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Wireless Communication Basic

Knowledge


Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge




Applicable to: junior wireless communication engineers

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1 Communication basic knowledge Communication principle
2
3

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1 LTE principle and key technology
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Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge



About This Document
Summary
Chapter Description
1 Basic Conception of
Communications
Briefly describes the conception of system bandwidth, signal
bandwidth, Erlang, Blocking rate, GoS, dB, dBm, dBd, dBi,
dBc, dBW, bit, and Byte.
2 Radio Propagation Briefly describes the radio propagation theory, Radio
propagation model.



Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


TABLE OF CONTENTS1 ............................................ Basic Conception of Communications
1
1.1 System Bandwidth and Signal Bandwidth ......................................................... 1
1.1.1 System Bandwidth ............................................................................................ 1
1.1.2 Signal Bandwidth .............................................................................................. 3
1.2 Definition of Erlang ........................................................................................... 3
1.3 Blocking Rate ................................................................................................... 4
1.4 GOS ................................................................................................................. 5
1.5 Definitions of dB, dBm, dBi, dBd, dBc, and dBW .............................................. 6
1.6 Comparison Between Bit and Byte ................................................................... 7
2 Radio Propagation .......................................................................................... 7
2.1 Radio Propagation Theory ................................................................................ 7
2.1.1 Overview .......................................................................................................... 7
2.1.2 Free Space Propagation ................................................................................... 8
2.1.3 Relation Between Electric Field and Power .................................................... 11
2.1.4 Three Fundamental Propagation Mechanisms................................................ 14
2.2 Introduction to Radio Propagation Models ...................................................... 19
2.2.1 Overview ........................................................................................................ 19
2.2.2 Categories of Propagation Models .................................................................. 19
2.2.3 Macro Cell Propagation Model ........................................................................ 21
2.2.4 Micro Cell Propagation Model ......................................................................... 31
2.2.5 Indoor Propagation Model............................................................................... 33
2.2.6 Application of Propagation Model in Cellular Design ....................................... 34
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge



FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Equivalent noise bandwidth of low-pass filter ...................................................... 1
Figure 1-2 Equivalent noise bandwidth of band-pass filter.................................................... 2
Figure 1-3 Half-power point bandwidth ................................................................................. 2
Figure 1-4 System bandwidth B
e
of band-pass filter ............................................................. 3
Figure 2-1 Small-metric fading and large-metric fluctuation .................................................. 8
Figure 2-2 Energy stream density and input voltage of the receiver in the place with a
distance d from point source ................................................................................................. 12
Figure 2-3 Sketch diagram of calculating reflectance between two medias ........................ 15
Figure 2-4 Landform wave height ....................................................................................... 23
Figure 2-5 common slope landform .................................................................................... 24
Figure 2-6 Diffraction over ridge ......................................................................................... 25
Figure 2-7 Sea-lake mixing path......................................................................................... 26
Figure 2-8 Environment parameters and street parameters ............................................... 30
Figure 2-9 Multi-slot wave-guide model .............................................................................. 33
Figure 2-10 Digital map of one certain area........................................................................ 35
Figure 2-11 Forward receiving powers in one certain city ................................................... 36
Figure 2-12 Reverse receiving powers in one certain city ................................................... 37









Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


1 Basic Conception of Communications
1.1 System Bandwidth and Signal Bandwidth
1.1.1 System Bandwidth
In the communication system, all signals transmitted have certain bandwidth (that is,
occupy some band resources). To process the signals for a specific purpose, the system
bandwidth, that is, the band resource provided by the system, is a key performance
parameter. The following are the three ways that a system bandwidth can be defined:
1. Define the system bandwidth by the equivalent noise bandwidth: Suppose the
systems transmission function is H(f), then the equivalent noise bandwidth is given
by:
}

=
0
2
2
max
| ) ( |
| |
1
df f H
H
W
n

Where H
max
is the maximum amplitude of H(f).
For example, the equivalent noise bandwidth W
n
of the low-pass filter is illustrated in
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-1 Equivalent noise bandwidth of low-pass filter

Definition of the equivalent noise bandwidth W
n
is:
average power of the white noise passing W
n
= power of the white noise passing the
actual filter
For the band-pass filter with
0
f
as the center frequency as shown in Figure 1-2,
the definition of the equivalent noise bandwidth Bn is: average power of the white
noise passing Bn = power of the white noise passing the actual filter.
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Figure 1-2 Equivalent noise bandwidth of band-pass filter

2. Definition of the half-power point bandwidth or the so-called 3dB bandwidth byh the
half-power point of the power transfer function:
For the low-pass filter, the power transfer function at the half-power point W
1/2
is:
2
0
2
| ) ( |
2
1
| ) ( |
2 / 1
f H f H
W
=
For the band-pass filter, the power transfer function at the half-power point W
1/2
is:
2 2
0 2 / 1
| ) ( |
2
1
| ) ( |
f B
f H f H =
Figure 1-3 Half-power point bandwidth
For t he amplitude
frequency curve, it is
0.71

3. Definition of the system bandwidth B
e
by percentage of the total passed energy:
For the band-pass filter:
} }
+


=
2 /
2 /
2 2
0
0
| ) ( | ) 1 ( | ) ( |
e
e
B f
B f
df f H e df f H

Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Figure 1-4 System bandwidth B
e
of band-pass filter
|H(f)|
2
(dB)

In this case, bandwidth is also defined with respect to the power declinnation, with
the only exception that the declination is not fixed to 3dB, but at random, such as
1dB, 2dB, and so onand so on
For some low-pass filters such as the loop filter, the bandwidth is usually defined
with respect to the equivalent noise; for the band-pass filters, the bandwidth is
usually defined with a fixed 3dB declination or energy percentage.
1.1.2 Signal Bandwidth
As discussed above, bandwidth can be defined by the declination of a certain percentage
(dB) of the power transfer function. This concept can also be used to define the signal
bandwidth if
2
| ) ( | f H is replaced by the signals Fourier Transformation (FT)
2
| ) ( | f X . For the average power of random signals, use the frequency density ) ( f S
x

to replace
2
| ) ( | f X . And similarly, the signal may have bandwidths of 1dB, 2dB, or 3dB,
or a 90% power (energy) or 95% power (energy) bandwidth.
The system bandwidth is to the signal bandwidth as the car is to the road.
A certain main lobe bandwidth is the requirement on the system bandwidth of the signal
bandwidth. For example, to transmit voice signals with a rate of 32Kbps through BPSK,
the system bandwidth should be 64kHz or above; another example is that the system
bandwidth determines the bandwidth of signals that can be transmitted. For example, the
ordinary digital voice channel cannot transmit digital color signals, and a 14kHz system
can transmit 216Kbps voice signals.
1.2 Definition of Erlang
In the telephone switching system, demand of the source for the server is called the
traffic, whereas the traffic on the server is called the traffic load. The definition of traffic or
traffic load is as follows:
The traffic load produced (or shouldered) by a source (or a server) during the period T is
the total sum of the lasted time of all services during this period. Two factors are related
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

4

to the traffic load: the call intensity (degree of demand frequency) and call duration (time
lasted for each service).
Suppose n calls occur during the period T, and the average call duration of the calls is
hav, then the traffic load is: AT=n*hav. In order to calculate the traffic density, first define
he
source or the average calls within a unit period. The traffic flow is the total of service time
within the unit period, which represents the occupation ratio of a single source or server.
The occupation ratio is forever less than or equal to 1. The unit of the traffic flow is Erlang.
In practice, the traffic flow is usually called the traffic.
Note: The dimension of traffic is time, but the traffic flow has no dimension.
If the unit of the call intensity is call/hour, and the unit of the call duration is 100s, then
another unit of the traffic flow is hundred call seconds (ccs), which is a unit frequently
used in North American countries. The unit of call duration in Erlang definition is hour,
therefore: 1erl=36ccs.
1.3 Blocking Rate
Due to economic reasons, links that can be provided in a given area are usually much
fewer than the telephone subscribers. When someone makes a call, it might be possible
for all links to be busy, which is called blocking or time blocking. The more the links
can be provided, the lower the blocking rate of the system and the better the QoS
provided to the subscribers. That is, the bearing capabilities of the telephone system
decide the number of links, which in turn decides the blocking rate of the system.
The call blocking rate is given by:
( )
( )

=
=
S
k
K
S
blocking
K
S
P
0
!
!



Where, the unit of / is Erlang. In physics, / means the number of simultaneous call
links. In Poisson distribution, / means the frequency of occurrence of a certain
parameter. For example, in the queue events, the physical meaning of / is the amount
of increased queue length in a unit time. Another example can also explain the Poisson
distribution.
Suppose that during a given period of time [0, 1], the number of accidents at a crossroad
is . Now divide the time equally into n parts, n
1 2
[0,1 ], [1 , 2 ], l n l n n = =
Supposition 1: The probability of having one accident within l
i
is proportional to length of
time, and the probability of having two accidents within l
i
is zero. is a constant, and the
probability of the accident within l
i
is /n.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Supposition 2: Within each part of the period, events of accident occurrence are mutually
independent.
Then, how is the probability of having i accidents?
Obviously, the probability of having i accidents is in binomial distribution.
i n i
n n i
n
i x P

|
.
|

\
|

|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

1 ) (
When ,

|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
e
n
n n
i
n
n
1 , ! 1 !

= = =

! ) ( i e i x P
i

In the above formula, the meanings of the various parameters of the Poisson distribution
are: is the frequency of occurrence, the index i means that the same event occurs i
times within a given period of time, and the formula gives the probability of having i
events within a given period of time.
The trunk seizure in fixed line communication can be described with the Poisson
distribution. Suppose that, in a given period, the average call duration is 1/. Now divide
the duration equally into n parts, then each part is 1/(n). Now, repeat the same analysis,
hence:
( )
( )
! ) ( i e i x P
i


= =
When there are only n trunk lines, the concept of i=n is the blocking rate. Hence:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

= =

n
i
n
n
i
n
blocking
i
n
i e
n e
P
0 0
!
!
!
!







Where / is the traffic in Erlang within the unit period of time.
Given the same capacity in Erlang, the higher the allowed blocking rate is, the fewer the
required links.
1.4 GOS
GOS means Grade of Service (Quality of Service). The blocking rate, together with other
performance indexes of system quality, constitutes the GOS provided by the system to
the subscribers.
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1.5 Definitions of dB, dBm, dBi, dBd, dBc, and dBW
1. dBm
dBm is the absolute value of power, equivalent to 1mW. Calculation of 1dBm is 10lg
(P value /lmW).
For example, if the transmitting power P is 10W, then, in dBm: 10lg(10W/1mW)
=10lg(10000)=40dBm. Therefore it can be said the transmitting power P is 40dBm.
2. dBi, dBd
dBi and dBd are both relative values for power gain, but have different references.
The reference of dBi is the omni-antenna (isotrophic radiator), while that of dBd is
the dipole (half-wave dipole antenna). Therefore, the values of dBi and dBd are
slightly different, and the gain expressed in dBi is 2.15 larger than the same gain
expressed in dBd.
For example: the antenna gain of 16 dBd can be converted into 18.15 dBi (the
integral value is 18 dBi).
3. dB
For voltage V, current I and field intensity E: 20logdB
For power P: 10logdB
dB is the relative value of power. To calculate how much dB power A is more or less
than power B, use the formula: 10lg (power A/power B).
For example, if the gain of antenna A is 20dBd, and that of antenna B is 14dBd, then
the gain of antenna A is 6dB larger than that of antenna B.
4. dBc
dBc is usually used to describe the performance of RF components. dBc is also a
relative value of power that has the same calculation method as that of dB.
Generally speaking, dBc is a relative value used on many occasions for describing
the carrier power, such as measuring the interference (co-frequency interference,
intermodulation interference, cross-modulation interference, and out-of-band
interference), coupling, and scattering, and so on. In principle, where dBc is applied,
dB can replace it.
5. dBW
Similar to dBm, dBW is an absolute value of power. The formula is 10log(W).
For example, power of 1W can be converted to dBW by: 10log1=0dBW, power of
2W can be converted to: 10log=3dBW.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


1.6 Comparison Between Bit and Byte
1. Bit is 0 or 1 carried in the baseband signal. Each digit represents 1 bit;
2. 1 byte=8 bits. At the earlier stage, the AUX adder uses 8 bits for one calculating
action. Therefore, it is called the eight-bit system. The concept byte is seldom used
in CDMA baseband processing;
2 Radio Propagation
2.1 Radio Propagation Theory
2.1.1 Overview
Mechanisms of electromagnetic wave propagation are diverse, but in general the
electromagnetic waves can be propagated through reflection, diffraction, and scattering.
The majority of cellular wireless systems operate in urban areas where there is no LOS
path between the transmitter and the receiver and the high-rises cause strong diffraction
loss. Besides, as there are multiple paths of propagation through different materials and
the paths have varying lengths; electromagnetic waves propagated along such paths
interact with each other and this causes multi-path loss. As the distance between the
transmitter and the receiver increases, the electromagnetic intensity decreases.
Traditionally, research on the propagation model focuses on predicting the mean
receiving field intensity within a given area and the fluctuation of the field intensity. The
propagation model for predicting the mean field intensity and estimating the wireless
coverage is called the large-metric propagation model due to the fact that it deals with the
intensity fluctuation over a long distance (of several hundred or several thousand meters)
between the transmitter and the receiver (T-R). The propagation model for predicting the
rapid fluctuation of the receiving field intensity over a short distance (of several wave
lengths) or a short period of time (in seconds) is called the small-metric fading model.
When the mobile station moves within an extremely small area, it may cause rapid
fluctuation in the instant receiving field intensity, which is called small-metric fading. The
reason is that the phase changes in random, which in turn causes synthesis of received
signals from different directions to fluctuate greatly. For the small-metric fading, the
receiving field intensity may change by 3 or 4 levels (30dB or 40dB) if the length of the
mobile station movement equals to the wave length. As the mobile station moves away
from the transmitter and the local field intensity decreases, the mean receiving field
intensity should be predicted by applying the large-metric propagation model. Typically,
the local field intensity is calculated with the mean value of signal measurements within 5
- 40. For the cellular system with a frequency range between 1 GHz and 2 GHz, the
measuring range should be between 1m and 10m.
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Figure 2-1 shows the rapid small-metric fading and slow large-metric fluctuation of an
indoor wireless communication system.
Figure 2-1 Small-metric fading and large-metric fluctuation
R
e
c
e
i
v
i
n
g

p
o
w
e
r

(
d
B
m
)
T-R distance (m)

2.1.2 Free Space Propagation
The free space propagation model is used for predicting the receiving field intensity
between the transmitter and the receiver where there are completely free LOS paths.
Satellite communication and microwave wireless LOS links have typical free space
propagation. Similar to the majority of large-metric radio wave propagation models, the
free space propagation model predicts that fading of the receiving power is a function of
the T-R distance (an idempotent function). The receiving power of the antenna in free
space at a distance d from the transmitter is shown by the Friis formula:
L d
G G P
d P
r t t
r
2 2
2
) 4 (
) (
t

= (1)
Where
t
P is the transmitting power; ) (d P
r
is the receiving power, a function of the
T-R distance;
t
G is the gain of the transmitting antenna;
r
G is the gain of the
receiving antenna; d, in meters, is the T-R distance; L is the system loss factor which is
independent of propagation; , in meters, is the wave length.
The antenna gain is subject to the effective section area of the antenna:
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


2
4

t
e
A
G =
(2)
The effective section area
e
A is related to the physical dimensions of the antenna, while
is related to the frequency:
c
c
f
c
e
t

2
= =
(3)
Where f , in Hz, is the frequency;
c
e , in rad/s, and c, in m/s, is the light speed.
t
P
and
r
P shall have the same unit, and
t
G and
r
G are dimensionless values.
Aggregate loss L (L 1) is, typically, the total of transmitting line fading, filter loss, and
antenna loss. L=1 indicates that the system hardware has no loss.
As revealed in Formula (2.1), the receiving power decreases with the square of the T-R
distance. That is, the ratio of the fading of the receiving power to the T-R distance is
20dB/10 octave.
The ideal omni-antenna that has the same unit gain in all directions is usually used as the
reference antenna of the wireless communication system. The effective omni-directional
radiation power (EIRP) is defined as:
t t
G P EIRP =
(4)
which is the maximum radiation power of the transmitter in the direction of maximum
antenna gain as compared with the omni-antenna.
But in practice, the effective radiation power (ERP) is usually used instead of the EIRP
to indicate the maximum radiation power against the half-wave bipolarized sub-antenna.
As the bipolarized sub-antenna has 1.64 units of gain (which is 2.15dB higher the
omni-antenna), ERP is 2.15dB lower than EIRP for the same transmission system. In
effect, the antenna gain is in dBi (the gain in dB against the isotropic radiator) or in dBd
(the gain in dB against the half-wave bipolarized sub-antenna).
The path loss, a positive value in dB indicating signal fading, is defined as the difference
between the effective transmitting power and the receiving power, including or excluding
the antenna gain. If the antenna gain is included, the free space path loss is:
(

= =
2 2
2
) 4 (
log 10 log 10 ) (
d
G G
P
P
dB PL
r t
r
t
t

(5)
If the antenna gain is excluded and it has the unit gain, the path loss is:
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

10

(

= =
2 2
2
) 4 (
log 10 log 10 ) (
d P
P
dB PL
r
t
t

(6)
The Friis free space propagation model applies if and only if d indicates the value of the
far field of the transmitting antenna. The far field of the antenna is defined as the area
beyond
f
d , the far field distance that is related to the maximum linear dimensions of the
transmitting antenna and the wave length of the carrier.

2
2D d
f
= (7)
Where, D is the maximum physical dimension of the antenna. Also, for the far field,
f
d
shall meet the following condition:
D d
f
>> and >>
f
d
Obviously, equation (1) does not allow d = 0. Therefore, the large-metric propagation
model uses the near distance
0
d as the reference value of the receiving power.
When
0
d d > , the receiving power ) (d P
r
is related to
r
P at the distance
0
d .
) (
0
d P
r
can be predicted from the equation (1) or derived from the mean measurement.
The reference distance must be in the far field, that is,
f
d d >
0
, where
0
d is smaller
than the actual distance applied in the mobile communication system. Hence, derived
from equation (1) in the distance beyond
0
d , the receiving power in the free space is:
f r r
d d d
d
d
d P d P > >
|
.
|

\
|
=
0
2
0
0
) ( ) ( (8)
In the wireless mobile system, it is common for
r
P to have changes of several quantity
levels within the typical coverage area of several square kilometers. As the receiving
level varies violently, it is usually represented in dBm or dBW. The equation (11) can
have dBm or dBW as the unit, if both ends of the equation are multiplied by 10. For
example, if
r
P is in dBm, the receiving power is calculated by:
f
r
r
d d d
d
d
W
d P
dBm d P > >
|
.
|

\
|
+
(

=
0
0 0
log 20
001 . 0
) (
log 10 ) (
(9)
Where ) (
0
d P
r
is in watts.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


In the actual system which uses low gain antenna, if the indoor value of
0
d is 1m, and
the value outdoor is 100m or 1km, the numerators in equation 8 and 9 are multiplied by
10 to make it easy to calculate the path loss in dB.
[Example 1]
If the transmitter sends 50W power, convert it to unit dBm and dBW. If the transmitter has
unit gain antenna and the frequency is 900MHz, analyze how many dBm is receiving
power at the distance 100m from free space to the antenna, and what is at the
distance of 10km (suppose that the receiving antenna has unit gain)?
Solution:
Known:
Transmitting power W P
t
50 = ;
Frequency MHz f
c
900 =
a) Transmitting power
| | | | dBm mW mW P dBm P
t t
0 . 47 10 50 log 10 ) 1 /( ) ( log 10 ) (
3
= = =

b) Transmitting power
| | dBW W W P dBW P
t t
0 . 17 50 log 10 ) 1 /( ) ( log 10 ) ( = = =
Receiving power at the distance 100m:
mW W
L d
G G P
P
r t t
r
3 6
2 2
2
2 2
2
10 5 . 3 10 5 . 3
) 1 ( ) 100 ( ) 4 (
) 3 / 1 )( 1 )( 1 ( 50
) 4 (

= = = =
t t


| | dBm mW mW P dBm P
r r
5 . 24 10 5 . 3 log 10 ) ( log 10 ) (
3
= = =


Receiving power at the distance 10km:
dBm dB dBm m P km P
r r
5 . 64 40 5 . 24
10000
100
log 20 ) 100 ( ) 10 ( = =
(

+ =

2.1.3 Relation Between Electric Field and Power
In a free space, the energy stream density
) (
2
m W P
d
is:
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12

2
2 2
2 2
4 4
m W
E
R
E
d
G P
d
EIRP
P
fs
t t
d
q t t
= = = =
(10)
Where
fs
R is inherence impedance, In free space ) 377 ( 120 O O = t q . Hence
energy stream density is:
2
2
377
m W
E
P
d
O
=
(11)
Where E is electric field radiation part in remote ground field.
Figure 2-2 Energy stream density and input voltage of the receiver in the place with a
distance d from point source

Figure 2-2 (a) shows the energy stream density situation from omni-antenna in free
space.
d
P is EIRP insulated by a ball surface whose radius is d. The receiving power in
d is the product of energy stream density and receiving antennas valid acreage:
W
d
G G P
A
E
A P d P
r t t
e e d r 2 2
2
2
) 4 ( 120
) (
t

t
= = =
(12)
The equation (12) associates field intensity unit V/m with receiving power unit Watt, which
is the same as equation (1) when L =1.
Generally it is very useful to associate the receiving level and receiver input voltage with
induced electric field E. If the receiving antenna is modeling as a matching impedance
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


load of the receiver, the receiving antenna will induce a voltage into the receiver, which is
half of open circuit voltage in antenna.
Hence, if V is the receivers input voltage and
ant
R is matching receivers impedance,
the receiving power is:
ant
ant
ant
ant
ant
r
R
V
R
V
R
V
d P
4
] 2 [
) (
2 2 2
= = =
(13)
By formula (11) and formula (13), the relation between receiving power and receiving
electric field or receiving electric field and receiving antenna terminal open circuit voltage
is established. Note that Vant =V without load.
[Example 2]
Supposing the distance between receiver and transmitter is10km, the transmitters power
is 50W, carrier is 900MHz, and free space propagation exists, 1 =
t
G and
2 =
r
G ,ask:(a) the receivers power; (b) receiving antenna electric field; (c) receivers
input voltage supposing receiver antenna has 50 O ideal impedance and matches with
the receiver.
Answer:
Known:
Transmitting power W P
t
50 = ;
frequency MHz f
c
900 = ;
Transmitting antenna gain 1 =
t
G ;
Receiving antenna gain 2 =
r
G ;
receiver antenna impedance O = 50 .
a) Using formula (5), when km d 10 = , the receiving power is:
dBm dBW
L d
G G P
d P
r t t
r
5 . 61 5 . 91
10000 ) 4 (
) 3 / 1 ( 2 1 50
log 10
) 4 (
log 10 ) (
2 2
2
2 2
2
= =
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
t t


b) Using formula (12), antenna receiving electric field is:
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14

V/m 0039 . 0
4 / 33 . 0 2
120 10 7
4 /
120 ) ( 120 ) (
2
10
2
=


= = =

t
t
t
t t
r
r
e
r
G
d P
A
d P
E

c) Using formula (13), receiver input open circuit voltage is:
mV 374 . 0 50 4 10 7 4R ) (
10
ant
= = =

d P V
r ant

2.1.4 Three Fundamental Propagation Mechanisms
In mobile communication, there are three fundamental mechanisms that affect
propagation: reflection, diffraction, and scattering. The receiving power (or its opposite:
the path loss) is the most important parameter that the reflection, diffraction, and
scattering-based large-metric propagation models predict. The three mechanisms also
describe the small-metric fading and multi-path propagation.
When the electromagnetic wave encounters obstacles such as the earth surface,
buildings, and building walls that have a much longer wave length, reflection occurs.
When the wireless link between the transmitter and the receiver is blocked by sharp
edges, diffraction occurs. The resulting secondary waves are diffracted in the space,
even to the back of the obstacle. Even if there is no LOS path between the transmitter
and the receiver, wave bending can occur around the obstacle. In the high frequency
band, diffraction, just as reflection, is subject to the shape of the obstacle as well as the
incident wave amplitude at the diffraction point, its phase, and polarization.
When the transmitting medium of the electromagnetic wave has materials smaller than
the wave length and the quantity in the unit volume is prodigious, scattering occurs. The
scattering wave is produced on the rugged surface, small materials, or other things with
irregular shapes. In the actual communication system, leaves, the street signs. and light
posts all cause scattering.
1. Reflection
In the intersecting place of media with different properties, part of electromagnetic
waves is reflected and the rest passes through. If the incident plane waves
encounter the surface of the ideal medium, and part of the energy enters the second
medium while part of it is reflected back into the first medium, then no energy is lost.
If the second medium is an ideal reflector, then all energy will be reflected back to
the first medium, and no energy is lost. The field intensities of the reflected waves
and the transmitting waves depend on Fresnel reflection coefficient ( ), which is a
function of the material and related to the polarization, incident angle, and
frequency.
In case that the electromagnetic waves penetrate into the intersecting plane of the
medium and have no reflection, such an incident angle is called Brewster Angle. In
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


this case, the reflection coefficient is 0. Note that Brewster Angle only occurs in case
of vertical polarization.
i. Reflection of the electric media
As shown in Figure 2-3, an angle of incidence of electromagnetic wave is
i
u ,
the common boundary between two electric medias is plane with a portion of
energy being reflected to the first media in
r
u and a portion of energy going
into the second media in
t
u . Reflection property varies with electric field
polarization. The feature in special direction is researched from two different
situations, as shown in Figure 2-3. Incidence plane is defined as a plane
including incidence wave, reflection wave, and refraction wave. In Figure 2-3
(a), electric field polarization is parallel to the incidence wave plane, namely
electric field is vertical polarization wave or orthogonal part of the reflection
plane; In Figure 2-3 (b), electric field polarization is vertical to the incidence
wave plane, namely electric field is vertical to the paper and parallel to the
reflection plane and points to the reader.
Figure 2-3 Sketch diagram of calculating reflectance between two medias

In Figure 2-3, subscript i, r, and t mean incidence, reflection, and transmission
field respectively. Parameter
1
c ,
1
,
1
o and
2
c ,
2
,
2
o mean media
constant of two medias, refractive indexes, and conductance.
Generally, ideal electric media has no spoilage and insulation constant is
relevant to media constant
r
c , namely
r
c c c
0
= and m F / 10 85 . 8
12
0

= c . If
the electric media has spoilage, it will absorb a portion of energy and its
insulation constant is calculated by the below formula:
c c c c ' = j
r 0
(14)
In the formula (14)
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

16

f t
o
c
2
= ' (15)
o is conductance (unit:S/m). When the material is a good conductor,
) (
0 r
f c c o < and
r
c is relevant to o . In terms of electric media with
spoilage,
0
c and
r
c dont change with frequency, but o is relevant to
frequency.
To ask for reflection problems two orthogonal polarizations needs be
considered. Reflectances which is vertical or parallel with polarization field in
the media boundary are:
i t
i t
i
r
E
E
u q u q
u q u q
sin sin
sin sin
1 2
1 2
//
+

= = I (16)
t i
t i
i
r
E
E
u q u q
u q u q
sin sin
sin sin
1 2
1 2
+

= = I

(17)
Where,
i
q is implicit impedance when media ii=1, 2, is
i i
c .
Electromagnetic wave rate is
c 1
, boundary condition on the incidence
plane abides by Snell theorem. See Figure 2-3, the formula is:
) 90 sin( ) 90 sin(
2 2 1 1 t i
u c u c = (18)
The Maxwell formula boundary term deduces the formula (16) with (17) and
formula (18), (19) with (20).
r i
u u = (19)
And
i r
E E I = (20)
i t
E E ) 1 ( I + = (21)
I(or
//
I , or

I ) depends on polarization.
When the first media is free space and
2 1
= , in vertical polarization and
horizontal polarization cases reflectance is simply:
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


i r i r
i r i r
u c u c
u c u c
2
2
//
cos sin
cos sin
+
+
= I
(22)
i r i
i r i
u c u
u c u
2
2
cos sin
cos sin
+

= I

(23)
ii. Brewster angle
In case that the electromagnetic waves penetrate into the intersecting plane of
the medium and have no reflection, such an incident angle is called Brewster
Angle. In this case, the reflection coefficient is 0.
Brewster angle
B
u fulfils:
2 1
1
) sin(
c c
c
u
+
=
B
(24)
When the first media is free space and the second media relative coefficient is
r
c , formula (24) is:
1
1
) sin(
2

=
r
r
B
c
c
u (25)
Note that Brewster Angle only occurs in case of vertical polarization.
iii. Reflection of ideal conductor
Because the electromagnetic wave can't penetrate the ideal conductor, plane
wave shoots the ideal conductor and all its energy is reflected back. To abide
by Maxwell formula, anytime electric field surface of the conductor must be 0,
and the reflection wave must equal to the incidence wave. In term of electric
field polarization is on the incidence wave plane, the boundary condition
requires:
r i
u u =
(26)
And
r i
E E =
(27)
Electric field is parallel to incidence wave plane Also, Electric field is vertical
polarization, boundary condition requires:
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18

r i
u u =
(28)
And
r i
E E =
(29)
Electric field is parallel with incidence wave plane
Refers to formula (26) ~ (29), get
//
I
=1 and

I
= -1 in any incidence angle for
the ideal conductor.
2. Diffraction
Diffraction enables the wireless signals to propagate around the earth curve and
reach the back of the obstacle. Although when the receiver moves into the shadow
of the obstacle, the receiving field intensity attenuates very rapidly, the diffraction
field still exists and usually has a strong enough intensity.
The phenomenon of diffraction can be explained with Huygens Principle. According
to Huygens Principle, the wavefront of a propagating wave of light at any point may
be regarded as the source of secondary waves and conform to the envelope of
spherical wavelets emanating from every point on the wavefront at the prior instant.
The principle was later developed by Fresnel who believed that the radiation field of
a propagating wave at any point in the space is the result of the superposition of the
waves emanated from the secondary waves of the points enveloping the wave
source. This is the Huygens-Fresnel Principle, and the secondary wave source is
called Huygens wavelet.
3. Scattering
In the actual mobile communication environment, the received signal intensity is
stronger than mere diffraction or that predicted with the reflection model. This is
because, when the electromagnetic waves encounter the rugged surface, the
reflected energy is scattered to all directions. Trees, street signs, light posts etc all
scatter energy in every direction, which provides extra energy to the signals
received by the receiver.
The smooth plane with a width much larger than the wave length can be modeled
into a reflection plane. For the rugged plane, the reflection coefficient should be
multiplied by a scattering loss coefficient
s

to indicate a weakened reflection field.


The degree of ruggedness can be calculated with the Rayleigh distribution principle,
which defines the reference height
c
h
for ruggedness calculation with a given
incident angle
i
u
as:
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


i
c
h
u

sin 8
= (30)
If the maximum height h of the obtrusion of the plane is smaller than
c
h , then the
plane is considered smooth. Otherwise, it is considered rugged.
2.2 Introduction to Radio Propagation Models
2.2.1 Overview
During the planning and optimization phases of the mobile communication network, the
most important propagation issue is path loss that represents large-metric propagation
features and is characteristic of the idempotent law. Path loss is an important reference
for mobile communication system planning and design, and has influence on coverage,
S/N, near-far effect for cellular design. Therefore, at the initial stage of mobile
communication system design or future capacity expansion and network optimization,
anticipation of path loss should be made. The radio propagation model can be used to
anticipate the path loss in different propagation environments so as to build a better local
wireless communication network.
Introduction to the radio propagation models includes: characteristics of radio
propagation in mobile communication, macro cell propagation models, micro cell
propagation models, indoor propagation models in different application environments,
and application of the propagation models in the cellular design.
Radio waves sent from the base station suffer not only from path loss in atmospheric
transmission, but also from loss in the ground propagation path that depends heavily on
topographic conditions. The antenna of the mobile station is usually very low and close to
the ground, which is one of the causes for extra propagation loss. Generally speaking,
the ground quality and ruggedness usually cause energy loss and reduce the intensity of
signals received by the mobile station and base station. Such kind of loss, combined with
free space loss, constitutes the transmission path loss.
It is an extremely arduous task to precisely prescribe the signal change in such complex
environments. The various models introduced in the following part describe the local
radio signal changes predicted by a large amount of field data or precise theoretic
electromagnetic calculations.
2.2.2 Categories of Propagation Models
In mobile communication design, a key task is to make the network have a satisfactory
quality of service (coverage ratio, voice quality, call drop rate, and call completion rate)
while meeting the mobile users demand of traffic capacity. A considerable part of the
quality requirements are related to the quality of the received signals, which is largely
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

20

decided by the propagation conditions between sending and receiving ends. During the
radio wave propagation of the mobile communication, propagation path loss is one of the
major parameters that are concerned. We can use the radio propagation model-based
analytic method to predict the radio wave propagation path loss.
By the characteristics of radio propagation models, they can be divided into the following
categories:
1. Empirical model
2. Quasi-empirical or quasi-assured model
3. Assured model
The empirical model is an equation derived from statistics and analysis of a host of test
results. Prediction of path loss with the empirical model is very simple and does not
require precise information of the related environment, but cannot produce extremely
precise value of evaluation of the path loss.
The assured model is a method that calculates the specific field environment by directly
applying the electromagnetic theory. Environment description, which may have different
levels of precision, can be made from the topographic condition database. In the assured
model, the several technologies that have been applied are usually based on radiation
tracking. They are: Geometric diffraction theory (GTD), Physical Optics (PO), and the
precision methods not frequently used, such as Integral Equation (IE) method or Finite
Differentiation of Time Domain method (FDTD). In downtown area, mountainous area
and indoor environments, assured radio propagation prediction is an extremely complex
electromagnetic task.
The quasi-empirical or quasi-assured model is an equation derived by applying the
assured method in the general downtown or indoor environments. Sometimes, to
improve compliance with the experiment result, the equation should be modified in light of
the experiment result and the resulting equation is about the function of a certain property
of the neighboring area of the antenna.
Due to the diversity of the mobile communication environments, each propagation model
is targeted for a special kind of environments. Therefore, they can be classified by the
environment where the propagation model is applied. There are three commonly seen
kinds of environments (cells): the macro cell, micro cell and Picocell.
The macro cell has a large area with a radius between 1 and 30km. In the macro cell, the
base station transmitting antenna is usually mounted on the top of neighboring building,
and there is no direct ray between the transmitting and receiving ends.
The micro cell has a radius between 0.1 and 1km, and is not necessarily round in shape.
The transmitting antenna can have the same height with, or slightly higher or lower than
the surrounding buildings. Usually, according to the position of the transmitting and
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


receiving antenna relative to the environmental obstacles, there are two categories: LOS
(line of sight) and NLOS (non-line of sight).
The picocell typically has a radius between 0.01 and 0.1km. It can be an indoor and an
outdoor cell. The transmitting antenna is under the roof or inside the building. Whether it
is indoor or outdoor cell, usually LOS and NLOS should be considered respectively.
Generally, the three kinds of models and the three kinds of cells are matched. For
example, the empirical and the quasi-empirical models are suitable for the uniform macro
cell, and the quasi-empirical model is suitable for uniform micro cell. In such cases,
parameters of the models can very well represent the entire environment. The assured
model is suitable for micro cells and picocells, whatever the shape is, but not suitable for
the macro cell, since the CPU time required by the macro cell makes such technologies
ineffective.
2.2.3 Macro Cell Propagation Model
2.2.3.1 Okumura-Hata Model
The Okumura-Hata model is fit with formulas by Hata who drew on the large quantity of
test data of Okumura. To apply the Okumura model, various curves should be found and
it is thus not suitable for computer-based prediction. Based on Okumuras basic mean
field intensity prediction curve, Hata matched the curves and introduced the empirical
formula of propagation loss, that is, , the Okumura-Hata model.
For simplicity, the above model makes three hypotheses:
1. Suppose it is the propagation loss processing between two omni-antennas;
2. Suppose it is a quasi-smooth topography instead of an irregular topography;
3. The propagation loss formula for urban area is taken as the standard, while the
formula for other areas is modified from the standard with the correction formula.
Applicable conditions:
1. The frequency f is between 150 and 1500MHz;
2. The effective height of the base station antenna is between 30 and 200m;
3. The height of the mobile station antenna is between 1 and 10m;
4. Distance of communication is between 1 and 35km;
Propagation loss formula:
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

22

) )(lg lg 55 . 6 9 . 44 ( ) ( lg 82 . 13 lg 16 . 26 55 . 69 d h h a h f L
b urban b m b
+ + =

Formula explanation:
The unit of d is km, and the unit of f is MHz;
L
b urban
is the basic mean value of
propagation loss for the urban area; hb and hm, in meters, are the effective heights of the
base station and mobile station antennas.
Calculation of the base station antenna effective height: Suppose the height of the base
station antenna from the ground is
s
h
, the base station ground height above sea level
is
g
h
, the mobile station antenna height from the ground is
m
h
, the mobile station
ground height above sea level is
mg
h
, then the effective height of the base station
antenna hb=
s
h
+
g
h
-
mg
h
, and the effective height of the mobile station antenna is
m
h
.
Note: There are many methods for calculation of the effective height of the base station
antenna. For example, the average of the ground height above sea level within 5 to 10km
away from the base station; the topographic fitting curve of the ground height above sea
level within 5 to 10 km away from the base station and so on. Different methods of
calculation is not only related to the applied propagation model, but also related to
different calculation accuracy.
Correction factors for the mobile station antenna height:

=
>
< <

=
m h
MHz f h
MHz f h
f h f
h a
m
m
m
m
m
5 . 1 0
400 97 . 4 ) 75 . 11 (lg 2 . 3
200 150 1 . 1 ) 54 . 1 (lg 29 . 8
) 8 . 0 lg 56 . 1 ( ) 7 . 0 lg 1 . 1 (
) (
2
2
Large cities
Medium- and small-sized cities

Correction factors for long-distance propagation:

> + + +
s
=
20 )
20
)(lg 10 07 . 1 10 87 . 1 14 . 0 ( 1
20 1
8 . 0 3 4
d
d
h f
d
b

There are also correction factors for various environments.
Kstreet-the correction factor for streets
Generally only the loss correction curve is given, which is horizontal or vertical with
spread direction, for the sake of calculation easily, with fitting formula of arbitrarily angle.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Supposing the clip angle between spread direction and street as , then:

< +
s +
=
1 ) cos 6 . 7 sin 9 . 5 (
1 cos ) lg
6
10
6 . 7 ( sin ) lg
6
11
9 . 5 (
d
d d d
K
street
u u
u u

In practice, the street effect will disappear at 8 km to 10 km generally, so only consider
distance shorter than 10 km.
Kmr-the correction factor for suburbs
) 4 . 5 )) 28 / (lg( 2 (
2
+ = f K
mr

Qo-the correction factor for open area
) 94 . 40 lg 33 . 18 ] [lg 78 . 4 (
2
+ = f f Q
o

Qr-the correction factor for quasi-open areas
5 . 5
0
+ = Q Q
r

Ru-the correction factor for rural areas
17 . 23 lg 17 . 9 ) (lg 39 . 2 )
28
(lg
2 2
+ = f f
f
R
u

Kh-the correction factor for
hills

s > A + A + A +
> > A A + A +
< A
=
1 , 15 ) 2 . 7 ) lg 96 . 6 024 . 0 7 . 5 (
1 , 15 ) 2 . 7 lg 5 . 9 ( ) lg 96 . 6 024 . 0 7 . 5 (
15 0
1
1 1
h h h h
h h h h h
h
K
h

landform wave height. As shown in Figure 2-4, extend 10km from MS to BTS, if less
than 10km, use actual distance to make the calculation. It is applicable to multi wave to
calculate difference between 10% and 90% of the wave height in this scope (wave
times) >3.
Figure 2-4 Landform wave height

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24

min 1
8 / h h h h
mg
A =
,
min
h
is the minimum landform height of the h in calculating
section plane.
Ksp-the correction factor for slopes
Figure 2-5 common slope landform

1)
2)
3)
BTS
h
1

h
2

H
+
m

d
3

d
2

d
MS
d
2

d
1

(a) positive slope+
m



d
1

h
1

H
1) 2)
3)
d
2
d
3

d
h
2

(b) negative slope-
m

-
m


It is possible that slope landform produces the second ground reflection. When horizontal
distance d2>d1, as shown in Figure 2-5, it is possible that the positive slope and negative
slope produce the second ground reflection.
Approximately conclude that slope correction factor is:
m m m sp
d d K u u u 44 . 0 002 . 0 008 . 0
2
+ =

Where,
m
u
unit: milli radian, d unit: km;
m
u
the average obliquity of the landform height, 1km in front of /behind MS on the
section plane of the connection line between MS and BTS.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Kimthe correction factor for independent mountains
Here, use diffraction over ridge loss to make the calculation. Though the calculated
quantity is larger, the result is exact.

Figure 2-6 Diffraction over ridge

As shown in Figure 2-6, consider single ridges 4 parameters,
1
r ,
2
r ,
p
h , and working
wave length ;
Calculate new parameter v with these 4 parameters:
)
1 1
(
2
2 1
r r
h v
p
+ =


Calculate refraction loss:

<=
> + + +
=
7 . 0 0
7 . 0 ) 1 . 0 1 ) 1 . 0 ( lg( 20 9 . 6
2
v
v v v
K
im

Ks-the correction factor for sea (lake) mixed paths
During propagation path if there is a water area, consider two cases, as shown in Figure
2-7
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26

Figure 2-7 Sea-lake mixing path
BTS
MS
d
s

d
BTS
MS
d
d
s

(a)land is near BTS (b) water area is near BTS

Define that correction factor is:

+
+
=
) 6 . 9 48 . 0 ( : ) (
) 81 . 0 68 . 0 / 0 . 7 ( : ) (
2
2
q qd b
d q q q a
K
ts

Where, q=ds /d%), ds is length of full water area in section plane.
Determinant method for selection formula (a) or (b):
If there is a water area, 200 m near BTS on the section plane of MS and BTS, then:
2 / )) ( ) ( ( b K a K K
s
+ =
Or else
) (b K K
s
=
S(a)-the correction factor for building density

s
s < + +
s <
=
1 20
5 1 ) 20 lg 19 . 0 ) (lg 6 . 15 (
100 5 ) lg 25 30 (
) (
2
a
a a a
a a
a S

where, a is building density, shown with %.
Combination usage situation of the all correction factors:
Collectivity path loss:

+ +

+ + + =
r
mr
u
sp
im
h
s
street b
Q
Q
K
R
K
K
K
K
a S K L L
0
0
0
) (
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


2.2.3.2 COST231-Hata Model
The COST231-Hata model is also based on the test results of Okumura and derived by
analyzing the Okumura propagation curve for relatively high frequency ranges.
Applicable conditions:
1. The frequency f is between 1500 and 2000MHz;
2. The effective height of the base station antenna is between 30 and 200m;
3. The height of the mobile station antenna is between 1 and 10m;
4. Distance of communication is between 1 and 35km;
Propagation loss formula:
m b m b b
C d h h a h f L + + + = lg ) lg 55 . 6 9 . 44 ( ) ( lg 82 . 13 lg 9 . 33 3 . 46


Formula explanation:
The unit of d is km, and the unit of f is MHz;
Lb is the medium value of basic propagation loss in urban;
hb, hm-BTS, MS antenna effective height, unit is m;
BTS antenna effective height: supposing BTS antenna is
s
h away from ground, BTS
ground height above sea level is
g
h , MS antenna is
m
h away from ground, MS ground
height above sea level is
mg
h , then BTS antenna effective height is hb=
s
h +
g
h -
mg
h ,
MS antenna effective height is
m
h .

=
Center of the large city
The medium-sized city with an average
forest density and the suburb center
dB
dB
C
m
3
0

Correction factors for the mobile station antenna height:


=
m h
h
f h f
h a
m
m
m
m
5 . 1 0
97 . 4 ) 75 . 11 (lg 2 . 3
) 8 . 0 lg 56 . 1 ( ) 7 . 0 lg 1 . 1 (
) (
2
Large cities
Medium- and small-sized cities

Far distance propagation correction factor:
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28

> + + +
s
=
20 )
20
)(lg 10 07 . 1 10 87 . 1 14 . 0 ( 1
20 1
8 . 0 3 4
d
d
h f
d
b


Other correction factors are the same as ones of Okumura-Hata model.
2.2.3.3 COST-231-Walfish-Ikegami Model
The basis of the macro cell model is that the propagation loss between the base station
and the mobile station is decided by the surrounding environment of the mobile station.
But the building and streets within 1km of the base station heavily affect the propagation
loss between the base station and the mobile station. Therefore, the above mentioned
macro cell model is not suitable for prediction of the propagation loss within 1km.
The COST-231-Walfish-Ikegami model is suitable for propagation loss prediction within
the area ranging from 20m to 5km for both the macro cell model and the micro cell model.
To predict the propagation loss for the micro cell coverage, there should be detailed data
for the streets and buildings and should not adopt approximate values.
This model is applicable for the condition that f is between 1500 MHz and 2000MHz.
Propagation loss formula:
1. Low BTS antenna:
The propagation feature formed in the gorge of the street is different from the
propagation feature formed in free space. If there is free view distance LOS path in
the gorge of the street, then
) ( ) (
lg 20 lg 26 6 . 42
MHz km b
f d L + + = Km d 02 . 0 >
2. High BTS antenna:
In this case, OST-231-Walfish-Ikegami model consists of 3 items, it is fit for NLOS.
msd rts b
L L L L + + =
0

where,

<
> + A + +
=
) 0 ( 0
lg 20 lg 10 lg 10 9 . 16
rts
Mobile roof ori Mobile
rts
L if
h h L h f
L
e

< s
< s +
< s +
=
o o
o o
o
ori
L
90 55 ) 55 ( 114 . 0 0 . 4
55 35 ) 35 ( 075 . 0 5 . 2
35 0 354 . 0 10




Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

<
+ + +
=
) 0 ( 0
lg 9 lg lg
msd
f d a bsh
msd
L if
b f K d K K L
L

s
> A +
=
roof Base
roof Base Base
bsh
h h
h h h
L
0
) 1 lg( 18

Note:
L0- the transmitting loss in free space, calculate loss in free space from BTS to the
latest roof;
Lrts-the diffraction and scatter loss from the latest roof to street, calculate diffraction
and reflection in the street;
Lmsd-multi-screen forward diffraction loss multi-screen diffraction loss, calculate
multi diffraction over the roof;
Lori-the factor of street direction;
roof Base Base Mobile roof Mobile
h h h h h h = A = A
e -street width m;
f - calculating frequency MHz
Mobile
h A Unit is m;
-Unit is degree;
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge

30

Figure 2-8 Environment parameters and street parameters

h
Mobile
h
Mobile


b

d

h
Base

h
roof

h
Base


BTS
Incidence
wave

building
(a)environment parameters
(b)street parameter
MS

s < A
s > A
>
=
roof Base Base
roof Base Base
roof Base
a
h h km d
d
h
h h km d h
h h
K
& 5 . 0
5 . 0
8 . 0 54
& 5 . 0 8 . 0 54
54

>
A

s
=
roof Base
roof
Base
roof Base
d
h h
h
h
h h
K
15 18
18


In the above expression, Ka means path loss when BTS antenna is lower than adjacent
roof, Kd controls the relation between Lmsd and distance d, Kf controls the relation
between Lmsd and frequency f.
Landform correction factors in Okumura-Hata model can be used.
Kh-correction factor for upland
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


See Okumura-Hata model;
Ksp-correction factor for slope landform
See Okumura-Hata model;
Kim-correction factor for isolated hill
See Okumura-Hata model;
Ks-correction factor for sea-lake mixing path
See Okumura-Hata model.
2.2.4 Micro Cell Propagation Model
2.2.4.1 Double-Ray Propagation Model
When the double-ray propagation model is applied to calculate the field intensity in the
receiving end, only the contribution of the direct rays and ground reflected rays is
considered. This model is suitable for the smooth countryside environment and the micro
cell that has a low base station antenna, where there are LOS paths linking the
transmitting and receiving antennas. In this case, if walls of buildings also reflect and
diffract the radio waves, it will cause the field intensity amplitude to fluctuate rapidly in the
simple double-ray model, but will not change the prediction of the entire path loss (the
value of power n in the idempotent law) made with the double-ray model.
The path loss equation produced with the double-ray model is represented by a function
of d, the distance between the transmitting and receiving ends. The distance can be
represented by the approximate value of two line segments with different slopes (
1
n and
2
n ). The distance of the mutation point (also known as point of reflection) between the
two segments from the transmitting end is:

r t
b
h h
d
4
=
Where,
t r
h h and
are the heights of the receiving and transmitting antennas
respectively.
Path loss can be represented by the following equations:
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32

b
b
b
b
b
b
d d
d
d
n L L
d d
d
d
n L L
>
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
s
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
log 10
log 10
2
1

The above approximate equation is called the double-slope model. For the theoretical
double-ray ground reflection model, the values of
1
n and
2
n are 2 and 4, respectively.
In the downtown area micro cell with a frequency range of 1800 ~ 1900MHz, the test
result shows that the value of
1
n is 2.0 to 2.3, and the value of
2
n is 3.3 to 13.3.
b
L is the path loss at the point of reflection derived from the following equation.
2
2
8
log 10 |
.
|

\
|
=

t
r t
b
h h
L
2.2.4.2 Multi-Ray Model
The multi-ray model is already applied in downtown micro cell where there is the LOS
path and the transmitting and receiving antennas are much lower than the roof plane.
This model assumes the so-called streets have medium valley structures (also known
as the wave-guide structures), and the field at the receiving end is composed of the direct
rays between the transmitting and receiving ends, the reflected rays along the ground,
and the rays reflected by the vertical planes (that is, , building walls) of the valley. The
double-ray model can be deemed as the multi-ray model that considers only two rays.
Four-ray and six-ray models are already introduced. The four-ray model is composed of
the direct rays, ground reflected rays and two rays reflected once by building walls. The
six-ray model has the same mechanism as the four-ray model, except that it has two rays
reflected twice by building walls.
2.2.4.3 Multi-slot Wave-guide Model
When the multi-ray model is applied to the downtown environment, the buildings along
the streets are usually supposed to be lined consecutively and without slots. The
multi-slot wave-guide model proposed by Blaunstein and Levin, on the other hand, takes
into account the actual medium property of the building walls, the actual street width and
reflections from the road, as shown in the Figure 2-9. This model assumes the city to be
composed of two parallel lines of screens (that is, , simulated building walls) with
randomly distributed slots (that is, , gaps between buildings) and takes into account the
direct signal field, multiple reflections from the building walls, multiple UTD (Uniform
Theory of Diffraction) reflections from the corners and reflections from the ground.
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Figure 2-9 Multi-slot wave-guide model
Ray
x
y
z
Building
Building
Building
Building
Receiver
Transmit t er
Mirror source

2.2.5 Indoor Propagation Model
Laboratory research finds that NLOS propagation within buildings has Rayleigh fading,
while Ricean fading in LOS propagation is independent of building types. The Ricean
fading is caused jointly by the strong LOS path and many ground paths of weak reflection.
Studies have found that materials of building, the vertical/horizontal ratio of building,
types of windows etc all have influence on RF fading between floors. Measurements
point out that fading between floors does not have a linear increase in decibel as the
distance increases. The typical fading values between floors are: for the first floor, it is
15dB, then an extra 6dB to 10dB for each floor but not exceeding 4 floors. For buildings
with 5 or more floors, increasing of the path loss for each extra floor can be only several
decibels.
Laboratory research has found that, in case that the indoor system is covered by the
outdoor base station, the intensity of signals received within buildings increases as the
floor increases. In the first floor of the building, there is considerable fading due to the
urban building blocks which make the level of signals penetrating into the building very
small. In the floors of the higher part of the building, if there are LOS paths, relatively
strong direct signals can reach the wall of the building. The penetrating loss of signals is
a function of the frequency and the interior height of the building. The penetrating loss
increases as the frequency increases. Measurements find that penetrating loss for
buildings with windows is 6dB less than that for buildings without windows.
2.2.5.1 Path Loss Model for Logarithmic Distance
The mean path loss is a function of the nth power of the distance:
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34

) log( 10 ) ( ) (
0
0 50
d
d
n d L d L + =
Where ) (
50
d L is the mean path loss (in dB),
d
is the distance between the
transmitting and receiving ends (in meters),
) (
0
d L
is the path loss from the transmitting
end to the reference distance
0
d
(in meters), and
n
is the mean path loss index
subject to the environment. The reference path loss can be measured or calculated by
applying the free space path loss equation.
As shown by the above equation, the path loss has logarithmic normal distribution. The
mean path loss index
n
and standard dethroughtion
o
depend on the building type,
building sidewall, and the number of floors between the transmitter and receiver. The
path loss in the distance of
d
from the transmitter is
) ( ) ( ) (
50
dB X d L d L
o
+ =
The above equation is an empirical model, where
o
X
is the random variant of the
zero-mean logarithmic normal distribution with a standard dethroughtion
) (dB o
, which
represents the influence of the environment.
2.2.5.2 Fading Factor Model
The formula in the preceding section can also be substituted by:
FAF
d
d
n d L d L + + = ) log( 10 ) ( ) (
0
1 0

Where
1
n
is the path loss index for one entire floor, with a typical value of 2.8 but
subject to the building type. FAF is the floor fading factor, which is a function of the
number of the floor and the building type.
2.2.6 Application of Propagation Model in Cellular Design
In wireless cellular design, the coverage radius of the base station or the receiving power
of the receiver (power link budget) can be expressed as:
bf r t r t t r
L L L G G P P + + =
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Where
r
P
and
t
P
are receiving power and transmitting power in dBm, respectively;
r
G
and
t
G
are the gains of the receiving and transmitting antennas in dB;
r
L
and
t
L
are the feeder loss in the uplink and downlink in dB;
bf
L
is the propagation path
loss in dB, which can be predicted through the model described above.
To improve the accuracy of prediction and reduce the work of the wireless network
planning engineers, computer software is usually adopted to predict the propagation loss
and the coverage area. Path loss prediction is closely related to the topography, clutter
and distance etc near the base station. Therefore, we can store information of the
topography and conditions into the digital map and recall it when necessary for computer
operation. Figure 2-10 is a digital map of one certain area, with different colors
representing different topographies.
Figure 2-10 Digital map of one certain area

By inputting the digital map and base station information and selecting an appropriate
model, the software can work out and display in the screen the receiving power and other
information at different distances from the base station. Figure 2-11 shows software
prediction of the coverage area of a certain city, with different colors representing
different receiving powers.
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36

Figure 2-11 Forward receiving powers in one certain city

Legends:

The software can also carry out reverse coverage prediction, as shown in the Figure 2-12
Wireless Communication Basic Knowledge


Figure 2-12 Reverse receiving powers in one certain city

Legends:

Propagation path loss in the urban, suburb and rural area is different. In this case, we can
adopt different propagation models and correction factors. Some prediction software
provides model parameter correction function through field tests. Such a model greatly
improves the accuracy of computer-aided simulated prediction of coverage. Take the
General model as an example. The formula is:

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38

Where
PRE
P
: Receiving power;
ERP: Effective transmitting power;
m
d
: Distance of the mobile station from the base station;
eff
H
: Effective height of the base station antenna;
DIFF
L
: Loss of diffraction.
K1, K2, K3, K4, K5, and K6 are the correction factors of the above parameters
respectively.
Clutter
K
is the correction factor of clutter. K1 to K5 and
Clutter
K
can be
used by the computer for correction of the actual propagation model with the actual test
data.