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11/25/2011

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Power Launching and Coupling
This lecture is based on Chapter 5, G. K Th l b d Ch 5 G Keiser

dr.zafrullah@uettaxila.edu.pk

Topics in this lecture


Launching optical power into a fiber Fiber-to-Fiber coupling Fiber Splicing and connectors

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Coupling Efficiency
=
P power coupled into the fiber = F p power emitted from the sourse Ps

Source

Ps

PF

Optical Fiber

Radiance (Brightness) of the source


Optical power coupled into the fiber depends upon the radiance of optical source rather than total output power. (Optical power radiated from a unit area of the source into a unit solid angle) (watts/cm2/steradian) [spatial distribution of the optical power of the source]

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Source output pattern


For surface emitting LEDs

B ( , ) = B 0 cos
B0 is the radiance along the normal to the radiating surface For Edge emitting LEDs and lasers 1 sin 2 cos 2 = + B ( , ) B0 cosT B0 cos L Integers T and L are the transverse and lateral power distribution coefficients For edge emitting LEDs, L = 1
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Power Coupled from source to the fiber

B ( A , ) d dA PF = s s s s A f f

rm 2


0 0

2 0

0 max

B ( , ) sin d d d s rdr

A s and s : area and solid emission angle of the source A f and f : area and solid acceptance angle of fiber
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Example: Power coupled from LED to the Step Index Fiber


P=
0 rs 2

0 max 2B0 cos sin d d s rdr For rs < a (fiber radius) 0 0


rs 2

= B0
0

sin
0 0

0 max d s rdr
2 s

= B0
0

rs

NA d rdr
2 2 2

P LED,step = 2rs B0 (NA 2 2 2rs B0n1 )


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Total optical power from LED:


2 / 2

Ps = As

B( , ) sin d d
0 0 2

Ps = rs 2B0 cos sin d = 2 rs B0


2 0

/2

PLED, step

Ps ( NA ) 2 = a 2 2 Ps ( NA ) r s

if rs a if rs a

Derive equations 5.5 and 5.8

(Assignment)
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Equilibrium Numerical Aperture


Non propagating modes will scatter out within a short distance (~ 50 m) and equilibrium is established Surface emitting LEDs have max of non propagating modes Flylead Fl l d coupled l l d lasers are l less prone t thi effect to this ff t
Nume erical Aperture NA in

P eq
NA eq

NA eq = P 50 NA in

P50 = Power expected at z = 50 m


150 meters

50

100

Fiber Length
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Examples of possible lensing schemes used to improve optical source-to-fiber coupling efficiency

Collimating

Focuses light onto a line

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LED to Fiber Coupling as a function of Emitting Diameter

In case of: Fiber NA = 0.2 Core Radius a = 25 m & Emitting Dia = 25 m Coupling Efficiency = .

Cou upling Efficiency (%)

Emitting Diameter (m)


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Fiber-to-Fiber Joint
Low loss fiber-fiber joints are either: p (p ) 1 Splice (permanent bond) 2 Connector (demountable connection) Fiber-to-Fiber coupling loss LF (dB) = 10 log F where F = Mcomm / ME

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Different modal distributions of the optical beam emerging from a fiber, lead to different degrees of coupling loss

When all modes are equally excited, the output beam fills the entire output NA

For a steady state modal distribution, only the equilibrium NA is filled by the output beam
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Mechanical Misalignment Losses

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Lateral (Axial) Misalignment Losses


F ,step = p
2 A comm

a2
1/ 2

2 d d d = arccos 1 2 a a 2 a

Dominant Mechanical loss

Derive the similar expression for GI Fiber

(Assignment)
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Losses due to differences in the geometry and waveguide Radius characteristics of the fibers 1. Numerical Aperture 2.
a LF (a) = 10 log R a E
2

3. Refractive I d P fil 3 R f ti Index Profile

for a R a E
2

NA R LF ( NA) = 10 log NA E ( + 2) LF ( ) = 10 log R E E ( R + 2)

for NA R NA E for R E

E & R subscripts refer to emitting and receiving fibers


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Connector Return Loss

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Important characteristics of few connectors

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Write a brief report on the Connector parameters

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Experimental comparison of Losses as a function of mechanical misalignment

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Connectors Characteristics
Some of the principal requirements of a good connector design are as follows: 1- low coupling l 1 l li losses 2- Interchangeability 3- Ease of assembly 4- Low environmental sensitivity 5 Low cost 5- Low-cost and reliable construction 6- Ease of connection

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Fiber End Face

Fiber end defects


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Fiber Splicing

Fusion Splicing

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V-groove Optical Fiber Splicing

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Exercises

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