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Houses 1st house Aries - Native, Appearance, Character, Purpose of Life

First House : Body, fame, strength, character, courage, knowledge or lack of it, residence, place of birth, dignity, honour, ancestry, livelihood, the present wisdom, wealth, comforts and discomforts, self-respect, peace of mind, happiness and un-happiness, detachment, virtues and vices, health of parents. In medical astrology : Body in general, limbs, complexion, marks or moles on the body, sound and unsound health, skin texture, longevity, sleep, head, brain, texture of hair, stamina.

2nd house Taurus Wealth, Family, Meal, Early Education

Second House : Wealth, speech, physical enjoyments, trading in ornaments, pearls and diamonds, buying or selling in general, accumulation of wealth, earning through self-effort, acquisitions from father, truthfulness and falsehood, inclinations, food, taste, clothes, eloquence, humility, steadiness of mind, learning education, letters, anger, deceitfulness, family members, friends, enemies, servants, close followers, selfcontrol, death. In medical astrology : Face, teeth, tongue, oral cavity, nose, nails, speech, eyes(right eye).

3rd house Gemini Younger coborn, Communication (phone, sms, chatting etc)
Third House : Courage and valour, physical fitness, hobbies, talent, education, good qualities, siblings, longevity of parents, tolerance, capability, quality and nature of food, selfishness, sports, fights, refuge, trading, dreams. Sorrows, stability of mind, neighborhood, near relations, friends, army, inheritance, ornaments, cleverness, short journeys. In medical astrology : Ears(right ear), neck, throat, shoulders, bones, upper limbs, mental instability, physical growth, and longevity.

4th house Cancer Mother, Education, Home, Property, Vehicle

Fourth House : Near and dear ones, caste and ancestry, mother, relatives on mothers side, lands and houses, agriculture, farming, gardens, orchards, installations, buildings, parliament favours from the ruler, medicine, education, knowledge of land and geography, hidden treasures, comforts and discomforts, courage, faith, victory and defeat, perfumes, clothes, milk, digging, agricultural produce, vehicles, possession of cattle, horses and elephants. In medical astrology : Chest, lungs, heart, breast, potent, medicine.

5th house Leo Children, Lover, Recreation, Devotion, Creativity

Fifth House: Progeny, father, mental ability, learning, knowledge, scholarship, character, conception, prosperity, acquisitions through wife, fascination (for women), sharp, wisdom, discrimination and analytical skill, capability, devotion to gods, means of earning, official seal, good or bad memory, speculation, humiliation, authorship, shruti(Vedas), Smitri, knowledge of mantras, karmas of past lives. In medical astrology : Heart, upper abdomen, liver, gall bladder, mind, mental illness, problems related to pregnancy.

6th house Virgo Health, Maternal uncle and aunt, Litigation, Servants
Sixth House : Enemies, oppositions, mental agitation, injuries, accident, disease, wounds sustained in war, loans, debts, losses, disappointments, obstacles, poisions, slanders, humiliation, cruelty, indulgence in prohibited acts, theft, quarrels, imprisonment, maternal uncles, maternal aunt, step-mother, pets, cattle, flavours of food, servants, subordinates, nuisances in general. In medical astrology : Intestines, umbilical region, phlegmatic illness, tuberculosis, eye disease, poisoning, accidents, operations.

7th house Libra Spouse, Business partner, Death, Trade, Agreement

Seventh House : Spouse, sex partner, marriage, adultery, lust or passion, nature or character of spouse, sexual union, secret love affairs, journey, deviation from ones path, partnership in business, overt enemies, quarrels, theft, loss of memory, recovery of lost wealth, progress, attainment of status, grandfather, brothers son death. n medical astrology : Lower urinary tract, anal canal, semen, seminal vesicle, urethra, prostrate, sexual act.

8th house Scorpio Sex, Longevity, Failure, Family of spouse, Dowry

Eighth House : Marital Status of the woman, longevity, death, obstacle, disgrace, defeat, discontinuity, suddenness, unexpectedness, misery, loss of memory, sin, killing a living being, capital punishment, nature of death, place of death, wickedness, fathers indebtedness, deviation from unexpected norms, frightful place, difficult route, crevices, finding faults, humiliation, wifes wealth, sudden unexpected gain, hidden talents, spiritual pursuits and attainments, inheritance, son of the elder sister. In medical astrology : External genitalia, incurable or chronic disease, loss of limb, longevity, cause of death, severe mental anguish.

9th house Sagittarius Luck, Higher learning, Travelling, Religion, Mentor

Ninth House : Virtuous deeds, pilgrimages, worship, religious inclination, devotional and religious learning, karmas of the present birth, splendour, association with virtuous, auspiciousness, the preceptor or guru, father, austerity, penance, charity, kindness, wisdom, knowledge, devotion towards the preceptor, spiritual initiation, mental quietude, fame and fortune, progeny, temples, vedic rituals, long journeys, travel by sea. In medical astrology : Hips, thighs, nourishment.

10th house Capricorn Profession, Status, Power, Father, Mother-in-law

Tenth House : Profession, function, source of livelihood, governmental service, honour from the king, business, status, wealth, political power, fame, progress, nature of work, professional inclination, the treating physician, hidden treasure, prescribed course, teaching capability, self-control, dominance, sacrificing nature, proficiency, fathers wealth and well-being, foreign travel, financial status, place of residence, performance of sacred and religious deeds. In medical astrology : knee joint, knee cap.

11th house Aquarius Friends, Hopes, Earnings, Elder coborn, Daughter/Son-in-law

Eleventh house : Gains of all the nature, income, acquisition, fulfillment of desires, nature of earning, arrival, rewards, recognition, favours from ruler, special status, proficiency, learning, ancestral property, fondness for the precious stones, lost wealth, pursuit of pious and religious deeds, profits and returns, elder brother, paternal uncle, longevity of the mother, material enjoyments. In medical astrology : Legs, left ear, left upper limb, recovery from disease.

12th house Pisces Expenses, Sleep, Donation, Foreign stay

Twelfth House : Expenditure, loss of wealth, spending money for prescribed or prohibited pursuits, pleasures of the bed, bedroom, mental anguish, loss of sleep, physical disease, wickedness, penury, loss or disease of a limb, loss of authority, imprisonment, confinement in an enemys house, loss of spouse, exit from world, emancipation, renunciation, distant travel, foreign land, emigration, loss in travel, paternal property, spiritual learning, secret learning, fear from overt and covert enemies. In medical astrology : Sleep disorders, mental imbalance, hospitalisation, feet, left eye, death.

Sign Lords

Mars Aries Scorpio Venus Taurus Libra Merc Gemini Virgo Moon Cancer Sun Leo Jupiter Sagitta Pisces Saturn Capri Aquarius Represents Soul

Abbreviation Sanskrit English Sy or Su Surya Sun

Ch or Mo Bu or Me Ma Gu or Ju Sk or Ve Sa Ra Ke

Chandra Moon Mind Budha Mercury Communication Mangala Mars energetic action, confidence and ego Brihaspati Jupiter the great teacher Sukra Venus wealth, pleasure and reproduction Shani, Saturn learning the hard way. Career and Longevity Rahu Ascending/North Lunar Node often described as a demon who does his best to plunge any area of one's life he controls into chaos Ketu Descending/South Lunar Node supernatural influences

Classifications of Nakshatra/Asterisms Fixed - Uttaraphalguni, Uttarashada, Uttarabhadra, Rohini This set of stars are fixed in nature. Good for house building and well digging. Thread ceremony, agriculture, horticulture are ideal on the days ruled by these stars. Movable - Swati, Punarvasu, Sravana, Dhanista, Satabhik This set of stars are movable in nature. Buying vehicles, horses, elephants, machinery are favourable on the days ruled by these stars. Aggression - Poorvaphalguni, Poorvashada, Bharani, Magha. This set of stars influence to kill, cheat, poison, lie, use of arms, hooliganism, vandalism and other violent acts. Mixed - Vishaka and Kritika Good for fireworks, related to fire and heat. To purchase and build furnace, boiler and heat plant. To start any electrolysis or any heat transfer. Dynamic - Hasta, Aswini, Pushya Good for education, sex, wearing ornaments, arts and crafts, travelling, dancing, singing, acting, going to beauty parlour. Friend - Mrigshira, Revati, Chithra, Anuradha Good for starting business, service, occupation, music, wearing ornaments and clothes. Starting a new friendship. Enemy - Moola, Jyestha, Ardra, Aslesha. Inflicting harm, black magic, deadly deeds, aggressive, creating damages to others, to kill and violent acts. To train and control animals.


1. Mesha Aries
Ashwini (100% in Mesha), Bharani (100% in Mesha) ' Krittika (25% in Mesha)





Ashva Dev Adya Gaja Manushya Madhya Mesh Rakshash Antya

Asvin Ketu Yama'; ' Venus 'Agni';' Sun

2. Vrishba Taurus
Krittika (75%in Vrishabha), Rohini (100%in Vrishabha) Mrigashira (50%in Vrishab) Brahma' Moon RTR M Soma' Mars RTT M Sarp Manushya Antya Sarp Dev Madhya

3. Mithuna or Gemini
Mrigashira (50% in Mithuna), Aardhra(100% in Mithuna) Rudra'; Rahu RTS K Shwan Manushya Adya

Punarvasu(75% in Mithuna)




Marjar Dev Adya

4. Karkataka Cancer
Punarvasu (25% ) Pushya(100% in Karkataka) Aaslesha(100% in Karkataka) Brahas Saturn RST D Sarap Mercury RSS D Mesha Dev Madhya Marjar Rakshash Antya

5. Simha Leo
100% Maghaa 100% P Phalguni ' 25% Uttara Phalguni 'Pitra'; Ketu TRR A Bhagha' Venus TRT K Aryamana'; Sun TRS M Mooshak Rakshash Antya Mooshak Manush Madhya Gao Manushya Adya

6. Kanyaa Virgo
Uttara Phalguni (75% in Kanya), Hastha( 100% in Kanya) Chithra (50% in Kanya) Savitra Moon TTR M Mahishi Dev Adya

7. Tula Libra
Chithra ( 50 % in Tula) , Swati(100% in Tula) Vishaka( 75% in Tula) Tvashtra Mars Vayu' Rahu Indragani' Jupiter TTT K TTS A TSR D Vyaghra Rakshash Madya

Mahishi Dev Adya Vyaghra Rakshash

Antya 8. Vrishchika Scorpio

25% Vishaaka 100% Anuraadha 100% Jyeshta 'Mitra'; Indra Saturn TST D Mercury TSS A Mrig Dev Madhya Mrig Rakshash Antya

9. Dhanu, Sagitarius,
100% Moola 100% P Aashada 25% U Aashada 'Niriti'; Aap Vishvadeva Ketu SRR K Venus SRT M Sun SRS M Shwan Rakshash Adya Kapi Manushya Madhya Nukula Manushya Antya

10. Makara Capricorn

75% U Aashada 100% Shravana 50 % Dhanishta Vishnu' Moon Vasu Mars STR A STT D Kapi Dev Antya Sinh Rakshash Madhya

11. Kumbha Aquarius

50 % Dhanishta 100 % Shatabhishaja 75 % P Bhadrapada Varun Ajaikpad Rahu STS D Jupiter SSR A Ashva Rakshash Adya Ashva Manushya Adya

12. Meena Pisces 25% P Bhadrapada

100% U Bhadrapada 100% Revati Ahiburdhanya Pushan Saturn SST K Mercury SSS M Gao Manushya Adya Gaja Dev Antya




ASHWINEE: A person born in this Nakshatra is inclined towards serving others, is humble by nature, is truthful, has a contented family life.

Beautiful in appearance and fond of clothes and jewellery. You have a sharp tongue. Calm and accomplished.
2) BHARANEE: If a person is born in this Nakshatra, he is cruel, ungrateful and no sense of

indebtness, achieves notoriety, fears water,is restless and wicked.

Interested in life, intellectual, prosperous and good health. You have a steady mind.
3) KRITIKA: A person born in this Nakshatra is brilliant and radiant, a learned man, clever, possesses wealth, accomplishes seemingly impossible tasks.

Good health, enjoy life, lustful, greedy and selfish. Highly snobbish in nature.
4) ROHINEE: A person born in this Nakshatra is efficient in religious activities, earns his livelihood through agricultural occupation, is endowed with beauty, is a master-conversationalist, a genius and efficient in arts.

Big eyes, integrity, generous, charitable, good conversationalist and strong mind with a wishful thinking.
5) MRIGASHIRA: A person born in this Nakshatra is a sharp shooter, loved by the king and follows virtuous path.

Weak mind, wants a easy life, has money and is very cautious in approach.
6) AARDRA: A person born is this Nakshatra has a great appetite, is of restless nature and cruel.

Deceitful in nature, proud and selfish. Short tempered and does not follow ethics in life.
7) PUNARVASU: A person born in this Nakshatra has numerous friends, is a practitioner of sacred texts and scriptures, possesses gems, jewels and ornaments etc. and is charitable.

Addiction to drugs, alcohol, polite in nature, cannot control things, sharp tongue, clever and cunning in related commercial transactions. Tactful in nature.
8) POOSHYA: If a person is born in this Nakshatra, he has a healthy body, obeys his parents, religious, humble, fortunate and possesses wealth and vehicles etc.

Strong mind with intercellular capacity. Follows law and ethics to highest level. Noble in nature and good promoter of charity, trust and helpage foundation.
9) AASHLESHA: A person born in 'Aashlesha Nakshatra' is a born wanderer i.e. travels unnecessarily, wicked, causes anguish to others, spends his wealth for evil purposes, and is a sensualist. (i) If a person is born in the first part of this Nakshatra, he is impotent. (ii) If a person is born in the second part of the Aashlesha Nakshatra, he is a servant always serving others. (iii) If a person is born in the third part of the Aashlesha Nakshatra, he suffers from diseases. (iv) A person born in the fourth part of the Aashlesha Nakshatra, though fortunate, has a few years of his life cut short because of a 'GANDA' (inauspicious combination of the Nakshatras) at the end of this Nakshatra. Therefore, irrespective of the part of the Aashlesha Nakshatra in which a person is born, an effort should be made to pacify this Nakshatra by performing the required rites.

Good physique. Mind will be cheerful and they are also cunning, selfish, unfaithful and their integrity will be questioned.
10) MAGHA: A person born in this Nakshatra is strong-hearted, respects his father, is a learned man, intelligent and is a winner.

Lover of luxury and comforts, hate to labour for things. They a have great passion for beautiful things such as flowers, colours, fragrance, sunlight, blue sky. They love to be prosperous.
11) PURVA PHALGUNI: A person born in this Nakshatra is very brave, fosters many people, clever but cunning, lusty and rough.

Good behaviour and very tactful in approach. They are very fond of charity. Born businessmen. Mind is very unsteady.
12) UTTARA PHALGUNI: A person born in this Nakshatra is charitable, kind hearted, possesses patience, and achieves fame.

Intellectual. Strong mind and very sincere in approach. Noble in nature and very short tempered.

13) HASTA: A person born in this Nakshatra is famous, is religious minded, respects Brahmins and learned people and possesses wealth.

Brave in nature. Very charitable and noble in deeds. Prosperity comes only in later part of life.
14) CHITRA: A person born in this Nakshatra defeats his enemies gallantly, is an expert in politics and has extraordinary intelligence.

Strong personality, good clothes and ornaments will adorn them. Good-natured person.
15) SWATI: A person born in this Nakshatra is endowed with tremendous beauty, flirts with many women, is jolly and receives wealth from the king.

Very tactful in nature, able administrator. Well behaved and has good control over mind.
16) VISHAKHA: A person born in this Nakshatra is religious minded having inclination towards performing rites and rituals etc., is of unstable nature and unfriendly.

Jealous in nature and never spend even on basic things. They are god fearing and very honest.
17) ANURADHA: A person born in this Nakshatra possesses lustre and splendour, achieves fame, is enthusiastic, a destroyer of his enemies, an expert in many forms of arts and a sensualist.

Good personality and beautiful eyes. Dutiful and fulfil commitment in life and very much god fearing in nature. They attract the opposite sex.
18) JYESHTHA: (i) If a person is born in the first part of this Nakshatra, he is full of lustre and splendour, achieves fame and greatness, is rich, brave, a hero and an excellent conversationalist. (ii) If born in the second part, he is of very cruel nature and quarelling nature. (iii) If born in the third part, he follows the evil path. (iv) Although a person born in the fourth part, has many sons, but because of the influence of the 'Ganda Nakshatra', it causes anguish and pain.Therefore it is necessary to pacify the planets by performing the required rituals and rites.

Very violent in nature. Prosperity does not come to them. They do not encourage friendships.
19) MOOLA NAKSHATRA: Except the fourth part, the initial three parts of this Nakshatra are considered as inauspicious and a person born in these periods causes destruction to his family as follows: If born in the first part of the Moola Nakshatra, he causes loss to his father. If born in the second part of the Moola Nakshatra, he causes loss to his mother. If born in the third part of the Moola Nakshatra, he causes loss to the family wealth.

Very proud in nature and lack compatibility. Mind will not be steady and disciplined. They are very short tempered. Purvashada/ Good personality. Very proud and noble in nature. Very good friend but a bad enemy. Uttarashada/ Majestic appearance. Very kind in nature, good companion and is a glutton.
20) SHRAVANI: A person born in this Nakshatra is well versed in the sacred texts and scriptures, has many sons and friends, and destroys his enemies.

Possess both intelligence and noble traits. Very dignified in nature and enjoy life greatly.
21) DHANISHTHA: A person born in this Nakshatra is of excellent behaviour, practical, rich, powerful and kind hearted. Very independent in nature. Bold and very courageous. Good

listener of music.

22) SATBHISHA: A person born in this Nakshatra is brave, clever and destroys his enemies.

Honesty and truth are the principles they follow in nature. Highly intelligent and well behaved.
POORVA BHADRAPADA: A person born in this Nakshatra has full control over his sense organs, is intelligent, an expert in all art forms, and destroys his enemies. Weak mind and will be very

sad in nature. Very good orator. Jealous and greedy by nature. Atheist.
UTTARA BHADRAPADA: A person born in this Nakshatra is rich and famous,and follows the virtuous path.

Analytic in nature and has a liking for Science and arts. Very argumentative by nature. Noble and charitable.
REVATI: A person born in this Nakshatra has amicable nature, controls his senses, acquires wealth by just means and possesses sharp intelligence.

Good health and attract opposite sex. Diplomatic and tactful in approach. Mind will be unsteady.

Basic Info
In Hindu Astrology, this system has been explained as space time connection. Within the space, there are four elements Air, Fire, Water and Earth each is therefore attributes, sattva , Raja and Tamasa and make up 12 divisions in the nature. So the zodiac in which earth and all the planets are imprisoned by gravitation and revolve around the sun is divided by 12 clusters of stars or signs of the zodiac. In Vedic astrology it is founded that nothing in the universe is stationery. In any case we consider ourselves in the central point with rest of universe in the constant motion around us. We, therefore, consider the position and movement of all the heavinely bodies in relation to earth itself. The Indian Astronomy and Astrology considers earth as the centre, and all other heavenly bodies moving around it in one manner or the other. The Indian astronomy is thus geocentric, and not heliocentric which latter considers sun as the centre. The zodiac forms the reference point for fixing up position of any planet or star in the sky. Since it encircles the earth, it is comprised of 360 degrees. The twenty-seven nakshatras being evenly distributed on it each having the span of 1320 arc. The various nakshtras are numbered from one to twenty-seven. Apart from it Vedic astrology recognises nine grahas. They are the Sun, the Moon, the Mars, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus, Saturn, Rahu & Ketu. Of these the Sun is star, the moon is a satellite of the earth, Rahu and Ketu are mere mathematical points on the zodiac. While the remaining ones are planets. When the zodiac is divided into twelve equal parts, each such part has an extension of 30 degrees of the arc. Such a division is called Rashi or Sign . A sign consist of two and a quarter nakshtras. Each sign has a certain specific influence of its own. All the planets as they travel around each zodiac sign, exert an influence according to their separate nature and in accordance with the quality of aspect which they form. The Moon changes its Zodiac sign in 2 - 2days compared to Sun which is stationary in a sign for 30 day. Therefore for every "12" changes in a YEAR for the SUN, the MOON changes nearly "146" times, resulting in greater accuracy in prediction. As we know that there are twelve signs of the zodiac. One of sign rising happens to be the sign rising at the eastern horizon at the time of birth. This rising sign is called as lagna or Ascendant. The lagna happens to be the first house of horoscope. This means that signs and houses donot coincide. The first house has the label of sign rising at the time of birth, the second bears the label of sign that will rise next, and so on. The nine grahas(from the sun to ketu) are the occupants of these houses. Each house represents certain characteristics. The sign falling in these houses also represents certain characteristics.

Whichever sign the moon is in, will be known as persons birth sign. To know the ascendant, it is necessary to make the horoscope. The Ascendant is the particular sign and degree exactly on the eastern horizon in the latitude of birth place for which the chart is cast. Graha - the planets. Graha literally means any heavenly body or point that can cast an impact on human affairs. It may be translated as planet for ease. Graha also includes lunar nodes (Rahu and Ketu) and sub-planets (upgrahas) which are not planets but no less effective than planets. The extra-saturnine planets (Uranus, Neptune and Pluto) are not included in the category of Graha. Houses : There are twelve celestial houses in Astrology and a house is constituted with 30 degrees. They are derived from an equal division of the circle of observation in to 12 parts. One-twelfth part of the circle of observation constitutes an astrological house. In astronomy it is the vertical of the latitude belonging to the place of the birth. The stars on the earth show the place of birth. The rising house is called ascendant and the others are known as angular, succedent and cadent houses. The angles are four cardipoints in the horoscope. The planets in the horoscopic chart are subservient to lagna, and their original nature undergoes modifications depending upon the lagna. One's Ascendant, or lagna, the rashi which is rising on the eastern horizon at the time of one's birth, is the most influential and important one. Of lesser importance but still some impact is the Janma Rashi, the rashi in which the moon lay while one was born. The twelve houses of zodiac represent all the aspects of existence at the terrestrial as well as individual level. The houses from the lagna to seventh represent the right half of the body of the native(and the left half of the body of his spouse). Those from the seventh to the lagna represent his left half and the right half of his spouse. 1. The kendras(or Quadrants) : Houses 1,4, 7 and 10. These are highly significant houses. 2. The panapharas(or Successant Houses) : Houses 2,5, 8 and 11. 3. The Apoklimas(or Cadent Houses) : Houses 3,6,9 and 12 4. The Trikons(or Trines) : Houses 1,5 and 9. These are highly auspicious and, along with the kendras, determine the health, wealth, status, dignity, rise and virtue or a native. The lagna being both a kendra and a trikona, is the most significant of all the houses. 5. The Upachayas : Houses 3,6, 10 and 11. These houses indicate struggle, competition and material achievement. 6. The Trika Houses : houses 6,8 and 12. These are considered bad houses(Duhsthanas). They indicate debt, disease, loss and misery. 7. The Ayu-sthanas(or houses of longevity) : Houses 8 and 3(8th from the 8th). They indicate the length of life and therefore, also the death. 8. The maraka-sthanas(or killer houses): houses 2 and 7 9. The two halves of a horoscope. a. Houses 1 to 7 indicate the invisible half and houses 7 to 1 indicate the visible half of the horoscope. b. Houses 10 to 4 indicate the eastern half and houses 4 to 10 indicate the western half of the horoscope. Planets : In the life of man planets exert a deep influence. In a horoscope, if a planet is in a particular sign, it is known as lord of that sign. o Mars Aries Scorpio o Venus Taurus Libra o Merc Gemini Virgo

o o o o

Moon Cancer Sun Leo Jupiter Sagitta Pisces Saturn Capri Aquarius

Physical Attributes of Planets o The Sun Ravi(Surya) has a square build, scanty but curly hair, lovely appearance, good intelligence, impressive voice, medium stature, red eyes, dark red complexion, strong bones, bilious nature, firm temperament and saffron robes. o The Moon Chandra has a slim but roundish body, beautiful appearance, lovely eyes, sweet tongue, phlegm and wind in his composition, white complexion, short curly hair, amiable nature, Sattvika inclination, discriminating wisdom, restless nature, excessive sexual urge, white robes. o Mars Mangala is characterised by fierce red eyes, short stature, tough and youthful body, fickle but generous disposition, short but shining and curly hair, valorous nature, Tamasika inclination, eagerness to hurt, easy excitability, bilious disposition and fair complexion. o Mercury Budha has a slim and beautiful body, large reddish eyes, dark green complexion, healthy skin, medium height, clear and witty speech, expression with multiple meanings, Rajasika inclination, plenty of energy, bile, wind and phlegm in his composition, and green robes. o Jupiter Guru(Brihaspati) has a big belly and a fat body,pale eyes, virtuous disposition, phlegmatic temperament, knowledge of scriptures and sciences, bright yellow complexion, Sattvika inclination, sharp intelligence, keenness in religious pursuits, forgiving nature and yellow-coloured dress. o Venus Shukra is dark brown and handsome, of symmetrical limbs and dark curly hair, writer of poetry, and has an amorous disposition. He has long arms, broad chest, excessive seminal fluid, windy and phlegmatic temperament, Rajasika inclination, grace, vigour, wisdom and intelligence, and multi-coloured robes. o Saturn Shani has a tall, lean and weak body, dark complexion, stiff hair and limbs, large teeth, lazy disposition, windy temperament, cruel nature, Tamasika inclination, lame, dark and shabby robes. o Rahu and Ketu have a bluish complexion resembling smoke, wild in bearing, intelligent, and of windy disposition. Planetary Lordship : The Sun owns Simha The Moon owns Karka Mars owns Mesha and Vrischika Mercury owns Mithuna and Kanya Jupiter owns Dhanu and Meena Venus owns Vrisha and Tula Saturn owns Makara and Kumbha Castes

Brahmins Kshatriyas Vaishyas Shudra Jupiter, Venus Sun, Mars Moon, Mercury Saturn

Essential nature : Sattvika (good and noble) Sun, Moon, Jupiter

Rajasika (active and just) Mercury, Venus Tamasika (dark and base) Mars, Saturn

Rulership in respect of the Kaala-Purusha

Sun Soul Moon Mind Mars Essence Mercury Speech Jupiter Wisdom and comforts Venus Seminal fluid Saturn Miseries

(6) Social status

King Commander-inchief Heir-apparent Ministers Servant Army Sun, Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter, Venus Saturn Rahu and Ketu

(7) Gender

Masculine Sun, Mars, Jupiter Feminine Moon, Venus Eunuchs Mercury, Saturn

(8) Rulership over body constituents : Sun Bones Moon Blood Mars Marrow Mercury Skin Jupiter Fat Venus Seminal fluid Saturn Nerves (9) Places represented : Sun Temple Moon Watery place Mars Place of fire Mercury Playground Jupiter Treasure house Venus Bedroom Dirty places, sites of refuse Saturn disposal (10) Directions

Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Rahu

East North West South North North East South East West South West

(11) Directional strength : Mercury, Jupiter Sun, Mars Moon, Venus Saturn (12) Benefics and Malefics : Natural benefics Natural malefics

East (Lagna or the 1st house) South (10th house) North (4th house) West (7th house)

Moon, Mercury, Jupiter, Venus Sun, Mars, Saturn, Rahu, Ketu

The waning Moon and afflicted Mercury too behave as malefics.

(13) Exaltation, Debilitation and Moola Trikona : Planets are strong and favourable when placed in their exaltation signs or in Moola Trikona signs. Exaltation, Debilitation and Moola Trikona of Planets. Planet The Sun The Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Exaltation Aries 10 Taurus 3 Capricorn 28 Virgo 15 Cancer 5 Pisces 27 Libra 20 Debilitation Libra 10 Scorpio 3 Cancer 28 Pisces 15 Capricorn 5 Virgo 27 Aries 20 Mooltrikona Leo 0-20 Taurus 4-20 Aries 0-12 Virgo 16-20 Sagittarius 0-10 Libra 0-15 Aquarius 0-20

Natural Mutual Relationship of Planets : Planets according to their nature, are disposed as friends or enemies or neutrals towards other planets. A planet's friends are the lord of its exaltation sign as also the planets owning houses 2, 12, 5, 9, 4 and 8 from its Moola Trikona sign. Natural mutual relationship of planets. Planet Friends The Sun Mon, Mar, Jup The Moon Sun, Mer Enemies Ven, Sat -Neutrals Mer Mars, Jup, Ven, Sat

Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn

Sun, Mon, Jup Sun, Ven Sun, Mon, Mar Mer, Sat Mer, Ven

Mer Mon Mer, Ven Sun, Mon Sun, Mon, Mar

Ven, Sat Mars, Jup, Sat Sat Mars, Jup Jup

Temporal relationship : Besides their natural disposition as friends, enemies or equals(neutrals) towards each other, planets become friends or enemies of each other depending upon their location in a horoscopic chart.

o Temporal friends : Planets located in houses 2, 12, 3, 11, 4 and 10 from any planet
become its temporal friends.

o Temporal enemies : Planets located in houses 1 (i.e., conjunction), 7 (opposition), 5,

9, 6 and 8 from any planet become its temporal enemies.

(16) Five grades of relationship : On the basis of their natural and temporal disposition towards each other, planets may have any of the five grades of relationships given below : Natural 1. Friend 2. Friend 3. Neutral 4. Neutral 5. Enemy 6. Enemy Temporal Friend Enemy Friend Enemy Friend Enemy Resultant relationship Bosom friend Neutral Friend Enemy Neutral Bitter enemy

(17) Aspects, Combustion and Retrogression : Planets exert their influence on the houses and planets that they aspect. All planets fully aspect the seventh house, or planets located therein, from their own position. in addition, the outer planets (Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) have been granted special aspects. Thus Mars also fully aspects houses 4 and 8, Jupiter houses 5 and 9, and Saturn houses 3 and 10. The remaining planets cast a quarter glance on houses 3 and 10, Half an aspect on houses 5 and 9, and three-quarter aspect on houses 4 and 8. Planets when close to the Sun tend to lose their strength and vitality, and are considered to be combust. A combust planet loses its capacity to do good and produces adverse results. Planets also become retrograde when, during their motion, they appear to be moving in a reverse direction. The Sun and the Moon do not become retrograde while Rahu and Ketu (almost) always move in a retrograde direction. A retrograde planet produces unexpected results and is generally adverse for health. A retrograde planet also exerts influence from its preceding house.

Nature of Planets Analysis of a horoscopic chartrequires a thorough understanding of the nature of planets. It is on the basis of a proper knowledge of the nature of planets that good and bad results can be predicted with any accuracy. Before venturing into predictive aspect of astrology, it is imperative on the part of a practitioner of astrology to spend some time mastering the principles that govern the benevolence and malevolence of planets. Planets may be benefic or malefic by nature. Or they become benefic or malefic depending uopn the nature of the rising sign in a horoscope. Benefic and malefic planets produce their results when

their appropriate dashas operate. Dashas thus help us in the timing of events. The nature of various planets is determined on the basis of standard astrological principles mentioned by the classical writers. The following account is primarily a reproduction of the same principles. Malefics and Benefics by nature Planets may be malefic or benefic depending upon their inherent nature. Thus, Jupiter, Venus, waxing Moon and well-associated Mercury are natural benefics. Similarly, the Sun, Mars, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu, waning Moon and afflicted Mercury are natural malefics. The Moon though a mild and benevolent planet, behaves as a malefic when too close to the Sun. Mercury gets influenced too easily; it thus behaves as a benefic under benefic influence and as a malefic under malefic influence. Rahu and Ketu too can behave as benefics especially when placed in the signs of Jupiter and Mercury. Benefics and Malefics for different Lagnas Parashara's Principles Planets behave as benefics and malefics depending on the houses they own. The ownership would naturally vary from one lagna to the other. In other words, for a give lagna, certain planets will behave as a benefics while others will behave as malefics or neutrals. This will be independant of their inherent nature. Planets thus are subservient to the lagna. On the basis of the principles discussed hereunder, a natural benefic may assume the role of a malefic while a natural malefic may assume a benefic role. Principles - Part I

Natural benefics as lords of quadrants (houses 1,4, 7 and 10) shed their beneficence. Natural malefics as lords of quadrants shed their malefics nature. Note : (i) (ii) (iii) Natural benefics are the Moon, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus; natural malefics are the Sun, Mars, Saturn, Rahu and Ketu. Lordship of quadrants has a neutralising influence on the nature of planets. The natural benefics thus lose the capacity to give benefic results, while the natural malefics lose their capacity to do harm. Only the ownership of quadrants does not convert benefics into malefics, and vice versa.

Lords of trines (houses 1, 5 and 9) give benefic results no matter whether by their inherent nature they are benefics or malefics. o Note : Lord of the lagna is both the lord of a quadrant and a trine. it is thus supposed to give benefic results irrespective of it's inherent nature. Lords of the third, the sixth and the eleventh houses are always malefic. Lords of the second, the eighth and the twelfth houses behave as neutrals. They give results according to their location as well as association. Note : Lords of the 2nd, 8th and 12th houses are impressionable neutrals.

Principles - Part II The twelve houses in a horoscope have been divided into four groups above : (a) the quadrants; (b) the trines; (c) the 3, 6, 11 group; and (d) the 2, 8,12 group. In each group the relative strength of the various house lords is described thus (a) Of the lords of the quadrants, the 4th lord is more powerful than the lagna lord; the 7th lord is more powerful than the 4th lord; and the 10th lord is more powerful than the 7th lord. (b) Of the trine lords, the 5th lord is more powerful than the lagna lord, while the 9th lord is more powerful than the 5th lord.

(c) Of the 3, 6, 11 group, the sixth lord is more powerful than the 3rd lord while the 11th lord is more so than the 6th lord. (d) Of the 2, 8, 12 group, the 12th lord is more powerful than the 2nd, while the 8th lord is more so than the 12th.

Principles - Part III The lord of the 8th house, though considered a neutral, has a special propensity to do evil. The eighth house represents obstructions, obstacles, failures, intrigues, ailments, death and the like. The following points must be remembered while considering the 8th house. Eighth house is the 12th from 9th (indicating loss of Bhagya); hence its lord ie ever malefic. Note : (i) 12th house from lagna indicates loss. 12th house from any house indicates loss of that house. Since the 9th house stands for Bhagya (luck), virtues, pious deeds, religious inclinations, father, etc., the 12th from it (i.e., the 8th) indicates the loss of all these. Loss of fortune or luck is considered the biggest loss. (ii) When the 8th lord is also lagna lord, the benefic nature of the lagna lordship prevails, and the 8th lord tends to behave as a benefic unless it is particularly afflicted or ill placed. The 8th lord is still more malefic when it also lords over the 3rd or the 11th house. Note : (i) For Pisces ascendant, Venus is the lord of the third and the 8th houses and is bad. (ii) For Virgo ascendant, Mars is the lord of the third and the eighth houses and, therefore, adverse. (iii) For Taurus ascendant, Jupiter is the lord of the 8th and the 11th houses, and is adverse. (iv) For Scorpio ascendant, Mercury as the lord of the 8th and the 11th houses is bad The eighth lord becomes a benefic when it also owns a trine. Note : (i) Jupiter and Mercury for Leo and Aquarius ascendants respectively own the 5th and 8th houses, and behave as benefics. (ii) For Gemini ascendant, Saturn as the lord of the 8th house as well as the 9th house (a trine) does not become an outright benefic, and, according to the Bhavartha Ratnakara, gives mixed results only. (d) The evil effects of the 8th house lordship do not apply to the Sun or the Moon. Note : The Moon is the 8th lord for Sagttarius ascendant, and the Sun for Capricorn ascendant. According to the sage Parashara, the Sun and the Moon remain unafflicted by the 8th house lordship. This, however, may not hold true in actual practice, at least in medical astrology. Principles - Part IV When a planet owns both a quadrant and a trine, it becomes particularly useful and is called a Raja-yoga-karaka (doer of great benefit). It gives additional benefit if it is also located in a quadrant or a trine. Note : (i) Mars for Cancer and Leo ascendants, Venus for Capricorn and Aquarius ascendants, and Saturn for Taurus and Libra ascendants, become Yoga-karakas because of the ownership of a trine and a quadrant. (ii) Some people doubt the efficacy of Saturn as a benefic for Taurus ascendant despite its ownership of the 9th and the 10th houses (a trine and a quadrant respectively). This is because the 9th lord is considered a Badhaka (an obstructing agent) for a fixed lagna like Taurus. This , however, is not the view of Parashara

which is more authentic. Only the ownership of a quadrant does not convert a malefic into a benefic. The malefic must also own a trine to completely shed its malevolence. o Note : Saturn, as the lord of the 10th and the 11th houses for Aries ascendant, as lord of the 3rd and the 4th houses for Scorpio ascendant, and as the lord of the 6th and the 7th houses for Leo ascendant, remains a malefic despite owning a quadrant in each case. (c) The blemish of kendra lordship (ownership of quadrants), as applicable to benefics, increases progressively from the Moon, to Mercury, to Jupiter, to Venus. (d) Full Moon, Mercury, Jupiter and Venus, in this order, are progressively more powerful as benefics. (e) Waning Moon, the Sun, Saturn and Mars, in this order, are progressively more powerful as malefics.

Principles - Part V (Raja Yogas) When the lord of a quadrant is in some way related to the lord of a trine, a Raja Yoga (or a highly benefic combination) is formed. Benefic combinations in a horoscope neutralise affliction and are good for remaining free from disease. Relationship between any two house lords can be in one of the following ways (a) By location in the same house (conjunction). (b) By mutual aspect. c) By an exchange of houses (Parivartana Yoga). (d) When one of them is placed in the other's house and this latter aspects the former. Note : When the lords of quadrants and trines are related in one of the ways indicated above, they still do not produce a Raja yoga if they also own the Papasthanas (adverse houses), i.e., houses 3, 6 and 11. Principles - Part VI (Rahu and Ketu) (a) Rahu and Ketu give results according to the house where they are located, and according to the planet (i.e., the lord of a house) whom they join. (b)Rahu and Ketu become Yogakarakas (productive of Raja Yoga) in the following situations : (i) When they are placed in a quadrant, and join a trine lord; or (ii) When they are placed in a trine, and join a quadrant lord. (c) Rahu also behaves as Saturn and Ketu also as Mars.

Trik Houses and their Lords Houses 6, 8 and 12 are known as Trik houses. While these houses, their lords, as well as the planets that associate with these houses and their lords are productive of adverse results, they are particularly adverse in relation to health. The sixth house and the sixth lord, among other things, indicate disease and accidents. The eighth house and the eighth lord indicate chronic disease, incurable disease, or death. The twelfth house and its lord indicate suffering and also hospitalisation. The dasha periods of the planets associated with these houses and their lords must be carefully watched for determining illness. Chart Connotations There are three different Jyotish chart notations, which are functionally equivalent but quite different in appearance. The following images show the same birth chart in the two main notations - North Indian and South Indian. The third notation is followed in Eastern parts of India.

The Signs There are twelve signs of the zodiac. One of the signs happens to be the sign rising at the eastern horizon at the time of birth. This rising sign is called the lagna or the ascendant. The lagna happens to be the first house of the horoscope.By this is meant that the houses and signs do not coincide. The first house has the label of the sign rising at the time of birth, the second bears the label of the sign that will rise next, and so on. The nine grahas (from the Sun to Ketu) or 'planets' are the occupants of these houses. The houses represent certain characteristics.The signs falling in these houses also represent certain characteristics, and the two intrmingle to indicate something newer.Then the planets which occupy them inflict further modifications. In order to be able to make any fruitful predictions, it is essential to understand the meanings of the signs, houses and planets. A Horoscopic Chart (A) North Indian Chart is the one in which the order of the houses is fixed. It consists of four central rhomboidal houses (which are numbered 1, 4,7 and 10, starting from the upper central rhomboid) and eight triangular houses. The sign rising at the time of birth is marked in the first house or the upper central rhomboid, and the remaining signs marked in regular order in an anti-clockwise direction.

(B) The South Indian Chart has the signs in a fixed order in the chart. The lagna is marked in the appropriate sign. The remaining houses are counted in a clock-wise direction.

(C) An Eastern Indian Chart, often used in Bengal and Orissa, also has the signs in a fixed order in the chart. The ascendant is marked in the appropriate sign. The remaining houses are counted in an anti-clockwise direction.

Whatever the type of horoscopic chart preferred, the planets are placed in the houses bearing the signs in which the planets are located astronomically.

The Signs ( or Rashis ) The signs of the zodiac have special features which are being described here. o (1) Appearance and Habitat : The twelve signs of the zodiac each have a specific appearance and a habitat. The sign Mesha resembles a ram. It circulates among the goats, the sheep and region holding wealth and precious stones. It wanders on grassy lands, and around lakes surrounded by vegetation. The sign Vrisha resembles a bull. Cowhouses and farmlands are its place of residence. A man and a woman bearing a trumpet and a harp represent the sign Mithuna whose places of residence are the couch and the lounge.This dual sign haunts the sports lovers and the pleasure houses. Karkata has the appearance of a crab and lives in water. Its places of residence include water-filled garden beds,river banks and un-inhabited lands. Simha (resembling a lion) resides in the mountains, forests, caves, inaccessible places, deep ditches and the living places of hunters. Kanya (consists of a woman) standing in a boat and holding corn and a lamp in her hand, inhabits women's pleasure rooms. Narda! Tula is represented by a man holding a balance in his hands, and its residences include lanes, bazaars, towns, routes and buildings. Vrishchika resembles the scorpion in appearance. It moves in crevices and pits. Its areas of residence include poisons, animal excreta, stones and insects. Of Dhanu, the legs are like those of a horse. It is radiant and holds a bow and arrow. The mouth of Makara is like that of a deer, shoulders like those of a bull and eyes like those of an elephant. It moves in the rivers and resides in the ocean.

Kumbha resembles a man wearing wet clothes and holding on his shoulders an empty pitcher.It moves in gambling houses and resides in drinking dens. The sign Meena consists of two fishes lying side by side, the head of one being beside the tail of the other.It haunts pious places, temples of gods and houses of Brahmins.

o (2) Parts of the body :The various signs from Mesha onwards represent (1) head,
(2) face, (3) shoulders, (4) chest, (5) heart and stomach, (6) abdomen, (7) lower abdomen and groin, (8) external genitalia, (9) thighs, (10) knees, (11) calves, and (12) feet.

o (3) Stature :
Of short stature are signs Mesha, Vrisha, Kumbha and Meena (i.e., 1, 2, 11 and 12). Of tall stature are the signs Simha, Kanya, Tula and Vrischika (i.e., 5, 6, 7 and 8). Of even stature are the signs Mithuna, Karka, Dhanu and Makara (i.e., 3, 4, 9 and 10)

o (4) Diurnal strength : Strong during night are the signs Mesha, Vrisha, Mithuna, Karka, Dhanu and
Makara. Except Mithuna, they rise by the hind side (Prishtodaya)

Strong during day are Simha, Kanya, Tula, Vrischhika, Kumbha and Meena. Except Meena, they rise by the head(Sheershodaya). Mithuna too rises by the head. Meena rises both by the head and the tail (Ubhayodaya)

o (5) Malefic/Male : Odd signs, viz., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11. o (6) Benefic/Female : Even signs, viz., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. o (7) Movable or otherwise :
Signs 1, 4, 7 and 10 are movable ; they indicate change and mobility. Signs 2, 5, 8 and 11 are fixed ; they indicate stability and fixity. Signs 3, 6, 9 and 12 are mixed ; they indicate a balance between the fixed and movable signs. .

o (8) Directions :
East South West North signs 1, 5 and 9. signs 2, 6 and 10 signs 3, 7 and 11. signs 4, 8 and 12.

o (9) Inherent nature :

Fiery Earthy Airy Watery signs 1, 5 and 9. signs 2, 6 and 10 signs 3, 7 and 11. signs 4, 8 and 12.

o (10) Biological characters :

Quadrupeds signs 1, 2, 5, posterior half of 9, and anterior half of 10,

Bipeds Insect ( Keeta) Those inhabiting water (Jalachara)

signs 3, 6, 7, 11, and anterior half of 9. signs 4 and 8. signs 12, and rosterior half of 10.

o (11) Constituent characters :

Mineral (Dhatu) Vegetable (Moola) Animal (Jeeva) signs 1, 4, 7 and 10. signs 2, 5, 8 and 11. signs 3, 6, 9 and 12.

o (12) Caste :
Kshatriya signs 1, 5 and 9. Vaishya signs 2, 6 and 10. Shudra signs 3, 7 and 11. Brahmin signs 4, 8 and 12 (13) Lords : Of the twelve signs, starting from Mesha, the lords are respectively Mars, Venus, Mercury, the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Saturn and Jupiter.

The geocentric astronomical framework

In order to understand the very basic astronomical concepts, as pertinent to an understanding of Vedic astrology, it is important to understand certain facts about the earth, the movements of the earth, and the apparent movement of the planets around the earth. Explanation of a few definitions is also in order. Earth as a sphere : The earth is spherical. It rotates from west to east around its axis. The axis of the earth is an imaginary line which, passing through its centre, connects its two poles, the north pole and the south pole. Another imaginary line running across the largest circumference of the earth, equidistant from its poles and running in an east-west direction, is called the equator. The terrestial equator is considered as the zero degree of latitude. Parallels drawn to the equator, either north or south of it, indicate the north or south latitudes, from zero degree at the equator to 90 degrees at either pole. Imaginary lines can also be drawn on the surface of the earth connecting the north pole to the south pole. Encompassing the circumference of the earth, these correspond to the 360 degrees of longitude. They are also known as the terrestrial meridians. Ancient Vedic astrologers considered the terrestrial meridian passing through Ujjain as the zero degree longitude. At present, the meridian passing through Green witch in England is regarded as corresponding to zero degree of longitude. The longitudes are marked from zero degree to 180 degrees east or west, depending upon whether a place falls to the east or to the west of Greenwitch. The latitude and the longitude of a place are the co-ordinates, which help to locate the place accurately on the surface of the earth. The 360 degrees of terrestrial longitude represent a time span of 24 hours. One hour thus corresponds to 15 degrees, and one degree of terrestrial longitude represents 4 minutes of time.

The equator divides the earth into northern and souther hemispheres.Latitudes and longitudes help locate a place on the surface of the earth.Arrow shows the direction of the earth's rotation from west to east. The great and the small circles : A great circle is any circle the plane of which passes through the centre of a sphere. Equator is a great circle on the earth, equidistant from the north and south poles. Any circle the plane of which does not pass through the centre of a sphere is called a small circle. As the equator corresponds to zero degree latitude, all parallels to it are small circles, which represent the north or south latitudes. Imaginary extensions into space : The space around the earth extends to an infinite extent. To us, the extension of space upto the zodiac is of primary importance. Celestrial Sphere is an imaginary projection of the earth in all directions upto infinity. An extension of the plane of terrestial equator into space is called the celestial equator . Any great circle that joins the celestial north and south poles is called a meridian. The meridian of a place corresponds to the terrestrial longitude. The meridian passing through Greenwitch corresponds to zero degree of longitude, and is termed as the Principal meridian or the Standard meridian. The angular distance between the principal meridian and the meridian of a given place (i.e., the angle subtended by the principal meridian and the meridian of a given place, at the centre of the earth) is called the longitude of a place. The Sun crosses the meridian of a place at mid-day. The intersection of the ecliptic (i.e., the sun's apparent path around the earth) with the meridian of a place is termed as the midheaven which in other words corresponds to the cusp of the tenth house of a horoscope. The meridian of a place thus passes, around the earth, through north pole, midheaven (10th house or zenith), south pole nadir (4th house) and back to the north pole. Declination and right ascension: Just as parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude help to locate a place on the surface of the terrentrial sphere, so do their extensions in the form of parallels of declination and meridians of right ascension help to locate heavenly bodies on the celestial sphere.Declination of a planet is the angle subtended by it and the celestial equator at the earth. The declination of a planet, thus, corresponds exactly with the terrestrial latitude. A planet at the terrestrial equator is said to possess zero degree declination. Right ascension of a planet is its angular distance, measured eastwards along the celestial equator, from the vernal equinox to the point where a perpendicular drawn through the said planet falls on the celestial equator. Equator and ecliptic ; formation of seasons: The earth rotates on its own axis in twenty-four hours. Along with this rotation, it also revolves around the Sun in one year or 365.2422 days (365 days 5 hours 48 minutes 46 seconds). This span of time is called a tropical year. The path of the earth around the Sun appears to us, from the earth, as the Sun's path around the earth, and is called the ecliptic . The equator runs around the middle of earth in an east-west direction and divides the earth into a northern hemisphere and a southern hemisphere. The ecliptic, or the Sun's path, in the apparent east-west direction, does not lie along the equator but is obliquely placed to it. Half of the Sun's path thus lies to the north of the equator and a half of it to the south of the equator. Aryabhatta wrote over fifteen centuries ago:

"One half of the ecliptic, running from the beginning of the sign Aries to the end of the sign Virgo, lies obliquely inclined (to the equator) northwards. The remaining half (or the ecliptic) running from the beginning of the sign Libra to the end of the sign Pisces, lies (equally inclined to the equator) southwards." The Sun thus happens to cross the equator twice a year, giving rise to what are termed as the two equinoxes. The vernal equinox happens around the 21st March, when the Sun is on its northerly course. The autumnal equinox occurs around 23rd September when the Sun is on its southerly course..

The ecliptic is inclined to the equator at an angle of 23.28'.It crosses equator at two points, the vernal equinox and the autumnal equinox.The north of the earth corresponds to the celestial north and celestial south poles.

On these two occasions, the day and night all over the globe are of equal duration. The Sun is vertically above the equator at this time. The declination of the Sun at these occasions is zero as it corresponds to the terrestrial equator which represents zero degree latitude. After vernal equinox, the Sun progressively attains north declination unit it reaches a maximum of 2328'. This occurs around 21st June and is known as the summer solstice . The Sun is vertically above the tropic of Cancer at this time. The northern hemisphere experiences the longest day and the shortest night on this occasion. The reverse holds true for the southern hemisphere. After the autumnal equinox, the Sun pursues a southward course and attains a maximum south declination of 2328' at the time of winter solstice . This happens around 22nd December. The Sun is vertically above the tropic of Capricorn, at this time. The northern hemisphere experiences the shortest day and the longest night on this occasion. The reverse holds true for the southern hemisphere. The obliquity of the ecliptic to the equator thus results in the formation of seasons . When

it is winter in the northern hemisphere, it is summer in the southern hemisphere. When it is summer in the northern hemisphere, it is winter in the southern hemisphere. The horizon: It is the great circle, which represents the meeting line of the earth and the sky. It varies according to the position of the observer on the surface of the earth. For example, for an observer at the north pole of the earth, the horizon corresponds with the equator while the southern hemisphere remains out of view. For one standing at the equator, the great circle passing through the poles represents the horizon; the two poles lie on the horizon in this case. For any intermediate positions, the horizon too varies accordingly. More and more of the southern hemisphere moves out of the horizon as the observer moves northward, and more and more northern hemisphere moves out of the horizon as the observer moves southward. The point of the celestial sphere, which is directly overhead for the observer, is called as the zenith . This is at right angles to the observer's horizon. Its opposite point is known as the nadir . The great circle that passes in a north-south direction through the zenith and the nadir, through the celestial north and south poles (i.e., the north and south poles of the equator) and through the north and south points of the horizon is called the meridian which has been already referred to. The rising and setting of signs As already mentioned, the ecliptic passes through the centre of the zodiacal belt which extends some 8' to 9' on its either (north as well as south) side. The planets remain within the limits of the zodiac. The earth rotates around its axis once in twenty-four hours from west to east. As a consequence, all heavenly bodies appear to revolve around the earth from east to west once in twenty-four hours. The zodiac, with the nakshatras and rashis fixed upon it, also appears to revolve around the earth once in twenty-four hours. Thus all the signs and nakshatras on the zodiac appear to successively rise in the eastern horizon and set at the western horizon once in twenty-four hours. Six of the twelve signs appear at the eastern horizon during the day-time and the remaining six during night-time. The following points are of importance: 1. The sign that rises at the eastern horizon, at a given moment of time, is of primary importance and called the ascendant or the lagna. It is the sign where the ecliptic cuts the eastern horizon. In a horoscope this represents the first house. 2. The sign seventh from the ascendant is the descendant or the setting sign. That is, when a particular sign is rising in the eastern horizon, its opposite sign is setting in the western horizon. It is the sign where the ecliptic cuts the western horizon. In a horoscope this represents the seventh house 3. The points where the meridian cuts the ecliptic are the zenith (above the earth) and the nadir (below the earth, exactly opposite to the zenith) The Zenith (mid-heaven) represents the tenth house in a horoscope, while the nadir represents the fourth house. 4. Each sign takes time to rise at the horizon from zero degrees to 30 degrees. All signs are not of equal duration so that some signs take longer to completely rise above the horizon compared to the others 5. Signs can be divided into three groups, depending upon their rising periods (rashi maanas). Group A Mesha Kanya Tula Simha Karka Vrischika Dhanu Meena Kumbha Makara

Group B Vrisha Group C Mithuna

A sign belonging to one group takes the same time to rise as another belonging to the same group at the equator. The six signs from Karka to Dhanu lengthen and the remaining six shorten as one proceeds from the equator to the north pole. On the other hand, the signs from Makara to Mithuna lengthen, while the remaining ones shorten, as one proceeds from the equator to the south pole. 6. For any given latitude, the rising period for different signs is fixed. 7. As one moves away from the equator, certain signs lengthen while the others shorten as far as their rising period is concerned. That is, certain signs remain longer on the horizon than the others. 8. Six signs elapse between sunrise and sunset, while the remaining six signs do so between sunset and sunrise. 9. This means that in winter, when the days are shorter, the six zodiacal signs that rise successively during the day have a shorter time duration, while the remaining six have a longer time duration. This gives rise to signs of short ascension and those of long ascension. 10. Signs of long ascension in the northern hemisphere are: Karka, Simbha, Kanya, Tula, Vrischika and Dhanu. 11. Sings of short ascension in the northern hemisphere are: Makara, Kumbha, Meena, Mesha, Vrisha and Mithuna. These are the signs of long ascension for the southern latitudes. 12. As one nears the poles, certain zodiacal signs fail to rise.

The concept of sidereal time The earth rotates around its axis in 24 hours, in what may be termed a mean solar day. In other words, the mean solar day is a function of earth's rotation in relation to the Sun. Considered with reference to any fixed star in the zodiac, the earth completes its one rotation in approximately 23 hours and 56 minutes (23 hours, 56 minutes, 4.09 seconds, to be precise). One rotation of the earth in relation to a fixed star is called a sidereal day. Said in another manner, a sidereal day is the time interval between two successive transits of a fixed star over the meridian of a place. A sidereal day is 3 minutes and 56 seconds (or roughly 4 minutes) shorter than the mean solar day. A sidereal day consists of 24 sidereal hours. Time reckoned according to this method is called the sidereal time .Since the sidereal time considers the angular rotation of the earth in relation to the fixed stars of the zodiac, the earth will attain the same position with reference to the zodiac every day at the same sidereal time. In other words, for any location, for the same sidereal time, the disposition of the signs of the zodiac (including the rising sign, the setting sign, the tenth house, the 4th house, etc.) will be the same. This is the reason why it is essential to obtain the correct sidereal time for the purposes of erecting an astrological chart for any given moment of mean solar time as provided by the watch. Why is the mean solar day longer than the sidereal day? By the time the earth rotates once, with reference to a fixed star, i.e., in one sidereal day, the Sun has moved by approximately 1 thereby consuming approximately 4 additional minutes each day. Precession of equinoxes The earth revolves around the Sun once in 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds. Considered from the earth, the Sun appears to complete one round of the ecliptic during this period. This is called a tropical year .In the span of a tropical year, the earth regains its original angular position with the Sun. It is also called the year of seasons since on this

Earth-Sun cycle depends the occurrence, and timing, of seasons. If we consider the revolution of the Sun around the earth from one vernal equinox (around 21st March, when the day and night all over the globe are equal) to the next vernal equinox, it takes one tropical year to do so. However, if at the end of a tropical year from one vernal equinox to the next, we consider the position of the earth with reference to a fixed star of the zodiac, the earth appears to lie some 50.26 seconds of celestial longitude to the west of its original position. In order for the earth to attain the same position with respect to a fixed star after one revolution, it takes a time span of 365 days 6 hours 9 minutes and some 9.5 seconds. This duration of time is called a sidereal year .The sidereal year is just over 20 minutes longer than the tropical year; this time difference is equivalent to 50.26 seconds of celestial longitude. Each year, the Vernal equinox will fall short by 50.26 seconds along the zodiac reckoned along the fixed stars. This continuous receding of the Vernal equinox along the zodiac is called as the precession of equinoxes.

Causes of precession The earth rotates around its axis like a spinning top. In doing so, its north pole (and, therefore, the celestial pole), describes a dircle of some 47 degrees around the pole of the ecliptic.

The wobble of earth's axis in a clockwise direction causes the precession of equinoxes. The axis now points towards polaris;in about 13,000 years from now it will have to be moved to a point within a few degrees from vega. This in other words, means that the plane of the equator intersects the plane of the ecliptic at a constantly shifting point. This point, the first point of Aries or the vernal equinox, goes on receding westward at a rate of approximately 50.26 seconds of arc each year. This is called the precession of the equinoxes. The result of this precession is a slow increase in the right ascensions of almost all fixed stars in the zodiac. This precession takes some 25,800 (or approximately 26,000) years to complete one circle. As will be seen, an appreciation of this precession is of paramount importance in the understanding of the basic concepts of Vedic astrology.

Fixed and movable zodiacs The fixed or the sidereal zodiac considers the nakshatras as its basis. Its first degree begins as the first degree of Mesha (Aries) from a particular point in the Revati group of stars. There is another zodiac, however, which is reckoned from the Vernal equinoctial point; here the first point of Aries begins from the Vernal equinox. This is called the movable or the tropical zodiac. As has been seen, the movable zodiac continues to recede westward along the stars, which characterise the fixed zodiac? Ayanamsha; the sayana and the niryana system It has been seen that because of the precession of equinoxes at a rate of 50.26 seconds per year, the distance between the Vernal equinox (the 1st point of the movable zodiac) and the 1st point of Mesha (Aries) on the fixed zodiac has been progressively increasing. This distance at any given epoch is called as the Ayanamsha .The ayanamsha thus indicates the difference between the fixed zodiac and the movable zodiac. The system that considers the fixed zodiac is called the Niryana (without ayana!) system, while the one that considers the movable zodiac is called the Sayana (with ayana!) system. The Niryana values of planetary longitudes can be obtained by subtracting the ayanamsha for a given time from the Sayana longitudes. The Niryana and the Sayana zodiacs coincided in the year 285 AD when the ayanamsha was zero. At the rate of precession of equinoxes stated above, the ayanamsha on the 1st of January, 1995 is 2347'26". The equinoctial precession completes one round in aproximately 26,000 years, as mentioned earlier, so that the fixed and movable zodiacs coincide regularly after this time span. The ayanamsha reckoned on the basis of considering the year 285 AD as the year when the Sayana and the Niryana zodiacs coincided is called the Chitrapaksha ayanamsha. Ancient method of time reckoning The Vedic seers had an elaborate method of reckoning time. They combined genius with religion so that it appealed to the intellectual and the devoted alike. There were several methods of reckoning time. One standard method was as follows: 1 Asu (or Prana) = 4 (sidereal) seconds 6 Asus = 1 sidereal Pala (or Vighati or Vinadi or 24 seconds) 60 Palas = 1 Ghati (24 minutes) 60 Ghatis = 1 day (24 hours) 30 days = 1 month 12 months = 1 year 43, 20, 000 years = 1 Yuga 72 Yugas = 1 Manu 14 Manus = 1 Kalpa (or 1008 Yugas) 2 Kalpas = A day and night of brahma 30 day-nights of Brahma = 1 month of Brahma 12 months of Brahma = 1 year of Brahma 100 years of Brahma = Life of Brahm (or 1 Mahakalpa In addition to the above, the following methods of reckoning of time were used for astrological purposes : 1. Sidereal day = Time interval between one star-rise to the next 2. Civil day = Time interval between obe sunrise to the next 3. Lunar month = One new moon to the next Interval between entry of Sun from one sign to the 4. Solar maonth = other. 5. Solar year = Period of one solar revolution 6. Jupiterian (Barhaspatya) year = Period of Jupiter's motion through a sign.

Circular divisions Measures of angles have been similarly described by Vedic astronomers. 60 = Pratatparas 60 Tatparas = 60 Vilipta 60 Lipta = = 1 Tatpara 1 Vilipta (or Vikala or second) 1 Lipta (or Kala or minute) 1 Lava (or bhaga or amsha or degree) 1 Rasi (Sign) 1 celestial circle or a revolution

30 Lavas = 12 Rashis =

Planets and the zodiac The planets revolve around the Sun at different velocities in elliptical orbits. They also appear to revolve around the earth in elliptical orbits. Says Parashara: "Although the grahas proceed towards the east, they appear as if they are moving in the westward direction, under the influence of the 'force of flow'." The following three factors are of importance: I. The rotation of the earth from west to east direction : Even as this causes the day as well as the night, it also makes the planets appear to be moving from east to west across the earth. II. Daily revolution of the zodiac from east to west : The rotation of the earth makes the whole zodiac also appear as if it is making one daily revolution around the earth. In one day-night duration, all the signs of the zodiac (and all the nakshatras) successively rise in the east and set in the west. III. The movement of the planets from west to east : Although the daily rotation of the earth makes the Sun and other planets appear to be moving from east to west, in effect they move from west to east along the zodiac. Thus a planet in Mesha will actually proceed to Vrisha, and then to Mithuna, and so on. Order of the planets: Aryabhata describes the order of planets thus: "Beneath the asterisms lie (the planets) Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon (one below the other); beneath them all lies the earth....." Planets as lords of days and Horas: Aryabhata continues: "The (above mentioned) seven planets beginning with Saturn, which are arranged in the order of increasing fourth in order of increasing velocity are the lords of the successive days, which are reckoned from sunrise." There are 24 Horas in a day. Each Hora is being (approximately!) equivalent to an hour. The first Hora on a day, starting from sunrise, belongs to the lord of the day itself. Subsequent Horas follow in the order as given above, i.e., Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun, Venus, Mercury, Moon, Saturn, etc., until the end of day at next sunrise.

From Saturn, the fourth in order is the Sun; therefore, the Sun is the lord of the day following the day of Saturn. That is, Sunday follows Saturday. From the Sun, the fourth in order is the Moon. Therefore, Sunday is followed by the day of the Moon, i.e., Monday. Inner and Outer planets: The planets Mercury and Venus have their orbits between the Sun and the earth. They are called inner or inferior planets. These planets cannot go far away from the Sun. Mercury can only move a maximum of 27 degrees from the Sun and Venus a maximum of 47 degrees from the Sun. The planets Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, whose orbits lie outside the orbit of the earth, are called outer or superior planets .

Phenomenon of apparent retrogression in an outer planet as viewed from the earth Retrogression and direct motion: Planets move along the zodiac from west to east, around the Sun. However, when seen from the earth, sometimes their motion appears to be occurring in a reverse direction against the background of the stars. This apparent motion in the reverse direction is called as retrogression of planets and has special significance in predictive astrology. Rahu and Ketu, which are not true planets, however, always move in retrograde direction. Combustion of planets: Planets when too close to the Sun become invisible and are labelled as combust. A combust planet loses its strength and tends to behave adversely according to predictive astrology. Aryabhata has the following to say about combustion: "When the Moon has no latitude (i.e., when it is at zero degree of latitude) it is visible when situated at a distance of 12 degrees from the Sun. Venus is visible when 9 degrees distant from the sun. The other planets taken in the order of decreasing sizes (viz., Jupiter, Mercury, Saturn and Mars) are visible when they are 9 degrees increased by twos (i.e., when they are 11, 13, 15 and 17 degrees) distant from the Sun."

The degrees as mentioned above are generally taken as the limits within which the respective planets are said to be combust. Planets as gods Planets represent concentrations of energy. They influence the terrestrial phenomena by their disposition in the heavens. The sage Parashara, the father of Vedic astrology as understood and practised today, considers the planets as the representatives of gods. According to him: (i) The Sun represents lord Rama. (ii) The Moon represents lord Krishna. (iii) Mars stands for lord Narsimha, the half human-half lion form of the lord. (iv) Mercury represents lord Buddha. (v) Jupiter represents lord Vamana, who attained the form of a dwarf to rid the world of the rule of demons. (vi) Venus represents lord Parshurama. (vii) Saturn represents Kurma, the Tortoise incarnation of the lord. (viii) Rahu represents Sookar, the Boar incarnation of the lord. (ix) Ketu represents Meena, the Fish incarnation. Even as the lord, according to Gita incarnates to safeguard the interests of the righteous and to punish the evil-doers, so also the planets undertake their benevolent and punitive actions. In other words, they behave as benefics and malefics in a horoscopic chart. All planets, true to their godly nature, produce both good and bad results. The actual results produced by them manifest according to the inherent nature of these planets. The Panchanga Knowledge of astrology is useful for daily use in indian homes. All the daily rituals and even day to day pursuits make use of astrology. While predictive astrology was mainly restricted for the kings in ancient times, practical astrology in the form of what we call today as electronic astrology was of concern to the layman as well. The Indian almanac which details information about the festivals, rituals and planetary combinations for the purpose of election of a suitable moment,and has been in use since times immemorial, is called a Panchanga . A panchanga consists of five parts : 1. Thithi or the lunar date. 2.Vaara or the day of the week. 3.Nakshatra or the lunar asterism 4. Yoga 5. Karana While vaara or the day of the wek is the function of the sun alone, the other four parts of the panchanga depends on the desposition of the moon alone or the moon-sun duo.The moon thus has a special significance in vedic astrology, besides the sun. Lunar months The moon goes round the earth once in a lunar month. Like other planets, it moves from west to east along the zodiac although the rotation of the earth makes it appear to be moving in the reverse direction. One revolution of the moon around the earth produces what is called a lunar months : (a) The sidereal month : This is the period of time when the moon takes one round of the zodiac, as observed from the earth. It's duration is equal to 27.3217 mean solar days(or 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes approximately). During this period the moon when observed from a fixed star, moves once round the zodiac and returns to the same star. (b) The symbolic month : This is the period of time which elapses between the new moon and the next. It's duration is 29.5306 mean solar days (or 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes approximately). The synodic month is also called a lunation. A new moon indicates a conjunction of the sun and the moon. The synodic month is larger than a sidereal month because it indicates the relation of the moon with the sun. During one revolution of the of the moon,the sun too moves along the zodiac by slightly less than one sign. To catch up with the sun (in order to complete the synodic month) the moon, thus has to take some extra time. (c) The

nodical month : The intersection of the ecliptic by the moon's path results in the formation of the ascending and descending nodes of the moon, respectively known as rahu and ketu. They move in the reverse direction along the zodiac.A nodiacl month is the time taken by moon to complete one round from rahu to rahu. Since rahu moves in the reverse direction the rahu meets the moon slightly earlier along the zodiac.The duration of the nodical month is approximately 27.2122 mean solar days. (d) The anomalistic month : This is the duration of time that the moon takes to complete one revolution around the earth, in it's orbit from perigee to perigee. It's duration is approximately 27.5546 mean solar days. The moon loops around the earth in an elliptical orbit just as the earth does around the sun. The orbit itself is in constant flux due to perturbations caused by the sun and other planets. Perigee is the point at which a body (the moon , in this case)in orbit around the earth is at least distance from the earth. Whereas apogee is the point when the body is farthest. An anomalistic lunar month is the lunar equivalent to the solar anomalistic year which indicates the passage of the sun around the earth from perigee to perigee. Perihelion and Aphelion are the equivalents of perigee and apogee, with the sun as the center and the planets orbiting around it. Cycles of moon A lunar year generally considered for astrological purposes, is a synodic year consisting of tweelve synodic months amounting to approximately 354 days. It consists of 360 tithis i.e. thirty tithis in a synodic month.This year falls short of a solar year of about 365.25 days by eleven days. If totally lunar calendar was followed , the various seasons would fall to coincide with the lunar months. Since a lunar year would end eleven days before a solar year.This would mean a difference of over a month every three solar years. In order to compensate and make the solar and lunar calendars work side by side a luni-solar concept has been developed. The extra lunar month is considered every third year or before.This extra month is called an intercalary month. The use of various yuga cycles consisting of three year cycles, five year cycles, eight year cycles, eleven year cycles, nineteen year cycles and thirty year cycles etc., are signified brilliant attempts by Indian prevedic astronomers to harmonise the solar and lunar years.The nineteen year cycle appears to be the most accurate yuga or cycle. It consists of seven intercalary months over a period of nineteen solar years. It implies that in a period of 228 solar months , there are 235 lunar months(new moons or full moons). The metonic cycle: Consistent with the above observations is the discovery by Meton (433 BC) that there occur 235 lunations in a period of nineteen solar years. It will be seen that total number of days in nineteen years come out to be 6939.60 days.Total number of days in 235 lunar synodic months come out to be 6939.69 days.The two figures are remarkably close. It means that 228 solar months is equal to 235 lunar months.The nineteen year luni-solar cycle is so accurate that the tithis or lunar days fall on the same days after nineteen years. Even such astronomical phenomenon as the eclipses recur after nineteen year intervals with accuracy. Adhika maasa or the intercalary month : The sun changes it's sign or rashi every month.The day it enters a sign is called as it's ingress into that sign. A lunar month in which there is no solar ingress into a sign is considered as intercalary month. An intercalary month occurs in 32 solar months and 16 days.This means that an intercalary month occurs in every three years and this year has thirteen lunar months. Kshaya maasa or omitted month : This happens when there are two solar ingresses(i.e. sun enters two signs) during one lunar month.This happens very infrequently. When there is an month omitted , there occurs two intercalary months during one year. Paksha : A paksha consists of fifteen lunar dates or we can say two paksha make one lunar month. A krishna paksh extends from Poornima (full moon) to Amavasya (new moon). A shukla paksha extends from new moon to full moon. Moon's nodes The moon's apparent path intersects the ecliptic obliquely at two points called nodes.This is similar to the sun's path or the ecliptic intersecting the equator at an oblique angle.The point where the moon crosses the ecliptic from south to north is called the ascending node or rahu. Where it crosses the ecliptic from north to south is called the descending node or ketu.These two points are six signs or 180 degrees apart. Just as the equinoctial point shifts weestwards on the ecliptic at a constantly shifting point.Thus rahu and ketu go on receding or shifting westward along the ecliptic. Their movement is therefore constantly retrograde.They complete one round of the zodiac in approximately eighteen years and ten days.

Rahu and ketu , though only astronomical points have a special status in vedic astrology. They are treated as graphs or planets, like any other planet.

The orbit of the earth around the sun and that of the moon around the earth. Rahu and ketu are formed where the moon's orbit intersects the apparent path of the sun around the earth. The eclipses There are two kinds of eclipses : 1. Solar eclipses. 2. Lunar eclipses. A solar eclipse occurs when the shadow of the moon falls on the earth. This means that at the time of the eclipse the moon lies between sun and earth.This happens on a new moon day, when the sun and the moon are conjunct and lie on the same side of the earth. SInce the orbit of the moon is tilted at an angle of 5 degrees approximately to the ecliptic , the sun-moon-earth trio does not fall on same line on every new moon day. Hence there is no eclipse on every new moon day.

Solar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs when the moon lies opposite to the sun with the intervening between the two. The shadow of the earth falls on the moon. This happens on the full moon day when the sunmoon-earth trio falls on the same line.Again, because of the obliquity of the moon's path to the ecliptic,this situaution does not arise every full moon day.

Lunar Eclipse It has been pointed out that the moon's path crosses the sun's path at the ascending and the descending nodes (i.e. Rahu and ketu). The moon must,therefore, be fairly close to rahu and ketu and the sun too must be close enough to ensure that the earth ,the sun and the moon fall on the same line. ""Swallowed by rahu" is an expression applied to the eclipsed luminary. A solar eclipse is likely to occur if a new moon occurs within 18.5 degrees of the node (rahu or ketu) and certainly if the distance is less than 15 degrees.A lunar eclipse occurs on a full moon day, likely when the distance between the moon and the sun nodes is less than 12 degrees, and certainly when the distance is less than 9.5 degrees. A maximum of seven eclipses (4 or 5 solar;2 or 3 lunar) are possible in any given year Tithis or lunar dates There are thirty lunar dates or tithis, of 12 degrees each (12*30 = 360 degrees). A tithi is indicative of the moon's separation from the sun. It is obtained by subtracting the longitude of the sun from the longitude of the moon,and dividing the above value by twelve.The quatient plus one gives the number of the tithi operating on any particular day. Thus, (Moon - Sun) /12 Tithi = Q+1

Phases of the moon The tithis are counted from the 1st of the bright half or shukla paksha. The sun's conjunction with the moon coincides with the 30th tithi or the amavasya. When the moon overtakes the sun,but lies within it's 12 degrees, it is the 1st lunar date of the shukla paksha. At 180 degree separation,with the moon opposed to the sun ,it is the 15th of the shukla paksha, called as poornima. From here onwards starts the krishna-paksha, or the darker half. The tithis here again start from 1st and goes upto the 15th or the amavasys, when the moon and the sun conjoin.A tithi that is operating at the time of sunrise, on a particular day is the tithi operating on that whole day. Tithi is extremely important in performing day to day rituals and in electional astrology. Vriddhi or additional tithi: A tithi that extends from before sunrise on one day to after sunrise on next day is called as vriddhi tithi. such a tithi operates on successive two days. Kshaya or omitted tithi: A tithi that begins after sunrise and ends before sunrise on next day is called as kshaya or omitted tithi. This tithi is supposed to miss operation during that lunar cycle. Yogas There are twenty seven yogas. Each yoga measures 13.20 degrees of arc (360/27=13.20).A yoga indicates a sum of the longitudes of the moon and the sun in multiples of 13.20 deg. Although this measure of a yoga is the same as that of a nakshatra , there is no link between the two. Add the niryana longitudes of the sun and the moon and divide by the first one (vishkumbha) onwards. The 27 yogas are listed below : 1.Vishkumbha 2. Preeti 3. Ayushman 4. Saubhagya 5. Shobhana 6. Atiganda 7. Sukarma 8. Dhriti 9. Shool 10. Ganda 11. Vriddhi 12. Dhruva 13. Vyaghata 14. Harshana 15. Vajra 16. Siddhi 17. Vyatipata 18. Variyana 19. Parigha 20. Shiva

21.Siddha 23. Shubha 25. Brahma 27. Vaidhriti

22. Sadhya 24. Shukla 26. Indra

Yogas like tithis find extensive use in electional astrology and day to day rituals. Karana A karna is half the tithi ,or 360 minutes (6 degrees) of arc. In thirty tithis comprising a lunar month,there are sixty half-tithis or karnas.There are four karnas that occur only once in a lunar month. They are the fixed karnas and called as : 1. Shakuni : assigned to the latter half of the 14th day of the krishna paksha. 2. Chatuspada : assigned to the first half of the amavasya (15th day of the krisna paksha). 3. Naga : assigned to the latter half of the amavasya. 4. Kimstughna : assigned to the first half of the first day of the shukla paksha. The remaining 7 karna recur eight times during rest of the lunar month.Their names are : 1. Bava 2. Balava 3. Kanlava 4. Taitila 5. Gara 6. Vanija 7. Vishti These karnas recur in regular order starting from the second half of the first day of the shukla paksha until the first half of the 14th day of the krishna paksha. Karnas too find their use in rituals and electional astrology. Some astronomical facts about planets The following is a very brief discription of the planets which are of relevance in vedic astrology. SUN This is the most important of the nine grahas. In fact the sun is our nearest star in the space with planets revolving around it. It is the source of all the natural light and the heat of the earth. It provides the centripetal force to balance the centrifugal force generated by the planets going around it. It's diameter is 1.392 million kilometers, which is almost 109 times the diameter of the earth.The mass of the sun is some 323,000 times the mass of the earth.It has extremely high surface and core temperatures, and goes on producing immense amount of energy. At one time the sun was considered as the center of the universe (this was never the view of vedic astrology), but now we know it lies near the edge of the spiral arm of the milky way galaxy, lying some 30,000 light years from the galactic center, and sharing the rotation of the galaxy. MOON It is a satellite of the earth. In vedic astrology it is of great importance.It is the fastest moving grah and has the usual west to east mvement along the zodiac. It has relatively small size, it's diameter being only about 3476 kilometers. It's average distance from the earth is about 384,400 kilometers. It always presents the same face towards earth because it takes the same time to rotate once on it's axis as it does to revolve once around the earth i.e.27.32 days.Since the rotation is a uniform motion,while the motion in orbit is not,we may sometimes see an extra strip of the moon's surface on one or the other side.Some 59% of the total surface of the moon may thus be visible to us on the earth at one time or the other.This phenomenon is called as liberation.

The luminosity of the moon is caused by the light from the sun.It is the varying relative positions of the sun and the moon that produce the phases of the moon.These lunar phases,earlier discussed as tithis,are extremely important in vedic astrology. MARS Mars is the first of the outer planets and fourth in order of distance from the sun. It's orbit is highly eliptical as compared to that of earth, due to ehich it's closest position may be only 56 million kms. whereas at it's farthest it may reach upto 100 kms. The brilliance of the mars depends upon it's location. Mars is only twice as large than earth's moon.It's diameter being 6786 kms. It is at a mean distance of 227.8 million kms from the sun. The synodic period of the mars is 780 days, which is the interval between martian oppositions to the sun, with the earth lying in between. Mars rotates on it's own axis in 1.026 days and has an orbital period of 687 days. Mars has two small satellites called phobo and deimos. MERCURY Mercury is the planet nearest to the sun and hence is extremely hot. It has a very eccentric orbit so it's minimum distance (periphelion) from the sun is much less than it's maximum distance (aphelion). It's mean distance from the sun is about 58 kms. and it's diameter is 4870 kms, and it's maximum inclination of about 7 degrees on either side of the ecliptic. Mercury rotates once round it's axis in 58.65 days which is 2/3rd of it's orbital period of about 88 earth days. (planet has maximum speed at periphelion and minimum at aphelion). JUPITER Jupiter is the largest planet of the solar system, it's mass exceeding that of all the other planets combined together. It's rapid spin (once in 9 hours 50 minutes) has caused it to bulge at equator (diameter at equator 143,000 kms.) and to flatten at the poles (diameter 133,000 kms.). It is 318 times as massive as the earth and less than the 1000th part of the sun. It's mean distance from the earth is 778 million kms. and has an orbital period of 11.86 earth years. Being far away from the sun,it is a cold planet with it's gaseous cloud having a temperature of 140 deg.below freezing point.There are perhaps 16 satellites which circle around jupiter VENUS Venus is the second nearest planet to the sun. It's dense cloudy atmosphere reflects light extremely efficiently and accounts for the brilliance of this planet in the sky. The maximum inclination of this orbit is about 3.24 deg. on either side of the ecliptic. It is located at a mean distance of 108 million kms. and has a diameter of about 12,000 kms. The rotation period of venus is 242.6 days.An important fact about the rotation of venus is that it is retrograde, that is opposite to the general direction of rotations in the solar system. The orbital period of venus is about 224.7 days. SATURN It is the last of the naked eye planets. It's mean distance from the sun is 1426 million kms. It's rotation period is approximately 10 hours 14 minutes, and it's orbital period is 29.46 years. Saturn has a diameter of over 142 thousand miles at the equator. Being further away from the sun, saturn is a cold planet . It is larger than the rest of the planets (expect jupiter) and is about 95 times as massive as the earth. It's characteristic feature is the presence of rings around it. At least twenty satellites are known to revolve around the planet. The extra -saturnine planets (uranus,neptune and pluto) need the help of a telescope for their identification They do not form a part of predictive vedic astrology and are, therefore, not treated of here. Veshaish Lagna - Special Ascendants Sage Parasara mentioned a few special lagnas before mentioning the results of various divisional charts and houses. His mention that houses can be counted from special lagnas clearly indicates that he wanted special lagnas to be used instead of lagna for some clear purposes. Some important special lagnas are follows. o o Chandra Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Moon sign - very important langa) Surya Lagna (ascendant counted from natal Sun sign)

o o o o o o

Karak Lagna (significator taken as ascendant for all grahas) Varnada Lagna (for social company) Shri Lagna (for prosperity and marriage) Indu Lagna (for wealth) Hora Lagna (for financial prosperity) Gati Lagna (for name and fame)

Varga - the divisional charts o It is easy to appreciate that any given sign remains on the horizon for an average of two hours, plus or minus a few minutes. This means that all persons born during that time will have a similar planetary disposition in their charts. Also, a given sign rises on the horizon at approximately the same time( with a difference of approx. 4 minutes) on the subsequent day also. o It is possible that the planetary disposition as well as the rising sign may remain unaffected even if two births happen a day apart. In case of twins too, where the rising signs and the planetary positions are likely to be similar, segregation of the natives appear difficult. o One of the brilliant method of overcoming the difficulties mentioned above is the use of Vargas or subtle division. Each sign is divided into specific number of parts. Thus, the lagna or rising sign falls in a specific area of the division. o Rishi Parashra describes sixteen divisions called as the Shodashavargas. These Vargas not only help segregate the apparently similar charts, they also specifically deals with the specific areas of the native life. Thus, the use of Vargas is essential in order to make accurate and specific predictions. Rashi or complete sign of 30 Hora or one-half of sign (15) Drekkana or one-third of a sign (10) Chaturthamsha or one-fourth of a sign (730) Saptamansha or one-seventh of a sign (420) Navamsha or one-ninth of a sign (320) Dashamsha or one-tenth of a sign (3.00) Dwadashamsha or one-twelfth of a sign(230) Shodashamsha or one-sixteenth of a sign(15230") Vimshamsha or one-twentieth of a sign(130) Chaturvimshamsha or one-twenty-fourth of a sign(115) Sapta-Vimsha or one-twenty-seventh of a second(1640") Trimshamsha or one-thirtieth of a sign(100") Khavedamsha or one-fortieth of a sign(045) Aksha-Vedamsha or one-fortieth of a sign(040) Shashtyamsha or one-sixtieth of a sign(030) Lagna or Rashi chart : Physical Well being of the native. Hora : Wealth and prosperity Drekkana : Brothers and sisters and their well being. Chaturthamsha : Luck and also residence. Saptamansha : Children and grand children Navamsha : Spouse. Dashamsha : any specific benefit, profession of the native. Dwadashamsha : Father and the mother. Shodashamsha : Pleasures and troubles from vehicles, horses, elephants etc.

Vimshamsha : Spiritual pursuits, penance Chaturvimshamsha : Education and learning. Sapta-Vimsha : Strength and weakness. Trimshamsha : Miseries and troubles. Khavedamsha :Auspicious and inauspicious happenings. Aksha-Vedamsha : All things combined. Shashtyamsha All things combine. The term Varga means Division and refers to the various divisions of a sign, based on which Divisional Charts (or simply D-Charts) is constructed. Divisional charts (Vargas or Amsas) are very peculiar to Jyotish, and they are not found in other systems of astrology. Ancient Indian Mentor and Expert, Maharishi Parashara describes 16 divisional charts which are as follows; Rasi D-1: Body, Phyiscal Matters and All Generall Maters Hora D-2: Wealth, Family Drekkana D-3: Siblings, Nature Chaturthamsa D-4: Fortune and Property Saptamsa D-7: Children/Progeny Navamsa D-9: Wife, Dharma and Relationships Dasamsa D-10: Actions in Society, Profession Dwadasamsa D-12: Parents Shodasamsa D-16: Vehicles, Travelling and Comforts Vimsamsa D-20: Spiritual Pursuits ChaturVimsamsa D-24: Education, Learning and Knowledge SaptaVimsamsa D-27: Strengths and Weakness Trimsamsa: D-30 Evils, Failure, Bad Luck KhaVedamsa D-40: Maternal Legacy AkshaVedamsa D-45: Paternal Legacy Shastiamsa D-60: Past birth/Karma

Maharishi Jaimini explaines 4 more divisional charts. They include; Panchamsa D-5: Fame & Power Shasthamsa D-6: Health Ashtamsa D8: Unexpected Troubles EkaDasamsa/Rudramsa D-11: Death and Destruction

Apart form Rashi (D-1); Navamsha (D-9), Drekkana (D-3), Dasamsa (D-10) and Trimsamsa (D-30) are considered significant divisional charts.

Graha Bala or the strength of Planets Planet produce their results depending upon their strength or weakness in a horoscope. Determination of the exact strength of the planets demands an elaborate mathematical exercise. It is customary to express the strength of the planets in Rupas and Shashtyamshas(i.e. units or subunits) make a Rupa(a unit). Shadbala or Six-fold Strength Six different sources of strength combine to give planets its actual strength. These six sources of strength, also known as shadbala, are: o Sthana Bala or Positional Strength o Dig-Bala or Directional Strength o Kaala Bala or Temporal Strength o Chesta Bala or Motional Strength o Naisargika Bala or Inherent Strength

o Drig Bala or Aspectual Strength Importance of Dashas o Vedic astrology is intimately concerned with the moment of commencement: the commencement of life, the commencement of an event, the commencement of a venture, the commencement of a journey, the commencement of a year of life, and the like, It is the moment of commencement with which is inseparably associated the destiny of a given event. The planetary disposition at the time of beginning of an event is represented in the form of a horoscopic chart which is then subjected to astrological analysis in order to decipher the destiny of that event. o Timing of events in Vedic astrology is done by the use of dashas (or operational periods of planets) and Gochara (or the transit of planets). Both need to be integrated carefully in order to make correct predictions. Of the numerous dasha systems available, it is the Vimshottari dasha that is the most commenly employed by practitioners of astrology. Here, different planets have their Mahadasha (MD) or major periods, and each MD has the Antardashas (AD) or sub-periods of all planets, operating during the main span of the MD. There are further sub-divisions too but we shall stick to the MD and AD only, for the purpose of the subject. o As we have mentioned above, the moment of the beginning of anything is significant. It is surprising, therefore, that not much attentions has been paid to the moment of the beginning of a dasha. Sages have highly recommended that the planetary disposition at the commencement of a dasha (MD or AD) has a significant role in determining the outcome of a dasha. Of particular importance in the connection is the disposition of the dasha lord. Dr. Charak then explains the method of calculation of dasha aarambha and analysis of the chart with the help of example charts. o Application of the dasha system is an extremely brilliant feature of Vedic astrology. Whereas the horoscopic chart, with its planetary positions, provides a static picture of the native, the dasha add the dynamic aspect to it. The promise indicated in a horoscope attains fruition when an appropriate dasha operates. The dashas thus helps in timing events. o There are numerous dashas system given in Vedic Astrology. The two widely used are : The Vimshottari dasha, with a cycle of 120 years; and The yogini dasha, with the cycle of 36 years. The other well known dashas systems are Vimshottatri, Ashtotari and Kaal Chakra Dasha. There are few more dasha system, followed rarely in different parts of India. The Parashri dashas are generally nakshatra based. That is to say, they depend upon the birth nakshatra or the nakshatra of the Moon in the birth chart. Of the various dashas mentioned above, the Vimshottari is more widely used. o The Vimshottari Dasha : The twenty seven nakshatras are divided into three groups of nine nakshatras each. These are owned by nine planets. Each planet is allocated specific number of years over which it operates. S.No Planet Nakshatras Dasha Period (years) 1 Sun 3, 12, 21 6 2 Moon 4, 13, 22 10 3 Mars 5, 14, 23 7 4 Rahu 6,15,24 18 5 Jupiter 7,16,25 16 6 Saturn 8,17,26 19 7 Mercury 9,18,27 17 8 Ketu 1,10,19 7 9 Venus 2,11,20 20 Total number of years 120

Period wise description of Ashtotari Dasha

Planet Sun Moon Mars Mercury Saturn Jupiter Rahu Venus

No. of years 6 years 15 years 8 years 17 years 10 years 19 years 12 years 21 years

Period wise description of Yogini Dasha Mangla 1 year Pingala 2 years Dhanya 3 years Bhramari 4 years Bhadrika 5 years Ulka 6 years Siddha 7 years Sankata 8 years Apart from this there are various other type of calculations used in astrology. Which play a significant role in Predictive astrology. But it mainly depends on the individual choice of the astrologer. Few other important aspects of calculation includes following. Grah Bhal, Bhava Bhala i.e. energy of various planets & houses Friendhip Table among planets Astakvargas for different planets, along with sarvaskvarga.


considered for this purpose are (1) Varna, (2) Vashya, (3)Tara, (4)Yoni, (5) Grah Maitri, (6) Gana, (7) Bhukta, (8) Nadi. All the eight factors have been allotted points based on there significance. The sum total of all these points determines the compatibility between two. Details of North Indian Parameters Here Varna refers to caste of the girl and boy. In old hindu tradition the varna's are divided into four categories. The boy and girl of the same varna or girl with higher varna is preferred. It contributes only 1 point to the sum total. The vasya brings about mutual love and harmony and paves the way for happy union. This contributes 2 points in the total. The tara factor, decides the adaptability of their birth stars. This is also sometimes referred to as the harmony of birth days. This enhances the health and longevity of the couple. This contributes 3 points in the total. The yoni ensures correct matching of the sex organs of the couples for satisfactory mating. This contributes 4 points in the total. It considers the relation of male planets to that of female planets. Whether they are friendly, neutral or enemy to each other. This ensures the better understanding between the husband and wife. This contributes 5 points in the total. The Gana ensures steady and continous happiness for them. This is actually matching of human minds and temperaments. This contributes 6 points in the total. The Bhukta decides the mutual understanding

between the husband and wife. That helps them to exchange their ideas and strengthening the marriage bonds. This contributes 7 points in the total. The Nadi which in medical terms mean pulse. So Nadi koota ensures health, longivity of the couple and happiness of the children. This contributes 8 points in the total. Top Details of South Indian Parameters The first factor, the adaptability of their birth stars. This is also sometimes referred to as the harmony of birth days. This enhances the health and longevity of the couple. The second one(Gana) ensures steady and continuos happiness for them. This is actually matching of human minds and temperaments. The third(Mahendra) ensures good progeny and their exalted living. The fourth(Sthree) confers prosperity and secures the grace of lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. It ensures all round prosperity. The fifth(yoni) ensures correct matching of the sex organs of the couples for satisfactory mating. The sixth(Rasi) enhances the prosperity of the family. It interprets relationship between the daughter-in-law and her in-laws. The seventh(Rastyadhipati) is the adaptability of the lords of the rasis(moon's longitude) of the couples. This ensures good and illustrious children, who will become the shining jewels of the family. The eighth(vasya) brings about mutual love and harmony and paves the way for happy union. The ninth(Rajju) bestows on the wife "Deerga Mangalya Balam" (i.e.) living happily with the husband for a long time. It is considered as most important as it ensures long life for the husband. The tenth(Vedha) enhances the power to drive away all misfortunes and paves the way for a happy wedded life. o Progression Although widely used in astrology, transits are only one among a host of predictive techniques that have evolved over a years. Another method which is every bit as popular in a natal astrology is a system commonly referred to as 'day-for-year' progressions. The principle on which this system works is - as the name implies - that everyday after your day of birth is equivalent to one year of your life. So if, your example, you were born at 17.48 GMT on 25th April, 1970, the positions of the planets and angles at exactly the same time the following day (26th April) would correspond to your first birthday - 25th April, 1971. Continuing the conversions, the positions of the planets and Angles on 27th April would correspond to your second birthday, their positions on the 28th April would correspond to your third birthday, and so on. Charts drawn up using this 'day-foryear' method are known as progressed charts, and are said to herald the issues or events for the year in question. In other words, if your birthday is 25th April 1970 and you want to see what your twentieth year is likely to hold in store, you draw up a chart showing the planets' exact positions on 15th march (20 days on from your birthday - corresponding to 25th April 1990), then look at how these positions compare with each other and with those on your own birthchart. The traditional view of Progression is to see them as indicators of inner psychological growth and change, while transits relate more to external events and conditions we meet in the world around us. Progressions are strong where transits are weak - namely, with the inner planets and the Angels. As far as transits are concerened, these move too quickly to have more than a fleeting significance, and the emphasis is always on the slow-moving planets. With progression the focus switches to inner planets and Angles because on a day-for-year basis the rate at which these move, or 'progress', is much slower - slow enough, in fact for them to make significant aspects to planets and the Angles in the birthchart. The generally accepted view is that a progression lasts as long as it takes the progressed planet to pass 1 degree either side of a natal planet or Angle. However the energies symbolized by the progressed and natal planets will be at their most intense when the aspect is exact. Though progressions are widely used for timing the events. However the accurate birth time is very important for giving the correct interpretations. In case birth time is not accurate this method should not be preferred. Progressions are generally calculated by two general methods. "Solar arc method" and "Sidereal time method". Our software Aryabhatt provides for both the methods of calculating the progression. o Lal Kitab Lal Kitab needs no formal introduction. It is popular amongst neophytes and masters of astrology equally. The enamoured of the remedial measures of Lal Kitab and the astrologers who suggest them take pride in them. The measures are too simple to be explained in detail and too typical to be understood by an intelligent human being. Whatever be the facts they are quite effective and cannot be just given up for their simplicity. Rather they bring credit to him who suggests them. On the face of it Lal Kitab is an important treatise on palmistry and astrology. Ordinarily the palmists talk of mounts and lines Sun, Moon and Mars etc. but it is in Lal Kitab only that we comes across the birth charts of the natives having twelve houses and all the planets (earliest known nine planets) posted there. Rules of prediction are also very much like those enunciated in astrology. Despite all this, the astrology of Lal Kitab is different from astrology we know of, be it eastern, western or of any origin. Lal Kitab is essentially palmistry. The astrological contents that are added to it are to reflect the findings of a palmist or rather to corroborate it. The palm has been divided into 12 parts just as the natural Zodiac is divided into twelve signs like Aries, Taurus etc. Some types of shapes have been alloted to planets. These shapes wherever they exist on palm are supposed to be occupying particular houses of the birth chart. These signs represent the planets they are alloted to. Thus we have the twelve houses and the nine planets posted in the chart having twelve houses. The astrological chart is ready on the basis of the palm. They are often different from the birth charts prepared on astrological principles. The authenticity of astrological charts is to be corrected by the chart prepared from palm imprints. How charts are made from the palm is not our subject here. We propose only to discuss and deal with astrological contents of the book. Whatever be the system or method of preparation the chart has ascendant or the lagna and the other twelve houses numbered serially. Though they are the 12 sings of the Zodiac the signs have no significance in the chart. For signs, we may say, each horoscope is to be treated just like the horoscope of Kala Purusha; that is, house No. 1 should be considered as identical with Aries in all cases. As Sun is exalted in Aries and debilitated in Libra, we say that Sun is exalted in Lagna and debilitated in the 7th house. The lordship of the houses will also go likewise. Mars is always the lagna Lord and Venus the 7th Lord. In the palm we talk of lower Mars and upper Mars. In Lal Kitabs astrology we have two Mars, one a malefic or bad Mars and the other a benefic or a kind of good Mars. This is one peculiarity of Lal Kitabs astrology. Both the Mars have their own properties. As regards the comparative power of the planets it is the same as given in classical texts but at the same time we come across the concept of equivalent planets. Mercury for instance, is considered to be equivalent to Sun in power of giving results. We have a concept of blind or sleeping planets and blind or sleeping houses in Lal Kitab. The planets are supposed to have an aspect of some houses and affect the results of those houses. In Lal Kitab if the aspecting planet has no planet in the aspected house the aspecting planet becomes a blind planet in the aspected house the aspecting planet becomes a blind planet himself. It may be pertinent to note that the aspect of the planet is not the same in each house. Sun if posited in house 2 shall not aspect the 8th house but the 6th house only and if 6th house is unoccupied sun becomes blind. In short it is the house that grants aspect to the planet. The house is blind if it has no planets in it. This is the concept in astrology also. We call that house as weak.

There is also a concept of the artificial planets. A group of two planets together form one particular artificial planet or a substitute of that planet. Sun and Venus together form one artificial Moon. Likewise there are artificial planets for each of the planets including the nodes Rahu and Ketu. There is also a concept of sacrificial goats. If, suppose, Sun is afflicted by Saturn the effects of Sun shall be affected. This will not affect the effects of any other planet like Mars, Mercury or Rahu etc. According to Lal Kitab the affliction of Sun shall be passed on to Ketu. In other words the affliction would affect the results of Ketu. The affliction of Saturn would be spoilt. The wife of the native may die or suffer from miseries and troubles. It may be brought on record that such effects have actually been noticed although Saturn does not represent wife nor he is the significator of wife. Such results do need a deep research and the results are likely to enrich our astrology. We have a basic assumption that a planet gives the results of the houses of his lordship and those of the house occupied by him. He may, according to some, also offer the results of house or houses of which he is the natural significator although we have our own reservations but the planet in Lal Kitab can give results of any house by applying suitable remedies. This is a revolutionary concept and really needs deep research work like the assumption of sacrificial goats referred to above. These are some of the special features of Lal Kitabs astrology. They may look strange but it should be remembered that the basis of astrology in Lal Kitab is palmistry. Some of these features are useful in suggesting remedies. The concept of artificial planets particularly is of great help in remedies against planetary ills. Mercury is an enemy of Jupiter. If Mercury afflicts Jupiter we may try to help Jupiter because the group of Jupiter and Rahu together is an artificial Mercury. If Jupiter is propitiated Mercury shall lose half of his strength and Jupiter shall become extra strong. In case Jupiter afflicts Mercury we should propitiate Venus because Sun and Venus constitute Jupiter. By strengthening Venus we shall be increasing power of Mercury (Venus is Mercurys friend) and decreasing the power of affliction of Jupiter. The Twelve Houses of the horoscope There are twelve signs in the natural Zodiac and 12 houses in the horoscope. All affairs of human life are divided into 12 classes and each class of affair is in the domain of one or the other house of the chart. Out of the 12 houses the first house or the lagna is the most important of them all. Being the first house all the subsequent houses stand in relation to it. Every thing depends upon the strength or otherwise of this house. Lal Kitab states that the house is the house of struggle between Maya and Jiva or the soul and matter. In other words it is the house of struggle to get liberation from the shakles of Maya. It is the throne of the ruler. The achievements or failures of the native depend largely upon this house. In Lal Kitab this house also stands for education, intelligence and longevity. Mars is the ruler of the house. Sun is the natural significator. In fact Sun represents the human soul and vitality in the physical body. Planet posited in house No. 1 aspects the planets in house No. 7 and unburdens itself to some extent provided the house No. 7 is occupied and not vacant. If this house is vacant the planets in house No. 1 become inert. This is also true if the lagna is not occupied. The lagna house becomes inactive or weak. This house has a relationship with house No. 11. If the latter is unoccupied the planet in lagna gives good results. If there are a two or more planet in lagna Venus becomes the judge to decide about the nature of results. In other words Venus gets importance if there are two or more planets in the lagna. Incidently, house No. 2 is the Dharmasthana or the place of worship. Venus is its ruler. It is but natural that our own deeds or misdeeds come to play their part in the struggle for liberation. House No. 2 stands is the Dharmasthana or the place of worship. It also has the portfolios of wealth, education, honour and mind. This is the house that stands for the fruits of the karmas or the

deeds and misdeeds of the native. Here is the seat of Jupiter the jagat Guru or the preceptor of the world at large. House No. 9 is considered to be the ocean of Karmas. It is from house No. 9 that the winds laden with water of the Karmas rise and pour it on house No. 2. For good results of House No. 2 the house No. 8 should be vacant or unoccupied. The results are likely to be better if house No. 2 is also vacant. This may appear strange but every thing becomes clear if we go by the assumptions of Lal Kitab. Planets in house No. 2 are aspected by the planets in house 2 aspect the planets in house No. 6. If houses 2, 6 and 8 are all occupied the poison of house No. 8 shall be transferred to house No. 6 through the agency of the aspect of the planets in house No. 2. If houses 2 and 8 are both vacant there is no question of compounding the troubles of 6th house. House No. 2 gets its strength from house No. 4. Wherever there is a severe onslaught of misfortunes from house No. 9 due to the weakness of Dharmasthana or the Jagatguru or Venus, house No. 4, comes to rescue. In times of adversities we should look towards the strength of 4th house, its lord the natural significator or Karaka Moon who stands for mother as well as mortality and mind. Perhaps mother's blessings may help the native tide over his/her difficulties. Lal Kitab refers to house No. 3 as the times of exit from this world and the gateway of exit. In other words we come to know about the time of death and its causes. As illness is one of the routine ways of exit we have to judge the illness and diseases from this house. This is an inauspicious and malefic house that way. Malefics in Dusthanas or inauspicious houses are normally considered to be a good placement. According to Lal Kitab are placements of sinners meaning Rahu and Ketu in house No. 3 is horrible. It is said that even if they are not able to bring about the end itself they shall be competent to bring about death-like position. This may happen when house 3 is occupied by Rahu or Ketu and houses 6 and/or 8 by malefics. In adversities this house gets strength from 12th house even though the planets in 12th house are enemies of the planets in the 3rd house. In a hypothetical case let us assume that Ketu occupies house No. 3 and Mars is posited in house No. 12. Mars is an enemy of Ketu but in emergencies Mars will always help Ketu despite his enmity. Ketu shall have no ill effects upon the native. Likewise Jupiter in the 3rd house and Mercury his enemy, in 12th house will not be able to cause any harm. On the other hand there will be all round happiness and prosperity. If the houses are occupied by two or more planets we have to assess the harm, in any, in respect of each planet and then draw our final conclusions. Rahu and Venus in 12th house normally being about the death of the partner wife or husband in 24/25th year of the native. If Saturn occupies the 3rd house simultaneously Rahu will not be able to play his mischief. Saturn will help Venus. Mercury is the lord of 3rd house, Mars its natural Significator and Rahu shall have the dignity of exaltation. House No. 4 is the period of childhood and the prenatal period. It also covers the old age. Moon is the lord and natural significator of the house. It is a well-known assumption that Moon is strong by night. Similar is the position of planets in this house. They are strong by the night and also when there is some trouble. Jupiter gets exalted here. No planet gives bad effects to the affairs of this house if Moon does not occupy and of the house No. 1, 4, 7 or 10. Even the rank malefics like Rahu and Ketu become benefics for this house is Moon does not occupy any of the quandrangular houses. The bad effects of planets in house No. 4 are transferred to the affairs of the house occupied by Saturn. For the pre-natal period if any if Jupiter, Sun, Mars or Mercury are in 4th house and child will be safe and healthy in mothers womb before birth and even Rahu or Ketu would not be able to spoil that. House No. 5 is the house of progeny and the future of the native. How shall the native fare in the world can be known from his house No. 5. About the welfare of children also we have to judge the same house. So long as Jupiter is in good position there shall be peace and prosperity. This means

that Jupiter should be benefic by his placement and position in the annual progressed charts. If houses 6 and/or 10 are afflicted the articles connected with the planet inimical to the planet in 5th house should be kept under ground in the house. If house No. 8 is also afflicted the article should be kept under ground in the ancestral house. In case house No. 5 is occupied by Rahu and Saturn, Venus in 11th house, Ketu in 8th and Jupiter in the 10th house there shall be illness initially to the partner and thereafter the son is likely to suffer. For this malady loaves of bread or flour of the weight of the son should be given to dogs for 25 to 48 days. If house 4 or 4 or 9 is afflicted the planet in house 5 shall give bad results. The planets in houses 6 or 10 will also give bad results without any regard whether they are friends or foes of the planet in house No. 5. Rahu and Ketu will influence results according to their placement in the chart. Sun is the lord of this house. Jupiter is the Karaka graha or the natural significator planet for the house. House No. 6 is known as the hidden world, treasure house of mercy and providential help. House No. 6 is ruled by Mercury and hence the planet in house No. 6 is likely to afflict the results of house occupied by Mercury, Ketu or Venus. House No. 6 is aspected by the planets in house No. 2 and the house No. 8 through house No. 2. In such a case if Mercury or Rahu happen to be posited in house 6 there would be no bad effects of the malefics on the house because it is the house of exaltation for both of them. Ketu is the natural significator of the affairs of the house. It has been said above the houses 2, 6 and 8 are mutually inter-connected with each other. While attempting and modification in any of the houses including the 6th house we have to keep in view all the three houses. If house No. 6 is unoccupied there shall be no transfer of the afflictions of 8th and 2nd houses. There shall also be no aspect from 6th house to 12th house. The obvious result would be that the planets in 2nd and 12th houses will get extra strength. To avail of this opportunity is houses 2 and 3 are occupied by benefics it would always be helpful to awaken house No. 6. This is possible by serving the maternal uncles (helping them) or serving the daughters of the daughter. Except Sun, Jupiter and Moon all the other planets in 6th house would be offering their own results. Mercury and Ketu will not offer good results till the age of the planet in house 6 or 8. The question of the ages of planets will be dealt with at its proper place. Although the planets in house No. 6 are aspected by the planets in house No. 2 but the position would be reversed in the case of Saturn who will aspect house No. 2 from 6th house. House No. 7 is known for the family affairs, where the native has to struggle hard for fulfilling his material wants of bread, clothing the housing etc. It has been apply described by Lal Kitab in the following words. The native gets ground between the earth and the sky for food . Here Akaash, Zameen, Rizque and Akal have been used metaphorically for Venus and Mercury because both these planets are the natural significators and Venus is also the lord of the house. The native sweats himself out in search of his food and clothing etc. Sun, Moon and Rahu offer the results according to the placement and position of Venus. Bad results due to the position of Venus cannot be improved or mitigated by remedies. In other words these results shall come to pass and the remedies will all go waste. Mercury, Saturn and Ketu shall give their results at various periods. If these results are bad we may try some remedial measures and they shall be set right or improved. Normally the male planets affect the male relations and the female planets on affliction affect the female ones. In house 7 if the planets are more than two in number only the male relatives are affected. Sun, Mars and Jupiter are the male planets. Moon and Venus are females. House No. 8 deals with death and justice. Here justice means eye for eye and tooth for tooth. In other words the justice is on the basis of tit for tat.

It is the joint seat of Mars and Saturn. Both are the natural significators of the house if Sun, Moon and Jupiter singly or jointly occupy this house the bad effects remain limited to house No. 8 and its affairs. Saturn, Moon or Mars occupying this house singly give only good fruits. Saturn, Moon or Mars occupying this house singly give only good fruits. If, however, any two or all the three together join in this house they give bad results. Saturn will give deaths after deaths. Moon shall affect the health of the persons. Mars and Mercury occupying the house jointly give good results only if Saturn occupies house No. 2. In such a case Mars shall be malefic or the negative Mars. House No. 8 has its influence on house 6. If any of these houses is afflicted the results will be bad for both the houses. In such cases the planets in 12th house should also be judged. The planets may be friendly or inimical the planets in 12th house shall influence the results. Moon is the most powerful planet for the affairs of 8th house. Moon by strength of his placement and position can undo the ill of 12th house also. The cause of the malefic nature of 8th house will be house No. 4 through house No. 2. In other words the houses 2, 4 and 8 should be judged simultaneously. The planets in house 8, if inimical to planets in 2nd house and 11th will strike at the most vulnerable point. House No. 9 is known as the commencement of luck. Lucky period of the native shall start, good or bad, when the planet in this house becomes effective. The house is considered to be a great ocean. In case the house is inert, it can be activised through house No. 2 if the other two houses namely the houses 3 and 5 are unoccupied. Any of the planets who has been dormant till he transits house No. 9 and becomes active he will give results at his own age till his period is completed. Every planet has been assigned a particular period of age. By way of illustration, if Jupiter is in house 2 and transits the house in the progressed chart he will give results at the age of 16 and continue to do so till 16 years. Planets in house No. 5 aspect the planets in house 9. If Sun or Moon occupy house 9 there will be no bad effects of even Rahu and Ketu. House No. 9 is the seat of Jupiter. House No. 10 is treated as the ground for the foundation of luck. The planet transiting the house, according to the progressed chart, becomes a doubtful planet. This is to say that nobody can be sure about the nature of results to be given by the planet. The planet in 9 at the time of his transiting house 10 will give bad results even though the planets in house 6 & 5 are the friends. The nature of results would depend upon the nature of houses 8 and 2. The results will be bad if house 8 is afflicted and good if house 2 is in good shape. If house No. 10 is occupied by inimical planets their results shall be unpredictable An idea of the nature of results can be formed from the position and placement of Moon. If Moon is benefic good results shall be obtained. In case house 10 is unoccupied the planets in house No. 4 will not be able to give good results. Saturn is the natural significator of the house. House No. 11 indicates all about the natives status and condition. Personal income and earnings of the native and his relation with the world at large can be judged from this house. The results of Rahu and Ketu, if occupying the house, can be judged and they will be good normally if house No. 3 is vacant. They will however, give bad results in house No. 8. Ketu in house No. 11 would nullify the good effects of Moon and if Rahu occupies the house Jupiters good results would be spoilt. Vice versa in each case would also be true. Lal Kitab has given great importance to this house and planets in it. Even Rahu and Ketu give good results. If Rahu is a benefic the native shall not accept a single penny from his parents and whatever he gets will be lost to him due to one reason or the other; but all that he earns by the sweat of his own brow will be with and give him pleasure. House No. 12 is the place of final rest according to the deeds or misdeeds of the native. House 10 reflects the physical valour etc. of the native but 12th deals with the character etc. If houses 2, 6 and 8 are occupied the native has good character.

If houses 2 and 8 are occupied and there is no planet inimical to planet in 8th house the person shall command a keen intellect of very high order. If the life span is divided into 4 compartments we can judge how the native shall fare by the houses 1 to 3, 4, to 6, 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 in each part of his life respectively. Planet in No. 11, its position and placement shall give a glimpse of worldly status of the native. This can be modified by the condition of house No. 12. For improvement of the position of 12th house we look to house No. 1 and its planets. In other words, we can improve and get better results in house No. 12 if we can somehow improve the position of planets in lagna. If lagna is vacant we should go to house No. 2 for improvement.

Lal Kitab deals with nine oldest planets, namely Sun, moon, Mars, jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Rahu, and Ketu. Though the last two are nodes yet they are also treated as planets. There are many type of classifcations of these planets some of them are same as we have in regular astrology. The planets are classified as males and females. Sun, Mars and Jupiter are the male planets. Moon and Venus are female planets. Saturn and mercury are the eunuchs. Rahu and Ketu are just the associates of Saturn. They have not been assigned any sex. The rashis ruled by these planets are also the same. Sun rules over Leo, Moon over cancer, Mars over aries and Scorpio, Mercury over Gemini and Virgo, Jupiter over Sagittarius and Pisces, Venus over Taurus and Libra, and Saturn over Capricorn and Aquarius. As regards houses of exaltations and debilitations of these planets they are also the same as in regular astrology. Sun gets exalted in Aries, moon in Taurus, Jupiter in Cancer, Mercury and Rahu in Virgo, Saturn in Libra, Ketu in Sagittarius, Mars in Capricorn and Venus and Ketu in Pisces. Rahu gets exalted in Gemini also. The houses of debilitation of each planet are houses 180 degrees apart from their houses of exalation. In birth chart rasis are identical with houses. There is similarity between astrology and Lal Kitab upto this place. One peculiarity of Lal Kitab is that the rasis are not taken into account. The number of Rasis which are taken to be identical with house numbers, are only important. Pakka Ghar of planets Pakka Ghar is nothing but the concept of natural significator of houses. Sun's Pakka ghar is lagna. The other planets Pakka Ghars are as under: Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Rahu ketu Lagna 4th house 3rd & 8th house 7th house 2nd, 5th, 9th and 11th house 7th house 8th and 10th house 12th house 6th house

Friends and Foes of Planets Each planet has his friends as well as his enemies just as we human beings do. The list for illustration is given below

Planet Sun Moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturn Rahu Ketu

Friends Jupiter, Mars, Moon Sun, Mercury Sun, Moon, Jupiter Sun, Venus, Rahu Sun, Moon, Mars Saturn, Mercuty, Ketu Mercury, Venus, Rahu Mercury, Ketu, Saturn Venus, Rahu

Enemies Venus, Saturn, Rahu & Ketu Ketu, Rahu Mercury, Ketu Moon Venus, Mercury Sun, Moon, Rahu Sun, Moon, Mars Sun, Venus, Mars Moon, Mars

Apart from friendship or enemity of planets there is also a concept of equivalent planets. The planets so grouped are supposed to be equal in strength. The list of planets is as given under. Planets individually equal to Planets Mercury Sun Venus, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars Moon Venus, Saturn, and Rahu Mars Saturn, Ketu, Mars and Jupiter Mercury Rahu, Ketu and Saturn Jupiter Mars and Jupiter Venus Ketu and Jupiter Saturn Jupiter and Moon Rahu Jupiter, Saturn, Mercury and Sun Ketu When Mercury and Sun or Rahu and Mars are posited in one sign together Mercury or Rahu would always be quiet Moon and Sun when posited in any sign with Rahu and Ketu respectively will be less powerful. Artifical Planets : Lal Kitab has the concept that a group of two planets are equivalent to planet noted against each. The list is given bleow. Mercury & Venus together Sun Sun and Jupiter together represent Moon Sun and Mercury together Positivr Mars Sun and Saturn together Negative Mars Jupiter and Rahu together Mercury Sun and Venus together Jupiter Rahu and Ketu together Venus Jupiter and Venus together Saturn(like ketu) Mars and Mercury together Saturn(like Ketu) Mars and Saturn together reprsent Rahu Exalted Sun and Saturn together represent Rahu Debilitated Venus and Saturn together Ketu Exalted Moon and Saturn Ketu Debilitated Sin and Sinful Planets Often there is reference of Paap(Sin) and Paapi(Sinful) planets in Lal Kitab. From Paap or sin is meant Rahu and Ketu from Paapi grahas the reference is to three planets namely Rahu, Ketu and Saturn. Kayam Graha or Established Planet The planet which can give his results freely and without hindrance is called an established planet. In other words no enemy planet should occupy his houses of lordship, exaltation, debility and of his signification. He should also not be a saathi planet or comrade and he should have no aspect of any planet. Dharmi Grahas or Righteous Planets Saturn, Rahu and Ketu are known as Paapi Planets but they also some times become the Dharmi or righteous planets. Rahu and Ketu becomes righteous in the 4th

house or anywhere in the chart with Moon. Similarly saturn becomes righteous when posited in 11th house or anywhere in the chart with jupiter. By becoming righteous they do not give good results or become benefics. They shall not simply afflict the house or the planet. They become neutral. They on there part will not promote or cause any bad effects. Muqabla ke Graha or Matching Planets Each planet has his own friends who behave in a friendly way. Some times one of such planets may occupy the house of lordship or the Pakka Ghar of his friendly planet and that planet does not occupy any such house of the former. In such a case the two planets, although friends may not remain the true friends. The behaviour of the former will be suspected. He may at times spoil the results of his friendly planets. The planet shall be known as matching planets. Sun and Mars are friends. If Mars occupies the lagna and Sun does not occupy such house of mars, Mars behaviour under such circumstances may or may not be friendly to Sun. Mars would be called a matching planet to Sun. Both can harm each other.

The results of Saturn in 6th house will be doubtful. They may be good, bad or mixed. Jupiter will not give good results at that time. Throwing almonds or coconuts in the running water of a river will be helpful. Jupiter and Sun in one house and Venus in subsequent houses. The profession concerning both the planets will be beneficial. When Jupiter and Saturn give bad results regarding health the service of father, if in joint family with father; will be helpful. Pure gold and saffron in the house will be helpful. When Jupiter Moon give bad results regarding health or wealth or both one silver thali should be kept in the house or an empty silver vessel should be buried in one corner of the houise. Jupiter and Moon in 4th house very auspicious Business or service should be regarding the commodities pertaining to either of the planets. Jupiter and Moon in 7th house is not a good combination. Brokerage or trade will be auspicious as profession. Articles of Ketu should be buried under ground or tied around the neck. (vaidurya is the stone for Ketu). Jupiter and Moon in 11th house is also not quite auspicious. Some financial help to daughter or father's sister or maternal uncles or to sweeperess will be helpful. Jupiter and Venus in 3rd house is also inauspicious. Clay toys or spreading dust where road is under construction would be profitable profession. Jupiter and Venus in 6th house is also not a good combination. To fight misfortune in this regard some golden thing in the hair of women should always be used. Jupiter and Venus will help if there is a vocation pertaining to Venus. The things may not brighten up immediately but will help in emergencies or when help is most needed. Jupiter and Venus in 8th house give good results generally except in financial matters. The profession concerning mud and dust on roads under construction etc. will be financially profitable. Jupiter and Venus in 10th house may not give bad results regarding money matters unless the native is a non-believer or does irreligious acts.

Jupiter and Venus in 11th house. The native seeks pleasures in doing immoral or secret acts that harm his vitality etc. and may have some venereal disease. The ash of gold or silver may be useful if taken internally under medical advice. When Jupiter and Saturn are together in the 5th house the native should never touch wine. When Jupiter and Saturn are together the planet aspecting them should be awakened. Whenever Jupiter and Mercury are together, no good results should be expected of Jupiter. To mitigate the bad effects of Jupiter and Saturn in 2nd house the remedies for Saturn would be useful. In order to save oneself from the poison of houses 6 and 10 one should take the things of the planet inimical to the planet in 5th house and bury them under ground or if the native has his ancestral house the same should be kept in that house till the duration of the bad results of 8th house. If Jupiter is in 10th house, Venus in 11th, Ketu in 8th and Saturn in 5th house. The dogs should be fed with flour loaves of bread. The flour should be of the weight of the son and feeding continue from 25 to 48 days. If 2nd house is occupied by benefic planets and the 12th house also contains similar planets it would be beneficial to awaken the 6th house. In other words the native should serve his maternal uncles and help them or serve his own daughters and help them. The planet who transits house No. 6 in the annual progressed chart will cause health afflion. The relevant commodities of that planet should be given in alms and charities. Mercury, Saturn and Ketu will give the results of 7th house. If they are undesirable they can be remedied. Commodities of the planets or the relative signigfied by them should be served. When the planet in 11th house of the birth chart transits 11th house or 8th house the articles pertaining to the planet should not be purchased (new) and brought in the house and kept safely. House No. 9 can be awakened throught eh 2nd house provided house 3 and 5 are empty. If house No. 10 is unoccupied the planets in the 4th house cannot give good results. Service of parents will be helpful. Ten blind persons should be fed. Money in cash to the blind persons for food would be of no avail. If the planets in 8th house are inimical to planets in house 11 the native will not be benefitted by anything relating to planets in the 11th house. They will be helpful if the articles pertaining to the planet friendly to the planet in house 11 or pertaining to the planet who can change the directtion of the planet in the 11th, are also purchased simultaneously. If you are purchasing a house when Saturn is in 11th house you should also bring a dog to the house. If some machines are purchased the toys for the children should also be purchased. The planets in the 11th house will generally give good results when they transit house No. 1. When they transit the 8th house they will give bad results. In such a case the articles of the planet in 11th house or those of his friends would be helpful. Provided none of the planets Rahu, Ketu and Saturn are transiting the lagna at that time. If any of these planets is in the lagna the articles pertaining to the planets in 9th house at that time would be helpful. In case the 9th house is unoccupied Jupiter's articles will be helpful.

Sun in the 11th house will give good results so long as the native remains religious, pious and vegetarian. If he indulges in drinking and non vegetarianism the results may be awful. He may be childless. If Jupiter and Ketu are good in the chart, Moon in 11th house will give very good results at least till the mother of the native is alive. If Jupiter is giving bad results according to the birth chart, at the time of marriage of the girl(when celebrated according to Hindu tradition) two pieces of pure gold (of any weight but the two should be of equal weight) should be given in charity as the girl is given to the bridegroom. One of those pieces should be thrown in running water of a river and the other kept by the bride which she should not sell away but should keep with her. So Long as it is with the bride there would be no bad effects of Jupiter. If Sun is giving bad results the pieces should be of red copper. In case of such a Moon pearl (white) should be substituted for gold. If real pearl is not available, a weight of the native should be kept in the house at the time of marriage. For Venus we substitute pearls of the curd hue. For Mars it may be red (not bright red) stone, for Mercury take diamond, for Saturn iron and steel, for Rahu the remedies of Moon given above and for Ketu take stone of two colours. If houses 8 and 12 are occupied by friendly planets and house 2 is unoccupied or if houses 8 and 12 are occupied by friendly planets, house No. 6 contains some benefic planet and 2nd house remains unoccupied the native will do well to go to places of worship and touching any part of his body to the deity in paying his regards. This may mean touching the feet of the deity with hands etc. In case of eye troubles or to remove bad effects of Saturn throw coconuts in the running water. Saturn in the 6th house will be giving good as well as bad results but it shall surely spoil the good results of Jupiter. Things pertaining to Saturn like the coconuts and almonds etc., should be thrown in the running water. If Jupiter is in the lagna for generally good results the native should undertake the business or trade indicated by Moon. For help of children undertake the vocations of Ketu. For good luck of wife the things relating to Venus will be helpful. For his own prosperity or victory in quarrels, Sun would be helpful. When Jupiter is in lagna and Saturn in the 11th house service of cow is recommended. When Jupiter is in lagna and the 7th house is unoccupied vacations pertaining to Venus should be under taken. Under this combination if the native gets a male child, or constructs a new house or if any of the blood relations of the native gets married, bad results are likely to happen. In such cases the commodities pertaining to Mars should be buried underground. When Jupiter is in 2nd house and Mercury in 10th house giving bad results, remedies pertaining to Saturn should be used. When Jupiter is in 2nd house and Venus & Mercury in 10th house remedies of Moon are necessary. Mercury and Saturn in 10th house remedies of Moon are necessary. Mercury and Saturn in 10th house giving bad results need the remedies of Jupiter. When Jupiter is in 3rd house Durga Paath is always suggested. When Jupiter is in 4th house sleeping or inert that is there is no planet in 10th house the native to have good effects of Jupiter should not allow his bare body seen by any body that is, he should be fully dressed before other persons. He will keep on having financial stability.

When Jupiter is in 6th house and Ketu is badly placed the native should do the remedies of Ketu. In unlucky periods when Jupiter occupies the 8th house the native should give in alms the commodities of Venus or Jupiter to the places of worship. When Jupiter in 10th house and Mars in 4th house the native should help or serve the relatives indicated by Mars. He should help or at least behave respectfully with his brother. Most help ful Mantra would be Shree Ganeshaya Namah. When Jupiter is in 11th house and Sun, Moon or Mars are in 5th house and give bad results the native should follow some trade or business alongwith his brother or a cousin if he has no coborn. When Sun afflicts other planets the friendly planets to Sun that is Moon, Mars and Jupiter should be propitiated. When Sun ocupies 6th or 7th house, Mercury should be propitiated. Some times extinguishing the fire of the chulha (where we cook our food) by pouring milk is extremely helpful. When Sun is afflicted by some other planet that planet should be propitiated.

Beyond the Birth Chart: An Abundance of Tools for Analysis and Forecasting The astrology of India is known for the quantity and quality of its analytical and forecasting tools. Most beginners are amazed to find not only the basic natal chart called the "rasi", but also a chart system employing 27 signs of the Moon, called the "nakshatras". There is an additional set of birth charts called the "shodasavargas" which give the practitioner of Vedic Astrology 15 extra charts to examine. The most famous of these is the "Navamsa", which is analyzed carefully for marriage matching and to uncover more subtle aspects of a person's nature. The most widely recognized Vedic forecasting tool is called the "Vimshottari Dasa" system which can track the karmic influences promised by planet in a chart out to a span of 120 years, with each planet ruling a specific period of a person's life. There are many other techniques, too numerous to mention in this small introduction. In fact one would be hard pressed to be bored in the study of Vedic Astrology with its magnitude of techniques and practices and its links to Vedic philosophy and the development of consciousness.