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Gerund (Gerundio)
El gerundio y el infinitivo son formas de los verbos que actuan como nombres. El gerundio se forma con "ing" (walking, eating, etc.). Como hemos visto en la leccin sobre los verbos, el infinitivo se forma con la preposicin "to" (to walk, to eat, etc.).

Grammatical Rules (Reglas gramaticales)

1.

Podemos usar el gerundio o el infinitivo como objeto, sujeto o complemento de una frase,pero en general, es mucho ms comn usar el gerundio como sujeto.

o o o o

Ejemplos: Objeto

Play I like cooking./I like to cook. (Me gusta cocinar.) Play She continued working./She continued to work. (Continu trabajando.)

o o o

Sujeto

Play Swimming is good exercise. (Nadar es un buen ejercicio.) Play Drinking and driving is dangerous. (Beber y conducir es peligroso.)

o o

Complemento

Play The best thing to do when you are sick is to drink a lot of water. (Lo mejor que puedes hacer cuando ests enfermo es
beber mucha agua.)

Play My favorite exercise is swimming. (Mi ejercicio favorito es la natacin.)

2.

Cuando un verbo sigue otro verbo, siempre necesitamos usar el infinitivo o el gerundio.Normalmente usamos el infinitivo despus de algunos verbos y el gerundio despus de otros. Tambin hay verbos con los que podemos usar el gerundio o el infinitivo.

o o o o o o o

Ejemplos:

Play I can't afford to buy a new car. (No puede permitirse comprar un coche nuevo.) Play He began to doubt himself./He began doubting himself. (Comenz a dudar de s mismo.) Play They decided to move to Australia in May. (Decidieron mudarse a Australia en Mayo.) Play I enjoy listening to music. (Disfruto escuchar msica.) Play She hates studying./She hates to study. (Odia estudiar.) Play

You love dancing./You love to dance. (Te encanta bailar.)

Play He needed to leave class early because he had an appointment. (Tena que salir de la clase pronto porque tena una
cita.)

o o

Play She can't tolerate complaining. (No puede tolerar quejas.) Play I tried learning English./I tried to learn English. (He intentado aprender ingls.)
Verbo Gerundio Infinitivo

Play Play Play

Afford Agree Attempt

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Play Play

Begin Choose

Play
Continue

Play
Decide

Play
Detest

Play
Enjoy

Play
Expect

Play
Fail

Play
Finish

Play

Hate

Play
Hope

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Play Play Play

Imagine Intend Keep

Play Play

Learn Like

Play
Love

Play
Manage

Play
Need

Play Play

Offer Plan

Play
Prefer

Play
Promise

Play
Quit

Play
Recommend

Play

Refuse

Play
Regret

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X

Play Play Play

Seem Start Suggest

Play Play

Tend Threaten

Play
Tolerate

Play
Try

Play
Understand

Play Play

Want Wish 3.
o

Con algunos verbos, cuando usamos el gerundio o el infinitivo, el significado cambia.

Ejemplos:

Play I forgot writing that email./I forgot to write that email. (Me olvid escribiendo ese correo electrnico./Me olvid de
escribir el correo electrnico.)

Play Stop watching the television./Stop to watch the news. (Dejar de ver la televisin./Parar para ver las noticias.) forget, mean, remember, stop...

4.
o

Se usa el infinitivo despus de adjetivos.

Ejemplos:

Play I'm glad to see you. (Me alegro de verte.)

Play She was surprised to find the door unlocked. (Se sorprendi al encontrar la puerta abierta.) disappointed, glad, happy, pleased, relieved, sad, surprised...

5.
o o o

Despus de preposiciones solo podemos usar el gerundio.

Ejemplos:

Play He's good at listening. (Escucha bien.) Play I always read before going to bed. (Siempre leo antes de acostarme.) Play You can't leave without saying goodbye. (No puedes salir sin despedirte.) about, against, at, after, before, by, on, without...

6.
o o o

Se usa el gerundio despus de unos nombres.

Ejemplos:

Play What is the advantage of waiting? (Cul es la ventaja de esperar?) Play I am interested in taking an English class. (Estoy interesado en tomar una clase de ingls.) Play His problem finding a new job was his lack of experience. (Su problema para encontrar un nuevo empleo era su falta de
experiencia.)

advantage/disadvantage of, danger of, experience in, interested in, opportunity of, reason for, problem, use...

7.

Se usa el gerundio despus de unas expresiones o verbos frasales. to look forward to, to be worth, can't help, don't mind, feel like...

o o o o

Ejemplos:

Play We're really looking forward to seeing you. (Tenemos muchas ganas de verte.) Play That movie was not worth seeing. (No vale la pena ver esa pelcula.) Play I can't help falling in love. (No puedo evitar enamorarme.)

http://www.curso-ingles.com/gramatica-inglesa/gerundio.php

Leccin 11: Verbos seguidos de infinitivo / gerundio

Gramtica Cuando un verbo va acompaado por otro, este segundo puede ir en: Infinitivo Infinitivo (sin "to") Gerundio Ejemplos: Last summer we decided to go to the beach We can speak English fluently I hate driving at night Hay una serie de verbos que cuando van acompaados por otro este segundo va engerundio: Admit / Appreciate / Avoid / Consider / Delay / Deny / Detest / Excuse / Finish / Forgive / Imagine / Keep (=continue) / Miss / Postpone / Practise / Prevent / Propose(=suggest) / Regret / Resist / Risk / Stop / Suggest / Understand Veamos algunos ejemplos: When I lost my job I postponed buying a new house After the heart attack my father stopped smoking My boss told me that he is considering promoting me for the new post If you drive when you are drunk you risk losing your driving licence The detainee admitted doing business with the mafia Tambin suelen ir seguidos de gerundios los siguientes verbos: Like / Dislike / Hate / Love / Enjoy / Mind Ejemplos:

I like travelling with my girlfriend I hate tidying my bedroom I enjoy dancing I dont mind going to English classes El verbo "like" puede tambin ir seguido por un infinitivo pero el significado es diferente: to like + gerundio: disfrutar to like + infinitivo: querer hacer algo porque considero que es positivo I like playing tennis I like to do my homework on Saturday mornings Algunos de los verbos anteriores si va precedido del auxiliar "would" pide entonces un infinitivo: Would like to Would love to Would hate to Would prefer to I would like to visit Paris I would love to go out for dinner tonight! I would hate to spend the summer in Seville I would prefer to go to the cinema than go to the gym Los siguientes verbos, si van acompaados por otro, este segundo va en infinitivo:

Agree / Appear / Arrange / Ask / Choose / Claim / Decide / Decline / Demand / Fail / Forget / Happen / Hesitate / Hope / Learn / Manage / Offer / Plan / Prepare / Pretend / Promise / Refuse / Remember / Seem / Swear / Threaten Ejemplos: He agreed to help me with my homework She promised to phone her mother My brother decided to sell his car El verbo "try" puede ir seguido de infinitivo o gerundio pero con distinto significado: + infinitivo: hacer un esfuerzo + gerundio: probar algo en plan experimento I will try to wash my car before lunch I tried calling my girlfriend with this mobile but it didn't work La expression "I am afraid" puede ir seguida de: Infinitivo: no quiero hacer algo porque creo que es peligroso "of + gerundio": existe la posibilidad de que algo malo me ocurra I am afraid to climb up the tree When I drive through the centre of town I am afraid of having an accident

Using Gerunds and Infinitives


Written by Martine Johnston, International Student Centre

Printable PDF Version Fair-Use Policy Gerunds and infinitives are verb forms that can take the place of a noun in a sentence. The following guidelines and lists will help you figure out whether a gerund or infinitive is needed.

Following a verb (gerund or infinitive)


Both gerunds and infinitives can replace a noun as the object of a verb. Whether you use a gerund or an infinitive depends on the main verb in the sentence. Consult the lists below to find out which form to use following which verbs. I expect to have the report done by Friday. I anticipate having the report done by Friday. [INFINITIVE] [GERUND]

Some common verbs followed by a gerund (note that phrasal verbs, marked here with *, always fall into this category):
acknowledge * accuse of admit advise anticipate appreciate avoid complete consider defer delay deny discuss entail * look after * insist on involve justify mention She acknowledged receiving assistance. He was accused of smuggling contraband goods. They admitted falsifying the data. The author advises undertaking further study. He anticipates having trouble with his supervisor. I appreciated having a chance to read your draft. He avoided answering my question. I finally completed writing my thesis. They will consider granting you money. She deferred writing her report. We delayed reporting the results until we were sure. They denied copying the information. They discussed running the experiments again. This review procedure entails repeating the test. He will look after mailing the tickets. He insisted on proofreading the article again. This procedure involves testing each sample twice. My results justify taking drastic action. The author mentions seeing this event.

* plan on postpone recall resent recommend resist risk sanction suggest * take care of tolerate

They had planned on attending the conference. The committee has postponed writing the report. I cannot recall getting those results before. He resented spending so much time on the project. She recommends reading Marx. The writer resists giving any easy answers. She risks losing her viewing time. They will not sanction copying without permission. I suggest repeating the experiment. He will take care of sending it to you. She can't tolerate waiting for results.

Some common verbs followed by an infinitive:

afford agree appear arrange beg care claim consent decide demand deserve expect fail hesitate hope learn manage neglect need offer

We cannot afford to hesitate. The professors agreed to disagree. The results appear to support your theory. They had arranged to meet at noon. I beg to differ with you. Would you care to respond? She claims to have new data. Will you consent to run for office? When did he decide to withdraw? I demand to see the results of the survey. She deserves to have a fair hearing. The committee expects to decide by tomorrow. The trial failed to confirm his hypothesis. I hesitate to try the experiment again. What do you hope to accomplish? We have learned to proceed with caution. How did she manage to find the solution? The author neglected to provide an index. Do we need to find new subjects? We could offer to change the time of the meeting.

plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem struggle swear threaten volunteer wait want wish

They had planned to attend the conference. He was not prepared to give a lecture. I do not pretend to know the answer. They promise to demonstrate the new equipment. She refused to cooperate any longer. Something seems to be wrong with your design. We struggled to understand her point of view. He swears to tell the truth. The team threatened to stop their research. Will you volunteer to lead the group? We could not wait to hear the outcome. She did not want to go first. Do you wish to participate?

Following a preposition (gerund only)


Gerunds can follow a preposition; infinitives cannot. Can you touch your toes without bending your knees? He was fined for driving over the speed limit. She got the money by selling the car. A corkscrew is a tool for taking corks out of bottles. Note: Take care not to confuse the preposition "to" with an infinitive form, or with an auxiliary form such as have to, used to, going to He went back to writing his paper. [PREPOSITION + GERUND] I used to live in Mexico. I want to go home. [AUXILIARY + VERB] [VERB + INFINITIVE]

Following an indirect object (infinitive only)


Some verbs are followed by a pronoun or noun referring to a person, and then an infinitive. Gerunds cannot be used in this position.

Some common verbs followed by an indirect object plus an infinitive:


ask beg cause challenge convince encourage I must ask you to reconsider your statement. They begged her to stay for another term. His findings caused him to investigate further. Wilkins challenged Watson to continue the research. Can we convince them to fund our study? She encouraged him to look beyond the obvious.

expect forbid force hire instruct invite need order persuade remind require teach tell urge want warn

They did not expect us to win an award. The author forbade me to change his wording. They cannot force her to reveal her sources. Did the department hire him to teach the new course? I will instruct her to prepare a handout. We invite you to attend the ceremony. They need her to show the slides. He ordered the group to leave the building. Can we persuade you to contribute again? Please remind him to check the references. They will require you to submit an outline. We should teach them to follow standard procedures. Did she tell him to make three copies? I urge you to read the instructions before you begin. I do not want you to have an accident. Why didn't they warn me to turn down the heat?

http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/english-as-a-second-language/gerunds

Gerund after prepositions (verbs)


Gerund and prepositions - Exercise We use the Gerund after prepositions. verb + preposition

Exception: to Here we use the phrase: looking forward to + Gerund Example: I'm looking forward to seeing you soon. We use the Gerund after the following phrases: accuse of agree with apologize for believe in blame for complain about concentrate on congratulate sb. on cope with decide against depend on dream about/of feel like get used to insist on look forward to prevent sb. from sth. rely on sth. succeed in specialize in stop sb. from They were accused of breaking into a shop. I agree with playing darts. They apologize for being late. She doesn't believe in getting lost in the wood. The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories. She complains about bullying. Do you concentrate on reading or writing? I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech. He is not sure how to cope with getting older. They decided against stealing the car. Success may depend on becoming more patient. Sue dreams of being a pop star. They feel like going to bed. You must get used to working long hours. The girls insisted on going out with Mark. I'm looking forward to seeing you soon. How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop? He doesn't rely on winning in the casino. How then can I succeed in learning chemistry? The firm specialized in designing websites. I stopped Andrew from smoking.

talk about/of think of warn sb. against worry about

They often talk about travelling to New Zealand. Frank thinks of playing chess. We warned them against using this computer. The patient worries about having the check-up

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/grammar/gerund_prepositions_verbs.htm

English relative clauses


There are two types of relative clauses in English: those that add extra information (non-defining relative clauses) and those that modify (or define) the subject of the sentence (defining relative clauses).

Defining clauses
These clauses define the noun and they identify which thing or person we are referring to. Things

"The present which he bought me is beautiful." People "The man who has started an English course is from Spain." Using whom Whom is used to refer to the object of the verb. The people with whom I was sitting were very noisy. However, it is hardly ever used in spoken English. Instead, who used with the preposition: is The people who I was sitting with were very noisy. To whom are you speaking? = Who are you speaking to? For whom are you buying the present? + Who are you buying the present for? Using that In spoken English, "that" is often used instead of "which", "whom"or "who". "The present that he bought me is beautiful." "The man that has started an English course is from Spain." When, where and whose When: Is there another time when (that) I can call you? Where: Can you tell me where I can buy wrapping paper? Whose: (possessive) Have you seen the TV show whose catchphrase is Deal no deal? Omitting that, who and which If the pronoun ("that", "who", "which") is the object of the verb, it can be omitted. "The company that she works for is based in London." ("That"is an object pronoun.) = "The company she works for is based in London." ("That"can be omitted.) But: "The company that employs her is based in London." ("That" is a subject pronoun.) The company employs her (the company is the subject). In this case, it is not possible to omit "that". You need the pronoun because it is the subject of the verb.

Non-defining relative clauses


These clauses add further information. "My students, who are all adults, are learning English to get a better job."

"The textbooks, which the students like, have lots of helpful examples." Commas are used to separate the relative clause from the rest of the sentence. "That" cannot be used instead of "who"or "which" in non-defining relative clauses. You can use some , none, all and many with of which and of whom to add extra information: My students, many of whom are from Europe, are learning English to get a better job. The textbooks, some of which the students like, have helpful examples. Comparing defining and non-defining relative clauses The meaning of the sentences changes if you use a non-defining clause rather than a defining clause. Compare the following: Non-defining The students, who had revised hard, passed the exam. (All the students revised and they all passed the exam. Defining The students who had revised hard passed the exam. (Only some of the students revised, and these were the ones who passed the exam.)

nfinitive or Gerund (Infinitivo o Gerundio)


Ya hemos hablado de cmo interactan dos verbos cuando van juntos en la seccin de 'Verb Patterns'. Sin embargo, podemos profundizar ms en este tema y ver otros aspectos importantes. A QU HACEMOS REFERENCIA? Nos referimos a cundo utilizar un infinitivo y cundo utilizar un gerundio despus de otro verbo, es decir, las reglas que determinan cundo utilizar uno u otro. to walk walking

* Recuerda que hay casos en los que se pueden utilizar ambas formas. A veces esas dos estructuras son completamente intercambiables, pero en otros casos el significado cambia dependiendo de la estructura elegida. CUNDO USAMOS EL INFINITIVO? El infinitivo se utiliza cuando va seguido de ciertos verbos como want, forget, need, prepare, expect, etc. Yo quiero ir al campo.

I want to go to the country.


Por otro lado, se utiliza cuando est situado detrs de adjetivos o adverbios. Eso es difcil de recordar

That is difficult to remember.


* Recuerda que esto mismo sucede si estos adjetivos o adverbios van acompaados de las partculas 'too' y 'enough'. Eso es demasiado difcil de recordar

That is too difficult to remember.


Vamos a utilizar el infinitivo en el caso de que el verbo principal est acompaando de un pronombre objeto. Me dijo que abriera la puerta.

He told me to open the door.


CUNDO USAMOS EL GERUNDIO? El gerundio tambin lo utilizamos principalmente cuando va seguido de otro grupo de verbos como admit, avoid, consider, suggest, mind, imagine, etc. Mi hermano sugiri ir al campo.

My brother suggested going to the country.


Por otro lado, el gerundio siempre se utiliza cuando va seguido de una preposicin, es decir, todo verbo seguido de preposicin debe ir en -ing. Ellos fueron despus de ir al cine.

They went after going to the cinema.

Adems, cuando la frase comienza con un verbo que hace de sujeto tambin utilizamos un gerundio. Escuchar msica es mi hobby preferido.

Listening to music is my favourite hobby.


Por ultimo, el gerundio se utiliza mucho en prohibiciones o carteles con mensajes cortos. Prohibido aparcar.

No parking.
CUNDO SE UTILIZAN INDISTINTAMENTE? Existe un grupo de verbos que nos permiten utilizar ambas estructuras indistintamente, es decir, sin cambiar el significado. Entre estos verbos encontramos begin, intend, start, pefer, etc. Ella empez a estudiar francs.

She began learning French. / She began to learn French.


*1 Tambin se utiliza con verbos como 'like', 'hate' o 'love'. Sin embargo es mucho ms comn ver la estructura con gerundio. *2 La diferencia en muchos casos est que cuando hablamos en general utilizamos el gerundio (I.e. I like playing tennis) y cuando hablamos de situaciones especficas utilizamos el infinitivo (I.e. I hate to swim here). CUNDO CAMBIA EL SIGNIFICADO? Con otro grupo de verbos tambin podemos utilizar ambas estructuras, pero el significado cambia. Entre este tipo de verbos encontramos remember, try, stop y forget. l intent abrir la ventana.

He tried to open the window.


l prob a abrir la ventana.

He tried opening the window.


https://sites.google.com/site/bluebloc/grammar/Verbs/infinitive--gerund

SBADO, FEBRERO 06, 2010

Aprendiendo a usar el infinitivo y el gerundio


Pregunta: Tengo una que me confunde constantemente y es la siguiente. Salvo las excepciones gramaticales Like+ing, enjoy+ ing, would you mind+ ing, looking forward to+ ing etc. Tengo problemas a la hora de usar el verbo en infinitivo con to o usar directamente el verbo en ing porque no se cmo diferenciarlos. Ejemplo: -It is fun to travel ------------ podra decir? It is fun travelling. -I appreciate receiving letters like this one------------Podra decir? I appreciate to receive letters like this one. -I dont recomend you are going there---------podra decir? I dont recommend you to go there. En fin no se si me entiendes, salvo en casos de gramtica pura en los que te acabo de describir son dos formas distintas de decir lo mismo, o hay alguna regla que yo desconozco? Gracias y un saludo Jos. *************************** Respuesta: Responde Marta Sez, colaboradora de El blog para aprender ingls.

Infinitivos y gerundios en ingls detrs de un tiempo verbal En ingls, cuando un verbo va acompaado por otro, este segundo puede ir en:

Infinitivo Infinitivo (sin "to") Gerundio Ejemplos: - Last summer we decided to go to my village. El verano pasado decidimos ir a mi pueblo - I can speak French fluently. S hablar francs con fluidez . - I hate driving at night. Odio conducir de noche. Nuestra duda es saber como emplearlos. Para ello hay que aprenderse una serie de grupos de verbos:

1. Verbos seguidos de otro verbo en gerundio: Admit / Appreciate / Avoid / Consider / Delay / Deny / Detest / Excuse / Finish / Forgive / Imagine / Keep (=continue) / Miss / Postpone / Practise / Prevent / Propose(=suggest) / Regret / Resist / Risk / Stop / Suggest / Understand

Veamos algunos ejemplos: - When I lost my job I postponed buying a new house. Cuando perd mi trabajo, retras la compra de una nueva casa - After the heart attack my father stopped smoking. Tras el infarto, mi padre dej de fumar - My boss told me that he is considering promoting me for the new post. Mi jefe me dijo que est considerando el ascenderme. - If you drive when you are drunk you risk losing your driving licence. Si condices bebido, corres el riesgo de que te quiten el carn de conducir - The detainee admitted doing business with the mafia. El detenido admiti haber hecho negocios con la mafia.

Hay otros verbos que adems son muy frecuentes y que tambin vamos a encontrarlos con un gerundio detrs: Like / Dislike / Hate / Love / Enjoy / Mind

Ejemplos: - I like travelling with my girlfriend. Me gusta viajar con mi novia. - I hate tidying my bedroom. Odio ordenar mi habitacin. - I enjoy dancing. Lo paso muy bien bailando. - I dont mind going to English classes. No me importa ir a clases de ingls. Nota: El verbo "like" puede tambin ir seguido por un infinitivo pero el significado es ligeramente diferente.

-to like + gerundio: disfrutar -to like + infinitivo: querer hacer algo porque considero que es positivo Ejemplos: - I like playing tennis. Me gusta jugar al tenis - I like to play tennis on Saturday mornings. Me gusta jugar al tenis los sbados por la manaa porque me parece positivo o apropiado. Algunos de los verbos anteriores, si van precedidos del auxiliar "would", piden entonces un infinitivo Consejo: para no confundirnos, siempre que tengamos would + estos verbos vamos a poner to + infinitivo). Ejemplos: - Would like to... - Would love to... - Would hate to... - Would prefer to ... - I would like to visit Paris. Me gustara visitar Pars - I would love to go out for dinner tonight!. Me encantara salir a cenar esta noche - I would hate to spend the summer in Seville. No me gustara nada pasar el verano en Sevilla - I would prefer to go to the cinema than go to the gym. Preferira ir al cine que al gimnasio. 2. Cuando los siguientes verbos vayan acompaados por otro, este segundo ir en infinitivo:

Agree / Appear / Arrange / Ask / Choose / Claim / Decide / Decline / Demand / Fail / Forget / Happen / Hesitate / Hope / Learn / Manage / Offer / Plan / Prepare / Pretend / Promise / Refuse / Remember / Seem / Swear / Threaten

Ejemplos: - He agreed to help me with my homework. Estuvo de acuerdo en ayudarme con mis deberes - She promised to phone her mother. Prometi telefonear a su madre. - My brother decided to sell his car. Mi madre decidi vender su coche. 3. Por ltimo, hay verbos que pueden llevar detrs infinitivo o gerundio. El uso de uno u de otro depende del significado que queramos dar al verbo principal. Aqu te pongo los ms importantes:

Remember/Forget (recordar/olvidar) Con los verbos remember (recordar) y forget (olvidar), el gerundio hace referencia a una accin que ocurri antes que el hecho de recordar u olvidar. Veamos: - I remember giving him the key (recuerdo que le di la llave) significa - I remember having given him the key (recuerdo haberle dado la llave)o lo que es lo mismo... - I remember the moment in which I gave him the key ( recuerdo el momento en que le di la llave)

- I will never forget going water rafting in Africa ...Nunca olvidar haber hecho rafting en frica) significa - I will never forget the occasion on which we went water rafting in Africa nunca olvidar aquella vez en la que hicimos rafting en frica) Sin embargo, con remember y forget, el infinitivo hace referencia a una accin que ocurri despus de que surgiera el hecho de recordar u olvidar. Veamos: - I remember to feed the cat Me acuerdo de darle de comer a la gata), significa...

- I remember that it is my responsibility to feed the cat and I fed her.Recuerdo que es mi responsabilidad darle de comer y lo hago - I forgot to post that letter (me olvid de echar esa carta al correo ), significa... - I did not post the letter because I forgot. No ech la carta al correo porque se me olvid. Regret(lamentar/se) El verbo regret (lamentar/se) es similar. La estructura regret + gerund (ing) hace referencia a una accin del pasado que lamentamos haber llevado a cabo, mientras que regret + infinitive se usa para presentar malas noticias (I regret to say..., I regret to tell you..., I regret to inform you...). Por lo tanto, decimos... - I regret telling him the secret (lamento haberle contado el secreto),significa - I regret having told him the secret o lo que es lo mismo - I wish I hadn't told him the secret. Ojal no le hubiese contado el secreto. - I regret to say that I just ran over your dog! Lamento decirte que acabo de atropellar a tu perro), significa - I'm very sorry but I just killed your dog with my car. Lo siento mucho, pero acabo de matar a tu perro con mi coche. - I regret to inform you that your car is missing (lamento informarle de que su coche ha desaparecido), significa - It is my sad responsibility to inform you that your car is missing.Tengo el triste deber de informarle de que su coche ha desaparecido.

Stop (dejar de) La estructura stop + gerund (ing) expresa que se ha interrumpido la accin mencionada en el gerundio. Veamos. - You must stop smoking. Debes dejar de fumar. Sin embargo,stop + infinitive expresa que se interrumpe la actividad que se est realizando para llevar a cabo la actividad mencionada en el infinitivo. Observa: - The window-cleaners stopped to smoke. Los que limpiaban las ventanas pararon para fumar, significa: - They stopped cleaning the windows in order to have a cigarette.Pararon de limpiar las ventanas para echarse un cigarro. Go on(seguir, continuar) La estructura go on + gerund expresa lo mismo que continue + gerund/infinitive: - He went on talking about himself, even though nobody was listening.Sigui hablando de s mismo aunque nadie le escuchaba . Sin embargo,go on + infinitive significa to start something new: - He went on to talk about his children Continu para hablar sobre sus hijos significa: - He was talking about one thing and then he changed the subject and started to talk about his children. Estaba hablando sobre algo y luego cambi de conversacin para empezar a hablar sobre sus hijos. Try(tratar, intentar)Existe una ligera diferencia entre try + infinitive y try + gerund. La estructura try + infinitive sugiere que la accin del infinitivo es difcil y posiblemente la persona no llegue a realizar la accin: - Try to open the window. I can't because I'm not very strong and it has recently been painted. Intenta abrir la ventana. Yo no puedo porque no tengo demasiada fuerza y, adems, la han pintado recientemente.. - He tried to climb the cliff. Intent subir por el acantilado . Sin embargo, try + Gerund sugiere que la accin del gerundio no es compleja pero desconocemos si la consecuencia de esa accin ser lo que buscamos o deseamos. Se utiliza la estructura try + gerund cuando realizamos algo para descubrir cules sern las consecuencias. Observa: - A: Phew! It's hot in here!. Uff! Qu calor hace aqu dentro! - B: Try opening the window. Although it's probably just as hot outside!.Prueba a abrir la ventana. Aunque probablemente haga el mismo calor fuera!.

Need (necesitar, tener necesidad de) Con el verbo need, el infinitivo adquiere un significado activo y el gerundio uno pasivo. - I need to talk to you (necesito hablar contigo), significa: I must talk to you Tengo que hablar contigo. - My shoes need cleaning significa: My shoes need to be cleaned.Mis zapatos necesitan una limpieza. - The car needed servicing significa: The car needed to be serviced.El coche necesitaba pasar por el taller. Por ltimo, decirte que hay unos cuantos verbos que pueden ir con gerundio o infinitivo sin cambiar de significado. Su uso depende del estilo del texto. Para utilizarlos, debemos fijarnos en diferentes textos. Gramaticalmente estarn bien escritos en ambos casos. Aqu te dejo algunos de los ms frecuentes:

Tres de estos verbos son continue (continuar), start (arrancar, comenzar) y begin (comenzar, iniciar)

- The fans continued to shout / shouting at the referee. Los aficionados continuaron gritndole al rbitro. - Helen started to cough / coughing because of her bad cold. Helen comenz a toser a causa de un resfriado. - It began to rain / raining. Empez a llover . Otros verbos pueden tomar el gerundio o el infinitivo en la mayora de los tiempos verbales (aunque el ingls britnico prefiere el gerundio, el infinitivo es muy comn en ingls americano), pero slo se los usa con el infinitivo cuando se encuentran en condicional.

Estos verbos son: hate (odiar, no gustar), love (amar), can't bear(no soportar), like (gustar), dislike (disgustar) y prefer (preferir)

- I hate talking to her. Odio hablar con ella . - Id like to get up early on Sunday mornings and go riding. Me gustara madrugar los domingos por la maana e ir a montar a caballo. ... but: - I like getting up early on Sunday mornings to go riding. Me gusta madrugar los domingos por la maana e ir a montar a caballo. - I couldn't bear to live in that country. No podra soportar vivir en el campo . - I'd prefer to see the manager early tomorrow. Preferira ver al directo maana a primera hora . Marta Sez Colaboradora de "El blog para aprender ingls"

http://menuaingles.blogspot.com/2010/02/aprendiendo-usar-el-infinitivo-yel.html

Cmo veremos algunos verbos pueden ser sucedidos por gerundios o infinitivos. A veces hay cambios en el significado de la oracin.

Con poca o ninguna diferencia en el significado


Algunos verbos pueden ser seguidos por un infinitivo o un gerundio sin casi diferencia en su significado. Entre estos verbos podemos encontrar: afford - bear - begin - cease - commence - dread - hate - like - loathe - love - neglect - prefer propose - (can't) stand - start

Jerry hates being/to be late for work.


Jerry odia llegar tarde al trabajo.

They don't like borrowing/to borrow money from anyone.


A ellos no les gusta pedirle dinero prestado a nadie.

Louisa began paying/to pay attention to the teacher.


Louisa empez a prestarle atencin a la maestra.

Hank has always dreaded travelling/to travel by plane.


A Hank siempre le ha aterrado viajar en avin.

Christian had preferred studying/to study Architecture.


Christian haba preferido estudiar arquitectura. I can't afford losing/to lose one of my best employees. No puedo permitirme perder a uno de mis mejores empleados.

Con diferencia en el significado


Por otra parte, hay algunos verbos que pueden ser seguidos por un gerundio o un infinitivo pero s existe una diferencia en el significado.

attempt - continue - forget - mean - regret - remember - stop - try

I don't remember taking the hat out of the box.


No me acuerdo de haber sacado el sombrero de la caja.

Bob, remember to tell everybody to come at 6.


Bob, acurdate de decirles a todos que vengan a las 6.

If the headache goes on, try putting ice on your head.


Si el dolor de cabeza sigue, intenta ponindote hielo en la cabeza.

Carol is trying to move on with her life.


Carol est tratando de seguir adelante con su vida.

Jack regretted marrying a girl he didn't love.


Jack lamentaba haberse casado con una muchacha a la que no amaba.

We regretted to inform her that her husband had died.


Lamentbamos tener que decirle que su marido haba fallecido.

I've stopped worrying about unimportant things.


He dejado de preocuparme por cosas sin importancia.

They had stopped to have something to eat.


Haban parado para comer algo.

Jesse forgot brushing his teeth so he did it again.


Jesse no recordaba si se haba lavado los dientes as que lo hizo otra vez.

You must never forget to send you report at the end of the week.
Nunca debes olvidar mandar tu informe al final de la semana.

http://www.shertonenglish.com/resources/es/miscelaneous-topics/verbsinfinitives-or-gerunds.php

Gerundio e Infinitivos (Gerunds and Infinitives) El infinitivo en Espaol es la forma del verbo que termina en r, como por ejemplo, caminar, comer, dormir, en ingls lleva la palabra "to" delante. Por ejemplo, las palabras to walk, to eat, to sleep son infinitivos que se traducen a las palabras caminar, comer, dormir, que a su vez son infinitivos castellanos. El gerundio es cuando la forma del verbo que termina en las letras "ing" y se usa mayormente cuando se usan verbos que expresan el comienzo y fin de una actividad, ejemplo Antes de salir = before leaving. Despus de comer se traduce al Ingls por after eating o cuando el infinitivo juega el papel de un nombre. Por ejemplo nadar es muy saludable se traduce por swimming is very healthful.

Contenido
[ocultar]

1 Su uso en ingls 2 El infinitivo 3 El gerundio 4 Verbos 5 Gerundio e infinitivo, cundo los dos son posibles 6 Frases relacionadas

7 Fuentes

Su uso en ingls
El uso del infinitivo (I would like to travel) y del gerundio (I like travelling) en Ingls es una fuente habitual de problemas entre los educandos. Probablemente porque las dos estructuras se traducen enCastellano con la misma estructura (me gustara viajar / me gusta viajar), por lo tanto la tendencia natural consiste en sobre-utilizar el infinitivo en ingls. El otro problema es que el uso de una forma o de otra depende, en grande medida, del tipo de verbo al que acompaan (would like + infinitivo; like + gerundio) y para eso existe una lista de verbos que exigen un infinitivo y verbos que exigen un Gerundio que se tiene que memorizar. El ingls tiene dos tipos de sustantivos verbales, el infinitivo (con o sin "to") y el gerundio (la terminacin -ing). La mayora de los verbos que toman un sustantivo verbal pueden estar seguidos de uno u otro (un gerundio o un infinitivo, pero no ambos). Sin embargo, existen determinados verbos a los que puede seguirle indistintamente un gerundio o un infinitivo.

El infinitivo
Se utiliza: 1. Despus de algunos verbos como: would like, agree, decide, choose, plan, refuse, hope, want, manage etc. I want to become a teacher. 2. Despus de adjetivos: Im happy to see you again. 3. Para expresar un objetivo o el porqu estamos haciendo una accin: Im here to study English. // I have come to help you. NO es correcto decir *Im here for to study English. Importante: La forma negativa del infinitivo es not + infinitivo: Im happy not to see you again.

El gerundio
Se utiliza:

1. Despus de algunos verbos: deny, avoid, cant help, like, dislike, enjoy, mind, keep on, suggest, finish etc. He finished doing his homework. 2. Despus de un preposicin (normalmente se trata de verbos o adjetivos con preposicin obligatoria): Im interested in learning English. // Im fond of playing tennis. En esta categora entra tambin la tpica frmula del final de un email o de una carta: Im looking forward to hearing from you soon. En esta construccin, to es una preposicin. 3. Cuando el verbo es el sujeto de la frase: Smoking is dangerous for your health. Importante: La forma negativa del gerundio es not+gerundio: I enjoy not doing anything on holiday.

Verbos
A algunos verbos puede seguirles el gerundio o el infinitivo y es slo una cuestin de estilo cmo y cundo utilizarlos. Tres de estos verbos son continue (continuar), start (arrancar, comenzar) y begin (comenzar, iniciar). The fans continued to shout / shouting at the referee. Helen started to cough / coughing because of her bad cold. It began to rain / raining. Otros verbos pueden tomar el gerundio o el infinitivo en la mayora de los tiempos verbales (aunque el ingls britnico prefiere el gerundio, el infinitivo es muy comn en ingls americano), pero slo se los usa con el infinitivo cuando se encuentran en condicional. Estos verbos son: hate (odiar, no gustar), love (amar), can't bear (no soportar), like (gustar), dislike (disgustar) y prefer (preferir). I hate talking to her. I like to get up early on Sunday mornings and go riding.

Gerundio e infinitivo, cundo los dos son posibles


Existen verbos con los que se puede poner el gerundio (-ing) o el infinitivo con to. En algunos, el significado de la combinacin de los dos verbos cambiar al poner infinitivo o gerundio. Lee los siguientes ejemplos y su explicacin en espaol. STOP - I stopped to have a softdrink. Se interrumpe la actividad que se est haciendo para beber un refresco. - I have stopped drinking water. Se interrumpe la actividad (en este caso de beber agua). TRY - I tried to lift the box but it was too heavy. Se intenta algo difcil que requiere esfuerzo. - Why dont you try closing the window if the traffic is too noisy? Se intenta un experimento, test o prueba para ver si funciona. LIKE - I like to get up at 6am.

Me gusta el resultado de la actividad porque me da tiempo a desayunar y hacer otras cosas tranquilamente. - I like getting up at 6am. Realmente me gusta realizar la actividad. NEED - I need to work harder. Tengo la obligacin de hacer algo. - This room needs painting. Hay necesidad hacerlo (en voz pasiva) REMEMBER Y FORGET 1. Remember to buy milk on your way home. 2. I remember kissing my first girlfriend. 1. I forgot to phone Dad on his birthday. 2. Ill never forget seeing my wife for the first time. She looked beautiful. 1. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que tienes o tenas que hacer. 2. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. REGRET - We regret to inform you that your application for a loan of 5000 Euros has not been accepted. Normalmente se utiliza para comunicar malas noticias. - Do you regret leaving school early and not going to university? Lamentas cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. GO ON - After winning the Kings Cup, Valencia went on to win the Champions League. Expresa un cambio de actividad. - They went on complaining about their holiday all evening. Expresa que se continua realizando la misma actividad.

Frases relacionadas
1. Estoy preocupado por empezar el lunes. 2. Me da miedo hablar en pblico. 3. Me gusta cocinar. 4. Le gustara (a l) trabajar ms cerca de casa. 5. Le encanta (a ella) pasear por el campo. 6. Le encantara (a ella) tener un perro. 7. Prometiste recoger a los nios. 8. Espero conocerle algn da. 1. I'm worried about starting on Monday. 2. I'm afraid of speaking in public. 3. I like to cook / I like cooking. 4. He would like to work closer to home. 5. She loves to walk in the country / She loves walking in the country. 6. She would love to have a dog. 7. You promised to pick up the kids. 8. I hope to meet him some day.

9. Cmo has logrado hacer eso? 10. Qu edad tena (ella) cuando aprendi a andar? 11. Quiero sacar un mster. 12. Se me olvid comprar arroz. 13. Espero verla all (cuento con verla). 14. Cundo van a terminar de limpiar la casa? 15. Estoy cansado de trabajar los fines de semana. 16. Negaron (ellos) haber atracado el banco. 17. Disfruta (ella) pintando. 18. Corremos el riesgo de perder cuota de mercado. 19. Te imaginas vivir all? 20. A qu hora empezasteis a trabajar? 21. Ests pensando en alquilar un coche? 22. Les pediste que lo hicieran? 23. Qu necesitamos hacer? 24. Cmo evit pagar la multa? 25. Le recordaste que llamara a su to?

9.How did you manage to do that? 10. How old was she when she learned to walk? 11. I want to get a masters. 12. I forgot to buy rice. 13. I expect to see her there. 14. When are they going to finish cleaning the house? 15. Im tired of working on the weekends. 16. They denied robbing the bank. 17. She enjoys painting. 18. We run the risk of losing market share. 19. Can you imagine living there? 20. What time did you start work / What time did you start working? 21. Are you thinking about renting a car? 22. Did you ask them to do it? 23. What do we need to do? 24. How did he avoid paying the fine? 25. Did you remind him to call his uncle?

http://www.ecured.cu/index.php/Gerundio_e_infinitivo_(ingl%C3%A9s)

The difference between defining and non-defining relative clauses

A defining relative clause identifies or classifies a noun: Do you know the guy who is talking to Will over there? I wrote my essay on a photo which was taken by Robert Capa. If we omit this type of clause, the sentence does not make sense or has a different meaning: Do you know the guy? (which guy?) I wrote my essay on a photo. (what kind of photo?) A non-defining relative clause adds extra information about a noun which already has a clear reference: Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci, who was also a prolofic engineer and inventor. If we leave out this type of clause, the sentence still makes sense: Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci. (we know who Leonardo da Vinci is) Sometimes the use of commas marks a difference in meaning: The athletes who failed the drug test were disqualified. (defining) The athletes, who failed the drug test, were disqualified. (non-defining) The defining relative clause tells us that only those athletes were disqualified who failed the drug test. The sentence implies that there were other athletes who did not fail the drug test, and they were not disqualified. The non-defining relative clause tells us that all the athletes (mentioned earlier in the context) failed the drug test, and all of them were disqualified.

Noun clause used as an object He said something. SVO He said that he was sick. What did he say?

Noun clause used as a subject Something is your business. SV Whatever you do is your business. Someone is still in the cafeteria. SV Whoever ate my lunch is still in the cafeteria. Who is in the cafeteria? What is your business?

The subordinator may take the "subject" or "object" position in a noun clause. Note the usage of the following: Henry loves Mary. (S V O) Mary loves Jim. (S V O) The person who(m) Lee loves is a secret. The person who loves Tim is a secret. Who(m) Henry loves is a secret. Who loves Tim is a secret. Subordinators which are used in noun clauses: (Some of these words are also used in Grammar: Relative Clauses and Grammar: Wh - Questions.) that what who whoever whatever whether which where when how why if how much how many how long how far how often whose Mary is the "object" of the sentence. Mary is the "subject" of the sentence. Relative clause (subordinator in obj. position) Relative clause (subordinator in subj. position) Noun clause (subordinator in obj. position) Noun clause (subordinator in subj. position)

Remember to preserve word order in noun clauses: I don't know who he is. Whoever she is is not important. Whatever is in the box is a mystery. Can you tell me what he is doing? She doesn't undestand why he is leaving. I wonder how much that costs. Do you know how long it will take? See also: Grammar: Embedded Questions Grammar: Reported Speech Speaking: Indirect Requests If you have questions or comments about this page, please contact us. Be sure to include the title of this page in the Subject line of your e-mail.

http://www.eslgold.com/grammar/noun_clauses.html

Defining relative clause


A noun can be modified in different ways: by an adjective, a noun or a phrase: the best-selling book, a beautiful photo (adjective) the history book, an art photo (noun) the book with the most votes, a photo by Robert Capa (phrase) Another way of modifying a noun is by means of a defining (or also called restrictive) relative clause: the book I told you about last week a photo which was taken by Robert Capa This type of relative clause identifies or classifies the noun that it refers to. An identifying clause defines who or what we are talking about, and refers to a noun which is preceded by the definite article the: This is the book I told you about last week. Remember? Do you know the guy who is talking to Will over there? A classifying clause describes what kind of person(s) or thing(s) we are talking about. It refers to a singular uncountable or plural countable noun without an article, or a singular countable noun preceded by theindefinite article a or an: I wrote my essay on a photo which was taken by Robert Capa. Sometimes I like listening to music that makes me sad. I don't know any people who speak Esperanto. Grammar quotes Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted. Albert Einstein There is no man living that cannot do more than he thinks he can. Henry Ford

http://www.grammaring.com/defining-relative-clause

Non-defining relative clause


A non-defining relative clause describes a preceding noun by adding exra information about it. The noun has a clear reference (it is clear who or what we are talking about) even without the clause:

Mona Lisa was painted by Leonardo da Vinci, who was also a prolofic engineer and inventor. The human heart, which has a mass of about 300 grams, pumps blood to the body. A non-defining relative clause can also continue a story by saying what happened next: I called my mother immediately, who became very upset. (I called my mother immediately and she became very upset.) The non-defining relative clause is separated from the rest of the sentence by commas (,). In speech we make a short pause before the clause.

http://www.grammaring.com/non-defining-relative-clause

Definition

A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb A clause can be usefully distinguished from a phrase, which is a group of related words that does not contain a subject-verb relationship, such as "in the morning" or "running down the street" or "having grown used to this harassment." A review of the different kinds of phrases might be helpful.
Words We Use to Talk about Clauses

Learning the various terms used to define and classify clauses can be a vocabulary lesson in itself. This digital handout categorizes clauses into independent and dependent clauses. This simply means that some clauses can stand by themselves, as separate sentences, and some can't. Another term for dependent clause is subordinate clause: this means that the clause is subordinate to another element (the independent clause) and depends on that other element for its meaning. The subordinate clause is created by a subordinating conjunction or dependent word. An independent clause, "She is older than her brother" (which could be its own sentence), can be turned into a dependent or subordinate clause when the same group of words begins with a dependent word (or a subordinating conjunction in this case): "Because she is older than her brother, she tells him what to do."

Clauses are also classified as restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses. (The words essential and nonessential are sometimes used and mean the same thing as restrictive and nonrestrictive, respectively. British grammarians will make this same distinction by referring to clauses with the terms defining and nondefining.) A nonrestrictive clause is not essential to the meaning of the sentence; it can be removed from the sentence without changing its basic meaning. Nonrestrictive clauses are often set apart from the rest of the sentence by a comma or a pair of commas (if it's in the middle of a sentence).
Professor Villa, who used to be a secretary for the President, can type 132 words a

minute.

Review the Notorious Confusables section on the difference between That and Which for additional clarification on the distinction between restrictive and nonrestrictive. Relative clauses are dependent clauses introduced by a Relative Pronoun (that, which, whichever, who, whoever, whom, whomever, whose, and of which). Relative clauses can be either restrictive or nonrestrictive. Review the section on Comma Usage for additional help in determining whether relative clauses are restrictive or nonrestrictive (parenthetical or not) and whether commas should be used to set them off from the rest of the sentence. In a relative clause, the relative pronoun is the subject of the verb (remember that all clauses contain a subject-verb relationship) and refers to (relates to) something preceding the clause.
Giuseppe said that the plantar wart, which had been bothering him for years, had to

be removed.

(In this sentence, the clause in this color is a restrictive [essential] clause [a noun clause see below] and will not be set off by a comma; the underlined relative clause [modifying "wart"] is nonrestrictive [nonessential it can be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence] and is set off by commas.)

Some relative clauses will refer to more than a single word in the preceding text; they can modify an entire clause or even a series of clauses.
Charlie didn't get the job in administration, which really surprised his friends.

Charlie didn't get the job in administration, and he didn't even apply for the Dean's position, which really surprised his friends.

A relative clause that refers to or modifies entire clauses in this manner is called a sentential clause. Sometimes the "which" of a sentential clause will get tucked into the clause as the determiner of a noun:
Charlie might very well take a job as headmaster, in which case the school might as

well close down.

Elliptical Clauses: see below. Finally, everybody's favorite clause is the Santa Clause, which needs no further definition:

Independent Clauses

Independent Clauses could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not clauses. The ability to recognize a clause and to know when a clause is capable of acting as an independent unit is essential to correct writing and is especially helpful in avoiding sentence fragments andrun-on sentences.. Needless to say, it is important to learn how to combine independent clauses into larger units of thought. In the following sentence, for example,
Bob didn't mean to do it, but he did it anyway.

we have two independent clauses "Bob didn't mean to do it" and "he did it anyway" connected by a comma and a coordinating conjunction ("but"). If the word "but" is missing from this sentence, the sentence would be called a comma splice: two independent clauses would be incorrectly connected, smooshed together, with only a comma between them. Furthermore, a long series of clauses of similar structure and length begins to feel monotonous, leading to what is called "Dick and Jane" or primer language (after the kind of prose that we find in first grade textbooks or "primers"). (See the section onAvoiding Primer Language for advice and exercises on combining sentences.) It would also be helpful at this time to review the section on Punctuation Between Two Independent Clauses. Clauses are combined in three different ways: coordination, subordination, and by means of a semicolon. Coordination involves joining independent clauses with one of the coordinating conjunctions:and, but, or, nor, for, yet, and sometimes* so. Clauses thus connected are usually nicely balanced in length and import.
Ramonita thought about joining the church choir, but she never talked to her friends

about it.

Subordination involves turning one of the clauses into a subordinate element (one that cannot stand on its own) through the use of a Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word) or a Relative Pronoun. When the clause begins with a subordinating word, it is no longer an independent clause; it is called a dependent or subordinate clause because it depends on something else (the independent clause) for its meaning. There are other ways of combining ideas by turning independent clauses into various kinds of modifying phrases. Again, see the section on Avoiding Primer Language.
Although Ramonita often thought about joining the choir, she never talked to her

friends about it. Ramonita never talked to her friends about joining the choir, because she was afraid they would make fun of her. Yasmin is Ramonita's sister. Yasmin told Ramonita to join the choir no matter what her friends said.

Joining these with the use of a relative clause: Yasmin, [who is] Ramonita's sister, told Ramonita to join the choir. . . .

Semicolons can connect two independent clauses with or without the help of a conjunctive adverb (transitional expression). Semicolons should be used sparingly and only when the two independent clauses involved are closely related and nicely balanced in terms of length and import.
Ramonita has such a beautiful voice; many couples have asked her to sing at their

wedding. Ramonita's voice has a clear, angelic quality; furthermore, she clearly enjoys using it.

(Click on the words semicolons and conjunctive adverb above for further help with their use.) Take these two quizzes on recognizing independent clauses before proceeding to the section on dependent clauses.

Recognizing Independent Clauses

Recognizing Independent Clauses II

Dependent Clauses

Dependent Clauses cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a

sentence that can stand by itself. (Review the section on Commas Usage for advice and plenty of exercises on the punctuation requirements when dependent and independent clauses are combined.) Unlike independent clauses, which simply are what they are, dependent clauses are said to perform various functions within a sentence. They act either in the capacity of some kind of noun or as some kind of modifier. There are three basic kinds of dependent clauses, categorized according to their function in the sentence. Remember that a dependent clause always contains a subject and a verb, but it cannot stand by itself.
Adverb clauses provide information about what is going on in the main

(independent) clause: where, when, or why. "When the movie is over, we'll go downtown." or "John wanted to write a book because he had so much to say about the subject." Adjective clauses work like multi-word adjectives. "My brother, who is an engineer, figured it out for me." or "The bridge that collapsed in the winter storm will cost millions to replace." A special kind of adjective clause begins with a relative adverb (where, when, and why) but nonetheless functions as adjectivally. Noun clauses can do anything that nouns can do. "What he knows [subject] is no concern of mine." or "Do you know what he knows [object]?" or "What can you tell me about what he has done this year [object of the preposition "about"]?" What they did with the treasure remains a mystery. Whatever you want for dessert is fine with me. That you should feel this way about her came as a great surprise to us. Juan finally revealed what he had done with the money. Her husband spent whatever she had saved over the years. I don't know what I should do next.

In fact, he wrote a book about what he had done over the years. We are interested in what he does for a living.

The trouble was that they had never been there before. The biggest disappointment of last season was that the women's team didn't make it to the final four. My brother, who now teaches math in a small college, never liked math in high school. The dealership that sold more cars ended up actually losing money. The Federated Bank, which was founded nearly two centuries ago, folded during the state's economic crisis. The team had fallen behind by ten points before they were able to figure out the opponent's defense. Since he started working nights, he doesn't see much of his kids. While Josie sat inside watching television, Gladys shoveled the driveway.

Combinations of Clauses

Review the section on Sentence Variety for help in understanding the variety of sentence patterns. It is difficult to know if you're using different patterns unless you keep in mind the way that clauses are combined in larger sentence-units of thought. Pay special attention to the variety of sentence types: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex sentences. These are defined by their essential ingredients, the clauses that make them up. There is also a quiz at the end of that section that will test your ability to distinguish among the kinds of clauses that make up a sentence.
Elliptical Clauses

Elliptical Clauses are grammatically incomplete in the sense that they are missing either the relative pronoun (dependent word) that normally introduces such a clause or something from the predicate in the second part of a comparison. The missing parts of the elliptical clause can be guessed from the context and

most readers are not aware that anything is missing. In fact, elliptical clauses are regarded as both useful and correct, even in formal prose, because they are often elegant, efficient means of expression. (The omitted words are noted in brackets below).
Coach Espinoza knew [that] this team would be the best [that] she had coached in

recent years. Though [they were] sometimes nervous on the court, her recruits proved to be hard workers. Sometimes the veterans knew the recruits could play better than they [could play]. http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/clauses.htm

Noun clauses after be?


2 replies
FORUMS GENERAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR & VOCABULARY, LISTENING & SPEAKING GENERAL ENGLISH GRAMMAR QUESTIONS

frutadomar: Hi,There is a grammar point I dont really understand. It is called noun clauses after be. For example an advantage of living in a big city is (that) stores are usually open. Ex 2. The best thing about being the oldest sibling is (that) you get to boss everyone around. I am supposed to teach noun clauses after be and teach them that that is optional. Example problem with being the only girl in the family is (that) family members expect you to clean up after everybody. The sentences are easy enough to make but I dont really get the grammar point or how I could clearly explain it to the students. Could someone give me direction

http://www.englishforums.com/English/NounClausesAfterBe/gblwz/post.htm

Gerundios e infinitivos (Ingls)

Gerundio e Infinitivos (Gerunds and Infinitives) El infinitivo en Espaol es la forma del verbo que termina en r, como por ejemplo, caminar, comer, dormir, eningls lleva la palabra Concep Trminos que cambian en su forma "to" delante. Por to: gramatical al usarse en un idioma u otro. ejemplo, las palabras to walk, to eat, to sleep son infinitivos que se traducen a las palabras caminar, comer, dormir, que a su vez son infinitivos castellanos. El gerundio es cuando la forma del verbo que termina en las letras "ing" y se usa mayormente cuando se usan verbos que expresan el comienzo y fin de una actividad, ejemplo Antes de salir = before leaving. Despus de comer se traduce al Ingls por after eating o cuando el infinitivo juega el papel de un nombre. Por ejemplo nadar es muy saludable se traduce por swimming is very healthful.
Contenido [ocultar]

1 Su uso en ingls 2 El infinitivo 3 El gerundio 4 Verbos 5 Gerundio e infinitivo, cundo los dos son posibles 6 Frases relacionadas 7 Fuentes

Su uso en ingls

El uso del infinitivo (I would like to travel) y del gerundio (I like travelling) en Ingls es una fuente habitual de problemas entre los educandos. Probablemente porque las dos estructuras se traducen en Castellano con la misma

estructura (me gustara viajar / me gusta viajar), por lo tanto la tendencia natural consiste en sobre-utilizar el infinitivo en ingls. El otro problema es que el uso de una forma o de otra depende, en grande medida, del tipo de verbo al que acompaan (would like + infinitivo; like + gerundio) y para eso existe una lista de verbos que exigen un infinitivo y verbos que exigen un Gerundio que se tiene que memorizar. El ingls tiene dos tipos de sustantivos verbales, el infinitivo (con o sin "to") y el gerundio (la terminacin -ing). La mayora de los verbos que toman un sustantivo verbal pueden estar seguidos de uno u otro (un gerundio o un infinitivo, pero no ambos). Sin embargo, existen determinados verbos a los que puede seguirle indistintamente un gerundio o un infinitivo.
El infinitivo

Se utiliza: 1. Despus de algunos verbos como: would like, agree, decide, choose, plan, refuse, hope, want, manage etc. I want to become a teacher. 2. Despus de adjetivos: Im happy to see you again. 3. Para expresar un objetivo o el porqu estamos haciendo una accin: Im here to study English. // I have come to help you. NO es correcto decir *Im here for to study English. Importante: La forma negativa del infinitivo es not + infinitivo: Im happy not to see you again.
El gerundio

Se utiliza: 1. Despus de algunos verbos: deny, avoid, cant help, like, dislike, enjoy, mind, keep on, suggest, finish etc. He finished doing his homework.

2. Despus de un preposicin (normalmente se trata de verbos o adjetivos con preposicin obligatoria): Im interested in learning English. // Im fond of playing tennis. En esta categora entra tambin la tpica frmula del final de un email o de una carta: Im looking forward to hearing from you soon. En esta construccin, to es una preposicin. 3. Cuando el verbo es el sujeto de la frase: Smoking is dangerous for your health. Importante: La forma negativa del gerundio es not+gerundio: I enjoy not doing anything on holiday.
Verbos

A algunos verbos puede seguirles el gerundio o el infinitivo y es slo una cuestin de estilo cmo y cundo utilizarlos. Tres de estos verbos son continue (continuar), start (arrancar, comenzar) y begin (comenzar, iniciar). The fans continued to shout / shouting at the referee. Helen started to cough / coughing because of her bad cold. It began to rain / raining. Otros verbos pueden tomar el gerundio o el infinitivo en la mayora de los tiempos verbales (aunque el ingls britnico prefiere el gerundio, el infinitivo es muy comn en ingls americano), pero slo se los usa con el infinitivo cuando se encuentran en condicional. Estos verbos son: hate (odiar, no gustar), love (amar), can't bear (no soportar), like (gustar), dislike (disgustar) y prefer (preferir). I hate talking to her. I like to get up early on Sunday mornings and go riding.
Gerundio e infinitivo, cundo los dos son posibles

Existen verbos con los que se puede poner el gerundio (-ing) o el infinitivo con to. En algunos, el significado de la combinacin de los dos verbos cambiar al poner infinitivo o gerundio. Lee los siguientes ejemplos y su explicacin en espaol. STOP

- I stopped to have a softdrink. Se interrumpe la actividad que se est haciendo para beber un refresco. - I have stopped drinking water. Se interrumpe la actividad (en este caso de beber agua). TRY - I tried to lift the box but it was too heavy. Se intenta algo difcil que requiere esfuerzo. - Why dont you try closing the window if the traffic is too noisy? Se intenta un experimento, test o prueba para ver si funciona. LIKE - I like to get up at 6am. Me gusta el resultado de la actividad porque me da tiempo a desayunar y hacer otras cosas tranquilamente. - I like getting up at 6am. Realmente me gusta realizar la actividad. NEED - I need to work harder. Tengo la obligacin de hacer algo. - This room needs painting. Hay necesidad hacerlo (en voz pasiva) REMEMBER Y FORGET 1. Remember to buy milk on your way home. 2. I remember kissing my first girlfriend. 1. I forgot to phone Dad on his birthday. 2. Ill never forget seeing my wife for the first time. She looked beautiful. 1. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que tienes o tenas que hacer. 2. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. REGRET - We regret to inform you that your application for a loan of 5000 Euros has not been accepted. Normalmente se utiliza para comunicar malas noticias.

- Do you regret leaving school early and not going to university? Lamentas cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. GO ON - After winning the Kings Cup, Valencia went on to win the Champions League. Expresa un cambio de actividad. - They went on complaining about their holiday all evening. Expresa que se continua realizando la misma actividad.
Frases relacionadas

1. Estoy preocupado por empezar el lunes. 2. Me da miedo hablar en pblico. 3. Me gusta cocinar. 4. Le gustara (a l) trabajar ms cerca de casa. 5. Le encanta (a ella) pasear por el campo. 6. Le encantara (a ella) tener un perro. 7. Prometiste recoger a los nios. 8. Espero conocerle algn da. 9. Cmo has logrado hacer eso? 10. Qu edad tena (ella) cuando aprendi a andar? 11. Quiero sacar un mster. 12. Se me olvid comprar

1. I'm worried about starting on Monday. 2. I'm afraid of speaking in public. 3. I like to cook / I like cooking. 4. He would like to work closer to home. 5. She loves to walk in the country / She loves walking in the country. 6. She would love to have a dog. 7. You promised to pick up the kids. 8. I hope to meet him some day. 9.How did you manage to do that? 10. How old was she when she learned to walk? 11. I want to get a masters. 12. I forgot to buy rice.

arroz. 13. Espero verla all (cuento con verla). 13. I expect to see her there.

14. Cundo van a terminar de 14. When are they going to finish limpiar la casa? cleaning the house? 15. Estoy cansado de trabajar los fines de semana. 16. Negaron (ellos) haber atracado el banco. 17. Disfruta (ella) pintando. 18. Corremos el riesgo de perder cuota de mercado. 19. Te imaginas vivir all? 15. Im tired of working on the weekends. 16. They denied robbing the bank. 17. She enjoys painting. 18. We run the risk of losing market share. 19. Can you imagine living there?

20. A qu hora empezasteis a 20. What time did you start work / What trabajar? time did you start working? 21. Ests pensando en alquilar 21. Are you thinking about renting a car? un coche? 22. Les pediste que lo hicieran? 23. Qu necesitamos hacer? 24. Cmo evit pagar la multa? 22. Did you ask them to do it? 23. What do we need to do? 24. How did he avoid paying the fine?

25. Le recordaste que llamara 25. Did you remind him to call his uncle? a su to?

http://www.ecured.cu/index.php/Gerundio_e_infinitivo_(ingl%C3%A9s)

GENERALIDADES Usos Pon el gerundio: 1. Despus de las preposiciones. She left without Los verbos ms frecuentes que solemos kissing me. Were encontrar con el gerundio son: thinking of going to Italy. like, love, hate, enjoy, miss, feel like, mind, I enjoy eating out. finish, risk, practise, put off, stop, suggest, cant help, fancy, admit, deny, give up, Do youmind imagine, keep (on), put off (postpone), spend giving me your time, cant stand, delay, regret, avoid, address? Smoking is bad for consider, involve, go on (=continue) you. Skiingis expensive Why did you stop working? - To spend more time with my children. Its not easy to find a good man. for spend for to spend Observa los ejemplos con el negativo not to: We hope not to be in the same flat next year. She decided not to get married. Los verbos ms frecuentes que solemos encontrar con 'to' + infinitivo son: would like, want, need, decide, hope, arrange, expect, plan, forget, seem, appear, wish, promise, offer, refuse, learn, manage, afford, agree, fail, tend, happen, mean, prepare, pretend, threaten, attempt. Ejemplos Problemas / Notas

2. Despus de algunos verbos. 3. Como el sujeto de una frase.

Pon 'to' + Infinitivo: 1. Para dar una respuesta a la pregunta Why (por que?) 2. Despus de los adjetivos

3. Despus de algunos verbos

I forgot to phone the bank. She needs to see you urgently.

GERUNDIO E INFINITIVO CUANDO LOS DOS SON POSIBLES Existen verbos con los que se puede poner el gerundio (-ing) o el infinitivo con to. En algunos, el significado de la combinacin de los dos verbos cambiar al poner infinitivo o gerundio. Lee los siguientes ejemplos y su explicacin en espaol. STOP - I stopped to have a beer.

Se interrumpe la actividad que se est haciendo para beber una cerveza. - I have stopped drinking beer. Se interrumpe la actividad (en este caso de beber cerveza). TRY - I tried to lift the box but it was too heavy. Se intenta algo difcil que requiere esfuerzo. - Why dont you try closing the window if the traffic is too noisy? Se intenta un experimento, test o prueba para ver si funciona. LIKE - I like to get up at 6am. Me gusta el resultado de la actividad porque me da tiempo a desayunar y hacer otras cosas tranquilmente. - I like getting up at 6am. Realmente me gusta realizar la actividad. NEED - I need to work harder. Tengo la obligacin de hacer algo. - This room needs painting. Hay necesidad hacerlo (en voz pasiva) REMEMBER Y FORGET 1. Remember to buy milk on your way home. 2. I remember kissing my first girlfriend. 1. I forgot to phone Dad on his birthday. 2. Ill never forget seeing my wife for the first time. She looked beautiful. 1. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que tienes o tenas que hacer. 2. Se refiere a recordar u olvidar cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. REGRET - We regret to inform you that your application for a loan of 5000 Euros has not been accepted. Normalmente se utiliza para comunicar malas noticias. - Do you regret leaving school early and not going to university? Lamentas cosas que ocurrieron en el pasado. GO ON - After winning the Kings Cup, Valencia went on to win the Champions League. Expresa un cambio de actividad. - They went on complaining about their holiday all evening. Expresa que se continua realizando la misma actividad.

http://www.mansioningles.com/gram57.htm

El uso del infinitivo y del gerundio en ingls (1)


Autor: Alexandra Vraciu | 34 comentarios El uso del infinitivo (I would like to travel) y del gerundio (I like travelling) en ingls es una fuente habitual de problemas entre los estudiantes. Probablemente porque las dos estructuras se traducen en castellano con la misma estructura (me gustara viajar / me gusta viajar), por lo tanto la tendencia natural de los estudiantes consiste en sobre-utilizar el infinitivo en ingls. El otro problema es que el uso de una forma o de otra depende, en grande medida, del tipo de verbo al que acompaan (would like + infinitivo; like + gerundio) y para eso existe una lista de verbos que exigen un infinitivo y verbos que exigen un gerundio que se tiene que memorizar. Hoy veremos las reglas generales del uso del infinitivo y del gerundio en ingls, y la semana que viene trataremos de algunos puntos ms complejos. El infinitivo Se utiliza: 1. Despus de algunos verbos como: would like, agree, decide, choose, plan, refuse, hope, want, manage etc. I want to become a teacher. 2. Despus de adjetivos: Im happy to see you again. 3. Para expresar un objetivo o el porqu estamos haciendo una accin: Im here to study English. // I have come to help you. Recordad que NO es correcto decir *Im here for to study English. Importante: La forma negativa del infinitivo es not + infinitivo: Im happy not to see you again. El gerundio Se utiliza: 1. Despus de algunos verbos: deny, avoid, cant help, like, dislike, enjoy, mind, keep on, suggest, finish etc. He finished doing his homework. 2. Despus de un preposicin (normalmente se trata de verbos o adjetivos con preposicin obligatoria): Im interested in learning English. // Im fond of playing tennis. Recordad que en esta categora entra tambin la tpica frmula del final de un email o de una carta:Im looking forward to hearing from you soon. En esta construccin, to es una preposicin. 3. Cuando el verbo es el sujeto de la frase: Smoking is dangerous for your health. Importante:

La forma negativa del gerundio es not+gerundio: I enjoy not doing anything on holiday.

http://www.ejerciciodeingles.com/uso-infinitivo-gerundio-ingles/