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Contents

1. A guide
Acknowledges

to sustainability
the importance of building

.................................................. 1
on the work of others. to choose Canadian transitions to sustainability.

Outlines a vision of a sustainable future for Canada and discusses some values and principles that underlie sustainability

Invites all stakeholders

to work together differently

1.1 Doing 1.2Visions 1.3Values


1.4 1.5 Building

business

.............................................................................................. 2

of the future and principles

.................................................................................................... 3 ................................................................................................... 4 ........................................................................................ 5

on the work of others to sustainability

Transitions

............................................................................................ 7

2.

Canadian

sustainability

initiatives

......................................
engaged in. strategy. planning. are a crucial part of a national multistakeholder

Describes some key sustainability Shows that local, provincial,

processes and projects that Canadians are currently

regional and federal initiatives

Recognizes, validates and integrates diverse activities, encouraging a more holistic approach to sustainability

2.1Community 2.2 Provincial 2.3 Regional 2.4 National 2.5Aboriginal 2.6 Corporate 2.7 Other

initiatives and territorial initiatives initiatives peoples initiatives makers

.................................................................................................. initiatives ................... . ............................................................

10 18 28 34
55 57

.................................................................................................... .................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................... ................................................................................................... ................................................................................................

decision

63

3.

International
Recalls the international

dimensions

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..~.......................
development. development and economic organizations. development. environmental, commitments

71

context for sustainable

Considers current roles of international Reviews some of Canadas international Recognizes the experiences 3.1 Sustainability

in the area of sustainable sustainability planning.

of other countries

in national

institutions commitments

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

3.2 Existing
3.3 UN

conferences

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

3.4 Economic
3.5 learning

institutions from other

4. Choices

for the future

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
together in a functional way. the pros

Breaks with the past by focussing on choices for the future using basic human needs rather than sectoral interests. Takes an integrated approach that helps to bring various stakeholders

Encourages people to consider a variety of choices and their consequences in a fair way, weighing and cons themselves and beginning to accept the difficult tradeoffs involved.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

4.1Air 4.2 fresh 4.3 Food


4.4 4.5 4.6

........................................................................................................................ and salt Human relationships water and ................................................................................................... natural ......................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................

87 91 94 96 99 102 104 107 109

Habitat: Human Health

.................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................ ................................................................................................................ loop systems .................................................................................................

4.7Security 4.8 Mobility 4.9 Closed

5.

Transition

tools

. . . . . . . . ..~................~......~........................
tools, including integrated decision making, economic instruments, education

113
and more on those aspects

Focusses on various transition and accountability.

Encourages people to concentrate less on the multitude of specific problems of governance and management that transcend all sectors and problems. Recognizes that sustainability will not be achieved changes during a period of transition. 5.1 Institutional change decision alternatives the economy values and and

in a single step, but rather through a series of intermediate

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 making and planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

5.2 Integrated 5.3 Regulatory


5.4 5.5 Greening Education,

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 behavioural change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

5.6Scientific
5.7 Accountability

technological

innovation

. . . . . . . . . . . ..I...........................................................................................

126

6.

Implementation:

a collective

endeavour

,....,,....,...............e.
and overcoming the many obstacles and trust for the more

129

Recognizes that implementation must be a collective endeavour: identifying to sustainability, forging new partnerships and monitoring progress. Stresses importance of working difficult challenges ahead. first on issues whose early resolution

will build confidence

Shows that sustainable development does not require new funding but rather a reallocation of existing financial flows, involving shifts in both the revenues and expenditures of governments, corporations and individuals.

6.1Identifying 6.2 Forging 6.3Targets,

and

overcoming

obstacles

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130

new partnerships monitoring line and

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 priorities

. . . . . 132 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I

6.4 The bottom

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

Annex Annex Annex

I: II: Ill:

Bibliography Sustainability

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 initiatives and contacts .......................................................

142 149

list of acronyms

............................................................................

ii

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Whyarewedoingthis?
The Projet de so&t& and non-profit future. is a multistakeholder committed partnership to promoting of government, Indigenous, business organizations Canadas transition to a sustainable we are primarily by Recognizing that sustainable providing development is a collective responsibility, a catalyst for change, linking their activities a forum for sectors and individuals to a common purpose. to prepare a National for winning Sustaingames or to build consensus and contributions

As part of its mandate, able Development corporate of winners takeovers,

the Projet de so&t6

has undertaken

Strategy.

We have concluded for sustainable sustainability

that, unlike strategies

a strategy

development

must move away from the notion at the expense of any sector is to base

and losers because

cannot be achieved

or region of the world. our strategy That is why transitions plished,

Moreover,

the only way to ensure that we are all winners process that builds commitment

on a broad, participatory

all levels of society. to accelerate has been accom-

Canadian Choices for Transitions to Sustainability is designed


to sustainability by bringing people together, examining what there may be gaps and considering tools.

seeing where our efforts

how we may be more effective It is thus not a traditional strategy

by focussing

on key issues or transition or a guide to sustainability.

but rather a framework In a country

as diverse as Canada, no single document

can pretend

to describe

all the things

that must be done at all levels to move us toward work for the various ahead. sectors By sketching cooperative efforts

sustainability,

but it can help lay the groundin the months and years and

that will have to ensue picture,

the broad national

we hope to encourage

communities

in Canada to see how they fit into the larger picture and engage them into assuming

their share of the challenge. Because sustainable development our approach decision requires a fundamental change in the way we think about a paradigm shift away from thinking.

and solve problems, our traditional

is designed making

to help facilitate toward

sector-based

more integrated,

system-wide

We hope that Canadian Choices for Transitions to Sustainability will stimulate insight, provoke discussion, draw criticism, challenge society assumptions while

vision, trigger It is

and inspire action! engaging

an attempt empowering

to reflect the diversity people

of Canadian

encouraging,

and

across the country

to forge their own transitions

to sustainability.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

...

111

The first draft of Canadian Choices for Transitions National Stakeholders on comments received

to Sustainability

was prepared

for the

of the Projet de soci&b by members at the Fourth National Stakeholders

of its 1994 Working Group. Based Assembly in November 1994,

a revised version communities tainability. workshops

was prepared

by the NRTEE in January in discussions

1995 and used to engage various about Canadas transition and concerns to sus-

and sectors across the country

This Final Draft reflects some of the comments and will be presented

raised in these regional for their use at the Fifth for

to the Projets National Stakeholders

National Assembly,

planned for the fall of 1995. Further work is planned to compensate cultural and sectoral imbalances still found in this Final Draft.

some of the regional,

Members
Jean Arnold
Fallsbrook

of the 1994
Centre

Working

Group:
Shirley Lewchuck Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Elizabeth May Sierra Club Sheldon McLeod Canadian Council of Ministers Environment Beatrice Olivastri Bea trite Olivas tri & Associates Peter Padbury Canadian Council for international Chester Reimer lnuit Circumpolar Conference Cooperation of the

Garth Bangay Environment Canada David Bennett Canadian Labour Congress Keith Bezanson International Development Lynn Broughton Forum for Sustainability Theodora Carroll-Foster International Development Research Centre Research Centre

Gordon Clifford
Consulting Audit Canada George Connell National Round Tab/e on the Environment and the Economy Heather Creech International Institute Development for Sustainable

Sarah Richardson National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy Barry Sadler Consultant Ann Marie Sahagian Environment Canada Sandy Scott National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy

Anne Cronin-Cossette Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade John Dillon Business Council on National issues

Ron Doering (Chair, Working Group) National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy Charles Ferguson INCO Janine Ferretti Pollution Probe Gary Gallon Canadian Environmental George Greene Canadian International Arthur Hanson International institute Development George Kowalski Environment Canada Industries Development for Sustainable Association Agency

Dana Silk National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy Mary Simon lnuit Circumpolar Conference

Robert Slater Environment Canada Judith Swan Oceans Institute Susan Tanner Friends of the Earth Kathy Thompson Federation of Canadian Municipalities Miriam Wyman Women and Sustainability Networks

iv

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Outlines future values

a vision for Canada some and principles

of a sustainable and discusses that underlie sustainability. Acknowledges importance the of building

on the work of others. Invites all stakeholders Canadian to

to work together to choose transitions sustainability.

1.1Doing

business differently
multistakededicated

when

new stakeholders

con-

processes long-term

needed

to facilitate

tinued to join the process, others left and the number increased

transitions. strategy develop-

he Projet de soci6t6 is a national,

of people involved

It is not a traditional because sustainable

to 120, as it did by the fourth meeting or National Stakeheld

holder process to planning future. meeting

ment does not lend itself to traditional things: strategic them ways of doing goals and

for a sustainable at a

holders Assembly in November 1994.

It originated

specific

held in November about 40 people in

ways of achieving well for but susmeans for all

1992 when who

have worked sectors,

had been involved preparation for

IJVhile document complex tainable helpful common goals Michael

no single will be able issues in suswill be out problems,

individual tainable acting sectors

Canadas

development responsibly

the 1992 United Conference

Nations

to deal with all the development, in laying and solutions.


Keating, 1989

on Environment (UNCED)

and individuals,

and Development decided nization maintain

across both generations and continents. That is why this NSDS is more of a guide to sustainability based on a vision of the future and a set of principles to guide the process (Box I).

that a new orgawas needed to

a strategy

the momentum the National

and to prepare Sustainable Strategy

Development

(NSDS) called 21. agreed that of transparency, and accountaby Canada for the

for in Agenda It was widely the principles inclusiveness bility adopted

Given the cultural and biophysical diversity of Canada,

This document,

Canadian

let alone its sheer size, it would be naive to propose development would

Choices for Transitions to Sustainability, is an


attempt those cerned product to satisfy stakeholders both con-

a sustainable

UNCED should provide basis for this work, that decision

p/an that everyone


be expected

meaning

to follow.

making would

about having a to work with in

be based on partnerships and consensus. As it turned

Canadian Choices is thus


a prototype, if not a manual, differently. for doing business Learning

the short term and those more concerned about the

out, this was hard to maintain

to work together new partnerdevel-

and forging

ships for sustainable opment because

will not be easy, and it has never been at the national will

done before

level, the process continue to evolve.

By highlighting initiatives

sustainability Canada

throughout

(Chapter 21, this guide is also designed to help people

build on the work of others.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

It shows that governments, First Nations, non-profit businesses all and

lead some people to conclude that sustainability achieved cannot be on single

of transitions for structural production patterns

and the need changes in our

organizations

by working

and consumption as well as in our and institutions. dealing has only

play a critical role in the development and implementation pulls

issues through organizations.

traditional

governments

of an NSDS. This chapter together activities

many of the diverse happening at differsecbut it

The final chapter,

There need tainable in terms living, illustration

is a great for a clear of susdevelopmen of eating, travelling


t

with implementation, been sketched because

ent levels and in different tors across the country,

in at this stage on stake-

it will depend of those

also reveals a certain lack of integration and co-ordination. by an

the initiatives holders willing

and able to of the Projet help

It is complemented overview

move ahead on their own. The experience

(Chapter 3) of some implicadevelop-

of the international tions of sustainable

and working.
- Sustamabie Nether/an&, 1993

de soci&k will hopefully


and implementing strategies because

them and others in developing their own

ment, notably our existing commitments to deal with issues depenmarkets.

for sustainability it emphasizes the

global sustainability and our increasing dence on foreign In an attempt

That is why Chapter 5 focusses on some of the

responsibility

we must all

take for making these changes happen.

tools that can facilitate to break with stakesustainable development way, including sus-

the past and encourage

in a systematic economic tainability integrated

holders to look beyond their traditional sectors, interests Chapter 4 is

instruments, indicators decision and

1.2 Visions
century

of the future

The closing years of the 20th are seen by many as a

or organizations, organized

making. part it

around basic human

It is the most strategic of this strategy recognizes because

hinge of history, with nothing less than the future of the planet in the balance: human

needs. It takes an integrated approach designed to help

the importance

ensure that various choices and their consequences compared can weigh so that people the pros and and begin
I 5, 14Sll I QY~LIIIIU suv.u.y

are

cons themselves to accept tradeoffs

the difficult involved. and sectors are to use Chapter 4 to generate

HUNran beings share the Earth with many other species; we are both dependent and interdeper rdent. We recognize that human beings around the world also share many needs and hopes for themselves and their children:
l

Communities encouraged

clean water and air; fertile soil and good food; safety from poverty and disease; an optimum population size; respect, love and a gentle touch; music, laughter and the peace of prayer; social contact and a sense of community; a livelihood and a healthy economy;

to learn and grow in understanding; the wonder and discipline of nature; work, rest and celebration; and to become one with the Earth.

as a workbook discussion solutions. Tables daunting tainable

about choices and Its Choicework

.
l

begin to show the complexity development of susand will

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

activities

and numbers

are

meet the legitimate of both current generations whelming assimilative the planet, sustainable

aspirations

obligations?

How do we what society

now altering

natural systems

and future over-

change and toward

on a global scale. Although there is some dispute over the rates of change, acknowledged commonly effects include

without

vision of a sustainable

the carrying and capacity of

should we strive? Is there, in fact, a single vision of sustainability or will it continue things to in different times?

if we embrace development.

loss of biodiversity diversity, tospheric change natural of which economic instability. thinning ozone,

and cultural of straclimate of all

to mean different different people

Sustainable ment rather strive than

developa state we must change.

places and at different In this guide, sustainable development a common

and the collapse resource stocks,

is a process

contribute

to social,

is interpreted currency

as

and environmental

of affairs: for radical

that both social

unifies environmental, and economic

continuously

values and links

Will our future be rich in potential or under increasing

todays choices to tomorrows consequences. A vision of society (Box 2)

pressure from people seeking refuge from deteriorating conditions the world, in other parts of if not in regions of Many stake-

- Thorbjcxn Berntsen, Minister of Environment, Norway, 1994

a sustainable was developed

as a first step

rather than the last word, so But what does it mean to live within our ecological means space remains to include the visions of others. This vision was then used to generate set of overarching a

our own country?

holders believe that we can

and up to our humanitarian

sustainability

goals for Canada (Box 3).

1.3 Values

and principles

Canadas high economic, social and environmental deficits are clear symptoms of unsustainability. down environmental By drawing stocks,

such as forests, fish and soils, we also degrade and economic support the social that

systems

our communities. development

Sustainable would

reverse these trends by

ensuring that we no longer borrow from the assets of future generations aspirations. to pay for our own If not, our children the first

or theirs could become generation

to live in a Canada opportunity.

of diminishing

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Living within our ecological and economic means demands farand

1.4

Building on the work of others


of this guide from a hetero-

of direct and indirect ways. It is a continuation, an acceleration, if not

reaching policy, institutional technological mented

of concerns

reforms comple-

The development has benefited geneous involved

about the future that were first raised in Canada many years ago. The fact that we are only now coming to grips with them - after an unprecedented period of material - does not mean that development is a

by shifts in individual

values and behaviour. Yet sustainable development should

process that has thousands of people in a variety

not be equated with economic decline or competitive advantage, dis-

across the country

and even less with

As one moves on the conceptual sustainability design a future scenarios, gains direction continuum through for to and society from the goal of criteria

growth

halting all forms of technological innovation. is not whether how to develop. development The challenge to grow but Sustainable

sustainable

new concept.

Rather, it is an

idea whose time has come.


Official Canadian concern in this field appears to have started in 1909 with the on Conservation,

must be seen as applying

a positive enterprise

our research and development capabilities and entrepreneurial skills to manage change. Principles upon which this

what one is apt to be

Commission

in detail

a clearing house for natural resource federal research done by officials, in 1921.

and provincial

change needs to be based have been elaborated a variety of forums, upon in including (Box 4).

lost in widespread acceptability.


- Slocombe and van Bers, 1992

which was disbanded

It was not until the 1972 United Nations Conference Human Environment on the held

all provincial

strategies

The sustainable principles

development by the

identified

hojet de soci6t6 (Box 5) also


illustrate many of the critical of a sustaincharacteristics

Print :iples

in provincial

strategies
Principles appear frequently: that less
l

ability planning process. As we .move away from households, businesses international increasingly agreement principles. communities to the national and and

Principles appear almost that in all provincial strategies:


l

fairer distribution of costs and benefits; meeting basic needs; cultural awareness; recognition of non-monetary values; focussing on the longer-term economic quality rather than quantity of development; encouraging scientific and technological innovation.

global respo nsibility; I. .-- .tir*-uvmg onme interest not the capital;

level, it becomes difficult on values to reach and

minimizing the use of non-renewable resources; - --:..r,.:-:- L.:,...J:.,,n:t., ..A&.. ;+nnr:h,t%4 brocesses; sion makina; -. larasmp ana molvidual responsibility; :ost accounting;

There may not around and

be much agreement

issues of equity within between countries,

but there

is an increasing that sustainability achieved

understanding cannot be

in Canada without

global sustainability.

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- FinalDraft

May 1995

in Stockholm, the Government released entitled

however,

that

National policies or strategies were also prepared for a variety of sectors, including national parks (I 9791, land use (I 9801, forestry (I 981), wildlife (I 9821,

During the 198Os, Canada continued to promote the Strategy

of Canada

the 441 -page report Conservation in

World Conservation developed

by the IUCN and

Canada. In 1973, just before


the first oil price shock, the Science Council of Canada agreed to proceed with a in 1977 of a pre-

played a major role in the work of the World Commis-

We are recklessly destroying of Canada is scarcely It occurs be looked the timber and there a possibilit . . . should in the to me that

sion on Environment Development In 1987, when or Brundtland

and

(WCED). the WCED Report,

study that culminated with the publication scient study entitled

Our

Canada

Common Future, was published, Canadas National Task Force on the Environment and the Economy for provincial conservation blueprints economic called

as a Conserver Society.
The following the publication of numerous decade saw or preparation federal (and the

ity of replacing the subject

and territorial strategies or

occasional federal-provincial) policy documents natural resources. dealing with Notable

face and some efforts made for the preservation of our timber.
1871

for sustainable development through that would

to be integrated a national link them strategy

among these was the 1981

Federal Review of the World Conservation Strategy which


made 22 recommendations, including the development of conservation strategies for heritage rivers (I 9841, chemicals (I 984) and water (I 985). Nevertheless, on conservation a 1986 report achievements
- Sir John A. MacDonald,

to the international

scene. The Green Plan, which identified actions and budacross the

getary allocations

broad front of environmental issues, was published federal government by the

water conservation

in Western

Canada and for coastal zones in the East, West and Arctic. It also recommended analyzing

in 1990.

asserted that the adoption of a truly cross-sectoral conserIn 1992, Canada was one of more than 100 countries that attended whose Agenda UNCED, 21 and provide

the effect of federal tax measures on conservation, recy-

vation policy was still the greatest challenge federal government. to the

cling and pollution abatement.

other agreements a framework national

for global,

and even local sustainable

action to achieve development sustainable strategies

(Box 6). National development were highlighted mecha-

as potentially

pivotal

nisms for the implementation of Agenda progress 21 and some

has been made in

this field by other countries (Chapter 3.5).

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

NSDSs differ from conventional (top-down, sectoral) policy

have focussed ronmental

on the envi-

society

could take but it.

aspects of sustainnotably and

how we might achieve Because we cannot

making and planning in a number of important First, they should economic, respects, integrate and

able development, conservation environmental

strategies

get to

action plans.

sustainability attention

in a single step, on the

environmental

is focussed

social objectives; preparation

second, their

Each

generation to the on the capital, be handed

intermediary

steps needed

should be underthe widest and

to reach it. That is why this guide encourages to use the transition described Chapter people tools

is entitled interest natural should

taken through possible

participation;

third, they should be based on a thorough assessment

in more detail in 5. They will involve development speeds depending

but the principal on unimpaired.


-Commission on Conservation, Ottawa, 1915

of the current situation. Public concern about the future has already enabled of sustainstrategies

considerable

in many forms, and directions,

on local circumstances. Almost should Even the 1992 Earth Summit was perceived by some all of this development be quite sustainable,

the development able development

at many levels and in many sectors across Canada. This NSDS or guide builds on the considerable work under

but some will not be. Because societies formed attention large, complex cannot overnight, be transspecial to

to focus on environmental issues, such as biodiversity and climate change. This

way at all levels of government, First Nations and the business and NGO communities (Chapter 2). Ongoing initiatives Biodiversity emerging framework provincial, sectoral such as the National Strategy, the

will be needed

was due in part to the evenlower levels of consensus issues, levels

ensure that any unsustainable development that occurs will effects:

on development

not have irreversible

such as consumption and population.

the parking lots of suburban shopping malls can be restored land, but extinct

This guide tries

federal sustainability and the various municipal strategies and will also We

to take a more comprehensive approach by projecting not only

to agricultural

species cannot be brought back to life. This underlines

the shape that a sustainable

need to be incorporated.

are faced with the constant challenge various of weaving these 21 AGENDA : is a blueprint for making development mentally sustainable.. sociallv, economicallv ,. and environ-

pieces into a coherent linking it to agenda and

national strategy, the international facilitating

the transitions.

The Convention Climate on Change aims to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gases so as to prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. The Convention Biological on Diversity requires that countries adopt appropriate way? and means of conserving the Earths biodiversity and of ensuring that its benefits are equitably shared. The RioDeclaration Environment Development a statement of 27 principles on and is defining the rights and responsibilities of nations as they pursue human development and well-being. The Statement Principles Forestry of on advocates a global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests.

1.5 Transitions

to
responses Report

sustainability
Many international to the 1987 Brundtland

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

-. Final Draft

May 1995

the importance irreversible

of preventing

another kind of development,


one that is economically viable, environmentally and more equitable countries, among sound within countries

growth

experienced

since the

damage.

195Os, especially countries.

in Western should

Despite the bad press recently given to development, remains a positive it

A distinction

be made, however, the throughput

between growth of

characterisit

tic of human life. Moreover, is only over the last 50 years

and between

generations.

the past and present, increasing

based on and

consumption,

or so that a global deficit has appeared accounts. gotten on the development It is sometimes foris

the efficiency

improvement

Strategies understood process developed the contents strategy means generate

should and product.

be

growth,

based on the better and services.

as both is as of the as the

use of materials

that development

It is even possible to imagine a day in the future when we will be able to measure of growth the kind we

not only economic,

but also

cultural, social and personal. Few would deny that there

How the strategy is almost as important itself,

or development

has been considerable improvement around the

actually need. This will happen once national accounting tems internalize sys-

world in health care, education and food production, distribution. if not is

or at least

better reflect environmental and social costs. Who would growth argue against

The problem

of development the buy-in who

that some of this development is not sustainable from a bio-

physical point of view, and poor governance has often worse.

of the partners elements

in employment, ecological stability,

efficiency,

will put the strategy into effect.


and Murck.

social resilience

or security?

made a bad situation

This is what sustainable development is all about -

There is also no longer much illusion about the impact misguided whether centrally development, it is the collapse planned of of Another much maligned growth. term is economic No one
- Kumar, Manning 1993

and it can only be achieved by ensuring institutional still engaged growth that the market, and political forces in the old kind of

economies,

the growing colonies capitalism.

pains of former of

use their considerable

or the excesses

doubts the inability of most places around the world to support the kind of economic

talent to build bridges to sustainability.

What is needed is

to repair the damage

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Describes processes currently Shows that

some and projects are in. engaged local, regional initiatives part of multistake-

key sustainability that Canadians

provincial, and federal are a crucial a national holder

strategy. validates diverse approach encouraging

Recognizes, and integrates activities, a more holistic to sustainability planning.

anadian communities, NGOs, businesses

First Nations,

2.1 Community

initiatives
exist throughregard their real smaller than the

and governments Many kinds of communities out Canada. Some people community municipality as something

have been striving for some time to environmental protection and,

promote

more recently, The following overview processes are currently described

sustainable

development. a brief

in which they live. Others feel a with a larger region or in social or profesones.

pages provide

sense of community identify

of some of the key sustainability and projects engaged that Canadians in. The initiatives not only the efforts but also those businesses of

their community

sional terms No matter

rather than geographic

how we define them,

it is within

here reflect

our communities

that we try to find jobs,

of local governments, community est groups. information Although groups,

that we want to feel secure, that we hope to recreate in a healthy environment and

and interfor further II.

A list of contacts appears in Annex

that we seek social interaction It should come as no surprise, that a lot of activity

and services. therefore,

is taking place at the level.

more descriptive

than analytical,

local or community

this section should help people compare their initiatives, appreciate the interconnectedness

Sustainability

planning
between environmental better questions

of their work with that of others and better understand the broad context. Of course, it As the interrelation and economic understood, issues has become and the longer-term communities

is the responsrbrlrty of individual stakeholders, communities and sectors to assess their

own progress and judge their own success.

more obvious,

have begun the kind of

to look ahead, to imagine future they would

like and to plan for it. to planning transitions

Various approaches to sustainability the country.

have sprung

up across

Municipal government
Many municipalities Hamilton-Wentworth the concept

strategies and plans

in Canada, such as (Box 71, have adopted development or a goal. strategies municipalities

of sustainable principle

either as a guiding Some sustainable prepared

development

by local or regional

have been undertaken strategies, incorporated while

as independent

others have been of official

into revisions

plans or have replaced them. We hope that this overview sustainability where initiatives of Canadian Water and energy conservation issues

will help you see

are often addressed, reduction, ments

as well as waste quality improve-

progress

has been made, where your constituency

air and water

gaps exist and where

and protection

of environmentally go

needs to move forward.

significant

areas. Some strategies

10

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

further toward principles,

adopting

ecosystem

planning

Some

local round tables

(LRTs) have while

compact

urban form planning and

been appointed

by city councils,

and cumulative environmental

effects,

many others

have emerged

assessment. has

One

of the challenges we have faced finding is old work the right sleeves-up

from the grass roots when citizens gather to address of their comround

In other cases, effort focussed ments. on vision For example,

the concerns munity. tables

statevision

Provincial

statements developed

have been by 62 communiIn Manitoba,

mix of rousing, fashioned community consider highbrow

in British Columbia promoted the

and Ontario formation

of LRTs, whereas the provincial of Rural Develtheir

ties in Alberta. the capital

in Manitoba, Department opment

region of Winnipeg munici-

and 15 surrounding palities

and what some would unproductive visioning.

encouraged

have made an effort many planning

development. LRTs tend to focus on spe-

to deal with

issues in a more cooperative way. The City of Vancouver is currently particularly by engaging choices undertaking innovative some work in making future of them
-Dr. Gordon Edwards, Chair, Owen Sound Round Table

cific communities, lities, regional watersheds are multistakeholder are usually

municipa-

municipalities, or regions. forums; Most in

the population

about the communitys 5).

fact, efforts

made to involve

(Box 73, Chapter Having developed forward-looking visions, others these

such integrative strategies, missions

and and

municipalities

and many of implesupport

now face the challenge which will require

mentation,

and encouragement of the community.

from all sectors

Local round tables


As an alternative making, Canadas to traditional National decision

Task Force pre-

on the Environment

and the Economy

sented the idea of round tables as a possible challenge institutional response

in 1987, to the and

of integrating

the environment

the economy. for decision

Round tables provide makers from government, organizations,

a way busi-

ness, environmental Aboriginal

labour, to discuss
tectian of natural

peoples and academia

and make recommendations related to sustainable

on issues They
; common issues r .. . .

development.

have since been establshed provincial, territorial

at the national,

and local levels.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

as broad a range of stakeholders possible. reference Although provided

as

The round table movement solidly established

is more

some have terms of by city councils, others

in British Columbia, (Box 8). In other there are some for example, have launched planning

Manitoba provinces,

and Ontario however,

have developed

their own goals, work rules. In Manitoba, has defined In almost the all

plan and operating a provincial process program

LRTs. In Saskatchewan, five pilot communities citizen-based processes;

to be followed.

sustainability

cases, an effort decisions

is made to arrive at

in Nova Scotia, the Halifax a sustainable

by consensus. a sustainable

Round Table has completed development strategy

for that city.

Many LRTs aim to produce development however, to achieve to resolve community. a healthy strategy.

In some cases,

Healthy communities
The Canadian funded Healthy Communities Project,

they work on specific projects more immediate contentious results or by Health Canada and sponsored Institute of Planners and Municipalities, communities

issues in the

In most cases there is mix of planning and action.

by the Canadian the Federation promoted

of Canadian

establishing

healthy

across Canada from concept discussed in Toronto of healthy

1989 to 1992. The was first

communities

at an international in 1984. Charter

conference

The Ottawa a framework

of 1988 developed Communities citizens,

for the Healthy

Project, whose community planners

aim was to involve the private

groups,

sector, a a

and politicians

in creating

local environment community

that would health

enable

to achieve

- defined

by the United Nations as a state of physical, mental program and social well-being. The

was based on four main princicommunity participation, inter-

ples: wide sectoral

involvement,

local government public policy over

commitment (emphasizing The range of issues addressed varies considerably. by LRTs provision Although

and healthy health

promotion

of services). funding for the project has

Some have focussed and health, more survival base.

on issues of environment while others

lapsed, the movement

is well established by a number that have Ontario and

have been driven for community

in Canada, mainly supported of strong provincial emerged Quebec networks

by the concern and finding

a sustainable

economic between and social

in British Columbia,

In all cases, the interrelation economic, environmental

(Box 9). There are also healthy and contact points in the

communities

issues has been recognized.

other provinces

and the territories.

12

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

All Healthy stressed community

Community

projects

have

of sectoral ment,

plan s (e.g., fishery and economic

managedevelopment

the importance members in their

of bringing to assess

land-use

together

plans) that may exist in the region. Although the development


The average American about North spends 3 to 5 hours

the conditions community

and to voice about

their concerns

(Meaningful participation) RAPS tions dynamic . . . Some to the success

public is important of the jurisdic-

of RAPS has been led by the federal and Ontario, ments, government local governgroups,

issues of health and quality tifying of life. By identheir concerns com-

per day watching television...many women in rural and children India spend per fuel.

interest

and taking action, munities

industries

and individuals which RAPS

are recognizing

are aware of this and have improved the quality involvement. locations, reoort and making particti frustratina barriers a difference.
Seventh

are also involved, has transformed into another

that there are many determinants that lie beyond of health the for-

3 to 5 hours day gathering

form of round

substantially of public In other ioants slowness their

multistakeholder

mal health care system, such as road safety, population growth, afford-

table at the local level (Box IO). Most of the communities involved reports and

able housing, trial pollution,

and induswhich can

have completed defining causes, problems

be crucial to achieving a healthy community.

but only two in

Canada have completed


- International Joint Commiwon, Bierma/ Report, 1994

the planning actions

stage, where lines

Canada is recognized internationally in the Healthy as a leader Communities movement and

and time

are defined.

the Canadian Healthy Communities has become of interactions leaders outside a contact with

Network

Atlantic Coastal Action Plan


The Atlantic $1 O-million Coastal Action initiative Plan is a out of

point for a variety Community

Healthy

that grew

the country.

a commitment to implement

made in the Green Plan a marine environmental

Remedial action plans


Seventeen communities in the Great by are

program.

The plan aims to develop

Lakes region of Canada designated the International currently Joint Commission remedial action

developing

plans (RAPS) for their waterfront RAPS take a comprehensive approach waterfront to restoring

areas

ecosystem

and protecting

areas. Each RAP defines of the area affected by

the boundaries pollution, what

determines

the causes, describes and detershould kind

uses have been impaired remedial by whom measures

mines what be adopted, of timetable.

and on what

They consolidate

the variety

Canadian

Choioes

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

strategies the coastal in Atlantic

or blueprints resources Canada.

for managing

and implementing ment strategies. communities of which

sustainable

developeight

of 13 communities

There are currently in this program, Canada

involved

six are in Atlantic in British Columbia.

Through community-based,

muitistake-

and two manand

holder round tables, each project is meant to develop agement comprehensive environmental The model enables that has been developed such

plans that are action-oriented and schedules.

small rural communities, New Brunswick on a sustainability

have clear targets must also outline and implemented.

Each plan

as McAdam, to embark process

(Box 1 I), planning The

how it is to be financed

with very few resources. simple

key steps are to collect After an assessment environmental is developed conservation In addition quality, of the areas a long-term actions vision and to do a self-evaluation looking mental at economic, characteristics, for the future.

data and

of the community, social and environand then develop The program has

and remedial measures

are identified. plan

a strategy focussed

to the comprehensive environmental The building

on rural Canada because natural resource

much wealth

that emerges, is promoted.

stewardship of partnerships purpose is

of the countrys is in these

communities,

yet they are to deal

and a sense of community an important component.

often the least well-equipped with the pressures of sustainable

and challenges

development.

Rural and Small Town Program


Mount Allison Universitys Rural and Program

Watershed planning
Because a watershed forms a coherent, signifi-

Small Town Research established Project

and Studies

a Sustainable

Communities with governments, to

easily described

and ecologically

in 1991 to work

cant area around which nities have been involved in land-use centre and resource

to plan, commufor some time planning that

community develop

groups and corporations model for creating

a self-help

around

watersheds.

These vary many

tremendously watershed (Chapter in scale. A considerable has occurred Edward watershed been funded Agreement

in size, and although plans are regional

in scope

2.31, some are more local

amount in Atlantic

of this work Canada. In Prince

Island, 75 community-based management through projects have

the Cooperation Development. advisory

on Sustainable

In Nova Scotia, watershed groups have emerged

over the years community and

as a way of addressing concerns

about development

environment.

In some cases, very

14

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

ambitious

watershed

plans have tried questions into

As for housing and urban land use, projects or programs conversion, are under way to promote neighbourhood rehabilitation, and residential infilling, mixed-

to put management a longer-term

framework:

a loo-year

plan was first used in Saskatoon in the 1970s to develop a plan for the South Saskatchewan similar River valley and a planning horizon has

The most aspect been to feel instead ened,


-Green

difficult people

use development, reuse and suburban Transportation

adaptive density.

so far has excited, of threatby change.


Ottawa

alternatives at the muni-

getting

being implemented local level in various cipalities include

been used more recently in Sudbury, Ramsay Ontario in the

across Canada an increase in bicycle

Lake watershed.

and pedestrian public transit,

routes and the creation vehicle of car

A recent and relatively large-scale watershed is the work example planning of a exercise

School Project,

of high-occupancy lanes, the promotion

done by the Royal Commission Waterfront

pools, increased for tele-commuting. Communities

parking fees and support

on the Future of the Toronto (Box 12).

are also engaged

in cleaning

Greening the community


Various programs country nities and projects across the commuon water quality, (Box 13),

up local rivers and ravines, planting trees and doing bird counts. Although these

are aimed at greening They tend to concentrate conservation, water

and energy waste

reduction

and management

,2*;z. *, .:* ~ *g :? ;;;p q $3 ..To~~~:~~~~,~~~rt~~~~~~

,.,>.. gij?

g g

,&:,A ,,*>-;-

greenspace and wildlife

planning, habitat

parks, natural areas issues. in smaller air quality

conservation (particularly

Less often addressed communities)

are transportation,

and urban form issues. Many of these activities others are community-driven, are municipal government while initia-

tives that are often funded programs Current metering, restrictions, (Box 14). water projects

by provincial

include water water-use

The Rayal CommiSsion on ttie Future of the Toronto Waterfront (also k~otin~ as the Crombie Gemmission after its chairperson, David Crombie) wosesked. in 1988 ta make recommendations regarding the future of theToronto waterfront area. But in its first report, it ncknowledged that everything is connected to everything else, and it expandedthe scope of its study to include the Oak Ridges Moraine, , the Niagara @carDment end the,many rivers and streams that flow from these lsnds to Leke Ontario. The Commission recognized that -&ything happening in thewatersheds of the Greater Toronto Area 1 vvoulcl undoubtedly be tied tn the~environmentol quality and health of - the waterfront area, and therefore it decided to consir der the waterfront iFJithhtthe eontextof the greatmbiuregion in which it lies. ,The Comm~&on edopted and promoted an ecosystem approach to ~pjanningas en~aljproprhrte wau of addressing the range of problems th,ey Were Sacod.wi& &&u&g a degraded physical environment, .nr&m s~~a~l,.ov~~lapp~ng andinefhztual jurisdictions, and fiscal inefficiencies~ ; , green initiatives are less comprehensive planning level,

building water

retrofits,

audits and public educainitiatives include build-

tion. Energy conservation retrofits of municipal

and residential street

ings, retrofits development

of municipal of energy

lighting, stanthat

efficiency

dards for buildings, promotes energy energy

land-use efficiency,

planning renewable

than some other sustainability efforts

under way at the community of any

sources,

municipal

transit

fleet fuel

they are critical components transition to sustainability.

conversion

and district

heating

systems.

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

15

Improved
An important tables,

decision
aspect

making
of local round green

pal governments to encourage sustainable

are making

changes

the adoption solutions.

of more

healthy

communities, and other

communities

local initiatives in the By

is their contribution ways that decisions creating new forums

to changes

Institutional
Municipal

change
committees

will be made. for discussion building, citizens

environmental

or task forces most common moting to

appear to be one of the organizational means of promanagement. by city councils

and community-consensus these initiatives are helping

sound environmental

take action within influence corporate municipal,

their communities provincial In addition,

They are usually appointed usually to provide and sustainable

and even munici-

advice on environmental development issues. A in Canada

decisions.

recent study of 50 municipalities found that half of them advisory groups.

had environmental

In many cases, specific have been assigned coordinating

departments for

responsibility

environmental positions

activities. have been coordinator,

In other instances, created planner

for an environmental or engineer.

These are, of course, In

more common some

in larger municipalities.

cases, there are interdepartmental on environment, offices and in a few have been

committees

cases environmental established, often

in the larger centres.

There does not yet appear to be any movement development development toward joint environmentor sustainable

departments officers.

Monitoring
A number palities

and reporting
of cities and regional municithe issues

have begun to address and reporting protection

of monitoring in environmental ability (Chapter

on progress and sustain-

5.5). A dozen cities have

completed reports them.

state of the environment are currently initiatives, preparing however,

and others

Most of these

appear to be in the larger municipalities where financial and technical resources

may be more available. a very innovative

In Toronto,

and much more

16

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

comprehensive been prepared

State of the Cily report has


(Box 75, Chapter effectively, conditions Although been 5). is

well-developed

at the local level in and groups recog-

Canada, many people

nize the need. A number In order to report a need to monitor cipality or region. there are under way to address Provincial in the muni-

of initiatives this concern. in


spend billion about each $2.5 year adver-

round tables

British Columbia,

Manitoba

monitoring associated ments,

has often

with governis now a comMost of to involve in monitoring on waterhave

Not all organizations at the municipal/ community of reporting. when recognized, is often expensive ously too technical its value considered and too to be sericonsidered at level. level are Even is reporting aware of the value

and Ontario encouraging

have been actively the formation networks planning

on cigarette tising... amount

there

of province-wide

the same it would

movement munity these

toward

of local sustainability initiatives.

programs. attempts

This is also true the

take to prevent the deaths 50 million of about children.

in Nova Scotia, where Sustainable Network

local citizens have focussed sheds

Communities

of Nova Scotia has as a way

Volunteers

been established to encourage exchange, opportunities ation between involved community

been engaged sampling, monitoring as observing and looking discharge

in water and other such rates

information

testing

educational and coopergroups

techniques erosion

for unusual from outfall

in sustainable development

pipes. A major goal of these activities is to increase com-

the community

across the province.


- Douglas Burch, Municipai Reponing on Sustainable Development: A Status Review. 1994

munity members

awareness so detect

In addition networks, of Canadian

to these

provincial

of their surroundings that they can better changes

the Federation Municipalities,

in environmental

conditions.

through

its Canadian

Urban Research (CURE) project, is

on the Environment

Environmental
Environmental

Impact Assessment
Impact Assessment (EIA)

working

at the national

level to establish

has been a part of federal decision making

and provincial

for 20 years but has governments of

not been used by municipal to make development decisions municipal until recently. governments

or other types However,

since

have become to which their

more aware decisions

of the degree

affect their hopes for healthy communities, more of envi-

and sustainable

them now consider ronmental

using a municipal process

assessment

(Box 15).
ytivities, appr&als age&es ,). priva&,s?cfor from and the levels City, development i md prop osak requirir requiring from ta citv , Dlannina _ . planning other I aooroval. , .

Research and networking


Although mechanisms for information

de\ielopmentproposaIs

of gbvernment

and experience

sharing are not yet

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

an information municipalities mental

system

to assist Canadian their environinformation,

a considerable tainable cities.

amount

of work

on susalong

in enhancing by sharing

It shares its results research

initiatives

with other

relevant

through

techniques

and innovations. Council Ini... few fully

its information

services. Many municipalities in in where

The International

for Local Environmental tiatives

acknowledge

Canada are involved partnership projects

(ICLEI), established

by some 200 municipalities from over 40 countries, acts at the international level as a clearing for sustainable house

that to a&eve able communities, redistribution is necessary. appear some of their

sustain: a of power Fewer still control people to make change.


1994.

they exchange

information

with cities in other countries. In fact, more than 100 municipalities partner in Canada have cities elsewhere These relationopportunities to

development policies,

and environmental programs

ready to let go of in

in the world. ships provide

and tools used

at the local level. As for research, of university a number

order to empower in communities meaningful


-Janice

for local governments share experiences

globally.

What is shared can vary from municipal expertise governing

departments

across Canada are involved in sustainable research. communities the on Urban


Harvey, NRTEE Review,

to infrastructureto

related technologies exchange of goods.

In addition,

Intergovernmental and Regional

Committee

Research (ICURR) has done

2.2

Provincial initiatives

and territorial
play major roles environmental use. Many regional in the adopted

Provincial

governments concerning and resource

in decisions protection differences different

in Canada are reflected and approaches

priorities

at the provincial

level. Some efforts that level

have been made at the provincial by governments, to promote businesses

and NGOs

sustainable below.

development

are described

Sustainable development conservation strategies

and

In response to the 1980 World Conservation Strategy, a number of jurisdictions began developing strategies. Department in Canada

their own conservation Island, the developed strategy the

In Prince Edward of Environment

first provincial conservation

(I 987).

18

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

In the mid-1980s,

Albertas

Environment

instead of developing

a sustainable

develop

Council and Quebecs

Conseil de la conserstrategies that

ment strategy, a sustainable policy has been implemented

development as a frame

vation et de Ienvironnement were asked


to prepare conservation their respective could consider. Perhaps the most comprehensive these strategies was prepared of in the provincial governments

of reference for decision making. These strategies to guide decision required, have described making, principles
for 30% of all energy use in 66% monoxide,

goals, actions needed

and tools or mechanisms Although

to make the changes. tegy was developed processes in a number Although

each strathe

Canada...but of carbon 58% oxides

Yukon by the Department Resources working in cooperation

of Renewable with a public

independently, were

that emerged of ways

similar

of nitrogen
and 42% emitted

group. The Yukon Conservation in 1990, outlined princi-

(Box 17). strategies

Strategy, released
ples, established mendations

goals and made recomresources, industries

such forward-looking to develop,

of VOCs to the air.

regarding

are difficult them

implementing Some provinshortly others to

and environmental cultural, historical

protection, and heritage

as well as issues.

is the real challenge. were

cial round tables after completing continue sustainable

disbanded

It also discussed in implementing Although

the tools to be used the p an. strategies in

their strategy;

to promote

the transition

development

in their respeccontinued around and

conservation

tive jurisdictions, research specific

either through building

some cases were able development

precursors strategies,

to sustainfocussing

and consensus

issues, or by monitoring implementation.

more on environment

and conservation environment

encouraging

issues than on integrating and development,

in other cases, as in served

the Yukon, they have essentially both purposes. Provinces

Land-use and integrated planning


Most of the strategies recognize tainability two important challenge:

resource

and territories

described

above

in Canada all have, or are in the process of creating, strategies ponents sustainable that should of a national development be critical comsustainable develop-

pieces of the sus-

the need to improve

ment strategy. the products

For the most part, they are of provincial round tables

on the environment Strategies Columbia,

and the economy. in British Ontario,

have been completed Saskatchewan,

Manitoba,

New Brunswick defunct)

and Nova Scotia. The (now Council of Alberta report


kblic involvement;

Environment

also produced entitled

a comprehensive

Ensuring Prosperity: Implementing


round tables have been mansustainable development

Sustainable Development. In Quebec and


Newfoundland, dated to develop strategies, completed.

though these have not yet been In the Northwest Territories,

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

19

land-use planning toward

and the need to move resource-use of provincial

NGOs have also proposed as alternatives by governments.

land-use plans

more integrated A number

to those being developed The Western Canada

management. governments undertaken, involved planning

have recently or are currently ...

Wilderness

Committee has

shop

talk

among

(WCWC), for example, developed

in, related land-use efforts (Boxes 18 have

(planners)

is more

its own conserv-

ation vision for Vancouver Island, which is quite differ-

and 19). These studies recognized planning the need for

likely to concern current retailing trends or enhancing basin forest the municiriver or planning management. pal tax base than

em from the PIan generated


by the British Columbia

processes

that will of

ensure the development local, regional

and provincial and

~~v~~~u~~~~~~t~~son
Environment (CORE).

plans in a coordinated integrated recognize concerns considered

manner. They also that environmental must be carefully and integrated decisions.

For some time, provincial governments have recognized

-Nigel Richardson, Land Use Planning and Sustainable Deveiopment in Canada, 1989

the need for more integrated resource management. Condecisions

with resource-use

tinuing to make single-resource-use

in isolation from other resource users and interests has led to conflict and over-allocation of resources. The government committed itself to integrated of Alberta resource

planning as long ago as 1975 through the adoption of its Integrated Resource Planning

System, which describes how resource-use plans should be developed. Many provincial forced to work as downsizing have resulted departments are now being fashion

in a more integrated and cost-cutting in the integration,

measures or in some

cases the reintegration, departments. the Department the Department merged

of related resource

In Nova Scotia, for example, of Mines and Energy and of Lands and Forest were

in 1990 to form the Department Integrated resource are

of Natural Resources.

plans for eight regions of the province now being developed. Conservation mechanism resource-use Authorities in Ontario (and

similar bodies in other provinces)

are another

through which more integrated planning can be undertaken. authorized these

Provincial legislation Conservation

Authorities

to manage natural

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

resources on a watershed

basis in cooperation

vary from region to region. In Ontario, farmers are trying to address some of their through the development

with municipal and provincial governments. As long as 50 years ago, the Conservation Authorities recognized that planning was scale in order to natural

particular priorities

of farm plans (Box 21). Provincial sustainable have recognized to be considered a sustainable development strategies

needed on a provincial restore and properly resources.

use Ontarios

They also realized that this

other concerns that will have if agriculture is to become

planning had to consider the different elements (water, erosion, reforestation,

practice. These include the local production marketing and conthe

etc.) as inseparable

and interlocking

need to promote sumption through

aspects of one central problem. Many other integrated resource manage-

strategies,

need to ensure that farmers can earn a living wage, the need to provide consumers better information with

ment efforts are uncer way at the provincial level, including and protected succeeding toward resource strategies for wildlife, parks

about agricultural products

areas, and forestry. degrees

They are ~~~~~~~~~~e~~.~~~o~ lRfFu)

to varying

in advancing for

more integrated

approaches

use and land management.

Sectoral and intersectoral Agriculture


The loss and degradation excessive use of fertilizers,

initiatives

of topsoil, and depenthe

dence on non-renewable sustainability provinces of agriculture

fuels threaten

in Canada. Many to encourage bodies from soil

A draft National Farmers Union PoUcy on Sustainable Agriculture and Food Supply was presented and discussed at the NFlJs 1994 annual convention. The policy aims to achieve a food production, processing and distribution @stem that& economically viable, socially just and ecoJogic?iJy &nd,. Sustainable agriculture, it suggests, must be based tin &I understariding: that farmers have an obligation to society asproviders of safe and nutritious food products and as stewards of s&l, water, air and natural landscapes, while society must in return enable farmers totake on this role by providing safeguards against the fess of incomes below an acceptable level and against eviction from their farms and homes. The policy includes economic considerations; ecological considerations; inteJtectu+.properti, rights and genetic engineering; food security, safety andquaJii; rural communities; marketing, trade and international relations; and resetirch, education and extension work.

have programs protect pollution

conservation, agricultural

water

and reduce depenbut less attention is

dence on pesticides,

being given to issues such as biodiversity and climate through Farmers change. Farmers themselves, such as the National o;*$a& EmrirdG:ine;ntal Ageda

organizations

Union, have been addressing and An Ontario initiative hopes to encourage the development of 40,000 environmental pians for farms across the province. Co-sponsored by the Ontario Federation of Agriculture, the Christian Farmers Federation of Ontario, AGCare [Agriculturaf Groups Concerned About Resources and the Environment), and the Ontario Farm Animal Council, Our Farm Environmental Agenda outlines critical environmental concerns for - agriculture in Ontario and encourages individual farmers to develop their own env,jronmentaJ plans. While e&ouraging the development of individual farm plans, these ave groups atsorecognize that some issues wiJJ ha to be dealt with in coorhbnated ways by governments and the research community. That is why they see this as the beginning of a process for further cooperation and consultation among farmers, governments and researchers.

issues related to agriculture sustainability (Box 20).

In addition to these national concerns, programs specific to certain provinces For example, or

regions are needed.

the Prince

Edward Island Department is involved in a program

of Agriculture

that encourages

farmers to compost, or spoiled potatoes. demonstrates

rather than bury, unsold This kind of program

that key issues and priorities

Canadian Choices for Transifions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

21

(whether chemicals,

they were produced

locally, with

management

plans. In Alberta, strategy

a provincial

etc.) and the need to consider sector contributes to

forest conservation developed

is also being of a

how the agricultural global warming

with the assistance advisory

and what it will have to trends.

multistakeholder

group.

do to adapt to warming

Most provincial sustainable

Forestry
The provinces of productive control forest 80% land in

While management recognized establishing

integrated is widely as essential, integrated and task barriers arrangemechanisms

development

strategies

~~~~~~~~n~~n~~~~st
received input from a forest sector task force. In Manitoba, the provincial government responded to the forestry it made in its development strat-

Canada and are responsible for natural resources manage-

ment. Their efforts to manage forest lands are critical to

management planning . ..The is a difficult greatest are current ments

commitments sustainable

healthy forest ecosystems in the country. Many provinces have revised programs

~~~i~~sr~~~~v~~~~e~tt~~l
act on the 41 policies in the strategy. Provinces have also

their forest policies, and legislation

since the mid-

for managing

1980s. In British Columbia, Alberta and Ontario, forestry have been

our resources.
- Conservation Sfrafegy far Susfeinabie Deveiopmenf in Saskatchewan, 1992

been very active in Canadas Model Forest Program and the National Forest Strategy, which are described in Chapter 2.4.

codes of practice developed

at the provincial a

level. In New Brunswick, regional

round table on forestry Resource

has

Mining
One hundred and fifteen munities activities. are dependent Many provincial Canadian comon mining-related governments,

been established. in Saskatchewan, Northwest stakeholders

departments and the with forest

Newfoundland are working integrated

Territories

to develop

such as Manitobas, toward improved

have been working regulations pollution

environmental

to protect against air and water caused by mining activities In a number demonstrable

(Box 22).

of cases, there has been improvement in the operaCanada has

tions of mining companies. become a world

leader in many aspects Technology and

of mine reclamation. operations enhanced

could, however, to improve

be further

the environmental competitiveMost provinces of old

performance

and economic

ness of the mining industry. or abandoned does recognize integral

do address the issue of reclamation

mine sites, and the industry that reclamation is an

part of the mining cycle.

22

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Other mining issues highlighted provincial sustainable development

by some strate-

The responsibility to sustainable

for reorienting

society

development

does not fall

gies include the need for more research to improve disposal mining techniques the impormineral and waste

solely on governments. from government, youth,

Representatives industry, labour,

practices;

Aboriginal

and environment in 1993 from all and all sys-

tance of conserving wealth;

groups joined together

the role of recovery, of miner-

The real challenge


facing transbortation

with

representatives provinces

reuse and recycling als and metals; conflicts

Canadian

land-use explo-

surrounding

plannkrs
policy

ani

related
is to

levels of the educational tern to establish Network

the Canadian

ration rights; and the need to develop new industries to replace resources.

developers

for Environmental

gradually
lit behaviour

change
in

pubfavour

Education and Communication. Some of the networks goals are encouraging the communication of information involved and exchange among those

and technologies depleted mineral

of alternative portation

transmodes...

Education
A number of interested parties

in environmental and improving

- Don Drackley,

P/an Canada, 1994

are ensuring that Canadian schools teach students sustainable development. about One example Future, is education an organi-

education,

the quality of environmental in Canada. There is also a Program stressing

Learning for a Sustainable

Global Education

zation created to help Canadian educators make sustainable in school systems development from a reality to

global interdependence

(Box 23).

kindergarten

Grade 12. The organization the cooperative and territorial development, development frameworks, and identify models

aims to facilitate of provincial support program I seeks to develop knowledge, attitudes j and students to understand the global Lciate interdependence and to be more y the Canadian International Development ry provincial teachers organizations and Education promotes knowledge of global eded to address them. Through it, people riority to ecological sustainability, global $l&tice for all the worlds people, peace, human rights, and mutually beneficiai processes of economic, social and cultural development. It is organized a round six themes: self-esteem and responsibility, globat interdependence, commonality in diversity, biocentrism, futures perspective, and systems thinking.

and disseminate of sustainable

the most innovative development Although

education. initia-

there are several national

tives related to environment most occur at the provincial level. For example, of Education

and education, or school board Board hosts

the Scarborough Toronto

in Metropolitan

an annual one-day

Global Futures ConferIt and

ence for senior high school students. invites speakers development businesses from environmental

organizations to present

and green

Transportation
The transportation contributor sector is the largest in Canada. Many have envisections of

a range of perspec-

tives to students. incorporate provincial curriculum

Many current efforts development into

to air pollution transport

sustainable curriculum support

provincial ronmental whose

departments

guidelines materials

and prepare

policies, or environmental

for teachers.

job is to coordinate

assessments

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

23

projects and ensure that proper environmental protection measures are taken.

but these are still given less support traditional energy

than

policies and programs a strategic and energy plan for alternatives Among

Provincial governments Transportation Environmental

also support the of Canadas In Newfoundland, energy efficiency

Association

Code of Ethics, issues of plan-

which addresses integrated

has been developed.

transportation

Almost been meet

nothinq done

has to

the objectives negative duction securing

are reducing the of energy pro-

ning, assessment tive effects, atmosoheric

of cumula-

compared

effects

noise reduction, orotection. etc.

on the environment, the economic benein the

to what is needed the existing gas target. (greenhouse reduction)

fits of new investment building and energy lowering energy

Less work appears to have been done on broader sustainability issues related Although

industries,

costs for

consumers, business

and improving

to transportation.

many of the provincial sustainable development demonstrated strategies

- B.C. Energy Council, An Energy Strategy for British Columbia, 1994

competitiveness. an Energy on

In British Columbia,

the need for plans, increased express use

Council was established the recommendation

regional transportation

of the British Columbia independent and

of public transit, designated

lanes

Round Table to conduct comprehensive energy

for buses, bicycle paths on roads, and more equitable taxation and subsidization little progress for road

planning for sustainable both the Round in

use. Unfortunately,

and rail transport,

has been

Table and the Council lost their funding the provincial governments

made in these areas. Some transportation issues, notably rail

1994 budget,

but not before the Energy Council released its energy strategy Planning for the province,

and air, cannot be adequately at the provincial with cooperatively

addressed

Today for Tomorrows Energy.


energy utilities also have Expenditures to several

level, but must be dealt on a national scale. Many provincial energy efficiency programs.

Energy
Most provinces and territories have estab

on these programs hundred

likely amount
I I

million dollars oer vear. An Ontario completed a

Hydro task force recently

lished energy conservation

and renewable

Strategy for Sustainable Energy Deveiopment and Use for Ontario Hydra in an effort
to determine how to pursue more sustainproduction and use, able forms of energy and to achieve and competitive

energy programs. These cover conservation practices in industrial, commercial, tional and residential institu-

buildings as well as municipal operations energy

personal transportation,

a more energy-efficient economy in the province.

and agriculture. Work on renewable

at the provincial level includes wind, solar and geothermal Provincial energy, and energy from waste. government involvement in

Tourism
There has been considerable in ecotourism potential and recognition interest of its

each of these areas may include educational activities, demonstrations, development research financial of standards and development, incentives and the

value as an industry of the future

for a number of regions in Canada. The Tourism Industry Association of Canada,

and regulations,

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

in cooperation

with the National Round Table and the Economy and

health and environment. health and environment a formal agreement identify

In Quebec, ministries

the have

on the Environment

the Prince Edward Island and Saskatchewan Round Tables, initiated a dialogue on sustainable tourism in 1992 which produced Codes industo

between

them to and

priority areas for coordination for cooperation.

mechanisms

In Ontario,

of Ethics for tourists and the tourism try. In addition, guidelires encourage

as in other provinces, advisory committee

an interministerial tries to coordinate activities. Ontarios

were adopted

various interests

in the tourism practices.

health and environment Premiers

industry to use more sustainable

Council has also done some work on the health issue

very innovative

Economic
Traditionally, economic

renewal

strategies
have had in place in Although could

in recent years (Box 24). The Canadian Council of Ministers Environment a discussion (CCME) recently of the

the provinces

development

strategies growth.

prepared the

order to plan for economic a sustainable development

paper that considered

strategy

health-environment

link and recommended environment

replace the need for both a conservation strategy strategy, separate and an economic development

some priority areas where and health ministers together. Although

might begin to work little action has been an increased of the relationship and health.

in practice they have remained undertakings. however, that level

taken, there is certainly institutional between awareness environment

There is some indication, economic strategies

at the provincial

are beginning

to recognize protection

the importance and even to developStrategy, is of amilies and communities; crease the number of Icing illness, disability ;sible, affordable and appropriate Is have been adopted by

of environmental explore ment.

the concept In Albertas

of sustainable 1993 Economic development

sustainable recognized, progress

economic

as is the need for indicators sustainable development.

toward

In Ontario, the Premiers nomic Renewal proposes

Council on Ecodeveloping strate-

gic goals for the province co-equal well-being, principles: wealth

based on three creation, social

and environmental

protection.

In terms of promoting development, ernments

regional economic gov-

federal and provincial

have started

to think about ?ms; the need to integrate lanning; how to increase I to eliminate exposure .- ..- I to involve employees in eport emphasizes that, although gffect on health are very important, from issues related to our social, c$turaf and psychological environments. .( .

sustainability. Edward

Nova Scotia and Prince have signed Canada

Island, for example, agreemerts economic

cooperation on sustainable

with

development.

Health and environment


Most provinces have recognized that eekami~~

there is a strong connection

between

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

25

Much of the best work taken through movement

has been underCommunities 2.1.

articulated its water

so that the province supply in a sustainable

will manage way.

the Healthy

described

in Chapter

Waste reduction, reuse Clean air and water


Many provinces developed have recently clean air or F..,L,:.l,

Iruruslue

..-1

wuclina

is

and recycling

or revised

now available
than haif of

to iore
the urban

~~r~i~~r~~~~~~~~~c~~,s
goal of reducing waste

and clean water management Scotia,

strategies

plans. In Nova Task Forces

households
Where it

in Canada.
is available I

generation by 50% by the


year 2000. Most provincial governments launched have since to help

Ministers

on both clean air and clean water have reported in the

most people

use it.

programs

last two years, strategies

proposing these

for protecting

- B.C. State of Environment Report, 1993

them achieve The pressure

this goal -to meet a

vital ecosystem In Alberta, reviewing

components. is currently policies established concretely

goal that has been collectively at the national measured level and can be

the province its water

management engaged

- may be greater than undertakings.

and is also actively menting the Alberta

in imple-

for other province-specific

Clean Air Strategy is also currently policies and

This may explain why so much activity has taken place in this area. In 1991, the Ministry Ontario announced of Environment in

(Box 25). British Columbia reviewing developing provincial water

a clean air strategy

for the

its Waste Reduction

Action Plan (WRAP), which was intended to ensure that at least 25% of the provinces waste would be diverted from dis-

posal by 1992, and 50% by the year 2000. In Manitoba, a multistakeholder Recycling in June

Action Committee

was established

1989 to consult and advise the government on how to meet the 50% reduction The Manitoba Prevention mechanism mendations provinces, reduction, Waste Reduction goal.

and in 1990 as a

Act was proclaimed for implementing

the 56 recomIn both

made by the committee. action has focussed public education

on at-source

and recycling.

Improved

decision making

A number of tools or changes in the way we do things can contribute that can effectively province. In Manitoba, as part of the prostrategy, has been to decision making sustainability.

promote

Three factors contributing decision making

to improved context

vincial sustainable a set of provincial

development water policies

in the provincial

are described

briefly below.

26

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Institutional
A number

change
changes have

board often only makes recommendations to the Minister about the proposal. In 1992, provincial ments, and territorial governIn 1992; tiki
Canadian Co&holds of

of institutional

been made within

provincial

governments and

to reflect the need for integration the importance of sustainable

along with the federal government,

development. changes (Box 65,

signed a Framework for Environmental

Some of the most significant have been made in Manitoba Chapter 5). Other changes in Quebec mental decision Northwest development provinces

Assessment Harmonization. By doing so,


they agreed to cooperate their environmental and coordinate processes. have recently assessment assessment

were equipped with video recorders...but cassette only

include the establishment and interdepartintegrated in the

Many provincial reviewed processes

governments

28% had low-flow


shower had tanks, compact light heads,

of ministerial

their environmental

10%
toilet had

committees

to facilitate

in order to ensure that they and efficient as possible. and Ontario

low-flow and 11%

making; the adoption Territories

are as effective British Columbia, have all recently though reviews

of a sustainable in some

Saskatchewan reviewed

fluorescent bulbs.

policy; and efforts

their processes,

(most recently

in Nova Scotia) legislation changes

it remains to be seen how these will be responded to.

to consolidate

environmental

into single Acts. These institutional help create a more efficient regulatory climate,

and effective

Reporting
State of the environment reports (SOEFis)

and should lead to of the environment.

better protection

have been prepared at the provincial level in

Environmental
All provinces

Impact Assessment
in Canada assess-

British Columbia, Saskatchewan,

Manitoba

and Quebec, and are being prepared in and territories Alberta (where they are now required by law), Ontario and the Yukon. A report for the Atlantic provinces was released in June 1994. Most of the provincial work on reporting, on municipal and national levels, has focussed on environmental tchewan indicators, though Saskahave some form of environmental ment process.

In some cases, environlaws have been in place

mental assessment

since the mid-l 970s (e.g., Ontario and New Brunswick), not legislated early 1990s. Because each assessment on the experiences have many features assessments process was built while other processes were

until the late 1980s or even,

recently prepared a report on the indicators. governments are

need for sustainability Provincial and territorial working improve

of others, the processes in common: most

through a CCME task group to and harmonize SOER structures

apply only to projects (not prorequirements

across the country. As environmental indicators are developed consistently become and applied more

grams or policies); assessment

are applied to both public and private sector proposals; and often there is a provision out minor projects to ensure system. Environmental assess-

across the country, SOERs will

easier to read, and interprovincial will be more easily made. The duplication of

for screening an efficient

comparisons

task group hopes to eliminate effort, harmonize reporting

ment documents

are generally

required, and to the

approaches

and

these are submitted government

by the proponent

identify areas where

collaborative

approaches

for review.

In each case, some

will be most beneficial. mental indicators

A core set of environ-

provision exists for public hearings to review certain assessment documents. The hearing

is also being developed.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

27

Accountability
In some provinces, considerable thought

2.3

Regional
initiatives

initiatives
initiatives, are not based on a level

Unlike local and provincial regional

has been given to the idea of environmental auditing or commissioners because of for

of government

but rather on a geographic area, often requiring that

the environment the recognition ments should

that governbe accountin which

In the North, already some, sustainable jigsaw piece still perhaps

we many, of the each in and we us

different

levels of government Some of the described within a

able for the ways their decisions environment.

have fashjoned

work together.

regional initiatives below

affect the Ontario is

are contained

a leader in this area, with its new Commissioner the Environment In New Brunswick, than setting for

of the pieces putzle...But

single province, cross provincial

while others and, in some

development

cases, even international boundaries. Most of these initiatives grew out of a recognition that management must be rather

(Box 26). rather

is insufficient need a comprehento guide

up a separate General

and of itself, sive picture in assembling

auditor, the Auditor has decided greening auditing

to work toward

based on ecosystem, than political,

the process of government departGeneral

the parts.

boundaries. pro-

Many are river-based jects because are relatively

ments. The Auditor is working Brunswick Environment of achieving

with the New Round Table on and Economy

-Terry Fenge, Canadian Arctic Resources Committee

watersheds well under-

stood and easily delineated to find ways regions. In the North, there appears to be of the need to look

this new objective. and Manitoba have of

a strong understanding at and manage These regional

Both British Columbia recently

the Arctic as an ecoregion. initiatives are good examples in an

been considering measures

the possibility

taking legislative

(a Sustainability Act,

of efforts to manage integrated

ecosystems

Act and a Sustainable respectively) enduring

Development

and a cooperative

manner.

to ensure that a formal and is made by their

commitment

Northern
Considerable

Canada
effort has been made over appropriate in the

governments and economic

to social, environmental sustainability.

the last several years to develop policies for sustainable

development

North. Many of these initiatives polar in nature, reflecting with sustainability

are circum-

the need to deal

in the Arctic on a regional boundaries.

level that crosses jurisdictional

Circumpolar Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy


The 1991 Arctic Environmental Strategy resulted Protection among

from cooperation countries

the eight circumpolar genous peoples.

and Indi-

In addition

to a number

28

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

of working

groups, a Task Force on Sustainand Utilization has been

of present emphasis

and future generations. is to provide Northerners

The with

able Development formed,

with representatives countries

from the eight

job opportunities, and knowledge resources damage. The four action Water, Waste ment/Economy

as well as the skills needed to manage their environmental


Habifaf dsstrucfion a threat now constltofes much greater over-hunting wildlife 216 are listed species

circumpolar

and official observers groups. Its goal is to should take to sustainable the

from three Aboriginal propose

and counter

steps governments

to meet their commitment development sustainable

in the Arctic, including use of renewable peoples.

programs Management, Integration

- Contaminants, and Environ- contribute

than

resources are

to many species. in Canada currently

by Indigenous to prepare

Its objectives

reports and make recommendaat the Third Ministerial

to the implementation development. the Community Program, strong

of sustainable including

tions to Ministers Conference (scheduled

The last of these, Resource

on the Arctic Environment for Northern Canada in spring

Management Given the and

as endangered, threatened vulnerable. or

is the most direct.

1996) on the following: a) identification sustainable environmental mechanisms b) opportunities Indigenous of goals and principles development context; for applying in an Arctic opportunities and of

involvement partners funding

of Northerners

Aboriginal of current evaluation to facilitate

and the termination in 1996/97, a formal

framework making

is being developed a decision on the

the principles; of and

value of renewing Consulting

the Strategy.

for the enhancement peoples economies,

and Audit Canada has contributed by preparing a report whose is that the Arctic Environhas been effective in many

to the evaluation central message mental Strategy

the improvement economic

the environmental, of Arctic

and social conditions through

communities

the sustainable while protecting peoples; on use

ways. This includes significant mitigating environmental

progress in

use of natural resources, cultures c) specific of Indigenous

issues, direct and

indirect economic significant

benefits for Northerners, support and participaof First Nations, and among Northerners

issues and problems sustainable

community

the conservation, and protection presented

tion, the involvement increased

of Arctic flora and fauna planning proposals

understanding

by management, activities;

of the programs

objectives.

and development for measures

to mitigate

or resolve

lnuit Regional Conservation Strategy and other Inuit-led initiatives

such issues; and d) the need for knowledge, facilitating communication ways of concerning tech-

In addition strategies, Strategy

to these government-led an lnuit Regional Conservation

the application nologies,

of new or proven

was prepared Conference

in 1986 by the lnuit (ICC) in response Strategy. It was

and management

practices.

Circumpolar

to the World Conservation

National Arctic Environmental

Strategy

the first regional-international strategy,

conservation by

On a national level, the Arctic Environmental Strategy, a component of the Green Plan, and enhance the and productivity for the benefit

and also the first prepared peoples.

Indigenous The strategy substance

was designed to preserve integrity, health, biodiversity

covers both process and an action plan,

of our Arctic ecosystems

issues, outlining

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

29

as well as mechanisms building and training and maintaining documenting experience

for consensus building

arising along the common Orders of Approval works in waters

frontier.

It issues

including

concerning

certain

a register

of lnuit experts;

that run along or cross boundary, and undertakes at the request

traditional

and modern

the international

and knowledge

investigations

in a manual of lnuit management; developing areas network; sustainable demonstration managing a protected carrying out

of the two governments.

Despite in cleaninq trial pollution integrity Lakes remain ceptable from

progress up indusover the the forms of the Great


Issues related to the implementation of the Great Lakes first

development projects; and

andmu\icipal

Water Quality Agreement,

shared resources cooperation.

signed in 1972, are the largest component of the IJCs workprovision for

and international

past 20 years, and life

load. The explicit

The ICC has also helped to develop principles to guide Arctic policy.

a public information under this agreement requirement

program and the

a comprehensive

that depend level Persistent

on them of risk toxic

for a comprehenapproach to

These principles address security, environmental, economic,

at an unac-

sive ecosystem the restoration of the integrity

and protection of the Great provide

social and cultural issues from an lnuit perspective, which

Lakes aquatic system both an obligation opportunity

is seen as a first step toward lnuit self-determination. They

s@ubstances.
- IJC, Seventh Biennial Rep?, 7994

and an

to address

also describe the unique relationship of lnuit people to their land - referred to as ecodevelopment. This culturally oriented

a wide

range of issues. scale, the IJC and

On a broader initiative to has been encouraging

governments

brings a human ecology the sustainable

perspective issue.

other sectors to accept their responsibilities for addressing persistent the virtual elimination of

development

toxic chemicals

in the Great that goal, the IJC urged the considcertain

Many other initiatives

are under way in and

Lakes Basin. To achieve has, among other things, eration of timetables chemicals, tion, reverse

the North, notably the negotiation implementation Cooperative for example, to resource traditional presenting ments resource

of land claim settlements. wildlife where management government programs, approaches with are

for sunsetting

based on principles onus and weight

of precauof evidence. because of

management

are blended systems,

This also has global implications chemicals kilometres. that would often travel thousands The transition achieve

lnuit management a workable

alternative

to governto

to an economy

traditional

top-down

approach

that goal requires international strategy. of to policy of

management.

a comprehensive

Great Lakes and St. Lawrence


The International is an international by the Boundary Joint Commission organization

River
(IJC)

The IJC is encouraging an integrating, environmental

consideration approach research,

ecosystem education,

established

and management, sustainable

as well as concepts

Waters Treaty of 1909 to of Canada and the and resolve issues

development.

The Great Lakes

assist the Governments United States to prevent

could well serve as a national and international laboratory for these activities. There

30

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

is broad public support; new methods an examination

but the need for science and premises decision-making assistance and health

of integrative

of conventional

of science and policy are posing important challenges. Other work being done on the action plans)

Atlantic

Canada
of regional initiatives About 25% a;the drugs sold in a Canadian pharmacy are derived from tropical forests.

There are a number in Atlantic

Great Lakes (e.g., remedial is reported elsewhere

Canada that are or could become in the transition to sustainfor

in this chapter. have been partners Action

very important

Canada and Quebec

able development. regional economic

The main vehicle development

since 1989 in the St. Lawrence Plan, which (protecting has focussed endangered

in the govern-

on conservation species and sensi-

four Atlantic

provinces

is the federal

ments Atlantic Agency (ACOA).

Canada Opportunities

tive areas), protection prevention

(negotiating

pollution with

and clean-up agreements industries), restoration

major polluting (techniques sediment

of dredging

contaminated of wetlands), (cost-shared

and rehabilitation technologies

environmental projects

to develop

and apply pollution and the state of of knowledge tools). for

abatement

technologies),

the environment and development

(acquisition of analytical

In April 1994, the plan was renewed four years,

under the title St. Lawrence was commoney atid ? high level bf public awareness term qf the Agreemtint. omit development, that will survive beyond the

Vision 2000, and $191 million mitted ($100 million in federal

and $91 million of Quebec). and protect by restoring sustainable

from the Government is to conserve ecosystem

Its mission

the St. Lawrence

the use of the river through development. In addition to con-

tinuing the Action industrial

Plans efforts

to reduce Vision

Over 154 projects have been approved, committing $7 million. Projects range from waste reduction &d@use, ta improved integrated planning, and the development of new services and products fiDr the environmental market, Efforts are being made to support a community-based economic d&etopment approach. -.

discharges,

St. Lawrence

2000 focusses and conserving Active

on preventing

pollution

One of its programs, Program, encourages

the Cooperation effective partnerand the sectoral transfer

the river ecosystem. among private sector, groups, research are also

ships between partnerships private sector universities, centres environmental

governments by reaching

agreements payments. targets

and administering Spending

and local organizations

under this program on entrepre-

encouraged. involve

To this end, many ways to have been implemented. Plans accom-

initiatives market

focussed

residents

neurship, innovation human

and trade development, transfer,

While building on the Action plishments, protection especially

and technology

those involving of seven tribuVision 2000

resources

and the environment.

and restoration

Both Nova Scotia (Box 27) and Prince Edward Island have signed Cooperation

taries in Quebec,

St. Lawrence

opens up new areas f3r action: biodiversity,

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

31

Agreements Development. is a similar


(Box 28).

on Sustainable

Economic there North

provides

a timetable

for action,

prioritizing

In New Brunswick, initiative called Action

policy directions a date by which

and actions,

and stating

they are to be initiated.

As in other parts of Canada, the Atlantic regional better region supports promoting

More and more, Council


that inter-iurisdictional

the

Western
the focus activity

Canada
of considerable Columbia.

has realized is necessary sustainability For example, by B.C. basic in a market the size design to change be futile American times

The Fraser River has been

initiatives

c:oastal zone and

cooperation to address issues. alone would North 100 attempts automobile

This large river ilows 1,325


km from to its estuary Vancouver covers province.

in British

--rl II -management. waterstleu Jlaine Council The Gulf of I\ on the Marine for example, dictional Environment, is an interjuris-

its source in the Greater

area; its basin of the

body committed the marine in the Gulf of

one-quarter

to enhancing environment Maine.

In 1985, the

Fraser River Estuary Management Program

Made up of repreof each province the

sentatives

i~,~o~d~~S,e~~~b~~~~d
consensus create on how to between a balance

and state bordering

Gulf, the Council has developed a Gulf Action and a gulf-wide program. New Brunswick also developed, International preliminary management plan outlines directions celebrate and Maine through Plan

of this province.
- B.C. Energy Council, An Energy Strategy for British Columbia. 1994

monitoring

environmental nomic

and eco-

considerations

along the Fraser Estuary. have Five institutions, a British Columbia Fisheries Environment Ministry Canada, of Environment, the St. Croix Commission,

Waterway

plan for long-term

cooperative

and Oceans

Canada, the Fraser and North agreed waste plan-

of the St. Croix River. The international goals and policy and maina

River Harbour Fraser Harbour to cooperate management,

Commission, Commission

that will help to preserve an international integrity heritage,

on water water-

quality,

and land-use

tain environmental sustainable, To ensure

and support economy.

ning, and public education ment. A draft estuary

and involveplan

locally appropriate implementation,

management

the plan

is being reviewed. the various encouraged management Another agencies to work

The hope is that all involved will be on

more closely

issues. is the Fraser Basin It is managed from

initiative

Management

Program.

by a board made up of individuals communities senting throughout

the region repre-

different

levels of government, and other

business, community

environmental interests

(Box 29).

32

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

At the request ment,

of the provincial

govern-

As a separate a number

initiative

within

this region,

the (now defunct)

British Columbia and Economy Sound

of conservation

groups in Canada in

Round Table on Environment studied Region, the Georgia considering

and the United States joined together 1992 to form the Cascade International Alliance to work toward a Cascade International would be connected the designation

Basin-Puget

how it might best

of

be managed. priorities

One of the most urgent in the ensuing report

Park. Existing parks

identified

by new protected

was the management and the need for urban integrated The Georgia makes British regional

of urban growth containment and

areas. This would

create a large enough

area to be set aside to fully protect the Cascades, biodiversity.

planning

for growth.

Basin-Puget

Sound bioregion

In a recent effort to address concerns about sustainability the International Development in the prairie region, Institute for Sustainable in a

up less than 3% of the area of Columbia, yet contains 60% of

its population force. primary natural

and 75% of its labour concludes of deterioration that the of the are settleof of

(IISD) has been involved development

The report causes

study of sustainable

and the on

Great Plains. It has focussed government

attention

environment

in the region human

policies and the effects these of farming a

rapid population ment patterns

growth,

can have on the sustainability practices. framework that would The Institutes

and over-consumption that the ability the impact

report defines

resources.

It suggests

for the development promote sustainable

of policies develop-

the air and water of human severely are made governance compact activities strained.

to absorb

in the region

is being

ment on the Plains and other regions.

Recommendations and

in the areas of planning for sustainability; communities; planning;

developing

comprehensive environmental energy; public aware-

transportation protection economy;

and management; social well-being;

ness and education; and funding

and coordination

for implementation. interpretation Institute of

In an even broader region, the Cascadia Canadas

has collaboCentre

rated with

International

for Sustainable opportunities in a region Yukon,

Cities on a report outlining for achieving sustainability Alaska,

known

as Cascadia:

British

Columbia, Oregon,

Alberta,

Washington, The driving cooperation include growth;

Idaho and Montana.

forces

behind the need for boundaries

across political

sustainability transportation;

and rapid urban trade; tourism;

and economic

development.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

2.4
Federal

National

initiatives

within the policy development making processes

and decision-

of the federal governapproach approach

government
federal departments, were agencies surveyed to

ment. The shift from a reactive to a proactive agent of change

Thirty-five

and Crown corporations discover

has taken hold in many sectors. In the transportation a fundamental sector, for example,

what they are doing to achieve development. selective The result is inventory received of major from the

sustainable the following strategies

review of the Department management It is

of Transports environmental framework developing

and initiatives including

will soon be completed. strategies

23 respondents,

Ports Canada

to establish environ-

(Box 30) and the National Capital Commission Strategies (Box 31). range from those at an embryonic The

mental awareness,

build an environmental to

ethic, and achieve commitments prevention According

and resource conservation. to the survey, sustainability both a collective and an

stage to others that are more advanced.

survey results clearly show that the need for sustainable development is being internalized

is considered individual of National to integrate

responsibility. Defence,

The Department plans ethic into

for example,

the environmental

the way each individual and functions.

trains, operates the emphasis preven-

For projects,

is shifting from clean-up to pollution

tion, and in terms of process, the shift is to openness and transparency in consultations

and communications The survey commitments tunity, ments related

(Box 32). to a number of Opporgovernto that

made in Creating

the basis for the federal policy agenda. exercise are moving

It has proved by showing

be a beneficial departments

in the same directo the governments strategy.

tion and by contributing own sustainable

development

Green Plan
In December 1990, the federal government

released Canadas Green Plan, a six-year national strategy able development. consultation and action plan for sustainBased on an extensive

process in which over 10,000 it set out a two-tiered development.

Canadians participated, framework

for sustainable

The first tier consists of action directed to environmental conservation, protection and

34

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

remedial focusses

measures;

the second tier environmental making

outlined

in Creating Opportunity, designed sustainable component development of decision as making

on integrating

to promote an integral

considerations

into decision

at all levels of society, from individuals to large businesses The overall and future environment, economy. and governments.

at all levels of society.

Creating Opportunity recognizes


goal is to secure generations for current environment can no longer economic a safe and healthy from the national embraces opment

that the

be separated agenda. It

and a sound and prosperous To meet that challenge, the

a vision of sustainable in which

devel-

sound environmental

Green P/an presents and reaffirms specific

seven broad goals 24 more health (Box 33).


*,.,a;* ., . 3:fi i :.zz2 ,.-2 .z.; 9 %TeZ .+*, ,-;; ~n~~~~~~~a~ .;y; .,~ fg +: :; $&&at,on

or establishes including

targets,

The specific actions needed to meet these targets cut across the mandates of a

L-- n Ottawa

,,

broad range of departments Approximately gram initiatives 80 separate

and agencies. policy and proby

have been launched

The National CapitaJ Commisdon (NCC) and the Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton (RMOCI have completed a draft Framework for the Harmonization of NCCIRMOC Capital Works Projects in Ottawa-Carleton, designed to avoid duplication while satisfying both federal and provincial environmental tegislation, Ln 1990, the NCC approved a Code of Etlvironmental Stewardship. A Corporate Environmental Stewardship Section was created in 1992. Annual action plans and environmental reports are prepared. They .include activities relating to the reduction of solid waste, energy and water consumption, the identification a nd assessment of contaminated sites and underground storage tanks, the elimination of PCi3s and hazardous materials, the protection am 5 management of NCC lands, and environmentat training and awareness of stafl ; The NCC also undertakes environmental assessments in all its plians and activities, including joint assessments \nrhere appropriate, and ensures that assessments are integrated into the plans and projects on federal Iands in Canadas capital.

more than a dozen federal

departments.

The Green P/an highlights action in six areas: cleaning air, water and land; sustaining renewable resources; protecting special spaces and

species; preserving working

the integrity of the North; security;

toward global environmental

and minimizing

the impact of both natural and emergencies.

other environmental It also diagnoses

poor decision making at cause

all levels of society as the underlying of environmental considerations problems.

Environmental into IND) adopted a policy statement ! department and the Canadian msiveness to and responsibility ut their activities; and to hat they are responsible Igram. The policy directive a commitment to the federa; governments Code of Environmental Stewardship. In addition to a. variety of measures undertake n to orotect the enviranment and conserve resources, DND has carried out baseline studies (environmentat audits) for each base, and conducts environmental assessments before any project is approved. A Defence Environmental Advisory Committee was established in 1992 with representatives from industry and academia to advise the department and Canadian Forces an-the impact of their a,ctivities and operations on the environment. The Comm$tee released its first annual report to the Minister, entitled Defence and the Environment, in March 1994.

must be incorporated

decision making in a more systematic, coherent and focussed manner than in the development

past if the goal of sustainable is to be achieved.

The Green P/an addresses

seven key areas of decision making: science, environmental education, economic processes information, environmental

legislation instruments,

and regulation, decision-making and partnerships.

and institutions,

Creating Opportunity
The federal governments on an integrated approach agenda is based to economic, policy

social, environmental

and foreign

Canadian Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

D.raft

May

1995

management environmental sustained

attains quality

high levels of and creates and jobs.

Office of the Auditor General


The Office of the Auditor General ensures it

prosperity

that, in carrying out its responsibilities, makes a positive contribution

to the protec-

Barriers and disincentives to sound environmental


The federal budget

tion and improvement global environment. 1994

of the national and It determines and Crown whether

practices
February

governments

departments, corporations
l

agencies are

announced

the establishment task force to find to use economic the environment and disincentives practices. The

of a multistakeholder effective ways

in which

complying efficiently regulatory,

with environmental and effectively enforcement

authorities;

instruments

to protect barriers

carrying out their and monitoring

and to identify

to sound environmental Task Forces fundamental promote the convergence

roles with respect to environmental issues; and


l

goal was to of economic and thereby

appropriately

accounting

to Parliament

and environmental advance sustainable

agendas

and the public for the environmental impact of their programs and activities.

development.

Commissioner

of the Environment

and Sustainable Development


In March 1994, the federal government on the Development of

asked the Standing Environment to examine

Committee

and Sustainable ways in which Auditor

the concept General might

an Environmental be instituted government adopts agendas released mending

to ensure

that the federal -

- across all departments and environmental The Committee

economic

that converge. its report

in May 1994, recomappoint a and

that Parliament

Commissioner Sustainable

of the Environment Development.

In October agreed

1994, the federal to create ronment The Task Force, which met for the first its final report

government

a Commissioner and Sustainable

of the EnviDevelopment

(BOX 74, Chapter tabled legislation

5), and it has since to that effect.

time in July 1994, released at the end of November mendations

1994. The recominitiatives

included shorter-term

Canadian Environmental

Assessment Act

that could be incorporated budget and suggestions

into the 1995 for reform in

In June 1990, the Minister of the Environment announced a package of reforms to the fedAssessment and Review

the longer term, but few of them were reflected in the 1995 budget.

eral Environmental

Process that included assessment legislation,

new environmental an environmental

36

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

assessment

process for new policy and profunding pro

offences;

provide for intergovernmental stipulate federal-provincial on specific envigreater govBettieen 1941 and 1991, the number of farms in Canada declined from 733,000 to 280,000.

gram proposals, and a particiiant

agreements;

gram that would support public participation in the environmental These reforms environmental assessment process.

and public consultation ronmental matters;

allow citizens

access to the law; improve are intended considerations to ensure that are integrated ernments own environmental on federal

the federal

performance

and standards Aboriginal

lands, including

into federal government sion making to support ment. The application

planning and decisustainable develop-

reserves;

and enable Canada obligations

to fulfil specific regarding

international

of these processes adverse

environmental

protection. of its administrawithin

takes into account the potential environmental projects, effects

of development

The Act requires a review tion by a committee

programs

and policies in the early so that the identified can be minimized. consultareview,

of Parliament

stages of planning environmental

five years of its enactment Parliament of any suggested

and a report to changes to the.

effects

Act or its administration. In June 1992, after nation-wide tions and detailed parliamentary began its review

The committee

in June 1994.

Bill C-l 3, the Canadian Environmental

Assessment Act, received


The legislation

Royal Assent.

came into force in October cant changes to the organization zmeraencies field. The roles and ,nt have been more clearly

1994 and will apply to projects for which the federal government authority-whether manager, Following financial holds a decision-making as a proponent, contributor land

or regulator. and publication The netily formed Federal C& tmittee for Environmental Emergencies is the coordinating body that hel[ IS departments meet their responsibilities ,for enuiionmefital emergency I esponses. Its mandate is to address interdepartmental polky s&&g, int ernationaf program involvement, public information, integrtition of interager ICY arrangements, the speedy mobilization of government-~j~e assets and tt le resolution of governmental problems related to environmentat emergencies -specifically, oil and hazardous substance spills and the environmental consequences of natural disasters.

the development

of the four key regulations mentation

for the impleregulations those

of the Act, further including

are to be developed, for projects corporations outside

Canada, Crown lands.

and Aboriginal

Canadian Environmental

Protection Act Harmonization


Harmonization of environmental programs

The Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) was proclaimed in 1988 as a cornerprotection a lifeof toxic

stone of federal environmental legislation. In addition

to providing

in Canada means clarifying roles to eliminate among programs, duplication

federal-provincial and overlap legislation across the and

cycle approach substances, disparate were

to the management

it is designed

to consolidate that

and making

elements

and authorities

and regulations country territories ronmental

more consistent

contained

in five acts administered Canada, to ensure greater

by working

with the provinces

by Environment consistency

on various activities emergency

such as envi(Box 34). below

in enforcement. to increase for environmental

programs

For more details, see the description The Act is also designed previously low penalties of the activities of Ministers

of the Canadian Council

of the Environment.

Canadian Choices for Transitions

fo Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

Pollution prevention
The National housed Office of Pollution Prevention,

strategy industry.

for the Canadian environmental It demonstrates commitment technologies, the federal to promote products and

in Environment of initiatives

Canada, is engaged supporting sustain-

governments environmental services strategy

in a number

able development, a Pollution

one of which Strategy.

is drafting In the a

as a major component for economic growth.

of Canadas The core

Prevention

process of making pollution national goal, consultation with interested September Another stakeholders

prevention

strategy

plans on a total of $57.5 million funds in order improve programs develop-

on the strategy began in

of new and redirected

to meet three main objectives: industrys access to government support technology

1994. is Accelerated of Toxics (ARET), approach to

and services; initiative Reduction/Elimination which

ment and commercialization; dominance environmental between in domestic markets.

and increase

and international Partnerships will

is a consensus-driven reducing

voluntarily

or eliminating

emissions

industry

and government

of 100 toxic substances. 130 companies and implement

To date, more than

be the foundation strategy to promote

of this new national economic growth,

have agreed to develop ARET action plans. Environ-

job creation

and a clean environment,

ment Canada has also helped the Canadian Manufacturers Association (CMA) to develop Perform-

Building a federal science and technology strategy


A federal Science and Technology Review how federal can

the Manufacturers

Environmental

ance Program to improve performance enterprises. menting

the environmental

of small- and medium-sized The Association among is now impleits more

is now under way to determine investment in science

and technology

the program

best be applied

to support

the needs of believes

than 2,000 member

companies.

Canadian society. The government that innovation

based on a sound foundation will create jobs of economic and

Green industries and technologies


A high quality internationally industry federal environment competitive and a strong, environmental

of science and technology and permit the integration environmental

goals to enhance

the quality

are priorities government.

for action by the This will require,

of life for all Canadians. The purpose of the review is to determine

across all sectors duction services

of the economy, products

pro-

technologies,

and to our

the most effective ernment to achieve


l

way for the federal gov-

that are less harmful The Canadian roughly

to invest in science and technology three important of wealth goals: and jobs within development;

ecosystem. industry

environmental 150,000 people

employs

the creation the context

and generates is among

over $11 billion per year. It sectors in


l

of sustainable

the fastest-growing economy

the Canadian promising addressing

and offers very while directly

the enhancement the advancement

of the quality of life; and of knowledge.

export

potential

environmental

problems

Government investment

decisions to set priorities for in science and technology simul-

at home and abroad. In September Industry 1994, the Ministers of a

taneously

affect all three areas described questions arise from

and Environment

announced

above. Some important

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

this observation.

For example,

what should of

three new national marine conservation by 1996 and the negotiation

areas

be the components

and characteristics of innovation?

of agreements

Canadas national system Has the federal government

for three more by the year 2000. Since 1990, considerable made toward increasingly progress has been
mental officials the

done enough toward needs? Are conthese goals. Parks Canada is confident that the interim goal

to direct the innovation long-term

system

national and regional

environmental siderations

and human resource adequate

have estimated countrys mental at $30 environdeficit billion...

receiving

attention?

of at least five parks by 1996 can be met. Agreements have been signed for national in the western Northwest

How do we address Canadian linkages to international To answer science and technology? the govern-

parks in Aklavik Territories

and Vuntut in the Yukon, and for north Baffin Island. on two

the question whether such

is not

these questions,

a land withdrawal Negotiations proposals, (Bluenose)

to pay for but to

ment sought the ideas and suggestions of Canadian individuals They had opportunities participate Internet through directly and organizations. in fall 1994 to through

are well-advanced

damage,

Churchill and Tuktut Nogait and agreements will likely

who is going pay, when

and how?

in the dialogue

be signed in the near future. Significant progress has also been made side by the areas

discussion

groups or in person on the marine conservation establishment

a series of local, regional and and conferences orga-

national workshops nized in collaboration consortium

with local hosts and a organizations. describing the

of marine conservation

of private-sector

in the Gwaii Haanas Archipelago Columbia,

in British

A report has been prepared input received continues

the West Isles in New Brunswick estuary area in Quebec. to be The diverse

from tt-e public, and work of a strategy.

and the Saguenay However,

on the development

much work

remains

done to complete

the system.

Protected areas
The Brundtland a Canadian cil report Report, the Green Plan, Advisory Coun-

landscapes

of 60% of Canadas 39 natural through national

regions are represented

Environmental

parks, and work is under way to represent the remaining parks system heritage 40%. Completing the national and

and the Tri-Council to Complete

Statement Canadas

of Commitment Networks

is a priority environmental innovative

of Protected approach

Areas all call for to sustainable of

issue requiring

financing

a two-pronged development: protected

and provincial

and community

support.

the establishment

areas such as parks, wildlife reserves, and the land.

The Government committed tive system

of Canada is also

areas and ecological sound stewardship Canada is committed of the National

to creating a more representaof national historic sites with of others, of

of the whole

the cooperation to the completion by the year commemorating importance

and involvement historical heritage

Parks System

to all Canadians. all to apply principles

2000, as first set out in the Green Plan. It calls for the establishment national of five new Parks Canada also encourages stewards of cultural resources management

parks by 1996 and the negotiation for the remaining to complete 13 national

of agreements parks required system

cultural resource

the terrestrial As

and practices to their efforts. Heritage places are thus managed them and respects in a manner that sustains their intrinsic values,

by the end of the millennium.

well, the Green P/an establishes

a goal of

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

thereby

contributing

to broader sustainable strategies. Scien-

and heritage and historical contribution

as well as areas of national significance. of heritage It is studying the

development

and conservation

to economic

devel-

Under the United Nations Educational, tific and Cultural Organization Man and the Biosphere Reserves are intended of sustainable 300 Biosphere

opment

and will be investigating

potential

(UNESCO)

roles for the cultural heritage

community.

Program, Biosphere to be living examples There are over Parks Canada is one of Canadas principal organizations ment. for cultural resource manage-

development. Reserves

around the world

It is responsible

for a vast array of at

(six in Canada), each with a core protected area, as well as a surrounding and a zone of cooperation. buffer zone

cultural resources national

in public settings national

parks (including

marine

This program

conservation

areas), national

historic sites and In

could be one of the best ways to implement sustainable development on a regional basis network. on

and canals, as well as in collections at other properties that it administers.

and as part of an international

carrying out its commitment stewardship,

to responsible

Parks Canada must determine visitation and public without

The 1992 United Nations Convention Biological signatory, ensuring Diversity, of which

how best to promote understanding in diminishing

Canada is a instrument

of cultural resources

will be an important protection

the qualities

and attributes their value.

of spaces and species. and Canadas appear later

that give those resources This challenge framework as symbolic

Details about the Convention National Biodiversity Strategy

requires a holistic policy

in this chapter.

that deals with cultural resources as well as physical entities, by a sense of responsibility and to

Sustainable development and cultural


Protected heritage

heritage

is motivated

areas can demonstrate of humans and provide and

pass on our legacy. In 1990, the Cultural Resource Management Policy was developed

the interdependence the environment, educational

enhanced opportunities.

to provide a value- and knowledge-based framework for decision making. earlier, Parks Canada also of stewardship and her-

and interpretive to broader

They contribute development by maintaining biodiversity

sustainable strategies integrity and the

As mentioned promotes

and conservation the ecological

sound principles

and citizen awareness, commemorative

and ecological of protected

of natural areas; preserving integrity of historic

integrity

commemorative and promoting zenship values

places;

itage areas. These principles in the revised

are recognized

a conservation

ethic, citifor the

Parks Canada document,

based on respect

Guiding Principles and Operational Policies,


tabled in the House of Commons in March 1994. Prepared after three years of consultation with interest groups, provincial and

environment and cultural

and heritage, resource

ecosystem

management. activities heritage and

Because certain economic endanger

parts of our material

territorial

governments,

and the public, a framework for

increase the costs to society it, the cultural heritage natural stakeholder tainable economic

of conserving is a of susThe federal combines culture

these policies provide decisions

community

that will have to be made in the environmental, In addition, social they

in discussions development. Heritage

face of ever-increasing and economic

pressures.

Department responsibilities

of Canadian

detail the federal governments managing national heritage

vision for

for Canadian identity,

programs.

40

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

NATURAL RESOURCES: Sustaining a way of life


Recent economic over-harvest renewable policies have led to an approach to to Creating

Reserve lands and resources


Under the Indian Act, the Lands and Environment reserve sector grants interests to third and perof
disposable on food, lowest spent income the second percentage on food of

in

and closure

lands and resources leases,

resources.

According

parties through

licences

Opportunity, the new approach will be to


foster increased employment without overexploitation of resources. livelihood It also states that of rural inhabitants

mits. In issuing these, Indian Affairs

the Department Development

and Northern

(DIAND) carries out an environmental assessment of proposals. The departsustainable such as

the long-term and Aboriginal responsible resources forestry

peoples is best ensured by of the renewable

ment takes into account development the long-term

stewardship

considerations effect

any nation.

that feed the fishing, farming, and The following development sections strategies

of the proposal It then requires

industries.

on land and resources. the proponent mitigation

outline sustainable

to carry out environmental as conditions of the

and policies for agriculture,

forestry, fisheries,

measures

water, mining and minerals, and energy.

lease, licence

or permit. licences

DIAND leases, also

and permits other clauses specific

Aboriginal

concerns

Agricultural is the largest of non-point pollution the coastal Region.

runoff source source affecting waters

include

to address

Comprehensive claims
All claims agreements under negotiation structured consumptive wildlife are being

environmental

concerns. with First

DIAND is working

to ensure that the use of fish and

Nations and other federal departments mechanisms to find effective to fill the gaps and regula-

is subject to the needs Comprehen-

of the Atlantic

of conservation.

in the legislative tory regime environment development and resources.

sive claims under negotiation seek to combine ecological the traditional of Abo- State of the Environment in the Atiamc Region, 1994

related to the and sustainable of reserve lands

knowledge

riginal people with the sciencebased expertise wildlife, of government regarding First Nations decision-making and resources

may increase powers through

their lands such

fisheries, water and forestry. structures will help will

regarding mechanisms

These co-management

ensure that use of natural resources achieve the goal of conservation.

as the devolution

of authority

under the

At the

lndian Act, negotiated


agreements, legislated land and forestry

self-government alternatives to the of the lndian and land initiatives, Aboriginal development

same time, management the subsistence the Aboriginal

plans address needs of within the

and economic groups concerned

provisions entitlement of these

Act, treaty-land
claims.

limits that these activities by the resource Comprehensive

can be supported

In support

bases available. claim agreements also

DIAND is seeking peoples projects before capacity

to enhance to manage

on a sustainable

basis through to guides,

contain environmental requirements approval

impact assessment

mechanisms training

such as how

that must be addressed

courses

and workshops.

is given to development

projects.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

41

Agriculture

and agri-food
recognizes the

Since the early 198Os, these links have been increasingly reflected in government policies

The federal government importance

of the agriculture

and agri-food for the

and initiatives.

High interest rates, escalating

sector and its need to be sustainable ,, ,;, ..7:; ,. * 8. .* long-term benefit of Canadians:

grain trade wars and rising input costs resulted in a farm income and debt crisis. developed on but

it accounts

for 8% of Gross Domestic

Product and pro-

The National Agriculture

Strategy

vides 1.8 million jobs. Exports of agricultural and agri-food the economy products add $13 billion to $2.9 billion

in 1986 with the provinces farm financial also addressed and farm family issues were and marketing

focussed issues,

and contribute

soil and water dislocation.

degradation

to Canadas trade balance. Today the sector is confronted competition markets, in domestic by intense

Many of the

considered

independently,

but some were of farm programs The discussion

linked, such as the impact on soil and water.

and international and trends,

new trade agreements evolving consumer

trade disputes, natural resource

paper, Growing Together, Agri-Food a framework social

base fragility concerns.

and public

which initiated the comprehensive Policy Review to promote in 1989, provided

environmental significant expanding and growth. for farmers, retailers

These present

challenges, opportunities

but also provide for development is a priority input suppliers, consumers and

change to attain economic, aspirations.

and environmental an agriculture

It envisaged

Sustainability processors,

and agri-food market

sector increasbuilt

ingly self-reliant, on regional sustainable.

responsive,

and others,

including

strengths

and environmentally by

who expect affordable

a safe, nutritious food supply.

This vision was endorsed governments

the federal and provincial and sector stakeholders. Committees various

were established

to examine

issues, including

competitiveness, value-

marketing

and trade development,

added, food safety and quality, farm income safety nets, research and development, farm

grains and oil seeds transportation, business management,

supply manageagriculture. economic,

ment, and sustainable The importance

of integrating

social and environmental approach

facets in a holistic

to policy reform was discussed Agriculture Sustainability Comin its

Growing Together
Some of the links between social and environmental able agriculture the economic,

by the Federal-Provincial mittee on Environmental

facets of sustainIn the

June 1990 report. ability is a concept natural resource

It observed

that sustainnot only but also

have been obvious.

that integrates

193Os, low grain prices, severe wind erosion and crop failures on the Prairies dramatized the fragility of its agricultural and commodity-dependent resource base economy.

based concerns,

other related economic The committee noted

and social issues. sustainable (agricul-

ture and) agri-food are economically

systems

are those that

viable, and meet societys

42

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

need for safe and nutritious conserving resources or enhancing

food, while

examine

supply management a rural renewal

reform, secretariat.

Canadas natural

and establish

and the quality of the environ-

Other initiatives a whole-farm improve

are under way to develop safety net system,

ment for future generations. Measures economic, were taken TOintegrate environmental the

income

farmer

health and safety, revise system, increase benefits


of the forest in Canada regulates harvesting and the by land

the food inspection participation

and social factors by the review

of women,

maximize

of the issues being covered committees. committees

from information long-term

technology

and identify

The reports of the respective provided comprehensive frame-

future markets. will help reform government to move Canadas the

works for developing aimed at prosperity the sector (Box 35). Some of the initiatives were a farm income commencement

policies and initiatives and sustainability for

These initiatives

industry.

policies and programs agriculture

and agri-food sector toward

21 st century. which followed safety net system; Grain Transstrategy on

Forests
The following are only a few of the of the Canadian Forest

of Western

portation Act reform;


farm business improved enhanced national

a national transfer;

research and technology

a national an

major undertakings Service,

management system

program;

Natural Resources

Canada, in partindustry

regulatory

for pesticides; measures; and

nership with other governments,

farm adjustment and regional

and NGOs. The Department of Forestry

projects

under the demonstrated of sustain1992

Act explicitly
forests,

requires the Minister development

to pro-

Green P/an. These initiatives


the commitment ability voiced response Committee in the November

mote sustainable

of Canadas

to the principle

and most activities

of the Canadian

Forest Service reflect this responsibility.

to the Report of the Standing on Agriculture: The Path to under

Sustainable Agriculture. Subsidies


eliminated in the 1995 federal

the Western Grain Transportation Act were budget.

Future directions
Government response policy continues to evolve in

to changing needs. The September

1994 paper, Future Directions for Canadian

Agriculture and Agri-food, identifies five


goals: achieving sustainable growth, fostering rural opportunities, realizing long-term resource and and maintaining

financial security, attaining environmental sustainability,

a safe, high quality food supply. Current initiatives interprovincial Agriculture include steps to remove

National Forest Strategy


In 1991, members were of the Canadian public their views in a new

invited to express

trade barriers, form a National Committee (Box 361,

series of open forums to suggest directions for managing

Environment

Canadas forests,

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

43

taking into account values. Strategy collective community

changing

attitudes

and

receive

about $5 million over five years government. networks,

One year later, the National was published.

Forest

from the federal

It clearly stated the Nine of the ten model forest spread over five major forest ecoregions of Canada, are in full operation. a variety They reflect values,

desire of the Canadian forestry and the Canadian public to and producoutlines

ensure the future health, vitality tivity of our forests. priorities The Strategy period.

of cultural and ecological biodiversity,

for a five-year contains

such as wildlife, recreation

watersheds,

and fisheries, economic

as well as the supply.

The document items designed forefront

nearly 100 action

traditional

value of wood

to help Canada move to the forestry by 1997. The objectives are to


l

of sustainable

of the model forest network

It is the principal the domestic

mechanism

for tracking of commitProgress eva-

implementation

accelerate sustainable of forestry,

the implementation development

of

ments made at the Earth Summit. is reviewed annually

in the practice

and a mid-term

in particular, the concept resource management; new

luation by an independent completed. conducted In addition, criteria A second

panel has been will be term.


l

of integrated develop concepts

evaluation

and apply innovative and techniques of forests;

at the end of the Strategys national scientifically

in the and

based
l

management

and indicators

are being developed to man-

test and demonstrate sustainable forestry

the best practices available. from a

in keeping age forests a steering science

with the commitment as ecosystems. committee

To this end, by a

Notwithstanding scientific forests research

their importance perspective,

supported

the model

panel and technical in March

committee 1994. The subagreement

are breaking

new ground as far as are concerned. approaches involvement

was established committee

decision-making

processes

has already for which

reached

One of the most innovative in this regard is the extensive of local communities are managed.

on 17 criteria, definitions,

it has developed rationwith

listed critical elements, identified linkages

in the way forests

alized choices, other initiatives

and proposed

a list of months, the Tree Plan Canada Tree Plan Canada is a six-year program partially funded by the federal government and managed by the National Community an NGO established specifi-

indicators.

Over the summer was followed A progress

same process the indicators. submitted Forest

for refining report was Council of for an

to the Canadian

Ministers

and a proposal

Tree Foundation,

intergovernmental by the United Sustainable

panel was accepted Commission on

cally for this purpose. The program aims to encourage the planting of up to 325 million an opportunity for Canadians

Nations

Development

in April 1995.

trees, providing

Model Forest Program


The Model element Partners of Forests. Forest Program is the central

to learn about proper planting, care and the importance life-support of trees to the planets

system. are under way under

of the Green Plans $100 million in Sustainable Development Many other projects the auspices of the Green Plan to develop

Each model forest will

44

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

specific strategies

and technologies better.

to manis

by declining groundfish in finding a solution. longer-term

stocks and interested

age the forest resource placed on influencing

Emphasis

It plants the seeds for new opportunities Key elements are support; focus; to
household 0.4% current tion 0.8% plastic household spent of its total consump-

a transition

in forestry yield

job creation,

practices from managing to managing for the full

for sustained

and broad economic

growth.

of the Strategy

range of social, economic and environmental values.

A renewed industry sustainable

fishing must be both ecologand proshould the of

active income

community-based targeting

Fisheries
Sustainable Framework The Department of Fisheries Fisheries

those willing

prepare for opportunities outside the Atlantic ground-

on water...and on paper, and foil supplies.

ically cessing

and commercially. capacity


l

Harvesting be balanced sustainable the rebuilt

fish fishery; training and other provisions for those who qualify to remain in the streamlined, sustainable future;
l

and Oceans has undertaken a number of new initiatives

within limits

that form the Sustainable Fisheries Framework. These initiatives include

fishery of the

resources.

and framework at all levels

the creation of the Fisheries Resource Conservation

-Task Force on Incomes and Adjustment In the Atlantic Fishery

a consultative involving

partners

Council, which is a partnership of federal and provincial the scientific mandate community governments,

of government

and industry. initiative

The Green Projects is a five-year

and industry. The

under TAGS that will enable displaced fisheries and plant workers opportunities to benefit from

of the Council is conservation. a model fisheries program has

In addition,

the economic improved

arising from and

been introduced British Columbia; are studying technologies

for the Skeena River in departmental researchers

environmental demand

practices

the increasing services

for environmental

the effects of specific fishing on fish habitat; and, on front, the department

and technologies. combine employment revitalization the objective of

The Projects longer-term ecological

the international is working Organization

with that of by encouraging leadership and

with the Food and Agriculture of the United Nations to develop fishing.

the development and advocating projects

of community long-term

a code of conduct for responsible Atlantic Groundfish Strategy Strategy

strategies

linked to sustainable

objectives. multiwill and will impetus.

To that end, local and provincial The Atlantic Groundfish (TAGS) partner project advisory is a comprehensive initiative designed

committees provinces generation

be set up in the Atlantic Quebec. Local project

to help those affected Atlantic groundfish

by the collapse of It establishes programs and

stocks.

help ensure a community-based

compassionate ultimately

transitional

should lead :o an economically sustainable Atlantic

Water
Water resources under the enabling programs cost-shared of the Canada to the

and environmentally groundfish fishery.

provisions

TAGS charts new territory the active involvement

and requires

Water Act (1970) have contributed concept of sustainability

of people affected

planning for many

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

45

years. In the late 198Os, a more integrated approach resources economic to ensuring continue that Canadas water to provide social, benefits

as the Canada-Alberta-N.W.T. cumulative development Athabasca effects of industrial

study of the activity and

on the ecology

of the Peace,

and environmental was This

and Slave River basins are contributing to the scientific base necessary sound with the of NGOs to

to future generations gradually elaborated.

knowledge

was confirmed

and expe-

Our vision
social/v,

is of a

make environmentally planning decisions,

dited by a broad national consultation (Inquiry on

economicallv

Federal Water Policy) that led to the adoption of a Federal

and eiOmetllY
sustainable prosperous industry, community by political and mining underpinned and consensus.

active involvement

and Aboriginal peoples,


and metals

Water Policy in 1987. Among other things, the innovative

Minerals

The minerals industry essential by society. activity,

and metals many of the used

Policy promotes approaches economic

provides

in the use of instruments and prowater as a joint a five-year

raw materials

But like all human

new federal-provincial grams to deal with and the economy issue. For example,

- Leadership Council Accord, Whitehorse Mimg Initiative, 1994

it can have an envieffect. Although and metals are

ronmental minerals

arrangement

non-renewable and principles sustainable

resources, (e.g., energy

the goals efficiency) of

was signed in 1987 with Prince Edward Island to study critical sources of concern, including threats to the islands groundwater

development

are increasingly

applied in the industry. For many years, the minerals industry has contributed positively to sustainable develop-

and coastal estuaries. The idea of water agreements Brunswick, and the economy to New

was later expanded

ment by producing

base and precious metals

Nova Scotia and Newfoundland, are planned with projects such

that can be recycled and will be available for generations to come. Metal recycling offers and economic bene-

and similar agreements other provinces.

In addition,

various environmental

fits, including reduced volumes

of material

that end up in landfill sites. Because recycled metal is indistinguishable metals can be considered from virgin material, a renewable

resource. Several Canadian steel mills and nonferrous smelters and refineries operated

by Canadian mining companies

rely on

sources of scrap for their raw material. The minerals supported and metals industry has

the creation

of the International

Council on Metals In addition,

and the Environment. of

the Mining Association

Canada was the worlds mining body to approve environmental

first national a binding

policy in 1989.

46

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Natural Resources

Canada has been develon sustainable of minerals and

environmentally

and economically

sustainable

oping a federal perspective development metals. in the context

energy development ogies that promote industries

and end-use technolthe competitiveness of

A discussion

paper was circulated federal departments and territorial

in all regions of Canada (Box 38).


average household 2.6% current Canadian spent of its total consumption

in 1993 to interested and agencies, ministries

and provincial

Efficiency

and Alternative

Energy Program Energy by Natural

of mines. The paper is currently to reflect Mining the outcome Initiative of

The Efficiency IEAE) Program Resources step toward

and Alternative administered

being modified the Whitehorse

(Box 37).

Canada (NRCan) takes a major limiting greenhouse gas emisthat make

on electricity...and 4.3% products alcoholic on tobacco and beverages.

The paper covers a number of issues relevant including to the minerals and metals industry, land-use planning and integrated security of supply, international and trade, environmental

sions. Focussing economic

on measures

sense in their own right, it comdirected toward greater

management, competitiveness protection,

prises 33 initiatives energy energy efficiency

and the use of alternative sectors - equipment,

and science and technology.

in all end-use industry,

buildings,

and transportation. of policy instruments research and devel-

Energy
Promoting The extent energy efficiency and nature of energy use are

They employ (information, opment,

a variety suasion,

and regulation) with various

and emphasize stakeholders.

partnerships

major factors affecting and the economy. in Canada tripled with non-renewable fuels) accounting consumed

both the environment

Total energy consumption between energy 1958 and 1992, (mostly fossil

for 82% of the total energy intro-

in 1992. Nuclear energy,

duced in the 197Os, had risen to 11% of the total by 1992. Alternative nologies energy techwage the greatest particiwincial governments; and
aseto enhance the competitiveness

(e.g., solar and wind power) make of total alid prodo&ity Canadian industry.

up less than one ten-thousandth energy consumption.

of

Climate

change, acid rain and the deterioare The program energy efficient market helps the demand move toward side of the more energyprocesses reducing that energy

rating quality of urban air and water just some of the environmental associated with energy

concerns and

production

use. The demand

for energy

is the chief gas 98% of

capital stock, production practices without

cause of anthropogenic emissions

greenhouse Indeed,

and operating

in this country.

the level of service or comfort provides. market,

Canadas CO, emissions The production accounts

are energy

related.

On the supply side of the energy it ensures Canadas participation of technologies in

and consumption

of energy

for 87% of Canadas greenhouse

the development alternative

for tapping

gas emissions. The Program Development of Energy Research (PERD) supports and of

sources of energy. a

NRCans EAE Program also provides foundation for longer-term processes

a diversity

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

47

that can respond to evolving and economic department authority, analytical information the provinces development has enhanced improved capabilities,

environmental priorities. its regulatory and The

Research and development to improve

is undertaken

options for the use of alternative natural gas, methanol

fuels such as propane, and ethanol. hydrogen, Renewable bioenergy,

its data-gathering and forged

Research is also under way in

stronger with

fuel cells and electric vehicles. energy sources such as

and planning frameworks and other strategic efficiency efficiency

allies. aims

hydraulics,

solar and wind recognized to NRCans

NRCans energy to improve the energy buildings,

strategy

technologies as important the reduction support

are generally potential

energy

by upgrading

contributors

efficiency equipment,

of new and existing systems and vehi-

of global warming. energy

for renewable

is allocated to develop and energy

cles; ensuring appliances

that energy-consuming are used in way; influencing and organiza-

largely to research

and development performance, standards,

and equipment

reduce costs, improve safety and performance

the most energy-efficient the choices of individuals

increase the scope for renewable technologies. As part of its strategic Mortgage

tions to purchase equipment;

more energy-efficient the daily

and modifying

energy-use practices of individuals


and organizations. NRCans alternative includes promoting energy strategy

plan, the Canada (CMHC),

and Housing Corporation to working communities

is committed and northern

with urban, rural in the public

the use of alternative

and private sectors to address demographic, economic and quality. the building approach and environmental restructuring with

transportation potential

fuels that have strong application (e.g., pro-

for market

It has been working industry toward

pane, natural gas, methanol Federal initiatives the infrastructure stations) especially problems greater

and ethanol).

a systems issues indoor

are helping to expand (e.g., availability at fuel

to housing so that technical ventilation,

such as energy efficiency, air quality and durability together

for these fuels and their markets, in urban regions with air quality that can be alleviated use of alternative through

are considered

as parts of the same system. to ensuring healthy

transportation involve to buyers and

CMHC is committed

fuels. Other NRCan activities providing reliable information economic

housing for Canadians. Force on Material which coordinates

It chairs the Task Standards, of

Emissions

on, and assessing environmental energy sources.

the development

factors of, renewable

test methods, programs

data collection,

labelling

and standards

for emissions

from construction Research and development Under the EAE Program, research efficient and development technologies buildings NRCan conducts on energyand

materials. with

CMHC also works in partnership

the building industry to reduce residential water use and to reduce, reuse and recycle waste in new construction

for residential in Canada.

construction

commercial also provides developing and systems

NRCan in

and renovation

projects. The three Fis -

assistance

to industry

reduce, reuse and recycle - have a major effect on the amount environmental of energy used. The reusing

products,

processes, energy

services use.

to reduce

costs of recovering,

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

and recycling materials

can be up to than the costs

Plan. A preliminary

set was published

100 times less expensive of producing

in 1991. Since then, regular reporting has been initiated Indicator Bulletins through Environmental

new materials.

to ensure timely

Public awareness
State of the Environment An excellent reporting to learn Environ-

communication

and accessibility. Directorate an ecosystem

The State of the Environment is also working approach on applying to its reporting

way for Canadians is through

about the environment

(Box 39). Unfortuhas

ment Canadas State of the Environment Reports. The goal of these publications is to provide information objective, scientifically based and of The

nately, the capacity been considerably February Developing Consultations

of the Directorate reduced since the

1995 budget. indicators takes a long time. and potential

on envirormental

conditions

trends and to describe

the significance

with experts

these trends from a holistic perspective. primary theme activities is the link between

users in the public and private sectors are ongoing as selected environmental issues

human

and environmental

change and All of

are targeted

for indicator

development is also under

charting progress toward sustainability. the publications share a common

and improvement.

Research

approach,

way to link biophysical, indicators context.

social and economic development

which is to address four key questions:


l

in a sustainable

What is happening (data on conditions

in the environment? and trends) (linkages to human processes)

Why is it happening? activities

and ecological

:: ,. -<: ., ,i :q ,i> g*,; 3: -j Ecd~iS~~&~$&&

:::: : Z,

/:,,

..,_ , ;;.

Why is it significant? ecological,

(health, economic, Applying the ecosystem approach is fundamental to achieving sustainable development. It incorporates environmental values and interests with those from a social and economic perspective, thus taking into account the three pibars of sustainable development: environment, economy and society. Foitowina the recommendations that arose from the North American Workshop on Environmental lnfur.mation hosted bv Mexico in October 1993, the State of the Environment Directorate will be taking the le ad on a working groopto develop an ecolo! &al spatial framework for sustainabte resource use and management. Following are some of the activities and products to be developed in the near future: documentation of ecosysten n approaches applied or tested in the United States, Mexico and Canada: a.oolication of common criteria for ecosystem classification and harmonization; deveiopment of a North American ecological n rap and description; and a state of the environment profile using a protected areas theme.

or other implications)

What are we doing about it? (how Canadians are responding) national reports

Two comprehensive were produced

in 1986 and 1991. Work is

currently Report, threaten National

under way on the third National due in 1996. (Recent future work.) indicators environbudget cuts

environmental

Regularly monitored mental indicators

and reported

can help Canadian decision progress Environ-

makers track trends and measure toward sustainable development.

ment Canadas State of the Environment Directorate is leading the development of a

Statistics

Canada integrates

a wide variety

of information progress

that is vital for monitoring sustainability. agency, As Canadas

a national set of such indicators through government-wide initiative

toward

under the Green

national statistical for compiling,

it is responsible

analyzing

and publishing

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

49

statistical

information

related to the

The Environmental is Environment program.

ChoiceTM Program

commercial,

industrial, financial, social of the people and

Canadas eco-labelling

and general condition conducting

Its goal is to reduce the stress by encouraging the

regular censuses of population, This includes surand governconcern;

on the environment demand

housing and agriculture. veying businesses,

for and supply of environmentally products and services. The

households

responsible program

ments on matters of environmental creating environmental as extensions

certifies

products

and services

and resource accounts of social,

that are less stressful and distinguishes through them

to the environment in the marketplace

of the existing System and assembling

National Accounts; economic integrated

the use of the EcoLogoT symbol. also supports development Steward-

and biophysical

data to create an statistics. The federal government the principle of sustainable

body of environmental Citizenship

Environmental Environment Environmental foster individual

Initiative the to

through the Code of Environmental ship. It is committed to getting

its own

Canada established Citizenship Initiative

house in order by ensuring mental considerations

that environ-

are incorporated and activi-

and collective

responsi-

into all aspects of its operations

bility for the environment. citizenship actions effective

Environmental

ties. The Office of Federal Environmental Stewardship are facilitates the greening of

is based on the idea that the and organizations environmental

of individuals in reaching

the government.

Government

departments

goals.

that own land and facilities have prepared Environmental Action Plans and report their

progress on these plans (Box 40).

Promoting globally

sustainable

development

Trade and environment The federal government on a commitment by establishing Environment Advisory comprises The Initiative Environmental mental has four programs: Partners the has followed up

in Creating

Opportunity

a Task Force on Trade and under the International The Task Force of the business, communities, Trade

Committee.

representatives

environmental and is mandated on improving

and academic

Fund, EnvironEco-Action

to make recommendations of trade

Choice TMProgram,

the compatibility policies. actively

Program and the Federal Environmental Stewardship Program. These programs organizations,

and environment

Canada is also working international partners

with its

work with community-based corporations, agencies including individuals

to this same end

and government of tools, to informasuccess

through forums such as the new World Trade Organization, Cooperation the Organization and Development for Economic (OECD), the

and offer a variety eco-labelling, how

tion, technology

demonstration,

United Nations Conference

on Trade and

stories, training and financial support.

50

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Development,

the United Nations Environand the United Nations Development.

the Canadian

Council of Ministers

of

ment Programme, Co.mmission Official

the Environment, Development

and the International Centre (IDRC).


Mote than

on Sustainable

Research

Development

Assistance International sustain-

National

Round Table on the and the Economy of the NRTEE is to play the in identifying, explaining and

The mission Development

of the Canadian Agency

Environment The mandate role of catalyst promoting,

35,000 chemicals
ate repotted to be in use in Canada today.

is to support

able development

in developing

countries. Sustain-

CIDAs Policy for Environmental ability, released in January

in all sectors of Canadian society

1992, helped in

and in all regions of Canada, the principles and practices of sustainable development. agency

to position

Canada at the Earth Summit environmental Official

June 1992. It makes

issues Develop-

The NRTEE is an independent composed business, academia, peoples of individuals science,

a focal point for Canadian ment Assistance mental

from government, groups,

(ODA) and is an instruto Rio. Policy,

environmental

part of Canadas follow-up

labour unions and Aboriginal

It builds on CIDAs 1986 Environment which formally established

that reports directly to the

the environment

Prime Minister. A sampling of initiatives and programs

as a key consideration and established procedures.

in ODA programming assessment of the NRTEE includes: Projet de soci&: abie Future-The multistakeholder ing a National Strategy Planning for a Sustain-

environmental

The main thrusts of the Policy for Environmental integrate Sustainability are to further into

NRTEE chairs the national assembly Sustainable that is developDevelopment

environmental

considerations

ODA decision

making and programming; countries improve their con-

to help developing

for Canada in order to fulfil one made at UNCED

capacity to deal with environmental

of the commitments in 1992. Sustainability

cerns; and to work with Canadian and international of integrating partners to meet the challenge considerations

Reporting-

In 1993, the NRTEE on

environmental

provided advice to the Prime Minister how to improve the governments

into their activities. CIDA disbursed environmental gramming,

From 1986 to 1992,

capacity

over $1.3 billion in direct support and related pro-

to report on progress toward development;

sustainable a back-

it has also produced

to which should be added over by the International Centre.

ground paper exploring

the various options an environmental

$200 million disbursed Development Research

available when considering auditor general function Education ACTION,

in government. with Participto a

National sustainable institutions

development

- In partnership

the NRTEE has contributed program,

There are four key national involved in the promotion

institutions of sustainable

social marketing

SustainABILITY, develop-

that will aim to do for sustainable ment what fitness. ParticipACTlON

development

in Canada: the National and

has done for

Round Table on the Environment the Economy Institute

The NRTEE is also conducting outreach with the academic

(NRTEE), the International Development,

educational community,

for Sustainable

media and youth.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Tiade and Sustainability-

Since 1991, the sustainable


international

Labrador

Round Table on the Environment the NRTEE has been

NRTEE has been promoting development

and the Economy, engaging

in Canada through and institutions.

people from fishery-dependent in a discussion about

trade agreements

It provided

coastal communities how the fisheries

advice on the North American on the Environment recently

Commission

used to be sustainable

(NACE), and more Cooperation Cooperation on

and what has made them unsustainable, in an effort to help them rebuild their communities and to develop recommendations collapses

on the Environmental Economic

and the Asia-Pacific

Forum (APEC), General Agreement

on how to avoid similar fisheries in other regions of Canada. Transportation and Climate

Tariffs and Trades (GATT) and the World Trade Organization Summit, (WTO), the Miami

and the 1995 Group of Seven France, Italy,

Change -

(USA, Canada, Germany,

The NRTEE is working Round Table to organize collaborative

with the Ontario a multistakeholder

UK and Japan) (G7) Summit. Forest Round Table-The together 25 forestry NRTEE brought repregroups,

in Ontario around the issue and climate change. The NRTEE has

of transportation

stakeholders of interest

senting a wide variety who eventually the sustainable forests,

Federal Green Procurementestablished

agreed to 26 principles for development of Canadas

a task force to help to promote in the federal government. - A task to work with within sustainand techis

green procurement Environmental

backed by action plans.

Technologies

Pulp & Paper Round Tab/e - Following the success of its dialogue NRTEE convened on forestry, the

force has been established a number of selected

sectors

25 stakeholders

from the

Canadian industry to move toward ability, catalyzing the development environmental

pulp and paper industry to work on principles to govern the sustainable production of

use of the necessary nologies.

paper and paper products principles

in Canada. These and

A complementary the competitive

objective position

have now been developed are outlining

to strengthen

stakeholders support

action plans in

of the Canadian environmental International Institute

industry.

of the principles for Sustainable Decision Making - Round have agreed on Development The IISD is a non-profit established governments mandate opment business organization by the Its

Consensus

tables across the country and published

a set of ten basic principles making by consensus. A

in 1991 and supported

guiding decision companion

of Canada and Manitoba. sustainable

volume

of case studies, as well in 1995.

is to promote in decision

devel-

as a speakers Rural Renewal-

kit, will be published

making in government,

The NRTEE is working to explore sustainable

and the daily lives of individuals Its current

with several partner agencies ways to renew development. Partnerships Communities a joint initiative for Sustainable

in Canada and internationally. program

rural life through

areas include communications business and governand poverty

and partnerships,

ment, trade and investment, Coastal - In and In the area of communications, intent is to empower and empowerment.

and Marine Ecosystems with the Newfoundland

IISDs

people by delivering

52

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

accurate, timely information negotiations, tributing

on international by dis-

CCMEs current focus is on harmonization. It is engaged mental in developing a new environfor Canada responsithe federal,
expenditures water, fuel on and fluctuat3.1%

to expand understanding information

sustainable

bases and objectives.

management

framework

to link groups that share common

to help rationalize

management between

bilities and structures IISDs work on business and government issues has focussed ronmental employment reporting on corporate enviprovincial and territorial

levels of governseveral task integration,

ment (Box 41). In addition,

and accountability, development

groups are looking at economic water-use packaging. efficiency,

and sustainable

internal trade and developed

electricity ed between and 3.5%.

and green budgets. Through EarthEnterprise, I ISD has encouraged around environmentally products and services. entrepreneurship responsible

CCME recently

a set of consultation guidelines

and partnership

for the organization. councils in

There are also other ministerial The Winnipeg Sustainable Principies for Trade and released in early Canada, a few of which mentioned. to sustainable were Development

have already been have contributed The Council collabora-

Many of them development.

1994 are designed

to encourage

trade

policies and practices development prepared

to serve sustainable

of Energy Ministers

has worked

needs. These guidelines

tively with the CCME on air issues; and the Councils of Wildlife Ministers Ministers, Forest

by IISDs working development.

group on trade

and sustainable

and Environment

Ministers

All of these efforts will have an impact on the issues of poverty ment. IISD views poverty and empoweralleviation as

have all met to discuss biodiversity.

a cross-cutting has focussed

theme

in its work, which the knowledge

on enhancing

. (, .. /(.*, , / ,: ^,. .: T *::: ..,-,,. .Q.; _ .x Cc& Q&&niza&

,- : ,;,, e,,:, _

ini*iatie

and capacity of people to deal with difficult economic and ecological issues.

Canadian

Council

of Ministers

of the Environment The CCME is the major intergovernmental forum in Canada for discussion and joint

A task group was formed by the CCME in fall 1993 to resolve a number of problems, including the lack of clarity between the roles of the federal and provincial governments in environmental protection; duplication and over-tap between the environmental protection activities of the two orders of government; and lack of harmonization in environmental legislation and regulation across the country. The aim is to develop a new environmental management framework by May 1995 that would designate which level of government should appropriately handle each area of environmental protection work, such as science and technology, industry regulation or international issues. In addition, action will be taken on five priority issues: the Canadian Environmental Protection Act review and agreements, international environmental issues, trade policy, pulp and paper effluent regulations and environmental impact assessment

action on environmental international

issues of national, Environterritorial in

and global concern.

ment ministers and federal

from the provincial, participate

governments

council meetings

at least twice

a year. They

discuss environmental information,

issues, exchange and establish International Centre Through developing long-term support for research, countries solutions IDRC helps Development Research

make decisions

policy for work to be carried out under the auspices Ministers of CCME. In 1992, the Deputy agreed that the Council should in promoting the concept

show leadership of sustainable

create their own to pressing develop-

development.

ment problems.

Support

is given directly

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

53

to Third World institutions focusses primarily

whose

research

in Canada. For example, International

in 1993 a new Cities

on meeting

the basic

Centre for Sustainable in Vancouver

needs of the population the problems between partners. Minister those of poverty.

and overcoming Links are made and Canadian the Prime

was established

under the

Green Plan. The Centre is a non-governmental, whose non-profit international organization,

institutions

At the Earth Summit, announced

role will be to carry out demonstraon urban sustainability and

that the mandate expanded 21

tion projects

of IDRC would

be formally

share results worldwide.

to include an emphasis and sustainable

on Agenda

development

issues.

National
Canadian

strategies
Biodiversity Strategy

Much of IDRCs work tends to contribute to capacity priorities building (one of the highest 21), helping devel-

The development

of the Canadian Biodiversity

of Agenda

Strategy fulfils one of Canadas commitments under the United Nations Convention Biological December cooperatively on

oping countries

and local communities the people and local

gather the knowledge, the organizations decisions

Diversity, which Canada ratified in 1992. The Strategy was developed with input from the federal, governments, and a

that will enhance

and policies. areas of the IDRC around development and natural management, etc.); health

Specific program sustainable currently resources water

provincial and territorial non-government measures objectives

and equitable

advisory group. It contains three

include environment (urban environment management,

to address the Conventions and its more specific articles. feature of the Strategy is

resource

A significant conserving

sciences,

social sciences

(regional integra-

biodiversity

by using an ecosysand of of

tion, macro-economic tion sciences software programs

policy, etc.); informacapacity building, etc.); and corporate evaluation etc.).

tem approach the economy.

in all sectors of society Also key is the protection

(information

development,

spaces and species and the promotion the sustainable in agriculture, the Strategy use of biological forestry

(public information,

resources Once

and human resources IDRCs six core themes environmental, cies; information environment

development,

and fisheries.

are integrating polifor

is approved,

each jurisdiction it

social and economic and communication

will be responsible within its priorities

for implementing

and fiscal capabilities. was distributed at the end of received from by the

and development;

biodiversity; and under

A draft of the Strategy for stakeholder review

health and environment; the environment;

technology

and food systems

June 1994. Comments stakeholders were

stress. IDRC has also initiated lishment of important networks:

the estabthe Third (a conStrategy

considered

Federal-Provincial-Territorial Working

Biodiversity its work to

World Network sortium

(of NGOs); Bellanet

Group as it completed which

of donors); and SIFR -the Fisheries

on the Strategy,

was presented

for International In addition institutions

Research.

CCME in November is currently processes undergoing

1994. The Strategy formal approval Reports from

to these and other national mentioned earlier, many contribute to

in all jurisdictions.

more national agencies the promotion

each jurisdiction the Strategy

on how it will implement within one year.

of sustainable

development

are expected

54

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

National Change

Action

Program

on Climate

more sustainable nomic systems.

social, cultural and ecoToday, they are developing resource harvesting and comtraditional
of Canadians veyed considered when for only sur-

As a signatory

to the United Nations Frameon Climate Change, Canada aimed at miti-

strategies

for sustainable

work Convention

and restoration munities knowledge

of the environment

agreed to adopt measrres

that involve negotiations, and new technologies.

gating global climate change by pledging to return Canadian greenhouse gas emissions

As part of this approach, developing or degraded

First Nations are over-exploited

to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Canada also pledged to increase public awareness understanding and

packaging shopping food...but 7%

plans to restore resources

such as forests, strateregimes and

of climate change and to work In February

fish and wildlife. gies include combined fowling, ecological

Their multiple-use forestry gathering

to adapt to its possible effects. 1994, Canada published

considered methods considered

sustainable hunting,

its National Report actions under the with group.

production and 3%

with

on Climate Change, which identifies being taken to meet commitments Convention.

as well as recreation. knowledge

Traditional the

the companys environmental ethics.

also provides resource

The report was developed of a multistakeholder

base for sustainable and management

planning

the involvement

and can be synthesized such as geographic (GIS), to develop instruments. data

In March 1995, Canada released Action Program on Climate

its National

with new technologies, information systems

Change, after consultations. to the First

a series of multistakeholder The program Conference was presented

bases and planning Aboriginal

Several

communities

are now using

of the Parties of the Climate in Berlin in March 1995. of the program to industry is a

this technological

application.

Change Convention The key component voluntary greenhouse government challenge

Some people believe that industrial society is throwing out the baby with the bath water development. peoples tradiknowledge natural tradi-

to reduce

when it comes to sustainable They believe that Aboriginal tional economies

gas emissions.

The federal

will set up a public registry action plans, reductions. is supporting (the Ballard production). A

and ecological

to record commitments, actions and emissions The federal selected government

can be the basis of future sustainable resource management, tional economies Unfortunately,

are often seen as Stone because most

Age or archaic systems

industry

programs ethanol

people think that progress can only be achieved knowledge through contemporary and technology. Western indus-

fuel cell, Biomass new National

Energy Code for Buildings standards for energy govern-

Although

will set improved efficient

trial society is now aware of the importance of Indigenous awareness knowledge medicines and biodiversity, ecological

construction.

The federal

ment also supports both domestic

joint implementation,

of traditional

and international.

is virtually non-existent. also pose a threat Most Aboriginal with the natural

Some environmentalists

2.5

Aboriginal

peoples
knowledge

to traditional

economies.

peoples have a relationship Traditional Aboriginal ecological

world based on respect and thanksgiving. They have used nature to produce a sustainable supply of food, shelter and clothing. However, some environmentalists see the

peoples have been called the first because they developed

environmentalists

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

55

forest, waters

and other regimes as wild should be left in a that humans

territories.

In the past, such access land claims and coAboriginal peoples sustainthat are har-

and feel these regimes pristine

was gained through management

state. The argument

regimes.

no longer need nature to survive does not recognize First Nations prerogative to sus-

are now negotiating able natural resource multiple-use vesting,

to develop strategies

tainable economic,

social and cultural rights. peoples

and include sustainable economies,

traditional tourism

biodiversity uses.

The final barrier is Aboriginal access to resources

protection, Indigenous

and recreational

and traditional knowledge is local knowledge cultures It is

that is unique to many different and societies distinct around the world.

from the more homogeneous propagated institutions. by universities Indigenous sec-

knowledge and research knowledge

exists in most economic hunting, gathering,

tors, including crafting,

farming, health,

trading,

transportation,

skill training

and energy

development.

In the health sector value for medicines plants discovered was estimated

alone, the market originating from peoples

by Indigenous

in 1990 at $43 billion. knowledge of

The value of traditional Indigenous peoples,

particularly knowledge,

their tradihas only

tional environmental been recognized

in recent years. It is now could

feared that most of this knowledge

be lost. A lime magazine article stated that Today, with little notice, more vast archives of knowledge oblivion, and expertise are spilling into in danger of losing it

leaving humanity

its past and perhaps its future as well. compares the loss of traditional

knowledge

to that of the great library in Alexandria, which burned down 1,600 years ago. sophis-

Aboriginal peoples have also developed ticated bodies of knowledge

using the princi-

ple of natural law. One of the natural laws is that you keep things pure. Especially water, says Oren Lyons, Onondaga, point out that keeping while others

water pure is one of

the first laws of life. If you destroy water, you destroy life. Sustainability traditional ecological is thus built into systems.

knowledge

56

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Indigenous

knowledge

is also recognized

many questioned another

whether

they were just

in Our Common society could

Future, which states that learn a great deal from their managing very

management thought

fad. Some corporate that they would be

executives

traditional complex

skills in sustainably ecological systems.

like the flavour

of the month - here today When officer procan, instead it,... of recycling

and gone tomorrow. one chief executive

Agenda 2.1 also has a section on Indigenous says, policies peoples that should be adopt-

Japanese

companies thiir in and for

claimed that it was not enough to be the steward financial of all things

are scramblina to redesign products, recycled chaniing material building materials, product composition,

ed that will protect Indigenous intellectual and cultural pro-

for his corporation,

is like throwing away enough energy to fuel

he must also be the chief environmental officer, many in the shrugged

perty and protect the rights to preserve customary and administrative Sustainable Aboriginal developing thinking practices systems.

business community

a car for 3 km.

kEli@f

~h~l~~a-$~
many are

development peoples are

and designing disassembly.


- Pau Hawken lgg3

But it has not. Although management techniques

new ways of

still beina refined and standardized to better penetrate the wide business community,

about sustainable through the use technolmanagement Auditing, part-

development

of ancient knowledge,

it is clear that environmental systems are here to stay. and corporate

ogy and Western science. They have effectively participative used consensus community decision making,

waste

management reporting

development, and capacity planning.

environmental common

are some of the

nerships with stakeholders

features

of an environmental in any company. management

building for holistic ecosystem The Aboriginal

management

system

vision for the future is to territories to create

Clearly, an environmental system

manage their traditional sustainable development. economic,

is a major step on the path towards development. efforts to

cultural and social

sustainable

Several case studies (Box 42) of this strategy. The founof

In one of the first Canadian define sustainable

show the promise

development

as it this

dation of this approach is the combination Indigenous knowledge

relates to business, guidance - adopting

the IISD offered business

with research, educa-

strategies

tion, science and training. Joint management regimes pioneered by Aboriginal peoples

and activities enterprise protecting,

that meet the needs of the today while the

and its stakeholders sustaining

and governments for developing management.

can provide the base natural resource

and enhancing that will

sustainable

human and natural be needed sustainable dependent

resources

Finally, more resources are development

in the future. business economic, would

Therefore,

the

needed to support sustainable for Aboriginal peoples.

have inter-

environmental, and understand depends on inte-

and social objectives

2.6

Corporate

initiatives
management systems in the business community,

that long-term

viability

grating all three objectives When environmental first surfaced making. Rather than treating objectives

in decision social and

environmental

as costs, a

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

business

that has adopted would

sustainable

on cost reduction, titiveness. protection

job creation and compeenvironmental as a given of the

development

see the opportunities these goals.

They argue.that takes development

for profit in achieving

and focusses In a study for Ontario Hydro, for example, Jim MacNeill and David Runnalls maintain that sustainable company development...enables a development

on the downstream

cycle with the corresponding and eco-

concerns around health, property system effects and measures

to ameliorate

to make progress on environmental

them - usually end-of-pipe. development,

Sustainable

goals at the same time as it makes progress

on the other hand, embraces cycle with the focus it is conincluding

the entire development on the upstream

end. Therefore,

cerned with inputs to development,

energy, resource and material inputs, product lines and processes competitiveness. spent considerable able development Like many other and with efficiency and

Other companies

have also

time defining what sustainmeans to them (Box 43). business people conPaul

cerned about the future of the planet, Hawken

sees a critical role and opportunity He describes a restorative commercial designed a different economy, kind as

for business. of economy, a prosperous intelligently it mimics

culture that is so that

and constructed

nature at every step, a symbiosis and customer Hawken and ecology maintains world enough for our to the do we that

of company

(Box 45). Although that no institution

in the modern is powerful necessary

other than business to foster survival, the changes he provides

an ironic twist

way forward.

Rather than ask how

save the environment?, the question business,

he maintains

to ask, given the key role of do we save business? of his own experience Hawkens definition of

is how

Perhaps because in merchandising, a sustainable

business

relates well to busibusiness

ness in that sector. A sustainable would


l

undertake

to do the following: and internationally created

Replace nationally produced

items with products

locally and regionally.

58

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Take responsibility

for the effects they

focussed

on life-cycle

management

have on the natural world.


l

at every stage of activity;


l

Do not require exotic sources of capital in order to develop and grow. processes that are

designed

to facilitate

and support

a of

full assessment existing


l

of the sustainability activities; the transfer

Engage in production human, worthy, satisfying.

and proposed to facilitate

and of

digrified

and intrinsically

designed

environmentally throughout will

beneficial

technologies sector and

Create objects of durability and long-term utility whose ultimate use or disposition

the business

internationally. To date, most of the corporate culture

not be harmful to future generations.


l

Change consumers education.

to customers

through

experience protection

is based on environmental as an added cost, conflict polarized issues, risk mandAquino,

management, Large corporations agement, President application important

and so forth. Thomas

Like many of its global counterparts, Canadas Business Coclncil on National

and CEO of BCNI, sees the of ecoefficiency lever in moving as an companies

Issues (BCNI) has issued a set of Business Principles for a Sustainable petitive Future to provide and Comto its Officers While is

guidance

membership,

150 Cheif Executive

from Canadas leading companies. stressing that sustainable

development

fundamentally maintains

a process of change,

BCNI that

that for those corporations the necessity

have recognized formation, environment

of transthe

protecting

and enhancing

has become

not just a cost of source of com-

doing business, petitive

but a potent

advantage.

In calling for leadership level and adoption of

at the chief executive a business-wide

As an al&native to watershed pianning, an ecosystem approach to pIann@ can also be applied to the management of an industrial park. The city of ,Datimouth, Rlova Scotia, is ane of the partners in a research project examining the industriaf park as an ecosystem. The project has used th& Burnside Industrial Park as its case study and has defined ,. a ni,tibqr of principles, guidelines and strategies for the development and managehenf of more ecologically sensitive industrial parks. The , pr&ise pf hdus$iat ecology is that the industrial economy-which inefudes raw materials extra&on, manufacturing processes, product use and waste di?posal -should, as far as PIossible, imitate the cycling sof inaterials as it occurs in the natural ecosy stem. ,

policy, in effect a corporate the following

culture shift, BCNI recommends as essential


l

elements

of such a policy:

outward-looking incorporating jurisdictions;

and future-oriented, lessons learned from other E-8. Edd$s approach togustainable devefopment provides an example - bf corporate @ture shift as well as ecoefficiency applied in a forest products company. In its attemptto quantify its progress toward sustainable development, the company began with the basic assumption . thtit everything used in its processes could be measured and accounted for. E.B. Eddy tracks socio-economic impacts, resources used, efficiency of reso&rce convizrsion, wastes generated, environmental effects and research activities as indicators of sustainable devetopment. Its first status rep&t on sustainable development, A Questionof Balance, notes that the combination of, quality pi-c. \cess, seoole and products will make &tainabie development a reality ani wiit be a market ~opportt&ty fur the company.

supported

by strong employee programs;

training

and motivation
l

based on a strong commitment research and development, the business opportunities

to

recognizing in developing

cleaner products, and services;

process technologies

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Susfainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

toward

sustainable

development.

Ecoeffimore

various associations, with proposals number

is stepping

forward

ciency is seen as the ability to produce goods and services with fewer while still achieving Its application

for voluntary

action on a

resources

of fronts. What is not clear in many is what recourse is avail-

higher levels of quality. to

of these initiatives

may be as important enterprises

able if the broad social goals are not met, for example, emissions Among stabilizing greenhouse gas

small- and medium-sized

(SMEs) as to large companies Finding the right mix

(Box 46).

at 1990 levels by the year 2000. action initiatives voluntary It is

the many voluntary

under way is BCNls proposed Finding a balance between regulation and economic voluntary instruments action, business action on climate

change.

based on the conviction of Canadas response The

that a cornerstone to the climate initiative adopted change by in the would, cost

and incentives in adopting business

may be the major hurdle development. represented

sustainable community,

issue should be a voluntary industry. Like the program

by its

United States, the proposed according solutions

program

to BCNI, lead to the lowest

and allow industry the flexibility measures that

to adopt the most effective also contribute

to competitiveness. example of working

A ground-breaking

to find the right mix can be seen in the Economic Instruments Collaborative. The

Collaborative explore, potential

was established

in 1992 to process, the instru-

in a multistakeholder contribution

of economic

ments in addressing challenges.

Canadas air quality on three specific ozone,

While focussing

issues, acid deposition, greenhouse

ground-level

gases, a set of guiding principles were

that may be of value to other initiatives also endorsed Another by the group (Box 47). that embodies initiatives, the

example

move toward as pollution Manufacturing a voluntary participating

voluntary prevention, Pollution

as well

is the Automotive Prevention Project,

cooperative members

effort between of the Canadian Association

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (MVMA), Ontario Environment Ministry

Canada and the and

of Environment

Energy. The three large car manufacturers were the first to engage Canada, Ford Motor and General Motors in this - Chrysler of Canada,

Company of Canada.

60

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Following 65 targeted

their initial work to identify substances, the big three on a Suppliers role

experience

may have polarized a commu-

nity that was trying to learn to work with business on the toxics elimination It would exclusive, appear that while as the Economic experience voluntary issue.

have since cooperated Forum focussing

on the suppliers

in helping to ensure the early reduction of 29 of the 65 targeted substances.

not mutually Instruments to, the


45 provincial/ territorial governing of water acts the use in Canada.

Collaborative The MVMA initiative helped to trigger a comparable motive effort on the part of the AutoAssociation, agree or trend toward

attests

action by industry a multistakeholder

does not often involve process.

Parts Manufacturers

In some cases they may simply while

again a voluntary

pollution-prevention

be trying to avoid such interaction, in others cases a cooperative was tried, but failed. Levering change

ment with the goal of verifiable elimination of substances

reduction

approach

used, generated

or released by the industry. A similar initiative drycleaning is under way in the It involves Environof Work under way to develop national standards, although new intercouched

business.

ment Canada, the Ontario Environment and Launders Drycleaners finding

Ministry

and Energy, the Drycleaners Institute Association. and the Korean As a means of

more in the language management systems

of environmental rather than sustainforce the

able development,

will inevitably

a viable way to reduce the use of solvents in the fabricare is to

bulk of small, medium

and large corporapractices that

all non-aqueous industry,

tions to adopt environmental put them on the pathway

the key focus of this effort

to sustainability. Association (CSA)

demonstrate

the Green Clean processes A pilot Green Clean depot

The Canadian Standards is providing mental the secretariat

and technologies.

for the Environof the

has been in place in Toronto for a number of months and negotiations are under way

Management

Committee

International

Organization

for Standardizrepresentatives of

with several other Ontario cleaners to begin offering customers initiative a Green Clean option. many of the companies

ation. CSA has engaged Canadas business,

consulting

and interest to assist in labelling, assess-

In another

groups as well as government developing performance ments, guidelines

and associations

involved with the breakdown effort to accelerate the

for auditing, life-cycle

of a multistakeholder reduction

evaluation, standards, planning

and elimination

of toxic chemicals, to meet an reduce or

product

risk assessment and preparedness,

the ARET process, regrouped industry challenge eliminate emissions to voluntarily

and emergency

among other things. Although SMEs face considerable economic

into the environment. invitation, voluntary the

In the ARET challenge

barriers (e.g., a lack of capital for new environmental management equipment) efforts at level.

action was defined as neither removing requirements regulations introduction ing a quicker, environmental government for emitters nor precluding

to meet existing the possible while offerfor

are under way to begin this transition least on the information The Canadian in partnership and distributes Chamber and training

of new regulations more flexible

of Commerce,

approach

with the NRTEE, produced A Small Business ta/ Management. Guide

goals. Although has welcomed

the federal as

this initiative

to Environmen

a practical way to move forward,

the overall

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

61

Other trade associations, Canadian Manufacturing developed stituencies

such as the Association, have

as environmental

industries,

has emerged anticipated move toward and

out of the global opportunities as more and more countries stronger environmental development. industry

special programs for their conUnder the recently announced Industry Strategy, these and groups may be able to help problems and to pre-

regulations

Environmental associations

sustainable

SMEs to identify environmental associated with their operations

The environmental

The best current estimate environmental industry

of Canadas puts it at roughly

pare a viable plan of action to correct them by adopting environmental technologies. toward

4,500 firms employing and generating Growth

about 150,000 workers

The other side of the cost in moving environmental opportunities A whole management following

$11 billion in annual sales. 6%, or roughly of the overall for most

is the profit

is at approximately

from such a move. described

three times the rate of growth Canadian economy.

new sector of industry,

SMEs account

of the firms in this sector, with a large number, roughly two-thirds of Canadas environsector. The

mental firms, in the service

other third is made up of manufacturing firms which generate about $6 billion in for

sales. The service sector accounts about $5 billion.

Less than 20% of the output of Canadas environmental industries is currently export-

ed and, of that figure, over 80% is exported to the US market. Canada currently runs

a trade deficit in environmental

goods and

services of roughly $1 billion per year. Such data illustrate both the necessity of, as well

as the market opportunities Canadas environmental

for, strengthening

export performance.

Much of the focus of the environmental industry sector is determined of environmental legislation by the kind now in existence in less devel-

and, in many cases, anticipated oped countries.

This is primarily abatement though it is moving As the mix of moves pollution will

and remediation-based, toward pollution

prevention.

regulation and voluntary towards sustainable

initiatives

development,

prevention become

and sustainable

technologies attractive.

more commercially

Four generations been described

of technology

(Box 48) have Tool

in IISDs EarthEnterprise

62

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Kit It suggests that sustainable

technologies

adoption should create - at home and globally. Clearly, this is a challenge that can draw Canadians together toward sustainability.

and the products and services they provide will produce a number of benefits ously rather than focussing objective. simultane-

on just one

They reduce the need for the envitradeoffs that characterize approach advanThe

ronment-economy the remediation

2.7 Other
operating

decision
outside

makers
makers business,

and abatement

There are many other decision of government,

principally by capturing the economic

tages of energy and resource efficiency. phrase ecoefficiency conveys

and Aboriginal associations, educators, activist

communities. womens

Professional

the notion, also

and youth groups, and social in initiatives

but, in this view, true sustainability involves economic

and environmental

and social dimensions.

groups are all involved

Under Canadas new Environmental Strategy, Industry

that could help to promote

The relationship health, environment places economy

bettieen and upon we an imporprofession to balance

Canadas transition sustainable Professional future.

to a

the federal is providing resources for

government additional

associations associations

the range of programs and supporting initiatives

tant responsibility the medical . ..As must continue our vision patient health, a profession,

Many professional

across Canada have undertaken significant opment sustainable devel-

that have sprung up in response to the needs

initiatives.

In some has come

of the environmental industry sector. The three main elements Strategy of the

cases, the impetus

of individual important of the determi-

from the national level; in others, it has begun at the provincial level. The key factor seems to be a champion organization, and dedication whose within the energy

include delivery in a

of federal support

as that is, with the acknowledgement environmental nants

direct, easily accessible, service-oriented, effective cost-

are fundamental

way; more

funds to promising new research develop-ment and initiaand inno-

of the health

to the success of the initiative. Professional associations architects,

of the community.
- Canadian Medical The Environment, Deveiopmenl. Association, Health, and Susfainabie

of accountants, engineers,

planners, lawyers are all

tives to develop commercialize

and health practitioners working promoting

in some way toward environmental development. Account-

vative environmental technologies; domestic and improved access to opportunities companies. expected responsibility

and sustainable

and global market

The Canadian Institute of Chartered ants, for example, accountability environmental promotes

for Canadian environmental

corporate on

In looking ahead to the growth in the environmental unparalleled challenge

through better reporting performance.

industry sector, an exists for Canada and to demondevel-

The Canadian

Institute of Planners has played an important role in the Healthy Communities professional re-examining engineering movement; are

the Canadian business community strate our commitment opment

to sustainable

associations

and the competitiveness

that its

their professional

practice

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

63

guidelines

to ensure they reflect principles development; and the

an action plan was developed specific activities be undertaking international Currently,

describing could and

of sustainable

that universities

Canadian Bar Association

has prepared a

at the local, national

study on law reform options to support sustainable development. taken some interesting more sustainable Universities Architects have also

levels. nearly 40 programs and graduate at the levels at

steps to promote (Box 49).

development

undergraduate Canadian

universities

relate to environsciences The NRTEEs brought

and colleges

mental

studies,

environmental development.

and sustainable In the period leading up to the Earth Summit, Canadian university presidents

Task Force on Education together teaching representatives programs

recently

of these university

met with government community

officials, the business

from across Canada.

and NGOs to discuss the role in improving the capacity

They discussed regarding

some of the key issues and sustainable at the post-secondary report provides some

of universities of countries

environmental education

to address environmental issues. The result of the which

development

and development meeting offered

level. The workshops useful information programs

was the Halifax Declaration, some general direction in responding development.

about relevant

teaching initiative

for universi-

across Canada. Another

ties to follow sustainable

to the need for In addition,

is that of the Association Community In addition, Colleges

of Canadian

(ACCC) (Box 50).

the Canadian Centre for SustainResearch was formed the process of support

able Development in October sustainable

1993 to further development

through

for interdisciplinary

research and application The

of that research to societal needs. University of British Columbias Research Institute

Sustainable is respon-

Development

sible for organizing The Centres collaboration government,

the work of this group. greater and with

role is to promote between institutes

industry and NGOs; to prodevelopment

mote the need for sustainable research within community; universities

and the wider the

and to help disseminate studying

work of researchers development Labour unions issues.

sustainable

Many labour unions are actively in sustainable For example, waste development industrial

involved

initiatives.

unions are active in

management

issues, public employee

unions are active in health issues, and

64

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

teachers

unions are involved rarge

in educational to

Canada move toward

sustainability. highway,

One that

issues. Activities

from in-house from community

of these is the electronic gives Canadians

broad public outreach, work to international work, and from lobbyto

ready access to information from their homes and

The traditional to view natural as common subject

approach iesources property the change

was

places of work. This can become an effective tool

ing and advocacy hands-on activities.

for information and networking

sharing (Box 52).

The Canadian Congress (CL0

Labour has sustainand has

to opportunistic
Peace Like other groups involved in the peace movement, the Canadian Peace

officially endorsed able development focussed

exploitation; reflects

that we are starting resources...are to a public access for future

to see

on three issues: in

the view that these now subject trust to ensure and eniovment genlGions.

union organization the workplace, prevention change.

pollution

Alliance does not use the word sustainability, as

and climate Much of its work on advocacy, on federal regulatory and on

but it sees its activity essential

has centred in particular government mechanisms, education, its member

to the transition in Canada. and

to sustainability It believes

warfare

-The Canadian Bar Assoclatlon, SusWable Development in Canada: Options for law Reform, 1990.

the preparation significantly environment.

for war

both through organizations The CLCs Environa Policy in 1991 Alliance

affect the The Peace submissions

and public outreach. ment Committee Statement

has recently

prepared

produced

for Canadas defence policy reviews. on demilitarization

policy and foreign emphasis of is

on the Environment

The Alliances

that was endorsed Council. Scientific

by the CLC Executive

and redistribution

funds to increase development The Canadian organizations to the will Peace Alliances

assistance. Citizens highlighted

Inquiry into Peace and Security

Canadas success in responding challenge of sustainable

development

also depend upon which most relevant as sustainable

on the quality of the research our decisions research are based. Yet Initiated in September 1993, the Association of Canadian Community Colleges Environmental Citizenship Program was first pilot tested using Environment Canadas Environmental Primers as the basis for course and project content. T)he suc&ess of the pilot project was enough to co@rtce its steering committee membersthat the program could become a catalyst for improving college and institute environmental performance. All member institutions were therefore invited to identify an Environmental Citizenship representative. Response to the request was positive and enthusias$c: the initial goal of involving 120 institutions by the projects third year was surpassed within four months of the invitation. Nearly 150 colleges and institutes in 600 communities are now on board, Colleges and institutes, with their community-based educational mandates and orientation toward practical and applied fields, are in a pivotal position in this transition toward a sustainable future.

is not even seen research,

development

but is still focussed components environmental

on the individual

of susta nability, including studies, green industry

and global change. federal research

Canadas three principal

councils are all involved sustainable

in some way in promoting development (Box 51).

There are, of course, many examples of how new technologies are helping

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

65

the connections

between

security

in all its social

mandates

and roles. It is clear that tradiof aid and assistance to solve the problems are of

aspects - economic,

environmental,

tional forms notadequate growing

and political - and sustainability. Development NGOs Canadian their

poverty

and global ecosystem of development NGOs are turning and

destruction. are needed. their attention

New strategies Development

Like other NGOs around the world, development NGOs are re-examining

to policy development

policy advocacy national forums. is an important In the recent policy review, International

in both national and interIncreasingly, sustainability

part of that work. parliamentary foreign

the Canadian Council for Cooperation (CCIC), a coalition

of 125 development

NGOs, recommended

that the pivotal goal for Canadian foreign policy is the promotion and sustainability. is continuing processes existing networks to develop of global justice

At the global level, CCIC in the UNCED between

work started

to build agreements

environmental

and development

about how they work together credible alternative policies,

to share experience international forums.

and to influence

CCIC is also starting a working sustainable livelihoods

group on to

as a contribution

the World Summit In winter

on Social Development. on

1995, it will run a workshop policies and practice for About

environmental member

organizations.

15 members

work together multilateral

in a CCIC round table on to share experience is a

advocacy

and strategies.

UNCED fallow-up

major part of the agenda. Development environmental in environment working NGOs are working with

NGOs across the country and development (E&D)

groups attached

to CCIC provincial Net-

councils or Canadian work provincial

Environmental

networks.

For instance, group

the British Columbia

E&D working

was active on the forestry UNCED and continues Many of these working

issue during

to be involved. groups have had

66

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

representatives Commission Generally

at the United Nations on Sustainable Development. NGOs

of the issues throughout advocacy to these

society)

and

(to push for practical problems).

solutions

As governments

speaking,

development

have opened processes,

up their decision-making environmental groups have demands

are eager to ensure that the Canadian debate on sustainability context. national is set in a global

been confronted

with increasing

It makes no sense to try to achieve sustainability in an unsustainable will

for their input to consultative They will continue in putting

processes. players

to be important

global system. ultimately

Global sustainability a more equitable

issues on the public agenda about stresses

require

and raising awareness on the environment.

sharing of the earths carrying capacity. For instance, someday we are going to how do

have to answer

the question,

we share the globes carrying capacity for CO,? We could divide the available carrying capacity by population or by GNP The WEB/Nirv Centre is a global communications system designed to serve the needs of the environmental, peace, international development, suciat justice and social services corn1mmities. WEB enables users throughout Canada end in most countries around the world to communi. cate,with one another and share information through electronic mail, computer conferences and a user directory. Many computer conferences relat&I to sustainable developmenttake place on WEB including United Nations documents and related discussions. WEB is working with the Foundation for Interr&ionai Training to establish a womens network that will share information and prepare input forthe 1995 World Conference on Wbmen in Beijing. WE6 is creating a Community Economic Development Research and information Clearinghouse to link communiv economic developmentpradtitioners in Ontario and has recently secured funding to tink at1 environment groups in Qntario. WEB also feeds information to othei.ne&&ks - school-based networks, free nets, library networks so that information iS wide% accessible.

or by need. Regardless

of how we do or it is likely and

do not share the carrying capacity, that it will affect Canadian behaviour choices. Canadian development

NGOs

are active in many ways trying to prepare Canadians for such choices. Environmental NGOs of environmental interests range

There are thousands groups

in Canada whose

from policy concerns environmental issues.

at all levels to local Each contributes developinterest

in some way to sustainable

ment in Canada. Some groups is limited to environmental

protection in a broader

issues, while others operate sustainable development groups

framework. are members networks; and ch Institute at the University of nce on Women and Sustainable s, held in Vancouver in May 1994 recess leadina LIDto the 1995 articulate their vision for sustainable vision uture. Part of the aim of the workth women in NGOs, the private secween research, policy and action. electronic directory of Canadian s and of reaional events that will

Many of these of provincial these

or regional

provincial

networks

are joined the Canadian

together

in turn through Network

Environment

(CEN), which organizations, and discussions

has and

about 2,000 member coordinates among them. groups activities

Environmental in a variety (to better education

in Canada are active research problems), understanding

of areas, including define environmental better

(to promote

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

67

Women Womens have taken development much activity and Sustainable groups active and individual women

Youth Youth are a proactive in society group of people individually of

roles in sustainable In the past year on the Women Conference in May 1994

who are involved in almost

efforts.

and in groups sustainable generation its current aware inequity

all aspects

has focussed Development

development. that inherits stewards,

As the future the earth from are certainly and

that took place in Vancouver

youth

(Box 53). There was also considerable activity related to the 1994 United Nations

of environmental between

degradation

the North and South. increasingly well-

Conference

on Population

and Develop-

Youth are becoming organized national

ment and the 1995 Fourth World Conference Womens on Women. involvement in sustainable issues is certainly International (WILPF)

at the community, and international

regional,

levels. They

played an important they presented paper (Canadian Environment continued development-related

role in Rio where position on and have

a national

Youth Declaration

not new. The Womens League

and Development), to be active

for Peace and Freedom

in Canada through

has been addressing ment, human

issues of disarma-

such organizations Youth Alliance JEUness Action

as the Environmental

rights and development

(Box 54), Environment Student

for years. To mark its 75th anniversary in Canada, WILPF has prepared published a 60-page the Canadian Womens and Budget,

(ENJEU) in Quebec,

for a Viable Earth Tour, Canada

World Youth and others. Seniors Organizations representing seniors in

book that analyzes

Canadas

Canada are working health, human rights,

on issues such as living standards they may not initia-

and education. call these

Although

sustainable

development

tives, they are in fact important of the sustainable In addition nizations, in almost development

pieces puzzle. orga-

to the activities individual all aspects seniors

of seniors

are very active society developto be

of Canadian

that are involved ment. Individual strong healthy

with sustainable involvement in initiatives communities, issues. together networks

seems

particularly on peace,

focussing health

care and environmental defence and tax budgets compared Seniors national are working level through

at the such amount

to funds devoted

to social programs. changes that

It then recommends would redistribute

as One Voice, but a tremendous of seniors community activity

funds to social programs.

also occurs at the out

and environmental

level. Two examples

68

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

of thousands

of Canadian initiatives Services, vegetable

include has

on two aspects of sustainable how the lack of sustainable cause disability of toxins,

development: can

the Seniors Outreach organized sustainable

which

practices

gardening

(e.g., the results of misuse security in corpoand


and 1991, capital on abatement in expenditures pollution

and harvesting

by seniors at an old mill site, Coast Wildlife Seniors

lack of worker

and the Sunshine Group, which rehabilitation through

rations and war, and malnutrition) how to integrate sustainable Foundations A sector of Canadian society the disabled

is undertaking

animal

into any

and sharing the knowledge sessions with

development

initiatives.

intergenerational

Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. Disabled Much of the work of organizations disabled people focussed on human components The Council for example, accessibility for rights

and control

that has in

Canada four

increased times...from

yet to receive this document Foundations supporting movement continues

adequate

attention

is charitable

foundations. role in

0.7% to 2.8% of
total investments.

play an important

and health,

two important development.

the work of NGOs. As the toward smaller government

of sustainable

of Canadians with Disabilities, is an advocacy for, identifying group promoting and meeting

in Canada, the role of foundasuch groups will important. NGOs

tions in supporting become increasingly

the needs for, the

of, and equalizing disabled population

opportunities

will have to adapt to a new reality and Canadians will have to recognize interests that ade-

of Canada. Their work to the social-equity development. has created and Sustain-

significantly

contributes

if they want their special quately represented either

aspect of sustainable Disabled Peoples

they will have to help through a renewed or through

that happen, International commitment direct financial foundations to support a Task Force on Environment able Development issues of disabled development. which peoples

to volunteerism, support.

The choices

lobbies around the and sustainable

make about who and what could certainly have an impact

Much of its work focusses

on Canadas transition

to sustainability.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

69

Recalls

the context

international for sustainable development. Considers

current

roles of international environmental, development economic Reviews Canadas and organizations. some of international in the

commitments development. Recognizes experiences countries sustainability

area of sustainable

the of other in national planning.

he success with which we manage with the rest of the world impact on our ability development at

waste from the former Soviet Union threatens the natural food supply and health of Aboriginal peoples in Canadas Arctic, while other airborne toxins from the southern of the hemisphere reaches

our relations

will have a decisive sustainable

to promote

home and abroad. Our ability to shape international regimes and institutions will also burdens climate

pose similar problems

for Canadians in other parts of the country. As a country with the second largest land

enable us to share our adjustment with others and build a supportive in which our domestic As such, a successful efforts

can flourish.

mass in the world, and the worlds

borders on three oceans coastline, Canada exposed 30%

longest

national strategy dimension. and on

is one of the most internationally countries in the world.

must have an international American economic,

Approximately

environmental

of our GDP, three million jobs, and the prosperity depend of many of our communities on exports. of living (Box 55) resource

social policies have a powerful Canada. For example, 90% of Canadians distance because

influence

more than easy driving in

directly

live within

of the United States an increase

Maintaining

Canadas standard in the world

Canadian gasoline CO, emissions

or carbon taxes to reduce a similar increase

one of the highest depends

without

not only on responsible

in the United States could cause more Canadians to cross the border for better prices, with a loss of economic in Canada and possible the desired environmental negation activity of

stewardship

at home, but also on enabling

the free flow of trade in an environmentallyenhancing preferences, ments, and sustainable standards, way. Consumer instruand

economic

benefit.

domestic

regulations,

subsidies

environmental European fishing fleets have contributed to the depletion of fish stocks off Canadas cost to the commu-

policies of our trading partners and important effect

can have an immediate

on Canadas ability to serve foreign and thus to generate economies the employment

markets, and

East coast, at immense

nities that have relied on that resource for several hundred years. Airborne nuclear

of scale on which our status as power ultimately depends.

a major industrial At the same time, opment at home

Canada has formidable sustainable develit to the and extending

assets for enhancing

international

community.

With a leading critical scientific

share of many of the worlds natural resources, distinguished

and research for effective

capabilities environmental

and a reputation diplomacy, its envithe

Canada can do much to protect ronmental interests and enhance

global good. Although to use unilateral hesitated

rarely compelled we have not as with

measures,

to act when

necessary,

the Arctic Waters

Pollution

Prevention initiatives stocks.

Act of 1970 and the recent to protect Atlantic groundfish

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

More often, we rely on legislation, and public diplomacy with major powers,

lobbying,

Strengthening

environmental

institutions is

in bilateral relationships such as in the decadesources

relative to their economic

counterparts

very much in Canadas national interest. With about 3% of the worlds GNP and share of international trade, Canada is
land used roads, in Canada for highways, drive ways lots. is

long quest to reduce American of acid rain. But above all, Canada has found solutions in building strong, effective multilateral insti,

at best the seventh-ranked

. ..a 5 ha parcel land... Canadian person an equal ductive would requiring could consumption If we allotted share land), receive their

of

economic

power

in the world.

sustain by one each (of proeveryone 1.7 ha, to resource

But with about 10% of the worlds forests and fresh water, it is arguably the first-ranked environmental Integrating power. social

tutions. That preference for multilateral institution

and parking

building has acquired added force in recent years because of the increasing transboundary dimensions environmental of many problems

indefinitely... on the planet

environmental,

and economic

considerations to a number

requires attention of international exchange

issues, including and

and the globalization of the economy. Canadas strategy supporting development for

rates, monetary

fiscal policy and technology transfer, but also ecological social concerns and

Canadians consumption

reduce throughput

such as equity as well

sustainable at home

across generations as national borders.

and abroad should also focus on international institutions. First, we

by two-thirds.
- Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1993 Environmental Scan

Given the critical importance of trade to Canadas economy and deficit, however, environment to a medium-term instistrengthening trade and

need to ensure that there is a strong array of multilateral environmental

issues are key In particular,

and social organizations set of economic

strategy.

to balance the powerful tutions

the claims of the environ-

created at Bretton Woods - notably Monetary Fund (IMF), the and

ment should be done in a way that does not pose new barriers to Canadian exports, and that enhances to, competitiveness the longer-term and demand access for

the International International Development

Fund for Reconstruction

(IBRD) and later the GATT. the integration

Second, we need to promote of the programs

Canadian goods and services Making multilateral more effectively institutions

worldwide. operate

and staff of these institueconomic

tions. In the short term, established institutions

does not mean building ontop of the overlapping up during

could be made more supportive and social concerns. equality

new bureaucracies

of environmental

layers of bodies that have grown the past century.

Finally, once the move to greater and mutual support

Rather, it means streamor even eliminating our

is under way, emphasis

lining them - restructuring ineffective agencies

could be placed on making these institutions (or their replacements) by endowing with greater cal capacity, ity for timely more effective among them and techni-

and concentrating

scarce resources means focussing where

on effective

ones. It also

the best adapted resources,

more on the organizations

scientific

Canada has real influence. the details of the international strategy for

professionalism, action.

and the capac-

Defining dimension

of a national

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

73

sustainable starting existing

development

thus requires of how the institutions integration

To date, UNEPs status as a program its location

and

with an assessment array of international criteria of equality,

in Nairobi have made it difficult and support in

for it to secure visibility major countries, relationships

meet these

and to form good working and

and effectiveness.

with the major economic

trade institutions.

3.1 Sustainability
witnessed institution formed

institutions
has

One of Canadas central objectives be to integrate the environmental, programs, institutions

could social and

During the past century, the world

and economic agencies,

three great bursts of multilateral building: the League of Nations the United

of the UN, whose

50th anniverat the top

sary has placed its reorganization of the international us a vital short-term our objective

from 1919 onward,

policy agenda. This gives opportunity to advance

Nations born in 1945, and the North Atlantic network Although that has emerged these systems functional since 1949. contained agencies from dealing

of making the UN system effective and dynamic.

more integrative,

their inception

with social and economic issues, the environment was

UNDP

more or less unaddressed. It was only with the 1972 Stockholm Conference on that

It will not be possible for the community of nations peace, rights tion, reduction integration the context to achieve any of its major goals - not not environmental not human not fertility not social - except of sustainthat security. in or democratizaprotection,

The United Nations ment Program

Develop-

(UNDP) has role

long had a pioneering in encouraging development countries

the Human Environment the UN system

economic in poorer

created the

United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), which still suffers from a secondary tus even today. UNEP The mission United of the Environis to provide sta-

of the South. of powerful such

The presence funding

institutions,

as the World resulted

Bank, has

in no major instituof UNDP.

tional strengthening

It has been given a role in the management of the

Nations

new Global Environment Facility, which could serve to strengthen among cooperation

ment Program leadership partnership for todays without of future

and encourage in caring environment that After UNEP

able development leads to human


- UNDP, Human Report, 1994

international

compromising generations.

Development

organizations. Among UNDPs recent it

the 1992 Earth Summit, reorganized its program

successes has created 21.

has been the awareness of a comprehensive through

and administraof Agenda

concept

tion to meet the challenge It shifted activities its emphasis to enhancing countries, in seeking problems.

of development,

its annual publicaReport.

from monitoring capacity building

tion of the Human First published by a Human

Development

in 1990, it ranks countries Index (HDI) growth indi-

in developing more proactive to environmental

thus becoming solutions

Development economic

that goes beyond

cators to include the core social criteria of

74

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

adult literacy, education as well as equity

and life expectancy issues. Canada has

Global Environment

Facility Facility (GEF)

and gender

The Global Environment was established pilot program

Since the Reports inception,

in 1990 as a three-year countries

ranked first or second in the world on the combined what index (but somegender

to help developing

and economies-in-transition

less when

In an increasingly interdependent no countrvs mental


remain

address

global environmenin four areas: of the ozone of climate of and

equality Another

is taken into account). obiective for Canada,

tal problems protection

world, environcan
out of

which would more valuable,

make the Index would be for

layer; mitigation change; biological stopping

iolicy
too far

conservation diversity;

UNDP and UNEP to incorporate a Sustainability into the overall by integrating environmental with economic Commission Sustainable Index

the pollution waters.

HDI, theresocial and indicators ones.

step with that of its major trading


l

of international

partners

In 1992, the GEF was designated financial as the interim for

without economic

imposinq costs.

mechanism

the Conventions on Development legacy for dealing


-Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 1991 Environmental Scan

on Climate

Change and Biodiversity. UNCED named as the principal the Facility mechanism

The major institutional

of the Earth Summit was the creation of the UN Commission on Sustainable Developstates,

with global environmental was reached GEF. in

issues and agreement 1994 on a restructured In the coming employ ways. interest water

ment (CSD) which including

has 53 member

Canada. Its primary and monitor

responsibility of the years, Canada could usefully at the GEF in three its influence

is to review

the progress

implementation agreements works

of Agenda

21 and the other

reached at UNCED, but it also dialogue and informa-

First, it could focus the GEFs in biodiversity pollution and international Canadian, and

on improving

tion exchange

both within agencies.

the UN system

on particular

and with outside Canada continues follow-up

but also global concerns over-fishing. Second,

- forestry

it could promote

to play an active role in the

more visibility support

for the Facility to raise public and expand it

to UNCED and in the work of the strengthening

so as to replenish

CSD itself, strongly supporting

in the future.

Third, Canada could urge of an informal caucus to donors

its linkages with other UN agencies and other organizations. somewhat resources But the CSD has already been by a lack of financial constraints

the development ensure

that major potential

future

weakened

(particularly

in Asia) will provide funding

the neces-

and by bureaucratic

sary expanded the GEF. Fourth, the concept include

for replenishing

inherent within the UN. Canada could use moves to reform the UN as an opportunity to strengthen the CSD, particularly its policy

Canada could expand waters to

of international

coastal zones, estuaries

and large

and implementation

roles. The CSD should

lakes. And fifth,

it could urge that the approach research

also actively identify the post-Rio issues and help to mobilize political will, especially among its own members, to address them.

GEF move to a more integrative regarding its designated issues,

and funding.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

-*-

---a

,,,.lmitments
in the above institutions is other international organiza-

This 600-page 40 chapters sections.

document

is divided

into

under four comprehensive

Each chapter sets out a variety and suggested achieving Agenda actions for Overall, a guide for

of objectives

trons should be guided, by our existing commitments.

but not confined,

them.

international Indeed,

21 provides

Canadas commitments ment acquired treaty

international to implenewly international obligations the require federal

into the next century business policies, choices.

much of our effort should be devoted objective to the long-term and

and government and for personal Given Agenda 21s

of supporting

and enforce

strengthening

those inteconven-

scope it was emphasized that individual businesses governments,

grated international

tions that address Canadian priorities, and to the interim

to protect environment a broadened role matters


Canadian

and NGOs would

have to take on the responsibility for developing their

goal of using the Biodiversity Convention greater to move toward

own plans of action. This has been done in a variety of ways throughout the world

integration.

in environmental domestically.
Bar Association, 1990.

Canadas general approach to strengthening conventions concentrate such

(Chapter 3.5), but the lack of adequate constrained resources has

should be to on issues that

implementation 21 to date.

involve global public goods commons; by current

or the global Biological Negotiations Diversity

of Agenda Diversity

those that are most threatened unsustainable practices; and equity. the

those that address intergenerational

for the Convention

on Biological

Such criteria can only help to strengthen Biodiversity

were completed

in time for it to at UNCED

and Climate Change Conventions Protocol, among others.

be signed by over 150 countries

and the Montreal Agenda Agenda 2I

in June 1992. It has since been ratified by over 50 countries December and came into force in

1993. The first Conference body,

21 is the global plan of action by 179 States at the It outlines a vast work that aims

of the Parties, the decision-making was held in December The Convention the conservation sustainable equitable 1994.

that was developed 1992 Earth Summit. program

has three main objectives: of biological diversity; the

for the 21 st century

to reconcile environment society regions

the need for a high quality with the need for a healthy for all peoples It strongly and

use of its components; sharing of benefits resources.

and the

arising from Countries will

and economy of the world.

the use of genetic be encouraged diversity

emphaholistic

to conserve

local biological that, if used can provide

sizes the need for an integrative, approach economic partnerships national to environmental, development

in the knowledge this resource

social and

sustainably, financial

and encourages and inter-

returns and, more importantly, its disappearance forever.

at local, national

will prevent

levels to achieve development.

the goals Canada became the first industrialized country to ratify the Convention and

of sustainable

76

Canadian

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for

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1995

immediately

began developing

a response

Developed countries

countries

must help developing of and

to it. Each signatory national strategies sustainable Biodiversity establishes

is required to develop for The conservation and

deal with the requirements by providing money

the Convention technical

use of biodiversity. Strategy, described a framework

The Canadian in Chapter 2,

assistance

to help them measure gases; by assisting vulnerable to the


five per capita waste producers

the flow of greenhouse countries effects particularly of climate

for action within for

each jurisdiction

and a framework

change

to meet their environmen-

Canadians to participate of biodiversity.

in the conservation is in place,

adaptation

costs; by providing

Once tCle Strategy

tally sound technologies; the development these developing Montreal Protocol Protocol

and by supporting in

in the world.

Canada should undertake ence of the Convention

to host a confersignatories, with a

of such technologies countries.

view to increasing support for this instrument and its immediate


Climate

implementation.

The Montreal Change Convention

on Substances

that

Delete the Ozone Layer was negotiated in Montreal in 1987 and commits parties

Canada signed the Framework on Climate Summit December Change

(CCC) at the Earth it in

to a reduction through

of CFC and halon emissions on their production and

in June 1992, and ratified

controls

of that year. The Convention 1994 and the parties

use. These two chemicals

have been detereffects

came into force in March first meeting

mined to have the most damaging on the earths protective Two subsequent

of the signatory 1995.

ozone layer. to the

was held in March

amendments

The CCCs goal is to stabilize gases in the atmosphere not dangerously system. Because

greenhouse

Protocol

(London,

1990 and Copenhagen, in the addition of new

at levels that will

1992) have resulted ozone-depleting regime

upset the global climate most of the worlds presently come

chemicals

to the controls of the phase-out

and a quickening

greenhouse

gas emissions countries,

schedule Because

for CFCs and halon. Canada has been at the forefront activity to address the it was

from developed recognizes

the Convention should take of international problem

that those countries climate

the lead in fighting adverse effects.

change and its

of ozone

layer depletion

all the more disturbing The Convention requires that developed expect a 10% increase

to learn that it can of UVWJVB expo-

nations as well as economies-in-transition (e.g., Eastern Europei adopt national and take measures greenhouse them to limit emissions policies of

sure because enough

of our failure to take fast and remedial action. This

preventive

is not just an environmental

and economic

gases. In addition, greenhouse and oceans.

it requires gas sinks, The aim is

issue, it is a major health and social issue.

to protect

such as forests

for these nations to reduce their emissions of CO, and other greenhouse gases to

3.3

UN

conferences
are held each year, to and countries with opportunities concern

Various UN conferences providing

1990 levels by the year 2000 (Box 56). At the March obvious 1995 meeting it was

discuss issues of international to reach conclusions them.

that Canada had fallen far

on how to address in many such

short of its goals.

Canada participates

Canadian

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1995

conferences

and plays its fair part in develthe resultant action

only addressed and comsumption

population,

demographic

oping and implementing programs. focussed expensive

issues in an ad hoc, way.

But we should become and avoid new, commitments from

more

piece meal and inconsistent Habitat II

that might detract aggressively existing

Integrating future post-Rio institutions

environment in is the and around international challenge

The 1976 UN Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat I) was hosted by The UN

acting on

and development law instruments for governments the world.

priority conventions and moving oceans and More-

and protocols on key forestry, fishery

Canada in Vancouver. has decided

to hold Habitat II 1996, will of

objectives.

on the 20th anniversary, in Turkey. The conference adopt a general principles statement

over, Canada should ensure that future conferences less narrow oriented are

and sectorally becoming and

and commitments

while

and a related global plan of action. The themes tat II are sustainable settlement an urbanizing world of Habihuman in

more integrative holistic stones -the

corner-

- Document and Information Committee, Assessment of Agenda 21, 1993

of sustainability. and Development Conference on Population

development

and adequate

shelter

Population

for all. To date the themes quately

do not adeissues, along

The International and Development in September population

address environmental

(ICPD) was held in Cairo two previous

such as the exploding

mega-cities

1994, following

the coasts of many countries impacts

and their

conferences

held in 1974 and

on coasts, marine environments

1984. In preparation representatives involved

for the conference, were

and the marine food chain. The process will be firmly leading to the conference rooted at the national level

of 160 countries

in negotiations Programme

on a comprehenof Action to

sive, 20-year address impact included

issues that have an immediate on population sustainable growth. economic These growth, equality health

and will involve Each participating a national conclusions and includes

a wide

array of actors. must produce the process indicators

country

report that incorporates of the consultative national housing

sustainable

development,

gender

and empowerment, care, over-consumption female

reproductive

issues (Box 57), and internal

and a plan of action. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation,

and infant mortality, migration.

and international

our lead federal agency for this process, but unlike is co-ordinating Canadas domestic consultation particigroup, the

Like most OECD countries, the majority

of Third World countries, popula-

pation. A broad-based including

Canada does not have a national tion policy. Canadians any population highest country population

all levels of government,

do not perceive despite the

private sector, NGOs and the academic community, has been set up to this end. have been taking place and inputs into and the

problem growth

of any OECD

Expert consultations so as to provide pre-conference

and concerns a sustainable

that we have already population/conCanada has

research

surpassed sumption

deliberations

level. Accordingly,

Canadian delegation.

78

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Social Development A UN World Summit for Social Development in March 1995. The

Above all, it means forging an improved environment-economy link in those global

was held in Copenhagen aim of the summit

bodies that govern the world trade system and that provide high level political guidance system

was to focus attention

on the global social development crisis and to agree on a number of concerted national

to the global economic as a whole.

Canada will be in position to urge

Debt

relief

can be aspect up funds

a stronger

and international to address concentrated

initiatives

an important of freeing
of

reform once it has reformed or greened tic and national G-7/G-8 The G-7/G-8 system consists of major (with its own domesinstitutions.

it. The summit on three core

issues: the enhancement social integration,

for sustainable development.


- Report of Canada to the United Nations Commission on Sustainabie Deveiopment, 1994

particularly

of the more disadvantaged and marginalized alleviation poverty; ductive groups; of of pro-

of the annual Summit leaders of the worlds market democracies

and reduction and expansion

employment.

Global concerns, and cross-cutting

Russia participating

in the political agenda); level forums for trade, and newer G-7

as well as integrative themes,

regular G-7 ministerial foreign

were also to be taken into account failed to take a real to issues and

policy, and finance; level forums

Overall the summit sustainability tended

ministerial

for environment

approach

and for employment. G-7 Summit discussion direction linkage.

In recent years, the only fragmentary issues and

to ignore the environmental

has provided of environmental

dimensions.

on managing the trade-environment In large part this is because most

3.4

Economic

institutions
of environment will require a major Canadian international

leaders still treat environmental issues as peripheral to economic

and social issues. more matters This of the

Achieving

an integration

and economy

Heads of state will have to devote serious attention to environmental

effort to make the worlds economic sensitive institutions

more ecologically internal

in the future at the annual Summits. could include the institutionalization environment ministers forum,

in their legal mandates, professional

procedures,

awareness

a joint work

and capabilities,

and work programs. Canadas recent

This means continuing efforts to green Monetary

the International Bank

Fund, the International

for Reconstruction the regional

and Development, banks (notably Bank where

development Development

the Caribbean

Canada is a leading donor), new bodies such as the Bank for European tion and Development, Reconstruc-

and older entities Fund for

such as the Commonwealth Technical Cooperation.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

program,

and dialogue

among

G-7 environon issues

the Council at the Ministerial the Joint Experts procedural for improving the Mutual

Level endorsed Guidelines

ment, trade and finance of mutual interest.

ministers

As Canada will be hostin June in Halifax, to forward these

Supportiveness Policies and a further items: environ-

ing the 1995 G-7 meeting it has a unique opportunity obiectives. OECD The Organization and Development dealing Because

of Trade and Environmental Agreements, work program


l

and approved

of ten substantive for conducting

methodologies mental

and trade reviews

of policies

for Economic

Cooperation of
l

and agreements; the effects of trade liberalization

has a long history concerns,

with environmental of its interdisciplinary character,

on the environment;
l

and consenprocess and production methods; for

sus-oriented explore between

it is well placed to

the many facets of the relationship trade and the environment. in early 1991 by

the use of trade measures environmental purposes;

A Joint Session was formed the Trade Committee Policy Committee, tribute to improving and environment

life-cycle

management

and trade;

and the Environment with a mandate the integration to conof trade

harmonization

of standards; principles

trade and environmental and concepts;

policies.

In June 1993,
l

economic subsidies

instruments, and trade; policies,

environmental

environmental and trade; and

investment

dispute

settlement. advantage of eco-

The OECD has the further being the first influential nomic organization as observers.

international

to allow NGOs to attend of NGOs has to

The participation

been left up to the national control, and currently

delegations

only the United States have included

and Austrian

governments

NGOs as members Increased

of their delegations. and particiis of

access to information

pation by the relevant absolutely sustainable of difficult necessary

constituencies in the promotion

development,

and the resolution

issues such as those surrounding

trade and environment. GATT and the WTO The results of the recent Uruguay of Multilateral important Trade Negotiations recognizing Round are an and

step toward

80

Canadian

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May

19%

incorporating compared Agreement In contrast agreement environmental

environmental with the previous

concerns, General

The creation an opportunity

of the new WTO provides to remedy promote this situation. the importance in key trade and help build a environmental and needs
In 1991, Canada genetated,about

on Tariffs and Trade regime. to that regime, devotes the 1993 to

Canada should of sustainable disputes

development

direct attention

and mediations

considerations

in several

WTO that also addresses social considerations. to be focussed of environmental

areas: the new World Trade Organization, agriculture, measures, dispute sanitary technical and phytosanitary barriers, subsidies,

More attention

5,800 kg of
hazardous for each US$ waste million

on the trade implications agreements.

settlement,

and the Working NAFTA, NAAEC and CEC Although not an issue until the very end of on the Canada-US the environment Free was on

of GDP... Japan only

Party on Trade in Services. The new VVTO will build on the work done by the former Environmental Trade, through Working Group on

while

generated 226 US$

the 1988 debates Trade Agreement,

kg per million of GDP.

Measu<es

and International

a new Trade and EnvironAnalysis will focus on measures

the agenda by the time the North American Free Trade Agreement negotiated. agreement (NAFTA) was being

ment Committee. the relationship

of environmental

NAFTA is the first major trade to address environmental issues

with trade effects labelling,


ronmental

(such as packaging, programs and envi-

recycling

directly, or indeed to identify of sustainable core concerns. NAFTAs preamble development the Agreement, for specific includes development

the promotion as one of its

taxes) to trade rules, trade for environmental for transparency, and market purposes, dispute

measures provisions settlement,

sustainable objective of

access issues. allows it to deal

as a primary

The Committees

mandate

with a broad exception set out and on

with all GATTAIVTO trade and environment issues, including services those related to goods, The

trade obligations

in some international conservation standards

and bilateral

and intellectual

property.

agreements.

Two sections

Committees

status and work in 1996.

program

protect

the rights of governments

will be reviewed

to determine protection

the level of environmental that they consider on investment that would appropriate; contains formally an

The GATT/WTO are at a severe disadvantage from the perspective opment because of sustainable develto be to the

and a chapter important discourage

of their tendency

provision

dominated exclusion

by trade policy experts of environmental

a government

from lowering standards investment Provisions also make for the and

and social NGOs to partic-

its own environmental purpose creating related of encouraging a pollution to dispute

inputs. Rather than allowing ipate in GATT meetings, Secretariat-hosted expects

apart from a recent the GATT to consult at environ-

haven. settlement

conference,

national delegations

it more environmentally

sensitive.

home and incorporate mental

any relevant

Passage of NAFTA in the United States was conditional on the successful negotiation of

or social perspectives Some observers

into national note that GATr

positions.

a side deal to protect the North American environment from any negative effects of

has not been successful

in incorporating concerns into

either social or environmental its deliberations

trade liberalization. summer

During the spring and of

due to this mechanism.

of 1993, the governments

Canadian

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81

Canada, the United States and Mexico negotiated Agreement the details of a North American on Environmental Cooperation

In 1984, the International Conservation a framework servation of Nature

Union for the (IUCN) published National Con-

for preparing

INAAEC). Among the Commission eration

other things, it established on Environmental Coop-

Strategies

based on its World Toward the end began to policy to Plans,

Conservation

Strategy.

(CEC), a new institution cooperation

to oversee

of the 198Os, a few countries work on national environmental

and strengthen opment

on the develof in the

and continuing

improvement

plans, and the World Bank started fund National notably released mental Environmental countries. Action

environmental three countries.

laws and regulations

Canada could encourage a sustainable develstep

in African guidelines surveys

The OECD environin 1992, at

the move towards opment from law, which

for country

is an advanced

and strategies

natural resource

law (exploitative)

but it was not until the agreements UNCED that many countries to work on national started

and environmental The CEC comprises

law (mitigative). a Ministerial level

sustainable

develop-

ment strategies. approach of

Unlike the participatory Projet de soci&k, and the

Council, a central Secretariat Public Advisory Committee

and a Joint (JPAC). The

of Canadas

most NSDSs are government-led assumption with official

Council will oversee the Agreement, environmental and disputes

the implementation

is that they will be integrated processes of environment

serve as a forum to discuss matters, address questions

and development In addition Kingdom,

policy making. the United whose and

arising from the Agreement, environmental laws to the Netherlands, Sweden

and work to.improve and regulations.

The JPAC comprises representatives of

and Australia,

five non-governmental each country of Ministers. important

NSDSs have already been published distributed, Norway countries

and will advise the Council Public participation will be an

like New Zealand and progress. Others but reports

are also making forward

characteristic (located

of the NACEC and in Montreal) will

are moving

in this direction accessible

the Secretariat be available wishing

have not yet published at the national

to members

of the public

level. The United States and often innovative levels,

to file complaints. an interesting the to

has made substantial progress

at the state and municipal or national strategies

The CEC could provide model flexibility

but federal

for sustain-

for the new WTO. Indeed,

able development Other countries progress

have yet to be published. have made significant of a such as strategy

of the CEC and its capacity membership

adapt to expanding NGOs, women

to include peoples, years.

with various components development strategy,

and Indigenous in coming

sustainable Switzerlands

might well be tested

work on a national

to control global warming.

3.5

Learning

from

other

countries

United Kingdom In 1990, the United Kingdom a comprehensive ment, strategy published

Many countries experience vation

have had extensive kinds of conserplanning initiatives, from

with various

on the environwhich

and sustainability

This Common

inheritance,

and Canada could learn something their experiences.

has been updated complemented

annually and was

in 1994 by the publication

82

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1995

of several post-Rio reports. These include Sustainable which Development: The UK Strategy, national stratetargets them

Policy makers concluded

that this fragmenand

tation had proved counterproductive in the mid-l 980s they decided the sectoral approach

notes that effective

to abandon

gies containing and substantive are essential.

real commitments, measures

in favour of an inteenvironmental to

to achieve

grated approach problems.

to managing

The UK Strategy

benefited

This enabled

those involved

from broad consultation tion phase. Although strategy,

during the prepara-

focus their attention

on sources of pollution, effects. It also

it is the Governments the role that will

rather than their multiple helped to prevent

it does identify

solutions

developed

need to be played by other bodies, seeks their active participation, the decisions, individuals and finds that of lives

for one sector from causing unforeseen problems in another. in 1989 of the first

choices and behaviour

in their homes and working of all. that and that

After the publication integrated survey

are perhaps the most significant The UK Strategy judgments acknowledges

of the state of the Concern for Tomorrow, of Housing, Physical To

Dutch environment, the Dutch Ministry

have to be made

Planning and Environment Choose or to Lose: National

released

the planning system... powerful instrument

has been a those value a free

Environmental

for protecting whose through

Policy Han (NEPP), which was signed by four ministers, of Economic NEPP adopted including including the Minister

aspects of the environment is not adequately market. reflected

Affairs. a target group approach, transportation, construction, induswaste

Four specific

principles

are identicollective agriculture, refineries,

fied as necessary

for facilitating

action on sustainable
l

development:

try, energy, decisions scientific


l

must be based on the best information and analysis of risks; action

utilities,

consumers

and retail distribution. tailor-made some painful

This approach solutions choices.

facilitated

when

uncertain,

precautionary

but also involved

may be necessary serious risks;


l

to reduce potentially

It led to a change in the relationthe federal and other levels Local authorities became

ship between of government.

priority should be given to the ecological impact of using non-renewable and to the problem of irreversible resources effects;

involved

much more and at a much earlier up policies they would

stage in drawing actually

put into practice. This arrangement easier to manage country in a

the polluter

pays principle,

bringing

was undoubtedly

cost implications responsible, The Netherlands Another approach

home to the people

small, homogeneous consultation

used to

should apply.

and joint planning. setting out

NEPP was a policy document was taken in the Netherplanning for sustainable basic principles its legislated ronment:

and approaches,

whereas

lands, which development Kingdom.

started

revision,

NEW 2 - The enviemphasized policy. 1993,

even earlier than the United

Todays touchstone,

Because a new law was usually


problem

the implementation

of environmental in December

passed for each environmental

Signed by five ministers it has accelerated regulation voluntary

that arose, the Dutch had some 35 environmental laws by the beginning of the 1980s.

the shift from top-down including that

to self-regulation, agreements

or covenants

Canadian

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83

have already been signed with the printing and packaging, industries. The Dutch strategy sustainable generation of quantified measure decisions proposes to achieve one use base metals and chemical

Australia Australia published its National Strategy

for Ecologically

Sustainable

Development in 1992. that

in the wake of the Earth Summit It states, among all government

development

within

other requirements, departments

by making substantial targets

and agencies to

and time frames to the way the

must report annually

on the extent

progress

and by changing

which their actions have met ecologically sustainable development guidelines, and

are made. It also emphasizes responsibility

need to identify rating creativity

for incorpo-

they have integrated environmental

economic,

social and into their

into the design and use and to reshape socioIt recognizes that the

considerations plans.

of policy instruments, economic Netherlands cooperation An innovative approach structures.

charters and corporate All levels of government work toward

are called upon to of pricing and reflect costs

is dependent and action.

on international

the introduction

charging structures the full economic of waste regimes

that adequately and environmental

aspect of this ecoscope developed

has been further

disposal and ensure that taxation foster sound environmental prac-

by the Dutch Friends of the Earth, whose Action Plan Sustainable Netherlands space out-

tices. An original feature report is the way in which only the challenges 30 sectoral,

of the Australian it outlines not

lines the environmental available

morally

to Dutch citizens now and in Dutch initiative, the in

and objectives

of over

the future. Another Ecooperation

intersectoral

and other issues, approach for

program

has resulted

but also provides

a strategic

the recent signing of Bilateral Sustainable Development Agreements with Bhutan, equality facilitate a

each of these issues.

Benin and Costa Rica. Stressing and reciprocity, cooperative practices sustainable the agreements

process and foreign

linking Dutch trading policy to its domestic strategy.

development

84

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1995

Breaks choices using needs sectoral

with the on for the future basic human rather than interests.

past by focussing

Takes an integrated approach to bring stakeholders in a functional Encourages to consider of choices consequences way, weighing and beginning accept tradeoffs that helps various together way. people a variety and their in a fair the pros to

and cons themselves the difficult involved.

stakeholders

ach section

of this chapter

starts

but rather are meant to evolve in both their form and substance as stakeholders adopt

with an overarching development

goal of susthat most

tainable

and adapt them to their own constituencies In order to increase the chances of reaching more

will readily agree with. many - and -

There are, however, views within society

thus the Proiet de soci& on how to reach these goals. That is why this is not a traditional strategy

Instead public policy

of selling

the

innovative blinders

solutions,

the

on pre-packaged positions, engaging of of process between draws people and policy Instead communication, discussion and leaders.
and Immerwahr, 1994

of sectoral bias

have been reduced by organizing this chapter around basic human needs. By adopting a sectoral approach development,

but

rather a guide that outlines some of the choices we should that

the public deliberation formation. top-down

into the process

make before

to sustainable

they are made for us. The Choicework Tables

one might easily revert to the traditional perspectives

that reflect the 20th century mandates systems, of our educational many resource

that appear in this chapter are designed consider to help people

there is a complex of debate, and interaction public


- Yankelovich

the consequences advantages A

industries and most government agencies. employees departments and

and comparative of a variety

of choices.

Many longstanding will act as if their

few choices are illustrated for each goal, but space is left to encourage work through readers to

jobs depend on maintaining the status quo, not realizing

this section and fill in some

that only by evolving tions and businesses

into 21 st century instituwill their livelihoods, be protected.

of their own choices and corresponding consequences explanation (see Box 58 for an

families and communities This emphasis

of choicework). on basic human needs as ignoring the or definitive, discusand should not be interpreted

Far from being comprehensive

this chapter is designed to provoke sion by challenging opening conventional

claims of other species to their share of the Earths carrying capacity. The unprecedented impact of the human species on the planets resources, however, demands that we focus for

wisdom

up new perspectives.

The Choice-

work Tables illustrated

below are not static,

on the greatest

threat to sustainability

all: human beings, particularly consume Although

those who goods. suffers of treating

high levels of material

the basic needs approach

from overlap, it has the advantage issues in an interdisciplinary to bring various stakeholders functional

way that helps together in a is a

way. Energy, for example,

major component but Canadians

of a Canadian lifestyle, in energy

are not interested

per se. They are concerned like heat, light and mobility.

about services

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

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Final

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May

1995

Some stakeholders that electricity

believe,

for example,

to contribute

to sustainability

in both the

utilities

or bus companies until they

short and long terms. systems

More sophisticated to estiUsing powered a gasolinelawnmower can

will not be part of the solution are integrated or mobility

could even be developed

into energy servicing that by outor Ensui; 2 :

mate the effect of each choice on prices, taxes or other choices. The Choicework . Tables

consortia

are not constrained dated regulatory protected

agencies

for one hour generate air pollution driving 350 more

by closed markets forces.

th;$~n&ians

could also be used to identify areas of conflict and levels of

and institutional The following

than km

always have safe air


Choicework to breathe while mainTables lay the groundwork for a more valuable, consuming of involving, time-

consensus where

in order to show wwss more

lmmedlate

in a new car.

can be made and where

taining socio-economic activities that do not threaten global climate security.

consensus

building is needed.

phase, that engaging

This could also lead to a preliminary existing analysis of the gaps in work, including impli-

and thus empowering all stakeholders In contrast relations engineer involved.

cations of transition for specific decision

strategies makers. was Change of

to the public approach, consent which seeks to people An attempt

by persuading choice

at using choicework

that the experts choicework

is the right one,

made in 1994 by Canadas Climate Task Group, which compiled 76 measures on jurisdiction, to implement, degree Although

seeks to ensure that all choices are presented up their

a catalogue

and their consequences fairly so that people own minds. Needless

that include basic information type of measure, estimated impact readiness and

can make

to say, this is a to implementpeople will be involved.

crucial step when ing such choices more prepared

it comes because

of stakeholder

support

(Table 1). provided positions

much of the information because formal

for the changes

was subjective

could not be taken In order to make it easier for people to come to grips with approach emphasizes hard choices, the values this were identified, subject

until costs and benefits shows how a in a public

it clearly

complex

can be presented to reasoned

implicit

way that is conducive consideration.

in choicework considerations to quantify aspects relative

rather tnan the technical involved. They do not try or financial

either the timing

of each choice, and instead use a scale, which which avoids the problems

4.1

Air
problems have been at the local level in Canada, fixes, such

Many air quality reduced

of numbers

do not reflect social costs.

or environmental In an expanded

partly because technological version program, based more as unleaded scrubbers, gasoline

compLterized

and smokestack in response

on the results of an outreach detailed information

have been introduced

on each choice could charts or brought could also of

to the direct impacts and highly visible nature of traditional forms of air pollution. The

be found in accompanying

up on to the screen. Software be developed

indirect risks and lower visibility of CO,, however, have contributed to dramatic increases

to show the potential

each choice, or combination

of choices,

in this and other greenhouse

gases.

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In many parts of southern example, too much ground

Canada, for level ozone -

Because

of the international

implications

of protecting

the earths atmosphere, commitments

the main component has prompted

of urban smog -

Canada has made numerous to reduce its contribution

officials to advise people

to this problem do

to stay indoors on certain days. Despite the danger that climate change poses i: ,:,. .: ,) . ,-.

and to help other countries likewise.

These commitments, would result in economies

if honoured,

for plant and animal communities that may not

PrcWidkaf?ce& to potable water and economical supplies of water for other purposes while maintaining the integrity of our aquatic ecosystems for other uses and species.

more sustainable

in Canada and also respect our moral obligations generations to future

be able to adapt quickly enough, however, attenon

and people living regions

tion remains focussed threats

in more vulnerable of the world. This provides arguments federal address

to food production

for human needs. Although mitted change, programs Canada is comto fighting climate

additional

for invoking to

responsibilities air quality

most policies, and prices coninefficient systems,

problems are pri-

in Canada, which marily

tinue to favour transportation industries generate

linked to the ineffiuse of energy industrial habits

energy-intensive that

cient and inequitable

and other unnecessary

processes

but also result from out-dated processes and wasteful

levels of greenpeople, how-

consumer

house gases.

For some

in North America. Because air quality issues have rarely been considered in relation to economic forces, to

ever, this raises the question countries,

of what have

if not Canada, would industries be?

energy-intensive would

and where

their markets

and consumers pay for water

are only now beginning costs, most would

laugh at

Fortunately, warming ting home

the problems

of global are hit-

the thought air quality

of having to pay for air. But is becoming a marketable value

and ozone

depletion

much sooner and hotter

than expected. summers results may of

as air pollution environmental water

levels continue problems,

to cause

Colder winters

such as freshand health

not yet be proven climate change,

to be direct but there

fish and forest caused

dieback,

is agreement ozone

problems Increasing

by indoor air pollution.

that decreases levels

in stratospheric

lead to increased problems. substances

skin cancer ozone-

the prices of commodities to air pollution (such as

and other depleting

Although

that contribute energy, tobacco

have received most of it has fixes

and VOCs) to reflect environmental ensure more sushealth is to full of

more focussed

attention,

more of their economic, and social costs would tainable development

also been based on technological that do not address mental

the more fundapatterns

and reduce however,

issues of consumption numbers.

care costs. The challenge, move not only our economy

and human

towards

cost pricing but also the economies our major trading partners.

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4.2

Fresh

and salt
fresh water water

water
and disposing

In addition heritage,

to our generous

freshwater

Canada also has the longest in the world, from effective programs. depend ecosystems but it has yet coastal zone
Municipal supply networks the majority with in

Because consuming of polluted in property

many of the real costs of

coastline to benefit

in Canada are hidden or are simply the

management communities and coastal survival

Many Canadian resources

and other taxes,

on marine

not being paid, Canadians largest world. per capita water The most

are among wasters

for their economic This goes to

of Canadians their 1991, accounted water...but

in the

and cultural

traditions.

undervalued

function

far beyond include

the traditional

fisheries

this sector for only

of water

is its role in the hydrological keeps our forests, ecosystems healthy farms or causes

aquaculture,

tourism,

recreation

cycle which and aquatic erosion

and transportation mining and energy

as well as offshore resources.

11.3%of all water


withdrawn country. in the

and carries pollution,

depending Unfortunately, environment to the coastal and marine continues to be degraded activities, which

on how it is managed. Consumers use water would be encouraged

by a variety

of land-based

resources

ir a way that would of society if full-cost and thus

are responsible

for 70% of the pollutants sewage, pesticides by agri-

better serve all sectors accounting hydrological

in the ocean. These include sediments, plastic, metals,

were applied to water systems,

such as the wetlands and the aquifers

and other chemicals culture, Reduced human

generated

that purify water that store it. Like many other water

naturally

settlements flows

and industry. of water and

or altered caused

resources,

however, managed has

nutrients

by large dams can effects on coastal

has suffered

from being

also have dramatic ecosystems, Marine normal

by a specialized concentrated of the water ecological,

profession, on the quality

which

particularly

fish stocks. include accidents destruction imbal-

and quantity

sources shipping

of pollution operations, Habitat

itself rather than on the industrial and social systems results in

and illegal dumping. and over-fishing ances (including

that it supports. a capital-intensive treatment

This often approach

result in ecosystem

to water

loss of aquatic biodiversity) harm to marine communities

and sanitation

rather than a that with

that cause considerable resources

knowledge-intensive includes natural them prevention processes with artificial

approach and working instead

and the coastal on them.

that depend Canadians

of replacing need to make careful these choices

ones, such as large

reservoirs

and dams. experience in the is used

about how to protect resources

essential to

that all too often fall victim of the commons. by the recent However,

Canadas considerable development

the tragedy as shown European

of hydro-electricity

dispute

with the

around the world,

but most environmental of such projects rarely

Union over the management groundfish stocks initiatives on the in this

impact assessments

of straddling

address the more fundamental economic societies issues involved

social and rural of

Grand Banks, Canadian

in protecting demands

field also have the potential resource management

of improving

from the excessive

in other parts

those living in urban areas or the need for electricity in the first place.

of the world.

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4.3 Food
Farmers are under increasing pressure to land degraurban sprawl, deal with unfair trade practices, dation, air and water uncertain inequitable business declining commodity financing, concentration pollution, prices, agriand

permanent

cover or wildlife

habitat.

Full-cost transportation make foods imported less competitive with

pricing would from distant sources locally produced, prodthe

stored and processed

ucts, helping to maintain ._ . ,,. .,.-:;. i. \L-, ? i: :,.;:, -x~ Ensilie:a ,g&~ai&b,e value of suburban farming

land for

and to sustain local

rural communities.

iobs and rural communities.

Yet the largest shift in household expenditures between

system of food production, distribution,


processing, ~~n~~m~-

Improving the sustainability also the proretail and that of the food system involves changing

1969 and 1992 in Canada was from spending food, which declined on by

tion and recycling that


promotes healthy diets

cessing, distribution, food service are dependent Industries

6.3 percentage

points, to perincreased points.

sonal taxes, which by 7.5 percentage

and strong economies, both at home and around the world.

on low energy waste

prices and subsidized disoosal.

Usinq aqricultural - wastes products, and industrial

Various forms of subsidies, policies and practices tribute con-

and food processing to produce

to these problems the behaviour of fibres, would viability

such as fuel ethanol improve

by skewing

the overall economic agriculture. would also

players in the food chain. Direct subsidies, such as farm income excise tax exemptions, indirect subsidies lation, marketing, government, safety nets and fuel are giving way to reguby

of sustainable

A more sustainable

food system

such as inspection, and research

focus on the potential care costs through by increasing unprocessed

for reducing

health

provided

improved

diets, notably of high-fibre,

as well as supply management prices that do not reflect

the consumption

pricing, and energy environmental

food as well as low-fat foods. enterprises fish or game

and social costs. or attenuation of these

Family or community-share producing crops, livestock,

The gradual removal subsidies

for home or local use could also contribute to a more sustainable food system.

could improve

the sustainability by encouraging

of the food supply system less intensive

use of land and increasing for inputs. inputs

As the collapse of the Atlantic cod fishery attests, reliance on management programs

the value of local resources

Higher prices for fuel and chemical would encourage the adoption tillage,

based on maximizing

yields can fail. More fish stocks,

of alternaintegrated with wastes,

effort is thus needed to cultivate protect damage marine biodiversity, and waste

tives such as minimum pest management processed sewage

and prevent

and fertilizing and agricultural

from fishing methods regenerative that go beyond

and equipment.

In addition,

but may bring fragile land into production to maintain output. and drainage

fishery policies and programs aquaculture

are needed to restore natural and communities. of food, Canada should food

fishing capacities Full-cost pricing of irrigation systems could remove some marginal and into

As a major exporter

land out of annual crop production

also help ensure that international

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markets

are gradually replaced by more local systems that recognize levels and

Although resources economic

the exploitation has contributed prosperity,

of our natural until now to our

sustainable

the global limits to consumption human numbers. ing that exporting This would

we are rapidly deplet-

include ensur-

ing our natural capital, driven by the desire to increase to changing our standard of living. In addition patterns,

nations do not use deleterimethods to cut

ous and unsafe production

our own consumption

food costs and prices, and helping importing countries to increase their productivity more self-reliant. in

we must also work to ensure that our neighbours respect and other countries also

order to become

sustainability. are the basic social unit in and the livability determinant of our of our

Households

4.4 Habitat:
countries population

Human

and natural
with 76% of its But

Canadian society, homes

Canada is one of the most urbanized in the world,

is an important

overall health and quality of life. Our homes are major consumers of natural resources and water in in

living in cities and towns.

the building stage, of energy the occupancy of waste

our human settlements footprint that extends

have an ecological far beyond their

stage, and major generators renovation

in the construction, stages.

physical boundaries. consumers

They are the primary and users

and demolition

of raw materials

of natural capital from all over Canada and the world. also produce products Our human settlements many waste , ; . .o : +

In fact, Canadians consumers

are the largest per capita and water, and the producers of waste

of energy greatest

that are re-introduced with detri-

in the world. i economic to continue residential

For the socioof housing the

to the environment, mental effects

on nature and

ProVidkz adkquate shelter and a sense of community for all Canadians while conserving the natural habitat upon which people and all other species depend.
life, regulatory infrastructure and working as this is Development

benefits

indefinitely,

the future of humankind. The impact of the way Canadians live on the future

sector will have to

help ensure the sustainability of the resources it depends. Sustainable development community is also essential. on which

of other people and species around the world more troubling. consumption is even Data on global patterns indicate

This involves urban and reaional planning, particularly around

that the average consumes

Canadian

over 20 times as and copper

such issues as energy and resource reform, efficiency, quality of urban

much aluminum as the average country, wood

citizen of a less developed

more efficient

and well over 10 times as much

and healthier environments. standards

indoor living

and paper products. and unsustainable

As inequitable

dictate the density,

in our increasingly comparison

global village, it pales in

form and land-use mix of our communities and also define acceptable able systems rigid standards stifle innovation; and unacceptBut overly regulation

to the impact on other species, at unprecedented

which are being destroyed

and technologies. and excessive

rates in order to maintain existing consumption levels by expanding into new markets.

thus the need for more

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Between to 60% land used roads,

30 of urban is

in Canada for highways, driveways lots.

and parking

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flexibility

in the approvals

process without

private

landowners, efforts.

building

on existing

compromising Better existing

health and safety.

stewardship Achieving

use must also be made of the infrastructure. communities Economically

the goal of sustainable

human and

natural habitats will require new approaches, particularly during these

productive

must be planned so that they do not demand por-tation systems consume trans-

Some

scientists

estimate as 25% number on Earth by the of the Of the in extirsome have been

times of fiscal restraint. Market forces and taxation will continue to influence

that of

that as much of the total of species coulb first sDecies Cakada, designated Dated ihreat
1994

vast amounts resources

our choices, but if we are to conserve Canadas natural

non-renewable and contribute

to air pollu-

vanish decades

capital, the interrelationships between sustainable hous-

tion. Greater savings and more emplovment to be achieved investments infrastructure need

ing, human settlements and the natural environment must be respected. comprehensive these problems a systemic that touches The

through

next century. 255

in sustainable programs heat

evaluated extinct, or under of extinction.

nature of calls for one

such as combined

and power, district heating and integrated residential designed commercial-

response,

all levels and

developments to reduce the

aspects of our human settlements and recognizes the

need for transportation. The development sustainable of

_ Draft Canadian Biodiversity Strategy,

many indirect consequences of our lifestyles.

human seltlements economic

depends and

Partnerships solutions

are the key to finding effective to changing commu-

upon meeting maintaining also consider

objectives integrity.

that respond

ecological

It must

nity needs, and participation to the successful

is also critical of pro-

the importance

of a variety

implementation

of social factors,

such as housing affordmust

grams at the local level. Community-based groups can be particularly ments for achieving municipal effective instruat the

ability and social equity. Communities examine operations

ways to plan and manage their to minimize impacts on the

sustainability

level, where will occur.

most sustainable

natural environment the quality of life. Loss of natural greatest

while enhancing

development

habitat

has had the particularly

4.5 Humanrelationships
In addition a reasonable to a healthy livelihood, environment and human beings things. The vision

impact on biodiversity, Canada. species

in southern endangered centrated

Many of Canadas (Box 59) are con-

in three areas - southern the southern City-Windsor prairies corridor -

need other, less tangible in Chapter qualities

British Columbia, and the Quebec all of which development biodiversity the active

One includes some of the very respect, a

that make us human:

are characterized pressures. in these participation

by intense

love, laughter,

prayer, social contact, and opportunities

Conserving

sense of community,

areas will require and support of

to learn and grow in understanding.

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These needs, met for the most part through relationships with family, friends, are important development colleagues

more pressure to be innovative

to perform

to a high level,

and to be more flexible of well paid union jobs poorly paid

and neighbours, of the sustainable The presence of poverty,

pieces picture. With the number decreasing, and generally

in our society loneli-

violence,

service jobs increasing, many people need to work

ness, mental

illness, alcohol

and drug abuse, suicide, stress, unhappiness, etc.,

more hours in order to make

Ensure &at people respect one another for their differences and human values and are able to reach their full potential without compromising
~PP~~~~iti~~ of

ends meet. This not only leads to physical strain, but social strain on personal family and

are all factors that reduce our ability to be productive, to respect others and to feel fulfilled -they deterrents are significant

lives. In other cases, staff sizes mean who do have

reduced

to achieving

that individuals

a high quality of life. If sustainability achieved, emphasis material is to be

jobs are asked to do more. This creates a situation which many people in

the
others.

have no

our current on quantity consumption of

work, while those with jobs are increasingly overworked.

will have to emphasis on This work-related compounded a family working stress is often of raising Long and by the difficulties adequate

be replaced achieving few people of human

by a greater

a high quality of life. Although would deny the importance many aspects make them

without

support.

relationships, society

hours, single parent families

of contemporary increasingly

inadequate Increased

access to child care have all family stress. The faster that family pace

difficult

to enjoy. competitive

of life has meant We are living in an increasingly world, one in which spend riences, passing support

members

less time together showing on values. of children

sharing expeand care and fact

the pace of life, aided is getting

understanding Inadequate

by technological faster and faster our society

developments,

every day. By and large, competitiveover co-

is a contributing of crime,

is one that values success

or to social problems health, and violence.

mental

ness and individual operation

and community human

mindedness. needs

Many of the subtler described would difficult above,

which

most people

like to achieve. to value operly,

are increasingly let alone achieve. difficult to come

With jobs increasingly

by and to keep, the stress associated with employment is increasing. It is no

doubt greatest

for those out of work, by the fear

but many are also affected of not knowing Although improved whether working

their job will last. conditions have

physical

over time,

employees

are under

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101

Functional

family units, whether are important

traditional

faced with larger class sizes, fewer resources and increasing

in-class

or alternative,

for education,

social problems.

social values, personal growth, financial support but to The media has had an

and reducing

violence,

Well stress, attack,

off middle forthcoming rat race,

aged hear lots


t

important

role to play in

they can also contribute other sustainability In addition

man willing

to slop

our view of work, family and community most significant life, but has been

issues.

to the health with living

costs associated

its impact on increasing the demand consumption. for material Television influ-

alone, such as alcohol and other drug related problems, poor diets and lack of exercise, the increasing of single-occupied number dwellings

of garbage cholesterol of mind, contemplation, time good off. deal,

and high for peace

has had a tremendous ence on North American society, and increasingly

togetherness, love and Sounds doesnt like it? a

(replete with all the amenities) threatens any progress the energy appliances, to erode in improving of

the world. Some corporate advertising and many telecontinue and that

vision programs to promote unsustainable include tobacco

efficiency

cars and houses

- Norwegian Advertising Agency, Sustainable Consumption Campaign

unhealthy lifestyles

addiction,

The nature of community been changing. increasingly villages viability

has also an

alcohol dependency, foods and increased

reliance on processed mobility.

Canada is becoming

urban society,

as small rural

and rural farms lose their economic and individuals are forced to move devel-

4.6 Health
Most Canadians goes far beyond now recognize the absence that health of disease. physical,

to cities to look for work. Suburban opment emotional

has led to more physical and comfort for some, .

It encompasses mental ,1

but it has been an alienating experience for others. The and lack of merchants contact with

and even social wellvisions

being. Contemporary

use of automobiles community-based has decreased community

Create A t+ealthy environment and an affordable health care system that will improve the physical
and menta we-being

of health include not only equitable access to a good but also commuand lives.

health care system, safe and supportive nities, adequate housing,

members.

Access to educational opportunities is something

income

and meaningful

that most people would like to have, but the cost of education continues to rise.

In other words, need healthy but healthy

we not only

of all Canadians.
lifestyles be healthy narrow

environments, workplaces, if we are to

Governments

can no longer support that many have to in Canada. Perhaps over the

and communities individuals.

the higher education grown accustomed

In short, the rather health and the by health

links between

even more serious is concern public school system

environment much broader

must be replaced links between development.

at the primary and teachers are

high school levels, where

and sustainable

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Like water human

quality,

air quality

affects

Indigenous illustrates conditions, denied

communities the effects unresolved

in Canada of poor housing land claims and

health directly. health,

Contaminated especially when

soils also affect toxic substances Dangerous workplace chemicals ardous

get into the food chain. conditions, to hazand can of

rights to self-government. Many communities are now

working exposure and other

The fundamental conditions resources are peace, education, income, ecosystem, able resources, justice and for health shelter, food, a stable sustainsocial and equity.

taking

on more health-related themselves, which

substances, training

decisions seems

inadequate all threaten employees.

to have produced results

the health

some very tangible

People who

and may be an important choice to consider ning for the future. have an appropriate between in planDo we balance

spend hours in stressful environments, workplace either at the there,

or driving

are also not as productive as they could be, which hampers the competitiveness industry.

hospital-based

cures and community-based health care? What would more affordable system health a

of Canadian In addition

care

- Ottawa Charter, 1988

look like in Canada? health

to healthy

natural

Would preventative care programs lives than capital and highways? often Addressing inevitably traditional these questions investments

and workplace

environments, on the conditions and

save more in hospitals

our health depends in which

we live in our homes Inadequate

communities.

income

leads to poor living conditions tion, but unhealthy affect those High-fat, eating

and nutri-

and challenges

habits also brackets.

moves the debate far beyond the health care sector, especially if

in higher income

low-fibre

and fast food diets not but also detract by pro-

one considers communities

the health of not only human but also of the other species

only lead to poor nutrition from sustainable moting lifestyles

development

with which we share this planet. Changes to environmental programs, protection practices, social

that lead to increased and other natural

consumption resources

of energy

workplace

environments

and

at the expense

of communityThe

land-use planning are just some of the choices that we might consider.

based goods, services opportunity to prepare

and cultures. and eat more

meals in the home also enables of families human to contribute

all kinds

to social and

4.7 Security
National security, traditionally understood to mean the protection of our territory from external responsibility Defence forces, of the (DND).

development. streets and communities not

Safe homes,

and national

interests

only help to reduce stress but also physical injury. Communities cultural traditions able to carry on their will be healthier than to build

has been the distinct Department

of National

With the end of the Cold War, however, much more attention given to other forms now needs to be of security, in recognithreats

those deprived self-esteem

of this opportunity

and a feeling

of belonging of some

and responsibility.

The example

tion of the fact that the biggest

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to the security

of Canadian

lifestyles are to we must

billion-dollar

highways

despite

the fact that use of public

are now internal.

If Canadians

higher densities transportation accidents

and greater systems

feel less danger, fear or worry, address threats collective some of these to our individual security.

could reduce traffic diseases, saving

imminent and _; :; (,$2, . Det,&r6p

and respiratory

many more lives at much less cost. ,;,, ;, ( ; a :gocietv The reduction lence through of social viobetter control

Internal threats to security include crime, violence (including family violence), contamination or water of our food

in which people feel secure and safe in their homes, communities workplaces. and

of drugs, guns or the media, could also become tant national Greater security an imporissue.

supply, and job

security. More of our military budget could be invested to ensure secure supplies of energy, food, air and water as well as more stable

attention

to reducing such as living

social inequities, the number in poverty, substantial

of children

could also have security threats payoffs. are

employment, better Before

safer neighbourhoods, However, internally not all security driven continues or controlled. Global

health care and governance. we can do this, however, of these energy we must security

security

to be compromised transportation and

create an understanding threats. includes, For example,

by intercontinental inefficient

security to, ensuring

consumption extends

of fossil fuels. beyond the graphic the less which to globally

but is not restricted

This problem example visible

that Canada does not need to go to war to protect its energy supplies in of or those

of oil spills to include problems of climate

change,

of its allies. Investments decentralized renewable including sources energy demand

may have the potential

The Canadian structure, military them respond of public including ondary and disciplined, skills an inherent

Forces flexible gives secto range

cause more damage than the effects conflicts

supplies, managemay be

organization

of all armed

combined.

ment techniques, far superior

from a security

One of the greatest emerging challenges to

point of view than subsidizing (if only through credit

our security environmental deficits

may be the and social

ratings and loan guarantees) offshore generators transmission The resilience food supply drilling, centralized

capability to a wide emergencies, environmental disasters.

in other countries refugee to

and vulnerable lines. of Canadas is also closely

that lead to massive problems growing tensions

and contribute

political and religious over population issues.

and immigration
- Green P/an, 1990

linked to its dependence on fossil fuel supplies their derivatives. and

Many things has beyond building a stronger

can be done, defence force,

Transportation

also been long overlooked on personal security.

for its impact con-

to enhance The difficulty tribute

our sense and level of security. is in deciding what will con-

Governments

tinue to sanction

urban sprawl

and build

most to sustainable

development

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in Canada, what will bring us the greatest benefit for the least cost, and what should first.

infrastructure economic,

maintenance environmental

are becoming and social liabi-

be undertaken

lities for urban areas in Canada. When combined with the indirect this results rail service subsidies of of of
Between 1990, 1930 automobile and

The future role of DND will have to be carefully considered. Whether DND needs

air travel, inter-city

in a degradation and the neglect

to continue

doing the kind of work it curit could be reoriented

rural needs, which to compete

ail affect

our ability

passenger-kilometres in Canada increased by over while

rently does, whether to undertake security-related to be completely considered. to consider employers siderable through pollution

internationally. mobility today is

work on some of these other issues, or whether re-thought it needs Our unprecedented not only unsustainable and gloablly parents inequitable.

10 times...

should all be it is important

but historically Our grandaround the country, and the vast come

air passenger-kilometres increased times. by

In the meantime,

that as one of the largest federal and purchasers, DND has conits operations and

rarely moved

over 1,000

let alone between majority

continents,

potential

to improve

of globetrotting

tourists

better energy prevention

efficiency

from G-7 countries. personal tioned mobility

In the Netherlands, levels are being ques-

programs.

by groups

such as Friends of the Plan Sustainable a 70% reduction

Earth, whose

Action suggests

4.8 Mobility
Compared geography, energy to European historical countries, Canadas and low development

Netherlands in passenger

car miles alone. would be very unpopular but it is imporsavings

Such measures and difficult

prices have resulted system

in a fossil-fuel that is currently

to implement

based transportation unsustainable. tion Association dependence urban sprawl,

tant to realize that substantial in CO2 emissions through

According

to the Transporta-

will only be possible in mobility levels

of Canada, our overwhelming to

major changes

on private cars contributes loss of farmof

and modes. geography

Canadas and climate our

land, overconsumption fossil fuel as well as air and noise pollution.

tend to increase , ,,, , -

Erisure kvekof mobility and communication that support basic human needs without denying future generations similar opportunities.
actually some

demand

for mobility, the need

underscoring

The social costs of decaying urban centres in both large

for evenmOre efficient


transportation policies in order to compete Some stakeholders that the degree globally. believe

and small communities, exacerbated shopping by suburban

malls, also pose challenges to

and effimobility of

considerable

ciency of personal for the vast majority .urban residents be increased movement

local and regional development. Other consequences

could

include deaths and injuries from unnecessary accidents, streets increased alienation, unsafe

by transferring and goods forms

of people

and social inequities. caused by traffic costs of

from private

vehicles

to various including

The inefficiencies congestion

of public transport,

rental cars. within

and the increasing

This could mean greater cities for a wider

mobility

group of people,

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

108

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

--.

..--, - -.--

.-...- .~

-,-

--._.

and less expensive Because in building

to maintain. involved

of the long lead times transportation

infrastructures of land-use priority of the in decior

and the long-term planning should decisions, be accorded

implications the highest to reviews

sustainability transportation.

of new investments This would include

sions on the expansion airports service.

of highways of rail highway to

and the abandonment Generally should speaking,

investments maintenance ments

be restricted

operations, airport

and investcapacities rail.

to increase

should be redirected The employment implications sustainability Shifting traffic

to high-speed

and deficit-reduction transportation

of increasing

could be considerable. from private would vehicles to

public transportation

be accom-

4.9

Closed-loop systems
concerns of human patterns impact

panied by similar shifts in the manufacturing sector towards Increased as some autoworkers move

At the heart of sustainability is the environmental numbers

making

more buses and trains. in the servicing (including the

and activities. growth

Current

employment

of economic

are based on an of

of public transportation organization offset

ever accelerating natural resources.

use and disposal This so-called begins with down

of car and van pools) could employment of equipment. aspect would in the Another, be an

physi-

decreased

cal throughput depletion catching

resource forests,

manufacturing often ignored,

(e.g., cutting

fish) and ends with waste

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

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May

1995

109

110

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

outputs cessing products

or byproducts

of industrial

pro-

What constitutes

environmental

sustainability ecosys-

(Box 61). Often, these waste take the form of pollutants damaging and affect that

or carrying capacity for a particular tern may be defined

only in broad, relative Objectives management economic

are ecologically resource

terms of social acceptability. for ecosystem must incorporate

productivity. sustainability the and

Environmental means

maintaining

: ._(

and equity goals, as well as an assessment potentials of resource

source (regenerative) sink (assimilative) of natural systems.

De&b ti clb&Hb3p systems of resource use that maintain the source and assimilative capacities of ecological systems.

and constraints. of course,

capacities It refers

The emphasis,

will vary with types of ecosystems, whether natural the com-

to the capacity of ecological processes demands by society to meet the imposed without on them cumulative

or manaaed. u munities involved.

, and

or constituencies In all cases there

or irreversible

depletion. and

is a need to apply the precautionary minimum principle, standards, safe and,

When human population economic activity

were small and resource and sinks where

relative to the biosphere

possible,

no regrets

policies that

base, their impact on sources

yield both economic benefits. Ecological economists

and environmental

was localized. This is no longer the case. We live in an era where have become are limiting limited natural resources

by and, in turn,

argue that society net loss of natural current source redesign The

development.

cannot afford further

capital. In order to maintain When the 1972 report of the Club of Rome, The Limits to Growth, called for a transition from growth dismissed to global equilibrium, it was and sink capacities,

a significant necessary.

of public policy seems policy transition sustainability toward

environmental and link both initiatives. waste of

almost out-of-hand.

One criticism the probpaying

must employ

of the report was that it oversold lem of potential insufficient

supply and demand-based Industrial, commercial

resource depletion,

attention

to price elasticity efficiency, recycling

and domestic

gained by improved

has become a consumer life-cycle

an expensive

consequence

and increased exploration. industrial processes and few seemed wastes went.

What went into

society that has not internalized

was most important

or disposal costs in the prices of The increasing amount

to think about where the now believe to throughput

goods and services.

Many observers

that a more serious constraint growth

is the capacity of air, water and soil to waste products (especially approach CO,). must

assimilate

A longer term, pro-active focus on maintaining sinks on which depend.

the sources and

human life and livelihood

Some of the key policy issues that must be considered

and tradeoffs

are listed in Box 62.

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

of waste

generated

not only increases management resources but and often

Charges

for the use of waste

sinks such

the burden of waste also seriously

as the atmosphere, would

rivers and landfills to manufacappliances, by more

misuses

also result in changes Disposable

poses significant

health risks. Better control will levels

tured products. for example, durable

of the entire life cycle of all products not only result in higher employment and greater pollution energy efficiency,

could be replaced that would

products

be designed out. This addi-

but also less

to be repaired would

rather than thrown

and lower health costs. reduce,

have the advantage employment sectors

of creating

tional skilled A great deal of the complicated reuse and recycle hierarchy assumed by industry. production industries use installation excellent it would could be

in the design and

of the manufacturing

as well as in the repair and sectors. Waste is also an

More efficient would

of natural resources

also increase in global markets. out specifoil,

choice for a green tax because encourage while people penalizing products to produce large coninstead

Canadas competitiveness For example, ic legislation manufacturers ate it through

rather than working for the recovery

less waste sumers

of waste

of material

could be incited to recupera system of their own design, Petroleum increase

of frugal or low-income As in other areas, market

consumers. instruments approach

such as that of the Canadian Producers Institute.

This would

appear to be the most effective to waste attempting and sources resource involved management. to regulate of waste

the cost of lubricating ment levels associated use and recycling

oil, but the employwith its distribution, also rise.

Rather than the multiple forms

would

now produced, all of the costs manage-

prices that reflect would

reduce the waste

ment problem

in a much more efficient natural resources would

way. Underpriced become acceptable concerned

more expensive to foreign

but also more increasingly (if not

markets

about the environmental of Canadian

social) pedigrees

exports.

Major ways of reducing pressures

the throughput sources in all parts

on environmental

and sinks, as well as societies of the world, l stabilizing


l

include population;

reducing

high rates of per capita of material resources; design and

consumption
l

more resource-efficient of products

and processes.

112

Canadian

Choices

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Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

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May

1995

Focusses transition including decision economic education

on various tools, integrated making, instruments, and

accountability. Encourages to concentrate on the multitude specific problems and that all sectors more on those of governance management transcend and problems. Recognizes sustainability not be achieved a single rather step, through that will in but a series steps a people less of and aspects

of intermediate or changes period during

of transition.

tion led to unsustainable development in the first on

ather than focus on traditional economic or social sectors, whose and compartmentaliza-

developed tal problems

for local or specific environmenand fail to deal with sustainable Canada has only now begun to address the root causes,

specialization

development.

place, or concentrate svmptoms

. ..statistical indicates reversals attained require structural in basic processes... involve maior of consumbtion or other impacts that

evidence real trend they have not been when substantive changes production br when they alterations patterns significant

which cut across all environmental and developmental problems Where (Box 64).

of unsustainabi-

lity, such as ozone depletion, water toxic wastes, shortages and

governments have

this chapter approach

and institutions

takes a systemic

begun to look at these underlying causes, there

by looking at those aspects of governance that transcend

is an opportunity

to learn

all sectors and problems. According to the Canadian of the

from, and build on, their creative of which efforts, some

are highlighted pages.

Council of Ministers Environments Environmental 1993

in the following Provincial sustainable strategies,

and territorial development for example, a variety

Scan, Canada

has been quite successful at controlling symptoms water issue-specific (such as air and and dealing

on lifestyle...

have identified
- National Center for Economic Alternatives, index of fnvmnmenta/ Trends, 1995

of tools or mechanisms for implementing transi-

pollution)

with surface causes (such as CFCs and harvesting most pollution control practices). But

tions to sustainability. These provide a strong base from which to consider national transition tools (Box 63).

policies were

The transition following Positive changes systems

tools discussed are closely

in the linked.

sections

steps in one area should support in another. Sustainable economic without

are not likely to emerge of governance

new forms education, technological

and better science and

just as appropriate development economic

will depend signals and particularly

on appropriate improved where

accountability,

public funds are being invested.

5.1

Institutional
considerable

change
work on the environhas been paid development or taxathat

Despite

ment, very little attention to implementing in federal states.

sustainable

New legislation

tion policies and spending

programs

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Symptom

Water pollution &water scarcity (surface water & groundwater)

Solid & hazardous wastes

Land degradation & natural resource depletion

Poverty, alienation unemployment, material accumulation

:e
Cause

Emissions of deleterious substances from fossil fuel combustion & CFCcontaining products

Discharges of deleterious substances to surface water or groundwater & highwater withdrawals

Disposal of products &packaging that have reached the end of their useful life

Harvesting of renewable resources, extraction of .~ non-renewable resources & loss of habitat

Underlying

Cau SO

Unnecessary use of energy, water &natural resources

Inefficient use of energy, water & natural resources

Inadequate recycling of energy, wastes, water & nutrients

Inadequate controls over emissions, effluents wastes, & I^^^ -ri L..LL,.A

Root,
cyse

Narrowly focussed economic system

Inappropriate science & technological j 1 innovation

Nonadaptive institutional structures 11 I/

Obsolete policies & legislation

Under-used information systems

Inadequate planning systems

/3

/I

II

I
aaeta-doot Cause
Symptoms and causes of environmental Mis-guided Values and Beliefs

degradation.

Saurce:

1993 fffvircmmental Scan, CCME

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

embrace

sustainable

development

by taking

approach

is one of the biggest challenges development strategy. developis their

an integrated encounter

approach

will undoubtedly jurisdictional tension

for a sustainable A weakness

considerable

in a confederation if sustainability incorporated payments. The difficulties in introducing strategies

like Canada, particularly

of some sustainable ment strategies

criteria are into transfer

More will

dynamic

changes in in the although down of


for

~~~i:~,,,6,~C~~~~~~~al
problems, reliance and thus their on environment despite the

be required
institutional

involved sustainability

Canadian

into governments that for

structures U.S. Canada because,

than

departments,

and other institutions have been operating decades mandates with sectoral

~~~:h~~v~,~~~~~a~~rnts
responsibility development. that sustainable for sustainable The changes development
a significant

is further

the road in terms


gaining accePtance

should not be This probto the but

underestimated.

involves

pose

lem is not restricted federal government,

sustainability, remains U.S. structural behind in changing

it the its

challenge

(if not threat)

to

many national

and internaThus,

also applies governments

to provincial and many that were

tional organizations.

other institutions established the advent

capacity.
for

some of their employees may resist such changes. In Manitoba, effort considerable

long before of a more approach

interdisciplinary to management. only be achieved and departments at cross-purposes.

- Patricia Scruggs, Guidehes State Levei Sustainable Deveiopment 1993

has been made to developThis

adopt sustainable

Yet sustainability

will

ment as a government-wide has resulted in some

initiative.

by ensuring that agencies work together instead of

interesting

changes

to the institutional

structure

(Box 65). jurisdictions is necessary.

Such a comprehensive There are many overlapping where greater cooperation

The case of Energuide, Choice and the Ontario Act labelling redundancy, bargaining provincial

Environmental Energy Efficiency Yet the

is just one example. dispersed power

and enforced

that results from shared federalresponsibilities may in some it tends to of the political with various for some

cases be beneficial

because

increase the responsiveness system avenues by providing of recourse between citizens

and allows

competition

governments. jurisdic-

The disadvantages

of overlapping

tions are more familiar: activities when

counterproductive

one level of government level is doing or it; higher costs; lack

ignores what another actively undermines

116

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

of accountability; jurisdictional

and issues falling through

nations elite professional

training systems,

cracks. Some of the higher in determining

but also in the creation of new institutions. This implies dismantling some old institu-

costs include those involved who to deal with, uncertainty the

tions, which, during a period

and delays relying co-

that arise when

We must find and sensible making ment. find Canada Together, in sustainable

innovative ways of a leader developwe must and

of fiscal restraint, may be a blessing in disguise.

on federal-provincial operation, compliance

and increased costs when

5.2

dealing with more than one level or set of regulations. One of the real institutional challenges to address that we need is finding ways the decisionof First regarding Devolu-

Integrated decision making and planning


has in introducing

ways of changing how we act.

Very little progress been achieved integrated approaches institutional obstacles

how we think particularly

decision-making because of the

of increasing

making powers Nations,

- Hon. Sheila Copps, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of the Environ-

and personal involved. Many were to be and spe-

particularly

ment, Hansard~ February lgg4 I6 formed

lands and resources. tion of authority, ments

of our institutions ago and continue whose education

self-government

agree-

decades

and co-management

structures claim

run by officials cialized training flexibility disciplinary Although

established agreements

under comprehensive

did not prepare them for the needed to problem for intersolving.

are just some of the approaches (Box 66).

and cooperation approaches

that need to be pursued A sustainable depend munities

future or Canada will also com-

Canada has made considerable multistakeholder and

on our ability to empower or local governments

progress in developing

to make

more of the decisions interests.

that affect their local in Canada will comnterjurisdictionai coirjuak Caribou Management ment signed in Winnipeg in .--J -...-.. _ -- ard involves representatives d tnuit communities with provincial II (Government of the of Indian Affairs and la) representatives. t accomplishments is the development u Management Plan based on md a special-user assembly P include territorial hunting nmendations, cooperative ion, a curriculum-based school ?t and biology, youth contexts , an allocation priority list, a forest fire habitat protection measures. y and effectiveness was a unaniyears from 1992 to 2002.

There is strong support

rerly aad Qamanirjuak

for the idea that national sustainability only come through munities. tainable

building sustainable

If communities practices,

are to adopt sus-

they must be empowered

to make the kind of changes that will allow this to happen. The roles of different of government in this transition levels

to sustain-

ability need to be seriously considered. Effective institutional change will depend

on democratic the concerns and politicians Yankelovich underestimate

decision making that balances of technicians, bureaucrats

with those of the public. As it would be nalve to the scope of the challenge:

has noted,

success requires not only changes in existing institutions, such as the media and the

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

117

consensus-based

approaches

to decision have yet

would

be a major challenge

to those instituto protect

making (Box 67), such approaches to be integrated Consequently, into traditional our understand-

tions that have been developed specific sectors,

systems.

it could help to accelerate the streamlining of governments necessary penditures and institutions to reduce exand encourage develooment.

ing of the needs of sectors or constituencies our own is limited, understand other than and we to

As a government,
We intend to innovate,

even less about of issues. people

look

at

Old

the interrelatedness

with fresh to measure consequences policies


Creating

Problems eyes... and of our

sustainable

One way of encouraging to think and consider more integrated

the long-

~o~~!,t~~a~;;~~u~y
to a more integrated consideration of needs

issues in a be

term outcomes

way would

to focus on human needs such as shelter or food or health (as described in Chapter 4), rather sectors such

and programs.
Opportmty, 1993

~~~r~c~e~t~p~~~ing
such as coastal zone management and ecosystem recognize

than on traditional as energy would

or transportation.

This process

management. that successful requires

These approaches management

allow

people to move away from approach between integrative that emphasizes sectors. would this

of a resource

the conflictual competition Cooperative,

considering

the needs of all users the

different

in an integrated impacts

way, and recognizing

that one activity

has on another. designed to

approaches

An example

of a new institution approach

better respond to user needs. Although

take a more integrated planning

to land-use

is British Columbias and Environment

Commission (Box 68). By approaches need to

on Resources

their very nature, such integrated to decision making and planning

be more anticipatory Integrated conflict decision

and participatory. making can reduce

through

better support

information, and compromise. impacts

understanding, It minimizes

some of the negative

that can result from decisions in isolation. potential

made

There is also an enormous in efficiency and

for increases

cost-effectiveness integrated decision

as we move to more making.

5.3 Regulatoryalternatives
Sustainable be impeded development by overlapping continues to and competing negotiations that rarely

laws and regulations, and lengthy

complex

court challenges

118

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

address sustainability disputes

issues. Jurisdictional

controlling

sensitive

industries,

promoting

in Canada have been analyzed of

national interests

or security, and moderating undue hardships during tran-

from the perspective industry, relations, mental

intergovernmental cost and environbut very

Very few concrete have been reduce emissions American compared is needed targets. innovative sures would taken energy producers proportional the stabiliration
British Columbia 1994

steps to gas

sition periods. schemes

Insurance effec-

protection,

taken

can provide

tive ways of internalizing social and environmental costs into the prices of goods and services, but

little attention to sustainable

has been paid development. reform that

greenhouse jurisdiction,

in any North to how much to meet policy meafor and Unprecedented, have to be

The 1988 regulatory process acknowledged regulation economic recently

this could also be done through performance funds. bonds

entails social and costs, but only were environmental as factors. as of environand be within

and restoration Taxation

costs included As problematic harmonization mental reporting

is not limited It also

to tax payments. includes

tax deductions as well as a levies

standards might

immediately consumers

and credits, variety

of charges,

and fees. Government expenditures through

Canada, such a task pales in comparison effort necessary ize sustainable factors. with the to harmondevelopment

to meet their share of target.


Energy Council,

grants and contributions directly affect specific operaprocurement

tions; whereas

Existing laws might

policies can have significant ripple effects obliged if suppliers are

all have to be amended, because it is unlikely that broadly

to change

produc-

they could be interpreted to ensure sustainable

enough Given that

tion processes to be eligible

or employment for government

practices contracts.

development.

the thousands would would

of laws and regulations a legislative

be affected,

approach

do little to promote to sustainability.

fast-track

transitions

ces and Environment


and Environment (CORE)was 3 in 1992. Its mandate is to work with l&tries to develop regional land-use Ins and a provincial land-use strategy. RE must try to ensure socially, environstainable land use in B.C.; encourage 3tion in decision making; and respect utlined in a Land Use Charter that CORE and which the provinciai government subsequently e goals has also been prepared by CORE COREis currently working on a number ose strategic policies and indicators tion, COREis facilitating a number of j to develop region-specific land-use rer Island Land-Use Plan, was

This has led to greater interest in alternatives to regulation, forms of regulation. as well as to alternative Alternatives to regulainsurance persuasion,

tion include public ownership, schemes, taxation, expenditure,

loans and loan guarantees, and modification procedures.

user changes,

of private law rights and forms of regulation marketable production

Alternative

include information

controls,

rights and other supplier controls,

process controls, and price controls, Public ownership has been used in of purposes, including

Canada for a variety

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

119

Promotion through

of voluntary

action can be pursued and

fuels, while allowing to pollute oceans.

the resulting

wastes and

various forms of partnerships approaches,

the air, soil, fresh water Such subsidies directly

multistakeholder

or elaborated Loans and

contributed government

in codes practice or covenants. loan guarantees

to fiscal deficits spending. economy

by increasing

(a form of subsidy) as well lo modify or raising

They continue and consumers

to shield the from the real

as user charges are designed specific behaviour by lowering

costs of basic human Grossly borrows in todays artificial

needs. that

the cost of certain and the modification can affect Information requirements hazardous warnings

goods and services; of private law rights underpricing from our children enormous deficits. planned the world, has resulted social of

civil procedures. controls include disclosure of

environmental,

and financial most centrally

With rhe collapse economies

for the transportation and health packis

around

wastes

there is increasing indeed responsibility, signals needed

on cigarette

The define

challenge is to
and implement
accountin

pressure,

ages. Controlling

suppliers

to ensure that market direct the transitions to achieve

usually done through the number of people

licensing entitled

full-cost

sustainability.

to use common notably

resources,

in effects

a waythat
adverse or on on individuals

For prices to reflect the real costs of goods and services, economic instrumenls will

in broadcasting, forestry and process or the envi-

minimires and groups,

transportation, fisheries. controls to protect ronment quantity

Production workers

have to be used to internalize the environmental and social

have often been used

our international competitiveness.


- Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy. 1990

costs that are now borne by current public budgets deferred to those or

by limiting the use or of certain resources such as water

of future

or substances,

generations A good place to begin

or toxic chemicals. Direct controls characteristics be achieved wages

of the price, quantity of goods and services

and can

would

be to remove

the indirect

subsidies rates of

that contribute resource

to unsustainable

through

minimum-maximum (an indirect Usually qualway

consumption

yet remain hidden taxes (Box 69).

and prices, quotas

from consumers The resulting

in unrelated

of price control) related

and standards.

increases

in the prices of of energy, for

to size, appearance, safety

content,

many but not all forms example, would

ity, durability,

and purity, standards charac-

need to be compensated from income and uni-

can be based either on technical teristics it actually of the product performs.

by decreases corporate

in revenue

itself or on how

taxes.

In order to maintain

versal access to basic goods and services, such changes by measures would have to be tempered low-income suffer

to accommodate who would

5.4
Driven

Greening

the economy
growth many natural resources,

groups and others short-term hardship.

by a vision of economic

based on bountiful government forestry, policies

By reducing indirect subsidies of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources would become

traditionally

subsidized

fisheries,

agriculture

and fossil

more attractive

and could lead to higher

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

employment throughout offshore

levels in communities the country, rather than in Similar

that would

reduce rather than subsidize use of resources. also promote Such an long-term, employrather than

the inefficient approach

sites or other countries. and envicould

would

gains in employment ronmental eventually protection

community-based

result from replacing subsidies

integrating price raise consumers, places

cost with does not of where so can the over-all but rather them

ment opportunities short-term

profits that weaken stability and

many agricultural

Canadas economic international According

with higher prices for local food products and lower taxes. In these and other cases, special efforts would be

competitiveness. to the Conference

expenditures

Board of Canada, a gasoline or motor fuel tax would lead to

needed during the transition phase to ensure that displaced oil workers or disenfranchised for

they belong, and producers respond

less driving and more walking, the use of more fuel-efficient vehicles and public transportaand (such

that the consumer intelligently.


1993

farmers are compensated their losses. If governments interested in reducing the

tion, and the development use of non-fuel vehicles as electric

cars). The Board

fiscal deficit recoil at the idea of cutting indirect subsidies to the energy sector (estimated

- Paul Hawken,

goes on to note that a carbon tax applied to the sale of fossil

to reach

$4 billion per year) they could consider other measures, such as increasing gasoline taxes. of the impacts subsidies of is needed

A full evaluation

current government to determine or discouraging Subsidies whether

te for Sustainable Developallv and environmen-

they are promoting practices. lvet in Canada at almost -___ >n the Environment and the sach subsidies at $30 bitlion per year! rop, d&y and livestock products as transportation subsidies. Significant tiveness and higher effirading partners maintain

sustainable

could be used in this transition a shift to more suswhether in agriculture,

period to encourage tainable practices,

transportation

or any other sector. every sector of society, but largely invisible, influof producers and conway to integrate

Taxation, affecting has a very powerful,

ence on the behaviour

sumers. The most effective the economy goals would

with social and environmental be to repeal the Income Tax tax

Act and replace it witP a sustainability act (Box 70). Reforming sustainability This would income, would involve taxation

to promote

send the right signals. shifting current taxes on to sustainability i deficit, sustainability taxes, such as increased gasoline taxe s, would be better than raising income or corporate taxes.

goods and services maintain

taxes that would taxation

or lower overall in a way

levels, but direct them

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

121

fuels would supplemented reductions

likely be very cost-effective by fiscal offsets,

if

As Olewiler wants

noted

in 1990, if society the costs of meeting target, environinstrument

such as a

to minimize

in the GST and income taxes, in government initiatives point out spending (Box 71).

some environmental mental because

or an increase on environmental Some observers

taxes are the preferred the private sector

is very clever

at finding that taxes on environmental problems broader would also garner than

ways to reduce By shifting income

America logging forests. dizes Germany mining. often

subsidizes Britain company subsidizes Each

the subsicars. coal

taxes.

of its ancient

taxes to sustainability taxes, individuals would and taxes and

public support

shift their ingenuity drive from evading to conserving reducing

taxes on income and services.

or goods

A precedent

energy Taxes

for such taxes is the federal tax on automobile tioners that contain air condiCFCs.

country madness,

waste.

also have the advantage being able to be imposed quite quickly, with more results

of

has its green perverse ronmentally


- Frances Cairncross,

A 1989 survey of OECD member countries identified taxes,

as economically as it is envidamaging.
1992

or less immediate in terms revenue

over 50 environmental including water modest

of behaviour generation. if

and

levies on

pollution

and noise, One must wonder

as well as fees on fertilizers and batteries.

Canada can continue to maintain contradictory policies and com-

Much higher taxes on non-renewable energy sources, pesticides, solvents that conintended

peting

bureaucracies agricultural

that simultaneously production while on marpaying for Similarly,

subsidize

and other goods and services strain sustainable to reduce dedicated taxation development,

ginal lands, for example, habitat protection

on wetlands.

consumption, to reducing

could also be the deficit. As the

one might ask if we can afford to subsidize the price of fossil fuels while to reduce CO, emissions. trying

base of unsustainable revenues

activities ideally

In this case,

is reduced,

will decline,

the oil industry economists

and Bank of Canada

could be asked to choose the option: gradual subsidies tax.

least inflation-generating reduction of indirect

fossil-fuel

or some form of carbon or energy In order to compete national markets, effectively

in inter-

Canada must increase and ecological the proand other

all aspects productivity. ductivity in step with the deficit. Some research has shown, however, that people would taxes The concept to overall industries

of its economic

Unless we increase resource

of our natural

- not just our labour force - more

of our jobs will be lost to other countries. of productivity which should extend depends and

be less supportive if they were

of environmental revenue fund.

to go to general

rather than to an environmental

productivity,

on the efficiency,

competitiveness

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self-sufficiency

of industries. The efficiency

Many new jobs will be knowledge-based as opposed to product- or resource-based. will be used to of resource-based with which distributed,
hydra-electric project has flooded

with which Canada uses its natural resources may be similar to that of the United States, but it is far worse trading partners. some investments may not become such decisions than that of other major Although the effects of

Much of this knowledge increase the productivity industries

and the efficiency

in ncreased apparent

productivity

goods and services are produced, consumed, Fortunately, reused and recycled.

for many years,

must be made now in prospects for just as a diverse ecosystem disruptions, composed so of is better able to withstand too is a diverse economy,

an area of land about of Cape Island. the size Breton

order to ensure brighter future generations. Many lessons the forestry

could be learned

from

many small businesses production from

that rely on regional Such compajobs they

industry

in Canada, which

and consumption.

has started to forge its own transition mining forests to cultivating

nies, and the community-based

their resources

create, can better adapt to cyclical downturns and changing international markets,

and keeping jobs within of exporting

the region, instead Much more for both the

raw materials.

and are also less vulnerable energy-intensive

to fragile, systems.

will need to be done, however, Atlantic salmon overdue groundfish industry. industry Investments

transportation

and the Pacific are long

in labour and knowledge-intensive, fishing techniques and pro-

5.5

regenerative

Education, behavioural

values and change


that the

grams designed resource

to restore

and maintain

Although world

most people recognize

levels, and the local communities on them.

is faced with many serious problems, to make decisions unsustainable based on world views.

that depend

they continue

Most studies indicate that energy sustainability would

More land pollution, diversity,

information

on water inequity

If sustainable is to become siderable

development a reality, con-

create more jobs that are often better and safer than those which currently exist.

degradation, social

attitudinal

change

loss of biowill provide for change. to understand of process personal change. in and not the We

will be required.

Some of

A recent study prepared for British Columbia indi-

the key values or beliefs that need to be reconsidered in

cates that an efficiency scenario would generate not only

and violence necessarily impetus also need the power affecting social
- .lh&

this light include the meaning of success, economic petitiveness, prosperity, comof

more direct

growth,

and indirect jobs than a traditional supply scenario, saved by could

standard

living, quality of life, winning and losing, and the role of human beings in nature. Prosperity, for example,

but the money conserving

energy

also be used to create further jobs. Other benefits in choosing the efficiency

has long been associated


Pinn. Women from the edge,

with material

consumption

scenario would include much higher levels of unskilled and semi-skilled and better the province.

rates that are not sustainable. More appropriate progress measures of satisfaction, must be found. of what

local labour, longer job duration distribution of jobs throughout

and development

This will require a re-examination

Canadian

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123

people

have been conditioned can prosperity

to value as go

and institutional age individuals changing

structures

that will encourto

important:

and frugality

to be more receptive

hand in hand? Some have argued we do not need a new set of values, but rather a return to some

values and beliefs. We need to ethical society

find ways to discuss and debate issues in an increasingly divided

so that we can make more collective and informed A social proposed choices. strategy, like the campaign, devel-

of the values that many of our elders still hold and many of us learned as children. The seven virtues we know as prudence, temperance, fortitude, justice,

marketing

faith, hope and chariover the seven lust, anger,

SustainABILITY

ty, need to be re-emphasized sins of pride, covetousness, gluttony,

could help facilitate opment. beyond

sustainable

It emphasizes simply creating

the need to go an awareness of

envy and sloth. A re-awakening helpful

to these virtues could be extremely in forging many transitions Preventative,

issues by enabling the consequences

people

to understand lives them

to sustainability. measures

in their own

(Box 72). This could encourage rather than reactive, to re-examine change their values are likely to provide the most success in education, However, reinforced particularly for children and youths. because values are absorbed throughout and Of course, campaign the potential will be reduced promoting

and eventually

their behaviour. of this kind of considerably

life, there is a need for

other mechanisms

to ensure a social climate

if the forces lifestyles a positive launched, concerted advertising people

unsustainable it. If is to be by a

continue learning it should

to outweigh campaign

be accompanied

effort to reorient and media

unsustainable As

programming.

adjust their values they will begin of unsustainable will occur

to reject the marketing lifestyles. However,

changes

much faster

if both sides of the problem

are dealt with at once. Although intuitively society, many Canadians what is wrong seem to know with our current unable it. Part of

most feel incapacitated,

to see what they can do about the education process

is to give people

the tools they need to take action and to build their communities. will be needed Strategically, communities Different tools

by different

constituencies.

we should focus on those ready to make change move forward, in but

order to help them we cannot resistant

ignore those that are more

to change.

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Individuals,

governments

and institutions develof

In the case of the East coast fishery, believe that large draggers damage

some

all need to learn about sustainable opment.

were causing

Our values and understanding

considerable and harvesting Although

to the ocean floor rate.

issues affects our decisions It is everyones responsibility

and behaviour. to understand

fish at an unsustainable

this new technology

was an eco-

how to work with others,

how to think of

nomic boon to some, it might have been more sustainable fishing vessels. to rely instead on smaller Whatever the truth in this in Canada in This is of

the longer term, and how to see the .interconnectedness and incompatibilities of the

choices and decisions needed

we make. What are partnerships,

case, there are no forums

are uncomfoortabie

which to discuss technologyparticular number concern

which challenge

people to see other points new ways

given the increasing innovations

of view and to learn about of operating and making

of technological

decisions.

that raise significant

ethical questions.

Beliefs and values will change through consistent efforts to encourage tolerance

of differences creative

and new ideas, to value to welcome questions

of change
, was launched bv the ni about submissions about the citys future, city prepared a workbook of ideas he workbook and thereby lemselves. The completed pproximateiy six alternative visions 3. inviting the bublic to think creatively about what .. --I -- __ ,..._ ..i 20 years not only generated a real r sense of understanding on the part of the public, as and alternatives considered

thinking,

about the status quo, and to promote consideration natives of a wider range of alter-

in decision

making (Box 73).

5.6 Scientific and technological innovation


People have long been interested logical innovation, improve in technowhich has done much to

the quality of many lives. Scientists people to that Individuals and societies need to re-establish some sense of control over the technologies they use. Conscious made at the beginning development work, choices need to be and

have played a key role in alerting the environmental have emerged

and health threats

in recent years. As well, tech-

nology has played a large part in societys ability to address many of these concerns. The development some technologies, and inappropriate however, use of

of research

which

tends to be professions

driven by existing and individual

institutions,

has been the and social with

careers.

In some cases, working in

cause of serious environmental problems. technology Peoples

highly specialized narrow disciplines

scientists

awe or fascination

fail to make important the economy to achieve in instituhierarchical

has often prevented

them from of a it.

links between and society.

the environment, It is very difficult

fully evaluating technological In addition,

the risks and benefits innovation

before applying always

strong interdisciplinary

research

there is almost

someone

tions based on old disciplines, decision

who stands to gain from the use of new technologies and sorreone insufficient who stands attention

making and competition. the need to make

to lose. However,

This underscores information

has been paid to the latter.

about these critical research

Canadian Choices for Transitions

to Sustainability

- Final Draft

May 1995

and development

decisions should

available

to

There remains a real need for good scientific and technological must, however, innovation in Canada. It

the public. Canadians percentage research

know what

of their tax dollars goes to on alternative energy sources or on on

be guided by a strong public If the local coastal econo-

sense of direction. mies in Atlantic communities

versus fossil fuels, for example, cancer research reproductive versus research

Canada, or the northern

in Ontario and British Columbia new harvesting more efficient techuse and will be for Canada in other

technologies.

More open

are to be sustained, nologies that allow

public debate about science and technology expenditures would also require communiaccess to in order

regeneration

of natural resources

ties and NGOs to have better scientific

needed. There is an opportunity to take advantage countries, of markets

data, which is important judgments

to make informed

and to All

particularly

for environmental

provide credible policy alternatives.

technologies,

and to fulfil its responsibility and assist others to sustainability. in

too often this data is in an inaccessible format or is too costly to acquire.

to share knowledge making transitions

5.7 Accountability
Accountability means being held responsible an organization, Accountability necessary a for actions as an individual, corporation or a government.

can help build the confidence for more cooperative

or consensus-based different sectors of

decision making between society, something is trying to promote. be achieved, and corporate

that the Projet de sock.36 If sustainability is to

our accountability entities

as individuals tra-

must go beyond

ditional accountability or constituency past generations, continents

to ones organization to future and living on other

and extend to people

and even to other species. requires much greater and and for

Accountability transparency institutions other

in our marketplaces so that business

people

leaders

can be held responsible Some progress has been envi-

their actions.

made, for example, ronmental institutions

in developing procedures

assessment that enable

and

us to consider of a project them before and a are

the environmental the measures decision

impact

to alleviate Project

is made.

proponents

then held accountable under which

for the conditions to proceed.

they are allowed

126

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Unfortunately, processes policies

environmental

assessment

could be achieved subsidies

by removing

indirect

do not apply to government which can often

that disguise

the real cost of notably energy,

or programs,

basic goods and services, food, water and waste

have more far-reaching Recently, however,

effects.

sinks. Until then, of on green products and introduced a carbon tax on fossil fuels.

the GNP will remain some governments General or Comto hold Much more attention to developing indicators. economic incorporate progress have appointed missioners departments Auditors

a false indicator because

it will not

sustainability

criteria.

for the Environment accountable

for the decisions

needs to be paid sustainability in

they make and how they might affect the environment. difficult It will undoubtedly be more

and monitoring

Incorporating reports

UV readings

once their mandates all aspects though

are enlarged

daily weather direction

is a good start in this by

to include

of sustainable some are moving

and this could be followed of more interest directors.

development, in this direction

other indicators

to stockSuch

(Box 74). are

brokers and corporate indicators should

not only be statistically and Good

Two vital aspects of accountability access to better indicators to report regression. on measurable

measurable, accepted

but also easily understood audience. provide

and the ability progress or indion

by their intended indicators

sustainability

would

Regarding environmental and provincial reports

more than just glimpses they would the linkages compel within

of human activities:

cators, federal

people to understand and among human

the state of the environment commonplace,

are becoming

and more and more municipreparing their own

and natural systems. connections and effects,

Because they imply causes

palities are considering environmental reports.

and interactions, they should

lead to different

Work is under way to harmonize the environment reporting

state of

criteria for decision progress towards

making and measuring sustainability.

across jurisdichas been these

tions in Canada, but less progress made on the challenge reports to include indicators,

of expanding

more socio-economic

such as those found in the Reports of UNDP. In 1993 a State of the City Report was prepared for Toronto by the Healthy City office, This reporttookthe concert of state of environment reporting to a new level by attematino to report on the state of , the c&,4 environment, social structm es and economy in a single report. Coordinated through tt te Realthy City Office, it documents conditions and trends under a variety of different categories, including community health, economic life, the environment and education.

Human Development

Some effort was made by the City of Toronto to combine a number of social, ecoin their (Box 75). will

nomic and environmental innovative

indicators

State of the City report accounting

Some form of full-cost be needed ronmental accounts to internalize factors

social and envieconomic Canada and envi-

into traditional Statistics

and indicators. working accounting,

has started ronmental remains

on resource

but much more

to be done if such accounts into the traditional progress

are to be internalized measures

of GNP. Considerable

Canadian

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127

Recognizes implementation must

that

be a collective identifying the to forging and progress. the importance first will on build whose early and trust, ahead.

endeavour:

and overcoming many obstacles sustainability, new partnerships monitoring Stresses of working issues resolution confidence challenges Shows require

for the more difficult

that sustainable does not but new funding financial shifts

development

rather a reallocation of existing flows, involving

in both the revenues and expenditures of governments, corporations individuals. and

6.1 Identifying

and overcoming
there is a great deal of Canada

thinking

will be required

to enable people in a genuine dia-

obstacles

at all levels to participate

taking

logue about the critical issues that we must lthough work toward resolve together. highway Although the electronic under way to move sustainability,

may be one useful forum for this decisive leadership from

much of it is

kind of debate, governments

place in isolation. continue

Key opportunities

will also be important. chapters of this guide amount of

for synergy As well,

to be overlooked. recognized As the introductory clearly

it is inadequately

that most problems

will not be resolved

show, a considerable work

until their interconnectedness is understood. This guide to sustainability is designed cooperation between to facilitate more

has already

been done

VJe believe people collective their sense, connections resource often problems
- Rocky Mountain

that comand through

in Canada on sustainable development Like similar past, notably Society recent strategies. efforts in the

can solve action

and coordination sectors It

plex problems

the Conserver

Project and the more Green Plan, there degrees of

different

and divergent describes

interests.

own common and that interbetween issues solve can many

have been varying acceptance

initiatives

already

of the visions out-

under way, demonstrates the need for links, and shows the kinds of choices that Canadians must begin some

understanding

lined and often disappointing levels of implementation. It might seem that no amount analysis of good scientific (a characteristic Society political

to make. It also outlines key transition

tools that can sustain-

be used to implement able development most sectors

at once.
Institute, 1994

of the Conserver Project), pressure top-down,

throughout

of society.

(such as that behind

the Green Pian), or bottom-up, The next steps would governments, non-profit
First

be to encourage

those

consensus-based

commitment

(a feature

of

Nations, businesses

and
and

many local strategies)

will suffice to ensure of sustainable measures.

organizations

who have not yet

the actual implementation development transition

done so to develop

their own strategies

to begin to make the choices that will allow them to move toward In developing strategies, identifying sustainability. these What is needed to move ahead is not just a scientifically and implementing attention must be given to key roadblocks rigorous, politically acceptable

and community-based

plan (in itself a tall

order), but a strategy that will deal effectively with those forces that pose the greatest obstacles to its implementation. a plan requiring projects

and addressing building priorities,

or constraints, establishing

new partnerships, targets and timelines effective for

for action, as well as developing monitoring measuring and evaluation success.

Rather than developing substantial funding

techniques

to undertake

and build new institutions, focusses in implementing new institutional

this guide the exist-

on the need to redefine model, which

If we are to be successful sustainability strategies,

ing development

has created

our social, environmental

and economic

130

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Transitions

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1995

deficits.

Only a more sustainable such deficits generations

model

the diversity

of interests

and approaches collaboration and

will enable giving future

to be reduced, better prospects iden-

that exist. It promotes consensus-building mon fundamental choices

and reveals how comneeds are and how the make affect the
7% of the worlds but half of

than they now face. This will require tifying the counter-productive

forces that

that individuals

need to be coopted

and the obstacles or overcome.

ability of others to make their own choices. The choicework process in Chapter 4
population generate its waste, of its toxic

that need to be dismantled This means working

with individuals, instruments, educa-

shows

how to move away from the secto decision making and to of

values, laws, economic tion systems

toral approach

and most waste.

and other forces that are not These obstacles will differ

think about the interconnectedness issues and the consequences

easily changed. between

of choices. this

different

sectors and different strategy

It is not clear how best to approach new way of decision understanding comprehensive choicework making, beyond

communities,

but every transition

will have to identify

and address them.

that it must be much more and democratic. Because integrating to impli-

is a more divergent, that pays more attention

6.2 Forgingnewpartnerships
One of the main needs identified the Projet de so&t6 consensus-building the transition there toward by is cross-sector and coordination in

approach cations,

it should

lead to more partnerships between long-term different interests

and cooperation and thus better

decisions.

to sustainability.

Although

Because this guide is based on the premise that all

is still a need to work sustainability at the business,

The most Development will,

important Strategy lie in

sectors of Canadian society have a role to play in moving toward sustainability, it does

level of the individual community separate

or sector, these efforts will have to that they

part of the Sukainable therefore,

not include a list of recommendations stakeholder. for any single Governments

reach out to ensure are coordinating

their work and making

the way it is carried forward, arrangements for developing fruitful between ent sectors _ , tainable
kind

with that of others a conscious

effort to bridge barriers

and in the proposed a partnership all the differof society of susa

have a large role to play in the transition to sustainabi-

some of the traditional between interests

lity; but this guide has been developed by stakeholders be they

or sectors. partnerships win-win situ-

In some instances, can readily become

for stakeholders, governments, businesses organizations. Although

First Nations, or non-profit

ations. One of the goals of this guide is to facilitate cooperation where mutual interests exist by

in the cause

describing initiatives

many sustainability in Canada. A more

development.

the time has

passed for asking governments problems, to solve all our there is a danger

difficult but more rewarding of partnership

- Sustainable Development: The UK Strategy, 1994

is that represented itself.

in leaving critical decisions in the hands of any one sector or interest. That is why the Projet de so&t6 to provide a broadly agreed is trying

by the Projet de soci&+ Encouraging

a broad range of stakeholders creates a respect for

to work together

upon sense

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

of direction should specific

as to where

and how Canada assigning

be moving, priorities

without

6.3 Targets, priorities


Setting targets

monitoring
and priorities

and
is a delicate if,

or responsibilities. or a compact to task, but one that can be facilitated by addressing the intersectoral tools identified

The concept

of a covenant what

helps to illustrate implement tralized

must happen

transition in Chapter 5,

this kind of decen(Box 76).

strategy

We must continue research monitor innovative and fashion policies tions scientific into problems and our progress. strategies flkible and solutions,

it disarms those stakeholders trying to advance concerns. their specific

A covenant between people

is an agreement any number of

Because transition the

or groups to do, or thing.

tools cut across sectors, focus then becomes sector is a priority, transition

not to do, a certain

not which but which

What this guide proposes is that stakeholders upon themselves to doing something contribute sustainability take it to commit that will

We must adopt and techniques and instituready to adapt of new and information,

tool will work the

best. The choice of which tool to focus on first will likely be based on existing of opportunity windows

to the vision of that it outlrnes.

or which tool

will give the most return on investment. It will also be important work whose first on some to

There is no higher authority watching over us. As a bodv, it is

multistakeholder

in the light new problems technological opportunities.

up to each of us to pledge to meet part of the challenge. Canadians have a

issues will

early resolution for the

build confidence more difficult

lot to lose if we do not manage to move the development in a coherway. The

choices ahead.

Just as there is a need to mix practical action with longerso

sustainable

agenda forward ent, committed

- Business Council on National Issues, Towards a Sustainable

term strategic

planning,

and Competitive Future, 1992

too is it important

to have in

Projet de soci&G provides a forum through which all sectors of society agreement to act. implementation more difficult

some early successes to build support transition

for the

can make a solemn

steps ahead.

Timing is a very critical factor in an implementation taken strategy. Advantage must be

of any windows

of opportunity

that may currently for example, mandate,

be open, considering, governments

the current

concern

over unemployment, bases such stocks. It also

and the loss of major resource as the East coast groundfish may mean taking review forums advantage

of ongoing key issues such instruments

examining

as social programs, or science

economic

and technology

policy.

132

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Transitions

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Final

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1995

Although

it is important

to have some it is

possible to build consensus of concerns the national

around a number at

quick successes equally important

at thje beginning, to embark

that need to be addressed level, an organization could also provide work.

on some of

like the a forum


countries over $50 paid billion to protect oil the War.

the longer-term

trans tions now, so that

Projet de soci& to facilitate

they are not left until too late. Some steps toward sustainability may be very difficult

the necessary

to undertake,

but it must be emphasized the more

that the longer they are deferred, dramatic the changes required

6.4

The bottom line


protection develand many sustainable proposals,

in 1991

will be and

Unlike most environmental programs opment

the Kuwait fields Persian durinq Gulf

the harder it will be to make them. Sustainability strategies or plans, such for federal

this guide does not new funding, financial but rather flows.

as those now being legislated departments, monitoring, Individual interests

call for or require a reallocation

will also need constant evaluating and updating. sectors and

of existing changes

This will involve revenues ments, non-profit

to both the of govern-

governments,

and expenditures First Nations, organizations

will have to evaluate at making

their

businesses, and individuals. to

own success to sustainability improve

the transition

in order to update, their initiatives. the some

Far from suggesting sustainability

that transitions

and re-focus

will cost billions substantial

of dollars oppor-

There will also be a need to monitor larger national picture and to provide

per year, it identifies tunities for reducing

Canadas financial, as

kind of evaluation

of how Canada is doing might be

environmental an integral

and social deficits

as a nation and how its transitions modified

part of the transition. here, only the involves a

to reflect new trends and needs.

There is no magic involved recognition that sustainability

There may be a role for an organization like the frojet de sock% in such an effort.

radical change in our accounting systems, one that requires and honesty.

and pricing

One of the key tasks at this point is to build commitment sustainability through interests across Canada to It could come sectors and

much more Although most

transparency

transitions. where

energy, food and water personal income

prices will increase, taxes will gradually

a process

and corporate as governments

are engaged principles,

in a discussion choices, and

tend to decrease

of the vision, transition

get out of the subsidy business and allow market forces to reflect more of the costs involved, notably the environmental and

tools outlined

in this document. this guide by about key sus-

They could also improve providing tainability more information initiatives

social costs that are currently accounts or deferred.

hidden in other

under way, adapting to their own of

This is good news for flows will shift

some of the choicework needs or expanding transition tools.

business as more revenue

the discussion

from the public to the private sector. One of the many challenges we face economist, in applying in an equitable

There may also be an opportunity this elaboration

through

is how to engage accountant sustainabte manner.

the typical

and commitment-building of key priorities If it were

and stockbroker development

process to define a number to address at various levels.

By adopting

truly sustainable

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

models,

Canada will eventually

be able

The more dramatic

human costs associand social collapse capacity is

to reduce its deficits to more responsible levels, and then concentrate on improving environmental economic stability its resources

ated with the ecological that results when

the carrying

health, and

of a resource

or a country

The capacity takes many and the options


abe are limited

to act forms, avail-

exceeded,

be it the fisheries or

social equity at home and abroad. In fact, sustainability offers considerable for increasing employment, potential

crisis in Newfoundland the tragedy of Rwanda,

can and must be avoided. Sustainability humanity challenge, cannot presents

long-term improving health

On'Y
or a

care and reducing the deficit without income raising personal or corporate taxes. will

by our fear, of imagination, belief

our lack

with an enormous one that we Although it our

that specific
correct

ignore.

Sustainable involve

development

politically
strategies followed. exists to act, possibility
- Marilyn Waring,

may lead us to question beliefs and ways


0f

living,

modifying

some other

must VJhile there a capacity

be there

it also represents

a rare

characteristics

of Western lifespans to

~~~x~~~~;~~~~ous
re-evaluation and economic of our social institutions,

society. Average

may no longer continue lengthen as attention

turns

is the

to improving

quality of life it by

of change.
if Women

~:~~~se~~sd~~~~~~~~~ing
This may appear to be an overwhelming and daunting

rather than extending technology

and spiralling levels

Counted, 1988

health costs. Mobilitv may also decrease becomes

as it to fly across conti-

more expensive

task, but we need only remind ourselves that we have no other choice. We must, in this generation, solve the dilemma of natural beauty

nents (or drive to the mall), but there will be more human and family contact as telecommunication patterns costs decrease and employment

of how to leave a world and opportunity children to enjoy.

become

more local and regional

for our children and their

rather than national and international. Foreign aid programs with will eventually trading

be replaced practices

more equitable

and more regional

self-reliance. in from

Prices of luxury products around the world

flown

will sharply should

increase, improve.

but local economies

There will, of course, be costs, but most of them will be short-term social costs that and public

can be paid with political courage will, bolstered by attitudinal

and behavioural

change. The burden of these costs could be mitigated by prevention patterns and planned shifts

in consumption which

and employment

reflect social equity principles.

134

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for

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1995

Annex I : Bibliography
This document of the references increase were readability,
quotations

1993. Agenda 21 -Abstracts, Commentaries. Ottawa: IDRC.

Rev/ews and

borrowed

freely from many In order to

listed below.

Cassils, J.A. 1991. Exploring incenf/ves: An infroducfion to incentjves and economic instruments for sustainable development. Ottawa: NRTEE. (Working Paper 13.) CIBment, P. 1993. Nationa/ oven/,ew of strategic planning of sustaInable development in Canadas provinces and territories. Ottawa: NRTEE. (Working Paper 18.) Commission on Land Use and the Rural Environment. 1993. Summary report. FrederIcton: Department of the Environment. Dene Cultural Institute. 1994. indigenous agendas for conservation: A directory of indigenous peoples projects in environmental protection and resource management ,n the Amerjcas. Dene Cultural Institute. Denhez. M. 1992. You cant give if away. Tax aspects of ecoiogicaiiy sens/tive iands. Ottawa: Canadian Wetlands Conservation Task Force/NRTEE. ~. 1990. This common inherjtance. London: HMSO.

very few references in the case indiviudal


from

used in the text, except

of extensive authors; crediting


General

less attention corporate

was paid to

authors.
and strategies

policy reports

Australia. 1992. Nationa/ strategy for ecoiogicailp sustainable development. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service. Barney, G.O.; Blewett, J.; Barney, K.R. 1993. Global 2000 revisited: What shali we do? The cnt;ca/ issues of the 21st century Arlington: Millenium Institute. Bass, S.; DalaCClayton, B. 1992. A guide to national susta,nab/e development strategies. London. Internatlonal Institute for Environment and Development (Unpublished.) Bastedo, J. 1987. Framework for a Northwest Territories conservation strategy. Canadian Sooefy of Environmenfal Bioiogisfs Buiiefin, Vol. 44, No. 2. (Conservation strategies in Canada.) Bond, W.K.; Bruneau, H.C.; Blrcham, PD. 1986. Federai programs with the potential to significant/y affect Canadas land resource. Ottawa: Environment Canada. Boyce, RIchardson. 1993. Peopie of Terra Nuliius Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre. Bramm, S. 1992. Profecting ecosystems in Alberta: A survey of government mechanisms. Edmonton: Environment Council of Alberta. Business Council on National Issues. 1992. Towards a Sustainable and Competitive Future. Ottawa: BCNI. Cairncross, F. 1992. Costing the Earth. Boston: Harvard Business School Press. Canada. 1994. Reporf of Canada to the United Nations Commission on Susfainable Development. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. ~. 1992. Economic instruments for environmental protection: Discussion paper Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. ~. 1990. Canadas Green P/an. Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada. ~. 1989. Nationa/ repor? on sustainable development: Economics of susta/nabilify Ottawa: Department of Finance. Canadian Bar Association. 1990. Sustainabie deveiopment in Canada: Options for law reform. Ottawa: CBA. Canadian Council of Resource and Environment Ministers. 1987 Report of the National Task Force on fnvlronment and Economy. DownsvIew, CCREM. Carroll-Foster, Theodora, ed. 1993. A Guide to Agenda 21 - issues, Debates and Canadian inifiafives. Ottawa: IDRC.

Development Assistance Committee. 1992. Good practices for country environmental surveys and strategies Parls: OECD. Dewees, D.N. 1990. Potentiai uses of economic environmentai poiicies in Ontario. Toronto: Ministry of Treasury and Economics (Taxation Branch.) Doern, G.B. 1990. Regulations and market approaches. The essential environmental partnership. In: G.B. Doern. ed. Getting/t Green. Toronto: C.D Howe Institute. Doyletech Corporation. 1992. Building a stronger environmental technology exploitat/on capabiiity in Canada. (updated in 1994 by the lnnovest Group International.) Energy Options Advisory Committee. 1988. Energy and Canadians info the 21st century. Ottawa: Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Environment Canada. 1993. Environmenta/ protection regulatory review. Discussion document. Ottawa: Environment Canada. ~. 1990. impiemenhg sustainable deveiopment Report of the Interdepartmental workshop on sustainable development in federal natural resource departments. Ottawa: Environment Canada. ~. 1984. First annual report Implementation of the World Conservation Strategy: Federal review. Ottawa: Environment Canada. ~. 1981. Worid Conservation Strategy: federal review. Ottawa: Environment Canada. de Gennaro, R.; Kripke, G. 1993. Earth budget: Making our tax do/jars work for the environment. Washington, D.C. Federal-Provincial-Terrltorlal Biodiverslty Working Group. 1994. Draft Canadian biodlversity strategy for discussion. Ottawa: Biodiverslty Conventlon Office. Gillies, A.M. 1994 Where to stari: An action p/an for protecting the enwronment and reduong Canadas defiot. Winnipeg: IISD. Goodland, R. et al., eds. 1991. Environmentallysusfainabie economic development: Building on Brundtland. Paris: UNESCO.

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1995

Hawken, P. 1993. The ecology of commerce: A declaration of susfainabiiity. New York: HarperCollins. Hill, J. 1993. Nationa/ sustainabiiify strafegies -A comparative review of the status of five countries: Canada, France, The Netherlands, Norway and UK. London: The Green Alllance. Industry Canada; Environment Canada. 1994. Environ-mental industry strategy for Canada: Cons&at/on paper: Ottawa. Inglis, Julian T. 1993. Traditional ecoiogicai know/edge: Concepts and cases. Ottawa: Canadian Museum of Nature and IDRC. Interdepartmental Working Group on the Evolution of the Climate System. 1994. Global warming and Switzerland: Foundations for a nalional strategy. Berne: Federal Offrce of Environment, Forests and Landscape. International Development Research Centre. 1993. Agenda 21: Green Paths to the Future. Ottawa: IDRC. International Institute for Sustainable Development. 1993. EarthfnterprLse Too/ Kit Winnipeg: IISD. Kageson, P 1993. Getting the prices right A European scheme for making transport pay its true costs. Brussels: European Federation for Transport and Environment. Keating, M. 1989. Toward a common future. A report on sustainable development and its implications for Canada. Ottawa: Environment Canada. Kennett, S.A. 1993. Making federaiism work for unsusta/nabi/ity: Addressing overlap, duplication and conflict in environmental regulation. Ottawa: Projet de soci&3. (Unpublished manuscript.) Kumar, R.; Manning, E.W.; Murck, B. 1993. The chaiienge of sustainabiiity. Toronto: Foundation for International Training Langdon, Steve J., editor. 1986. Contemporary A/a&an native economies. University Press of America. Liberal Party of Canada. 1993. Creating opportunity: The iiberalpian for Canada. Ottawa: Liberal Party of Canada. MacNeill, J.; Runnals, D. 1993. A Strategy for sustainabie energy deveiopment and use for Ontario Hydra. Toronto: Ontario Hydro. Manitoba. 1990. Towards a sustainable development strategy for Manitobans. Winnipeg: Manitoba Roundtable on Environment and Economy. Manning, E.W. 1990. Conservation strategies: Providing the vision for sustainable development. Alternatives, Vol. 16(4). ~. 1986. Towards sustainable land use: A strategy. Ottawa: Environment Canada. Marbek Resource Consultants; G.E. Bridges & Associates. 1993. Energy investments and employment. Ottawa: Marbek. Measures Working Group. 1994. Measures for Canadas nationai action program on climate change. Ottawa: Environment Canada. (Final Report.) Mele, A. 1993. Poiiufing for pleasure. New York. W.W. Norton.

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Dykeman, F.W., ed. 1990. Er;trepreneuria/ and sustaainabie rural communities. Sackville: Rural and Small Town Research and Studies Programme, Department of Geography, Mount Allison Uriversity Local Round Table Task Force of the British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Guide to estabiishing a /ocaI round tab/e. Victoria: BRTEE. Maclaren, in Canada: Summary mittee on V.W. 1992. Sustainable urban development From concept to practice - Volume one: report Toronto: Intergovernmental ComUrban and Regional Research.

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1992. Sustainable urban development in Canada: From concept to p,racllce - Volume three: A compendium of initiatives. Toronto: Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research. Manitoba Department of Rural Development. 1991. Community choices: A sustainabie communities program for Manitoba. Winnipeg: Manitoba Department of Rural Development. Ontario Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. 1991. iocai round tab/es on environment and economy. Toronto: ORTEE. Roseland, M. 1992. Toward sustainabie communifies: A resource book for munic(oal and local governments. Ottawa: NRTEE. Royal Commission on the Future of the Toronto Waterfront. 1992. Regeneration: Toronto> waterfront and the sustaainabieci!y Final report Toronto: Royal Commission on the Future of the Toronto Waterfront. Sawin, S.; Carrier, L., eds. 1993. Private visions community v;sIons: Results of Ihe Cowichan Visions ZOZO/sustainablecommunit/es initiative survey. Victoria: Centre for Sustainable Regional Development, University of Victoria. (SustaInable Communities Initiative Working Paper No. IO.) Tomalty, R; Alexander, D.H.M.; et al. 1994. Planning with an ecosystem approach in Canadian cities. Toronto: Intergovernmental Committee on Urban and Regional Research. (Draft report.)

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Annex I I: Sustainability initiatives and contacts


In preparing this report, the Projet de soci&~ consulted with many individuals, govern-

Cultural Resource Management Policy. Contact: Sharon Jeannotte, Acting Chief, Strategic Planning and Coordination, Canadian Heritage, Jules Leger Building, Terrasses de la Chaudiere, 25 Eddy St., 12th floor, Hull, Quebec KIA OM5. Efficiency and Alternative Energy Program. Contact: Natural Resources Canada, Tel. (613) 995-0865. Environmental Citizenship Initiative. Contact: Environment Canada, 25 Eddy Street, 3rd floor, Hull, Quebec. Tel. (8191 953-9449. Federal Committee for Environmental Emergencies. Contact: Sam Baird, Manager, Departmental Emergencies Secretariat, Environmental Emergencies Branch, National Programs Directorate, Environmental Protection Service, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 17th floor, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, Hull, Ouebec KIA OH3. Tel. (819) 997-4277, Fax (819) 997-l 529. Federal Buildings Initiative. Contact: Rick McKenzie, Director, Energy Ventures Divisron, Natural Resources Canada. Tel. (613) 9964079. Fisheries and Oceans, Department of. Tel. (613) 993-0600. House of Commons. Contact: Marian Campbell, Environmental Projects Officer, Offlce of the Environment, Room 390, Wellrngton Building, House of Commons, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OA6. Tel. (613) 943-l 564, Fax (613) 943-0479. House of Commons Parliamentary Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development. Tel. (613) 996-l 595. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Indian and lnuit Programs. Contact: John Graham, Director General, Lands and Environment Branch, Land and Trusts Services. Tel. (819) 997-8212. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Northern Programs. Contact: Hiram Beaubrer, Director General, Natural Resources and Environment Branch, Northern Affairs Program. Tel. (819) 997-9381. OR, Leslie Whitby, Director, Environment and Renewable Resources Directorate, Natural Resources and Environment Branch, Northern Affairs Program, Room 615. 10 Wellington Street, Hull, Quebec KIA OH4. Tel. (819) 997-2728. international Joint Commission. Contact: Philip Slyfreld, Secretary, Canadian Section, 100 Metcalfe Street, 18th floor, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5Ml. Tel. (613) 995-2984, Fax (613) 993-5583. International Organization for Standardization, Environmental Management Committee. Contact: Canadran Standards Assocatron, 178 Rexdale Boulevard, Etobicoke, Ontario M9W 1 R3. Tel. (416) 747-4000. National Capita/ Commission. Contact: Lourse Kingsley, Senior Officer, Environmental Assessment and Planning, National Capital Commission, 161 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontarro Kl P 6J6. Tel. (613) 239-5591, Fax (613) 239-5393. National Office of Pollution Prevention. Contact: Environment Canada. Tel. (8191 953-9086, Fax: (819) 953-7970.

ments and organizations For further information and initiatives

across Canada. about organizations noted in the report, contact list. of the

specifically

please refer to the following It represents work currently to implement development,

only a small sampling being undertaken

in Canada

the principles of sustainable but we hope it will provide

some initial contact points for those interested in finding out more about these initiatives. National Federal government:

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Contact: Michael Presley, Chief, Environmental Strategic Policy, Environment Bureau, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Room 670, 930 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OC5. Tel. (613) 943-l 611 (ext. 22451, Fax 1613) 943-l 612. Auditor General of Canada. Contact: Cameron Young, Principal, Audit Operations Branch, Office of the Auditor General of Canada, 240 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OG6. Tel. (613) 995-l 925. Biodiversity. Contact: John Herity, Director, Biodiversity Convention Offrce, Environment Canada, 351 St. Joseph Blvd., 5th Floor, Hull, Ouebec KIA OH3. Tel. (819) 953-4374, Fax (8191 953-l 765. Canada3 Mode/ Forest Program. Contact: Richard Baerg, Canadran Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada. Tel. (8191 997-l 107. Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Contact: Jack Smugler, Senior Officer, International Relations Division National Office, CMHC, 700 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OP7. Tel. (6131 7482468, Fax (613) 7482302. Canada Ports Corporation. Tel. (613) 957-6787.

Canadian International Development Agency. Tel. (819) 997-5456. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPAl Review. Contact: Ruth Wherry, Senior Policy Advrsor, CEPA Offce, Environment Canada, Place Vincent Massey, 5th floor, 351 St. Joseph Boulevard, Hull, Quebec KIA OH3. Tel. (819) 997-1342, Fax (819) 997-0449. Canadian Heritage, Department of. Tel. (819) 997-0055. Consulting and Audit Canada. Contact: Ted Manning. Tel. (613) 947-2335. OR, Gord Clifford. Tel. (613) 995-8247, 9th Floor, Tower B, 112 Kent Street, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OS5. Fax (613) 943-l 097.

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National Research Council. Contact: Terry B. Kimmel. Business Development Ofice, National Research Council, Institute for Environmental Research and Technology, Buildrng M-12, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OR6. Tel. (613) 990-6618, Fax (613) 957-8231. Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council. Contact: Tel. (613) 995-6295. Parks Canada. Contact: Sharon Jeannotte, Acting Chief, Strategic Planning and Coordination, Canadian Heritage, Jules Leger Building, Terrasses de la Chaudiere, 25 Eddy Street, 12th floor, Hull, Quebec Kl A OM5. Program on Energy Research and Development. Contact: Office of Energy Research and Development, Natural Resources Canada, 14th floor, 580 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OE4. Tel. (613) 995-0478. Public Works and Government Services. Contact: Michael Dawson, Corporate Policy, PWGS, 15 Al, Phase III, Place du Portage, Hull, Quebec KIA OM2. Tel. (8191 956-0885, Fax (819) 956-4962. Science and Technology Review. Contact: Secretariat for Science and Technology Review, lndustrv Canada. 11th floor, East Tower, 235 Queen Street, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OH5. Tel. (613) 943-7034. Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. Contact: A. Fox, Director, Policy, Planning and lnternatronal Relations Division, SSHRCC, 350 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontarro Kl P 6G4. Tel. (613) 992-5125, Fax (613) 992-l 787. Statistics Canada. Contact: Michael Bordt, National Accounts and Environment Divison, Statistics Canada, Tunneys Pasture, 21A R.H. Coates Building, Ottawa, Ontario KIA OT6. Tel. (613) 951-8585, Fax (6131 951-3618. Transport Canada. Contact: Pierre Renart, Director, Government Relations and Environmental Affairs, Policy and Coordination Group, Transport Canada, 26th floor, Tower C, Place de Ville, Ottawa, Ontario KIA ON5. Tel. (613) 991-6503, Fax 1613) 991-6422. Water andEconomy. Contact: Frank Quinn, Head, Water Policy, Water and Habitat Conservation Branch, Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario Kl A OH3. Tel. (8191 953-l 513, Fax (819) 994-0237.

Automotive Parts Manufacturers Association. Contact: Mark Cotter, Director, Environment, 516 - 195 The West Mall, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 5Kl. Tel. (416) 6204220. Fax (4161 620-9730. Business Principles for a Sustainable and Competitive Future. Contact: The Business Council on Natronal Issues, Royal Bank Centre, 90 Sparks Street, Suite 806, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5B4. Tel. (613) 238-3727, Fax (613) 236-8679. Canadian Bar Association (CBA). Contact: Marshall Burgess, Chair, Legislation and Law Reform Committee, National Environmental Law Section, Canadian Bar Association. Tel. (902) 424-5300. OR, Bruce Willis, Chair, National Environmental Law Section, Canadian Bar Association. CBA, 90250 OConnor Street, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 612. Tel. (403) 668-5252. Canadian Centres of Sustainable Development Research. Contact: Ann Dale, Sustainable Development Research Centre, University of British Columbia. Tel. (604) 822-6899. Canadian Council for International Cooperation. Contact: Peter Padbury, Environment Coordinator, CCIC, 1 Nicholas St., Suite 300, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 7B7. Tel. (613) 241-7007. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Contact: Barbara Czech, Director of Communications, 326 Broadway, Suite 400, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Tel. (204) 948-2090. Canadian Environmental Network. Contact: Box 1289, Station B., Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5R3. Tel. (613) 563-2078. Email: cen@web.apc.org. Canadian Healthy Communities Network. Contact: Stephen Jewczyk, Chairperson, City of Mount Pearl, 3 Centennial Street, Mount Pearl, Newfoundland Al N 2C2. Tel. 1709) 7481029. The Canadian Healthy Communrtres Network (national) has provincial-territorial network contacts for Alberta; British Columbia; Manitoba; Nova Scotia; Ontario; Quebec; and Saskatchewan, as well as contacts in hundreds of communitres across Canada. Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants. Contact: Randy Billings, Ernst and Young Chartered Accountants, Toronto-Dominion Centre, P.O. Box 251, Toronto, Ontario M5K 1J7. Tel. (416) 864-l 234. Canadian institute of Planners. Contact: Sylvia Planka, Communications and Public Relations. Tel. (800) 207-2138. Canadian Labour Congress. Contact: David Bennett, 2841 Riverside Drive, Ottawa, Ontario KlV8X7. Tel. (613) 521-3400 Canadian Manufacturers Association. Contact: Doreen Henley, CMA, 130 Albert Street, Suite 302, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5G4. Tel. (613) 233-8423. Canadian Network for Environmental Education and Communications. Contact: c/o Ecologic, P.O. Box 1514, Antigonish, Nova Scotia B2G 2L8. Tel (902) 863-5984, Fax (902) 863-9481. Canadian Peace Alliance. Contact: CPA, 5-555 Bloor Street West, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1Y6.

Other national sustainable initiatives and contacts:

development

ACCC Environmental Citizenship Program. Contact: Ruth Watson, Director, ACCC Environmental Citizenship Program, Association of Communrty Colleges, Suite ZOO,1223 Michael Street North, Ottawa, Ontario Kl J 7T2. Tel. (613) 746-7639. Email: rwatson@accc.ca. Acelerated Reduction and Elimation of Toxics (ARET). Tel. (819) 953-9086, Fax (8191 953-7970. Automotive Manufacturing Pollution Prevention Project. Contact: Mark Naltais, President, Canadian Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Associatron. Tel. (416) 364 9333.

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Canadian Society of Landscape Architecture. Contact: Larry Patterson, Executive Director, 1339 Fifteenth Avenue SW, Suite 310, Calgary, Alberta T3C 3V3. Tel. 1403) 228-6591. Canadian Urban Research on the Environment. Contact: Dan Friesen, Research Consultant, Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 24 Clarence Street, Ottawa, Ontarro Kl N 5P3. Tel. (613) 241-8484. Council of Canadians with Disabilities. Contact: April DAubin, Council of Canadians with Disabilities, 294 Portage Avenue, #926, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C OB9. Tel. (204) 947-0304, Fax (2041 942-4625. E.B. Eddy Forest Products. Contact: 1600 Scott Street, 7th floor, Ottawa, Ontario KIY 4N7. Tel. (613) 725-6743. EarthEnterprise Too/Kit. Contact: IISD, 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B OY4. Tel. (204) 958-7735. Economic instruments Collaborative. Contact: Gene Nyberg, NRTEE, 1 Nicholas St., Suite 1500, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 7B7. Tel. (613) 992-7189. Global Education Program. Contact: Tom Lyons, Ontario Teachers Federation, 1260 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5R 2B5. Tel. (416) 966-3424. Intergovernmental Regional Research 150 Eglinton Avenue M4P 1 E8. Tel. (416) Committee on Urban and f/CL/RR). Contact: ICURR, East, Suite 301, Toronto, Ontario 973-5629, Fax (416) 973-l 375.

Projet de societe. Contact: Planning for a Sustainable Future, 1 Nicholas Street, Suite 1500, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 7B7. Tel. (613) 992-7189. Royal Architectural Institute of Canada. Contact: Tim Kehoe, Executive Director, RAIC, 55 Murray Street, Suite 330, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 5M3. Tel (613) 241-3600. Royal Society of Canada. Contact: David Henderson, Royal Society of Canada, PO. Box 9734, Ottawa, Ontario Kl G 5J4. Tel. 613-991-6990, Fax (613) 991-6996. Rural and Small Town Research and Studies Programme. Contact: Mary Sampson, Rural and Small Town Programme, Mount Allison University, Sackville, New Brunswick EOA 3C0. Tel. (506) 364-2393. Communities particrpating in this program include Cavendish, P.E.I.; Georgetown, P.E.I.; Summerside, P.E.I.; Sussex, N.B.; McAdam, N.B.; Campobello Island, N.B.; Klmberley, B.C.; and Creston Valley, B.C. She// Canada. Contact: Linton Kulak, Director, Corporate Health, Safety and the Environment, 26th floor, Room 2662, 400 4th Avenue SW, Calgary, Alberta T2P 3H5. Tel. (403) 691-2091. Student Action for a Viable Earth (SAVE Tour). Not touring during 1994-95. SustainABILITy. Contact: Carla Doucet, Policy Advisor, Education, NRTEE, 1 Nicholas Street, Surte 1500, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 7B7. Tel. (613) 947-0668, Fax (613) 992-7385. Tourism Industry Association of Canada. Contact: 130 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario. Tel. (613) 238-3883. WES/Nirv Centre. Contact: Tel. (416) 596-0212 Rory OBrien.

International Council for Local Environmental initiatives (/CLE/). World Secretariat: 8th floor, East Tower, City Hall, Toronto, Ontario M5H 2N2. Tel. (416) 392-1462, Fax (416) 392-1478. International Development Research Centre. Contact: Theodora Carroll-Foster, Agenda 21 Unit, IDRC, P.0 Box 8500, 250 Albert Street, Ottawa, Ontario Kl G 3H9. Tel. (613) 236-6163, Fax (613) 238-7230 International Institute for Sustainable Development Contact: Heather Creech, Director of Communrcations and Partnerships, 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B OY4. Tel. (204) 958-7700, Fax 12041 958-7710. lnuit Circumpolar Conference (ICC). Contact: Chester Reimer, ICC, 504-170 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5V5. Tel. (613) 563-2642. Learning for a Sustainable Future. Contact: Jean Perras, Executive Director, 45 Rideau Street, Suite 303, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 5W8. Tel (613) 562-2238. National Community Tree Foundation. Contact: 1550-220 Laurier Avenue West, Ottawa, Ontario. Tel. (613) 567-5545. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: Kelly Hawke Baxter, Director of Communicatrons, NRTEE, 1 Nicholas St., Suite 1500, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 7B7. Tel. (613) 992-7189. National Round Table on the Environment and the Economys Task Force on Education. Contact: Carla Doucet, Policy Advisor, NRTEE. Tel. (613) 992-7189. One Voice. Contact: One Voice, 1005-350 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontarro Kl R 7S8. Tel. (613) 238-7624.

Whitehorse Mining Initiative. Contact: Mining Association of Canada, 1105 - 350 Sparks Street, Ottawa, Ontario Kl R 7S8. Tel. (613) 233-9391. Women and Sustainable Development, Canadian Perspectives (Conference). Contact: Shawna Sylvester, Conference Coordinator. Tel. (604) 822-9154. Womens International League for Peace and Freedom IWILPFI. Contact: Marcy Holyk, R.R. #3, Ashton Station Road, Ashton, Ontario KOA 1 BO. Tel. 1613) 253-6395.

Regional Atlantic Canada

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. Contact: Head Office, P.O. Box 6051, 644 Marn Street, Moncton, New Brunswick El C 9J8. Tel. (506) 851-2271, Fax (506) 851-7403. At/antic Coastal Action Han (ACAP). Contact: Jim Ellsworth, Manager, ACAP, Environment Canada, 4th floor, Queen Square, 45 Alderney Drive, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia B2Y 2N6. Tel. (902) 426-2131, Fax (902) 426-4457. ACAP communitres include St. Johns, Nfld.; Humber Arm, Nfld.; Bedeque Bay, P.E.I.; Cardigan Bay, P.E.I.; Sydney, N.S.; Lunenburg, N.S.; Mahone Bay, N.S.; Annapolis Royal, N.S.; Pictou, N.S.; Saint John, N.B.; St. Croix, N.B.; Madawaska, N.B.; Miramrchi, N.B.; Letang Estuary, N.B.

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Canada-Nova Scotia Cooperation Agreement on Sustainable Economic Development. Contact: Brad Hodgins, Provincial Coordinator, COASED, 11 th floor, Queen Square, 45 Alderney Drive, Darmouth, Nova Scotia BiY 2N6. Tel. (902) 426-1649. Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment. Contact: Secretariat, New Brunswick Department of Environment, P.O. Box 6000, 364 Argyle Street, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5Hl. St. Croix International Waterway Commission. Contact: 435 Milltown Boulevard, St. Stephen, New Brunswrck E3L 1 J9.

Fraser River Estuary Management Program. Contact: Dianna Colnett, Fraser River Estuary Management Program, 301-960 Quayside Drive, New Westminster, British Columbia V3M 6G2. Tel. (604) 5251047. Georgia Basin Initiative. Contact: Joan Sawicki, Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Munrcipal Affairs, Parliament Buildings, Victoria, British Columbia V8V 1X4. Tel (604) 953-3009, Fax (604) 387-7973. Sustainable Development for the Great Plains. Contact: International Institute for Sustainable Development, 161 Portage Avenue East, 6th Floor, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3B OY4. Tel. (204) 958-7701.

,,1,.

,.,

,,

_,-

/ .,

Great Lakes-St,

Lawrence

River

Provincial,

Territorial

and Local

Great Lakes Remedial Action Plans (RAPS). Contact: Madhu Malhutra, Great Lakes Regional Office, Envrronment Canada, Public Involvement Coordinator. Tel, (416) 954-5150. OR, Bruce Kirschener, International Joint Commission Great Lakes Regronal Office, 100 Ouellette Avenue, 8th floor, Windsor, Ontario N9A 6T3. Tel. (519) 2576710. RAP communities in Ontario include Peninsula Harbour; Jackfish Bay; Niprgon Bay; Thunder Bay; St. Marys River; Spanish River Moutn; Collingwood Harbour; Severn Sound; St. Clair River; Wheatley Harbour; Niagara River; Hamilton Harbour; Metro Toronto; Port Hope; Bay of Quinte; St. Lawrence River. Great Lakes 2000. Contact: Office. Tel. (519) 257-6700. Great Lakes Regional

Newfoundland
Newfoundland and Labrador Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: Tom Graham, Director of Policy and Planning, Department of Environment and Lands, P.O. Box 8700, St. Johns, Newfoundland Al B 436. Tel. (709) 729-0027.

Nova Scotia
Dartmouth Lakes Advisory Board. Contact: Audrey Manzer, Chairperson, Dartmouth Lakes Advisory Board, c/o Library, Department of Munrcipal Affairs, P.O. Box 216, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2M4. The Industrial Park as an Ecosystem. Contact: Ray Core, School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, 1312 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Tel. (902) 494-3632. Nova Scotia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: Dr. Chang Lin, Assistant to the Deputy Minister, Department of the Environment, 5151 Terminal Road, 5th floor, P.O. Box 2107, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 3B7. Tel. (902) 424-3617, Fax (902) 424-0644. Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources. Contact: David Hopper. Tel. (902) 424-8151. Sustainable Communities Network of Nova Scotia. Contact: Karen Laine. Nova Scotia Environment and Development Coalition, Suite 502, 1657 Barnngton Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2Al. Tel. (902) 422-4276, Fax (902) 423-9736.

/nternationa/./oint Commission. Contact: Philip Slyfield, Secretary, Canadran Section, 100 Metcalfe Street, 18th floor, Ottawa, Ontario Kl P 5Ml. Tel. (613) 995-2984, Fax (613) 993-5583. St. Lawrence Vision 2000. Contact: International Joint Commission (see above.)

Northern

Canada

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. Contact: ICC (see above ) Arctic Environmental Strategy. Contact: Lillian Blondrn, Communications Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Ottawa, Ontarro KIA OH4. Tel. (819) 997-8407. lnuit Regional Conservation Strategy. Contact: ICC (see above.) Principles for a Comprehensive Arctic Policy. Contact: ICC (see above.)

Prince Edward

Island

Western Canada
Cascadia. Contact: Dr. Institute for Sustainable Hastings Street, Harbour Columbia V6B 4N5. Tel. Fax (604) 666-0009. AIlan Artibise, International Cities, Suite 1150 - 555 West Centre, Vancouver, British (604) 666-0061,

Prince Edward Island Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: Andre Lavoie, Assistant Policy and Planning Coordrnator, Department of Environmental Resources, 11 Kent Street, 4th floor, P.O. Box 2000, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island CIA 7N8. Tel. (902) 368-5032, Fax (902) 368-5830. Prince Edward Islands Department of Agriculture. Contact: John MacQuarry. Tel. (902) 836-5450.

Fraser Basin Management Program. Contact: David Marshall, Director, 700 West Georgra Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V7Y 1 B6. Tel. (604) 660-I 177, Fax (604) 660-3600.

New Brunswick
Action North. Contact: Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency, P.O. Box 6051, 644 Main St., Moncton, New Brunswick EIC 9J8. Tel. (506) 851-2271.

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McAdam Sustainable Development Strategy. Contact: John Flynn, Southwest Development Corporation, P.O. Box 8, Harvey Station, New Brunswick EOH 1 HO. Tel. (506) 366-3022, Fax (506) 366-3444. New Brunswick Round Tab/e on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: David Besner, Director Policy and Intergovernmental Affairs, Department of the Environment, 364 Argyle Street, 2nd floor, P.O. Box 6000, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5Hl. Tel. (506) 453-3703, Fax (506) 457-7800. New Brunswicks Commission on Land Use and the Rural Environment (CLUREI. Contact: CLURE, c/o N.B. Department of the Environment, P.O. Box 6000, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5Hl. Tel 1506) 453-3095, Fax (506) 453-3377.

City of Sudbury Ramsay Lake 100 Year Plan. Contact: Tin Chee Wu, Senior Planner, Regional Municipality of Sudbury, Regional Planning and Development Department, P.O. Box 3700 Station A, Sudbury, Ontario P3A 5W5. Tel. (705) 673-2171 (ext. 298). Ontario3 Commission on Planning and Development Reform (Sewell Commission). Contact: Ministry of Municipal Affairs, 777 Bay Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2E5. Tel. (416) 585-7000. Ontario Green Communities initiative. Contact: Enrico Nino, Program Manager, Community Outreach Programs, Energy Efficiency Branch, Ministry of Environment and Energy, 56 Wellesley Street West, 14th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M7A 2B7. Tel. (416) 327-l 475. Green Communities in Ontario include Atrkokan; Barrie; Belleville; Collingwood; Cornwall; Elora; Guelph, London; Markham; Ottawa; Peterborough; Port Hope; Riverdale; Sarnia; Sault Ste. Marie; and Thunder Bay. Ontario Healthy Communities Network. Contact: Margaree Edwards, Ontario Healthy Communities Network, 1350 Hawthorne Drive, Peterborough, Ontario K9J 7E8. Tel. (705) 745-5864. Ontario Ministry of Environment and Energy. Contact: Ken Richards, Coordinator, Intergovernmental Relations Office. Ministry of Environment and Enerav. 135 St. Clair Avenue West, 8th floor, Toronto, Ontar& M4V 1 P5. Tel. (416) 3234652, Fax (416) 323-4442. Ontario Premiers Council on Economic Renewal. Contact: Ontario Premiers Council Tel. (416) 3266754. Ontario Premiers Council on Health, Well-Being and Social Justice. Contact: Ontario Premiers Council. Tel. (416) 326-6754. Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy. Contact: Ken Ogrlvre, Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy, 1 Dundas Street West 2502, Toronto, Ontario M5G 123. Tel (416) 327-2032. Local Round Tables in Ontario exist in Guelph; Haldimand-Norfolk; London, Muskoka; OttawaCarleton; Owen Sound and Area; Peterborough; Prince Edward: Sarnia-Lambton; Stratford; Sudbury; and Vaughan (City of). Provincial contact: Ron Nielsen, Ontario Round Table on Environment and Economy. Tel. (416) 327-7029. Ontario3 Waste Reduction Action Plan. Contact: Ontario Waste Reduction Office, Ministry of the Environment, 135 St. Clair Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario M4V 1 P5. Our Farm Environmental Agenda. Contact: The Ontario Federation of Agriculture, 491 Eglinton Avenue West, Toronto, Ontario M5N lA8. Tel. (416) 485-3333. Royal Commission on the Future of the Toronto Waterfront. Contact: Waterfront Regeneration Trust, 207 Queens Quay West, Suite 580, Toronto, Ontario M5W 2V4. Tel. (416) 314-9490. Society for Ecological Restoration (SER), Ontario Chapter. Contact: John Ambrose, Metro Toronto Zoo, P.O. Box 280, West Hill, Ontario Ml E 4R5. Tel. (416) 392-5973. Toronto State of the City Report. Contact: Healthy City Office, 20 Dundas Street West, Suite 1036, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C2.

Quebec
Conseil de la Conservation et de fenvironnement. Contact: Germain D. Gerard, 800 Place dYouville, 20 etage, Quebec Gl R 3P4. Tel. (418) 643-3818, Fax (418) 646-l 693. Gouvernement du Quebec. Contact: Robert Lauzon, Sous-ministeriat au developpement durable et a la conservation, Ministere de IEnvironnement, 3900 rue Marly, Sainte-Foy, Quebec GIX 4E4. Tel. (418) 643-7860, Fax (418) 643-7812. Table ronde quebecoise sur lenvironnement et feconomie. Contact: Andre Harvey, Assistant Deputy Minister, Sustainable Development and Conservation, Department of Environment and Wrldlrfe, 3900 Marly Street, 6th floor, Sainte-Foy, Quebec GIX 4E4. Tel (418) 643-7860, Fax (418) 643-7812. Vive Montreal en sante. Contact: Real Lacombe, Reseau quebecois de villes et villages en sante, 1050, chemin Satnt-Foy, Quebec Gl S 4L8. Tel. (418) 682-7959.

Ontario
A Vision for Ottawa: City of Ottawas New Official Plan. Contact: Rasheda Nawaz, City of Ottawa Planning Department, 111 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 5Al. Tel. (613) 564-l 663. Bay Area Restoration Council (BARC) of HamiltonWentworth and Ha/ton Regions. (Hamilton Harbour RAP) Contact: Room 329, Life Sciences Building, McMaster Unrversrty, Hamilton, Ontario. Tel. (905) 525-9140 (ext. 27405). Fax (905) 521-2955. Canadas Capital Region, Official Plan Review. Contact. Chris Bradshaw. Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton Planning and Property Department, 111 Lisgar Street, Ottawa, Ontario. Tel. (613) 560-1229. City of Guelph Wet-Dry Recycling Program. Contact: Jutta Srebel, City of Guelph, Engineers Department, City Hall, 59 Carden Street, Guelph, Ontario Nl H 3Al. Tel. (519) 837-5604. City of Ottawa Municipal Environmental Evaluation Process. Contact: Susan Costello, City of Ottawa, Department of Engrneering Works, Environmental Management Branch, 111 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario Kl N 5Al. Tel. (613) 564-l 549, Fax (613) 564-4617.

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Cities and regions with experience in preparing state of environment reports include, among others Burnaby; Hamilton-Wentworth; Kitchener-Waterloo; Montreal: Ottawa-Carleton; Toronto; Saguenay-Lac Saint-Jean; and Winnipeg. Towards a Conservation Strategy for Ontario. W Contact. Chris Winter, Conservation Council of Ontario. Tel. (416) 969-9637. Vision 2020: Directions for Creating a Sustainable Region. Regional Chairmans Task Force on Sustainable Development. Contact: Regional Municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth, 119 King Street West, 14th floor, P.O. Box 910. Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3V9 Tel. (416) 546-2195, Fax (4161 5464364.

Saskatchewan Round Table on the Environment and the Economy- no provincial round table exists, but several local community round tables do. Local Round Tables in Saskatchewan exist in CreightonDenare Beach; Estevan and Area; Kamsack and Area; Mid-Lakes; and Springside and Area. Provincial Contact: Rraz Ahmed, Community Environmental Management Program, Environment and Resource Management. Tel. (306) 787-l 521. South Saskatchewan River Valley 100 Year Plan. Contact: Meewassin Valley Authority. Tel. (306) 665-6887.

Alberta
AIberta CIean Air Sfrategy Alliance. Contact: Mike Kelly, Executive DIrector, CASA, Standard Life Centre, 14th floor, 10405 Jasper Road, Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N4. Tel. (403) 427-9793. Alberta Environmental Profecfion. Contact: Ron Hicks, Assistant Deputy Minister, Research and Strategic Services, Alberta Environmental Protection, 10th floor, 9915-I 08 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5K 2C9. Tel. (403) 427-8155, Fax (403) 422-6305. Alberta Forest Conservation Strategy. Contact: Bill Oppen, Corporate and Strategic Management, Alberta Environmental Protection. Tel. (403) 422-9615. City of Calgary Environmental Policy. Contact: David Reynolds, City of Calgary Engineering and Envrronmental Services Department, Office for the Environment, PO. Box 2100, Station M, Calgary, Alberta T2P 2M5. Tel. (403) 268-8050, Fax 1403) 268-l 529. Environment Council ofAlberta. Has been disbanded. For further informatlon contact: Kathy Achieson, Policy Analyst, Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, 3rd Floor, Oxbrrdge Place, 9820 106th Street, Edmonton, Alberta. Tel. (403) 427-0047, Fax (403) 422-5136.

Manitoba
Community Choices: A sustainable communities program for Manitoba. Contact: Ross C. Thompson, 103 - 235 Eaton Avenue, Selkirk, Manitoba. Tel. (204) 785-5129, Fax 1204) 785-5155. Local Round Tables in Maritoba exist in Altona; Arborg; Armstrong; Beausejour; Birtle; Bowsman; Carman-Dufferin; Cartier; Churchill Tree Line; Coldwell/Lundar; Dauphin; Del-Win; Emerson; Flin-Flon; Gilbert Plains; Grmli and District; Glenboro; Grahamdale; Grandvrew and District; Grunthal; Hamiota; Headingley; La B-oquerie Municipality; McCreary; Manitou; Melita and Area; Minnedos and District; Montcalm; Morns; Neepawa; North Cypress/Carberry; North Norfolk/Macgregor; Notre Dame de Lourdes; Pinawa; Rapid City; Reston and Area; Reynolds-Whitemouth; Riverton-Bifrost; Roblin; Rock Lake; Rossburn; Selkirk & Area; Shoal Lake; Southpark Community; St. Pierre; Stoney Mountain; Swan Valley; Somerset-Lorne; Souris River; Strathclair and Area; Southeast Angle Community; Ste. Agathe; St. Georges; Ste. Anne and District; Stonewall; Turtle River; Treherne-South Norfolk; Vlrden and District; Wawanesa and District; White School; Winkler and District; and Winnipegosis and District; Woodlands. Manitobas Round Table on Environment and Economy; Sustainable Development Strategy; Minerals Strategy; and Forest Policies etc. Contact: Bob Sopuck, Sustainable Development Coordination Unit, 305 - 155 Carlton Street, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3H8. Tel. (204) 945-l 124. Manitoba Department of Environment. Contact: Dick Stephens, Director, Legislation and lntergovernmental Affairs, Manitobas Department of Environment, Buildrng 2, 139 Tuxedo Avenue, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3N OH6. Tel. (204) 945-8132. Fax (204) 489-9860.

British Columbia
British Columbia Round Table on the Environment and the Economy. The provincral round table was disbanded in June 1994. Local Round Tables in British Columbia exist in Anaheim Lake; Boundary; Bulkley Valley; Capital Regional District; Comox Valley; Cowichan; Creston Valley; Dawson Creek; Fort St. James: Howe Sound; Kamloops; Kelowna; Kimberlv: Kinafrsher: Kispioti Lakes; Ladvsmith/Nanaimo; Nahatlatch; Nycola Watershed; North Columbia; Peachland; Penticton; Pitt Meadows; Prince George; Richmond; Robson; Salmon Arm; Salmon River; Saltspnng; Skeena; Slocan Valley; South Kalum; South Surrey/White Rock; Sunshine Coast; Vanderhoof; West Arm; and Williams Lake. Provincial Contacts: Craig Darling, Commission on Resources and the Environment. Tel. (604) 387-l 210. OR, Linda Thorstad, Fraser Basin Management Program. Tel. (604) 660-I 177. British Columbia Healthy Communities Network. Contact: Barbara Berry, British Columbia Healthy Communities Network, 2182 West 12th Avenue, Suite 103, Vancouver, Bntish Columbia V6K 2N4. Tel. (604) 261-3478.

Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food. Contact: John Babcoch, Soil Conservation Specialist, Envrronment and Engineering Branch, Saskatchewan Agriculture and Food. Tel. 1306) 787-9768. Saskatchewan Department of Environment and Resource Management. Contact: Bruce Smith, Director, Policy Branch, Ervironment and Resource Management, 3211 Albert Street, Room 534, Regina, Saskatchewan S4S 5W6 Tel. (306) 787-5760, Fax (306) 787-0024.

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147

Commission on Resources and Environment. Contact: CORE, 1802 Douglas Street, 7th floor, Victoria, British Columbia V8V 1X4. Tel. (604) 387-l 210. Environmental Youth Alliance-Vancouver. Contact: Doug Ragen, Environmental Youth Alliance-Vancouver. Tel. (604) 737-2258. Environmental Youth Alliance-Victoria. Contact: Environmental Youth Alliance-Victoria, Box 8100, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3R8. Tel. (604) 383-2062. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. Contact: Toby Vigod, ADM, Corporate Policy, Planning and Legislation, Mrnistry of Environment, Lands and Parks, 810 Blanshard Street, 4th floor, Victoria, British Columbia V8V 1X5. Tel. (604) 356-7223, Fax (604) 387-5669. Seniors Outreach Services. Tel. (604) 791-5531. Sunshine Coast Wildlife Seniors Group. Tel. (604) 885-5997. Vancouver City Plan. Contact: Anne McAfee, Associate Director of Planning, Planning Department, City of Vancouver, 453 West 12th Avenue, Vancouver, British Columbra V5Y lV4. Tel. (6041 873-7451.

Western Canada Wilderness Committee. Contact: WCWC, 20 Water Street, Vancouver, British Columbia V6B lA4, Tel. (604) 669-9453.

North west Territories


Department of Renewable Resources. Contact: Stu Lewis, Director, Policy and Planning Division, Department of Renewable Resources, 600, 5102 50th Avenue, Yellowknife, Northwest Territrories XIA 3S8. Tel. (4031 9208046, Fax (403) 873-0114.

Yukon
Department of Renewable Resources. Contact: Larry Duguay, Acting Director, Policy and Planning Branch, Department of Renewable Resources, IO Burns Road, P.O. Box 2703, Whitehorse, Yukon Yl A 2C6. Tel. (403) 667-5634, Fax (403) 667-2438. Yukon Council on the Environment and the Economy. Contact: Ken Carradine. Tel. (4031 667-5939. .

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Canadian

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May

1995

Annex
ACCC

III:

List

of acronyms
of Canadran Community

CPC CRM

Canada Ports Corporation Cultural Resource (Parks Canada) Canadian Standards Management Policy

Associatron Colleges

CSA Agency CSD

Act on

ACOA AES AGCare

Atlantic Canada Opportunities Arctic Environmental Strategy

[United Nations] Commission Sustainable Development Canadian Urban Research Environment Department International Department

Agricultural Groups Concerned About Resources and the Environment Asia-Pacific Economic Commission Forum

CURE

on the

APEC APHE ARET BATEA

DFAIT

of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Fisheries and Oceans

Action Plan on Health and Environment Accelerated ReductioniElimrnation that is of TOXICS

DFO DIAND

Best Available Technology Economically Achievable Business

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development Department Efficiency of National Defence and Energy [Program] Advisory Group

DND EAE EAG EEC EIA ENJEU EYA FBI FREMP G7 Cooperation GATT GDP Protectron Act GEF GIS

BCNI BEPAC

Council on National Issues Performance

Building Environmental Assessment Criteria

Envrronmental European

CARC CASA ccc

Canadian Arctic Resources Clean Air Strategic

Committee

Economic

Community

Alliance (Alberta) on Climate

Environmental Environment Environmental

Impact Assessment JEUness Youth Alliance

[United Nations] Convention Change

Canadian Councrl for International Cooperation CCME Canadian Council of Ministers Environment Commission Canadian on Environmental of the

Federal Buildings Initiative Fraser River Estuary Management Program

CEC CEN CEO CEPA CFC CIDA

Group of Seven (USA, Canada, Germany, France, Italy, UK and Japan) General Agreement Gross Domestic on Tariffs and Trade

Environmental Officer

Network

Chief Executive Canadian

Product Facility Systems

Environmental

Global Environment Geographic

Chlorofluorocarbon Canadian Agency International Development

Information

GNP GRIP

Gross National Product Gross Insurance Government hectare Human Development Index (UNDP) Income Plan

CIEDAC

Canadian Industry End-Use Analysis Centre Canadran Labour Congress Commission Environment Canadian

Database

and

GST ha HDI HEAL IBRD

Sales Tax

CLC CLURE

on Land Use and the Rural (New Brunswick) Association

Health Actron Lobby International Bank for Reconstruction and Development lnuit Circumpolar Conference

CMA CMHC

Manufacturers

Canadian Mortgage Corporation Commission Environment

and Housing ICC

CORE

on Resources and (British Columbia)

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

ICLEI

International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives [United Nations] International Conference on Population and Development Intergovernmental Committee and Regional Research International Development on Urban

PERD

Program of Energy Research Development Public Service Commission Royal Architectural Remedial

and

ICPD

PSC RAIC

Institute of Canada

ICURR

RAP Centre RMOC SAVE SDCU

Action Plan

IDRC IEE IISD

Research Initiative

Regional Munrcrpalrty of Ottawa-Carleton Student Action for a Viable Earth Sustainable (Manitoba) Development Coordinatron Unit

Industrial Energy Efficiency International Development International International

Institute for Sustainable

IJC IMF ISEW IUCN

Joint Commission Monetary Fund

SDRI

Sustainable Development Research Institute (University of British Columbia) Society for Ecological Restoration Strategy for International Research Small- and medium-srzed Social Sciences Council Fisheries

SER Index of Sustainable International of Nature Economic Welfare SIFR Union for the Conservation SMES JPAC LRTs MEEP MEER MVMA NAAEC Joint Public Advisory Committee SSHRC Local Round Tables Municipal Municipal Environmental Environmental Evaluation Evaluation Process Report SOER TAGS TEK UNCED

enterprises Research

and Humanities

State of Environment The Atlantic Groundfish

Report Strategy

Motor Vehicle Manufacturers North American Agreement Envrronmental Cooperation North American Commission on the Envrronmnet North American

Association on

Traditional Ecological Knowledge United Nations Conference ment and Development United Nations Conference and Development United Nations Development United Nations Environment on Envrron-

NACE

UNCTAD

on Trade

NAFTA NCC NEPP

Free Trade Agreement

UNDP UNEP

Program Program Scientific

National Capital Commission National Environmental (Netherlands) National Farmers Union Account Policy Plan

UNESCO United Nations Educatronal, and Cultural Organizatron WCED World Commrssion and Development Western Western

NFU NISA NRTEE

on Environment

Net Income Stabilizatlon

WCWC Natronal Round Table on the Environment and Economy National Sustainable Non-Governmental Natural Sciences Council Development Organrzation WMI NSERC and Engineering Research WRAP Assistance Cooperation WTO WRAP Strategy WGTA WILPF

Canada Wilderness Grain Transportation

Committee Act

NSDS NGO

Womens International and Freedom Whitehorse Waste

League for Peace

Mining Initiative Action Plan (Ontarroi and Prevention

Reduction

ODA OECD

Official Development

Waste Reduction Act (Manitoba)

Organisation for Economic and Development Pesticides

World Trade Organization

PCPA

Control Products Act

Canadian

Choices

for

Transitions

to Sustainability

Final

Draft

May

1995

Please
Projef

send

any comments
:

or suggestions

to:

de soci&S

Planning 1 Nicholas Ottawa,

for a Sustainable Street, Ontario, Suite Canada 1500

Future

Kl N 787

Fax: (613) 992-7385

Notes: