made me smell her new perfume. (causative) Kokla-.yor-lar. (kok*la**yor*lar ) They are smelling each other. (reciprocal) Bu balk kok-mu. (bu / ba*lk / kok*mu ~) This fish smells (rotten). (intransitive) (astonishment)

konu:
Onun-la yarn konu-a.cak-m. (o*nun*la / ya*rn / ko*nu*a*ca*m ) Ill talk (speak) to him tomorrow. (intransitive)

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Polis onu konu-tur-a-bil-ir. (po*lis / o*nu / ko*nu*tu*ra*bi*lir ) The police can make him talk. (causative) O, iki dil konu-ur (konu-u.yor) (o / i*ki / dil / ko*nu*ur ) She speaks two languages. (transitive) Trkiyede Trke konu-ul-ur. (tr*ki*ye*de / trk*e / ko*nu*u*lur ) Turkish is spoken in Turkey. (passive)

kop:
p kop-tu. (ip / kop*tu ) The rope broke. (intransitive) Aa-n bir dal--/n/ kop-ar-d. (a*a*cn / bir / da*l*n / ko*par*d ) He broke a branch off the tree. (transitive) Aa-n dal-lar-/n/-dan bir-i-/n/i bana kopart-t. (a*a*cn / dal*la*rn*dan / bi*ri*ni ~/ ba*na / ko*part*t ) He made me break off one of the branches of the tree. (causative)

ko:
Baz ocuk-lar okul-a ko-u.yor. (ba:*z / o*cuk*lar / o*ku*la / ko*u*yor ) Some children are running to school. (intransitive) At--/n/ drtnal ko-tur-du. (a*t*n / drt*nal / ko*tur*du ) He made his horse run at a gallop. (causative) At- drtnal ko-tur-ul-du. (a*t / drt*nal / ko*tu*rul*du ) His horse was made to run at a gallop. (passive causative) ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-u-u.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*u*u*yor*lar ) The children are running about in the garden. (reciprocal)

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Bu tarla-da ko-ul-maz. (bu / tar*la*da / ko*ul*maz ) It is impossible to run in this field. (passive shaped intransitive)

kuru:
iek-ler-im-den baz-lar- kuru-du. (i*ek*le*rim*den / ba:*z*la*r / ku*ru*du ) Some of my flowers dried. (intransitive) Yaz-n baz nehir-ler kuru-ur. (ya*zn / ba:*z / ne*hir*ler / ku*rur ) Some rivers dry up in summer. (intransitive) Kzgn gne iek-ler-im-i kurut-tu. (kz*gn / g*ne / i*ek*le*ri*mi / ku*rut*tu ) The hot sun dried my flowers. (transitive) Sa--/n/ bana kurut-tu. (sa**n / ba*na / ku*rut*tu ) She got me to dry her hair. (causative) Islak ceket-in kurut-ul-du. (s*lak / ce*ke*tin / ku*ru*tul*du ) Your wet coat has been dried. (passive)

oku:
Osmann baba-/s/ gazete-/s/i-/n/i oku-u.yor. (os*ma*nn / ba*ba*s / ga*ze*te*si*ni / o*ku*yor ) Osmans father is reading his newspaper. (transitive) Mektup-u bana okut-tu. (mek*tu*bu / ba*na / o*kut*tu ) He made (had) me read the letter. (causative) Btn hikye bana okut-ul-du. (b*tn / hi*k:*ye / ba*na / o*ku*tul*du ) I was made to read all the story. (passive causative) u ana kadar on sayfa oku-un-du. (u / a:*na / ka*dar / on / say*fa / o*kun*du ) Ten pages have been read up to now. (passive)

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onar:
Musluk-u sz-an bir boru-/y/u onar-.yor. (mus*luk*u / s*zan / bir / bo*ru*yu / o*na*r*yor ) The plumber is repairing (fixing) a leaking pipe. (transitive) Bu sz-an boru-/y/u onart-ma.l-sn. (bu / s*zan / bo*ru*yu / o*nart*ma*l*sn ) You must have this leaking pipe repaired. (causative) Araba-am henz onar-l-ma-d. (a*ra*bam / he*nz / o*na*rl*ma*d ) My car hasnt been repaired yet. (passive) Anne-em krk vazo-/y/u bana onart-t. (an*nem / k*rk / va*zo*yu / ba*na / o*nart*t ) Mother made me fix the broken vase. (causative)

otur:
Onlar bir bank-ta otur-u.yor-lar. (on*lar / bir / bank*ta / o*tu*ru*yor*lar ) They are sitting on a bench. (intransitive) Kk ocuk-u masa-/y/a oturt-tu. (k*k / o*cu*u / ma*sa*ya / o*turt*tu ) He made (helped) the little boy sit on the table. (causative) O, ke-/y/e oturt-ul-du. (o~/ k*e*ye / o*tur*tul*du ) He was made to sit in the corner. (passive causative). Hl otur-u-u,yor-su.nuz. (h:*l: / o*tu*ru*u*yor*su*nuz ) You are still sitting and doing nothing. (reciprocal) (complaint) O, Kadkyde otur-u.yor. (o ~/ ka*d*ky*de / o*tu*ru*yor ) He lives in Kadky. (intransitive) Bu ev-de otur-ul-maz. (bu / ev*de / o*tu*rul*maz ) It is impossible to live in this house. (passive shaped intransitive)

oyna:

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ocuk-lar bahe-de basketbol oyna-u.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / bas*ket*bol / oy*nu*yor*lar ) The children are playing basketball in the garden. (transitive) Ko onu mata oynat-ma-d. (ko / o*nu / ma*ta / oy*nat*ma*d ) The coach didnt let him play in the match. (causative) O ma-ta oynat-l-ma-d. (o~ / ma*ta / oy*na*tl*ma*d) He wasnt allowed to play in the match. (passive causative) Onlar oyna-a-.yor-lar. (on*lar / oy*na**yor*lar ) They are carrying on a love affair. (reciprocal) Sahne-de oyna-u.yor. (sah*ne*de / oy*nu*yor ) She is belly dancing on the stage. (intransitive) renci-ler bir piyes oyna-ma-/y/a karar ver-di-ler. (*ren*ci*ler / bir / pi*yes / oy*na*ma*ya / ka*rar / ver*di*ler ) The students decided to perform a play. (transitive) Bu saha-da futbol oyna-an-maz. (bu / sa:*ha*da / fut*bol / oy*nan*maz ) Football cant be played on this field. (passive) Or, It is impossible to play

l:
O, 1920de l-d. (o~/ bin / do*kuz / yz / yir*mi*de / l*d ) He died in 1920. (intransitive) Onu yanl-lk-la ldr-d. (o*nu / yan*l*lk*la / l*dr*d ) He killed him by mistake. (transitive) O-/n/u o-/n/a ldrt-t. (o*nu~ / o*na / l*drt*t ) She made him kill her. (causative) O, ona ldrt-l-d. (o~/ o*na / l*dr*tl*d ) He was made to kill her. (passive causative)

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Vatan iin l-n-r. (va*tan / i*in / *l*nr ) One can sacrifice himself for his country. (reflexive)

rt:
Koltuk-lar- toz-dan koru-mak iin rt-t. (kol*tuk*la*r / toz*dan / ko*ru*mak / i*in / rt*t ) She covered the armchairs to protect them from dust. (transitive) Mobilya-/y/ bana rttr-d. (mo*bil*ya*y / ba*na / rt*tr*d ) She made me cover the furniture. (causative) Duvar-lar boya-an-ma-dan nce btn mobilya rtl-m-t. (du*var*lar / bo*yan*ma*dan / n*ce~/ b*tn / mo*bil*ya / r*tl*m*t ) All the furniture had been covered before the walls were painted. (passive) Ben-i gr-n.ce rt-n-d. (be*ni / g*rn*ce / r*tn*d ) She put on her scarf when she saw me. She covered her head with a scarf when she saw me. (reflexive)

t:
Ku-lar t-er. (liaison) (ku*la*r*ter ) (ku*lar / *ter ) (intransitive) Birds sing. Hakem ddk--/n/ t-tr-d (al*d). (ha*kem / d*d**n / al*d ) The referee blew his whistle. (transitive) O gzel ark syle-er. ( o / g*zel / ar*k / sy*ler ) She sings beautifully. (Turkish transitive; English intransitive). Ddk-m- t-trt-t. (d*d**m / t*trt*t ) He made (let) me blow my whistle. (causative) Ddk al-n-d. (d*dk / a*ln*d ) The whistle has been blown. (passive)

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Ku-lar t-.yor. (ku*lar / *t**yor ) The birds are singing. (reciprocal) Horoz-lar t-.yor. (ho*roz*lar / *t*yor ) The roosters are crowing. (intransitive)

v:
O ben-i v-d. (o / be*ni / v*d ) He praised me. (transitive) O, kz karde-i-/n/i bana vdrt-t. (o~/ kz*kar*de*i*ni / ba*na / v*drt*t ) He made me praise his sister. (causative) O, karde-i tarafndan ok v-l-r. (o~ / kz*kar*de*i / ta*ra*fn*dan / ok / *v*lr ) He is praised a lot by his sister. (passive) Boyuna vn-.yor. (o / bo*yu*na / *v*n*yor ) He is always boasting. (reflexive) (He is praising himself.)

patla:
Bir su boru-/s/u patla-d ve ev su/y/-la dol-du. (bir / su / bo*ru*su / pat*la*d~/ ve / ev / suy*la / dol*du ) A water pipe burst, and the house filled with water. (intransitive) Bir bomba patla-d. (bir / bom*ba / pat*la*d ) A bomb exploded. (intransitive) Bir bomba patlat-t-lar. (bir / bom*ba / pat*lat*t*lar ) They exploded a bomb. (transitive) Bomba-/y/, ona patlattr-d-lar. (bom*ba*y / o*na / pat*lat*tr*d*lar ) They made him explode the bomb. (causative)

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Bomba ona patlattr-l-d. (bom*ba / o*na / pat*lat*t*rl*d ) He was made to explode the bomb. (passive causative) Bomba onun tarafndan patlatl-d. (bom*ba / o*nun / ta*ra*fn*dan / pat*la*tl*d ) The bomb was exploded by him. (passive)

pi:
Yemek pi-i.yor. (ye*mek / pi*i*yor ) The meal is cooking. (intransitive) Anne-em mutfak-ta yemek pi-ir-i.yor. (an*nem / mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*ri*yor ) Mother is cooking in the kitchen. (Turkish transitive; English intransitive.) Anne-em mutfak-ta bana yemek piirt-ti. (an*nem~ / mut*fak*ta / ba*na / ye*mek / pi*irt*ti ) Mother made me cook in the kitchen. (causative) Yemek piir-il-i.yor. (ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor) (ye*mek / pi*i*ri*li*yor ) The meal is being cooked. (passive)

sakla:
ocuk, oyuncak-lar--/n/ dolap-n arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-d. (o*cuk ~ / o*yun*cak*la*r*n / do*la*bn / ar*ka*s*na / sak*la*d ) The boy hid his toys behind the cupboard. (transitive) Jack, yrtk gmlk-i-/n/i bana saklat-t. (jack~ / yr*tk / gm*le*i*ni / ba*na / sak*lat*t ) Jack made me hide his torn shirt. (causative) al-n-m mal-lar bir maara-/y/a sakla-an-d. (a*ln*m / mal*lar / bir / ma*a*ra*ya / sak*lan*d ) The stolen goods were hidden in a cave. (passive) Kedi koltuk-un arka-/s/-/n/a sakla-an-d. (ke*di / kol*tu*un / ar*ka*s*na / sak*lan*d ) The cat hid behind the armchair. (reflexive) (It hid itself.)

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sark:
Duvar-dan sark-t. (du*var*dan / sark*t) He hung down the wall. (intransitive) Sepet-i pencere-den sarkt- t. (se*pe*ti / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*t ) He let the basket hang down the window. (Turkish transitive, English causative) Sepet-i bana pencere-den sarkt-tr-d. (se*pe*ti / ba*na / pen*ce*re*den / sar*kt*tr*d ) He made me hang down the basket from the window. (causative) Sepet pencere-den sarkt-l-d. (se*pet / pen*ce*re*den / sar*k*tl*d ) The basket was allowed to hang down the window. (passive)

sars:
Patla-ma yer-i sars-t. (pat*la*ma / ye*ri / sars*t ) The explosion shook the ground. (transitive) Yer sars-l-d. (yer / sar*sl*d ) The ground was shaken. The ground shook. (Turkish and English are both passive and reflexive.)

sat:
Eski araba-/s/-/n/ sat-t. (es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / sat*t ) He has sold his old car. (transitive) Eski araba-/s/-/n/ bana sattr-d. (es*ki / a*ra*ba*s*n / ba*na / sat*tr*d ) He made me sell his old car. (causative) (Ben-im) eski araba-am sat-l-d. (es*ki / a*ra*bam / sa*tl*d ) My old car has been sold. (passive)

sev:

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Sen ben-i sev-me-i.yor-sun. (sen / be*ni / sev*mi*yor*sun ) You dont love me. (transitive) O bana kendi-/s/i-/n/i sev-dir-di. (o / ba*na / ken*di*si*ni / sev*dir*di ) She made me love her. (causative) O herkes tarafndan sev-il-ir. (o / her*kes / ta*ra*fn*dan / se*vi*lir ) She is loved by everybody. (passive) Hep-im-iz sev-in-di-ik. Hepimiz mutlu olduk. (he*pi*miz / se*vin*dik ) We all became happy. (reflexive) Onlar sev-i-i.yor-lar. (on*lar / se*vi*i*yor*lar ) They are in love with each other. (They are carrying on a love affair.) (reciprocal)

seyret:
Boyuna televizyon seyret.i.yor. (bo*yu*na / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*di*yor ) She is always watching television. (transitive) (complaint) Anne-em bana televizyon izlet-tir-me-i.yor. (an*nem / ba*na~ / te*le*viz*yon / iz*let*tir*mi*yor ) Mother doesnt let me watch TV. (causative) (complaint) Byle televizyon program-lar- seyret-il-me-me.li. (by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*re*dil*me*me*li ) Such TV programs shouldnt be watched. (passive) (advice) Byle televizyon program-lar- ocuk-lar-a seyret-tir-il-me-me.li. (by*le / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r~/ o*cuk*la*ra / sey*ret*ti*ril*me*me*li ) Children shouldnt be allowed to watch such TV programs. (passive) Baz televizyon program-lar- seyret-me-/y/e (izlenmeye) demez. (ba*z / te*le*viz*yon / prog*ram*la*r / sey*ret*me*ye / de*mez ) Some TV programs are not worth watching.

sinirlen:

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Onun ne syle-dik-i-/n/i iit-in.ce sinirlen-di-im. (o*nun / ne / sy*le*di*i*ni / i*i*tin*ce / si*nir*len*dim ) I got mad when I heard what he said. (intransitive) Kz karde-im ben-i sinirlen-dir-di. (kz*kar*de*im / be*ni / si*nir*len*dir*di ) My sister made me mad (angry). (transitive) Sinirlen-dir-il-di-im. (si*nir*len*di*ril*dim ) I was irritated. (passive)

sou:
Hava sou-du. (ha*va / so*u*du ) It became (turned) cold. (intransitive) -me-den nce limonata-an- sout. (i*me*den / n*ce / li*mo*na*ta*n / so*ut ) Cool your lemonade before you drink it. (transitive) Sou-du-um. (so*u*dum ) I have lost my interest or desire. (intransitive)

soy:
Patates soy-u.yor. (pa*ta*tes / so*yu*yor ) She is peeling potatoes. (transitive) Elma-lar soy-ul-u.yor. (el*ma*lar / so*yu*lu*yor ) The apples are being peeled. ( passive) Patates-ler-i hep bana soy-dur-u.yor. (pa*ta*tes*le*ri / hep / ba*na / soy*du*ru*yor ) She is always making me peel the potatoes. (causative) (complaint) Banyo yap-tr-mak iin bebek-i-/n/i soy-du. (ban*yo / yap*tr*mak / i*in / be*be*i*ni / soy*du ) She undressed her baby to bath him. (transitive)

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Dn gece bir banka soy-du-lar. (dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / soy*du*lar ) They robbed a bank last night. (transitive) Dn gece bir banka soy-ul-du. (dn / ge*ce / bir / ban*ka / so*yul*du ) A bank was robbed last night. (passive) Soy-un-u.yor. (so*yu*nu*yor ) She is undressing. (She is undressing herself) (reflexive)

syle:
(O) bana bir ey syle-me-di. (ba*na / bir / ey / sy*le*me*di) (ba*na / bi*ey / sy*le*me*di ) He didnt tell me anything. (transitive) Ne iste-dik-in-i bana syle. (ne / is*te*di*i*ni / ba*na / sy*le ) Tell me what you want. (transitive) Ona herey-i sylet-ti-ler. (o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti*ler ) They made him tell everything. (causative) Byle ey-ler syle-en-mez. (by*le / ey*ler / sy*len*mez ) Such things are never mentioned. (passive) O boyuna syle-en-i.yor (homurdan-.yor). (o / bo*yu*na / sy*le*ni*yor ) He is always grumbling. (reflexive) (*He is talking to himself.) O-/n/a, o-/n/u tan-dk--/n/ syle-di. (o*na ~/ o*nu / ta*n*d**n / sy*le*di ) He told him that he knew her. (transitive) Polis ona herey-i sylet-ti. (po*lis / o*na / her*e*yi / sy*let*ti ) The police made him tell everything. (causative) Ona herey sylet-il-di. (o*na / her*ey / sy*le*til*di ) He was made to tell everything. (passive causative)

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Bana herey syle-en-di. (ba*na / her*ey / sy*len*di ) I was told everything. (passive)

sus:
Sus-tu. (sus*tu ) He stopped talking or crying. (intransitive) retmen renci-ler-i sus-tur-du. (*ret*men / *ren*ci*le*ri / sus*tur*du ) The teacher made the students stop talking. (causative) O sus-tur-ul-du. (o / sus*tu*rul*du ) He was made to stop talking or crying. (passive causative) Bu kpek havla-ma-dan dur-a.maz. (bu / k*pek / hav*la*ma*dan / du*ra*maz ) This dog cant stop barking. Sus-ma-/y/a.cak-m. Susmycam. (sus*ma*ya*ca*m) (sus*my*cam ) I wont stop talkng. (refusal)

spr:
Kuru yaprak-lar- bahe-den spr-d-m. (ku*ru / yap*rak*la*r / bah*e*den / s*pr*dm ) I have swept the dry leaves out of the garden. (transitive) Anne-em bahe-/y/i bana sprt-t. (an*nem / bah*e*yi / ba*na / s*prt*t ) Mother made me sweep the garden. (causative) Oturma oda-/s/ henz spr-l-me-di. (o*tur*ma / o*da*s / he*nz / s*p*rl*me*di ) The living room hasnt been swept yet. (passive)

sr:

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O araba-/s/-/n/ dikkat-li sr-er. (o~ / a*ra*ba*s*n / dik*kat*li / s*rer ) She drives her car carefully. (transitive) Ben tarla-am- sonbahar-da sr-dr-r-m. (ben / tar*la*m ~/ son*ba*har*da / sr*d*r*rm ) I have my field ploughed in the autumn. (causative) Tarla-lar k-n sr-l-mez. (tar*la*lar / k*n / s*rl*mez ) Fields arent ploughed in winter. (passive)

ssle:
ocuklar Christmas iin oturma oda-/s/-/n/ ssle-di. (o*cuk*lar / kris*mas / i*in / o*tur*ma / o*da*s*n / ss*le*di ) The children decorated the sitting room for Christmas. (transitive) Oda ssle-en-i.yor (dekore ediliyor). (o*da / ss*le*ni*yor ) The room is being decorated. (passive) Yeni ev-i.miz-i dekore et-tir-e.cek-iz. (ye*ni / e*vi*mi*zi / de*ko*re / et*ti*re*ce*iz ) We are going to have our new house decorated. (causative) Ssle-en-i.yor. (ss*le*ni*yor ) She is putting on her best dress and doing her make-up. (reflexive)

a:
Onun syle-dik-i sz-e a-t-m. (o*nun / sy*le*di*i / s*ze / a*tm ) I was astonished by what he said. (Turkish is intransitive, English is passive.)

art:
Syle-dik-i sz ben-i art-t. (sy*le*di*i / sz / be*ni / a*rt*t ) What he said surprised me. (transitive)

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Snav-da sor-ul-an soru-lar ben-i art-t. (s*nav*da / so*ru*lan / so*ru*lar / be*ni / a*rt*t ) The questions asked in the exam confused me. (transitive.) art-l-d-m. (a*r*tl*dm ) I was confused. (passive)

tara:
Sa--/n/ tara-.yor. (sa**n / ta*r*yor) She is combing her hair. (transitive) Sa--/n/ anne-/s/i-/n/e tarat-t. (sa**n / an*ne*si*ne / ta*rat*t ) She got her mother to comb her hair. (causative) Sa- tara-an-.yor. (sa* / ta*ra*n*yor ) Her hair is being combed. (passive) Tara-an-.yor. (ta*ra*n*yor ) She is combing herself. (reflexive)

tart:
Yal adam uyan-r uyan-maz altn-lar--/n/ tart-t. (ya*l / a*dam / u*ya*nr / u*yan*maz ~/ al*tn*la*r*n / tart*t ) The old man weighed his gold coins as soon as he woke up. unlar- tart-tr. (un*la*r / tart*tr ) Have these things weighed. Tart--.yor-lar. (tar*t**yor*lar ) They are discussing. They are having a row. (reciprocal)

ta:
Nehir ta-t. (ne*hir / ta*t ) The river overflowed. (intransitive)

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St ta-t. (st / ta*t ) The milk boiled over. (intransitive) St- ta-r-ma. (s*t / ta*r*ma ) Dont let the milk boil over. (causative)

ta:
Baz bcek-ler hastalk ta-r. (ba*z / b*cek*ler / has*ta*lk / ta*r ) Some insects carry disease. (transitive) Bebek-i-/n/i bana tat-t. (be*be*i*ni / ba*na / ta*t*t ) She made me carry her baby. (causative) Ar yk-ler kamyon-la ta-n-r. (a*r / yk*ler / kam*yon*la / ta**nr ) Heavy loads are carried by lorries. (passive) Ta-n-.yor-uz. (ta**n*yo*ruz ) We are moving house. (reflexive) (*We are carrying ourselves.)

temizle:
Anne-em buzdolab-/n/ temizle-i.yor. (an*nem / buz*do*la*b*n / te*miz*li*yor ) Mother is cleaning the refrigerator. (transitive) Anne-em ev-i temiz-let-e.cek. (an*nem / e*vi / te*miz*le*te*cek) Mother is going to have the house cleaned. (causative) Snf temizle-en-i.yor. (s*nf / te*miz*le*ni*yor ) The classroom is being cleaned. (passive)

tercih et:
Kzm, televizyon seyret-me-/y/i dev yap-ma-/y/a tercih et-er. (k*zm~ / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*me*yi ~ / *dev / yap*ma*ya / ter*ci:*he*der ) (liaison) My daughter prefers watching TV to doing her homework.

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Genellik-le kalabalk ehirler-de kk araba-lar tercih et-il-ir. (ge*nel*lik*le~ / ka*la*ba*lk / e*hir*ler*de~ / k*k / a*ra*ba*lar / ter*ci:*he*di*lir ) (liaison) Compact cars are generally preferred in crowded cities. (passive)

unut:
Ik-lar- sndr-me-/y/i unut-ma. (*k*la*r / sn*dr*me*yi / u*nut*ma ) Dont forget to turn off the lights. (transitive) Mektup-u atma-/y/ unut-tu. (mek*tu*bu / at*ma*y / u*nut*tu ) He forgot to post the letter. (transitive) la--/n/ al-dk--/n/ unut-tu. (i*l*c*n / al*d**n / u*nut*tu ) He forgot taking his medicine. (transitive) Mutlu gn-ler hi unut-ul-maz. (mut*lu / gn*ler / hi / u*nu*tul*maz ) Happy days are never forgotten. (passive) Bana onun doum gn-/n/ unut-tur-ma. (ba*na~ / o*nun / do*um / g*n*n / u*nut*tur*ma ) Dont let me forget her birthday. (causative)

uy:
Bu ceket bana uy-ma-u.yor. (bu / ce*ket / ba*na / uy*mu*yor ) This coat doesnt fit (become) me. (transitive) Gmlek-in sana iyi uy-u.yor (yakyor). (gm*le*in / sa*na / i*yi / u*yu*yor ) Your shirt fits ( becomes) you well. (intransitive)

uyu:
Ml ml uyu-u.yor. (m*l / m*l / u*yu*yor ) She is sleeping soundly. (intransitive)

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Bir saat-tir uyu-u.yor. (bir / sa*at*tir / u*yu*yor ) He has been sleeping for an hour. (intransitive) Bebek-i yarm saat nce uyut-tu-um. (be*be*i / ya*rm / sa*at / n*ce / u*yut*tum ) I had the baby sleep half an hour ago. (causative) Bebek daha yeni uyut-ul-du. (be*bek / da*ha / ye*ni / u*yu*tul*du ) The baby has just been made to sleep. (passive causative) Bu grlt-de uyu-un-maz. (bu / g*rl*t*de ~/ u*yun*maz ) It is impossible to sleep in such a noise. (passive shaped intransitive) Saat 11de uyu-du-um. (sa*at / on*bir*de / u*yu*dum ) I fell asleep at 11. (intransitive) Daha uyu-ma-d. (da*ha / u*yu*ma*d ) He hasnt fallen asleep yet.

tle:
Pantalon-um-u tle-di-in mi? (pan*to*lo*nu*mu / *t*le*din / mi) Have you ironed my trousers? (transitive) Sabah-tan beri t yap-.yor. (sa*bah*tan / be*ri / *t / ya*p*yor ) She has been ironing since morning. (Turkish is transitive, English is intransitive.) Giysi-ler-i-/n/i hep kzkarde-i-/n/e tlet-i.yor. (giy*si*le*ri*ni / hep / kz*kar*de*i*ne / *t*le*ti*yor ) He is always making his sister iron his clothes. (causative) (complaint) Gmlek-ler-in tle-en-i.yor. (gm*lek*le*rin / *t*le*ni*yor ) Your shirts are being ironed. (passive)

z:

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it-tik-im sz-ler ben-i z-d. (i*it*ti*im / sz*ler / be*ni / z*d ) What I heard made me sorry. (transitive) z-l-d-m. (*zl*dm ) I felt sorry. (reflexive) z-l-me. (*zl*me ) Dont worry. (Dont feel sorry.) (reflexive)

yakala:
Kaleci top-u yakala-d. (ka*le*ci / to*pu / ya*ka*la*d ) The goal-keeper caught the ball. (transitive) Son-u/n/-da tavan yakala-an-d. (so*nun*da / tav*an / ya*ka*lan*d ) The rabbit was caught at last. (passive) retmen ben-i kopya ek-er.ken yakala-d. (*ret*men / be*ni / kop*ya / e*ker*ken / ya*ka*la*d ) The teacher caught me cheating. (transitive) Halk hrsz- polis-e yakalat-t. (halk~/ hr*s*z / po*li*se / ya*ka*lat*t ) The people had (helped) the police catch the thief. (causative)

yan:
Kuru odun kolay yan-ar. (ku*ru / o*dun / ko*lay / ya*nar ) Dry wood burns easily. (intransitive) Mutfak-ta yemek piir-ir-ken parmak-lar--/n/ yak-t. (mut*fak*ta / ye*mek / pi*i*rir*ken~ / par*mak*la*r*n / yak*t ) She burnt her fingers while cooking in the kitchen (transitive) Tepe-de bir ate yak-t-lar. (te*pe*de / bir / a*te / yak*t*lar ) They lit a fire on the hill. (transitive)

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Anne-em mum-lar- bana yaktr-d. (an*nem / mum*la*r / ba*na / yak*tr*d ) Mother had me light the candles. (causative) Yak-n-.yor. (ya*k*n*yor ) She is complaining. (reflexive)

yap:
Zarf-a pul yap-tr-ma-/y/ unut-tu-um. (zar*fa / pul / ya*p*tr*ma*y / u*nut*tum ) I forgot to stick a stamp on the envelope. (transitive) Bu pul yap-ma-.yor. (bu / pul / ya*p*m*yor ) This stamp doesnt stick. (intransitive) Anne-em bana yatak oda-am-n kap-/s/-/n/a bir uyar yap-trt-t. (an*nem / ba*na~/ ya*tak / o*da*mn / ka*p*s*na / bir / u*ya*r / ya*p*trt*t ) Mother made me stick a notice on my bedroom door. (causative) Duvar-lar-a birey yap-tr-l-ma-sn. (du*var*la*ra / bir*ey / ya*p*t*rl*ma*sn ) Nothing should be stuck on the walls. (passive)

yat:
Saat 11de yat-t-m. (sa*at / on*bir*de / yat*tm ) I went to bed at 11 p.m. (intransitive) Anne-ler-i onlar- saat 10da yat-r-r. (an*ne*le*ri / on*la*r / sa*at / on*da / ya*t*rr ) Their mother makes them go to bed at 10 p.m. (causative) Bebek-i yatak--/n/a yatr-d. (be*be*i / ya*ta**na / ya*tr*d ) She laid the baby in her bed. (transitive) Onu gr-dk-m-de, yer-de yat-.yor-du. (o*nu / gr*d*m*de~ / yer*de / ya*t*yor*du ) When I saw her, she was lying on the floor. (intransitive)

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Yorgun-um. Yat-ma.l-/y/m. (yor*gu*num) (yat*ma*l*ym ) I am tired. I must lie down. (intransitive)

yaz:
Mary bir mektup yaz-.yor. (ma*ry / bir / mek*tup / ya*z*yor ) Mary is writing a letter. (transitive) rertmen snav-da biz-e bir kompozisyon yaz-dr-d. (*ret*men / bi*ze / s*nav*da / bir / kom*po*zis*yon / yaz*dr*d ) The teacher made us write a composition in the examination. (causative) Mektup yaz-l-d bile. (mek*tup / ya*zl*d / bi*le ) The letter has already been written. (passive)

ye:
Saat kata akam yemek-i ye-er-si.niz? (sa*at / ka*ta / ak*am / ye*me*i / yer*si*niz ) What time do you eat dinner? (transitive) Bebek-i ye-dir-i.yor. (be*be*i / ye*di*ri*yor ) She is feeding the baby. (transitive) Bu hamburger yen-(il)-mez. (bu / ham*bur*ger / yen*mez ) This hamburger is not edible. (passive) (It cant be eaten.) Akam yemek-i yen-i.yor. (ak*am / ye*me*i / ye*ni*yor ) Dinner is being eaten. (passive) Anne-em bana iki tabak sebze ye-dir-di. (an*nem / ba*na / i*ki / ta*bak / seb*ze / ye*dir*di ) Mother made me eat two plates of vegetables. (causative)

yka:
Kz karde-im bulak-lar- yka-.yor. (kz*kar*de*im / bu*la*k*la*r / y*k*yor ) My sister is washing the dishes. (transitive)

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Annem kk karde-im-e yemek-ten nce el-ler-i-/n/i ykat-r. (an*nem / k*k / kar*de*i*me / ye*mek*ten / n*ce / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*tr ) Mother makes my little brother wash his hands before lunch. (causative) Araba yka-an-.yor. (a*ra*ba / y*ka*n*yor ) The car is being washed. (passive) Jack yka-an-.yor. (Jack banyo yapyor.) (jack / y*ka*n*yor) Jack is having a bath. (reflexive)

yor:
Btn gn bahe-de al-mak ben-i yor-du. (b*tn / gn / bah*e*de / a*l*mak / be*ni / yor*du ) Working in the garden all day long tired me. (transitive) Yor-ul-du-um. (yo*rul*dum ) Ive got tired. (I feel tired.) (reflexive) Sen-in sama sapan soru-lar-n-dan bk-t-m. (se*nin / sa*ma / sa*pan / so*ru*la*rn*dan / bk*tm ) I am tired of your nonsense questions. (intransitive)

yksel:
Balon gk-te yksel-i.yor. (ba*lon / gk*te / yk*se*li*yor ) The balloon is rising in the sky. (intransitive). iddet-li yamur-dan sonra nehir yksel-di. (id*det*li / ya*mur*dan / son*ra / ne*hir / yk*sel*di ) The river rose after the heavy rainfall. (intransitive) Gne dou-dan do-ar ve bat-dan bat-ar. (g*ne / do*u*dan / do*ar / ve / ba*t*dan / ba*tar ) The sun rises in the east, and sets in the west. (intransitive) Soru-/y/a cevap ver-mek iin el-i-/n/i kaldr-d. (so*ru*ya / ce*vap / ver*mek / i*in / e*li*ni / kal*dr*d ) He raised his hand to answer the question. (transitive)

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Genellik-le gne do-ma-dan kalk-ar-m. (ge*nel*lik*le / g*ne / do*ma*dan / kal*ka*rm ) I usually rise before the sun rises.

yr:
Ona rasla-dk-m-da cadde-de yr-.yor-du-um. (o*na / ras*la*d*m*da / cad*de*de / y*r*yor*dum ) I was walking along the street when I met him. (intransitive) Otobs-e yeti-mek iin ben-i hz-la yrt-t. (o*to*b*se / ye*ti*mek / i*in / be*ni / hz*la / y*rt*t ) She made me walk fast to catch the bus. (causative) Hzla yrt-l-d-m. (hz*la / y*r*tl*dm ) I was made to walk fast. (passive causative) Bu yolda yr-n-mez. (bu / yol*da / y*rn*mez ) It is impossible to walk in this street. (passive shaped intransitive) yz: Anne-em deniz-de yz-.yor. (an*nem / de*niz*de / y*z*yor ) Mother is swimming in the sea. (intransitive) Onlar gl-de model kayk-lar yz-dr-.yor-lar. (on*lar / gl*de / mo*del / ka*yk*lar / yz*d*r*yor*lar ) They are sailing model boats on the lake. (transitive) Kpek-i-/n/i gl-de yz-dr-d. (k*pe*i*ni / gl*de / yz*dr*d ) He made (let) his dog swim in the lake. (causative) Frtna var-ken deniz-de yz-l-mez. (fr*t*na / var*ken / de*niz*de / y*zl*mez ) It is impossible to swim in the sea when there is a storm. (passive shaped intransitive)

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Postpositional Adverbial Phrases
In general, we can transform Turkish simple sentences into timeless adverbial phrases to furnish them with the concepts of time, contrast, cause, purpose, result, manner, degree, and place, etc. However, when we want to build up a conditional sentence, we attach either [se] or [sa] allomorphs to the ends of simple sentences to produce the only Turkish conditional clauses. English adverbial clauses are structurally simple sentences that are connected to main clauses by subordinating conjunctions, which are characterized by some fundamental adverbial concepts mentioned above. On the other hand, Turkish simple sentences undergo some transformational changes before they are used as adverbial phrases. Therefore, we can say that the English adverbial clauses are structurally adverbial sentences (clauses) as they have finite verbs at the ends of all adverbial clauses.

TIME
BEFORE

This time concept is expressed in V - [me-den] ([ma-dan]) + nce in Turkish. Ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. Sonra okul-a gel-di-im. I did my homework. Then I came to school. One can understand from these sentences that the time of the first sentence is before the time of the second one. To furnish the first English sentence with a previous time concept, The Past Perfect Tense may be used to convey this time difference, and the conjunction before is put in the beginning of the second sentence without its order (the simple sentence structure) being changed: I had done (or did) my homework
sentence (NP + VP)

before

I came to school.

subordinating conj sentence (NP + VP) adverbial clause

Although the normal order of the English sentence is like the sentence above, the regular order of the Turkish sentence is Before I came to school, I had done my homework. If we think about how this sentence is produced,

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we can find out that there are two simple sentences underlying it in our minds: Ben ev devimi yaptm. Ben okula geldim. In order to add a "before" time concept to the sentence "I came to school", only the word "before" is put in the beginning of the English sentence. However, in Turkish, to add the same concept "before (nce)" to the Turkish sentence, the sentence "Ben okula geldim + nce" is transformed into "ben okul-a gel-me-den nce", which is a timeless postpositional phrase. ben okula geldim + nce ben okul-a gel-me-den nce (Ben) okul-a gel-me-den nce (ben) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. subj infinitive-den posp | |
NP postpositional adverbial phrs (predicate) VP (obj) NP V

Ben eve gideceim + nce ben ev-e git-me-den nce Ben ev-e git-me-den nce biraz meyve al-a.cak-m.
subj NP infinitive-den postp postp adverbial phrase VP | (object) NP | V

I will go home + before before I go home I will buy some fruit before I go home.
NP V NP VP adverbial clause

In the sentence above, the [me, ma] allomorphs are a cause of confusion in Turkish. They are considered either as the allomorphs of an infinitive morpheme [me, ma] or the allomorphs of the negation morpheme [me, ma]. Therefore, Turkish students tend to build up English sentences like *"I had done my homework before I didn't come to school*. This is because the syllable stress in speech is generally used on the verb root or stem (gel*me*den), not on the [den, dan] allomorphs, which misleads the learners of English. In fact, these are the infinitive allomorphs; if they were not, the [den, dan] allomorphs would not be attached to them. The sentence order above may also change as follows: (Ben) ev dev-im-i, okul-a gel-me-den nce yap-m-t-m.
subj NP obj NP inf-[den] + postp postpositional phrs of time VP | V

(ben / e*v*de*vi*mi~/ o*ku*la / gel*me*den / n*ce / yap*m*tm ) This sentence order above is used when the adverb of time is stressed.

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The adverbial clauses in English start with subordinating conjunctions, and both the main clauses and the subordinate clauses in such complex sentences have finite verbs, which mean that both clauses are structurally simple sentences. When a subordinating conjunction such as before, after, since, although, until, when, or while, etc. is placed before one of these sentences, these subordinating conjunctions transform them into adverbial clauses, which are furnished by the concepts of these conjunctions. On the contrary, when adverbial phrases are formed in Turkish, the simple sentences are transformed into postpositional phrases before they become adverbials. If we think about how this sentence is produced, we can see that there is a simple sentence underlying the phrase "ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am" such as in the following example: (Ben) istasyona vardm + nce "ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan + nce (Ben) istasyona vardm + nce "ben istasyona var-ma-dan + (nce)" Ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce tren git-ti (git-mi-ti). Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti. Tren (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am - dan nce
NP noun + infinitive comp [DEN] postp postpositional phrase of time VP

git-mi-ti
|

This sentence is like the English sentence, The train had left before my arriving at the station. In this sentence, ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a noun + infinitive compound. stasyon-a is an adverbial which is composed of a noun-[E]. Ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a nominal phrase. As all nouns can be followed by [], [E], [DE], [DEN], and [LE] morphemes, this nominal phrase can be followed by a [dan] allomorph. nce is a postposition used after a noun-[DEN] such as: le-den nce, okul-dan nce, sen-den n-ce, yemek-ten nce, sen gel-me-den nce. Therefore, benim istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce is a noun compound-dan + nce, which is a postpositional phrase functioning as an adverbial of time. istasyon-a var-ma-dan nce
adverbial inf + [DEN] postp postpositional phrase of time

Consider and compare the following sentences:

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Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti. (ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / n*ce / tren / git*mi*ti ) Before I arrived at the station, the train had left. Tren, ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan nce git-mi-ti. (tren~ / ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / n*ce / git*mi*ti ) The train had left before I arrived at the station. Cevap ver-me-den (nce) dn. (ce*vap / ver*me*den / n*ce / d*n ) (n*ce ) or (n*ce) Think before you answer. Unut-ma-dan nce onu defter-im-e yaz-a.cak-m. (u*nut*ma*dan / n*ce / o*nu / def*te*ri*me / ya*za*ca*m ) I will write it in my notebook before I forget it. Bro-un-a git-me-den nce tra ol-ma.l-sn. (b*ro*na / git*me*den / n*ce / tra / ol*ma*l*sn ) You must shave before you go to your office. Dar k-ma-dan nce ceket-in-i giy. (d*a*r / k*ma*dan / n*ce / ce*ke*ti*ni / giy ) Put your coat on before you go out. Kompozisyon-u-/n/u teslim et-me-den nce, baba-/s/ yanl-lar--/n/ dzeltmi-ti. (kom*po*zis*yo*nu*nu / tes*lim / et*me*den / n*ce~ / ba*ba*s / yan*l*la*r*n / d*zelt*mi*ti ) Her father had corrected her mistakes before she handed in her composition. la- al-ma-dan nce sie-/y/i iyi-(ce) calkala. (i*la*c / al*ma*dan / n*ce~ / i*e*yi / i*yi*ce / al*ka*la ) Shake the bottle well before you take the medicine. Cami-/y/e gir-me-den nce ayakkab-lar-n- kar-ma.l-sn. (ca:*mi*ye / gir*me*den / n*ce~ / a*yak*ka*b*la*r*n / *kar*ma*l*sn ) You must take your shoes off before you enter the mosque. Baz renci-ler zil al-ma-dan (nce) snf-tan k-t-lar. (ba:*z / *ren*ci*ler ~/ zil / al*ma*dan / n*ce / s*nf*tan / k*t*lar ) Some students (had) left the classroom before the bell rang. mzala-ma-dan nce onu dikkat-le oku. (im*za:*la*ma*dan / n*ce~ / o*nu / dik*kat*le / o*ku ) Read it carefully before you sign it.

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Yat-ma-dan nce k-lar- sndr. (yat*ma*dan / n*ce / *k*la*r / sn*dr ) Turn the lights off before you go to bed. Sou-ma-dan (nce) orba-an- i. (so*u*ma*dan / or*ba*n / i ) Eat up your soup before it gets cold. Ack-ma-dan (nce) birey ye-me. (a*ck*ma*dan / bi*ey / ye*me ) Dont eat anything before you are hungry. Ack-ma-dan (ackmakszn) birey ye-me. (a*ck*ma*dan / bi*ey / ye*me ) Dont eat anything without getting hungry. Tiyatro-/y/a git-me-den (nce) piyes-i oku-mu-tu-um. (ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*den / n*ce / pi*ye*si / o*ku*mu*tum ) I had read the play before I went to the theatre. Hava karar-ma-dan (nce) ev-e dn. (ha*va / ka*rar*ma*dan / e*ve / dn ) Come back home before it gets dark. kinci el bir araba-/y/ satn al-ma-dan nce onu test et-me.li-sin. (i*kin*ci / el / bir / a*ra*ba*y /sa*tn / al*ma*dan / n*ce / test / et*me*li*sin) You must test a second-hand car before you buy it. Okul-a git-me-den nce oku-/y/up yaz-a.bil-i.yor-du. (o*ku*la / git*me*den / n*ce~ / o*ku*yup / ya*za*bi*li*yor*du) He could read and write before he went to school. Sev-dik-im program televizyon-da bala-ma-dan nce ev-de ol-a.cak-m. (sev*di*im / prog*ram / te*le*viz*yon*da / ba*la*ma*dan / n*ce~ / ev*de / o*la*ca*m ) Ill be home before my favorite program starts on TV. Yemek-e gel-me-den nce el-ler-in-i yka-ma.l-sn. (ye*me*e / gel*me*den / n*ce / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*ma*l*sn ) You must wash your hands before you come to dinner. k-ma-dan nce kasiyer-e de. (k*ma*dan / n*ce / ka*si*ye*re / *de ) Pay the cashier before you leave.

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AFTER (SONRA)

To transform a simple sentence into a sonra phrase, one should use V[dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]-[ten, tan] + sonra composition following the vowel and consonant harmony rules. Sonra is a postposition used after noun-[DEN] + sonra such as okul-dan sonra, sen-den sonra, sen gel-dik-ten sonra, which are all postpositional adverbial phrases. For example: gel-dik-ten sonra, al-dk-tan sonra, oku-duk-tan sonra, se-tik-ten sonra, piir-dik-ten sonra, gr-n-dk-ten sonra, bekle-e-tik-ten sonra, anla-tk-tan sonra, pi-ir-il-dik-ten sonra, ben-den sonra, etc. Note: The symbol V covers both the verb roots, stems, frames, and verbal compositions. In the composition above, the [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk] allomorphs produce infinitives that are attached to [den, dan, ten, tan] allomorphs that are followed by the "sonra" postposition. This composition produce a timeless prepositional adverbial phrase whose time is inferred from the time of the verbs at the ends of the sentences. Like all infinitives, this composition does not convey a time concept. Its time concept is inferred from the time concept of the finite verb that is used together with the postpositional adverbial phrase: Follow the examples: (O) ev dev-i-/n/i yap-tk-tan sonra yatt.
NP obj of yap infinitive-[DEN] postp postp adverbial phrase of time VP | V

He went to bed after he had done (he did) his homework. ocuk-lar zil al-dk-tan sonra futbol oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-a.cak
NP inf - [DEN] + postp postp adverb phrs of time infinitive postp | postp adverb phrs of cause adverbial VP | V

The boys will go out


NP V adv

to play football

after the bell rings.

prep phrs of cause adverbial clause of time VP

Bitir-dik-ten sonra kompozisyon-um-u teslim et-ti-im. (bi*tir*dik*ten / son*ra / kom*po*zis*yo*nu*mu / tes*lim / et*tim ) After I had finished my composition, I handed it in. Onlar k-tk-tan sonra al-ma-/y/a bala-d-m. (on*lar / k*tk*tan / son*ra / a*l*ma*ya / ba*la*dm ) I began to study after they (had) left.

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stanbul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra sana bir mektup yaz.a.cak-m. (is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / sa*na / bir / mek*tup / ya*za*ca*m) I will write you a letter after I leave (I have left) stanbul. Bir ift yeni ayakkab al-dk-tan sonra ev-e git-ti. (bir / ift / ye*ni / a*yak*ka*b / al*dk*tan / son*ra ~ / e*ve / git*ti ) She went home after she (had) bought a new pair of shoes. Emekli ol-duk-tan sonra bir ky-de yaa-ma-/y/a bala-d. (e*mek*li / ol*duk*tan / son*ra ~ / bir / ky*de / ya*a*ma*ya / ba*la*d ) He began to live in a village after he (had) retired. Okul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra ne yap-a.cak-sn? (o*kul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / ne / ya*pa*cak*sn) What will you do after you leave (have left) school? Du yap-tk-tan sonra yat-t. (du / yap*tk*tan / son*ra / yat*t ) He went to bed after he had (had) a shower. Konser bit-tik-ten sonra bir restoran-a git-e.lim. (kon*ser / bit*tik*ten / son*ra / bir / res*to*ra*na / gi*de*lim ) Lets go to a restaurant after the concert is over.
WHEN and WHILE

To transform a simple Turkish sentence into a when clause, V-[in.ce, n.ca, n.ce, un.ca] adverbial phrase is used. The [N.CE] morpheme is a suffix that is attached to verb roots, stems or frames to express the concept of when of the English language. Likewise, the [R-KEN] morpheme, which has the allomorphs of [ir-ken, r-ken, r-ken, ur-ken, er-ken, ar-ken], is attached to verb stems and frames to expresses while. The [N.CE] and [R-KEN] morphemes correspond to the English words when and while respectively. In the following examples, the [N.CE] and [R-KEN] morphemes are attached to verbs that end with consonants: When ben okul-a gel-in.ce ben onu sat-n.ca o gl-n.ce sen ona dokun-un.ca zil al-n.ca okul al-n.ca elma-lar sat-l-n.ca while ben okul-a gel-ir-ken sen onu al-r-ken sen ksr-r-ken sen konu-ur-ken sen elma-lar- e-er-ken sen patates-ler-i soy-ar-ken biz bahe-de gez-er-ken

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When the verbs end with vowels, however, the allomorphs of [N.CE] are attached to these verbs by the /y/ glides. On the other hand, when the allomorphs of [R-KEN] are attached to verbs ending with vowels, the coinciding vowels i-i, -, -, u-u, e-e, a-a combine: when durak-ta bekle-/y/in.ce ben onu anla-/y/n.ca ben oku-ma-/y/a bala-/y/n.ca sen uyu-/y/un.ca while sen durakta bekle-er-ken Ahmet horoz-u kovala-ar-ken Mary sa--/n/ kurula-ar-ken sen uyu-ur.ken

Besides the [N.CE] morpheme, there are two more adverbial alternatives that can convey the concept of when: V - [DK] - [possessor personal morpheme] + zaman, or V - [DK] - [possessor personal morpheme] - [de, da] Okula git-in.ce retmenini greceksin. (gi*din*ce) Okula git-tik-in zaman retmenini greceksin. (git*ti*in / za*man) Okula git-tik-in-de retmenini greceksin. (git*ti*in*de) The meaning of all the three sentences above is You will see your teacher when you go to school, and the expressions printed in bold face are the equivalents of the English coordinating conjunction when. We can explain how this mental composition is transformed as follows: Sen onu greceksin + zaman "sen onu gr-n.ce, or sen onu grdk-n zaman, or sen onu gr-dk-n-de O beni grd + zaman o beni gr-n.ce, or o beni grdk- zaman, or o beni gr-dk-n-de (gr*d*n*de). You will see him + when when you see him The basic English simple future sentence structure above transforms into The Simple Present vocalized adverbial clause. 1. (Sen) okul-a git-in.ce (senin) retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin.
NP adverbial of time (noun comp-i) NP VP V

(o*ku*la / gi*din*ce / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin ) You will see your teacher when you go to school. 2. Okul-a git-tik-in zaman retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin. (o*ku*la / git*ti*in / za*man / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin ) You will see your teacher when you go to school.

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3. Okul-a git-tik-in-de retmen-in-i gr-e.cek-sin. (o*ku*la / git*ti*in*de / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin ) You will see your teacher when you go to school. When Turkish simple sentences are transformed into when adverbial phrases, they lose their time concepts as they do in before and after clauses. This time deficiency is fulfilled by the finite verbs at the ends of the sentences. The inflectional allomorphs that are attached to verb roots, stems and frames are all secondarily stressed such as (gi*der*ken), (gi*din*ce), (git*ti*in*de), (gi*der*sen), (git*mem), (git*mez*sen), (bi*ti*rin*ce). Follow the examples: (Biz) al-n.ca (biz) ren-ir-iz. (a*l*n*ca / *re*ni*riz ) We learn when we study. (O) ben-i gr-n.ce glmse-di. (be*ni / g*rn*ce / g*lm*se*di ) She smiled when she saw me. (Siz) susa-/y/n.ca (siz) ne i-er-si.niz? (su*sa*yn*ca / ne / i*er*si*niz) What do you drink when you are thirsty? retmen snf-a gir-in.ce btn renci-ler ayak-a kalk-ar. (*ret*men / s*n*fa / gi*rin*ce ~/ b*tn / *ren*ci*ler / a*ya*a / kal*kar) All the students stand up when the teacher enters the classroom. (Sen) haber-i iit-in.ce (sen) mutlu ol-a.cak-sn. (ha*be*ri / i*i*tin*ce / mut*lu / o*la*cak*sn ) You will be happy when you hear the news. (Sen) yabanc bir lke-/y/e gittik-in zaman (gidince, gittiinde) (sen) para-an- deitir-me.li-sin. (ya*ban*c / bir / l*ke*ye / git*ti*in / za*man~ / pa*ra*n / de*i*tir*me*li*sin ) When you go to a foreign country, you must change your money. (Ben) onu gr-dk-m-de (o) kiraz ye-i.yor-du. (o*nu / gr*d*m*de / ki*raz / yi*yor*du ) She was eating cherries when I saw her. (Sen) oku-ma-/y/ bitir-in.ce ltfen (sen) (ben-im) kitap-m- geri gnder. (o*ku*ma*y / bi*ti*rin*ce / lt*fen / ki*ta*b*m / ge*ri / gn*der ) Please send my book back when you have finished reading it.

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(Ben) yorgun ol-duk-um zaman (ben) bir fincan kahve i-mek-ten zevk al-rm. (yor*gun / ol*du*um / za*man ~/ bir / fin*can / kah*ve / i*mek*ten / zevk / a*l*rm ) I enjoy having a cup of coffee when I am tired. (Ben) hazr ol-duk-um zaman (sen) (ben-im) ne yap-ma-am- iste-i.yor-sun? (ha*zr / ol*du*um / za*man~ / ne / yap*ma*m / is*ti*yor*sun) What do you want me to do when I am ready? Biz bir yanl-lk yap-n.ca (bizim) retmen-i.miz dzelt-ir. (biz / bir / yan*l*lk / ya*pn*ca~ / *ret*me*ni*miz / d*zel*tir ) When we make a mistake, our teacher corrects it. (Ben-im) zaman-m ol-un.ca (ben) gel-ip sen-i gr-e.cek-im. (za*ma:*nm / o*lun*ca / ge*lip / se*ni / g*re*ce*im ) I will come and see you when I have time. Trafik k-lar- krmz-/y/a dn-n.ce dur-ma-l-/y/z. (tra*fik / *k*la*r / kr*m*z*ya / d*nn*ce / dur*ma*l*yz ) We must stop when the traffic lights turn red. Fatma gel-in.ce ders al-a.cak-z. (fat*ma / ge*lin*ce / ders / a*l*a*ca*z ) Well study when Fatma comes. stasyon-a var-n.ca bilet-in-i (satn) al-a.bil-ir-sin. (is*tas*yo*na / va*rn*ca / bi*le*ti*ni / a*la*bi*lir*sin ) You can buy your ticket when you arrive at the station. Note: The pronouns in parentheses are not generally used. They are put in the sentences above to make the meaning clearer for the learners.
WHILE

In order to insert the duration concept of while into a transformed adverbial phrase, you should use the V-[ir-ken, r-ken, r-ken, ur-ken, er-ken, arken] adverbial when action verbs are involved, such as gel-ir-ken, git-erken, yaz-ar-ken, otur-ur-ken, beklen-ir-ken. This morpheme is like the morpheme [.YOR] whose second syllable never follows the vowel harmony rules. However, when you use adjectives, nouns or noun-[DE] adverbials, you should attach only ken morpheme to these words to convey both when and while.

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Note: The /y/ glide is used when a word ends with a vowel; but when a word ends with a consonant only ken morpheme is attached to such words such as ev-de/y/-ken, okul-da/y/-ken, boyal/y/-ken, evli/y/-ken, be-kr-ken, ocuk-ken, var-ken, kasap-ken, gen-ken, yal/y/-ken, burada/y/-ken, sokak-ta-/y/ken, etc. The mental composition of "while" (duration) adverbials are as follows: Jack okula gidiyordu + duration Jack okul-a git-er-ken (gi*der*ken) Jack okul-a git-er-ken bir kese altn para bul-du.
| adverbial adverbial NP adverbial phrase of time VP | NP | V

Jack was going to school + duration while Jack was going to school Jack found a purse of gold coins while he was going to school,.
| NP V NP VP adverbial clause of time

Consider the example sentences below: Oul-um bahe-de oyna-ar-ken eski bir para buldu. (The /u/ drops, and the /l/ attaches to /u/.) (o*lum / bah*e*de / oy*nar*ken ~/ es*ki / bir / pa*ra / bul*du) My son found an old coin while he was playing in the garden. Ben ev-de/y/-ken btn ev i-ler-i-/n/i kendim yap-ar-m. (ben / ev*dey*ken ~/ b*tn / e*vi*le*ri*ni / ken*dim / ya*pa*rm ) I do all the housework myself when I am at home. Biz ocuk-ken televizyon seyret-e.me-i.yor-du-uk, nk televizyon daha kefet-il-me-mi-ti. (biz / o*cuk*ken ~/ te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mi*yor*duk / n*k~ / te*le*viz*yon / da*ha / ke*fe*dil*me*mi*ti ) We couldnt watch television when we were children because it hadnt been invented yet. Ev dev-in-i ben bura-da/y/-ken yap. (ev / *de*vi*ni / ben / bu*ra*day*ken / yap ) Do your homework while (when) I am here. Ben yeni szck-ler-i ret-ir-ken Fatma pencere-den dar bak-.yor-du. (ben / ye*ni / sz*ck*le*ri / *re*tir*ken~ / fat*ma / pen*ce*re*den / d*a*r / ba*k*yor*du ) While I was teaching the new words, Fatma was looking out of the window.

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Ben bura-da/y/-ken grlt et-me. (ben / bu*ra*day*ken / g*rl*t / et*me ) Dont make a noise while (when) I am here. Radyo dinle-er-ken ders al-a.bil-ir mi-sin? (rad*yo / din*ler*ken / ders / a*l*a*bi*lir / mi*sin ) Can you study while (when) you are listening to the radio? Karde-in-i ders al-r-ken rahatsz et-me. (kar*de*i*ni / ders / a*l*r*ken / ra*hat*sz / et*me ) Dont disturb your brother while (when) he is studying. Ben dar-da/y/-ken kimse bana telefon et-ti mi? (ben / d*a*r*day*ken / kim*se / ba*na / te*le*fon / et*ti / mi ) Did anyone telephone me when (while) I was out? Fatma onsekiz ya-n-da/y/-ken ok gzel-di. (fat*ma / on*se*kiz / ya*n*day*ken / ok / g*zel*di ) Fatma was very beautiful when she was eighteen. Sen mutfak-ta megul-ken kedi btn st- i-ti. (sen / mut*fak*ta / me*gul*ken~ / ke*di / b*tn / s*t / i*ti ) The cat drank up all the milk when you were busy in the kitchen. Onlar rmak-ta yz-er-ken biri-/s/i onlar-n giysi-ler-i-/n/i al-d. (on*lar / r*mak*ta / y*zer*ken~ / bi*ri*si / on*la*rn / giy*si*le*ri*ni / al*d ) Somebody stole their clothes while (when) they were swimming in the river. Zaman-n var-ken ders-ler-in-i al. (za*ma:*nn / var *ken ~/ ders*le*ri*ni / a*l ) Study your lessons while you have time. Zaman-n ol-un.ca araba-/y/ yka-/y/a.bil-ir-sin. (za*ma:*nn / o*lun*ca ~/ a*ra*ba*/y/ / y*ka*ya*bi*lir*sin ) You can wash the car when you have time. (Ben) ko-ar-ken d-t-m. (ko*ar*ken / d*tm ) I fell down while I was running. Kz-m-a bir hikye anlat-r-ken uyu-/y/a.kal-d. (k*z*ma / bir / hi*k:*ye / an*la*tr*ken~/ u*yu*ya / kal*d ) My daughter fell asleep while I was telling her a story.

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Merdiven-den aa in-er-ken dikkat-li ol. (mer*di*ven*den / a*a* / i*ner*ken ~ / dik*kat*li / ol ) Be careful when you are walking down the stairs. Ev dev-in-i yap-ar-ken televizyon seyret-e.mez-sin. (e*v*de*vi*ni / ya*par*ken ~/ te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mez*sin ) You can't watch television while you are doing your homework. (prohibition)
AS SOON AS

In order to express as soon as in Turkish, one should use a positive and negative verb composition of The Simple Present Tense following one another. The adverbial phrases that are built up with these verbal compounds are timeless and their function is adverbial: Zil ald. zil al-ar al-maz (a*lar / al*maz) Jack eve geldi. Jack ev-e gel-ir gel-mez (ge*lir / gel*mez) Gne doacak. gne do-ar do-maz (do*ar / do*maz) Mary beni grd. Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez (g*rr / gr*mez) Mary odasna girdi. Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez (gi*rer / gir*mez) As it is seen, the transformed phrases above are timeless and function as adverbial phrases of time: Jack ev-e gel-ir gel-mez dev-i-/n/i yap-ma-/y/a bala-d Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-a.cak-lar. Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a saklan-d. Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez bir iskelet-le karla-t. renci-ler Zil al-ar al-maz bahe-de oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-t-lar.
subj NP | adv phrase of time | infinitive postp | adverbial postp phrs of purpose adverbial (predicate) VP | V

As soon as the bell rang, the students went out to play in the garden. The places of adverbs and nouns are arranged in sentences in accordance with the importance given to these units. Therefore the following alternatives of the sentence above may also be produced as follows: renciler, zil alar almaz bahede oynamak iin diar ktlar. renciler, bahede oynamak iin zil alar almaz dar ktlar. Zil alar almaz, bahede oynamak iin renciler dar ktlar. *Dar ktlar renciler zil alar almaz bahede oynamak iin.

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The last sentence above is understandable, but a Turkish teacher may not accept it as a good sentence. The main point in changing the places of the adverbial units above is that the nearer to the verb, the more important these units are. However, in doing this, the grammatical units should be kept intact. The grammatical units in the sentences above are as follows: 1. renciler 2. zil alar almaz 3. bahede oynamak iin 4. dar ktlar. Examples: Yatak--/n/a yat-ar yat-maz uyku-/y/a dal-d. (ya*ta**na / ya*tar / yat*maz / uy*ku*/ya / dal*d ) He fell asleep as soon as he went to bed. Sokak-ta-ki ocuk-u gr-r gr-mez fren-e bas-t. (so*kak*ta*ki / o*cu*u / g*rr / gr*mez / fre*ne / bas*t ) He hit the brakes as soon as he saw the boy in the street. Sen hazr ol-ur ol-maz dar k-a.cak-z. (sen / ha*zr / o*lur / ol*maz~ / d*a*r / *ka*ca*z ) Well go out as soon as you are ready. Avc Kaplan- gr-r gr-mez ate et-ti. (av*c / kap*la*n / g*rr / gr*mez / a*te / et*ti ) The hunter fired as soon as he saw the tiger. Vaktin ol-ur ol-maz gel ben-i gr. (vak*tin / o*lur / ol*maz / gel / be*ni / gr ) Come and see me as soon as you have time Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-du-lar. (g*ne / do*ar / do*maz / yo*la / ko*yul*du*lar ) They set off as soon as the sun rose.
UNTIL

When the nouns, such as sabah, yarn, saat alt is chosen, they are attached to [e, a] allomorphs followed by the postposition kadar:

noun - [e, a] + kadar (dek)


(Onlar) sabah-a kadar al-a.cak-lar. They will work until morning.
NP postp phrs of time VP V NP V prep phrs of time VP

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Gece yars-/n/a kadar (dek) televizyon seyret-ti-ik. (ge*ce / ya*r*s*na / ka*dar / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*tik ) We watched TV until midnight. (Kadar and dek are postpositions.) Saat -e kadar ben-i bekle. (sa*at / *e / ka*dar / be*ni / bek*le ) Wait for me until three oclock. Gelecek sene-/y/e kadar ngilizce al-ma-/y/a devam et-e.cek-im. (ge*le*cek / se*ne*ye / ka*dar / in*gi*liz*ce / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:m / e*de*ce*im ) I will go on studying English until next year. If a simple sentence is chosen to be used as an adverb of time, V - [e.ne, a.na] + kadar structure, which is a timeless adverbial phrase of time, is used to express until in Turkish. The logical development of "until" is as follows: Gne dodu + kadar gne do-a.na kadar (do*a*na) Gne do-a.na kadar tarlada altlar. The sun rose + until until the sun rose They worked in the field until the sun rose. Gne doacak + kadar ne do-a.na kadar Gne do-a.na kadar tarlada al-a.cak-z. (a*l*a*ca*z) The sun will rise + until until the sun rises We will work in the field until the sun rises. (Onlar) gne do-a.na kadar tarla-da altlar.
NP adverbial postp | postp adverbial phrs adverbial VP | V

They worked in the field until the sun rose


NP V adv phrase VP adverbial clause

(Sen) yarn-a kadar bekle. (You) wait till tomorrow.


NP noun -[E] + postp postp phrs of time VP | V NP | V prep phrs of time adverbial VP

As an alternative to the above adverbial phrase V - [in.ce-/y/e, n.ca-/y/a, n.ce-/y/e, un.ca-/y/a] + kadar form can also be used: Boya kuru-/y/un.ca-/y/a kadar (kuru-/y/a-/n/a kadar) duvar-lar-a dokun-ma. (bo*ya / ku*ru*ya*na / ka*dar / du*var*la*ra / do*kun*ma ) Dont touch the walls until the paint dries.

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Sen ev-e dn-e.ne kadar ders al-a.cak-m-a sz ver-i.yor-um. (sen / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar / ders / a*l*a*ca**ma / sz / ve*ri*yo*rum ) I promise I will study until you come back home. Hava karar-a.na kadar ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-d-lar. (ha*va / ka*ra*ra*na / ka*dar / o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / oy*na*d*lar ) The children played in the garden until it got dark. (Sen) bir iftlik-e gel-e.ne kadar bu patika-/y/ izle. (bir / ift*li*e / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bu / pa*ti*ka*y / iz*le ) Follow this path until you come to a farm. Yardm gel-e.ne kadar bekle-mek zorunda kal-d-lar. (yar*dm / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bek*le*mek / zo*run*da / kal*d*lar ) They had to wait until the help came. l-e.ne kadar sava-t-lar. (*le*ne / ka*dar / sa*va*t*lar ) They fought until they died. ar-l-a.na kadar dar-da bekle. (a*r*la*na / ka*dar / d*a*r*da / bek*le ) Wait outside till you are called. (passive) Bir ada-/y/a gel-e.ne kadar krek ek-ti-ler. (bir / a*da*ya / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / k*rek / ek*ti*ler ) They rowed until they came to an island. Yamur dur-a.na kadar bir yer-e sn-a.lm. (ya*mur / du*ra*na / ka*dar / bir / ye*re / s**na*lm ) Let us shelter somewhere until it stops raining. Onlar gel-e.ne kadar bir ey yap-a.ma-/y/z. (on*lar / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bir*ey / ya*pa*ma*yz ) We cant do anything till they come. zr dile-/y/e.ne kadar sen-in-le konu-ma-/y/a.cak-m. (*zr / di*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / se*nin*le / ko*nu*ma*ya*ca*m ) I wont speak with you until you apologize. Saat ka-a kadar bura-da bekle-me-em-i iste-i.yor-sun? (sa*at / ka*a / ka*dar / bur*da / bek*le*me*mi / is*ti*yor*sun ) Until what time do you want me to wait here?

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(Sen) ben-i sev-dik-in-i syle-/y/e.ne kadar bura-da otur-a.cak-m. (be*ni / sev*di*i*ni / sy*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / bur*da / o*tu*ra*ca*m ) I am going to sit here until you tell me that you love me. Sen-i l-e.ne kadar sev-e.cek-im. (se*ni / *le*ne / ka*dar / se*ve*ce*im ) I will love you till I die.
BY and BY THE TIME

By or by the time means not later than in English. This time concept is reflected into Turkish sentences by using The Future Perfect Tense, such as: bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m, gel-mi ol-a.cak-lar, etc., preceded by a noun[e, a] + kadar, or "V-[e.ne, a.na] + kadar", or "V-[in.ce-/y/e, n.ca-/y/a, n.ce/y/e, un.ca-/y/a] + kadar" timeless adverbial phrases: Study the following carefully: (Ben) yarn-a kadar i-im-i bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m.
NP postp phrs of time NP VP NP VP V

I
NP

will have finished my work by tomorrow.


V prep phrs of time

If a simple sentence is needed to be transformed, V - [e.ne, a.na] + kadar structure is used in the adverbial phrase section of a sentence. The logical process of this transformation is as follows: Annem eve dnecek + o zamana kadar annem ev-e dn-e.ne kadar Mother will come back home + by the time by the time mother comes back home (Ben) annem ev-e dn-e.ne kadar i-im-i bitir-mi ol-a.cak-m.
NP postpositional phrase of time VP NP V

(an*nem / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar~ / i*i*mi / bi*tir*mi / o*la*ca*m ) I will have finished my work by the time my mother comes back home.
| NP | | V | | NP prep phrs V adv | adverbial clause of time NP adv

VP

Dn-n.ce-/y/e kadar may also be used as an alternative to the above expression:

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Biz stadyum-a var-n.ca-/y/a kadar ma bit-mi ol-a.cak. (biz / stad*yu*ma / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar / ma / bit*mi / o*la*cak ) The match will have been over by the time we get to the stadium. Sen ev-e var-n.ca-/y/a kadar btn pasta-y/ yemi ol-a.cak-lar. (sen / e*ve / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar~ / b*tn / pas*ta*y / ye*mi /

o*la*cak*lar)
They will have eaten up all the cake by the time you arrive home.
SINCE

If single nouns or determiner + noun compounds such as dokuz, sabah, le, dn, "geen hafta", "geen ay", "geen yl" are chosen to express, a noun-[den, dan] + beri or a possessor + possessed[den, dan] + beri postpositional phrase structure is used to express since nine, since morning, "since last year", since last summer, or since you went away expressions. The word beri is a postposition. The function of these phrases is adverbial: (Ben) onu geen hafta-dan beri gr-me-di-im.
NP NP postp adverbial phrs of time VP V

I
NP

havent seen
V

her
NP

since last week.


prep phrase of time VP

Saat dokuzdan beri bekle-i.yor-um. (sa*at / do*kuz*dan / be*ri / bek*li*yo*rum ) I have been waiting since nine. As dokuz, sabah. len, etc. are nouns, a noun + infinitive" - [DEN] + beri can also be used in their places: (Ben) seni grdm + den beri (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri I saw you + since since I saw you (ben-im) sen-i grdk-m - den beri = since I saw you
noun compound - [DEN] + postp postpositional adverbial phrase of time

(Sen) (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri birsey yapmadn


NP noun comp-den postp postp phrase of time VP | NP | V

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You havent done anything since I saw you.
NP V NP adverbial clause of time VP

Sen-i ilk gr-dk-m-den beri sev-i.yor-um. (se*ni / ilk / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / se*vi*yo*rum ) I have been in love with you since I saw you first. (Sen-in) stanbuldan ayrl-dk-n-dan beri sen-den bir mektup al-ma-d-m. (is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*d*n*dan / be*ri / sen*den / bir / mek*tup / al*ma*dm ) I havent received a letter from you since you left stanbul. (Ben) (sen-in) evden k-tk-n-dan beri birsey yap-ma-d-m. (ev*den / k*t*n*dan / be*ri / bir / ey / yap*ma*dm ) I havent done anything since you left home. (Ben-im) sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri (sen) ne yap-.yor-sun? (se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ne / ya*p*yor*sun ) What have you been doing since I saw you last? Kz-lar-dan baz-lar- snf-a gir-dik-ler-i/n/-den beri gl--p konu-u.yor-lar. (kz*lar*dan / ba*z*la*r / s*n*fa / gir*dik*le*rin*den / be*ri / g*l*p / ko*nu*u*yor*lar ) Some of the girls have been chatting and giggling since they came into the classroom. Sen-(in) bura-/y/a gel-dik-in-den beri ne kadar oldu? or Sen bura-/y/a gel-e.li ne kadar ol-du? (sen / bu*ra*ya / ge*le*li / ne / ka*dar / ol*du) How long is it (has it been) since you came here? Biz-im komu-/n/un u aptal kopek-i ben ev-e gel-dik-im-den beri havla-.yor. (bi*zim / kom*u*nun / u / ap*tal / k*pe*i ~/ ben / e*ve / gel*di*im*den / be*ri / hav*l*yor) That stupid dog of our neighbors has been barking since I came home. Otobs- kar-dk-m-dan beri bura-da bekle-i.yor-um. (o*to*b*s / ka*r*d*m*dan / be*ri / bur*da / bek*li*yo*rum ) I have been waiting here since I missed the bus. Yamur bala-dk-/n-dan beri otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-i.yor-um. (ya*mur / ba*la*d*n*da*dan / be*ri / o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / bek*li*yo*rum ) I have been waiting at the bus stop since it started raining.

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Kpek ben-i gr-dk-n-den beri arka-am-dan gel-i.yor. (k*pek / be*ni / gr*d*n*den / be*ri / ar*kam*dan / ge*li*yor ) The dog is following me sice it saw me.

CAUSE OR REASON
As, since or because subordinating conjunctions are used in English to express cause or reason. In Turkish, in place of as or since, iin postposition is used. Since all postpositions follow nouns in Turkish, iin can also follow a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive, or a noun + infinitive compound. All noun + infinitive and determiner + noun compounds are syntactic nominal phrases. Follow the simple sentences below: Ben eve ge geldim + iin (ben-(im) ev-e ge gel-dik-im iin I came home late + as as I came home late As the (ben-im) parts in the noun compounds are generally ignored, only the possessed parts of the noun compounds are used as gel-dik-im and ge gel-dik-im. Since these parts are the possessed parts of the noun compounds, they are also nouns, and so, they can be followed by the postposition iin: (onlar) (ben-im) okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalan-dr-d-lar.
NP noun + inf comp + postp postpositional phrase of cause VP | NP | V

Note: (Ben-im) and (onlar) are not generally used; they are put there so that the noun compounds should be well understood. The personal suffixes at the end of the verb compositions are enough to express the pronouns. (Ben-im) okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin = As I came to school late,
noun + inf compound + postp postpositional phrase of cause adverbial clause of cause

ben-i cezalandr-d-lar
sentence

they punished me
sentence

Okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalandr-d-lar. (o*ku*la / ge / gel*di*im / i*in~ / be*ni / ce*za:*lan*dr*d*lar ) They punished me as I came to school late. Soru-lar g ol-duk-u iin (onlar-n) ok-u-/n/a cevap ver-e.me-di-im. (so*ru*lar / g / ol*du*u / i*in~ / o*u*na / ce*vap / ve*re*me*dim ) As the questions were difficult, I couldnt answer most of them.

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ok yamur ya-dk- iin stadyum-a zaman-/n/-da var-a.ma-d-lar. (ok / ya*mur / ya*d* / i*in~ / s*tad*yu*ma / za*ma:*nn*da / va*ra*ma*d*lar ) They couldnt get to the stadium in time as it was raining heavily. (Ben-im) gzlk-m- (ben-im) ev-de unut-tuk-um iin retmen-in tahta/y/a yaz-dk-lar--/n/ gr-e.me-di-im. (gz*l**m / ev*de / u*nut*tu*um / i*in~ / *ret*me*nin / tah*ta*ya / yaz*dk*la*r*n / g*re*me*dim ) As I had left my glasses at home, I couldnt see what the teacher was writing on the board. The two "benim" words above are put here to show the compounds clearly. They are not used in current speech, and "retmenin tahtaya yazdklar is a noun + infinitive compound. Saat be ol-duk-u iin al-ma-/y/ brak-sa-ak iyi ol-ur. (sa*at / be / ol*du*u / i*in~ / a*l*ma*y / b*rak*sak / i*yi / o*lur ) As it is five, we had better stop working. The conjunction nk is used in Turkish as because is used in English: (O) yava yava yr-.yor-du, nk ar bir sepet ta-.yor-du. She was walking slowly because she was carrying a heavy basket. ok al-ma.l-sn, nk yarn snav-a gir-e.cek-sin. You must study hard because you will have an examination tomorrow. Yznden, den dolay or nedeniyle complex postpositions can be used in Turkish as because of preposition is used in English: iddet-li yamur yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) ma- ertele-mek zor-u/n/-da kal-d-lar. (id*det*li / ya*mur / y*zn*den~ / ma* / er*te*le*mek / zo*run*da / kal*d*lar ) They had to postpone the match because of the heavy rainfall. Youn trafik yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) okul-a ge kal-d-m. (yo*un / tra*fik / y*zn*den~/ o*ku*la / ge / kal*dm ) I came to school late because of the heavy traffic. Otobs grev-i yznden (nedeniyle) ev-e yr-/y/e.rek git-mek zorunda kald-k. (o*to*bs / gre*vi / y*zn*den~/ e*ve / y*r*ye*rek / git*mek / zo*run*da / kal*dk ) We had to walk home because of the bus strike. Yksek fiyat-lar yznden (nedeniyle) hi birey satn al-a.ma-d-m. I couldnt buy anything because of the high prices.

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Fatma gzel gz-ler-i nedeni/y/-le ekici-dir. (fat*ma / g*zel / gz*le*ri / ne*de*niy*le / e*ki*ci*dir ) Fatma is attractive because of her beautiful eyes.

CONTRAST (RAMEN, KARIN)


Noun compounds like (ben-im) al-ma-am-a ramen, (onun) git-me-/s/i/n/e ramen structures are used in Turkish in place of although + sentence in English. Ben-im al-ma-am, sen-in gel-me-en, biz-im konuma-a.mz compounds are noun + infinitive compounds, whose second parts are made of infinitives. The [e, a] allomorphs are the allomorphs that are attached to nouns, pronouns and noun compounds, which help them to be used as adverbials in sentences. Ramen, karn or neden-i/y/-le" are postpositions used after nouns attached either to [e], or [a] allomorphs: (o) onu (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) al-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen baar-a.ma-d
NP | NP noun + infinitive compound - / n /a postpositional phrase of contrast VP postp |

Note: The /s/ and /n/ are glides. "Kendisinin" and "o" are put here to help the learners understand the deleted parts of the compounds. They are not used in current Turkish because "kendisinin" and "o" can be understood from the personal suffixes. The mental production of this sentence is as follows: (O) ok alt + ramen (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) ok alma-/s/-/n/a ramen" He studied hard + although although he studied hard He couldnt succeed although he studied hard
NP V adverbial clause of contrast adv VP

Ahmet (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) otomobil-i olma-/s/-/n/a ramen okul-a otobs-le gel-ir.


NP noun compound - /n/[a] postp | | postpositional phrase of contrast adverbial adverbial VP | V

Although Ahmet has got a car, he comes to school by bus. Yorgun ol-ma-am-a ramen al-ma-/y/a devam et-me.li-/y/im. (liaison) (yor*gun / ol*ma*ma / ra*men~ / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:*met*me*li*yim ) I must go on working although I am tired. ki kez oku-ma-am-a ramen ders-i anla-/y/a.ma-d-m. (i*ki / kez / o*ku*ma*ma / ra*men~ / der*si / an*la*ya*ma*dm ) I couldnt understand the lesson although I read twice.

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iman ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen hzl ko-a.bil-i.yor. (i*man / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men~ / hz*l / ko*a*bi*li*yor ) Although he is fat, he can run fast. (Biz-im) ayn otel-de kal-ma-am-z-a ramen birbirimiz-e rastla-ma-d-k. (ay*n / o*tel*de / kal*ma*m*za / ra*men~ / bir*bi*ri*mi*ze / rast*la*ma*dk) Although we were staying in the same hotel, we didnt meet. On ya-/n/-da ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen oku-/y/up yaz-a.ma-.yor. (on / ya*n*da / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men~ / o*ku*yup / ya*za*m*yor ) Although he is ten years old, he cant read and write. Bykanne-em (kendisinin) ok yal ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen ev i-i-/n/i kendi/s/i yap-ar. (b*y*kan*nem / ok / ya*l / ol*ma*s*na / ra*men~/ e*vi*i*ni / ken*di*si / ya*par ) (liaison) Although my grandmother is very old, she does her housework herself. Yoksul ol-ma-lar--/n/a ramen mutlu-dur-lar. (yok*sul / ol*ma*la*r*na / ra*men~/ mut*lu*dur*lar ) Although they are poor, they are happy. One can use a V - [DK]-possessed personal morpheme + halde structure as an alternative to the above postpositional phrase of contrast: ok al-tk-m halde baar-a.ma-d-m. (ok / a*l*t*m / hal*de / ba*a*ra*ma*dm ) Although I studied hard, I couldnt succeed. Gr-e.me-dik-i halde piyano al-a.bil-i.yor-du. (g*re*me*di*i / hal*de / pi*ya*no / a*la*bi*li*yor*du ) Although he wasnt able to see, he could play the piano. yi gr-e.me-dik-i halde gzlk tak-mak iste-me-i.yor. (i*yi / g*re*me*di*i / hal*de~/ gz*lk / tak*mak / is*te*mi*yor ) Although he cant see well, he doesnt want to wear glasses. Determiner + noun-[e, a] + ramen can be used like in spite of + determiner + noun English prepositional phrase: (Biz)
NP

iddet-li saanak-a ramen konser-e zaman-n-da yeti-ti-ik.


determiner + noun - [E] postp postp phrase of contrast (adv) | adverbial VP | adverbial | V

We got to the concert on time in spite of the heavy rainfall.


| NP | V | adverbial | adverbial VP prep determiner noun prep phrase of contrast

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Tm glk-ler-e ramen da-n doruk-u-/n/a trman-a.bil-di-ler. (tm / g*lk*le*re / ra*men~ / da*n / do*ru*u*na / tr*ma*na*bil*di*ler ) They were able to climb the peak of the mountain in spite of all difficulties. Tm kt hava art-lar--/n/a ramen pilot uak- baar-/y/la indir-di. The pilot landed the plane successfully in spite of all the unfavorable weather conditions. Kk gz-ler-i-/n/e ramen yakkl-dr. (k*k / gz*le*ri*ne / ra*men~ / ya*k*k*l*dr ) He is handsome in spite of his small eyes. Note: Some speakers and writers tend to use "karn" in place of "ramen" to avoid this borrowed word: "Kk gzlerine karn (ramen) yakkldr". [Ken] morpheme can also be used like while to express contrast: Baz kimse-ler zengin-ken dier baz-lar- yoksul-dur. (ba:*z / kim*se*ler / zen*gin*ken~ / di*er / ba:*z*la*r / yok*sul*dur ) While some people are wealthy, some others are poor. Karnca al-r-ken, austos bcek-i zaman--/n/ ark syle-/y/e.rek boa harca-ar-d. While the ant was working, the cicada used to waste time singing. Baz kimseler ay- tercih et-er-ken, dier bazlar- kahve-/y/i tercih eder. While some people prefer tea, some others prefer coffee. Baz renci-ler ren-mek iin istek-li/y/-ken, dier baz-lar- ders-ler-e kar kaytsz-dr. While some students are eager to learn, some others are indifferent to lessons.

PURPOSE
In order to compose an adverbial phrase of purpose, one should use a simple sentence containing wish mood (dilek kipi) without structurally changing it, and by doing so, the wish simple sentence becomes a nominal phrase to be used preceding the postposition diye to compose a postpositional phrase of purpose: eri gir-e-/y/im. eri gir-e-sin. eri gir-sin. eri gir-e-lim. eri gir-e-si.niz. eri gir-sin-ler. Let me go in. I wish you to go in Let him go in. Let us go in. I wish you to go in. Let them go in.

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(O) ieri-/y/e gir-e-/y/im diye kapy at. He opened the door to let me go in.
NP sent (nominal phrs) + postp postp phrase of purpose VP | NP | V NP V NP adv phrs of purpose VP

eri gir-e.bil-e-/y/im. eri gir-e.bil-e-sin. eri gir-e.bil-sin. eri gir-e.bil-e-lim. eri gir-e.bil-e-si.niz. eri gir-e.bil-sin-ler.

Let me be able to go in. I wish you to be able to go in. I wish him to be able to go in. Let us be able to go in. I wish you to be able to go in. I wish you to let them be able to go in.

1. V -[e.bil, a.bil]-[e-/y/im, e-sin, sin, e-lim, e-si.niz, sin-ler] + diye 2. V - [e-/y/im, a-/y/m], [e-sin, a-sn], [sin, sn, sn, sun], [e-si.niz, a-snz], [sin-ler, sn-lar] + diye Follow the examples: (o) (Ben) ieri gir-e-bil-e-/y/im diye
NP sentence used as a noun postp postpositional phrase of purpose VP | V | NP | adverbial clause of purpose VP

kap-/y/ a-t.
| NP | V

He opened the door so that I could go in.


NP

retmen ben-i daha iyi gr-e.bil-sin diye gzlk-ler-i-/n/i tak-t. (*ret*men / be*ni / da*ha / i*yi / g*re*bil*sin / di*ye~ / gz*lk*le*ri*ni / tak*t ) The teacher put on her glasses so that she could see me better. Herkes gr-e.bil-sin diye onu daha byk iz. (her*kes / g*re*bil*sin / di*ye / o*nu / da*ha / b*yk / iz ) Draw it larger so that everybody can see it. eri gir-sin diye kenar-a ekil-di-im. (i*e*ri / gir*sin / di*ye ~ / ke*na*ra / e*kil*dim ) I stepped aside so that she might come in. Kimse bul-a.ma-sn diye para-/s/-/n/ dikkat-le sakla-d. (kim*se / bu*la*ma*sn / di*ye~ / pa*ra*s*n / dik*kat*le / sak*la*d ) He hid his money carefully so that nobody could find it. (In negatives, [e.me, a.ma] are used in place of [e-bil, a-bil])

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Bir szlk al-a.bil-sin diye ona biraz para ver-di-im. (bir / sz*lk / a*la*bil*sin / di*ye~ / o*na / bi*raz / pa*ra / ver*dim ) I gave her some money so that she could buy a dictionary. Ahmet, snav- ge-e.bil-sin diye ok al-.yor. (ah*met ~/ s*na*v / ge*e*bil*sin / di*ye~ / ok / a*l**yor ) Ahmet is studying hard so that he can pass the examination. Erken kalk-a.bil-sin diye o-/n/a bir alar saat satn al-d-m. (liaison) (er*ken / kal*ka*bil*sin / di*ye~ / o*na / bir / a*lar / sa*at / sa*t*nal*dm ) I bought an alarm clock for him so that he could get up early. The postposition "diye" can also be used after some other simple sentences used as nominal phrases without being structurally changed. Consider the following: (Ben) (o) gel-e.cek diye bekle-di-im.
NP NP V | sent nominal phrs + postp postp adverb phrs of purpose VP | | V

(ge*le*cek / di*ye / bek*le*dim) I waited hoping that he would come. Herkes anla-m-tr diye szm-e devam et-ti-im. (liaison) (her*kes / an*la*m*tr / di*ye ~/ s*z*me / de*va:*met*tim ) (liaison) I went on talking thinking that everybody must have understood me. Ertesi gn pazar diye ge vakte kadar otur-du-uk. (er*te*si / gn / pa*zar / di*ye / ge / vak*te / ka*dar / o*tur*duk ) We sat up late knowing that the following day was Sunday. Otobs kalabalk diye bin-me-di-im. (o*to*bs / ka*la*ba*lk / di*ye / bin*me*dim ) Seeing that the bus was crowded, I didn't get on. Kedi dar k-sn diye kap-/y/ a-t-m. I opened the door to let the cat go out. (I opened the door so that the cat could go out.) All the underlined parts of the sentences above are sentences that are used as nominal phrases. If the concept of ability is ignored, the [e.bil, a.bil] are omitted, and the se-

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cond type of the above chain is used following the vowel and consonant harmony. The underlined parts of the sentences below are sentences that are used as nominal phrases: Hi yanllk yap-ma-sn diye onu dikkat-le yaz-d.
sentence of wish (nominal phrs) postp postpositional phrase of purpose sentence

(hi / yan*l*lk / yap*ma*sn / di*ye~ / o*nu / dik*kat*le / yaz*d ) He wrote it carefully so that he shouldnt make a mistake. Gzel gr-n-sn diye yeni elbise-/s/i-/n/i giy-di. (g*zel / g*rn*sn / di*ye / ye*ni / el*bi*se*si*ni / giy*di ) She put her new dress on so that she might (should) look beautiful. Ka-ma-sn diye at-m- bir aa-a bala-d-m. (ka*ma*sn / di*ye / a*t*m / bir / a*a*ca / ba*la*dm ) I fastened my horse to a tree so that it shouldnt escape. Hi parmak iz-i brak-ma-sn diye hrsz eldiven tak-m-t. (hi / par*mak / i*zi / b*rak*ma*sn / di*ye~/ hr*sz / el*di*ven / tak*m*t ) The thief wore gloves so that he shouldnt leave any fingerprints. ngilizcemi uygula-/y/m diye baba-am ben-i ngiltere/y/e gtr-e.cek. (in*gi*liz*ce*mi / uy*gu*la*ym / di*ye / ba*bam / be*ni / in*gil*te*re*ye / g*t*re*cek) My father will take me to London so that I could practice my English. If the subject of the main clause, and that of the adverbial phrase are the same, an infinitive + iin postpositional phrase can be used: Gzel gr-n-mek iin yeni elbise-/s/i-/n/i giy-di. (g*zel / g*rn*mek / i* in / ye*ni / el*bi*se*si*ni / giy*di ) She put on her new dress to look beautiful. Hrsz parmak iz-i brak-ma-mak iin eldiven tak-m-t. (hr*sz / par*mak / i*zi / b*rak*ma*mak / i*in / el*di*ven / tak*mi*t ) The thief wore gloves not to leave any fingerprints. Snav--/n/ ge-mek iin Ahmet ok al-.yor. (liaison) (s*na*v*n / ge*me*ki*in~ / ah*met / ok / a*l**yor ) Ahmet is studying hard to pass his examination. Kpek-e at-mak iin yer-den bir ta ald. (liaison) (k*pe*e / at*ma*ki*in~/ yer*den / bir / ta*al*d ) He picked up a stone to throw at the dog.

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Islan-ma-mak iin emsiye-em-i al-d-m. (liaison) (s*lan*ma*ma*ki*in~ / em*si*ye*mi / al*dm ) I took my umbrella not to get wet. ngilizce-/s/i-/n/i ilerlet-mek iin zel ders-ler al-.yor. She is taking private lessons to improve her English. Ben-i iyi (iyice) anla-mak iin dikkat-le dinle. (be*ni / i*yi / an*la*mak / i*in / dik*kat*le / din*le ) Listen to me carefully to understand me well. Bu kitap- anla-mak iin dikkat-le oku. (bu / ki*ta*b / an*la*mak / i*in / dik*kat*le / o*ku ) Read carefully to understand this book.

PLACE
To produce an adverbial concept of place in Turkish, one can use istedik-in yer-e (to the place where you wish), or nere-/y/e istersen (where you wish) expressions. (Sen) istedik-in yer-e git-e.bil-ir-sin. You can go (to the place) where you wish.
NP determiner noun -[e] adverbial V NP V prep phrase determiner adverbial clause of place

(Sen) kitap- (sen-in) bul-duk-un


NP NP

yer-e koy.
V

noun comp (deter) + noun-e postp adverbial phrase of place NP

(You) put the book (in the place) where you found it.
NP V prep phrs (adv) determiner adverbial clause of place

Nere-/y/e git-er-sen (git) ngilizce konu-a.bil-en bir-i-/s/i-/n/i bul-a.bil-ir-sin. (ne*re*ye / gi*der*sen / git ~/ in*gi*liz*ce / ko*nu*a*bi*len / bi*ri*si*ni / bu*la*bi*lir*sin ) You can find someone who can speak English wherever you go. Nasrettin Hoca eek-i-/n/i kaybet-tik-i yer-de bul-du ve bu onu ok mutlu etti. Nasrettin Hoca found his donkey where he had lost it, which made him very happy. Been-dik-in (herhangi bir) yer-e otur-a.bil-ir-sin. (be*en*di*in / ye*re / o*tu*ra*bi*lir*sin ) You can sit wherever you like.

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Onu koy-duk-un yer-i hatrla-ma-/y/a al. (o*nu / koy*du*un / ye*ri / ha*tr*la*ma*ya / a*l) Try to remember where you put it.

MANNER
To transform a simple English sentence into an adverbial clause of manner, the conjunction as is put in the beginning of a sentence. In Turkish, gibi postposition is used after a noun + infinitive compound:

AS
The mental development of an adverbial phrase of manner is as follows: Ben sana dyledim + gibi ben-im sana dyle-dik-im gibi" I told you + as "as I told you" (Sen) onu, (ben-im) sana syle-dik-im gibi yap.
NP | NP noun compound + postp postp adverbial phrase of manner VP | V

(You) do it as I told you (to do).


NP V NP adverbial clause of manner VP

(Ben) (ben-im) konu-tuk-um gibi yaz-ar-m. I write as I talk.


NP postpositional phrase of manner. VP V (ko*nu*tu*um

/ gi*bi / ya*za*rm)
| V

(Sen) onu (o-/n/un) ol-duk-u gibi brak. Leave it as it is.


NP | noun compound postp NP postpositional phrs of manner VP

Gel-dik-ler-i gibi git-er-ler. (Mustafa Kemal Atatrk) (gel*dik*le*ri / gi*bi ~/ gi*der*ler) They will go as they came. (Biz) onu, (onun) biz-e sylen-dik-i gibi yap-t-k. (o*nu~ / bi*ze / sy*len*di*i / gi*bi / yap*tk ) We did it as we had been told The words in brackets above are used to make the meaning understandable for the learners. They are not necessary in current Turkish. For instance, instead of saying "(Sen) (ben-im) karde-im-i gr-d-n m? people say "Karde-im-i gr-d-n m?" because the pronoun Sen, and the personal

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allomorph n both mean sen; and the "ben-im" and "im" both mean "my". As "sen" and "ben-im" words are opinal elements, they may be ignored, and the current sentece becomes "Karde-im-i gr-d-n m?". Likewise, there are two personal possessor morphemes in all noun compounds such as [im] in ben-im, and [im] in eker-im`, both of which mean my. Therefore ben-im possessor adjective may be ignored, and only eker-im word (my sugar) is used instead of ben-im eker-im. For instance: "(Ben-im) okul-um" (okul-um), "(sen-in) gz-ler-in" (gz-ler-in) "(o-/n/un) anta-/s/" (anta-/s/), "(Biz-im) ev-i.miz" (ev-i.miz) However, if nouns are used in the possessor parts, they cannot be ignored: "fiyat-lar-n art-ma-/s/", "okul-un n-", "Jack-in aka-/s/", "at-n tekme-/s/i" Jack-in araba-/s/, sorun-lar-n a-l-ma-/s/. As it is seen in the examples above, if possessor pronouns are used in the possessor parts of the noun compounds, these possessor pronouns can be ignored. But If nouns are used in the possessor parts, they cannot be ignored because only the possessed parts of these compounds do not make sense. (Ben) gelecek hafta Ankara'ya gidiyor-um
subj NP pronoun subj NP suffix

In Turkish, it is impossible to use only the pronoun without using the personal suffix at the end of a sentence. One has to say either Ben gelecek hafta Ankaraya gidiyor-um, or Gelecek hafta Ankaraya gidiyor-um. It is incorrect to say *Ben Ankaraya gidiyor, or *Ben Trke bilmiyor.

AS IF (AS THOUGH)
V - [time] - [mi, m, m, mu] - (pers) + gibi verb structure is used to express as if in Turkish. The mental development of "as if" is as follows: "Sen bir soru soracaksn" + gibi "sen bir soru sor-a.cak-m-(sn) gibi" "You are going to ask a question" + as if as if you are going to ask a question (Sen) bir soru sor-a.cak-m-(sn) gibi grn-.yor-sun.
NP sentence used as a nominal phrase postp postpositional adverbial phrase of manner VP | V

(bir / so*ru / so*ra*cak*m / gi*bi / g*r*n*yor*sun )

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You look as if you are going to ask a question. (It seems that you are going to ask a question.) Bana kz-m (gibi) gr-n-.yor-sun. (ba*na / kz*m / g*r*n*yor*sun ) You look (sound) as if you are angry with me. (It seems that you are angry with me.) Bu kuma pamuk-tan yap-l-m his-/s/i ver-i.yor. (bu / ku*ma ~ / pa*muk*tan / ya*pl*m / his*si / ve*ri*yor ) This material feels as if it is made of cotton. Komu-da bir-i-ler-i bir parti ver-i.yor-lar-m gibi ses-ler gel-i.yor. (kom*u*da / bi*ri*le*ri / bir / par*ti / ve*ri*yor*lar*m / gi*bi / ses*ler / ge*li*yor ) It sounds as if some people are giving a party next door. (I hear that the neighbors are giving a party.) Bir ey yan-.yor-mu gibi bir koku al-.yor-um. (bi*ey / ya*n*yor*mu / gi*bi / bir / ko*ku / a*l*yo*rum ) I smell as if something is burning. (Something is burning.) The same mi gibi is also used for the unreal past, but in such sentences, nouns, determiner + noun, or sentences used as nominal phrases take part. The mental development of such sentences may be as follows: Ben ocuk-um + gibi ben ocuk-mu-um gibi I am a child + as if as if I were a child (Sen) (ben) bir ocuk-mu-um gibi ben-im-le konu-ma.
NP nominally used sentence + postp postp adverbial phrase of manner VP | adverbial | V

Dont talk to me as if I were a child. (I am not a child.) (Onun) koca-/s//y/-m-m gibi bana bar-.yor. (ko*ca*sy*m*m / gi*bi / ba*na / ba**r*yor ) She shouts at me as if I were her husband. (I am not her husband.) (Onun) hizmeti-/s/i/y/-mi-im gibi bana emir ver-i.yor. (hiz*met*i*siy*mi*im / gi*bi / ba*na / e*mir / ve*ri*yor ) She orders me round as if I were her servant. (I am not her servant.)

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Hi bir ey ol-ma-m gibi al-ma-/y/a devam et-ti. (liaison) (hi / bir / ey / ol*ma*m / gi*bi / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:* met*ti ) He went on working as if nothing had happened. (Something had happened, but he didnt mind.) ocuk-lar yap-a.cak-lar- bir ey yok-mu gibi bahe-de oyna-u.yor-lar. (o*cuk*lar~ / ya*pa*cak*la*r / bir / ey / yok*mu / gi*bi ~ / bah*e*de / oy*nu*yor*lar ) The children are playing in the garden as if they had nothing to do. Karm, (ben) bir supermen-mi-im gibi herey-i (ben-im) yap-ma-am- istei.yor. (ka*rm ~/ bir / s*per*men*mi*im / gi*bi~ / her*e*yi / be*nim /yap*ma*m / is*ti*yor ) My wife wants me to do everything as if I were a superman. (I am not a superman.) Salak-m-m gibi bana bak-p dur-ma. (sa*lak*m*m / gi*bi / ba*na / ba*kp / dur*ma ) Dont stare at me as if I were a fool. (I am not a fool.) Bana (sen-in) kle-en-mi-im gibi davran-ma. (ba*na / k*len*mi*im / gi*bi / dav*ran*ma ) Dont treat me as if I were your slave. (I am not your slave.)

RESULT
In place of so or therefore, bylece, bu yzden, bu nedenle, bu sa:yede, or bu ekilde conjunctions may be used to supply a simple sentence with a result concept: Sabah-le.yin erken kalktm, ve bylece ev dev-im-i bitir-e.bil-di-im. (sa*bah*le*yin / er*ken / kalk*tm ~/ ve / by*le*ce / e*v*de*vi*mi / bi*ti*re*bil*dim ) I got up early, and so I was able to finish my homework. ok a-m, bu yzden sandvi bile ye-/y/e.bil-ir-im. I am very hungry; therefore, I can eat even three sandwiches. Yamur ok iddet-li ya-.yor-du, bu neden-le bir yer-e sn-mak zorunda kal-d-k. It was raining heavily; therefore, we had to shelter somewhere. Gne-li bir sabah-t, bu yz-den kr-da yr-/y/-e k-ma-/y/a karar verdik. It was a sunny morning, so we decided to go for a walk in the country.

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San-r-m tren tehir-li, bu yz-den bekle-mek zorunda-/y/z. I think the train is late, so we have to wait. Elektrik kes-il-di, bu yzden ev dev-im-i yap-a.ma-d-m. The electricity went off; therefore, I couldnt do my homework. Ge ol.u.yor, bu yzden ev-e dn-se-ek iyi ol-ur. Its getting late, so wed better go back home. Kz karde-in ev dev-i-/n/i yap-.yor, bu yzden televizyon-u kapat-san iyi ol-ur. Your sister is doing her homework; therefore, youd better turn off the TV.

SO THAT

SUCH THAT

Such result clauses are formed by an o kadar + adjective (adverb) [time] + ki + sentence structure in Turkish as it is used in English. Consider the following: Sorular o kadar g-t ki sadece birka renci cevap ver-e.bil-di
NP adverbial VP V conj adv adj NP noun NP VP sentence of result V

The questions were so difficult that only few students were able to answer.
NP VP conj adv adj NP noun V NP (inf) VP

sentence of result

Yk o kadar ar-d ki, iki at bile araba-/y/ ek-e.me-di. (yk / o*ka*dar / a*r*d / ki ~ / i*ki / at / bi*le / a*ra*ba*y / e*ke*me*di ) The load was so heavy that even two horses could not pull the cart. O kadar hzl konu-ur ki onu anla-/y/a.maz-sn. (o*ka*dar / hz*l / ko*nu*ur / ki~ / o*nu / an*l*ya*maz*sn ) She speaks so fast that you cant understand her. Otobs ofr- o kadar hzl sr-.yor-du ki tm yolcu-lar kork-tu. (o*to*bs / o*f*r / o*ka*dar / hz*l / s*r*yor*du / ki ~/ tm / yol*cu*lar / kork*tu ) The bus driver was driving so fast that all the passengers were frightened. Sokak-lar o kadar kaygan ki kay-p d-e.bil-ir-sin. (so*kak*lar / o*ka*dar / kay*gan / ki ~/ ka*yp / d*e*bi*lir*sin ) The streets are so slippery that you may slip and fall down. Oda o kadar karanlk-t ki birbir-ler-i-/n/i gr-e.me-di-ler. (o*da / o*ka*dar / ka*ran*lk*t / ki ~/ bir*bir*le*ri*ni / g*re*me*di*ler ) The room was so dark that they couldnt see each other.

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If an adjective", such as in an interesting book, is used as a predicate with the intensifier ok in a simple sentence, such as kitap ok ilginti, this intensifier changes into o kadar adverbial implying that a main close will be following the subordinate clause beginning with the ki conjunction:

o kadar + adjective + noun - [time] + ki


ok ilgin bir kitapt. o kadar ilgin bir kitapt O kadar ilgin bir kitap-t ki onu bir gn-de bitir-di-im. (o*ka*dar / il*in / bir / ki*tap*t / ki ~/ o*nu / bir / gn*de / bi*tir*dim ) It was such an interesting book that I finished it in a day Arkadalarm ok hzl kouyordu. arkada-lar-m o kadar hz-l ko-u.yor-du Arkada-lar-m o kadar hz-l ko-u.yor-du ki onlar-a yeti-e.me-di-im. My friends were running so fast that I couldnt catch up with them. O kadar kalabalk bir otobs-t ki bin-e.me-di-im. (o / ka*dar / ka*la*ba*lk / bir / o*to*bs*t / ki~ / bi*ne*me*dim ) It was such a crowded bus that I couldnt get on. O kadar ok kitap- var-d ki hangi-/s/i-/n/i oku-/y/a.cak--/n/a karar vere.me-i.yor-du. (o / ka*dar / ok / ki*ta*b / var*d / ki~ / han*gi*si*ni / o*ku*ya*ca**na / ka*rar / ve*re*mi*yor*du ) He had such a lot of books that he couldnt decide which to read. O kadar uzun sa-lar- var-d ki herkes onu kz san-.yor-du. (o / ka*dar / u*zun / sa*la*r / var*d / ki ~/ her*kes / o*nu / kz / sa*n*yor*du ) He had such long hair that everybody thought he was a girl. yle (o kadar) g-l bir rzgr var-d ki futbol oyna-/y/a.ma-d-k. (y*le / g*l / bir / rz*gr / var*d / ki ~/ fut*bol / oy*n*ya*ma*dk ) There was such a strong wind that we couldnt play football.

too + adjective + to + V and adjective + enough + to + V


To form a Turkish chain that can be used in place of the above first pattern, V - [mek, mak] + iin + ok + adjective - [time] - [pers] structure is used: Ben basketbol oyna-mak iin
NP

ok yal-/y/m.
| V

noun infinitive postp | postp adverbial phrs of reason intensifier VP

I am too old to play basketball.

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Kzm araba sr-mek iin ok gen-ti. (k*zm~ / a*ra*ba / sr*mek / i*in / ok / gen*ti ) My daughter was too young to drive. Olum araba sr-mek iin ok yal ol-duk-um-u syle-.yor. (o*lum~ / a*ra*ba / sr*mek / i*in / ok / ya*l / ol*du*u*mu / sy*l*yor) My son says that I am too old to drive. As an alternative to the sentences above oyna-/y/a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar, sr-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar expressions may also be used: Hava dar k-a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar souk. (ha*va / d*a*r / *ka*m*ya*cak / ka*dar / so*uk ) It is too cold to go out. Sorular cevap ver-il-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar g. (so*ru*lar / ce*vap / ve*ri*le*me*ye*cek / ka*dar / g ) The questions are too difficult to answer. Sen ben-i anla-/y/a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar gen-sin. (sen ~/ be*ni / an*l*ya*m*ya*cak / ka*dar / gen*sin ) You are too young to understand me. Bu araba satn al-n-a.ma-/y/a.cak kadar eski. (liaison) (bu / a*ra*ba / sa*t*na*l*na*ma*ya*cak / ka*dar / es*ki ) This car is too old to be bought (to buy). al-ma-/y/a devam et-e.me-/y/e.cek kadar yorgun-um. (a*l*ma*ya / de*vam / e*de*me*ye*cek / ka*dar / yor*gu*num ) I am too tired to go on working. When the verb is positive, V - [e.cek, a.cak] + kadar + adjective (adverb) + V- [pers] composition is used in place of adjective + enough + V composition of the English language: Soru-lar, hep-/s/i-/n/e cevap ver-e.cek kadar kolay-d. (so*ru*lar~ / hep*si*ne / ce*vap / ve*re*cek / ka*dar ~/ ko*lay*d ) The questions were easy enough to answer all of them. Sen herey-i anla-/y/a.cak ya-ta-sn. (sen / her*e*yi / an*la*ya*cak / ya*ta*sn ) You are old enough to understand everything.

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Olum, basketbol oyna-/y/a.bil-e.cek kadar uzun boylu. (o*lum ~/ bas*ket*bol / oy*na*ya*bi*le*cek / ka*dar / u*zun / boy*lu ) My son is tall enough to play basketball. Sen bu cmle-ler-i anla-/y/a.bil-e.cek kadar akll-sn. (sen~ / bu / cm*le*le*ri / an*la*ya*bi*le*cek / ka*dar / a*kl*l*sn ) You are clever enough to understand these sentences.

DEGREE
COMPARATIVE DEGREE (COMPARISON OF INEQUALITY) To compare something with another, at least two nominals should exist in a sentence. These nominals may be nouns, pronouns, infinitives or noun compounds. To add comparison to a sentence noun / noun - [den, dan, ten, tan] + daha (az) + adjective (adverb) + V structure is used. Follow the example sentences: (Ben) sen-den (daha) yal-/y/m.
NP comparative adverbial VP comparative adverbial VP adj -V

I am
NP V

old-er than you.


compr adj conj VP pron

(Ben) sen-den (daha) hzl ko-ar-m. I run fast-er


NP V NP

than you.
pron

V compr adv conj VP

Trke ngilizce-den (daha) karmak-tr.


NP comparative adverbial VP adj-V

Turkish is more complicated than English.


NP V adv adjective VP conj noun

Besides nouns and pronouns, noun compounds and infinitives can be compared: Otobsle seyahat etmek uakla seyahat etmek-ten (daha) ucuz-dur.
infinitive (noun) NP infinitive + [DEN] =comparative adverbial VP adj - V

Traveling by bus is cheaper than traveling by air. Ben-im araba-am sen-in araba-an-dan (daha) iyi. (be*nim / a*ra*bam~ / se*nin / a*ra*ban*dan / da*ha / i*yi ) My car is better than your car. Ben-im ta-dk-m sen-in ta-dk-n-dan daha ar-d. (be*nim / ta**d*m~ / se*nin / ta**d*n*dan / da*ha / a*r*d ) What I carried was heavier than what you did.

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Daha salk-l gr-n-.yor-sun. (da*ha / sa*lk*l / g*r*n*yor*sun ) You look healthier. (then you were before) As the expression in parentheses is already in the minds of both the speaker and the listener, it is not generally put into words. (deletion) (Sen) ben-den daha salk-l gr-n-.yor-sun. (ben*den / da*ha / sa*lk*l / g*r*n*yor*sun ) You look healthier than I. (than I am healthy). (Sen) bugn daha erken kalk-t-n. (bu*gn / da*ha / er*ken / kalk*tn ) You got up earlier today. (than before). Kz karde-in sen-den daha ok al-.yor. (kz*kar*de*in / sen*den / da*ha / ok / a*l**yor ) Your sister works harder than you. (than you work). Biz-im rn-ler-i.miz ithl rn-ler-den daha ucuz-dur. (bi*zim / *rn*le*ri*miz~ / it*h:l / *rn*ler*den / da*ha / u*cuz*dur ) Our products are cheaper than imported ones. Bekle-dik-im-den daha abuk ren-i.yor-sun. (bek*le*di*im*den / da*ha / a*buk / *re*ni*yor*sun ) You are learning faster than I expected. Sen gr-n-dk-n-den daha akll-sn. (sen~ / g*rn*d*n*den / da*ha / a*kl*l*sn ) You are cleverer than you look. Film-i um-duk-um-dan daha ilgin bul-du-um. (fil*mi / um*du*um*dan / da*ha / il*gin / bul*dum ) I found the film more interesting than I expected. Bu marka ayakkab-lar teki-ler-den daha az dayankl-dr. (bu / mar*ka / a*yak*ka*b*lar ~/ *te*ki*ler*den / da*ha / az / da*ya*nk*l*dr ) This brand of shoes is less durable than those. Ben-im araba-am sen-in-ki/n/-den daha az konforlu. (be*nim / a*ra*bam~ / se*nin*kin*den / da*ha / az / kon*for*lu ) My car is less comfortable than yours.

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Kendi-/s/i-/n/i herkes-ten daha akll san-.yor. (ken*di*si*ni~ / her*kes*ten / da*ha / a*kl*l / sa*n*yor ) She thinks herself to be cleverer than everybody. Kz-lar erkek ocuk-lar-dan daha alkan-dr. (kz*lar ~ / er*kek / o*cuk*lar*dan / da*ha / a*l*kan*dr ) Girls are more hardworking than boys. Sen ben-den daha az akll deil-sin. (sen~ / ben*den / da*ha / az / a*kl*l / de*il*sin ) You are not less clever then me. (I am). Ucuz rn-ler pahal rn-ler-den daha az dayankl-dr. (u*cuz / *rn*ler~ / pa*ha*l / *rn*ler*den / da*ha / az / da*ya*nk*l*dr ) Inexpensive products are less durable than the expensive ones.

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE
The superlative degree of an adjective or an adverb is made by putting the adverb en before an adjective or an adverb: Ben-im araba-am ehir-de-ki en ekonomik araba-dr. (be*nim / a*ra*bam~ / e*hir*de*ki / en / e*ko*no*mik / a*ra*ba*dr ) My car is the most economical car in town. Fatma dnya/n/n en gzel kadn--dr. (fat*ma ~/ dn*ya:*nn / en / g*zel / ka*d*n*dr ) Fatma is the most beautiful woman of the world. ita dnya-da-ki en hzl hayvan-dr. (i*ta~ / dn*ya:*da*ki / en / hz*l / hay*van*dr ) The cheetah is the swiftest animal in the world. ita en hz-l ko-ar. (i*ta / en / hz*l / ko*ar ) The cheetah runs the swiftest. (Ben-im) kar-m hep en iyi-/s/i-/n/i se-er. (ka*rm / hep / en / i*yi*si*ni / se*er ) My wife always chooses the best. Jack okul-da-ki en yakkl ocuk-tur. (jack / o*kul*da*ki / en / ya*k*k*l / o*cuk*tur ) Jack is the most handsome boy in school.

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Ocak, Trkiyede yl-n en souk ay--dr. (o*cak / tr*ki*ye*de / y*ln / en / so*uk / a*y*dr ) January is the coldest month of the year in Turkey.

POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EQUALITY


All intensifiers are adverbs that intensify or weaken adjectives or adverbs. To build up an adjectival or adverbial equality, NP + NP + kadar + adverb (adjective) + V chain is used. Consider the following sentences: Kar-m
NP

ok
intens

hzl
adv VP

yz-e.bil-ir. My wife can swim very fast.


V NP V intens adv VP

Bir kedi bir kpek kadar hzl ko-a.bil-ir.


NP NP postp | postp phrs of compr adv VP | V

A cat can run as fast as a dog. Kar-m ben-im (yz-dk-m) kadar hzl yz-e.bil-ir.
NP noun compound + postp postp phrase of comparison VP | adv | V

My wife can swim as fast as I can (swim). As all noun compounds are nominal phrases NP, the last sentence above can be written as NP + NP + kadar + adv + V. Jack kz karde-i kadar
NP noun comp + postp postp phrs of comparison VP

akll-dr.
| V

Jack is as clever as her sister is. Ben sen-in san-dk-n kadar akll deil-im. (san*d*n)
NP (noun comp) NP postp postp adv phrs of comparison VP | adj- V

I am not so (as) clever as you think. Bir Jeep kullan-mak normal bir araba kullan-mak kadar ekonomik deil. Driving a Jeep is not as economical as driving an ordinary car. Bir masal kitap- oku-mak bir ansiklopedi oku-mak kadar retici deil-dir. Reading a storybook is not as instructive as reading an encyclopedia. (Sen) soru-lar-a (sen-in) el-in-den gel-dik-i kadar dikkatli cevap ver-me.li-sin. You must answer the questions as carefully as you can. (gel-di-i)

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Araba-an- baba-an kadar dikkat-li sr-me.li-sin. (a*ra*ba*n~ / ba*ban / ka*dar / dik*kat*li / sr*me*li*sin ) You must drive your car as carefully as your father does. O bir katr kadar (gibi) inat-dr. He is as obstinate as a mule.
NP NP postp | postp adv phrs of compr VP

adj-V

Hava dn-k (hava) kadar souk deil. (ha*va~ / dn*k / ka*dar / so*uk / de*il ) It is not as cold as it was yesterday. Kz ocuklar, erkek ocuklardan daha fazla anne ve babalarna dkndr. Daughters are more devoted to their parents than sons.

PARALLEL PROPORTION (KOUT UYUM)


A parallel proportion can be built up using the following sentence structure: ne + kadar + adverb (adjective) + V - [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar, ] - [se, sa][pers] o + kadar + adverb (adjective) + V Compare and consider the following sentences: (Sen) ne kadar erken kalk-ar-sa-an, o kadar iyi (dir)
NP intens (adv) adv verb (cond) adverbial phrase of condition VP | intensifier | adj-V

Ne kadar erken kalk-ar-sa-an o kadar iyi. (ne*ka*dar / er*ken / kal*kar*san ~/ o / ka*dar / i*yi ) The earlier you get up, the better. nsan-lar ne kadar kolay yksel-ir-ler-se, o kadar kt d-er-ler. (in*san*lar / ne / ka*dar / ko*lay / yk*se*lir*ler*se~ / o / ka*dar / k*t / d*er*ler ) The easier they (the people) rise, the harder they fall. Ne kadar ok al-r-sa-an, o kadar iyi sonu-lar al-r-sn. (ne / ka*dar / ok / a*l*r*san ~/o/ ka*dar / i*yi / so*nu*lar / a*lr*sn ) The harder you work, the better results you (will) get. Ne kadar erken yol-a kar-lar-sa o kadar erken var-r-lar. (ne / ka*dar / er*ken / yo*la / *kar*lar*sa ~/ o*ka*dar / er*ken / va*rr*lar ) The earlier they leave, the sooner they will arrive.

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Telefon-la ne kadar uzun konu-ur-sa-an, o kadar fazla de-mek zorunda kal-r-sn. The longer you talk on the telephone, the more you will have to pay. Ne kadar hesap-l ol-ur-sa, o kadar iyi. (ne / ka*dar / he*sap*l / o*lur*sa ~ / o / ka*dar / i*yi ) The more economical, the better. Ne kadar yetki, o kadar sorumlu-luk. (ne / ka*dar / yet*ki~ / o / ka*dar / so*rum*lu*luk ) The more authority, the more responsibility. Ne kadar az yer-se-en, o kadar iyi. (ne / ka*dar / az / yer*sen~ / o / ka*dar / i*yi ) The less you eat, the better.

WISH
WISH + WOULD The expression above is used when the speaker wishes something to happen, or when he is complaining about the present situation. I wish is generally translated into Turkish as keke, which may sometimes be misleading when it is used with would. In Turkish, this sort of expression is called dilek kipi, which means, wish mood". The structure of this expression is as follows: V-([me, ma])-[se, sa]- [pers] or V - [e.bil, a.bil]-[se, sa]-[pers]: Compare and consider the following sentences: u adam eki grlt-/s/-/n/ bir durdur-sa! (u / a*dam / e*ki / g*rl*t*s*n / bir / dur*dur*sa~) I wish that man would stop hammering. Biri-/s/i u televizyon-un ses-i-/n/i bir ks-sa! (bi*ri*si / u / te*le*viz*yo*nun / se*si*ni / bir / ks*sa~) I wish someone would turn down that TV. Biri-/s/i u telefon-a cevap ver-se! (bi*ri*si / u / te*le*fo*na / ce*vap / ver*se~) I wish someone would answer this telephone call. Bir-i-/n/iz bana yardm et-se, nasl ol-ur? (bi*ri*niz / ba*na / yar*dm / et*se~ / nasl / o*lur) I wish one of you would help me.

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u sigara-/y/ bir brak-a.bil-se-em! (u / si*ga*ra*y / bir / b*ra*ka*bil*sem~) I wish I could stop smoking. Araba-/y/ bu kadar hz-l sr-me-sen, olmaz m? (a*ra*ba*y / bu / ka*dar / hz*l / sr*me*sen / ol*maz / m ) I wish you wouldnt drive the car so fast. nsanlar keke piknik-e git-in.ce etraf-a p at-ma-sa-lar. (in*san*lar / ke*ke / pik*ni*e / gi*din*ce / et*ra:*fa / p / at*ma*sa*lar ) I wish people wouldnt throw litter all around when they go for a picnic. nallah uak ge kal-maz! (in*al*lah / u*ak / ge / kal*maz) I wish (hope) the plane wouldnt be late! WISH + PAST SUBJUNCTIVE People use wish and past tense in English when they regret something at present. In place of wish, Turkish people use keke and V - [se/y/-di], [sa/y/-d]-[pers] verb chain. This chain is also used when somebody is sorry about a past fact or event: Keke daha gen ol-sa-/y/d-m. (ke*ke~ / da*ha / gen / ol*say*dm ) I wish I were younger. (But I am not young.) Keke sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa/y/-d-m. (ke*ke ~/ se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*say*dm ) I wish I were you. Keke herey o kadar kolay ol-sa/y/-d. (ke*ke~ / her*ey / o*ka*dar / ko*lay / ol*say*d ) I wish everything were (was) so easy. (They arent so easy.) Keke btn gn hava gne-li ol-sa/y/-d. (ke*ke~ / b*tn / gn / ha*va / g*ne*li / ol*say*d ) I wish it were sunny all day long. (Unfortunately, it isnt.) Jack daha yakkl ol-ma-/y/ arzu et-er-di. (jack / da*ha / ya*k*k*l / ol*ma*y / ar*zu / e*der*di ) Jack wishes he were (was) more handsome. (But he isnt.) pek mas-mavi gz-ler-i ol-ma-/s/-/n/ arzu et-er-di. (i*pek / mas*ma:*vi / gz*le*ri / ol*ma*s*n / ar*zu / e*der*di ) pek wishes she had deep blue eyes.

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Herkes zengin ol-ma-/y/ arzu et-er. (e*der) Everybody wishes they were wealthy. (But they aren't.) Keke kar-m bu kadar inat- ol-ma-sa. (ke*ke~ / ka*rm / bu / ka*dar / i*nat* / ol*ma*sa ) I wish my wife werent (wasnt) so obstinate. (But she is.) Keke sana yardm et-e.bil-se/y/-di-im. (ke*ke / sa*na / yar*dm / e*de*bil*sey*dim ) I wish I could help you. (Unfortunately I cant.) Keke yarn okul-a git-mek zorun-da ol-ma-sa/y/-d-m. (ke*ke / ya*rn / o*ku*la / git*mek / zo*run*da / ol*ma*say*dm ) I wish I wouldnt have to go to school tomorrow. (But I will have to go.) Keke bir spor araba-am ol-sa/y/-d. (ke*ke / bir / spor / a*ra*bam / ol*say*d ) I wish I had a sports car. (But I dont have.) Daha byk bir ev-im ol-ma-/s/-/n/ arzu et-er-di-im. (da*ha / b*yk / bir / e*vim / ol*ma*s*n / ar*zu / e*der*dim ) I wished I had a larger house. Yabanc bir dil ren-mek keke daha kolay ol-sa/y/-d. (ya*ban*c / bir / dil / *ren*mek~ / ke*ke / da*ha / ko*lay / ol*say*d ) I wish learning a second language were (was) easier. Keke retmen-ler daha dost davran-l ol-sa-lar-d. (ke*ke / *ret*men*ler / da*ha / dost / dav*ra*n*l / ol*sa*lar*d ) I wish teachers were more friendly.

WISH + PAST PERFECT OR PERFECT MODAL


In Turkish, the present, the future, and the past wish concepts are all reflected into sentences by using the previous verb chain. However, when somebody is sorry about a past fact or event, The Past Perfect Tense or a Perfect Modal is used in English: Keke geen pazar konsere git-se/y/-di-im. (ke*ke / ge*en / pa*zar / kon*se*re / git*sey*dim ) I wish I had gone to the concert last Sunday. (I wished, but I couldnt.) Keke dn soru-lar-a daha dikkatli cevap ver-se/y/-di-im. (ke*ke / dn / so*ru*la*ra / da*ha / dik*kat*li / ce*vap / ver*sey*dim ) I wish I had answered the questions more carefully. (I regret to say that I didnt answer the questions carefully.)

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Keke o spor arabay satn al-a-bil-se/y/-di-im. (ke*ke / o / spor / a*ra*ba*y / sa*t*na*la*bil*sey*dim ) (liaison) I wish I could have bought that sports car. Keke dn ma- kazan-a.bil-se/y/-di-ik. (ke*ke / dn / ma* / ka*za*na*bil*sey*dik ) I wish we could have won the game. Keke onu geen hafta bitir-e.bil-se/y/-di-im. (ke*ke / o*nu / ge*en / haf*ta / bi*ti*re*bil*sey*dim ) I wish I could have finished it last week.

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES
There are two parts in a conditional sentence: if clause and the main clause. In an if clause, the supposition is either real or unreal. These real and unreal suppositions in Turkish are also classified according to their times: 1 (a): present real supposition. 1(b): present unreal supposition. 2 (a): past real supposition. 2 (b): past unreal supposition. 1 (a): If the supposition is real at present, V - [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar]-[se, sa]-[pers] verb composition is used in the condition part, and The Simple Present (Geni Zaman) is used in the result part of a conditional sentence. 1 (b): If the supposition is unreal at present, V-[se] or [sa]-[pers] verb structure is used in the condition part, and used to (Geni Zamann Hikyesi) is used in the result part of a conditional sentence. 2 (a): If the supposition is real in the past, V-[di/y/, d/y/, d/y/, du/y/, ti/y/, t/y/, t/y/, tu/y/]-[se, sa]-[pers] is used in the condition part, and V [mi, m, m, mu] -[tir, tr, tr, tur] verb composition is used in the result part of a conditional sentence. 2 (b): If the supposition is unreal in the past, V - [se/y/, sa/y/]-[di, d][pers] verb structure is used in the condition part, and used to (imdiki Zamann Hikyesi) is used in the result part of a conditional sentence.

1 (a): PRESENT REAL SUPPOSITION


In the if parts, and the result parts of conditional sentences in Turkish, there may be two personal concepts. One of them is in the beginning as a pronoun, and the other one in the end as a personal allomorph such as:

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Sen al-r-sa-an, and sen baar-r-sn In the example above, there are two pronouns sen and sen, and two possessor personal allomorphs [an] and [sn], all of which mean sen. (Sen) al-r-sa-an / (sen) baar-r-sn. This conditional sentence is like the English sentence If you work, you succeed. In the first part, sen means you, the [sa] allomorph means if. The [ir] allomorph is The Simple Present allomorph, and the [an] allomorph also means sen. In the result part of this conditional sentence, as in the condition part, there are two you concepts: you and [sn], which mean the same thing. Therefore, the personal pronouns in the beginnings of the two parts of a conditional sentence may be ignored unless they are intentionally stressed. (Sen) al-r-sa-an (sen) baar-r-sn. (a*l*r*san / ba*a*rr*sn ) If you work, you succeed. The same rule is applied to all conditional sentences in Turkish. Clauses like English clauses are used only in conditional sentences in Turkish. Consider the following: Ben al-r-sa-am ben baar-r-m. (a*l*r*sam / ba*a*r*rm ) Sen al-r-sa-an sen baar-r-sn. (a*l*r*san / ba*a*rr*sn ) O al-r-sa o baar-r. (a*l*r*sa / ba*a*rr ) Ahmet al-r-sa Ahmet baar-r. (ah*met / a*l*r*sa / ba*a*rr ) Biz al-r-sa-ak biz baar-r-z. (a*l*r*sak / ba*a*r*rz ) Siz al-r-sa-a.nz siz baar-r-s.nz. (a*l*r*sa*nz / ba*a*rr*s*nz ) Onlar al-r-lar-sa onlar baar-r-lar. (a*l*r*lar*sa / ba*a*rr*lar ) However, the English equivalents of the conditional sentences above are as follows: I will succeed if I work, You will succeed if you work. He will succeed if he works, etc. Follow the examplas: (biz)
| | NP

yamur ya-ar-sa

ev-de

otur-ur-uz.
| V

| | adverb clause of cond adverbial VP

(ya*mur / ya*ar*sa ~ / ev*de / o*tu*ru*ruz ) If it rains, we will stay at home. We will stay at home if it rains.

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(Sen) al-r-sa-an (sen) snav- ge-er-/s/in. (a*l*r*san ~ / s*na*v / ge*er*sin ) If you study, you will pass the exam. (Sen) ok al-r-sa-an (sen) baar-a-bil-ir-sin. (ok / a*l*r*san ~ / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin ) If you work hard, you can succeed. (Sen) onu dr-r-se-en (o) kr-l-r. (o*nu / d**rr*sen ~ / k*r*lr ) If you drop it, it will break. (Sen) onu tekrar yap-ar-sa-an (sen) tokat- yer-sin. (o*nu / tek*rar / ya*par*san ~ / to*ka*d / yer*sin ) If you do that again, you'll be slapped. (Sen) bulak-lar- yka-ar-sa-an (ben) sana ev dev-i/n/-de yardm et-er-im. (bu*la*k*la*r / y*kar*san ~/ sa*na / ev / *de*vin*de / yar*dm / e*de*rim) If you wash the dishes, I will help you with your homework. (Sen) dikkat-li sr-er-se-en (sen) kaza yap-maz-sn. (dik*kat*li / s*rer*sen~ / ka*za: / yap*maz*sn ) If you drive carefully, you wont have an accident. (Sen) hazr-sa-an (biz) dar k-a-bil-ir-iz. (ha*zr*san~ / d*a*r / *ka*bi*li*riz ) We can go out if you are ready. (Sen) seyret-me-i.yor-sa-an (sen) televizyon-u kapat. (sey*ret*mi*yor*san ~/ te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat ) Turn it off if you are not watching television. (Onlar) gel-ir-ler-se (biz) memnun ol-ur-uz. (on*lar / ge*lir*ler*se ~/ mem*nun / o*lu*ruz ) We will be happy if they come. (In the third person plural [se] and [ler] allomorphs change places.) (Sen) bu dme-/y/e bas-ar-sa-an asansr aa gel-ir. (bu / d*me*ye / ba*sar*san ~ / a*san*sr / a*a* / ge*lir ) If you press this button, the elevator will come down. retmen bana bak-ar-sa onun bana bir soru sor-a.cak--/n/ tahmin et-er-im. (*ret*men / ba*na / ba*kar*sa~ / o*nun / ba*na / bir / so*ru / so*ra*ca**n / tah*min / e*de*rim ) If the teacher looks at me, I can guess that he is going to ask me a question.

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Sokak-lar slak-sa dn gece yamur ya-m-tr. (so*kak*lar / s*lak*sa ~/ dn / ge*ce / ya*mur / ya*m*tr ) If the streets are wet, it must have rained last night. (Im sure it rained last night becase the streets are wet.) (Sen) (kendin-i) yorgun hisset-i.yor-sa-an, (sen) dn gece ge yat-m-sndr. (yor*gun / his*se*di*yor*san~ / dn / ge*ce / ge / yat*m*sn*dr ) If you feel tired, you must have gone to bed late last night. (I am sure you went to bed late, that is why you are tired now.) (Sen) biraz ngilizce bil-i.yor-sa-an, (sen) bu cmle-ler-i anla-m-sn-dr. (bi*raz / in*gi*liz*ce / bi*li*yor*san ~/ bu / cm*le*le*ri / an*la*m*sn*dr ) If you know some English, you must have understood these sentences. In English, there are some conditional sentences whose both parts are simple Present Tense. These sentences are formed in Turkish as follows: (Sen) buz-u st-r-sa-an (o) su-/y/a dn-r. (bu*zu / *s*tr*san ~ / su*ya / d*n*r ) If you heat ice, it turns to water. (Biz) a-sa-ak (biz) birsey yer-iz. (a*sak~ / bir*sey / ye*riz ) If we are hungry, we eat something. (Biz) yourul-ur-sa-ak (biz) dinlen-ir-iz. (yo*ru*lur*sak ~ / din*le*ni*riz ) If we get tired, we rest.

1 (b): PRESENT UNREAL (CONTRARY TO FACT) SUPPOSITION


In the present unreal supposition, the V - [se, sa] - [pers] verb chain is used in the condition part, and "used to" (imdiki zaman'n hikyesi) is used in the second part of a conditional sentence: (O) kap-/y/ (O) ev-de ol-sa | | |
| NP NP adv clause of cond VP

a-ar-d.
| V

(o / ka*p*y / ev*de / ol*sa ~ / a*ar*d ) If he were at home, he would open the door. (He is not at home now.) (Ben) cevap- bil-se-em (ben) sana syle-er-di-im. (ce*va:*b / bil*sem ~/sa*na / sy*ler*dim ) If I knew the answer, I would tell you. (I don't know the answer.)

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(Ben) sen-in yer-in-de ol-sa-am (ben) byle davran-maz-d-m. (se*nin / ye*rin*de / ol*sam ~ / by*le / dav*ran*maz*dm ) If I were you, I wouldnt behave like that. (advice) (Ben) (benim) yap-a.cak bir sr i-im ol-ma-sa (ben) sen-in-le dar k-ard-m. (ya*pa*cak / bir*s*r / i*im / ol*ma*sa ~/ se*nin*le / d*a*r / *kar*dm) If I didnt have a lot of things to do, I would go out with you. (Sorry, I have a lot of things to do.) (Ben) (sen-in) baba-an-n yer-i/n/-de ol-sa-am, (ben) (sen-in) araba kullanma-an-a izin ver-mez-di-im. (ba*ba*nn / ye*rin*de / ol*sam ~ / a*ra*ba / kul*lan*ma*na / i*zin / ver*mez*dim) If I were your father, I wouldnt let you drive ) The present unreal suppositions can also be used to express future disappointment: Yarn tatil ol-sa piknik-e git-er-di-ik. (ya*rn / ta:*til / ol*sa ~/ pik*ni*e / gi*der*dik ) If tomorrow were a holiday, we would go for a picnic.

2 (a): PAST REAL SUPPOSITION


In the past real supposition, the if clause is supposed to be true and the main clause is based on this true supposition. The structure of this type if clause is V - [di/y/, d/y/, d/y/, du/y/, ti/y/, t/y/, t/y/, tu/y/]-[se, sa]-[pers]. The main clause is in The Simple Past form: Parise git-ti-/y/se (o) Eyfel Kulesi/n/i gr-d.
adverb clause of cond NP NP (object) V

If we want to add certainty to the result part of the conditional sentence above, ve use verb-[M]-tir verb composition: Parise git-ti/y/-se, Eyfel Kulesi/n/i gr-m-tr. (pa*ri*se / git*tiy*se ~ / ey*fel / ku*le*si*ni / gr*m*tr ) If he went to Paris, he must have seen the Eiffel Tower. (I think he went to Paris, and certainly he saw The Eiffel Tower.) Yeter-in.ce ok al-t/y/-sa, baar-m-tr. (ye*te*rin*ce / a*l*ty*sa / ba*ar*m*tr ) If he worked hard enough, he must have succeeded. (I believe he worked hard enough, and consequently he succeeded.)

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Syle-dik-ler-i doru idi/y/-se, cezalandr-l-m ol.a.maz. (sy*le*dik*le*ri / do*ru / i*diy*se ~ / ce*za:*lan*d*rl*m / o*la*maz ) If what he said was true, he cant have been punished. Kafes-i ak brak-t/y/-sa-an, ku u-up git-mi-tir. (ka*fe*si / a*k / b*rak*ty*san ~ / ku / u*up / git*mi*tir ) If you left the cage open, the bird must have flown away. -i-/n/i bitir-di/y/-se ev-e git-mi-tir. (i*i*ni / bi*tir*diy*se / e*ve / git*mi*tir ) If he finished his work, he must have gone home. O-/n/un araba-/s/ var-sa Bodrum-a git-mi-tir. (a*ra*ba*s / var*sa / bod*du*ma / git*mi*tir ) If he had a car, he must have gone to Bodrum.

2 (b): PAST UNREAL (CONTRARY TO FACT) SUPPOSITION


To form an unreal past supposition, V-[se/y/-di, sa/y/-d]-[pers] verb chain is used in the if part of a conditional sentence, and the (imdiki Zaman'n Hikyesi) used to is used in the second part of it. Compare the following: (Sen) kap-/y/ aldk-n-da (o) ev-de ol-sa/y/-d (o) (kap-/y/) a-ar-d.
adverbial clause of condition NP (obj) NP V

(ka*p*y / al*d*n*da / ev*de / ol*say*d ~ / a*ar*d ) If he had been at home when you knocked at the door, he would have opened it. (He was not at home, so he didnt open the door.) Yarn tatil ol-sa sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik. (ya*rn / ta:*til / ol*sa ~/ si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik ) If tomorrow were a holiday, we would go to the cinema. (unreal) Bugn tatil ol-sa sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik. (bu*gn / ta:*til /ol*sa ~/ si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik ) If today were a holiday, we would go to the cinema. (unreal) Dn tatil ol-sa/y/-d sinema-/y/a git-er-di-ik. (dn / ta:*til / ol*say*d~ / si*ne*ma*ya / gi*der*dik ) (unreal) If yesterday had been a holiday, we would have gone to the cinema. (Yesterday was not a holiday, so we didnt go.) Dn onu gr-se/y/-di-im, onunla konu-ur-du-um. (dn / o*nu / gr*sey*dim / o*nun*la / ko*nu*ur*dum ) If I had seen him yesterday, I would have talked to him. (I didnt see him, so I didnt talk to him.)

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Kafes-i ak brak-ma-sa/y/-d-n, ku u-up git-mez-di. (ka*fe*si / a*k / b*rak*ma*say*dn ~ / ku / u*up / git*mez*di ) If you hadnt left the cage open, the bird wouldnt have flown away. (You left the cage open, so the bird flew away.) Birka tane daha problem z-se/y/-di-im, daha iyi bir not al-r-d-m. (bir*ka / ta:*ne / da*ha / prob*lem / z*sey*dim~/ da*ha / i*yi / bir / not / a*lr*dm ) If I had solved a few more problems, I would have got a better grade. (I couldnt solve some more problems, and so I couldnt get a better grade.) abucak dur-ma-sa/y/-d-m, adam fena halde yara-lan-a.bil-ir-di. (a*bu*cak / dur*ma*say*dm~ / a*dam / fe*na: / hal*de / ya*ra*la*na*bi*lir*di ) If I hadnt stopped suddenly, the man might have been badly injured. Biz-im kaleci daha dikkat-li oyna-sa/y-/d, ma- kaybet-mez-di-ik. (bi*zim / ka*le*ci ~/ da*ha / dik*kat*li / oy*na*say*d ~ / ma* / kay*bet*mez*dik ) If our goalkeeper had played more carefully, we wouldnt have lost the match. (I regret to say that we lost it.) O araba o kadar pahal ol-ma-sa/y/-d, onu (satn) al-r-d-m. (o / a*ra*ba / o / ka*dar / pa*ha*l / ol*ma*say*d ~/ o*nu / a*lr*dm ) If that car hadnt been so expensive, I would have bought it. svirede o kadar ok saanak-a yakalan-ma-sa/y/-d-k, muhteem manzara-/n/n zevk-/n/e var-r-d-k. (is*vi*re*de / o / ka*dar / ok / sa*a*na*a / ya*ka*lan*ma*say*dk ~/ muh*te*em / man*za*ra*nn / zev*k*ne / va*rr*dk ) If we hadnt had so many thunderstorms in Switzerland, we would have enjoyed the wonderful scenery. ste-se/y/-di gel-ir-di. (is*te*sey*di / ge*lir*di ) If he had wanted, he would have come. Sometimes the if part of a conditional sentence may begin with an unreal past supposition, but the main clause ends with an unreal present tense: Dn bitir-se/y/-di-in, bugn onlar- postala-/y/a-bil-ir/di-ik. (dn / bi*tir*sey*din~ / bu*gn / on*la*r / pos*ta*la*ya*bi*lir*dik ) If you had finished yesterday, we could post them today.

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The speech intention of a speaker is decided and shaped in his mind just before he begins speaking or writing something, and as he considers the feelings of the hearer, he chooses the most suitable sentences and intonation patterns to produce in his speech. The intonation of a speaker generally reflects his feelings and intentions much more than the words that he uses in his speech. Therefore, even a politest request sentence pattern may turn into a strict order if someones intonation is not soft and tentative enough to persuade the hearer without injuring his or her feelings. PLAIN ORDERS AND REQUESTS The numbers below start from the strictest order and go onto the softest and kindest request: 1. Kap-/y/ a. (ka*p*y / a ) Open the door. Televizyon-u kapat. (te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat ) Turn the TV off. Syle-dik-im-i yap. (sy*le*di*i*mi / yap ) Do what I tell you. (Ben-im) bilgisayar-m-a dokunma. (bil*gi*sa*ya*r*ma / do*kun*ma ) Dont touch my computer. Ev-e ge gel-me. (e*ve / ge / gel*me ) Dont come home late. Klp-im-i kr-ma. (kl*bi*mi / kr*ma ) Dont break my heart. 2. Lutfen kap-/y/ a. (lut*fen / ka*p*/y/ / a ) Open the door, please. Lutfen televizyon-u kapat. Please turn the TV off. Lutfen ben-i dinle. Listen to me, please. Lutfen syle-dik-im-i dinle. (lut*fen / sy*le*di*i*mi / din*le ) Listen to what I tell you, please.

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POLITE REQUESTS
3. Kap-/y/ a, ol-ur mu? ( ka*p*y / a / o*lur / mu ) Open the door, will you? Televizyon-u kapat, ol-ur mu? (te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat / o*lur / mu ) Turn the TV off, will you? Syle-dik-im-i yap, ol-ur mu? (sy*le*di*i*mi / yap / o*lur / mu ) Do what I tell you, will you? Ev-e ge gel-me, ol-ur mu ? (e*ve / ge / gel*me / o*lur / mu ) Dont come home late, will you? 4. Lutfen kap-/y/ a-ar m-sn? (lut*fen / ka*p*y / a*ar / m*sn ) Will (would) you open the door, please? Lutfen bana yardm et-er mi-sin? (lut*fen / ba*na / yar*dm / e*der / mi*sin ) Will (would) you help me, please? Lutfen radyo-/y/u ks-ar m-sn? (lut*fen / rad*yo*yu / k*sar / m*sn ) Will (would) you turn down the radio, please? Lutfen bana bir fincan kahve yap-ar m-sn? (lut*fen / ba*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*par / m*sn ) Will (would) you please make me a cup of coffee? 5. Televizyon-u kapatma-am-n siz-ce bir saknca-/s/ var m? (te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pat*ma*mn / siz*ce / bir / sa*kn*ca*s / var / m ) Do (would) you mind my turning the TV off? Bir saat sonra (ben-im) gel-me-em-in siz-ce bir saknca-/s/ var m? (bir / sa*at / son*ra / gel*me*min / siz*ce / bir / sa*kn*ca*s / var / m ) Would you mind if I came two hours later? (somewhat formal)

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Siz-i bir saat sonra ara-sa-am, ol-ur mu? (si*zi / bir / sa*at / son*ra / a*ra*sam / o*lur*mu ) Would you mind if I called you two hours later? (somewhat formal) 6. (more friendly) Hadi bana bir fincan kahve yap-.ver, ol-ur mu? (ha*di / ba*na / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / ya*p*ver / o*lur mu ) Just make me a cup of coffee, will you? u televizyon-u kapat-.ver, ol-ur mu? ( u / te*le*viz*yo*nu / ka*pa*t*ver / o*lur mu ) Just turn off the TV, will you? Ben-im-le bir fincan kahve i-i.ver, ol-ur mu? (be*nim*le / bir / fin*can / kah*ve / i*i*ver / o*lur mu ) Jast have a cup of coffee with me, will you?

POLITE REFUSALS
To accept an offer or a request is easy. You may just say Evet, memnuniyet-le (e*vet / mem*nu:*ni*yet*le) (Yes, with pleasure); Bayl-rm (ba*y*l*rm ) (Yes, Id love to), or Elbet-te (el*bet*te) (Certainly). When you have to refuse a request or an offer, however, you have to be politer than ever in order not to offend the person who asks for permission: Televizyon-u a-a.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Can I turn on the TV? A-ma-sa-an iyi ol-ur; nk bir i mektup-u zeri/n/-de odaklan-ma-/y/a al-.yor-um. (a*ma*san / i*yi / o*lur / n*k / bir / i / mek*tu*bu / *ze*rin*de / o*dak*lan*ma*ya / a*l**yo*rum ) Youd better not because Im trying to concentrate on a business letter. Oda-a.nz- imdi temizle-/y/e.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Can I clean your room now? Temizle-me-se-en (yapmasan) iyi ol-ur, nk bu oda-da yap-a.cak bir sr i-im var. Id rather you didnt because I have got a lot of things to do in this room. ste-er-se-en ma-a git-e.li-im. Lets go to the match, if you wish. Kork-ar-m git-e.me-em; ev dev-im-i bit-ir-mek zorunda-/y/m. Im afraid I cant because I have to finish my homework.

OFFERS
To make an offer in Turkish V - [e.li, a.l] - [pers] verb composition is used:

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Konser-e git-e.li-im. (kon*se*re / gi*de*lim ) Lets go to the concert. Televizyon seyret-e.li-im. (te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*lim ) Lets watch television. If someone wishes, he can put question tags after the above expressions: Konser-e git-e.li-im mi, ne der-sin? (kon*se*re / gi*de*lim / mi / ne / der*sin) Lets go to the concert, shall we? Shall we go to the concert? V - [me, ma] - [/y/e, /y/a] + ne dersin verb chain can also be used as an alternative to the above expression. The [me, ma] allomorphs are the infinitive allomorphs: Konser-e git-me-/y/e ne der-sin? (kon*se*re / git*me*ye / ne / der* sin ) What (how) about going to the concert? Ev-de otur-up al-ma-/y/a ne der-sin? (ev*de / o*tu*rup / a*l*ma*ya / ne / der*sin ) What (how) about staying at home and studying? Futbol ma--/n/a git-me-/ye ne der-sin? (fut*bol / ma**na / git*me*ye / ne / der*sin) How (what) about going to a football match? Kr-da gez-me-/y/e ne der-sin? (kr*da / gez*me*ye / ne / der*sin) How about walking about the country?

V - [ip, p, p, up] (adverbial)


When two actions are carried out one after the other, the first verb stem is suffixed with one of the [ip, p, p, up] allomorphs before the final verb composition is used in all tenses: (Ben) otur-up dn-d-m.
NP adverbial VP V

(o*tu*rup / d*n*dm ) I sat down and thought.

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Bekle-/y/ip gr-e.cek-iz. (bek*le*yip / g*re*ce*iz ) Well wait and see al-p baar-a.bil-ir-sin. (a*l*p / ba*a*ra*bi*lir*sin ) You can work and succeed. ocuk-lar bahe-de ko-up oyna-u.yor-lar-d. (o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / ko*up ~/ oy*nu*yor*lar*d ) The children were running and playing in the garden. Hayalet-i gr-p bayl-d. (ha*ya:*le*ti / g*rp / ba*yl*d ) She saw the ghost and fainted.

QUESTION TAGS: (DEL M?)


Deil mi? is used in Turkish in place of all question tags of the English language: Pop mzik sev-i.yor-sun, deil mi? (pop / m*zik / se*vi*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You like pop music, dont you? Pop mzik sev-me-i.yor-sun, deil mi? (pop / m*zik / sev*mi*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You dont like pop music, do you? Daha karar ver-me-di-in, deil mi? (da*ha / ka*rar / ver*me*din / de*il / mi ) You havent decided yet, have you? Yorgun-sun, deil mi? (yor*gun*sun / de*il / mi ) You are tired, arent you? Konser-den memnun ol-du-un, deil mi? (kon*ser*den / mem*nun / ol*dun / de*il / mi ) You enjoyed the concert, didnt you? Sigara i-me-i.yor-sun, deil mi? (si*ga*ra / i*mi*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You dont smoke, do you?

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Yarn Ankara/y/a git-i.yor-sun, deil mi? (ya*rn / an*ka*ra*ya / gi*di*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You are going to Ankara tomorrow, arent you? Trke bil-i.yor-sun, deil mi? (trk*e / bi*li*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You know Turkish, dont you? aka yap-.yor-sun, deil mi? (a*ka / ya*p*yor*sun / de*il / mi ) You are joking, arent you? Emin-/s/in, deil mi? (e*min*sin / de*il / mi ) You are sure, aren't you? renci-sin, deil mi? (*ren*ci*sin / de*il / mi) You are a student, aren't you?

(SO DO I) (NEITHER DO I) BEN DE, O DA, ANNEM DE


In response to a positive or a negative statement, a listener may answer in agreement or disagreement using the words so or neither followed by an inverted sentence type in English. In Turkish, however, there is only one response pattern to use under such situations such as Ben de, O da, Ahmet de, Annem de, etc. Consider and compare the following sentences: "Ben pop mzik sev-i.yor-um." "Ben de." (ben / pop / m*zik / se*vi*yo*rum ) ( ben / de ) "I like pop music." "So do I." (I do, too.) (Me too.) Ben pop mzik sev-me-i.yor-um." Ben de." (ben / pop / m*zik / sev*mi*yo*rum ) (ben / de ) "I dont like pop music." "Neither do I." (I dont, either.) "Anne-em yemek yap-ma-/y/ sev-me-i.yor." Ben-im anne-em de." "Mother doesnt like cooking." "Neither does my mother." "ok yorgun-um." "Ben de." "Im very tired." "So am I." ( I am, too.) "Baba-am bir jeep satn ald." "Ben-im baba-am da." "My father has bought a jeep." "So has my father."

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"Sen deli-sin." "Sen de." "You are crazy." "So are you." (You are, too.) "Fatma gzel deil." "Kz karde-i de." "Fatma isnt beautiful." "Neither is her sister." "Yarn sabah erken kalkmak zorunda-/y/m." "Ben de." "I have to get up early tomorrow morning." "So do I." "Muz-lar ok pahal." "Elma-lar da." "Bananas are very expensive." " So are the apples. "Ben-im baba-am kel." "Ben-im baba-am da." "My father is bald." "So is my father." "Ben yalan-dan nefret et-er-im." " Ben de." "I hate lying." "So do I."

CONJUNCTIONS AND TRANSITIONAL PHRASES


Conjunctions are the words that join sentences, clauses or words. There are two kinds of conjunctions in English: Coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions. The coordinating conjunctions are words like "and", "but", "or", "for" or "yet". The subordinating conjunctions, however, are the words that are used preceding simple sentences to form syntactic adverbs (adverb clauses) in English, such as, "although", "until", "before", "after", "while", "when", etc., all of which have been explained in the previous chapters. Transitional words and phrases, however, link sentences and paragraphs by carrying over a thought coherently from one sentence or paragraph to another. Some of the most frequently used Turkish coordinating conjunctions and transitional adverbials and phrases are as follows:

akas: in plain words, in short, frankly speaking


Bann ardn ve evde bir sr yapacak ii olduunu sylyor. Akas, bizimle gezmeye gitmek istemiyor. She says she has a headache and has so many things to do at home. In plain words, she does not want to go for a walk with us.

aksi takdirde : otherwise


u televizyonu kapat. Aksi takdirde (aksi halde) (yoksa), ne yapacam biliyorsun.

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Turn the TV off; otherwise you know what Ill do.

aksine, bilakis: on the contrary


Ben televizyonda futbol seyretmeyi seviyorum. Aksine, lum ma seyretmekten nefret ediyor. I like watching football on television. On the contrary, my son hates watching football matches.

ama: but, yet, still, really, truly


Aklldr ama biraz tembeldir. She is clever, but rather lazy.

ancak: but, however, yet


ok gzel bir kz, ancak baarl deil. She is a beautiful girl; yet, she is not successful. Jack Marye ak. Ancak, Mary Jacke ak deil. Jack is in love with Mary. However, Mary is not in love with him.

aslnda : in fact
Mary ev iini kendisinin yaptn syyor. Ama aslnda, iin ounu kocas yapyor. Mary says that she does the housework herself. In fact, her husband does most of the housework.

ayn biimde : likewise


teki sorulara ayn ekilde (biimde) cevap verebilirsin. You can answer the other questions likewise.

baka bir deyile: in other words, bilhassa: in particular, particularly, specifically, above all bir yandan: on the one hand bu amala: for this purpose bu dorultuda: accordingly
retmen rencilere sessiz olmalarn syledi, ve onlar da bu dorultuda davrandlar. The teacher told the students to be quiet, and the students acted accordingly.

bu durumda, yleyse: in that case

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Sabahleyin sana ev devinde yardm etmemi istiyorsun. yleyse yarn sabah daha erken kalk. You want me to help you with your homework in the morning. In that case, get up earlier tomorrow morning.

bu srada, bu arada: meanwhile


Sen mutfakta yemek yapmaya devam et. Bu arada ben de oturma odasnda biraz kestireyim. You go on cooking in the kitchen. Meanwhile let me have a nap in the sitting room.

bunun iin: because of this, for this reason, therefore


Onun ok kez yalan syledigini duydum. Bunun iin ona artk inanmyorum. I have heard him tell lies so many times; for this reason, I dont believe him anymore.

bunun yerine : instead


Adam bana cevap vermedi. Bunun yerine salakmm gibi yzme bakt durdu. The man did not answer; instead, he stared at me as if I were a fool.

bu yzden: therefore, for that reason, so, that is why


Hindistana hi gitmedim; bu yzden sana akl veremem. I have never been to India; therefore, I cannot advise you. Yrye kmak iin sokaa ktmda yamur yamaya balad. Bu yzden, ben de sinemaya gitmeye karar verdim. When I left home to go for a walk, it began to rain, so I decided to go to the cinema.

bu artlar altnda: under these circumstances (conditions)


Bu artlar altnda artk sizinle alamam. I can't work with you any more under these conditions.

nk : because
Televizyonu kapatsan iyi olur, nk iime devam edemiyorum. You had better turn off the TV because I cant go on with my work.

-den bak : except for


Snf, iki istekli renciden baka (iki renciyi saymazsak) botu. The classroom was empty except for two eager students.

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dier (baka) bir deyile: in other words, to put it differently
Evde yemek yapacak kimse yok. Baka bir deyile, ben yemek yapmak zorunda kalacaim. There is nobody to cook at home. In other words, I will have to cook.

doal olarak: naturally


Bu blgedeki baz gller kurudu. Bu yizden, doal olarak baz kular lkenin deiik yrelerine g edecekler. Some lakes dried up in this area. Some birds naturally will migrate to different parts of the country.

-e nazaran : in comparison to (with), compared to (with)


Erkek ocuklar kzlar-a (kz*la*ra) nazaran matematik-te daha iyidirler. Boys are better at mathematics compared to girls.

en nihayet : after all esasen: in fact, as a matter of fact fakat: but, yet, however
Btn yl alt fakat bir araba satn almak iin yeterince para biriktiremedi. He worked hard all the year long, but he could not save enough money to buy a car.

farzet ki, diyelim ki : supposing


Diyelim ki isizim, benimle evlenir miydin? Supposing I was unemployed, would you marry me?

garip belki ama : strange to say, strangely enough


Garip belki ama peri onu kurbaaya dntrd. Strange to say, the fairy changed him into a frog.

genel anlamda : generally speaking genel hatlar (izgileri) ile : in general terms genellikle: as a rule, on the whole, generally gsterildii gibi: as has been indicated, as has been noted halbuki, oysa, ne var ki : whereas, but, however

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Ben oturup kitap okumay severim; oysa eim seyahat etmeyi yeler. I like sitting and reading books; whereas, my wife prefers traveling.

hari: excluding, except for, apart from hatta, stelik : even, moreover, besides, even more, furthermore
Kzm be yl nce evlendi; hatta (stelik) iki olu bile var. My daughter got married five years ago; besides, she has two sons.

hem hem (de): both . and


Hem kadnlar hem erkekler ailelerini geindirmek iin almaldr. Both men and women must work to support their families. Hem Ahmet hem Mehmet ayn brada alyorlar. Both Ahmet and Mehmet work in the same office.

Her ey gz nne alnd takdirde : all things considered ile (le, la): and
Ahmetle Mehmet ayn brada alyorlar. Ahmet and Mehmet work in the same office.

ilk nce : to begin with, first of all kh kh : sometimes sometimes


Kh gleriz, kh alarz ackl kaderimize. Sometimes we laugh, sometimes we cry for our miserable faith.

ki: that
Korkarm (ki) pastan kedi yedi. Im afraid (that) the cat has eaten up your cake. nanrm (ki) haklsn. I believe (that) you are right.

ksaca : in short, in brief, briefly madem (ki): since, seeing that, considering that, as
Madem (ki) ok altn, snav geebilirsin. Seeing that you have studied hard, you can pass the exam.

meer: it seems that, apparently, to my surprise


Meer evliymi. It seemed that he was married.

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mesel, rnein: for example, for instance
Baz hayvanlar insanlara sadktr; rnein, kpeklerle kediler. Some animals are loyal to human beings; for example cats and dogs.

ne... ne (de): neither . nor


Ne sen, ne ben ince anlyoruz Neither you nor I understand Chinese. Mutfakta ne domates ne soan var. There are neither tomatoes nor onions in the kitchen. Onu ne grdm, ne de onunla konutum. I have neither seen nor talked to him.

neyse: anyway, in any case, at any rate


Neyse, biz almaya devam edelim. Anyway, lets go on working.

o kadar ki: so + adj (adv) + that


Bu gnlerde fiyatlar o kadar yksek ki, kimse bir ey satn almak istemiyor. Nowadays the prices are so high that nobody wants to buy anything.

olsun olsun: whether or


Zengin olsun fakir olsun herkes kanuna uymak zorundadr. Whether rich or poor everybody has to obey laws.

oysa: but, yet, however, whereas


Hereyden bktn sylyorsun. Oysa, ben inanyorum ki sen btn glklerin stesinden gelebilirsin. You say you are tired of everything, but I believe, you can overcome all difficulties.

rnein: for example, for instance te yandan: on the other hand yle bile olsa : even so yleyse: in that case, if so, then
Uykulu hissettiini sylyorsun. yleyse, git bir fincan kahve i. You say you are feeling sleepy. If so, go and have a cup of coffee.

zellikle, bilhassa: in particular, particularly

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zetliyecek olursak: to sum up sanki: as if
Habire bana emir verip duruyor; sanki benim patronum! He is always ordering me around as if he were my boss.

sonra: then
Eve geldi, sonra mutfaa dald ve yemek hazrlamaya balad. She came home, then hurried into the kitchen, and started preparing dinner.

sonu olarak: as a result, as a consequence sonuta: in conclusion stelik : furthermore, in addition, what is more, even, besides,
moreover En kolay problemleri bile zemiyor; stelik kendini bir dh sanyor. He cant solve even the simplest problems, besides he thinks he is a genius.

phesiz ki: undoubtedly tam aksine: in contrast tam tersine: on the contrary tm bunlara ramen: for all that tmyle: on the whole ve: and velhasl: after all, in conclusion ve saire: etc. veya: or ya ya (da): either or
Ya beni dinle, ya da snf terket. Either listen to me, or leave the classroom.

yalnz: but, however, only


Seni affediyorum. Yalnz, bana bir daha yalan sylemeyeceine sz ver. I will forgive you now, but promise me you will not tell any lies any more.

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yani: that is why, I mean, in other words, that is to say
Hastaym gibi rol yapyor; yani, okula gitmek istemiyor. He pretends as if he were ill; that is to say, he does not want to go to school.

yeter ki: provided that, providing


Sana bir bisiklet alacam; yeter ki sen snavlarn ge. I will buy a bicycle for you, provided that you pass your examinations.

yoksa: otherwise, or else, if not, or


Ko, yoksa otobs karacaz. Run, or else we will miss the bus.

zaten: anyway, in any case

INTENSIFIERS
Intensifiers are the adverbs that are used before adjectives or adverbs to strengthen or weaken their meanings. Besides these words, there are some prefixes, which are the only ones in Turkish that are attached to adjectives, nouns, and adverbs to strengthen their meanings: St ok scak. (st / ok / s*cak ) The milk is very hot. Sorular biraz gt. (so*ru*lar / bi*raz / g*t ) The questions were rather difficult. Sen tamamen haklsn. (sen / ta*ma:*men / hak*l*sn ) You are quite right. Baz kelebekler son derece gzeldir. (ba:*z / ke*le*bek*ler / son / de*re*ce / g*zel*dir ) Some butterflies are extremely beautiful. renciler sorulara ok dikkatli cevap verdiler. (*ren*ci*ler / so*ru*la*ra / ok / dik*kat*li / ce*vap / ver*di*ler ) The students answered the questions very carefully. Ev olduka iyi. (ev / ol*duk*a / i*yi ) The house is pretty good.

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Cevaplarn hepsi tamamen yanl. (ce*vap*la*rn / hep*si / ta*ma:*men / yan*l ) All the answers are completely wrong. Burada sigara imek kesinlikle yasaktr. (bu*ra*da / si*ga*ra / i*mek~ / ke*sin*lik*le / ya*sak*tr ) Smoking here is strictly forbidden. O ciddi bir ekilde hasta. (o / cid*di: / bir / e*kil*de / has*ta ) He is seriously ill. yi bir i bulmak onun iin yaamsal derecede nemliydi. (i*yi / bir / i / bul*mak ~/ o*nun / i*in / ya*am*sal / de*re*ce*de / *nem*liy*di ) To find a good job was vitally important for him. Yabanc bir dil renmek fevkalde zordur. (ya*ban*c / bir / dil / *ren*mek~ / fev*ka*l:*de / zor*dur ) Learning a foreign language is extremely difficult. Arabas yepyeniydi. (a*ra*ba*s / yep*ye*niy*di ) His car was brand new. Hava buz gibi souktu. (ha*va / buz / gi*bi / so*uk*tu ) It was icy cold. ok fena bam aryordu. (ok / fe*na: / ba*m / a*r*yor*du ) I had an awful headache. Uyandmda her yer gnlk gnelikti. (u*yan*d*m*da / her / yer / gn*lk / g*ne*lik*ti ) When I woke up, it was broad daylight. Annem bana gcr gcr bir elli dolar verdi. (an*nem / ba*na / g*cr / g*cr / bir / el*li / do*lar / ver*di ) Mother gave me a crisp new fifty-dollar bill. Sorular srpriz bir ekilde kolayd. (so*ru*lar / srp*riz / bir / e*kil*de / ko*lay*d ) The questions were surprisingly easy.

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O beni olduka dzenli ziyaret eder. (be*ni / ol*duk*a / d*zen*li / zi*ya:*ret / e*der ) He visits me quite regularly. Konser gerekten iyiydi. (kon*ser / ger*ek*ten / i*yiy*di ) The concert was really good. Baz diller dierleriyle karlatrldnda nispeten daha karmaktr. Some languages are relatively complicated when compared with others. Bugn biraz yorgunum. (bu / gn / bi*raz / yor*gu*num ) I'm a little tired today. Tamamen haklsn. (ta*ma:*men / hak*l*sn ) You're absolutely (quite) right. Fena halde yorgunum. (fe*na: / hal*de / yor*gu*num ) I'm awfully tired. Bizim sorularmz sizin sorularnzdan ok daha gt. (bi*zim / so*ru*la*r*mz / si*zin / so*ru*la*r*nz*dan / ok / da*ha / g*t ) Our questions were far more difficult than yours. Bugn gerekten yorgunum. (bu*gn / ger*ek*ten / yor*gu*num ) I am really tired today. Sana deli gibi am. (sa*na / de*li / gi*bi / a:**m ) I am madly in love with you. Kn bu daa trmanmak fevkalde tehlikelidir. (k*n / bu / da*a / tr*man*mak / fev*ka*l:*de / zor*dur ) Climbing this mountain in winter is extremely dangerous. Olduka az renci snav geti. (ol*duk*a / az / *ren*ci / s*na*v / ge*ti ) Quite a few students passed the exam. Zerre kadar ilgilenmiyorum. (zer*re / ka*dar / il*gi*len*mi*yo*rum ) I am not interested in the least.

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Araba tertemizdi. (a*ra*ba / ter*te*miz*di ) The car was spotlessly clean. Dosdoru yr. (dos*do*ru / y*r ) Walk straight ahead. Yal adamn bembeyaz sakal vard. (ya*l / a*da*mn / bem*be*yaz / sa*ka*l / var*d ) The old man had snow white beard. Marynin masmavi gzleri var. (me*ri*nin / mas*ma*vi / gz*le*ri / var ) Mary has deep blue eyes. Ev tamtakrd. (ev / tam*ta*kr*d ) The house was absolutely empty. Onun evinde smscak bir odas vard. (o*nun / e*vin*de / sm*s*cak / bir / o*da*s / var*d ) She had a cozy room in her house. Sorun apak. (so*run / a*pa*k ) The problem is obvious. (beyond dispute, clear) Sebzeler taptazeydi. (seb*ze*ler / tap*ta*zey*di ) The vegetables were as fresh as daisies. Korkudan kaskat kesildiler. (kor*ku*dan / kas*ka*t / ke*sil*di*ler ) They became rigid with fear. Iklar snnce her yer kapkaranlk oldu. (*k*lar / s*nn*ce / her*yer / kap*ka*ran*lk / ol*du ) Everywhere became pitch dark when the lights went off. Sen beni hie sayyorsun. (sen / be*ni / hi*e / sa*y*yor*sun ) You simply ignore me.

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Bunlar apayr kavramlar. (bun*lar / a*pay*r / kav*ram*lar ) These are quite different concepts. Oda karmakarkt. (o*da / kar*ma*ka*r*k*t ) The room was in a mess. Kuraklkta tarlalar kupkuruydu. (ku*rak*lk*ta / tar*la*lar / kup*ku*ruy*du ) During the draft (draught) the fields were as dry as a bone. Onlarn amac besbelliydi. (on*la*rn / a*ma*c / bes*bel*liy*di ) Their aim was obvious. Kk kz yapayalnzd. (k*k / kz / ya*pa*yal*nz*d ) The little girl was all alone. Senin gzel vazon parampara oldu. (se*nin / g*zel / va*zon / pa*ram*par*a / ol*du ) Your beautiful vase has been broken to pieces. Otobs tklm tklm doluydu. (o*to*bs / tk*lm / tk*lm / do*luy*du ) The bus was overcrowded. Gzleri masmaviydi. (gz*le*ri / mas*ma*viy*di ) Her eyes were deep blue.

REPORTED SPEECH
itilen Szn Bakasna letilmesi When a speaker or writer wants to report someone what he heard, he can use two sorts of structures both in English and in Turkish: 1: In English and Turkish, one can report what one heard without transforming it: Mary said, I dislike boring people. NP V (sentence) NP (obj) Mary, Ben skc insan-lar-dan holan-ma-am de-di.
NP (sentence) NP (obj) V

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Do you enjoy making fun of me? Jack said to Mary.
(sentence) NP NP adverbial NP V prep phrs (adv) V

Jack Maryye, Ben-im-le alay etmek-ten zevk mi al-.yor-sun? dedi.


(sentence) NP (obj)

"Come back home before it gets dark," Mary's father said to her.
(sentence) NP NP adverbial NP (sentence) NP (obj) VP V adverbial V

Mary'nin baba-/s/ Mary'ye, "Hava karar-ma-dan ev-e dn" dedi.

2: In both English and Turkish, one can report what one heard by transforming it: Mary said that she disliked boring people.
NP V noun clause NP VP (infinitive) NP (obj of syle) VP V

Mary skc insan-lar-dan holan-ma-dk--/n/ syledi.


NP

Jack asked Mary if she enjoyed making fun of him.


NP V ind obj (noun clause) NP (obj of ask) VP (infinitive) NP (obj of sor) VP V

Jack Maryye onunla alay etmek-ten zevk alp al-ma-dk--/n/ sor-du.


NP adverbial adverbial

Jack asked Mary why she was crying.


NP V ind obj (noun clause) NP VP (obj of sor) NP VP V

Jack Mary/y/e niin ala-dk--/n/ sor-du.


NP adverbial

Mary's father warned her to come back home before it gets dark.
NP V NP prep phrs of reason VP adverbial clause of time

Mary'nin babas, hava karar-ma-dan ev-e dnmesi iin Mary'yi uyar-d.


NP noun compound postp (obj) NP postpositional adverbial phrs of reason VP | V

ROOTS, STEMS AND VERB FRAMES


The definition of the words above used in grammar books is not clear enough for the language learners. Therefore, they are explained as follows:

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The stem is the base of a word without all the inflectional suffixes. However, the root is the base of a word whose both derivational and inflectional suffixes are removed. Both roots and stems are bases. The following words are verb roots: ek, yakla, baar, kok, k, kayna, del, belle, u, iz, sev, gel, sr, ol... The following words are noun stems: (verb root+dervatonal suffix = noun stem): yakla-m, baar-, kok-u, kayna-ak, del-ik, belle-ek, u-ak, sev-gi, al-g. "el", "ba", "yel", "ba", "denge", "avu", "leke", "ya", "su" are noun roots. el-le, ba-la, yel-le, ba-la, denge-le, avu-la, leke-le, ya-la, su-la are all verb root-derivational suffix. Therefore they are verb stems. Rule 1: All verb roots are bases. They can be suffixed by both derivational and inflexional allomorphs: yakla-m (verb root+derivational) = stem (approach) (noun) yakla-t-k (verb root+inflectional+inflectional) = verb composition When we attach a derivational allomorph to a verb root, we create a stem. So, a verb root and a derivational allomorph together is called a stem. However, when we attach an inflectional allomorph or allomorphs to a verb root or to a verb stem we create a verb composition. Rule 2: All noun roots are bases. They can be suffixed both by derivational and inflectional allomorphs: ev-li (noun root+derivational) = stem (married) ev-i, ev-im (noun root+inflectional) ev-e, ev-de, ev-den (noun root+inflectional=adverbial)

Denge-le-/y/e.me-i.yor-um: "denge" is a noun root, "le" is a derivational allomorph, "denge-le" is a verb stem. "e.me", "i.yor" and "um" are the inflectional allomorphs following the verb stem "denge-le". As the roots and stems are the basic elements of words, the term "stem" is sometimes used both for the "root" and "stem" in this book to avoid ambiguity. When we attach transitive, causative, passive, reflexive, or reciprocal inflectional allomorphs to verb roots or stems, we create verb frames, which are used before the other inflectional allomorphs: Bala-an-.yor-uz: "Ba-la" is a verb stem. "Ba" is a root, "la" is a derivtional suffix; "an" is a passive making inflectional allomorph, ".yor" and

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"uz" are also inflectional allomorphs. "Balanyoruz" is both a verb composition, a word, and a sentence.

RATIONAL SEQUENCING
The best way to see whether a proposal, a plan, or a theory is applicable is to put it into practice. Thinking that Chomsky's Transformational Generative theory is the best approach to describe the grammar of a language, I dared to write this Turkish Grammar. Chomsky asserts that natural languages have two levels of representations, a deep logical structure, and a verbal structure, which function together with the vocal organs. The deep structure represents the logical production of a sentence in which thought is shaped and separated into two logical components called subject and predicate (NP + VP). The mind also separates the predicate (VP) into two components called verb and object (V + NP). If the verb is intransitive, it does not have an object, so the VP (predicate) is composed of only a verb, and adverbs and adverbials. The sequencing of these logical parts of a sentence is learned through the experiences of an individual because their sequencing changes from language to language. All these activities are rationally performed by the mind. The mind inserts these rational phrases into a sentence according to the learned sequence of an individual. This shows us that subject, verb, and object components innately exist in a person's mind, but these components are sequenced by the mind appropriate to a learned sequence. There exist three kinds of sentences in a language: 1. A subject, a transitive verb and an object: Jack killed a mouse.
S NP V Obj VP

2. A subject and an intransitive verb: Jack sleeps.


S NP S NP V VP V VP

3. A subject and a "be" complement: Jack is brave.

The language producing system of the mind uses two different systems to produce meaningful sentences. One of these systems is the inherent logical system of the mind called phrase structures symbolized with "NP + VP" (subject and predicate) initials in which thought, whether long or short, take form. For instance, "Birds fly" and "Birds eat insects" sentences are com-

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posed of a Nominal Phrase and a Verbal Phrase, which are called "subject and predicate" (zne ve yklem) in traditional grammars. The subject is what or whom the sentence is about, and the predicate tells everything about the subject. The human mind arranges what it wants to express in these two sentence sections. In the "birds fly", and "birds eat insects" sentences, there are two different functional elements "subject" and "object". Subjects and objects are nominal phrases. A nominal phrase may be a pronoun ("I", "me"), ("you", "you"), ("he, she, it", "him, her, it"), ("we", "us"), ("they", "them"). Their forms change according to where they are used in a sentence. If they are used as subjects they are "I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they", if they are used as objects, they are "me, you, him, her, it, us, you, them". Proper nouns such as "Jack, Mary" may be used both as subjects and as objects without changing their forms in the subject or object positions: "Jack saw Mary", "Mary saw Jack". In Turkish, however, pronouns change according to the places that they occupy in a sentence as they do in English. When they are used in the subject position they are "ben, sen, o, biz, siz, onlar", when they are used in the object position, they are "ben-i, sen-i, o-/n/u, biz-i, siz-i, onlar-". The single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels as usual in accordance with the Turkish syllabication rule. In Turkish, when the proper nouns are used in the subject position, they are used as they are used in English, but when they are used in the object position they take the [i, , , u] inflectional allomorphs as the pronouns do: Ahmet-i, Hasan-, Aye-/y/i, zgr-. The single underlined consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the following vowels as usual. All the noun compounds are nominal phrases. They can be used as both subjects and objects in sentences: "Ben-im okul-um", "Ahmet-in araba-/s/", "okul-un otobs-", "araba--/n/n dur-ma-/s/", "yr-/y/-n bit-me-/s/i", "Ahmet-in araba-/s/-/n/n aln-ma/s/", "ben-im okul-a ge git-me-em", sen-in ge gel-dik-in" are structurally noun compounds but functionally nominal phrases. The adjective compounds are also nominal phrases: "a blue bird", "the longest sentence", "an important decision". Adjective clauses together with the nouns that they define are nominal phrases. "The children who are playing in the garden", "the things that you said", and "the girl whose mother you know" are all nominal phrases.

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The noun clauses such as "that he dislikes onions", "what he said", "who he is", "where my brother is", and "whose these books are" are all nominal phrases. All sentences whether they are simple or complex are organized by the brain to be placed in the "NP + VP" sentence producing system. The most important function of the mind is its capability of transforming simple sentences into nominal phrases to insert them into the "NP + VP" sentence producing system. In other words, we can say that a set of thought is expressed in sentences either as "Birds fly" (a subject, and an intransitive verb), or "Birds eat insects" (a subject, a transitive verb, and an object). This system is purely logical (mental) just as the other functions of the brain. In the Turkish Grammar section of this book, one can see how all kinds of simple sentences (Turkish or English) are transformed into nominal phrases, and installed by the logical system into the "NP + VP" logical sentence pattern. The second faculty is the memory of a human being in which all the morphemes of a language are stored. Besides the morphemes, the oral, the transformational, and syllabication rules of a target language are also stored up in one's memory. When human beings hear these morphemes and rules, they store them in their memories, and when necessary, they match them with their sets of thought to express what they think. At this point, the logical form of a simple sentence and the sets of thought compatible with the morphemes are converted to the phonetic forms of sentences through the phonological rules. The transformations of the simple sentences are carried out by the mind through the transformational rules of a language. They are rule governed and learned by the people as the morphemes and phonemes are learned. One fact to add to the explanations above is that the stresses used on some syllables carry meaning therefore they are called suprasegmental morphemes. However, although the syllabication of words are learned, the syllables do not convey any meaning on their own because they are governed by the phonological rules of a specific language as the phonemes are. The allomorphs of the morphemes are also produced by the phonological component of the brain. In other words, all allomorphs come into existence due to the phonological necessity. Although the allomorphs of a morpheme are different, they carry the same meaning as their morpheme.

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The function of the mind that chooses morphemes matching sets of thought is called morphemizing. A morphemized oral English simple sentence is placed into the "NP + VP" innate basic sentence pattern as follows: The boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon.
subject inflected verb object adverbial of place adverbial of time

However, if the same person knows Turkish, he arranges and places his morphemized set of thought into a different sentence pattern and words: ocuk-lar le-den sonra okul bahe-/s/i/n/-de futbol oyna-u.yor-lar-d.
subject adverbial of time adverbial of place object inflected verb

The morphemized simple sentences above can be transformed into nominal phrases (nominalized) so that they could be used in the basic logical phrase structure pattern NP + VP. If you imagine a person who has no people living around and talking to each other, you should admit that he cannot learn a language, but as he innately has the ability of learning a language, and the ability of thinking, he will start learning a language when he is exposed to the phonemes and morphemes of a language. As soon as he learns some words and stores them in his memory, he begins to express his thoughts using several words instead of shouting, murmuring or crying when he wants to communicate with other people. This useful device is called language. All languages are learned skills. Nobody is born speaking a language, but all human beings are born with the faculty of learning a language, which possesses some fundamental common patterns upon which all natural languages are built. Additionally, the mind possesses a number of speech intentions, which influence language production. The words and the intonation patterns that a speaker chooses to express him reveal his spiritual condition, as well. When we hear a person speak, we can guess whether he is angry, happy, nervous, bored, sad, and even whether he is kind, polite, rude, bossy, or affectionate. Although all animals can hear people well, and store some words in their memories, they cannot systemize what they hear and use them as humans do. The mind of a human being is capable of composing the set of thought written above in a linear logical structure, transforming them into the morphemes, words and some other specific rules of a target language, and producing vocalized sentences.

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The capacity and the speed of operation of the mind are marvelous. It vocalizes a set of thought with the phonemes, the syllables and the morphemes of a language. Moreover, we have to point out that expressing a set of thought goes through producing the phonemes, the syllables and the morphemes that carry meaning coming along with the sounds of a language. On the other hand, understanding a set of thought goes through hearing the phonemes, the syllables, and the morphemes of a language to realize the morphemes carrying information. We can understand a segment of speech so long as we realize the morphemes heard along with a phonetic utterance. A piece of utterance contains not only the phonemes and the syllables of a language, but it also contains the morphemes carrying information. The phonemes and syllables do not convey meaning without morphemes. One can hear the phonemes and syllables of a foreign language, but may not understand anything if he is not aware of the meaning of the morphemes heard along with them. Only the morphemes carry meaning in languages. For instance, the meaningful units (morphemes) in the Turkish word "alyorduk" are "al", ".yor", "du", "uk". However, none of the syllables in the same word "a", "l", "", "yor", "duk" conveys any meaning on their own if they are not vocalized or heard together. Although sometimes syllables and morphemes coincide, no syllables may be thought to be meaningful in this and in all Turkish words. When one hears or reads a word in Turkish, he spontaneously realizes the morphemes heard along with the phonemes and syllables, and understands them. If we disregard nouns, noun compounds, adjective compounds, adverbs and adverbials, we see that verb compositions in Turkish are sentences on their own. For instance, in the verb composition "uyuyordum", the syllables are "u*yu*yor*dum". As it is seen, none of these syllables conveys any meaning. How then, do we understand what these syllables mean? We realize the morphemes heard along with this word such as "uyu-u.yor-du-um". In this word, "uyu" means "sleep", "u.yor" expresses the continuity of the action; "du" expresses that the action continued in the past, and the "um" morpheme expresses the doer of the action "ben". This word on the whole is a sentence; "Uyuyordum", which means, "I was sleeping". On the other hand, a person who decides to build up this sentence, arranges these morphemes in a linear fashion in his mind such as "uyu-u.yor-du-um", and then vocalizes them dropping one of the identical vowels following one another and dividing the whole word into syllables to vocalize them in agreement with the Turkish sound system.

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In conclusion, we can say that although morphemes are loaded with meaning, the phonemes and syllables do not carry meaning because they are the property of the sound system of a language. Syllabication converts a morphemic sequence into a syllabic, rhythmical, and phonetic sequence in agreement with the vowel and consonant harmony rules of the Turkish language to produce a fluent speech production. Therefore, morphemes should not be confused with syllables. This process is like converting a poem into a song. Transformations are generally carried out by the mind for syntactic purposes. In other words, they are used to produce infinitely long oral or written sentences. A phonetic or a verbal form is the part of the communication system that is heard, or seen on printed matters. The simple English sentence given below can be transformed into oral nominal phrases (nominalized) as follows: The boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon. 1. that the boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon 2. the boys that were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon 3. the football that the boys were playing in the school garden in the afternoon 4. the school garden in which the boys were playing football in the afternoon 5. the time when the boys were playing football in the school garden 6. who were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon 7. where the boys were playing football in the afternoon 8. why the boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon 9. what the boys were doing in the school garden in the afternoon 10. whether the boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon All the transformed oral nominal phrases (clauses) above can be used as a "NP" in the "NP + VP" sentence producing system as follows: 1. I saw that the boys were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon. 2. The boys that were playing football in the school garden in the afternoon are my students. 3. The football that the boys were playing in the school garden was worth watching.

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4. The school garden in which the boys were playing football was not suitable for playing football. 5. The time when the boys were playing football in the school garden made the principal mad. 6. Who were playing football in the school garden is still unknown. 7. I do not know where the boys were playing football. 8. Can you guess why the boys were playing football in the school garden? 9. Do you know what the boys were doing in the school garden? 10. I do not know whether the boys were playing football or not. As it is obviously seen, the transformed English nominal phases above do not undergo major changes when they are transformed. However, when we transform a Turkish simple sentence, we notice a striking difference between the transformational rules of these two languages. The Turkish way of transforming a simple sentence into a nominalized phonetic phrase is different from that of the English language. To perform this mental transformation activity, a native speaker of Turkish should transform a basic simple sentence into a noun compound to construct a nominalized phonetic phrase. Some examples may clarify this striking difference: ocuklar leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oynuyorlard. 1a. ocuk-lar-n le-den sonra okul bahe-/s/i/n/-de futbol oyna-dk-lar-
possessor NP (noun compound used as object) possessed

1b. ocuk-lar-n leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oyna-ma-/s/


possessor NP (noun compound used as subject) possessed

2.

leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oyna-/y/an ocuklar


determiner NP determined

3. ocuk-lar-n le-den sonra okul bahesinde oyna-dk-lar- futbol


possessor adverbial determiner NP adverbial possessed | determined

4. ocuklar-n leden sonra futbol oyna-dk-lar- okul bahesi


possessor adverbial object determiner possessed NP | determined

5. ocuklar-n okul bahesinde futbol oyna-ma-lar--/n/n zaman-


possessor adverbial object possessor NP (chain noun compound) adverbial NP adverbial object possessed

6. kim-ler-in okul bahesinde leden sonra futbol oyna-dk-


possessor possessed

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7. ocuk-lar-n leden sonra nerede futbol oyna-dk-
possessor adverbial NP adverbial object possessed

8. ocuk-lar-n leden sonra okul bahesinde niin futbol oyna-dk-lar-


possessor adverbial adverbial NP adverbial NP 10.ocuk-lar-n possessor adverbl obj possessed

9. ocuk-lar-n leden sonra okul bahesi-/n/de ne yap-tk-lar-


possessor adverbial obj possessed

leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oyna-/y/p oynamadklar


adverbial adverbial NP object possessed

The Turkish nominalized phrases above can be used in the "NP + VP" phrase structure pattern as a "NP" as follows: 1a. (Ben) ocuk-lar-n leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oyna-dk-lar--/n/ gr-d-m.
NP (subj) NP (object) verb

1b. ocuk-lar-n leden sonra okul bahesinde fuybol oyna-ma-/s/ kimse-/y/i ilgilen-dir-mez. 2. leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oynayan ocuklar benim rencilerimdir. 3. ocuklarn leden sonra okul bahesinde oynadklar futbol izlemeye deerdi. 4. ocuklarn leden sonra futbol oynadklar okul bahesi futbol oynamaya uygun deildi. 5. ocuklarn okul bahesinde futbol oynamalarnn zaman okul mdrn kzdrd. 6. Kim-ler-in leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oyna-d- hl bilinmiyor. 7. Kimlerin leden sonra nerede futbol oynadn bilmiyorum. 8. ocuklarn oleden sonra okul bahesinde niin futbol oynadklarn tahmin edebilir misin? 9. ocuklarn leden sonra okul bahesinde ne yaptklarn biliyor musun? 10. ocuklarn leden sonra okul bahesinde futbol oynayp oynamadklarn bilmiyorum. The nominalizations of the simple Turkish sentences seem more difficult than nominalizing the English ones. This difficulty arises when someone whose native language is different from Turkish begins learning Turkish as a second language because while he is trying to learn the transformational rules of a second language, the transformational rules of his/her native language always interfere with the rules of the second language. Therefore, when teaching a second language, this difficulty should be taken into account by the second language teachers. While a child is learning his native tongue, however, he does not have to overcome such difficulty because transformational rules are learned through the experiences of a person.

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There are a lot more inflectional morphemes in Turkish than there are in English. This is because some English modal verbs such as "may", "can", "must", "should", "have to", "will", etc. are all expressed in inflectional morphemes in Turkish such as "[ME.L]", "[E.BL]", "[E.CEK]", etc. Moreover, all Turkish verb compositions such as "al-.yor-um", and noun compounds such as "ben-im okul-um" always end with possessor personal allomorphs.

MORPHEMIC SEQUENCING
Morphemes are defined as the smallest meaningful units that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts in a language. These morphemes are of two kinds; the free morphemes that carry meaning by themselves, the bound morphemes that can carry meaning only when they are attached to free morphemes. The bound morphemes are also two kinds: derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes. When derivational morphemes attach to free morphemes they produce new words or change the part of speech that they belong. However, when the inflectional morphemes attach to free morphemes or words, they create changes in the function of these free morphemes or words in sentences. Turkish harmonic system produces allomorphs for both derivational and inflectional morphemes. A list of the derivational morphemes and their allomorphs can be seen at page 22. The term morpheme represents the meaning of a word root or a suffix. All the suffixes of the Turkish language have alternative variants called allomorphs created by the Turkish harmonic system. Therefore, when articulating the allomorphs of these morphemes, they are vocalized according to the harmonic system of the Turkish language. The inflectional allomorphs attach to both nouns and verbs in Turkish:

THE INFLECTIONAL ALLOMORPHS ATTACHED TO NOUNS AND NOMINAL PHRASES


In the following examples, the consonants that detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs are single underlined such as /v/, /z/, /l/. The /s/, /y/, /n/ and // glides are semivowels that help a vowel to pass to another vowel harmoniously. They are showed between slashes / /. Two identical vowels that combine and are verbalize as a single vowel are written in bold type: i-i, -, -, u-u, e-e, a-a.

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Some p, t, , k unvoiced consonants change into their voiced consonants b, d, c, respectively when they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following syllables.

[i, , , u]
ev-i the house, arslan- the lion, gz- the eye, okul-u the school, renci-/y/i the student, sorun-u the problem, uyku-/y/u the sleep, onun bize kzmas-/n/ his getting angry with us, oda-/n/n kap-/s/-/n/ the door of the room, o-/n/un gel-dik-i-/n/i that he came

[e, a]
ev-e to the house, ay-a to the moon, gz-e to the eye, at-a to the horse, oda-/y/a to the room, biz-e to us, onlar-a to them, o-/n/un anne/s/i-/n/e to his mother.

[de, da, te, ta]


ev-de at home, okul-da in school, sepet-te in the basket, sokak-ta in the street, sknt-da in trouble, uak-ta on the plane, bahe-de in the garden

[den, dan, ten, tan]


ev-den from home, okul-dan from school, uak-tan from the plane, benden from me, otobs-ten from the bus, tnel-den through the tunnel, mikroskop-tan through the microscope

[le, la]
otobs-le by bus, benim-le with me, balta/y/-la with an axe, acele/y/-le hastily, sayg/y/-la with respect, eki-le with a hammer, dikkat-le carefully, tela-la in a hurry, istek-le eagerly, fke/y/-le angrily

[ler, lar]
sepet-ler baskets, ku-lar birds, kitap-lar books, eekler donkeys, balk-lar fish, ocuk-lar children, adam-lar men, kadn-lar women

The possessor personal allomorphs attached to both parts of the possessor + possessed noun compounds:
ben-im baba-am, sen-in anne-en, o-/n/un teyze-/s/i, Ahmet-in araba-/s/, okul-un kap-/s/, biz-im ev-i.miz, siz-in okul-u.nuz, onlar-n bahe-/s/i, Hasan-n git-tik-i okul, Aye-/n/in okul-a ge gel-me-/s/i.

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Most of the auxiliary verbs and some inflectional morphemes of the English language are all used as inflectional allomorphs in Turkish:

The allomorphs [ir, r, r, ur, er, ar] indicate the simple present:
gel-ir-im, kal-r-m, yr-r-m, otur-ur-um, bekle-er-im, bak-ar-m gel-ir-sin. kal-r-sn, yr-r-sn, otur-ur-sun, bekle-er-sin, bak-ar-sn gel-ir, kal-r, yr-r, otur-ur, bekle-er, bak-ar gel-ir-iz, kal-r-z, yr-r-z, otur-ur-uz, bekle-er-iz, bak-ar-z gel-ir-si.niz, kal-r-s.nz, yr-r-s.nz, otur-ur-su.nuz, bekle-er-si.niz, bak-ar-s.nz gel-ir-ler, kal-r-lar, yr-r-ler, otur-ur-lar, bekle-er-ler, bak-ar-lar

The allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu] indicate the simple past:
gel-di-im, kal-d-m, yr-d-m, otur-du-um, i-ti-im, sat-t-m, l-t-m gel-di-in, kal-d-n, yr-d-n, otur-du-un, i-ti-in, sat-t-n, l-t-n gel-di, kal-d, yr-d, otur-du, i-ti, sat-t, l-t, u-tu, yat-t, git-ti, bit-ti gel-di-ik, kal-d-k, yr-d-k, otur-du-uk, i-ti-ik, sat-t-k, l-t-k gel-di-i.niz, kal-d-.nz, yr-d-.nz, otur-du-u.nuz, i-ti-i.niz, sat-t-.nz, gel-di-ler, kal-d-lar, yr-d-ler, otur-du-lar, i-ti-ler, sat-t-lar, l-t-ler,

The allomorphs [i.yor, .yor, .yor, u.yor] indicate the present continuous:
gel-i.yor-um, kal-.yor-um, yr-.yor-um, otur-u.yor-um, bekle-i.yor-um gel-i.yor-sun, kal-.yor-sun, yr-.yor-sun, otur-u.yor-sun, bekle-i.yor-sun gel-i.yor, kal-.yor, yr-.yor, otur-u.yor, bekle-i.yor gel-i.yor-uz, kal-.yor-uz, yr-.yor-uz, otur-u.yor-uz, bekle-i.yor-uz gel-i.yor-su.nuz, kal-.yor-su.nuz, yr-.yor-su.nuz, bekle-i.yor-su.nuz gel-i.yor-lar, kal-.yor-lar, yr-.yor-lar, otur-u.yor-lar, bekle-i.yor-lar The double underlined e and vowels drop, and the single underlined consonants preceding them attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs.

The allomorphs [e.cek, a.cak] indicate the simple future:


gel-e.cek-im, kal-a.cak-m, yr-/y/e.cek-im, otur-a.cak-m, bala-/y/a.cak-m gel-e.cek-sin, git-e.cek-sin, yr-/y/e.cek-sin, otur-a.cak-sn, sat-a.cak-sn gel-e.cek, kal-a.cak, yr-/y/e.cek, otur-a.cak, bala-/y/a.cak, ka-a.cak gel-e.cek-iz, kal-a.cak-z, yr-/y/e.cek-iz, otur-a.cak-z, git-e.cek-iz

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gel-e.cek-si.niz, git-e.cek-si.niz, yr-/y/e.cek-si.niz, a-a.cak-s.nz, at-a.cak-s.nz, gl-e.cek-si.niz, tan-a.cak-s.nz, bekle-e.cek-si.niz git-e.cek-ler, at-a.cak-lar, unut-a.cak-lar, uyu-/y/a.cak-lar, unutul-a.cak-lar When the single underlined /k/ unvoiced consonants in cek, cak detach from their syllables, they change into their counterpart voiced consonants // when they attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs such as gele.cek-im (ge*le*ce*im). Although few /t/ consonants change into /d/, such as in git-e.cek-im (gi*de*ce*im), et-e.cek-im (e*de*ce*im), the others do not change.

The allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu] indicate rumor:


gel-mi-im, kal-m-m, yr-m-m, otur-mu-um, bala-m-m gel-mi-sin, kal-m-sn, yr-m-sn, otur-mu-sun, bala-m-sn gel-mi, kal-m, yr-m, otur-mu, bala-m, dn-m, sat-m gel-mi-iz, kal-m-z, yr-m-z, otur-mu-uz, bala-m-z, kr-m-z gel-mi-si.niz, kal-m-s.nz, yr-m-s.nz, otur-mu-su.nuz gel-mi-ler, kal-m-lar, yr-m-ler, otur-mu-lar, sevin-mi-ler

Dual Inflectional Allomorphs Attached to Verb Roots, Stems and Frames


The allomorphs [ir-di, r-d, r-d, ur-du, er-di, ar-d] indicate used to:
gel-ir-di-im, kal-r-d-m, yr-r-d-m, ol-ur-du-um, gl-er-di-im gel-ir-di-in, kal-r-d-n, yr-r-d-n, ol-ur-du-un, gl-er-di-in, a-ar-d-n gel-ir-di, kal-r-d, yr-r-d, otur-ur-du, gl-er-di, bala-ar-d, gez-er-di gel-ir-di-ik, kal-r-d-k, yr-r-d-k, otur-ur-du-uk, dinle-er-di-ik gel-ir-di-i.niz, kal-r-d-.nz, yr-r-d-.nz, otur-ur-du-u.nuz gel-ir-di-ler (gel-ir-ler-di), kal-r-d-lar (kal-r-lar-d), i-er-di-ler (i-er-ler-di)

The allomorphs [i.yor-du, .yor-du, .yor-du, u.yor-du] indicate past continuous:


gel-i.yor-du-um, kal-.yor-du-um, yr-.yor-du-um, kokla-u.yor-du-um gel-i.yor-du-un, kal-.yor-du-un, yr-.yor-du-un, kokla-u.yor-du-un gel-i.yor-du, kal-.yor-du, ala-.yor-du, bekle-i.yor-du, u-u.yor-du bak-.yor-du-uk, gl-.yor-du-uk, dene-i.yor-du-uk, anla-.yor-du-uk ko-u.yor-du-u.nuz, dengele-i.yor-du-u.nuz, bala-.yor-du-u.nuz al-i.yor-lar-d (al-.yor-du-lar), bekle-i.yor-lar-d (bekle-i.yor-du-lar) In the verb compositions above and below, the double underlined vowels drop, the single underlined consonants preceding them attach to the first

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vowels of the following allomorphs, and the identical vowels printed in bold type comine.

The allomorphs [mi-ti, m-t, m-t, mu-tu] indicate past perfect:


gel-mi-ti-im, al-m-t-m, bitir-mi-ti-im, anla-m-t-m, bul-mu-tu-um anla-m-t-n, gr-m-t-n, unut-mu-tu-un, sor-mu-tu-un, yap-m-t-n ka-m-t, k-m-t, ack-m-t, gnder-mi-ti, uyu-mu-tu, sakla-m-t unut-mu-tu-uk, sus-mu-tu-uk, hatrla-m-t-k, gven-mi-ti-ik, al-m-t-k yat-m-t-.nz, kork-mu-tu-u.nuz, iste-mi-ti-i.niz, dinlen-mi-ti-i.niz bala-m-lar-d, unut-mu-lar-d, gr-m-ler-di, sevin-mi-ler-di, u-mu-lar-d

The allomorphs [e.cek-ti, a.cak-t] indicate future in the past (was ging to):
gel-e.cek-ti-im, bitir-e.cek-ti-im, sor-a.cak-t-m, bekle-/y/e.cek-ti-im gel-e.cek-ti-in, ka-a.cak-t-n, sor-a.cak-t-n, anla-/y/a.cak-t-n gel-e.cek-ti, sat-a.cak-t, dene-/y/e.cek-ti, kuru-/y/a.cak-t, dur-a.cak-t gel-e.cek-ti-ik, bitir-e.cek-ti-ik, sat-a.cak-t-k, yr-/y/e.cek-ti-ik gel-e.cek-ti-i.niz, a-a.cak-t-.nz, bekle-/y/e.cek-ti-i.niz, sor-a.cak-t-.nz gel-e.cek-ler-di, bul-a.cak-lar-d, tara-/y/a.cak-lar-d, uyu-/y/a.cak-lar-d

The Inflectional Allomorphs Attached To be (ol) Verbs


In Turkish, no time allomorphs are generally attached to nouns, nominal phrases, adjectives or adverbials with [de, da, te, ta] or [le, la] to indicate simple present. If one wants, he can attach one of the [dir, dr, dr, dur, tir, tr, tr, tur] allomorphs to express certainty or hesitation to nouns, pronouns, adjectives or adverbials. For instance, we generally say Annem ev-de instead of Annem ev-de-dir, which means either Perhaps my mother is at home or My mother is certainly at home: No inflectional time allomorphs attach to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials to indicate simple present: (Ben) ev-de-/y/im. (Sen) alkan-sn. O daha ocuk (He is only a child). (Biz) okul-da-/y/zi (Siz) isteksiz-si.niz. Onlar deneyimli. (Biz) bura-da-/y/-z. Top yuvarlak-tr. Sen lgn-sn. Ahmet biz-de. Kalem-im sen-de mi? (Ben) yorgun-um. Araba kap-/n/n n-/n/-de. O-/n/un anne-/s/i retmen. (Ben) durak-ta-/y/m. (Biz) iyi-/y/iz. Onlar asker. (Siz) nere-de-si.niz? (Siz) ev-de mi-si.niz? Ben gerizekal m-/y/m? Sen ok akll-sn. O hakl.

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(Ben) yorgun-um. (Ben) okul-da-/y/m. O bir renci. O akll ben-im
subj NP adjective predicate VP subj NP adverbial predicate VP subj noun NP predicate VP subj NP pronoun predicate VP

The inflectional time allomorphs [di, d, d, du, ti, t, t, tu] attached to nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbials that indicate simple past. O ben-di-im. Ma geyecanl/y/-d. O-/n/un orap-lar- masa-/n/n st-/n/de/y/-di. retmen-in gz- ben-de/y/-di. (Biz) hazr-d-k. O bir kahramand. (Biz) zgn-d-k. Ahmet snav iin hazrlkl m/y/-d? The inflectional allomorphs [mi, m, m, mu] indicate rumor: (Ben) yeteneksiz-mi-im. (Sen) ma-ta/y/-m-sn. O nere-de/y/-mi? Fatma kap-/n/n n-/n/-de/y/-mi. (Ben-im) anne-em ev-de deil-mi. Oyun gzel-mi. orba scak-m. Hasan biz-im-le/y/-mi.

The inflectional allomorphs [e.cek] or [a.cak] attach to the verb ol to indicate simple future:
Yarn hava gzel ol-a.cak. (Ben) yarn sekiz-de bro-da ol-a.cak-m. (Sen) saat ka-ta ev-de ol-a.cak-sn? (Sen) adam ol-ma-/y/a.cak-sn! Her ey sen-in iste-dik-in gibi ol-a.cak.
subj NP noun compound postp adjectival phrase predicate VP | verb

The [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs may also be attached to [e.cek, a.cak] allomorphs: Hava yarn gzel ol.acak-m. They say that it will be fine tomorrow. Herkes hazr ol-a.cak-m. They say that everybody will be ready.

MODAL AUXILIARY VERBS


The English modal auxiliary verbs that indicate ability, permission, probability, necessity, impossibility, etc. are all expressed in various inflectional allomorphs in Turkish:

[me.li, ma.l]
The inflectional allomorphs [me.li, ma.l] indicate obligation imposed by the speaker when they are used with action verbs, and they indicate certainty or necessity when they are used with the verbs be:

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(Ben) sabah-le.yin erken kalk-ma.l-/y/m. I must get up early in the morning.
subj NP | | adverbial adverb predicate VP | verb subj NP | verb | | adverb adverbial predicate VP

Bu kz lgn ol-ma.l. This girl must be crazy. (I am certain that she is crazy.)
subj NP adjective verb predicate VP subject NP verb adj predicate VP

Hemen hazr ol-ma.l-sn. You must be ready soon. (obligation) ok al-ma.l-sn. You must work hard. (obligation) If the verbs are negative when [me.li, ma.l] allomorphs are used, they indicate prohibition: Yalan syle-me-me.li-sin. (ya*lan / sy*le*me*me*li*sin) You mustnt tell lies.

[e.bil, a.bil]
The inflectional allomorphs [e.bil, a.bil] indicate ability and permission: Mary piyano al-a.bil-ir. Mary can play the piano. (ability) Dar-/y/a k-a.bil-ir-sin. You can (may) go out. (permission) (Ben) siz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir mi-/y/im? Can I help you? (permission) Th negative forms of [e.bil, a.bil] allomorphs are [e.me(z), a.ma(z)] allomorphs, which indicate impossibility, inability or prohibition: (ben) toplant-/y/a gel-e.me-em. I cant come to the meeting. (impossibility) Mary piyano cal-a.maz. Mary cant play the piano. (inability) Bu saat-te diar-ya k-a.maz-sn. You cant go out at this hour.(prohibition) Fatma ev-de ol-a.maz. Fatma cant be at home. (impossibility) The [mi, m, m, mu] allomorphs may also be attached to the [e.bil, a.bil], and [e.me(z), a.ma(z)] allomorphs to indicate rumor: Ahmet biz-e yardm et-e.bil-ir-mi. They say that Ahmet can help us. (O) toplant-/y/a gel-e.mez-mi. They say that he cant come to the meeting. The time inflectional modal allomorphs [di], [ir-di], [ir-mi] can follow the [e.bil, a.bil], [e.mez, a.maz], [me.li, ma.l]. [me.me.li, ma.ma.l] modal inflectional allomorphs:

[e.bil-di, a.bil-di]
The [e.bil-di, a.bil-di] allomorphs indicate a past success: (Biz) ma- kazan-a.bil-di-ik. We were able to win the match. (Ben) baar-a.bil-di-im. I was able to succeed. (Biz) baar a.ma-d-k. We couldnt succeed. (We werent able to succeed.)

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(Onlar) bitir-e.me-di-ler. Thy couldnt finish. (They werent able to finish.)

[e.bil-ir-di, a.bil-ir-di]
(Biz) ma- kazan-a.bil.ir.di-ik. We could have won the match. (Ben) baar-a.bil-ir-di-im. I could have succeeded. (Sen) bir kaza yap-a.bil-ir-di-in. You might have had an accident. (biz) bir yanllk yap-a.bil-ir-di-ik. We might have made a mistake. (Onlar) ma- ertele-/y/e.bil-ir-ler-di. They might have postponed the match. (Biz) bir yanllk yap-a.bil-ir-mi-iz. He says that we might have made a mistake. (O) biz-e kz-a.bil-ir-mi. He says that he might be angry with us.

[e.me(z)-di, a.ma(z)-d]
(Biz) ma- kazan-a.maz-d-k. It was impossible for us to win the match. (Ben) i-i bitir e.mez-di-im. I couldnt have finished the work.

[me.li/y/-di, ma.l/y/-d]
(Bz) ma- kazan-ma.l/y/-d-k. We should have won the match. (Sen) hzl sr-me-me.li/y/-di-in. You shouldnt have driven fast. (Onlar) ma- ertele-me-me.li/y/-di-ler.They shouldnt have postponed the match. (Biz) ok soru sor-ma-ma.l/y/-m-z. He says that we shouldnt ask so many questions.

ORAL HARMONIC SEQUENCING


An oral sequence is what we hear when we listen to others, and what we articulate when we want others to hear us. An oral sequence is composed of phonemes, syllables, and stresses. Both free and bound morphames, which carry meaning, can only be articulated by the organs of speech, and heard through the ears. When we hear an oral sequence, we hear and understand the morphemes because these two sequences produce sentences together. All the morphemes, whether free or bound, are composed by the oral sequence. The major function of the oral sequence in Turkish is to divide words and morphemes into syllables so that the speech organs can articulate them easily and fluently. Besides, as Turkish is an agglutinative language, the Turkish oral sequence does more than this then the other languages: 1. All the vowels in Turkish words are sequenced in agreement with the vowel harmony rules of the Turkish language. This vowel sequence is given in detail at page 16.

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2. Turkish oral sequence produces allomorphs to maintain the vowel and consonant harmony sequence of all the bound morphemes, which are given in detail at pages 44, and 425. 3. If the words or allomorphs end with consonants, these consonants detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs if these allomorphs start with vowels. This consonant replacement is carried out by the harmonic oral sequence when words and allomorphs attach to one another. In this book, the detached consonants are single underlined to show the readers that they detach from their syllables and attach to the first vowels of the following allomorphs when the syllables are recomposed by the harmonic sequence such as: bitir-i.yor-uz (bi*ti*ri*yo*ruz), okul-a ko-u.yor (o*ku*la / ko*u*yor), tan-a.cak-z (ta*n*a*ca*z) (The /k/ unvoiced consonant changes to the voiced consonant //.) 4. When the identical vowels such as i-i, -, -, u-u, a-a, e-e have to attach to one another, they combine and verbalized as a single vowel. Such as gel-di-im (gel*dim), al-d-k (al*dk), gl-d-.nz (gl*d*nz), gel-e.me-di-im (ge*le*me*dim), baba-am (ba*bam), anne-em (an*nem), ben-im gel-me-em (be*nim / gel*mem), sen-in konu-ma-an (se*nin / ko*nu*man), biz-im gl-me-e.miz (bi*zim / g*l*me*miz),. The combining identical vowels are showed in bold face. 5. If nonidentical (sometimes identical) vowels have to attach to one another, one of the /s/, /y/, /n/, // glides is inserted between these two vowels to maintain a fluent link between the vowels. These glides attach to suffixes if they start with vowels, but if they start with consonants, the glides attach to nouns, pronouns or allomorph ending with vowels: For instance: The suffxes starting with vowels: deve-/y/i, araba-/y/, rt-/y/, sr-/y/, su-/y/u, de-/y/im, bitme-/y/en, anla-/y/, yr-/y/en, dene-/y/im, yr-/y/, dinle-/y/i.ci, dene-/y/im, glmse-/y/en, oku-ma-/y/z, al-ma-/y/z. The suffixes starting with consonants: kayg/y/-la, nee/y/-le, acele/y/-le, para/y/-la, araba/y/-la, kfe/y/-le, al-ma/y/-la, konu-ma/y/-la gel-se/y/-di, anla-sa/y/-d, anla-d/y/-sa, gr-d/y/-se, konu-tu/y/-sa, unut-tu/y/-sa-am, bitir-e.me-di/y/-se, ula-

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a.ma-d/y/-sa, ev-de/y/-se, sokak-ta/y/-sa, oldu/y/-sa, et-ti/y/-se, ol-sa/y/d, et-se/y/-di, yaa-sa/y/d. The /n/ and /s/ glides: The /n/ glides are used in the possessor parts, and the /s/ glides are used in the possessed parts of the noun compounds: For instance: o-/n/un araba-/s/, oda-/n/n kap-/s/, al-ma-/n/n bit-me-/s/i, araba/n/n al-n-ma-/s/, mart-/n/n u-ma-/s/, deve-/n/in k-me-/s/i, ayva/n/n koku-/s/u, kasaba-/n/n orta-/s/, deve-/n/in hendek atla-ma-/s/. All the first vowels of the suffixes above are printed in bold face. The // glides are used in distributional numerals: iki-//er, alt-//ar, yedi-//er 6. Some vowels in continuous tenses are dropped (overlooked) by the oral sequence. These vowels are double underlined (a), and the consonants that precede these vowels detach from their syllables and attach to the following allomorphs if they start with vowels. Such consonants are single underlined. For instance: oku-u.yor-uz (o*ku*yo*ruz), bekle-i.yor-du-uk (bek*li*yor*duk) yaa-.yor-uz (ya**yo*ruz), ye-i.yor-uz (yi*yo*ruz), uyu-u.yor-uz (u*yu*yo*ruz), sakla-.yor-lar (sak*l*yor*lar), yr..yor-du-uk (y*r*yor*duk), tle-.yor-du-um (*t*l*yor*dum), anla-.yor-sun (an*l*yor*sun), sulu-u.yor (su*lu*yor), yala-.yor (ya*l*yor) Gel-me-i.yor-uz (gel*mi*yo*ruz), -me-.yor-um (**m*yo*rum) Anla-ma-.yor-um (an*la*m*yo*rum), sus-ma-u.yor-um (sus*mu*yo*rum) Katl-ma-.yor-um (ka*tl*m*yo*rum), sat-ma-.yor-um (sat*m*yo*rum) Iste-me-i.yor-um (is*te*mi*yo*rum), kprda-/y/a-ma-.yor-um (k*pr*da*ya*m*yo*rum), anla-/y/a-ma-.yor-su.nuz (an*la*ya*m*yor*su*nuz) When the /p/, /t/, //, /k/ unvoiced consonants detach from their syllables in order to attach the following allomorphs starting with vowels, change into their counterpart voiced consonants /b/, /d/, /c/, // respectively. For instance: /p/ changes into /b/: kitap-, kitap-a, kitap-m (ki*ta*b, ki*ta*ba, ki*ta*bm), sebep-i, sebep-e, sebep-im (se*be*bi, se*be*be, se*be*bim), kebap-, kebap-a, kebap-n (ke*ba*b, ke*ba*ba, ke*ba*bn), orap-, orap-a, orap-n (o*ra*b, o*-

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ra*ba, o*ra*bn), dolap-, dolap-a, dolap-n (do*la*b, do*la*ba, do*la*bn), arap-, arap-a, arap-n (a*ra*b, a*ra*ba, a*ra*bn), hesap-, hesap-a, hesap-n (he*sa*b, he*sa*ba, he*sa*bn). /t/ changes into /d/: adet-i, adet-e (a*de*di, a*de*de), kanat-, kanat-a, kanat-n (ka*na*d, ka*na*da, ka*na*dn), umut-u, umut-a, umut-un (u*mu:*du, u*mu:*da, u*mu:*dun), yourt-u, yourt-a, yout-un (yo*ur*du, yo*ur*da, yo*ur*dun). As an exception: sepet-i, sepet-e, sepet-in (se*pe*ti, se*pe*te, se*pe*tin), nbet-i, nbet-e, nobet-in (n*be*ti, n*be*te, n*be*tin) // changes into /c/: aa-, aa-a, aa-n (a*a*c, a*a*ca, a*a*cn), saya-, saya-a, saya-n (sa*ya*c, sa*ya*ca, sa*ya*cn), ama-, ama-a, ama-n (a*ma*c, a*ma*ca, a*ma*cn), ayra-, ayra-a, ayra-n (ay*ra*c, ay*ra*ca, ay*ra*cn), deme-i, deme-e, deme-in (de*me*ci, de*me*ce, de*me*cin) /k/ changes into //: sokak-, sokak-a, sokak-n (so*ka*, so*ka*a, so*ka*n), tabak-, tabak-a, tabak-n (ta*ba*, ta*ba*a, ta*ba*n), krek-i, krek-e, krekin (k*re*i, k*re*e, k*re*in), bebek-i, bebek-e, bebek-in (be*be*i, be*be*e, be*be*in), kpek-i, kpek-e, kpek-in (k*pe*i, k*pe*e, k*pe*in), ayak-, ayak-a, ayak-n (a*ya*, a*ya*a, a*ya*n), bardak, bardak-a, bardak-n (bar*da*, bar*da*a, bar*da*n), bak-tk-m- (bak*t**m), sat-tk-m- (sat*t**m), git-tik-i-/n/I (git*ti*i*ni)

MORPHEMIC AND ORAL SEQUENCES


In the following example sentences, the morphemes and their allomorphs are separated by hyphens to show the sequencing of the words. The words in a sentence are separated by slashes. The first sentences below show the morphemic sequence of a sentence without being composed by the oral sequence of the Turkish harmonic system. The second sentence between parentheses shows the same sentence recomposed by the oral sequence. For instance:

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(Ben) ev-e git-i.yor-um. (morphemic sequence) (ben / e*ve / gi*di*yo*rum ) (oral sequence) Baba-am ben-i okul-a gtr-e.cek. (morphemic sequence) (ba*bam / be*ni / o*ku*la / g*t*re*cek ) (oral sequence) Ders-im-i ok al-ma.l-m-m. (morphemic sequence)) (der*si*mi / ok / a*l*ma*l/y/*m*m ) (oral sequence) Sen-i ok zle-.yor-um. (morphemic sequence) (se*ni / ok / z*l*yo*rum ) (oral sequence) Ev-in kap-- kilitle-e.me-di-im. (morphemic sequence) (e*vin / ka*p*/s/*/n/ / ki*lit*le*/y/e*me*dim ) (oral sequence) Oda- temizle-me-i.yor-lar. (morphemic sequence) (o*da*/y/ / te*miz*le*mi*yor*lar ) (oral sequence) Hrsz-n ne yn-e ka-tk-- gr-d-n m? (morphemic sequence) (hr*s*zn / ne / y*ne / ka*t**/n/ / gr*dn / m ) (oral sequence) Mart-lar-n u-u-u hep-i.miz-i byle-di. (morphemic sequence) (mar*t*la*rn / u*u*u / he*pi*mi*zi / b*y*le*di ) (oral sequence) Ko-ar-sa-an otobs-e yeti-e.bil-ir-sin. (morphemic sequence) (ko*ar*san / o*to*b*se / ye*ti*e*bi*lir*sin ) (oral sequence) Gr--e.bil-ir-iz. (morphemic sequence) (g*r*e*bi*li*riz ) (oral sequence) Sz-m- dinle-se-di-in snav- kazan-r-d-n. (morphemic sequence) (s*z*m / din*le*se/y/*din / s*na*v / ka*za*nr*dn ) (oral sequence) Vazo kr-l-sa-d anne-em zl-r-d. (morphemic sequence) (va*zo / k*rl*sa/y/*d / an*nem / *z*lr*d ) (oral sequence) Ka-ar-sa-an kpek sen-i kovala-ar. (morphemic sequence) (ka*ar*san / k*pek / se*ni / ko*va*lar ) (oral sequence) Anla-a.ma-.yor-lar-m. (morphemic sequence) (an*la*/y/a*m*yor*lar*m ) (oral sequence)

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Araba-n sat-l-dk-- bil-me-i.yor-du-um. (morphemic sequence) (a*ra*ba*nn / sa*tl*d**n / bil*mi*yor*dum ) (oral sequence) Proje-i bitir-e.bil-e.cek mi-sin-iz? (morphemic sequence) (pro*je*/y/i / bi*ti*re*bi*le*cek / mi*si*niz ) (oral sequence) Karar-n- ver-di-in mi? (morphemic sequence) (ka*ra:*r*n / ver*din / mi ) (oral sequence) Toplant-a gel-e.me-i.yor-lar-m. (morphemic sequence) (top*lan*t*/y/a / ge*le*mi*yor*lar *m ) (oral sequence) -i-i bitir-dik-i-i syle-.yor. (morphemic sequence) (i*i*/n/i / bi*tir*di*i*/n/i / sy*l*yor ) (oral squence) San-in kim-e gl-dk-- anla-d-m. (morphemic sequence) (se*nin / ki*me / gl*d**/n/ / an*la*dm ) (oral sequence) orba-an- suu-ma-dan i. (morphemic sequence) (or*ba*n / so*u*ma*dan / i ) (oral sequence) Oglu-um her gn iki kilometre yr-me-em-i syle-.yor. (o*lum / i*ki / ki*lo*met*re / y*r*me*mi / sy*l*yor ) (morphemic seq) Hepiniz-e baar-lar dile-i.yor-um. (morphemic sequence) (he*pi*ni*ze / ba*a*r*lar / di*li*yo*rum ) (oral sequence)

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Asterisks: Asterisks (*) are used to separate syllables: (a*l**yor*duk) Brackets: Brackets ( ) are used to show optional elements: (ben-im) Brackets: Some brackets ( ) are used to give further explanation. Brackets: Some other brackets are used to give alternative words, phrases, or sentences. Colon: A colon (:) is used to show a long vowel: (te*da:*vi:) Dots: Sometimes dots are used to divide the syllables of the allomorphs such as: "i.yor", e.cek", "e.bil", "me.li", "e.mez", "i.niz", "e.me", etc. Hyphens: Hyphens (-) are used to separate morphemes (al-m) Double underlined vowels: These vowels (u) show that they drop. Single underlined consonants: These consonants show that they detach from their syllables, and attach to the first vowels of the following morphemes: gel-i.yor-um (ge*li*yo*rum) Sign of transformation: () This sign shows that the previous simple sentence is transformed into the following syntactic form. The identical vowels attaching one another such as i-i, -, -, u-u a-a, e-e combine and verbalize as single vowels i, , , u, a, e. [pers] : Any one of the personal allomorphs ( im, m, sin, sn, ik, k, etc.) representing personal suffixes.
adj adv comp compr cond conj D inf intens subj phrs intr tran obj pers Vi Vt prep postp pron : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : adjective adverb or adverbial compound comparative conditional conjunction determiner infinitive intensifier subject phrase intransitive transitive object personal allomorph intransitive verb transitive verb preposition(al) (Eng ) postposition(al) (Turk) pronoun synt cond VP NP pred sent det V V
c

*c.v.c*

syntactic conditional Verbal Phrase Nominal Phrase predicate sentence determiner verb root ,stem, frame, or verb composition a verb that ends with a consonant a verb that ends with a vowel consonant. vowel. consonant

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TURKISH GRAMMAR ACADEMIC EDITION 2012 REFERENCES


Allen Harold B., Applied English Linguistics, 1958 Allen J.B.P and Buren Paul Van, Chomsky: Selected Readings, 1971 Aydn zgr kinci Dil Olarak Trke retiminde Trke Dilbilgisi Betimlemelerinin Grnm Bakan zcan, Lengistik Metodu, 1967 Beach, Emmon, An Introduction to Transformational Grammars. Holt, Rinchart and Winston, Inc. Bloomfield Leonard, Language, 1933 Bolinger Dwight, Aspects of Language 1981 Harper and Row, Publishers, New York Bruce L. Liles, An introductory Transformational Grammar Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, N.J. 1971 Chomsky Noam, Language and Mind, 2006 Chomsky Noam, Syntactic Structures, 1957 Chomsky Noam, Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, 1969 Chomsky Noam and Halle Morris, The Sound Pattern of English 1968 Ediskun Haydar, Yeni Trk Dilbilgisi, 1996 Ergin Muharrem, Trk Dil Bilgisi, 1972 Fries Carl Carpenter, The Structure of English, 1952 Gatenby, Hornby and Wakefield; The Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English, 1952

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Gencan Tahir Nejat, Dilbilgisi, Kanaat Yaynlar, stanbul Geoffrey Lewish, Turkish Grammar, 2004 Gknel Yksel, English Workbook, Ahmet Sait Matbaas stanbul 1976 Gknel Yksel, Modern Trke Dilbilgisi, 1974 Esen Kitabevi, Kemeralt No. P. 30 ZMR Gknel Yksel, retici Dnml Dilbilgisi ve Trke Szdizimi 1976, Trk Dili XXXIII / 295 Gksel Asl, Celia Kerslake, Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2005 Hengirmen Mehmet, Trke Dilbilgisi, 2005 Hornby A.S., A Guide to Patterns and Usage in English 1954 Oxford Unversty Press Liles Robert B., An introductory Transformational Grammar, 1971 Max Black, Frederick A. Praeger Pinker Steven The Language Instinct, 1994. Pinker Steven How the Mind Works, 1997 Pinker Steven, Words and Rules, The Ingredients of Language, 2006 R. A. Close, A Reference Grammar for Students of English. Longman 1982 Sezer Ayhan, retimsel-Dnml Dilbilgisinin Trkeye Uygulanmas zerine Bir Gzlem Thomas Owen, Transformational Grammar and the Teacher of English, 1974 Tureng Szlk, www.tureng.com

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Language is a treasure owned by all human beings, which separates them from animals. This treasure is hidden in the minds of all people. Therefore it is very difficult for the human mind to understand the activity of this complicated mechanism that the mind itself uses.

People only hear the sounds of a language or see the letters


representing these sounds on printed matters. Traditional grammarians take these sounds or letters as a criterion, which are the only substantial data for them, and develop their grammars accordingly. Noam Chomsky and Steven Pinker asserted in their books that there is something lacking in traditional grammars. It is the inherent ability of the human intellect that produces the languages. In this book, I tried to describe the morphemic and oral sequences in Turkish including the mental sequences. This Turkish Grammar is considerably different from the traditional grammars. Those who think that they know everything about the Turkish Grammar will find out all the secrets of the Turksh Grammar that they cannot find in traditional grammars. Yksel Gknel

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