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CHNG I: TNG QUAN V THNG TIN SI QUANG................................................

2
1.1 khi qut chung.............................................................................................................2
1.2 c trng ca thng tin quang.......................................................................................3
CHNG II. SI QUANG. MI TRNG TRUYN SNG QUANG.............................6
2.1 Si quang . Vt liu si quang.......................................................................................6
2.1.1 Si quang................................................................................................................6
2.1.2 Vt liu ch to si quang......................................................................................6
2.2 Phn loi v cc thng s c bn ca si quang............................................................7
2.2.1 Phn loi si quang.................................................................................................7
2.2.2 Cc thng s c bn................................................................................................7
2.2.4 Cc mode truyn nh sng trong si quang............................................................9
2.3 Cc c tnh ca si quang:.........................................................................................10
2.3.1: Suy hao si quang:..............................................................................................10
2.3.2. Tn sc nh sng..................................................................................................11
2.4 Hn ni si quang: ......................................................................................................12
2.5 Cp si quang:.............................................................................................................13
2.5.1 cc thnh phn ca cp si quang.........................................................................13
2.5.2 Mt s loi cp in hnh v ng dng.................................................................13
Chng III - KHUYCH I QUANG...............................................................................13
3.1- Khi qut:...................................................................................................................13
3.2 Khuych i Laser bn dn:........................................................................................13
3.2.1 Qu trnh hp th phtn, pht x t pht v kch thch.........................................13
3.2.2.o mt trng thi:..........................................................................................15
3.2.3 Cu to v hot ng ca khuych i Laser bn dn:.........................................16
3.3 Khuych i quang si pha tp t him ....................................................................19
3.3.1 Cu trc ca EDFA..............................................................................................19
3.3.2- Nguyn l hot ng:..........................................................................................20
3.3.3 Cc tnh cht v tham s c trng ca EDFA:....................................................20
CHNH IV: THIT B PHT QUANG...........................................................................22
4.1- Phn t pht quang (ngun quang):............................................................................22
4.2 - B bin iu tn hiu quang.......................................................................................23
4.2.1: iu ch bin iu trc tip:................................................................................23
4.2.2: iu ch bin in ngoi:....................................................................................24
4.2.3 Mt s thng s ca b bin iu ........................................................................24
CHNG V: THIT B THU QUANG...............................................................................25
5.1- Khi qut ;..................................................................................................................25
5.2- Mch tch sng quang:...............................................................................................25
5.2.1 B tch sng photodiot (PIN)...............................................................................25
5.2.2 Phtdiot thc l APD............................................................................................26
5.2.3 Cc ngun nhiu trong b tch sng quang..........................................................27
5.2.4 T s: tn hiu /nhiu.............................................................................................28
5.3 B thu quang...............................................................................................................28
5.3.1 Cu hnh b thu quang..........................................................................................28
5.3.2 Cc ngun li trong b thu quang.........................................................................29
1

5.4 nhy thu quang......................................................................................................30


CHNG VI: H THNG THNG TIN QUANG NHIU KNH...................................31
6.1 Khi qut chung v thng tin quang nhiu knh..........................................................31
6.2 Cc h thng thng tin quang WDM ..........................................................................32
6.2.1 C s ca ghp knh qung theo bc sng WDM................................................32
6.2.2 S ghp knh theo bc sng quang WDM....................................................32
6.2.3 cc tham s c bn ca thit b ghp knh theo bc sng WDM........................33
6.3- H thng ghp knh quang theo tn sOFDM (Optical Frequancy Division
Multiplexing).....................................................................................................................38
6.4 H thng ghp knh quang phn chia theo thi gian OTDM (Optical Time Division
Multiplexing).....................................................................................................................39
6.5 H thng ghp knh sng mang ph (Subcarrier multiplexing)..................................40
CHNG VII : THNG TIN QUAMG COHERENT.........................................................40
7.1 Khi qut v thng tin quang Coherent.......................................................................40
7.2 Hot ng ca h thng thng tin quang Coherent......................................................41
7.2.1 Cu trc tng qut:...............................................................................................41
7.2.2 K thut tch sng quang Coherent......................................................................42
7.3 u im ca h thng thng tin quang Coherent........................................................44
CHNG VIII: THIT K H THNG THNG TIN QUANG.......................................45
8.1 Khi qut.....................................................................................................................45
8.2 C s thit k h thng thng tin quang......................................................................45
8.2.1 Tnh ton qu cng sut ca h hng:.................................................................45
8.2.2 Qu thi gian ln ca h thng.............................................................................45
8.3 Thit k c bn tuyn thng tin quang.........................................................................46
8.3.1 Chn cu hnh tuyn thng tin quang n gin....................................................46
8.3.2 Cc yu cu c bn ban u..................................................................................47
8.3.3 Cc la chn c th:.............................................................................................47

GIO TRNH THNG TIN QUANG


CHNG I: TNG QUAN V THNG TIN SI QUANG
1.1 khi qut chung
H thng thng tin quang l h thng thng tin m tn hiu c truyn i dng
sng nh sng trong mi trng truyn dn c ch to bng cc cht in mi c
kh nng dn c nh sng c gi l si quang.
- Trong khng gian t do, suy hao trn ng truyn ca sng quang l do s hp th
v tn x nh sng cng vi suy hao ti cc trm lp nn. Mi trng khng kh ch
cho php truyn sng quang trn khong cch ngn. Ngc li nu sng quang c
t vo mt mi trng truyn dn nh hng vi cc c tnh vt l ti u th c th
truyn ti mt lng thng tin rt ln trn khong cch rt xa.
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- Trong TT quang vic truyn dn tn hiu c thc hin bng ti tin quang nh cc
qu trnh bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang u pht. u thu l qu trnh
bin i ngc li quang thnh in. Vic truyn daanx tn hiu quang c thc hin
trong si thu tinh gi l si quang.Mun tng c li truyn ta phi thc hin cc b
khuych i lp.

* Cu hnh ca h thng thng tin quang:

T/b
in
pht

E/O

Si
quang

O/E

E/O

Si
quang

O/E

T/b
in
thu

Hnh 1.2: M hnh h thng thng tin quang

1.2 c trng ca thng tin quang


* u im :
- Suy hao thp: Biu din suy hao theo bc sng cho thy suy hao ca cp quang
thp hn rt nhiu so vi cp kim loi song hnh hay ng trc.

Hnh 1-3: c trng suy hao ca mt s ng truyn c bn


- Si quang c tnh chng n mn quang do ch to t thu tinh khng chu nh
hng ca nc, axits, kim ...
- u vo, u ra hon ton cch in, khng c mch vng chy qua t.
- ... rng.dung lng ng truyn dn ln ( mt si cp quang ... 2 cm c th cha
200 si quang t dung lng 6000000 cuc gi).
- Kch thc nh gn nh ng knh si quang thng t 6:- 8 Mm nh hn rt
nhiu cp ng ( 10 Mm) thun tin cho lp t, khai thc.
C c tnh cch in v chng nhiu tt.tn hiu trong si quang khng b nh
hng ca in t trng ngoi. Si quang cng khng gy xuyn nhiu ra ngoi v
ln nhau,tnh bo mt rt cao ( kh ghp, trch)
- Vt liu ch to l thu tinh thch anh ( ct) rt sn c trong t nhin
- Dung lng truyn rt ln nn gi thnh xy dng trn mt knh truyn l rt nh,
tnh kinh t cao.
- Tiu hao si quang nn khong lp cho php ln hn so vi kim loi.
* Nhc im:
- Kch thc nh nn kh khn cho hn ni
- Gi thnh t/h u cui, ghp ni l cao do t/b chuyn dng
- Cp quang khng dn in nn kh khn cho cp ngun trung gian v iu khin
- Si quang khng linh hot un nn, b cong.
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Hnh 1.4 Cc thnh phn chnh ca tuyn truyn dn cp quang.


- Ngun tn hiu: Cc dng tn hiu nh m thanh, hnh nh s liu dng in
- Tn hiu u pht: X l tn hiu innh m ho, ghp knh, khuych i, lc to
ra cc tn hiu nhm c ...., tc cao.
- B bin i in quang:E/O Bin i tn hiu in thnh nh sng truyn trong si
quang (nh sng c iu ch).
- Si quang: ng vai tr nh knh truyn dn nh sng.
- Thit b bin i quang in: Dng bin i t/h quang cui si cp thnh tn hiu
in ( khi phc t/h ban u) yu cu c nhy cao.
- Thit b in u thu: X l tn hiu in thu c (tch lung, tch knh, gii m,
khuych i, lc, khi phc tn hiu ban u.
- Cc b ghp ni quang: Thc hin ghp ni nh sng gia cc phn ca ng
truyn.
- Tch ghp knh quang: Thc hin tch knh hoc ghp knh nh sng trn ng
truyn.
- Khuych i quang: Thc hin khuych i n ng lng cc xung nh sng bng la
de hoc t him.
- Trm lp: Thc hin qu trnh bin i ngc quang/in v in /quang c khuych
i in.
- Ngun pht quang: Cc Laser hoc LeD.
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... quang: Bin i tn hiu quang thnh in(...)

CHNG II. SI QUANG. MI TRNG TRUYN SNG QUANG


2.1 Si quang . Vt liu si quang
2.1.1 Si quang

L si mnh dn sng c hnh tr ng tm, lm t hai cht in mi trong sut khc


nhau v bao bc vo nhau. (in mi c th l thu tinh hoc nha)
- Li si quang: Cho nh sng mang thng tin truyn qua.
- V: Bao bc bn ngoi c chit sut nh hn li khong 0,2 : 0,3
- nh sng truyn dn trong li si do tnh cht phn x ton phn.

Hnh 2.1: Hnh dng si quang n mode v a mode


2.1.2 Vt liu ch to si quang

Yu cu:
- Kt cu si quang di, mnh mm do, trong sut, t suy hao, ng nht.
- Vt liu ch to si v li phi c chit sut gn nhau
Vt liu ch yu l thu tinh hoc cht do.
* Si thu tinh:SiO2 (ioxit silic) l vt liu thng dng nht ch to si quang.Vt
liu th l ct ( nhit nng chy = 10000c).
Thu tinh c ....... thp, tnh bn vng ho hc cao, rt trong sut vng nhn thy v
hng ngoi. lm vt c chit sut chnh lch nhau, ngi ta thm vo cc loi axit
khc nhau nh:..., PO2.
- Si thu tinh Halogen c pha thm Flori c suy hao rt nhor vng bc sng hng
ngoi (8 Mm). Suy hao thp nht vng 2,25M c 0,01 db/Km ti 0,001 db/Km.
( Thch hp cho cc tuyn thng tin quang c li xa)
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- Si thu tinh tch cc: Nh pha thm cc nguyn t ho hc nh ............. cho php
si quang c th khuch i, tiu hao v lm tr pha tn hiu nh sng.
- Si quang v cht do: C li l thu tinh, v l cht do c chi ph nh, s dng
trong c li ngn vi trm m ( cho php suy hao ln).
2.2 Phn loi v cc thng s c bn ca si quang
2.2.1 Phn loi si quang

* Phn loi theo vt liu in mi


- Si quang thu tinh
- Si quang nha ( Nha hu c silicon v acrylic)
* Phn loi theo mode truyn dn
- Si quang n mode. SM (Sing Mode)
Si quang a mode
* Phn loi theo phn b chit sut khc x.
- Si quang chit sut bc ( Step index - St)c chit sut thay i theo bc gia li v
v.
- Si quang chit sut thay i lin tc ( grade index- GI) c chit sut thay i t t
theo ng parabon c nh l tm si quang.

Hnh 2.2 : Phn b chit sut nhng si quang khc nhau


v hnh nh nh sng truyn
Tc lan truyn t l nghch vi chit sut khc x.
2.2.2 Cc thng s c bn.

* Cc thng s c bn xc nh cu trc si quang da mode l:


- ng knh li si ( d= 2...)
nh hng n: - Suy hao quang
- ng knh lp bao ( v)
- rng bng truyn
- Khu s NA
- Sc bn c kh
- Dng phn b chit sut khc x
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* Cc thng s ph nh: T s khng ng tm ( li v v)


T s khng trn
* Phn b chit sut khc x .......................................
* Khu s..........
Cc thng s

Cc c tnh ca si quang
Suy hao quang

ng knh v d

Tng suy hao quang


do un cong, vi cong

ng knh li

Suy hao ch ni
Khu s NA

( lch chit sut)


Hiu sut a nh
sng vo

Phn b chit sut

Cc c im tn s
bng c s
2.2.3 Phng php a nh sng vo si quang

Khng phi tt c nh sng c tp trung vo u si quang u c th a vo si,


ch c mt phn nh sng nm trong mt gc y gii hn nht nh mi c th c
a vo li si quang.
*Vi si quang n mode: C ba yu t xc nh cu trc nh sau:
- Thng s trng mode
- ng knh lp v
- Bc sng ct
*Khu s l gc khng gian( gc y) ln nht to bi gc.... phng quay i mt
vng 360 o quanh trc si quang, gc ny hng nh sng nhiu nht c th a vo
si quang.
* ng knh li si l NA cng ln th hiu sut ghp ni cng ln.

* ngha vt l ca khu s l gc khng gian ( gc y) ln nht to bi gc ...


phng quay i mt vng 360 o quanh trc si quang, gc ny hng nh sng nhiu
nht c th a vo si quang.
ng knh li si l NA cng ln s cho hiu sut ghp ni cao.
2.2.4 Cc mode truyn nh sng trong si quang.

* Giao thoa ca nh sng trong si quang.


- Kho st s truyn nh sng trong ng dn sng phng ( n gin)
- nh sng phn x ton phn ti mt bin ( tip gip gia hai lp in mi)
Khi xt n mt ng pha ca in trng ( nh sng phng). Ta thy c mt s mt
ng pha tng ng vi nh sng ti.Mt s tng ng vi nh sng phn x.
- nh sng ti v nh sng phn x giao thoa vi nhau ti cc im trong li si
quang (cc mt ng pha chng ln nhau) (nh sng ti v nh sng phn x l cc
nh sng kt hp, bo m iu kin giao thoa)

Hnh 2.5 : Hnh nh nh v y in trng trong ng dn sng

* iu kin lan truyn nh sng ti mt bin:


nh sng c lan truyn, in trng cn tp trung trong li si quang ti mt
bin cng in trng bng khng do giao thoa gia nh sng ti v nh sng
phn x.
* Sng ng ngang:
Do c hin tng giao thoa gia nh sng ti v nh sng phn x hnh thnh mt
sng ng theo hng ngang.Khi iu kin lan truyn nh sng ti mt bin ( E=0)
cng c tho mn.
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Hnh 1.6: nh hng ca gc ti v iu kin hnh thnh sng ng ngang


nh hng ca gc phn x nh sng ti s hnh thnh sng ng theo chiu ngang
si quang.
* Cc mode lan truyn nh sng:
- ng truyn ca nh sng b gii hn trong si quang vi vi mt gc phn x c
trng v mt phn b trng c trng c gi l mode truyn lan.
- Gi gc ti hn l c ta c cng thc : S lng mode truyn lan N
2a.sinc N./2.
(N = 0,1,2,3...) N-1 l mode truyn bc cao nht
sinc = sinmax /n1 = n12 n 22 /n1

Si quang ch c mt mode truyn lan (N=1) mode bc khng goi l Si quang n


mode. Vi N >1 ta c si quang a mode
- S lng mode truyn lan l hm s ca bc sng nn nu si quang l n mode
bc sng ny th vi bc sng nh hn khng cn l n mode na.
- Bc sng nh nht m ti si quang lm vic nh mt si n mode c gi l
bc sng ct. c =4a. n12 n 22 . Vi si quang thc t (l ng dn sng hnh tr),
ta c:

2a

c = 2,405 . n12 n 22

2.3 Cc c tnh ca si quang:


2.3.1: Suy hao si quang:

* Suy hao do hp th: nh sng lan truyn trong si quang b hp th mt phn do


cc vt liu si, c bin i thnh nhit.
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Suy hao hp th do bn thn vt liu si quang


Suy hao hp th do tp cht c trong si quang
* Suy hao tn x Rayleigh:
Do nh sng b tn x theo cc hng khc nhau khi gp phi cc ht nh c
kchthc c bc sng(s khng ng u v h s khc x).
ln ca suy hao tn x Rayleigh t l nghch vi m 4 ca bc sng.
* Suy hao tn x do cu trc si quang khng ng nht: Do cu trc si quang khng
c l tng v ng u sut chiu di si.
*Suy hao vi cong, un cong: Qu trnh un cong gy ra hin tng gc ti > gc ti
hn ti v tr b un cong.
-Khi si quang chu nhng lc nn khng ng nht th trc si b un cong vi
lng nh(c vi m) dn n lm tng suy hao si quang.
*Suy hao do hn ni: L nhng suy hao do phn x, do khng ng nht ti ch ni,
do lch trc.

Hnh : S ph thuc ca suy hao theo bc sng.


2.3.2. Tn sc nh sng

*Tn sc mode: Trong s a mode, tc truyn nh sng ca cc mode khc nhau.


Khi c mt xung nh sng a vo si a mode th u ra rng xung tng. Do u
vo c mt bc sng nhng truyn i vi vi mode khc nhau dn n tn sc nh
sng, lm gii hn rng bng truyn dn.
*Tn sc bc sng: Do c s ph thuc ca chit sut khc x vo bc sng, nh
sng c phn b tc lan truyn khc nhau vi cc thnh phn khc nhau ca bc
sng, gy ra tn sc vt liu.
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2.3.3. rng bng truyn dn


- L s o ch tn s iu ch cao nht ca cc tn hiu nh sng c th truyn dn
c trong thc t.
- c biu th nh lng l rng bng 6db trong bng tn c s ca si quang.
- Tn hiu in u ra gii iu ch (tch sng quang) sau khi truyn i 1km gim
xung cn bin so vi tn hiu iu ch u vo.
-vi si quang thng thng, bng tn truyn dn c th t gi tr vi chc Ghz.km.

Hnh v: S m t bng tn truyn dn ca si quang.


2.4 Hn ni si quang:
Cc yu cu khi hn ni si quang l si phi ng tm v t suy hao nh cho php.
*Hn nhit nng chy:
-p dng ni t tho lp.
-C th dng h quang (phng in trong khng kh), l kh t, laser..
-Cc bc thc hin:
+Loi b cc lp v.
+ Ct si quang (bng dng c chuyn dng)
+iu chnh ng trc
+S dng h quang t chy si hn ni
+Gia c li mi hn.
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*Ghp ni si quang bng b ni (colecter)


-p dng khi cn tho lp thng xuyn
-Tra v c nh si quang vo phn kim loi.
-nh bng u mt si.
-iu chnh v nh v c nh conecter
2.5 Cp si quang:
2.5.1 cc thnh phn ca cp si quang

*Li cp
*Thnh phn gia cng
*V cp
2.5.2 Mt s loi cp in hnh v ng dng

Chng III - KHUYCH I QUANG


3.1- Khi qut:
- Khi tn hiu nh sng truyn trn si quang b suy hao di mc cho php phi c
b li bng khuych i .
- C th khuych i ti trm lp bng cch bin i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu
in, ti to li v khuych i min in, sau li bin i thnh tn hiu quang
truyn i.
- C th khuych i trc tip tn hiu nh sng bng thit b khuych i quang (thc
hin trong min nh sng).
*Mt s loi khuych i quang thng gp:
-Khuych i Laser bn dn SLA (Semiconduter Laser Amplifier)
-Khuych i si pha tp erbium EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier)
-Khuych i Raman si, tn x c kch thch (s dng bm quang hc)
-Khuych i Brillonin si
3.2 Khuych i Laser bn dn:
3.2.1 Qu trnh hp th phtn, pht x t pht v kch thch.

13

Hnh: S hp th , pht x hai mc nng lng


Eg l hiu nng gia hai mc.

H = Eg ,
Hot ng:
*Qu trnh hp th photn:
-Cc in t nm vng ho tr c mc nng lng E1, Khi c nh sng kch thch
(chng hn photn h c nng lng ln hn nng lng vng cm Eg) tc ng vo.
in t s nhy ln mc nng lng E2 vng dn, bn thn n c mc nng lng
E2 v c linh ng ca vng dn. l qu trnh hp th photn.
*Qu trnh pht x t pht:
-in t nm vng dn c mc nng lng E2 c th t nhy xung vng ho tr(c
mc nng lng E1) ng thi bc x ra mt photn c nng lng h (h = E2 E1 ).
y gi l qu trnh pht x t pht.
*Qu trnh pht x cng bc:
14

Khi cho nh sng c nng lng h tc ng vo mt in t nm vng dn (c


mc nng lng E2 ) th in t s nhy xung vng ho tr v to ra cc nh sng kt
hp (c cng tn s v pha vi nh sng kch thch) nhng cng ln hn nhiu
ln. y gi l qu trnh pht x cng bc hay pht x kch thch.
*Cc phng php kch thch:
- nhit phng, qu trnh pht x v hp th l cn bng nhau.
- to ra nng e-h cao phi dng cc phng php kch thch nh chiu nh sng,
chiu chm tia in thoc cho dng in qua lp chuyn tip P-N.
3.2.2.o mt trng thi:

Hnh : Mc nng lng Fecmy trong bn dn


Xt mt tip gip P-N trn hai loi vt liu bn dn loi P v N c pha tp n suy
bin (c nng tp cht cao). Mc Fecmy bn bn dn loi N ( mc E fc) nm y
vng dn v mc Fecmy bn bn dn loi P (mc Efv) nm nh vng ho tr. Ti
cn bng nhit th hai mc ny bng nhau.
- Khi c phn cc thun ln t vo mt ghpP-N , mc Fecmy hai min tch ra,
cc in t bn bn dn loi N v cc l trng bn bn dn loi P c tim chch vo
vng chuyn tip ca mt ghp(vng in tch khng gian).C mt s lng ln cc
in t nm trn vng dn v mt s lngj ln cc l trng nm di vng ho tr.
Trng thi ny c gi l o mt trng thi, in t v l trng c th ti hp vi
nhau v pht ra photn.
- iu kin c o mt trng thi:
+Bn dn P,N phi c pha tp n mc suy bin.
+Th phn cc thun ca mt ghp phi ln.
15

Hnh : Gin nng lng ca tip gip P-N vi bn dn suy bin.


3.2.3 Cu to v hot ng ca khuych i Laser bn dn:

16

Hnh : Khuych i Laser bn dn bm bng dng in


*Nguyn tc hot ng;
-Phi to ra c o mt trng thi ti tip gip P-N
-Phn p mt ghp c gi l in p bm (dng bm)
-Khi nh sng ti chiu vo vng tip gip P-N ( c o mt trng thi), cc cp
e-h s ti hp to ra pht x kch thch th cp. nh sng c to ra l nh sng kt
hp c cng ln hn rt nhiu nh sng ban u. Qu trnh gi l khuych i
quang.
*Di tn khuych i:
- Nng lng gia hai mc Femi l: Efc - Efv
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- Nng lng vng cm l: Eg


- Nng lng m photn pht ra:
h
Phi bo m iu kin :
Eg < h < Efc - Efv
Hay
:
Eg/h < < (Efc Efv)/ h
Nu h < Eg
th mi trng bn dn l trong sut (khng khuych i)
h > Efc Efv th mi trng bn dn l c (nh sng b suy gim, hp th)

18

Hnh v: H s khuych i i vi khuych i Laser InGaAsP theo nng ht ti


* ng dng ca khuych i Laser bn dn: Dng trong h thng thng tin quang c
= 1,3 1,55 m. Dng khuch i khng ti sinh, b tin khuych i.
3.3 Khuych i quang si pha tp t him
(Erbium Doped Fiber Ampliier) c h s khuych i cao (G>40 db), cng sut trung
bnh c gi tr cao (P>100w).
3.3.1 Cu trc ca EDFA

Hnh : S khi b khuych i EDFA


*Cu to:
- Si quang pha tp nguyn t t him Erbium (Er+3) di khong 10m
- Laser bm c cng sut t 10 n 100mw, = 980 nm, 1480nm.
- B ghp bc sng WDM (Waveleng Division Muntiplex) ghp nh sng tn hiu
v nh sng bm vo si pha tp (c th tch cc tn hiu ny)
- cc b cch ly: lm gim nh sng phn x tr h thng
*Si EDF gi l si tch cc: L si quang c pha thm cc ion Er+3 trong vng
trung tm li si( nng 100 n 2000 phn t). Si EDF c li nh hn v khu
s NA cao hn si n mode tiu chun, cn cu trc v cc thng s gn ging si
n mode.

19

3.3.2- Nguyn l hot ng:

*S ba mc nng lng trong si EDF

Hnh : S ba mc nng lng trong si EDF


*Hot ng:
- Cc ion Er c bm t mc E1 ln ti mc E2 qua vic hp th photon t ngun
bm(v d vi bc sng 1480nm hoc 980nm)
- T mc E2 cc ion Er s chuyn di khng bc x xung mc E 3 .Nu thi gian
sng ca cc ion Er trng thi kch thch l ln (c 10ms) th s to ra o mt
trng thi (c nghch o tch lu mt gia mc E3 v mc E1) . Cc ion Er nm
trn mc E3 s ch bc x kch thch, sn sng pht ra photon mi.
- Khi c photon kch thch i vo (tn hiu quang vo khych i) EDFA, cc ion Er
mc E3 nhy xung mc E1 v bc x photon cng bc. Cc photon pht ra c pha
v hng ging nh photon li vo, c cng t l vi photon li vo. Qu trnh
ny c gi l khuych i quang.
- Cc ion Er mc E3 khng tng tc vi nh sng u vo c th phn r t pht(c
pha v hng ngu nhin) to ra ngun nhiu.
3.3.3 Cc tnh cht v tham s c trng ca EDFA:

1- Cng sut bc sng bm:


- C mt vi vng bc sng bm cho php kch thch cc ion Er
- S ph thuc ca khuych i tn hiu vo cng sut bm.
Ban u tng mnh theo hm m
Sau tng chm khi cng sut bm vt qu mt gi tr no (ng vi
trng hp hu ht cc ion Er u c kch thch.
20

- S ph thuc ca h s khuych i vo chiu di si EDF , chiu di tng th h s


khuych i tng.

Hinh : S ph thuc ca h s khuych i theo cng sut bm v di on


khuych i.
* Ngi ta thng s dng hai bc sng bm chnh trong EDFA
Vi bc sng = 1480 nm:
- Cho ra cng sut bm caov cng sut ny c th nhn t cc Laser bn dn.
- Hiu sut cng sut tt v bm t.hiu (vng 1550 nm)
- Khi bm cho EDFA t xa, suy hao si s thp hn.
- Ph hp th ca bng rng nn yu cu v tnh chnh xc ca Laser khng tht cao
Vi bc sng = 980 nm
- Cho ra c tnh nhiu ca EDFA tt hn
- Khuych i tn hiu trong cc h thng nhiu knh quang t b mo hn
21

- t ph thuc vo nhit hn
- Yu cu tnh chnh xc v bc sng bm cht ch hn.
*Cc cu hnh EDFA tiu chun

Hnh : S cc cu hnh bm EDFA trong tuyn TTQ

CHNH IV: THIT B PHT QUANG


4.1- Phn t pht quang (ngun quang):
* cc ngun pht quang c bn: - LED, Laser
* LED (Light Emiter Diot):
- S dng cho cc h thng c tc 200 Mbit/s, vi cc si quang n mode
- Kt cu n gin, d iu khin
- Gm hai cu trc c bn: Cu trc tio gip thun nht v cu trc tip gip d th
kp (PP-N hay NN-P)
-C cng sut pht thp ( 1,5 w) rng ph kh rng.
*Laser bn dn (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)
- c cu to nh LED nhng c phn hi quang v cng hng quang hc.
- Cng sut ln
- B rng ph hp
22

- Lm vic vi cc h thng tc cao


4.2 - B bin iu tn hiu quang
4.2.1: iu ch bin iu trc tip:

*Nguyn l hot ng:


- Dng mt dng in c qui lut bin i theo mun (tn hiu in u vo) a
vo mch cp in ca linh kin pht quang (v d LED) tn hiu pht sng bin
i theo qui lut ca tn hiu u vo.
-S khc nhau gia cng ngh ch to in t v cng ngh ch to linh kin quang
cha ng nht nn yu cu c cc mch lai. Trong tng lai s l cc mch tch hp,
thc hin trn mt chp.
- Qu trnh bin i trc tip trong Laser v nguyn l cng xy ra tng t vi vic
thay i dng in bm vo Laser

Hinh : S nguyn l bin iu trc tip t LED

23

4.2.2: iu ch bin in ngoi:

- Dng linh kin hay b bin iu t pha bn ngoi ng truyn ca Laser bin
iu tn hiu ca Laser sau khi pht ra.(khng cng thm nhiu vo tn hiu
quang).
- Cc b iu bin ngoi s dng vt liu dn sng l LiNbO3. Nguyn tc da trn
cc hiu ng in quang, hiu ng t ...ca vt liu bin iu.
- Khi c tng tc (nh in , t..) cho mt loi linh kin bin iu c hiu ng iu
bin tng ng, ta thu c tn hiu iu bin u ra ca linh kin
- Nhc im: Kch thc ln, kh lp t v iu chnh.
- u im: Di iu khin rng, tn s pht x ca Laser khng b nh hng, c th
thay i pha ca nh sng.

Hnh : S iu ch bin iu ngoi


4.2.3 Mt s thng s ca b bin iu

cc thng s bin iu c th l bin , tn s, pha hoc iu ch phn cc cho


sng mang quang do Laser pht ra.. Ta quan tm n cc thng s chnh sau y
*Hiu sut bin iu:
c nh ngha l = [(Imax Imin)/Imax ].100% Trong Imax l gi tr cc i
*Tc tng phn:
c nh ngha bng t s: 10log(Imax/Imin) [db].
* rng bng tn bin iu : c nh ngha l di tn s t tn s thp nht n
tn s cao nht m hiu sut bin iu gim i 3 db (so vi gi tr ti tn s thp).

24

CHNG V: THIT B THU QUANG


5.1- Khi qut ;
Thit b thu (my thu) quang l phn t cui cng trong h thng thng tin quang.
N m nhim chc nng chnh l bin i tn hiu quang thu c thnh tn hiu
in pht i ban u, a n thit b u cui.
*Yu cu : Nh i vi bt c my thu no (xem xt trong min in) th my thu
quang cng phi tho mn cc yu cu : nhy cao, c p ng nhanh, mc can
nhiu thp, tin cy thu cao, t s tn/tp cao, rng bng tn ln v tt nhin l gi
thnh hp l.
*Cu hnh chung : C rt nhiu s my thu quang, ay ta ch xt n mt cu
hnh chung dnh cho my thgu quang s

Hnh : Cu hnh b thu quang s


*Hot ng: Tn hiu quang thu c sau tch sng quang (bin i O/E) c bin
i thnh tn hiu in, c a n khuch i (gm tin khuych i v khuch i
min in) sau n mch cn bng (nhm san bng c tuyn tn s ca ng
truyn nh mt b lc) tip the c a n khgi x l tn hiu khi phc li dy
xung s ban u.
5.2- Mch tch sng quang:
5.2.1 B tch sng photodiot (PIN)

25

Hnh S b tch sng PIN


*Dng photo ban u c c t s hp th nh sng
IP = (e / h).Pin.(1 Rf).(1 exp(-S w)
Trong : Pin l mc cng sut quang ti photodiot.
S h s hp th ti bc sng
w rng vng tri(b rng lp bn dn thun I)
Rf h s phn x ti li vo b mt phtdiot
e in tch in t
h hng s Plng
*Hiu sut lng t
= S cc cp e-h c sinh ra /s cc photon i ti
= ( IP/e ) / (Pin/h )
Trong IP l dng phton c gi tr rung bnh c pht ra t cng sut quang
trung bnh Pin trong photodiot.
c hiu sut lng t cao, vng tri phi dy hu ht cc phton ti c
vng ny.
* H s chuyn i dng photo R (p ng R)
R = IP / Pin = e / h
R c trng cho dng photo pht ra trn mt n v cng sut quang.
5.2.2 Phtdiot thc l APD

26

Hnh : Cu trc ca phtdiot thc APD


Cc c trng ca phtdiot APD ging nh ca photodiot PIN, tuy nhin do c
s khuych i (nh hiu ng thc l) p ng ca APD c tng ln h s nhn M
v c tnh theo cng thc
RAPD = ( e / h ).M = R.M
5.2.3 Cc ngun nhiu trong b tch sng quang

* n gin ta xt nhiu trong b tch sng PIN


- Nhiu lng t: Pht sinh do bn cht thng k ca qu trnh tch sng (th hin
theo phn b Poatxong)

2
S

= i S = 2eI l Be

Bnh phng trung bnh dng nhiu

IP l dng photo trung bnh


Be l bng tn hiu dng
- Nhiu dng ti: Pht ra t vt liu khi ca photodiot (tn ti ngay c khi khng c
nh sng)
27

= i bd = 2eI d Be
Id dng ti khi ban u ca b tch sng
-Dng r b mt photodiot
bd

SL = i SL = 2eI d Be
2

Il l dng r ban u

-Nhiu nhit

2
T

= iT = ( 4 K t T / R L ) Fn Be

KB hng s Bozman ; RL in tr ti
T: nhit tuyt i; Fn h s nhiu

Nh vy nhiu tng cng


2 = 2eBe( IP + Id + Il ) + (4KbT/Rl)FnBe
*Nhiu trong b tch sng APD

APD

= i APDTong = 2eBe ( I P + I D ).M 2 FA + 2eBe I l + ( 4 KT T / RL ) Fn Be

Trong : M l h s nhn
FA l h s nhiu tri ca APD ph thuc M
5.2.4 T s: tn hiu /nhiu

Cng sut tn hiu t dng photo


SNR =
Cng sut nhiu b tch sng + cng sut nhiu b khuych i

R 2 . P in
=

2
P
2

=
2eBe(R.Pin + Id + Il) + (4KbT/Rl)FnBe

V S << T nn SNR = ( R2P2in .Rl ) / 4KbTBeFn


5.3 B thu quang
5.3.1 Cu hnh b thu quang

28

Hmh : Cu hnh mt b thu quang s in hnh


Gi thit l phtdiot PIN c s dng trong s ( c hiu sut lng t )
Rs l in tr vo ni tip rt nh
Cd in dung ca phtodiot
Ib dng nhiu nhit pht ra t tr ti ca b tch sng
Rn. Cn l in tr, in dung vo ca b khuych i
Ia(t) dng nhiu u vo(do nhiu nhit ca Rvo b khuych i
Ea(t) Nhiu nhit ca b khuych i
5.3.2 Cc ngun li trong b thu quang

C rt nhiu nguyn nhn gy li song y ta ch xt n cc ngun nhiu bn


trong h thng gm Nhiu lng t v Nhiu nhit. Dng photo ban u c to ra
t photodiot l mt qu trnh Poatxong bin i theo thi gian. Khi c mt tn hiu
quang mang cng sut P(t) ti b tch sng quang th s trung bnh cc cp in t l trng (N) c pht ra trong khong thi gian l

Trong : l hiu sut lng t


N=
P(t )dt =

h. 0
h.
29

E nng lng thu sc trong khong


Khi xc sut m cp in t - l trng (e-h) c pht ra trong khong l
PA(m) = Nm. e-N /m!
- Nhiu sinh ra do s dn xung trong si quang l nhiu do giao thoa gia cc k t
- Nhiu nhit sinh ra t in tr ti ca b tch sng v mch khuych i .
5.4 nhy thu quang
Vn lun t ra hng u i vi mi my thu l nhy. nhy ca
my thu quang th hin kh nng thu c mc cng sut quang thp nht c th m
vn bo m cc tiu ch k thut My thu c nhy cao cho php thit k c cc
h thng thng tin quang tc cao, c ly xa.
- nhy my thu b tc ng trc tip t t s tn / tp SNR ca b tch sng quang.
-Vi mt h thng truyn dn tng t th t s tn / tp (SNR) l yu t quyt nh
trc tip nhy thu ca c h thng.
-i vi h s truyn dn s th nhy thu c rng buc bi t s bt li BER (Bit
erro rate ). N th hin cng sut cng nh cng tt m vn bo m t l bt li
cho.
- nhy my thu c nh ngha l gi tr cng sut thu c trung bnh nh nht
c th ti u thu t BER t 10-6 n 10-9 cho cc h thng PDH
v 10-10 n 10-12 cho cc h SDH
1
Theo tnh ton gn ng th BER = Nc /Nt Q 2 .exp(- Q2/2)

Trong Nc l s xung li
N t l tng s xung trong khong t
Ngi ta cn a ra h s Q (trong cc s tay thit k) Q =

I1 I 0
1 0

1 , 0 l cc bin i nhiu tng ng t dng photon trung bnh lin quan n bit
1 , bit 0 ca tn hiu quang vo my thu

30

Hnh : T l li bt BER l mt hm s ca Q
CHNG VI: H THNG THNG TIN QUANG NHIU KNH
6.1 Khi qut chung v thng tin quang nhiu knh
* H thng thng tin quang n knh:
Xt hot ng ca mt h thng tt quang n knh ta thy lung tn hiu cp thp
(trong min in) c ghp li vi nhau thnh lung tn hiu cp cao hn. Sau
lung tn hiu ny c bin i thnh tn hiu quang bng cch iu ch mt sng
mang quang (B bin i O/E) v c truyn i trn si quang theo mt chiu, to ra
mt h thng n knh quang. c hng truyn ngc li cn phi c mt lung
tn hiu quang truyn trn si quang khc theo hng ngc li.
Trong h thng n knh , khi tc ng truyn t ti mt mc no s xut
hin cc hn ch ca cc mch in trong vic nng cao tc truyn v ko di c ly
truyn dn. Vi tc c Gbit/s khong cch truyn s thu ngn li, cc mch in t
khng bo m tn hiu cho cc xung hp.
* H thng thng tin quang nhiu knh:
Nu ta s dng cc k thut ghp knh qung (thc hin hon ton trong min
quang) th s gii quyt c cc kh khn trn khi ta thc hin tryn tc cao.
-Trong h thng thng tin qung nhiu knh, phn ghp knh thc hin hon ton
phn tn hiu quang, cc thit b nhiu knh quang s thay th hon ton cc mch
in t.
- K thut ghp knh quang tn dng c tnh cht ph hp ca Laser, s dng bng
tn rt rng ca si qung n mode, to ra h thng truyn dn linh hot
- Tu theo cc k thut ghp knh quang , ngi ta c th phn thnh nhiu loi h
thng thng tin quang nhiu knh:
H thng ghp knh quang theo thi gian OTDM (Otical Time Division
Multiplexing)
H thng ghp knh quang theo bc sng WDM (Wave length Division
Multiplexing)
H thng ghp knh quang theo tn s OFDM (Optical Frequency Division
Multiplexing)
31

6.2 Cc h thng thng tin quang WDM


6.2.1 C s ca ghp knh qung theo bc sng WDM

- dng n gin nht, WDM s dng hai tn hiu quang c bc sng nm trong hai
ca s truyn dn khc nhau pht i hai knh thng tin. V d mt knh pht trn
bc sng 1,3 m, mt knh pht trn bc sng 1,55 m, khong cch gia hai knh
l 250 nm.
- Vo nhng nm 90, k tut cho php ghp nhiu bc sng quang trn cng mt
ca s quang.
Vy thc cht ghp knh quang theo bc sng l g? Trong k thut ny, ngi ta
s dng chui bt tn hiu ( dng in) iu ch cc sng mang quang c bc sng
khc nhau, sauu tin hnh truyn cng lc cc tn hiu quang ny trn cng mt si
quang. u thu, thc hin tch cc tn hiu quang theo cc bc sng tng ng sau
x l tn hiu ring bit.

Hnh : Suy hao trong cc ca s quang khc nhau


6.2.2 S ghp knh theo bc sng quang WDM

32

Hnh : S ghp v gii ghp WDM


Hot ng ca s :
phn pht, s dng cc ngun pht quang c cc bc sng l 1, 2, 3 ...n c
iu ch bi cc chui bt tn hiu in c lp nhau. Cc tn hiu quang sau c
ghp vo cng mt si quang bng thit b MUX.
phn thu, tn hiu quang sau khi c tch ra bi thit b DMUX s cho ra cc tn
hiu quang c bc sng tng ng l 1, 2, 3 ...n ng vi pha pht. Cc tn hiu
quang ny s c tch sng quang v khi phc li cc chui bt tn hiu tng ng.
*H thng ghp knh WDM theo hai hng:

Hnh : S khi ghp knh quang theo hai hng


6.2.3 cc tham s c bn ca thit b ghp knh theo bc sng WDM

33

Hnh : S thit b ghp gii ghp


Thit b ghp (gii ghp ) c nhiu tham s, y ta ch xt n cc tham s c
trng l Suy hao xen; Xuyn knh; rng knh.
*suy hao xen: L lng cng sut tn hao sinh ra trong tuyn truyn dn quang do c
thm thit b WDM. Suy hao xen c o bng L1 = 10log(O (i) / I (i) )
Trong : O (i )
l tn hiu quang u ra
I (i )
l tn hiu quang u vo.
* Xuyn knh: M t lng tn hiu t knh ny b r sang knh khc (yu cu phi
nh hn 30 db trong mi trng hp). xuyn knh c nh gi bng
Di( k ) = -10log (Ui ( k ) / I( k ))
Trong : Ui ( k ) l lng tn hiu khng mong mun bc sng k do c s
r tn hiu ca th i (ng vi bc sng i )
34

* rng knh: c nh ngha l di bc sng dnh cho mi knh nh ra cho tng


ngun pht quang ring (c vi chc nm).
6.2.4 Cng ngh ghp knh theo bc sng WDM
im c bit khi ni n thit b WDM l n c tnh thun nghch v mt cu trc,
ngha l thit b ghp knh WDM khi xt theo chiu ngc li th li chnh l thit b
r knh. iu ny khc vi cc thit b trong min in. Ngi ta c th phn loi cc
thit b ghp knh (r knh) theo hai loi chnh, l :
- Cng ngh WDM vi quang (da trn c s lp rp cc thnh phn vi quang dnh cho
si a mode)
- Cng ngh WDM ghp si (ghp trng lan truyn gia cc si, dng cho si a
mode)
*Cng ngh WDM vi quang:
Cc thit b WDM vi quang c ch to theo hai phng php khc nhau gm cc
thit b lc v cc thit b phn tn gc.
- B lc quang cho thit b WDM

Hnh : S b lc quang WDM


Hot ng: Thit b lc thng l b lc in milm vic theo nguyn tc phn x tn
hiu mt di ph tn s no v cho di ph tn cn li i qua. N c c ch m
cho mt bc sng hoc mt nhm cc bc sng.
Cc b lc c gi l b lc in mi giao thoa, lm vic trn nguyn l bung
cng hng Fabry Perot. Cc b lc giao thoa c th c chia thnh nhiu loi
theo c tnh lc nh: Lc thng cao, thng thp, lc bng thng.

35

Hnh : Cu hnh ca b gii ghp bng b lc

Hnh : B gii ghp nhiu knh trong thc t.

36

Hnh : B gii ghp s dng b lc giao thoa trc tip vo si quang


- Phn t phn tn gc:
Hot ng : Tn hiu quang u vo p vo thit b phn tn gc, thit b phn tn s
tch cc knh theo bc sng ca chng thnh cc hng khc nhau. C th dng
lng knh lm phn t phn tn gc tuy vy kh nng tch cc bc sng gn nhau l
kh. S dng cc cch t nhiu x lm phn t phn tn gc (c kt hp cc phn t
hi t)
Hnh : B gii ghp dng phn t phn tn gc
*Cng ngh WDM ghp si
c th coi phn t WDM ghp si l thit b bn ca (hai ca vo, hai ca ra), hot
ng trn c s ghp hai trng nh sng pha ngoi li. Cc b ghp c tnh cht la
chn bc sng trong n, c th s dng tch hoc ghp tn hiu quang.
- nh sng xut hin hai u ra ph thuc vo khong cch gia cc li si , ch s
chit sut vt liu gia, ng knh li si, di tng tc v bc sng cng tc.
- S dng cu trc ghp xon nng chy: Dng hai si quang n mode xon vo
nhau nhit cao sao cho hai li gn ti mc ghp c vi nhau

37

Hnh : Cu trc ghp xon nng chy


- S dng cu trc ghp nh bng (B ghp khi) ghp hai si quang qua vt
liu trung gian. Cc b ghp si ch c th mt lc hot ng vi hai bc
sng. Nu s knh cn ghp ln hn hai ta phi s dng k thut ghp tng.

Hnh : Cu trc ghp nh bng,


6.3- H thng ghp knh quang theo tn sOFDM (Optical Frequancy
Division Multiplexing)
V thc cht OFDM khai thc bng tn rt ln ca si quang bng cch ghp cc
knh cc bc sng khc nhau vo thnh mt lung thng tin ln. OFDM l trng
hp ca WDM vi mt knh dy c hn. Hin nay c th ghp c khong
100 knh quang vi khong cch knh ln hn 10Ghz

38

Hnh : S khi b ghp knh quang OFDM


6.4 H thng ghp knh quang phn chia theo thi gian OTDM (Optical
Time Division Multiplexing)

Hnh : S khi h thng ghp knh quang theo phn chia theo thi gian
Hot ng:
Chui xung quang hp c pht ra t ngun pht Laser thch hp. tn hiu quang
ny c khuych i ln sau chia u thnh N lung, mi lung c a vo
iu ch nh cc b iu ch ngoi vi tn hiu mi nhnh l B Gbt/s. thc hin
ghp cc tn hiu quang ny vi nhau, cc tn hiu nhnh phi c a qua cc b tr
quang. Tu theo vc tr ca tng knh theo thi gian trong khung m cc b tr thc
hin gi chm xung my jkhong thi gian tng ng. Tn hiu sau khi c ghp c
tc l (N x B)Gbit/s.

39

Sau khi c truyn trn ng truyn, thit b tch knh pha thu s thc hin
tch knh v khi phc xung clock v a ra c tng knh quang ring, tng ng
vi phn pht
S tr quang c s dng bng cc on si c chiu di iu khin c (si di
1mm c tr l 5ps)
6.5 H thng ghp knh sng mang ph (Subcarrier multiplexing)
C s ca ghp knh sng mang ph dc trn k thut viba. Tn hiu vi ba nhiu
knh c jtruyn trong mi trng quang s dng si quang cho php di tn hiu
vt 10Ghz cho mi tn s sng mang quang. Vic ghp knh c s dng bng cc
sng mang ph (trong phn tn hiu in). u im ca h thng SCM l tnh linh
hot v kh nng cp nht trong cu trc mng bng rng.

Hnh : S h thng ghp knh sng mang ph


CHNG VII : THNG TIN QUAMG COHERENT
7.1 Khi qut v thng tin quang Coherent
Trong h thng thng tin quang hin hnh, vic s dng cc k thut iu ch v
gii iu ch trc tip IM DD (Intensity Modulation Direct Detection) c cc c
im l:
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- Cng nh sng pht ra (LED hoc LASER) c iu ch tuyn tnh i vi


dng tn hiu vo.
-Khng s dng pha ca sng mang truyn tin
-Thc hin tch sng trc tip u thu, tn hiu c tch ra bng tn c s m
khng c s bin i no.
*Thng tin quang Coherent c cc c im sau:
-Tn hiu thng tin c iu ch pha pht vi mc yu cu cao v rng ph
ca tn hiu, n nh tn s (c th iu ch trc tip hoc gin tip bn ngoi)
- phn cc ca nh sng c gi nguyn trong qu trnh truyn.
-Trc khi tch sng thit b thu, tn hiu thng tin c trn vi tn hiu dao ng
ni (nh sng c x l trc khi ti tch sng quang)
*Khi nim kt hp (Coherent) ch s kt hp gia tn hiu thu c vi dao ng
quang ti ch pha my thu trc khi a vo tch sng.
*Li ch chnh ca vic thu kt hp:
-Ci thin ng k t s tn /tp SNR u thu, nng cao cht lng my thu.
-Tn dng c cc u im ca h thng thu i tn.
7.2 Hot ng ca h thng thng tin quang Coherent
7.2.1 Cu trc tng qut:

*S cu trc c bn ca h thng quang Coherent

Hnh : S khi ca mt h thng quang Coherent


* Cu to phn pht:
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H thng gm c mch iu khin, Laser bn dn, b iu chtn hiu (c th thm


khuych i cng sut...). Laser c dj rng ph hp(nh hn 0,1nm) thng l Laser
n mode, c n nh cao, c n nh tn s nh mch hi tip khng ch dng
bm.
*Phn thu: L phn c trng nht ca h thng. N bao gm :
-B trn quang (thc cht l thit b bn ca nh b ghp hng siu cao tn), c
cu to t mt gng bn phn x hoc b ghp si nng chy.Yu cu c hai trng
quang ti cn phi ng hng trn mt ca phtdiot. Tn s ca dao ng ni v
sng mang quang c th ging nhau (vi thu Hmdyn) hoc khc nhau (vi thu
Htrodine).
-Laser dao ng ni c cu to ging nh Laser phn pht nhng tn s c th iu
chnh c.
-B trnj v tch sng phtdiot hot ng ging nh mt b bin i tn s (vi
thuHeterrodyne) hoc mt b tch sng pha (vi thu Homodyne).
-Tn hiu sau tch sng c khuych i , lc gii thng ri a n gii iu ch.
Mt phn dng sau bin i quang in (O/E) c s dng cht tn s trung tn
qua mch vng AFC.
*Hot ng ca h thng:
n gin, gi s trng in t cu tn hiu truyn i l sng phng c dng
ES = AScos [ St + S(t) ]
Trong : AS l bin ca trng tn hiu quang
S l tn s tn hiu
S Pha ca tn hiu
B dao ng ni to ra dao ng quang ti ch c trng nh sau:
ELO = ALO cos [LO + LO(t) ]
Trong : ALO l bin ca trng dao ng ni; [LO l tn s dao ng ni; LO
l pha ca dao ng ni.
Gi thit rng hai trng c phn cc ng nht. Bj tch sng quang pha thu s
p ng vi cng ES + ELO2.
Cng sut quang t l vi cng nh sng: P = K.ES + ELO2 ; K l h s t l.
Vy ta c : P(t) = PS + PLO + 2 PS PLO .cos [ IFt + (t) ].cost
(7-1)
IF = S LO gi l tn s trung tn.
(t) = S(t) LO(t)

Cost

th hin s khng ng b v phn cc. Cost =

7.2.2 K thut tch sng quang Coherent

1- Tch sng Homodine:


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ES E LO
ES

E LO

Trong k thut ny, tn s dao ng ni LO c chn trng vi tn s tn hiu S


sao cho IF = 0 . S dng cng thc: It = R.P(t) = ( e / h ).P(t) v cng thc (7-1)
ta c: Iho(t) = R(PS + PLO ) + 2R PS PLO .cos [ S(t) - LO(t) ].
(7-2)
Thng thng th PLO >> PS nn tng PLO + PS PLO
Trong cng thc (7-2) s hng sau cha thng tin c pht v c s dng ti
mch quyt nh (mch khi phc xung)
Nu pha ca dao ng ni c iu chun vo ng pha ca ca tn hiu :
(t) = LO(t) th dng tn hiu Homodine ISHO(t) = 2R. PS PLO
So vi dng tn hiu tch sng trc tip : I DD(t) = R.PS(t) (ca h thng IM DD)
Th dng tch sng Homodine li hn rt nhiu v mc tn hiu.
I2HO (t) / I2 DD(t) = 4PLO / PS >> 1
Khi b dao ng ni ng vai tr tch cc nh l mt b khuych i
*Hn ch :
- Biu thc ca dng photo sau tch sng c cha pha ca ca b dao ng ni, pha
ny phi c kim tra bng mch kho pha quang PPL
- Yu cu v ch tiu tn s i vi c Laser pht v Laser dao ng ni l rt nghim
ngt ( S = LO ).
2- Tch sng Heterodyne
Trong trng hp ny, trung tn IF khc khng (mch kho pha quang PPL khng
cn thit).
IHO(t) = R(PS + PLO) + 2R PS PLO .cos [IFt + S(t) - LO(t) ].
(7-3)
Trong thc t th PLO >> PS . S hng dng mt chiu c th c x l bng cch lc
mt cch d dng. S hng sau cng c mang thng tin ca tn hiu
ISHE(t) = 2R PS PLO .cos [IFt + S(t) - LO(t) ].
(7-4)
B dao ng ni cng khuych i tn hiu thu c v th lm tng SNR
Do bn cht dng xoay chiu ISHE(t) (cng sut tn hiu trung bnh s thp hn hai
ln khi gi tr ca I2SHE c ly trung bnh trong mt chu k ca trung tn. Nh vy
s ci thin t s tn / tp trong tch sng heterodyne l thp hn tch sng Homodyne
3db.
7.2.3 T s tn / tp ca b thu quang Coherent.
Ta xt t s tn /tp ca b thu quang
- Nhiu ca my thu: 2 = 2 S + 2T
2 S l nhiu lng t
2T l nhiu nhit
2 S = 2e(IO + ID )Be ;
2T = 4KBTBeFn/RL
Be l bng tn hiu dng, Io l dng photo tng, RL l in tr ti tch sng, Fn l h s
nhiu nhit, ID l dng ti khi ban u.
SNRHE = I2SHE / 2 = 2R2PSPLO / (2e ( RPLO + ID)Be + 2T ) (7-5)
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Trong tch sng Heterodyne v S(t) = LO(t) nn SNRHO tng hai ln. Do PLO
ln nn ta c th coi nhiu lng t l tri so vi nhiu nhit.
SNRHE R.PS / e.Be = .PS / h.Be
(7-6)
Gi s lng cc photon thu c trong mt bit tn hiu l NP . Ti tc bt B, cng
sut tn hiu vo my thu PS ta c
PS = NPhB ; Be = B/2 ; thay vo (7-6) ta c SNRHE = 2NP
i vi tch sng Homodyne th SNRHO = 4NP
7.3 u im ca h thng thng tin quang Coherent
nh gi chung v h thng thng tin quang Coherent ta thy n c cc u im
chnh sau:
*Nng cao nhy my thu:
nhy thu c nng cao ln t 15 n 20 db so vi thu trc tip dn n khong
cch gia hai trm lp c tng ln (t khong 70 100km).+
*Nng cao kh nng truyn dn: Tng ng vi di tn 200Thz ti vng bc sng
15550nm . C th truyn 109 knh thoi tng ng (khi ghp knh theo tn s ).
*Nng cao kh nng chn la knh.
Trn c s thay i tn s ca b dao ng ni ta c th iu chnh thu c knh
bt k m trung tn vn khng thay i.

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Hnh :S ph thuc nhy thu vo tc truyn


Khong cch lp ph thuc tc truyn.

CHNG VIII: THIT K H THNG THNG TIN QUANG


8.1 Khi qut
H thng thng tin quang c bn c cu trc t ba thnh phn chnhl Si
quang, Thit b pht quang v Thit b thu quang. Cc thnh phn ny phi c xem
xt mt cch tng th trong mt h thng nht sao cho thng tin trong tuyn phi t
c cc ch tiu k thut tiu chun v bo m tnh kinh t.
Cc yu t chnh cn phi gii quyt khi thit k h thng l:
-Tnh ton qu cng sut trong ton tuyn (suy hao cho php)
-Tnh ton qu thi gian (tc truyn mo xung cho php..)
8.2 C s thit k h thng thng tin quang
8.2.1 Tnh ton qu cng sut ca h hng:

- Gi cng sut pht quang trung bnh ti u ra b pht quang l Pt [db]


- Cng sut quang trung bnh nh nht (j nhy thu) ti u vo my thu PREC [db]Ta
c qu cng sut trn ton tuyn:
CT = PT PREC = 2lC + FL + LSP + MS
Trong : lC : Suy hao b ni quang [db]
F : H s suy hao si
L: Chiu di si quang
LSP : Tng suy hao cc mi hn ni si
MS : H s d phng h thng ( t 3 n 8 db)
T cng thc trn c th tnh c chiu di mt khong lp vi cc thng s
chn.
8.2.2 Qu thi gian ln ca h thng

- Qu thi gian xc nh tc truyn ca h thng c bo m hay khng.


- Vi mt h thng tuyn tnh, qu thi gian ln c xc nh l thi gian m p
ng tng t 10% n 90% gi tr u ra sau khi u vo coa hm bc nhy

45

Hnh :Khi nim qu thi gian ln ca h thng


Nu coi h thng tuyn tnh nh mt khu R-C n gin th ta c:++
VOUT = V0 [1 exp (- 1/ RC)]
Vi iu kin v thi gian ln ban u ta tnh c Tr = (ln9). RC 2,2 RC
Bng tn in ca mch Rc c tnh l Be = 1/ 2RC
Vy Tr = 2,2 / 2..Be = 0,35 / Be
Vi tn hiu loi RZ (Return - to Zero) Be = B suy ra B.Tr = 0,35
Vi tn hiu NRZ (Non Return to Zero ) Be = B/2 suy ra B.tr = 0,7
H thng thng tin phi c thit k bo m Tr mm trong gi tr ln nht
ny
Tr
0,35 i vi dang RZ
0,70 i vi dng NRZ
Trong h thng thng tin quang c ba thnh phn thi gian ln ring r
Tr =

2
TR

+ T FIB + T REC

Vi TTR , TFIB, TREC l thi gian len ca thit b pht, si quang v thit b thu
8.3 Thit k c bn tuyn thng tin quang
8.3.1 Chn cu hnh tuyn thng tin quang n gin

- Cu trc s dng khuych i quang


- Cu trc s dng trm lp

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Hnh : S cu trc tuyn thng tin quang


8.3.2 Cc yu cu c bn ban u

-C ly truyn dn theo yu cu (hoc c th t c )


- Tc truyn dn hoc dung lng knh tng ng ( c d tr )
- T s li bit BER
8.3.3 Cc la chn c th:

* La chon si quang (n mode hay a mode)


- Loi si quang
- Kch thc li si
- Ch s mt ct chit sut li
- Bng tn hoc tn sc
- Suy hao si
* La chn mgun pht (Laser hay LED)
- Bc sng pht
- rng ph
- Cng sut pht
- Vng pht c hiu qu
- S lng mode c pht
* La chn thit b thu (Photodiot PIN hay APD)
- H s chuyn i dng
- Bc sng hot ng
- Tc lm vic
- nhy thu quang
* Tnh ton qu cng sut v qu thi gian ln ca h thng.

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