Está en la página 1de 10

Gii thiu: trc khi xt iu ch GMSK - k thut iu ch c s dng trong thong tin di ng s GSM ta i li s lc cc tin trnh pht trin

ca k thut iu ch: Khi h thng vin thong cn s dng k thut tng t , tc tn hiu ca ta l tn hiu tng t ( bin v thi gian u lien tc ) khi truyn tn hiu ny trn cc h thng truyn tin vi khonh cch ln nu nguyn tn hiu nh vy pht i th do n c tn s thp khng th truyn i xa c v hiu sut truyn khng cao, nh vy vic iu ch tn hiu y c xem nh l thut ton c bn tc ng ln tn hiu trong cc h thng thong tin, c bit l cc h thng truyn tin khong cch ln. Vic iu ch tn hiu tng t trong thi k ny l nhm mc ch gim kch thc ng ten pht (i vi h thng v tuyn ) v s dng ha hiu knh truyn. Bng cch dch ph ca tn hiu t min tn s thp sang min tn s cao, n cn c mt a im na l tang kh nng chng nhiu cho h thng thong tin. Trong k tht tng t ngi ta dung hai loi song mang : song mang tn s cao v cc dy xung, tng ng vi n ta c hai loi iu ch l lien tc v ri rc. iu ch tng t ty cch thc lm thay i cc thong s ca song mang m ta c cc loi iu ch sau : iu bin: iu bin hai di bn trit song mang AM_SC iu bin hai di bn AM iu bin mt di bn trit song mang SSB_SC iu bin mt di bin SSB iu bin trit mt di bin VSB iu ch gc : iu pha PM iu tn FM

iu ch xung : tc song mang l mt dy xung vung gc v cng tng t ta c : iu ch xung PAM PDM: tin tc gn ln rng xung ca song mang PPM: tin tc gn ln s dch chuyn ca v tr xung song mang trn trc thi gian trn trc thi gian

PCM: tn hiu trc ht c ri rc , lng t , m ha , ri sau cng c iu ch cao tn bng cch dung iu ch AM, FM , PM ( tn hiu iu ch l tn hiu s ) v vy ngi ta cn gi cc phng php iu ch ny l ASK, PSK, FSK

Nh vy ta thy tin trnh pht trin tip theo l k thut iu ch s m khi u l h thng PCM. Ngy nay khi tt c cc tn hiu c s ha th vic nghin ca iu ch s sao cho ti a nht cho h thng truyn tin l mt tin trnh pht trin lu di , trong n cha nhng vn mu thun nhau , m khi tin hnh mt bin php iu ch ta phi tm cch dung ha Cc yu t c phng php iu ch ti a. Mc tiu cui cng ca iu ch y phi t c: Tc s liu cc i Xc sut tn hiu cc tiu Cng sut pht cc tiu rng knh cc tiu kh nng chng nhiu cc i mc phc tp ca mch cc tiu

Khi ta i su vo tng phng php iu ch ta s thy cc yu t trn n i lp hn nhau tuy nhin ta cn chn mt gii php dung ha y ta ch nu s lc cc phng php iu ch : Cc phng php iu ch c bn: ASK 2 mc FSK 2 mc PSK 2 mc

iu ch nhiu mc: V nguyn tc th ta c th thc hin c 3 phng php iu ch trn nhiu mc u c, nhng trong o PSK nhiu trng thi l thong dng nht . y ta i xem xt l do v sao ngi ta li tang mc iu ch ca tn hiu : nh ta bit rng ca bng thng ca knh tn hiu th ha hn . V vy mun tng dung lng th phi tang tc bit , m bng thong ca tn hiu t k thun vi tc tn hiu nn dung lng knh thong tin li gim , v vy ngi ta ngh ra cch nn ph tn hiu bng cch iu ch nhiu mc khi tc bit Rb c thay bng tc baud Rs (Rs<Rb) .Khi ph tn hiu gim, kt qu l ta truyn c nhiu knh. Nh vy cu h i t ra l ti sao ngi ta khng tng s mc ln cao hn na m ch dng li ti a mc, trong GMSK ch c mc. l v nu ta tng nhiu mc th lm cho khong cch gia cc vc-t tn hiu nh i v vy vc-t nhiu ch cn nh cng gy ra l i lm cho vic quyt nh bit u thu b sai, tc l S N gim, mun S N tng th ta phi tng cng sut phat, iu ny khng c li.

Nu ta khng mun tng cng sut phat m d ng m sa l i vi li m th vic them vo m sa l i li lm tng tc bit ( v li m cng ln th chiu di chu i m cng ln). iu ny li mu thun, l l do v sao ngi ta khng tng s mc iu ch ln qu ln. iu ch GMSK s dng trong thng tin di ng s GSM l mt trong nhng phng php iu ch mc thc cht n l iu ch MSK nhng tn hiu trc khi a vo iu ch c a qua b lc Gause. s 1. c s so snh ta i xt iu ch PSK cng l loi iu ch mc nhng t R ln hn MSK b li thit b iu ch v gii iu ch ca MSK phc tp hn. i h y l mt trong nhng phng php iu ch thng dng nht trong truyn dn viba s. Cng thc cho sng mang c iu ch PSK mc nh sau: S(t)= { ( () )

i l pha ban u ta cho bng (t) = ( ) trong i T , ,3, tng ng vi cc symbol c pht i l symbol) , , ,

. Tb ( Tb l thi gian ca bit, T l thi gian ca iu ch GM trong thng tin di ng s GSM l nng lng ca tn hiu pht trn mt symbol nng lng | ( )|dt= ( )*, ( )+

dt = E

*,

( )-

Khai trin S(t) ta c :

S(t)={

,(

) -

,(

)-

,( (

)( )

(t) = - (t)=

sin (2

) vi ) vi

cos (2

Khi S1(t) = (t) sin [(2i 1) ] + (t) cos [(2i 1) ]

Nh ta bit khi nim hm trc giao trn on a,b nh sau: ( ) ( ) { ( i= 1,2,3,4)

Nh vy ta c bng sau ( khi th gi tr vo) Cp bit vo 00 01 11 10 Phase ca PSK Ta bn tin ; ; ;

Ta thy tn hiu PSK im bn tin nh hnh v

mc c c trng bi

vc-t tn hiu hai chiu v

em bng ta thy logic th bin i vo - c n logic th bin i vo . c ng mt l c ta pht i symbol nn lung vo phi c phn thnh lung tng ng v c bin i mc ri nhn vi hm trc giao tng ng. S iu ch PSK mc nh sau :

Khi my thu ta thu c tn hiu th vic gii iu ch lin quan n vic quyt nh symbol c pht i, bi tn hiu ta nhn c u thu ngoi tn hiu S(t) c n c nhiu trng x(t) c gi tr trung bnh bng v mt cng sut l N0 / 2. i hm phn b xc sut : F(x) =

Mt ph phn b phn b u trn : p() i hm tng t quang l hm deltadirac : R( )

N0/ 2

Nu tn hiu truyn vi gii thng trong khong -

ta c:

P()

| |

Suy ra : R( ) = P() d R( ) .N0 phng sai (

y chnh l hm Sa c bin . N0 vi moment cp ) Cui c ng ta c nhn xt : TS= 2Tb => BWS= BWb Trong R : l tc bit : tng theo Nyquyst hay

t l nghch vi thi gian mt bt mc bng tng gim so vi iu ch PSK mc.

Tc l iu ch PSK

h M

h a h y n pha

ti

trang

Nh ta thy nu iu ch PSK th c nhc im l gi s trng hp t symbol 0 chuyn sang symbol th gc pha i , iu ny lm tng kh nng b nhiu bi tp m. vy ngi ta mun dip pha ch l 00. iu ch MSK vic tng s mc tn hiu ln t hai mc sang bn mc l nh vic tn dng cc trng thi ca pha v iu ch MSK di tn t c tiu chu n a ra l 900. xt iu ch MSK ta i t iu ch CP SK ( hay ni cch khc MSK l trng hp c bit ca SK pha lin tc CP SK vi di tn l . ). Ta c tn hiu iu ch CP SK nh sau : S(t) = { ( ) ( )

i ch

l nng lng ca tn hiu pht trn PSK ). bit

bit ( n c tn tng t nh bn iu v

Tb :l rng ca

:l gc pha ban u thi im t ph thuc vo thi gian trc.

Tn s f1 , f2 l tn s c pht cho bit iu ch tng ng l , Nh ta bit iu ch tn s v iu ch pha u l iu ch gc . vy tn hiu iu ch S( t) c th c biu din nh sau : S(t) = , ( )-

i ( ) : pha ca S(t) v n l mt hm lin tc theo thi gian, khi S(t) cng lin tc mi thi im k c thi im chuyn i gia cc bit . fc = ( )= th : Tb ) (0 Tb )

tc l nu bit pht i l ( )= + (0

Nu l bit 1 : ( )= (0 Tb )

i h = Tb (f1- f2) : gi l t l dch tn so vi tc bit Gi s f1 > f2; v ta ly tn s fc = fc = vy ta c h = Tbfc Khi t= Tb ( tc l cui Do ( )= Nn suy ra ( ) bit v u bit tip theo bit ) nn dch tn cc i so vi fc l

( l pha u ca bit tn hiu ) = ( ) =

Thay t= Tb => ra

Ngha l nu pht i bit th pha cui ca chu k bit ln hn pha u ca chu k bit l h (v n tng tuyn tnh). Tng t nu pht i l bit th pha cui nh hn pha u l h ( n gim tuyn tnh ).

Nh vy s thay i (t) th hin s thay i tn s gia f1 v f2 . Ta c s cc kh nng ca s thay i ny nh sau:

lch pha l s d ca php chia cho nn nu chn h chu k bit ny ch nhn gi tr 2/ ( th a yu cu c ra ).

, th lch pha trong

Mt khc ta c nhn xt (t) l bi s ch n hoc l ca h ti cc im l bi s ch n hoc l ca Tb.

d: Chu i bit l sau:

vi ( )

( cho l c bt u) th ta c s pha nh

Nh vy vi h

fc =

dch tng cc i bng

ln tc bit.

Tn hiu iu ch S(t) c th c phn tch nh sau : S(t) = - i (t) = sin [ (0) (t) ] sin ( 2 0 Tb t)+ cos [ (t) ] cos ( 2 t)

t khong thi gian -Tb Tb ta c du ca cos ( ) ch ph thuc ( ) v ( ) nhn cc gi tr c th l hoc ( nh l lun trc ). khi phn tch ta c cos cos trong c (t) = cos (t) = cos (0)cos ( (0)cos ( ) sin (0). sin ( ) + sin (0). sin ( cos ) ) (vi bit (vi bit (0)cos ( ) ) ) v sin ( ) . Tc l

trng hp ta u c :

(t) = cos

du ca cos

(t) khng ph thuc vo bit truyn trc v sau khi t

. y trong

khong thi gian ny thnh phn ng pha S1 (t) l mt na xung cosin c xc nh nh sau :