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# 11/25/2011

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Power Launching and Coupling
This lecture is based on Chapter 5, G. K Th l b d Ch 5 G Keiser

dr.zafrullah@uettaxila.edu.pk

## Topics in this lecture

Launching optical power into a fiber Fiber-to-Fiber coupling Fiber Splicing and connectors

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Coupling Efficiency
=
P power coupled into the fiber = F p power emitted from the sourse Ps

Source

Ps

PF

Optical Fiber

## Radiance (Brightness) of the source

Optical power coupled into the fiber depends upon the radiance of optical source rather than total output power. (Optical power radiated from a unit area of the source into a unit solid angle) (watts/cm2/steradian) [spatial distribution of the optical power of the source]

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## Source output pattern

For surface emitting LEDs

B ( , ) = B 0 cos
B0 is the radiance along the normal to the radiating surface For Edge emitting LEDs and lasers 1 sin 2 cos 2 = + B ( , ) B0 cosT B0 cos L Integers T and L are the transverse and lateral power distribution coefficients For edge emitting LEDs, L = 1
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## Power Coupled from source to the fiber

B ( A , ) d dA PF = s s s s A f f

rm 2

0 0

2 0

0 max

B ( , ) sin d d d s rdr

A s and s : area and solid emission angle of the source A f and f : area and solid acceptance angle of fiber
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P=
0 rs 2

rs 2

= B0
0

sin
0 0

0 max d s rdr
2 s

= B0
0

rs

NA d rdr
2 2 2

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2 / 2

Ps = As

B( , ) sin d d
0 0 2

## Ps = rs 2B0 cos sin d = 2 rs B0

2 0

/2

PLED, step

Ps ( NA ) 2 = a 2 2 Ps ( NA ) r s

if rs a if rs a

(Assignment)
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## Equilibrium Numerical Aperture

Non propagating modes will scatter out within a short distance (~ 50 m) and equilibrium is established Surface emitting LEDs have max of non propagating modes Flylead Fl l d coupled l l d lasers are l less prone t thi effect to this ff t
Nume erical Aperture NA in

P eq
NA eq

NA eq = P 50 NA in

## P50 = Power expected at z = 50 m

150 meters

50

100

Fiber Length
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Examples of possible lensing schemes used to improve optical source-to-fiber coupling efficiency

Collimating

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## LED to Fiber Coupling as a function of Emitting Diameter

In case of: Fiber NA = 0.2 Core Radius a = 25 m & Emitting Dia = 25 m Coupling Efficiency = .

## Emitting Diameter (m)

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Fiber-to-Fiber Joint
Low loss fiber-fiber joints are either: p (p ) 1 Splice (permanent bond) 2 Connector (demountable connection) Fiber-to-Fiber coupling loss LF (dB) = 10 log F where F = Mcomm / ME

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Different modal distributions of the optical beam emerging from a fiber, lead to different degrees of coupling loss

When all modes are equally excited, the output beam fills the entire output NA

For a steady state modal distribution, only the equilibrium NA is filled by the output beam
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## Lateral (Axial) Misalignment Losses

F ,step = p
2 A comm

a2
1/ 2

2 d d d = arccos 1 2 a a 2 a

## Derive the similar expression for GI Fiber

(Assignment)
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Losses due to differences in the geometry and waveguide Radius characteristics of the fibers 1. Numerical Aperture 2.
a LF (a) = 10 log R a E
2

for a R a E
2

## NA R LF ( NA) = 10 log NA E ( + 2) LF ( ) = 10 log R E E ( R + 2)

for NA R NA E for R E

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## Experimental comparison of Losses as a function of mechanical misalignment

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Connectors Characteristics
Some of the principal requirements of a good connector design are as follows: 1- low coupling l 1 l li losses 2- Interchangeability 3- Ease of assembly 4- Low environmental sensitivity 5 Low cost 5- Low-cost and reliable construction 6- Ease of connection

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Fiber Splicing

Fusion Splicing

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Exercises

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