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10/27/12

Basic Def initions - RSA Encry ption

RSA E n crypt i o n
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Introduction Basic Definitions The RSA Algorithm Why RSA Encryption is secure Proof of the RSA Algorithm

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Basic Definitions
You should probably understand all the terms in bold text before learning the actual algorithm. If you understand all the terms in bold text, you can skip ahead to the algorithm: The RSA Algorithm An integer is any number that does not have a fractional part, e.g. -14, 0 , 5. An integer n is a factor or divisor of m if and only if m=kn for some integer k. We can then write n l m, or n divides m. There are many properties of the expression n l m, the relevant one being (1) If mn l a, then m l a and n l a for any integers m and n. An integer n is a common factor or common divisor of a and b if and only if n l a and n l b. The largest common divisor n of a and b is called the greatest common divisor or GCD. The lowest common multiple or LCM of integers m and n is the smallest integer that both m and n are divisors of. An integer p is prime if and only if p has no divisors other than 1 and itself, e.g. 2, 5, 23. Two integers p and q are coprime or relatively prime if and only if p and q have no common divisors other than 1. The totient function (n), of an integer p is the number of positive integers, n, that are relatively prime to p. According to Euler's definition of the totient function, the totient of any prime q is (q - 1). We can write a b (mod n), pronounced a is congruent to b mod n, if and only if a - b l n. n is the modulus of a b (mod n). There are many properties of mods, the relevant ones are (1) a a (mod n), for all a. (2) If a b (mod n), then b a (mod n). (3) If a b (mod n), then ak bk (mod n), for k 0. (4) ak a (mod n) for all integers a and k 0. (5) ak 0 (mod a) for all integers a and k 0.

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10/27/12

Basic Def initions - RSA Encry ption

Plaintext is the desired message an algorithm such as RSA will encrypt. In RSA encryption, plaintext is converted to a series of numbers denoted by m. The encrypted message is called the ciphertext. The Extended Euclidean Algorithm is used to solve the identity ax + by = gcd (a, b). When a and b are relatively prime, x becomes the modular multiplicative inverse of a mod b. Euler's Theorem states that if n is a positive integer, and a is a positive integer relatively prime to n, then a(n) 1 (mod n). The Chinese Remainder Theorem states that for two simultaneous congruences n = n1 (mod m1), and n = n2 (mod m2) Are only solvable when n1 = n2 (mod gcd(m1, m2)). The solution is unique modulo lcm(m1, m2). (When m1 and m2 are relatively prime their gcd is 1. By convention, a = b (mod 1) holds for any a and b.)

References 1. http://www.di-mgt.com.au/rsa_theory.pdf 2. http://www.cut-the-knot.org/blue/chinese.shtml

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