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English Language & Grammar Course 2009

Lesson 1
A) Speaking Drill: Introduction
Student, Director of the Course
Student: Good Morning, Sir Director: Good morning. What can I do for you? Student: Im Amit. I want to learn how to speak English fluently. Director: Thats a good idea. But why? Student: For better communication. Director: Very good. Let me see how well you speak. Ill ask you a few questions. Where do you stay? Student: At Agrabad. Director: How far is it from here? Student: About four kilometres. Director: Do you have a telephone? Student: Yes, we have. Director: No. you should say, We do. If I ask you Have you a telephone? then you say, We have. Well, how old are you? Student: Im seventeen. Director: Good. Whats your father? Student: He is a Professor of Botany. Director: Are you a student? Student: Yes, I am. Im doing H.Sc. Director: In which college? Student: In Chittagong College. Director: For how long have you been learning English? Student: For more than ten years. Director: Ten years! And yet you think you cant speak well. Student: You see, Sir, I am fairly good at writing in English. I have studied grammar. I got fairly high grades in the exams. I must say that it was largely by memorizing and reproducing what I memorized. Director: Its true. One rarely opens his mouth to express his thoughts and feelings. But in your case, you are doing fairly well. Student: Thank you, Sir. Director: First you need to practise the sounds of words and accent the syllables properly. Student : Syllables? What is a syllable, sir? Director: When we speak, we divide the words into syllables and pronounce them. A syllable is a unit of one vowel sound with a consonant before or after it. Take the word pen. There are three sounds p-e-n. The vowel sound is central to the syllable. The consonant sounds are placed before and after the vowel sound. The word pen has one syllable. The word always has two syllables. Student: What is accent, sir?

Director: Some syllables are more prominent than the others. Such prominent syllables are said to receive the accent or stress. White pronouncing them, we place more emphasis on them. In the word always, the first syllable al-gets the stress. And then you should follow correct intonation. Student: Intonation? What is it, sir? Director: Intonation is the rise and fall of the pitch of the voice in speaking. For instance, when you put a Yes-No question, you are using the rising intonation. Do you get it? Is it clear? When you make a statement, you use then falling intonation. I get it. It is clear. Student: Yes, sir. Director: And you should familiarize yourself with appropriate expressions and use them as the situation demands. This course aims at engaging you in several speech activities and thus helps you to learn the skills so that you can speak fluently, accurately and appropriately. Student: Thank you for your guidance. Ill follow the guidelines and practise the conversations. Director: You cant do that all alone. Choose a companion to converse with. Student: I will do so, sir. Thank you very much. Director: All the best, young man!

B) More Practice
Study the following dialogue. Turn the statements in italics into yes-no questions. Then change the full answers into their short form. Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan Rosy Hasan : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : Hello, Rosy. Hi, Hasan. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, we have moved to our now house. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, its large one. We have three bedrooms. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, we got it repainted. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, we get enough water. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, we can store water in the overhead tank. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, we have a solar water beater. ..................................................................................................................................? No, we have not got the telephone yet. ..................................................................................................................................? Yes, there is space for car parking. So, you enjoy staying in your new home. Very much. Hasan, you must come there one of these days. Sure. Ill be looking forward to it.

C) What does knowing a new word mean?

It is not enough just to know the meaning of a word. You also need to know: (a) what words it is usually associated with (b) whether it has any particular grammatical characteristics (c) how it is pronounced

D) What should you do when you come across new words?

When you are reading something in English, dont look up every new word or expression or you will soon get fed up. Only look up something that is really important for understanding the text. When you have finished reading, look back at what you have read and then perhaps look up some extra words and write down new expressions that interest you. Similarly when you listen to English, dont panic when you hear some words or expressions that you dont know. Keep listening and the overall meaning will often become clear. When you read or listen to English, it is sometimes possible to guess the meaning of a word you dont know before you look up or ask its meaning. Decide first what part of speech the word is and then look for clues in its context or form. A good dictionary is an essential reference book for any student who needs to use English in his studies. However, it is only valuable when it is used correctly and efficiently so the information and exercises which follow will show you how it should be used. Using it well can save time.

E) Using a Dictionary
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of Current English
A S Hornby Some of the OALDCEs most outstanding features: * a wide range of contemporary vocabulary (including specialist English) * practical explanations and definitions in Simple English * many example phrases and sentences to show how a word is used * detailed information on Verb patterns and how they are used * unrivalled information on structural grammar * guidance on style

F) Assignments:
1. List these words in alphabetical order as quickly as you can: dictate, basis, reject, mark, buoy, hang, punch, weight Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. These words begin with the same letter. Arrange them in alphabetical order according to the second letter of each word. ear, egg, eclipse, extra, ever, entry, equate, emotion, effect, esteem Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. The first two letters of the words below are the same. Put them in alphabetical order: standard, steep, street, store, stick, stun, story, style, stage, steady. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. The first three letters of the words below are the same. Put them in alphabetical order: promise, profit, produce, problem, proceed. Ans: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



English words are divided into the following eight groups: Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection. These are called Parts of Speech. Look at the following chart giving definition of each Part of speech followed by examples: Parts of Speech Description Example Noun The name of something cow, apple, Susan, play Pronoun A word that can take the place of a noun he, they, I, it, that Adjective A word that describes a noun or pronoun big, calm, red, short, wide Verb A word that tells us the action someone run, sing, act, listen or something is performing. The state s/he or it is in. The process of change s/he or it is going through. A word that modifies or describes a verb, an adjective or another adverb A word that shows the relationship between one word and another. A word that joins other words or statements A word that expresses an exclamation be, seem become, grow quickly, strongly, very, so in, on, towards, above, from and, but, since, until Hurrah! Wow! Oh! Ah!

Adverb Preposition Conjunction Interjection

H) Assignments:
1. Look at the sentence: For many people moving is one kind of thing and travel is something very different. In this sentence for example, the first word For is a Preposition. Now identify the Parts of Speech of the remaining words of the sentence. 2. Which Part of Speech is missing from the sentence mentioned in question No.1.

I) The same word used as different Parts of Speech

Remember that certain words act as different Parts of Speech without changing their forms. Take for example, the word ROUND which can be used as an Adjective, an Adverb, a Preposition, a Noun or a Verb. Look at the following examples:
Adjective: The nail will fit into a round hole. Adverb: He showed me round the city. Preposition: The earth goes round the sun. Noun: To rich people life is a round of pleasure. Verb: The plane rounded the city several times.

J) Name the Parts of Speech of the bold words.

a) Let us water the plants. ----------------------b) The water level goes up during floods. -----------------c) We should drink pure water. ------------------- d) There is no smoke without fire. --------------------e) Morrison is a fast bowler. --------------------- f) Some bad boys smoke cigarettes. --------------------g) He bowls fast. --------------------i) I shall talk to you next. --------------------k) Alas! The man is dead. --------------------m) Please iron your clothes. --------------------o) Still water runs deep. --------------------q) The up train is late. --------------------h) He failed though he worked hard. --------------------j) Please give me more sugar for tea. --------------------l) Please write more to explain. --------------------n) I went to school but he did not. --------------------p) He still lives in that house. --------------------r) They while away their evenings with books. --------------

s) He was only a yard off me. --------------------- t) He is on the committee. ------------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 2
B) Fill each space with the noun formed from the word given in brackets.
1) Jennie thanked her teacher for her --------------------------------------. (kind) 2) The wolves started to howl as --------------------------------------- fell (dark). 3) Winter often brings much ---------------------------------------. (ill) 4) It is ----------------------------------- to speed on busy roads. (mad) 5) The wood was two centimetres in ------------------------------------------. (thick) 6) The old man is suffering from ------------------------------------. (giddy) 7) We were surprised at the ------------------------------------ of the performing lions. (tame) 8) The mans ------------------------------------- was caused by an explosion. (deaf) 9) Mrs. Platt scolded Bobby for his ---------------------------------------. (lazy) 10) Gerald was dazzled by the ---------------------------------- of the sun. (bright)

Nouns for phrases C) Write down the noun for each of these phrases. The first letter has been given to help you.
1) A fertile place in the desert: O-------------------------------2) A person who goes on foot: P----------------------------3) A picture of a person: P------------------------------4) Instructions for preparing a meal or dish: R--------------------------------5) A person who looks on the bright side of things: O------------------------------6) A person who loves his / her country. P-------------------------------7) A place where monks live. M--------------------------------8) A person who designs buildings: A--------------------------------9) A list or index of books in a library: C---------------------------------10) A line of person awaiting their turns: Q---------------------------------11) A person who greedily hoards money: M-------------------------------12) Someone who tends sheep. S---------------------------13) A place where earth and sky seem to meet. H---------------------------14) A man whose wife had died. W---------------------------15) The science and study of plant-life. B--------------------------

Nouns about people D) Match up the words in the box with the people listed below it.
university dispensary cinema church kitchen statues flowers windows laboratory bank sweets books cars stockings teeth law barracks studio embassy hospital

1) artist = ------------------------------

2) projectionist = --------------------------------

3) soldier = -----------------------------5) ambassador = --------------------------7) surgeon = -----------------------------9) pharmacist = -----------------------------11) sculptor = -----------------------------13) orthodontist = ---------------------------15) professor = -----------------------------17) hosier = ----------------------------------19) chauffeur = ----------------------------

4) chef =------------------------------------------6) priest =----------------------------------------8) teller =-----------------------------------------10) glazier =-------------------------------------12) editor =--------------------------------------14) solicitor =-----------------------------------16) florist =---------------------------------------18) confectioner =-------------------------------20) scientist =--------------------------------------


A short list of some COLLECTIVE NOUNS

A bunch of keys, A bouquet of flowers, A bunch of grapes, A bundle of wood, A chin/range of mountains, A crowd of people, A faggot of sticks, A flight/flock of birds, A flock of sheep, A galaxy of stars, A gang/ band of robbers, A group of islands, A group of labourers, A grove of trees, A heap of ruins, A heap of stones, A herd of cattle, A herd of swine, A hive/swarm of bees, A pack of dogs, A pack of hounds, A pair of shoes, A pride of lions, A range of hills, A range of hills, A regiment of soldiers, A shoal of fish, A school of scholars, A series of events, A swarm of flies, A troupe of horses

A prefix is a word-part added at the beginning of a word to alter its meaning or make a new word. In disagree and exclude, dis and ex are prefixes.

Prefixes at work A) In the table below, complete the words that begin with prefixes. The meanings of the
prefixes are given. PREFIX MEANING tele far sub under mal bad fore before circum around trans across contra against ex out WORDS CONTAINING PREFIX telesc_______, teleph______, telev________, telegr_______ sub___b, subm______, subw____, subd_v_s__n, subt__tl__ maln__tr_t__n, mal_c_, mal_gn__t, mal_dj_st_d forec___t, foreh____d, foret__ll, forem______ circumf__r__nce, circumn__v__g__t__, circumst___t____ transf_s___n, transl_t_, trans__ct___n contrab___d, contrav__nt____, contrad__ct___n expl__s___n, exh__l__, exp_ls___n, ext__ns__v__

Using prefixes to form opposites B) Turn each of these adjectives into its antonym (opposite) by adding the prefix un, in, im,
dis, il or ir. 1) advisable: ----------------------------3) curable: ----------------------------5) tolerable: ----------------------------7) reducible: ----------------------------9) conscious: ----------------------------11) mortal: ----------------------------13) penetrable: ----------------------------2) logical: ---------------------------------4) pardonable: ----------------------------6) respective: -----------------------------8) valuable: -------------------------------10) honourable: ----------------------------12) legible: ----------------------------------14) relevant: ----------------------------------

15) forgettable: ----------------------------17) mobile: ----------------------------19) employed: ----------------------------21) moderate: ----------------------------23) timely: -----------------------------

16) reputable: --------------------------------18) visible: -----------------------------------20) logical: -----------------------------------22) repressible: ------------------------------24) pious: -------------------------------------

C) Here is a list of prefixes. Select the appropriate one to add to each of the words or wordparts that follow. The first one has been done to help you. retro ortho re bene super hyper mono inter auto ad tri semi trans peri dis hemi 1) --------------verse 4) --------------missal 7) -------------formation 10) --------------dontist 13) -------------- graph 16) ------------scope 2) --------------sphere 5) ---------------mediate 8) --------------formation 11) --------------tonous 14) ---------------venture 3) -------------angle 6) --------------- intendent 9) ---------------factor 12) -------------grade 15) --------------final

D) Form the opposites of these words, using prefixes.

i) sane:--------------------------------; iii) aware:-----------------------------; v) human:-----------------------------; vii) usual:-----------------------------; ix) obedient:--------------------------; xi) approve:--------------------------; ii) certain:-------------------------------; iv) perfect:------------------------------; vi) gratitude:----------------------------; viii) regard:------------------------------; x) continue:------------------------------; xii) considerate:-------------------------; xv) similar:-------------------

xiii)equality:---------------------; xiv) orderly:----------------------;

Suffix is a word-part added at the end of a word to alter its meaning or form. Most suffixes consist of one syllable. Example: impress / impressive; hope / hopeless; collect / collector; imprison / imprisonment

Adding suffixes to form nouns

E) Create nouns by adding the suffix ment, ance, ion, ation, sion, tion or al to each
italicized word in the following phrases. Sometimes the ending of the word will need to be altered before the suffix can be added.
1) a successful advertise -------------------------------3) an apply for a drivers licence ---------------------5) an approve for a loan -------------------------------7) a victory celebrate ----------------------------------9) the fulfil of a dream ---------------------------------11) beyond human endure ----------------------------13) a remarkable improve -----------------------------15) heat exhaust ----------------------------------------2) the appear of the police. -------------------------4) the conclude of the play --------------------------6) a secondary educate -------------------------------8) a difficult decide -----------------------------------10) the erode of the soil ------------------------------12) the orchestras perform --------------------------14) a negotiate for peace ----------------------------16) life imprison ----------------------------------------

17) an erupt of the volcano ---------------------------19) the remove of the evidence -----------------------21) the register of the car -----------------------------23) car maintain -----------------------------------------

18) a religious revive ---------------------------------20) rapid promote -------------------------------------22) the reduce of the road toll ----------------------24) an investigate of the complaint ------------------

Adding suffixes to form people F) Add the suffix er, or, eer, ist, ent, ant or ive to form the word for a person associated with each
verb. Sometimes the ending of the word will have to be altered before the suffix can be added- e.g. history / historian, biology / biologist. 1) decorate: -------------------------- 2) ski: --------------------------- 3) accompany: -----------------------4) create: --------------------------7) travel: -------------------------13) supply: ----------------------5) dictate: ---------------------6) succeed: ----------------------------9) type: --------------------------15) oppose: -------------------------18) kidnap: -------------------------21) reside: -------------------------24) inhabit: ------------------------12) auction: --------------------8) immigrate: --------------------------14) conspire: ---------------------------20) elect: ---------------------------23) enter: -----------------------

10) parachute: ------------------------ 11) occupy: -----------------------16) contest: ------------------------- 17) detect: ---------------------------19) participate: ------------------------22) represent: -------------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 3
A) Speaking Drill: Making Acquaintances
Juliet: Hello, I havent seen you around. You must be new. Samantha: Yes, I am. Juliet: Im Juliet. Whats your name? Samantha: Samantha (They shake hands.) Juliet: So what course are you doing, Samantha? Samantha: Ive joined H.S.C. What about you? Juliet: Im doing the same course as you but Im in the 2nd year. How do you find the college? Samantha: Id say I like it. The lecturers seem very helpful and knowledgeable. And the students are friendly. Juliet: Yes, thats the impression I had when I joined the college. Which school were you in? Samantha: I attended Dr. Khastagir Girls High School. (Susan joined them.) Susan: Hello. Juliet: Samantha, meet Susan, one of my close friends. Susan: Hello, Samantha. Nice to meet you. Juliet: Shes doing HSC 1st year.

Susan: Oh, really? Samantha: Yes. I guess youre doing HSC 2nd year, arent you? Susan: Guessed right. Samantha: Can we get a bite? Im starving. I havent had breakfast. Juliet: Nerves? Your first day of college. Sure. Lets order something. Susan: The sandwiches are good. Samantha: OK then. Lets try them out. [They place an order for sandwiches. Susan pays. They finish eating. They start walking back to the classrooms .] Susan: It was really nice meeting you, Samantha. Samantha: Yes. Thank you both for making my first day here so pleasant. Juliet: No problem at all, Juliet. Well see you tomorrow. Bye! Samantha: Thanks again. See you tomorrow. Susan: Bye!

Reading & Understanding Skill

The Smuggler
B) People usually smuggle gold and precious stones, and often they are caught. But one
particular smuggler was not caught by the customs officer. Lets find out what he smuggled?

Sam Lewis was a customs officer. He used to work in a small border town. It wasnt a busy town. There wasnt much work. The road was usually very quiet and there werent many travellers. It wasnt a very interesting job, but Sam liked an easy life. About once a week, he used to meet an old man. His name was Draper. He always used to arrive at the border early in the morning in a big truck. The truck was always empty. After a while Sam became suspicious. He often used to search the truck but never found anything. One day, unable to hide his curiosity, he asked Draper about his job. Draper laughed and said, Im a smuggler. Last year Sam retired. He spent his savings on an expensive holiday. He flew to Bermuda, and stayed in a luxury hotel. One day, while he was sitting by the pool he noticed Draper. He was sipping some champagne. Sam walked over to him. Sam : Hello, there! Draper: Hi! Sam : Do you remember me? Draper: Yes, of course I do. Youre customs officer. Sam : I used to be, but Im not any more. I retired last month. I often used to search your truck. Draper: ........... but you never found anything? Sam : No, I didnt. Can I ask you something? Draper : Go right ahead. Sam : Were you a smuggler? Draper: Of course I was. Sam : But .......... the truck was always empty. What were you smuggling? Draper: Trucks. C) Now try to find out the facts.

1. Who was Sam Lewis? 2. Why did he not have much work? 3. Sams job was not interesting yet he liked it. Why? 4. Who did he meet once a week? 5. When did this man come to the border? What did he come in? 6. Why did Sam search the truck? Did he find anything? 7. What did Sam ask Draper? What did Draper reply? 8. How did Sam spend his savings? Where did he go? Where did he stay? Who did he meet there? 9. What did Draper say he used to smuggle? 10. What are the duties of a customs officer? 11. Draper told Sam, I am a smuggler. How do you think Sam felt? 12. Who do you think was cleverer- Sam or Draper? Give your reason(s).

D) THE NOUN A Noun is a word for a person, animal, place, thing or quality. Nouns are divided into four
different categories: Abstract, Collective, Common and Proper Noun. Abstract Noun: The name given to a quality, state or action. e.g. wisdom, slavery, hatred etc. Collective Noun: The name given to a group of persons, animals or things taken together and considered as one whole. e.g. a class, a committee, a crew, etc. Common Noun: The name that is given to all members of a class of persons or things of the same kind. e.g. girl, flood, building Proper Noun: The name to one particular place, person, place or thing. e.g. Chittagong, Rahman, Taj Mahal Note: Remember that a Proper Noun should always begin with a capital letter.

E) Assignment:
1. Give five examples of Abstract Noun. Collective Noun, Common Noun, Proper Noun and make sentences with them. To make Nouns often Prefixes or Suffixes are added to the stem word.

Prefixes added to make Nouns:

Out - Out + break = Outbreak Out + line = Outline In - In + laws = In-laws In + sect = Insect Under - Under + garments = Undergarments Under + ground = Underground On - On + looker = Onlooker On + set = Onset Up - Up + rising = Uprising Up + set = Upset

The Suffixes added to make Nouns: -ship- relationship, scholarship -ment- agreement, development -cation- modification, purification

-ology- sociology, archeology -ity / ty- ability purity -ty / y- certainty, cruelty

-ice- justice, twice -hood- childhood, neighbourhood

-ness- hardness, politeness

F) Give the noun formed from the verb in bold type, which will complete each sentence.
1) The injured man found the least --------------------------------------- very painful. (move) 2) It is our ---------------------------------------- to visit Greece next year. (intend) 3) Bad weather delayed the ------------------------------------------- of the plane.(depart) 4) Alan received ----------------------------------------- to leave school early.(permit) 5) The boy wrote an excellent ------------------------------------------ about dogs.(compose) 6) I have a deep ------------------------------------------------ for the artists work.(admire) 7) A hermit leads a very lonely ---------------------------------------------. (exist) 8) Many were killed in the ------------------------------------- against the government.(rebel) 9) Treasure Island contains a splendid ---------------------------------- of long John Silver.(describe) 10) After a little ------------------------- Simon agreed to lend the boys this new football.(persuade)

Abstract nouns
Abstract nouns are nouns that name feelings or qualities- e.g. love, courage, weariness, accuracy.

G) Form abstract nouns ending with the suffixes ness, cy, ment, ance or ation form the
following words. (For example, reluctant / reluctance, fulfil / fulfilment.)
i) embarrass = ------------------------------iii) supreme = ------------------------------v) possessive = ----------------------------vii) inform = -------------------------------ix) accurate = ------------------------------xi) happy = ---------------------------------xiii) improve = ----------------------------xv) assist = ----------------------------------xvii) empty = -------------------------------xix) calculate = -----------------------------xxi) educate = -------------------------------xxiii) lonely = -------------------------------xxv) pirate = ---------------------------------ii) tempt = ----------------------------------iv) lovely = ---------------------------------vi) enter = -----------------------------------viii) argue = ---------------------------------x) arrogant = ---------------------------------xii) inflate = ---------------------------------xiv) excite = ---------------------------------xvi) private = --------------------------------xviii) assure = -------------------------------xx) agree = ----------------------------------xxii) dedicate = ------------------------------xxiv) vacant = ---------------------------------

Nouns and their opposites

H) Write down a noun opposite in meaning to each of the following. The first letter has been
given to help you.
1) wealth = P-------------------------3) weakness = S-----------------------5) pain = R-------------------------2) death = B-------------------------4) arrival = D------------------------6) darkness = L---------------------

7) question = A----------------------9) love = H----------------------11) enemy = F------------------------13) war = P----------------------15) heaven = H-------------------17) inferiority = S-----------------------19) cowardice = B----------------------21) wisdom =F------------------------23) expansion = C-------------------------

8) liberty = B------------------------10) absence = P-----------------------12) exit = E-------------------------14) failure = S----------------------16) safety = E-----------------------18) sadness = H-----------------------20) summer = W----------------------22) morning = E-------------------------24) vagueness = C----------------------


A list of words about Houses

Abode, Ante-chamber, Anteroom, Barn, Basement, Bathroom, Beam, Beauty parlour, Bed room, Brick, Bride chamber, Building, Bungalow, Cabin, Cage, Ceiling, Cellar, Cement, Chimney, Church, Cottage, Courtyard, Cow shed, Den, Dining room, Door, Drawing room, Eaves, False ceiling, Farm house, First floor, Floor, Foyer, Gargoyle, Gate, Godown, Gravel, Green room, Ground floor, Gutter, Hall, Home, Hut, Kitchen, Latrine, Lavatory, Lime, Mansion, Mens room, Mortar, Mosque, Palace, Parlour, Partition, Patio, Pen, Pillar, Portico, Postern, Praying hall, Premise, Privy, Reading room, Residence, Roof, Room, Sand, Second floor, Shed, Slanted roof, Sod house, Stable, Stair case, Store room, Summer house, Temple, Tiles, Top floor, Upstairs, Verandah, Wainscot / Panel, Waiting room, Wall, Window, Window pane, Womans room, Club, Apartment, Community centre


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 4
A) Speaking Drill: Identifying People
Robin: Hello, Sam. How are you? Sam: Hi, Robin. Im fine. Thank you. And you? Robin: Im all right. You had gone to Dhaka for your sisters marriage. When did you come back? Sam: Yesterday. We had a wonderful time there. Everything went on well. I mean all the arrangements, the accommodation and above all the feast. Robin: Im sure your sister is greatly delighted. Sam: Yes, she is. Would you like to look at the photos? Robin: Yes, Id love to. Sam: Do you have time? Robin: Yes, I do. I love family photos. Sam: Heres the album.......... The man in the middle with a garland is my sisters husband. He is a businessman. Robin: Looks smart. Whos to the left of your brother-in-law? Sam: Thats his father, Mr. Thomas. A retired judge. Robin: The one on his left? Sam: His second son, Jerry. Hes studying medicine.

Robin: Whos to the right of your sister? Sam: Thats her mother-in-law. Next to her is her mother. An old woman who keeps you engaged with her lively talk. Robin: I dont see you here. Sam: Its their family with my sister. Robin: Let me see some more photos...... Ah, here you are. This is your family with the bridegroom. I suppose. Sam: Thats right. Robin: I guess I had better go now. Sam: Ive got to be going now too. Robin: In that case, Ill be seeing you. Sam: So long. See you later.

B) Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Countable Noun: A countable noun can be singular (banana) or plural (bananas). e. g. i) I eat a banana everyday. ii) I like bananas. Banana is a countable noun. Countable nouns are things we can count. So we can say one banana, two bananas. Uncountable Noun: Uncountable nouns are things we cannot count. e. g. I eat rice everyday. I like rice. Rice is an uncountable noun. An uncountable noun has only one form (rice). We cannot say one rice, two rices etc. Many nouns can be used as countable or uncountable nouns, usually with a difference in meaning.

Countable Did you hear a noise just now? (= a particular noise) I bought a paper to read. (= a newspaper) Theres a hair in my soup! ( = one long hair) You can stay with us. There is a spare room. ( = a room in a house) I had some interesting experiences while I was away. ( = things that happened to me) Enjoy your holiday. Have a good time! Uncountable I cant work here. Theres too much noise. (not too many noises) I need some paper to write on. ( = material for writing on) Youve got very long hair. (not hairs) You cant sit here. There isnt room. ( = a space) They offered me the job because I had a lot of experience. (not experiences) I cant wait. I havent good time.

There are some nouns that are usually uncountable in English but often countable in other
languages. For example:

accommodation advice baggage

behaviour bread chaos

damage furniture information

luck luggage news

permission progress scenery

traffic weather work

These nouns are usually uncountable, so: i) you cannot use a / an with them (you cannot say a bread, an advice etc.) and ii) they are not normally plural (we do not say breads, advices etc.): Im going to buy some bread. or Im going to buy a loaf of bread. (not a bread) Enjoy your holiday! I hope you have good weather. (not a good weather) Where are you going to put all your furniture? (not furnitures) News is uncountable, not plural: The news was very depressing. (not the news were) Travel (noun) means travelling in general. You cannot say a travel to mean a journey or a trip: We had a very good journey. (not a good travel)


e.g. (without Pronoun) Karim likes Jamila because Karim knows that Jamila is honest. (with Pronoun) Karim likes Jalil because he knows that she is honest.

Pronouns substitute nouns in a sentence.

Example: I, we, my, mine, myself, you, your, yours, yourself etc. The noun that a Pronoun replaces is called the Antecedent of the pronoun. Pronouns are divided into: 1. Personal Pronoun: I, We, You, He, She, It, They 2. Possessive Pronoun: my, our, your, his, her, their 3. Reflexive & Emphatic Pronoun: myself, ourselves, himself, herself, themselves, oneself 4. Reciprocal Pronoun: each other, one another 5. Relative pronoun: who, whom, whose, which, that, whoever, whichever, whatever 6. Interrogative Pronoun: Who? Which? What? Whom? 7. Demonstrative pronoun: this, that, these, those 8. Distributive pronoun: Each, Either, Neither N.B. Either & Neither are used in speaking of two persons or things. 9. Indefinite pronoun: All, Some, Many, Any, Another, Everybody, Somebody, Nobody, Anybody, Everything, Something, Anything, Other, One N.B. These pronouns can be used without any Antecedent.
The relationship of Personal Pronoun to Reflexive and Possessive Pronouns is shown in the table below.

Person 1st 2nd 3rd

Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular


Masculine Feminine Nonperson

PERSONAL REFLEXIVE Subjectiv Objective e case case I Me Myself We Us Ourselves Yourself You Yourselves He Him Himself She Her Herself Itself It

POSSESSIVE Determiner Nominal Function Function My Mine Our Ours Your His Her Its Hers Yours







D) Write the appropriate pronoun in the blank from the list given below in place of the words in bold
type in the following sentences. he it we us she her his him them they 1) Anne told Jennifer that Anne would knit a cardigan for Jennifer. -----------------------------2) When Colin was given a dog Colin trained the dog to beg. ----------------------------------3) Brian and I are good friends. Brian and I go everywhere together. -----------------------------4) As Roger and I approached the farmyard gate a big dog barked at Roger and me. --------------5) The teacher sent for Robin and Alan. The teacher told Robin and Alan to stay in after school. --------------------------------------6) The two girls knew that the two girls would be late. ------------------------------------7) Andrew was sad because the stolen bicycle was Andrews. -----------------------------------



1. That which can be heard - Audible 2. One who is all powerful - Almighty 3. Happening every year - Annually 4. An animal that is equally at home on land and in water - Amphibious 5. A man who professes to read the future from a study of the stars - Astrologer 6. One who checks accounts - Auditor 7. A tank in which fish are kept - Aquarium 8. Representative of Government with full authority - Ambassador 9. Increase the gravity of burden or offence - Aggravate 10. That which does not bear the name of the writer - Anonymous 11. One who does not believe in God - Atheist 12. An absolute government by one man - Autocracy 13. Government by the nobles - Aristocracy 14. The state where no government exists - Anarchy 15. The life-story of a man written by himself - Autobiography 16. A general pardon granted by the government to political prisoners - Amnesty 17. A place where lunatics and other afflicted persons are sheltered - Asylum 18. An assembly of hearers - Audience 19. A statement which can have two meanings - Ambiguous 20. A word opposite in meaning to another - Antonym

F) Learn the words in the list below, together with their meanings, then answer the exercises G & H. People
cannibal - Eats human flesh. coward - Lacks courage/ is afraid. daredevil Person recklessly daring glutton - A person who overeats. hermit - A person living in isolation from others. martyr - A person forced to suffer or die for a belief. miser - Lives sparingly in order to hoard money. patriot - A person who loves and wished to serve his country pilgrim - Travels to a sacred place as a religious devotion. spendthrift - Spends money unnecessarily. truant - Pupil absent from school without permission.

G) Give one word for each of the following from the list F.
1) A pupil who stays away from school without sufficient reason. ----------------------------------2) A man who rides his motorbike through a ring of fire. ----------------------------------3) A person who is afraid of his own shadow. ----------------------------------4) An Arab walking to Mecca, the birthplace of the prophet Mohammed. ---------------------------5) A person who buys things he does not need. -----------------------------------

H) Complete each sentence with a word from the list F.

1) The ------------------------------------------ gloated over his hoard of money. 2) The -------------------------------------------- ate so much at the party that he was sick. 3) The ----------------------------------- who lived alone in a hut in the forest had not seen anyone for weeks. 4) One of the hunters was captured and eaten by ---------------------------------------. 5) William Tell was a famous Swiss -------------------------------------- who loved his country so much that he was prepared to die for it.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
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Lesson 5
A) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said) Arranging a Party
Prem: Renu dear, get me a glass of water please. Its so hot. Renu: Here you are. Yes, its very warm and sultry today. Prem: True. I wish it would rain... Well, on my way back, I went to the bakers and ordered a big chocolate cake. Renu: Weve hardly three days left to organize Anus birthday party. Shes so excited about it. Prem: Your dad called saying theyre coming tomorrow. Renu: Will they bring Sumana with them? Anu is so eager to meet her. Prem: Yes, Archana too. Renu: Lovely.... Come on. Who else shall we invite? We must have Indu. Prem: Whos Indu? Renu: Oh, you know her. Shes Anus friend at school. Prem: Ok. How about Ravi and Jyothsna? Renu: Yes, I like them a lot. Prem: What about Rahul? Renu: Whos that? Prem: Oh Renu. Youre so forgetful. Hes the man who returned from Nairobi a couple of months

ago. Big, bearded and funny. Renu: Ah yes. He tells some very interesting anecdotes. Prem: How about inviting Swaroop Rani who taught you classical music? Renu: Oh, I forgot. Then lets invite Sundari and her husband. They are your neighbours. So helpful. Prem: Ok. How many are there now? Renu: Let me see. There are ten, eleven, ...... fourteen. Prem: Including you and me? Renu: Yes. Prem: Thats that. Now some tea? Renu: Thats a very good idea.

B) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said.) Making an appointment
Secretary: Hello, Dr. Sukumars Office. Can I help you?
Vishwanath: Good morning. Id like to make an appointment with Dr. Sukumar on Wednesday, please.

Secretary: Whos speaking please? Vishwanath: Vishwanath. Secretary: Yes, Mr. Vishwanath, Wednesday is all right. But it will have to be in the afternoon. Will 4.30 do?
Vishwanath: Thatll be fine. Id like to know if there are facilities for scanning, X-Ray and clinical tests.

Secretary: Yes, there are. You can get all the tests done here itself. You need not go round to different places. Vishwanath: Thatll make things easier. Thank you very much. Secretary: Youre welcome.

ancestor = A person from whom one is descended bachelor = An unmarried man. bankrupt = A person who is unable to pay his debts blackleg = A person who refuses to join a strike. bully = A person who teases and ill-treats those weaker than himself. guest = A person received and entertained at anothers house host = The person who entertains the guest [Feminine- hostess] orphan = A child whose parents are dead. volunteer = A person who offers to serve of his own free will. widow = A woman whose husband is dead widower = A man whose wife is dead

C) Give one word for each of the following using appropriate word from the list above.

1) One who gives a service without being compelled to. -----------------------------------2) A man whose wife has died and who has not remarried. -----------------------------------3) A business man who has 50 and owes 5,000. ---------------------------------4) A child whose parents are dead. ---------------------------------5) A woman who invites friends to parties at her home. ---------------------------------6) Some dislikes women and is determined to remain unmarried -----------------------------. 7) The Duke of Marlborough, who won the Battle of Blenheim, was an -----------------------------of Sir Winston Churchill. 8) Crowds of strikers booed the -------------------------------- as they entered the factory. 9) The ------------------------------------ hurt the little boy and made him cry. 10) The -------------------------------------- thanked their host for a wonderful party.

Collective Nouns
actors angels arrows bells chicks directors eggs lions locusts magistrates company host sheaf, quiver peal brood board clutch pride plague, swarm bench minstrels pilgrims thieves singers spectators stars swallows teachers worshippers clump troupe band gang choir crowd cluster flight staff congregation


D) Write the collective nouns needed to complete these sentences. Take help from the above list.
1) The --------------------------------------------------- of pilgrims halted before the mosque. 2) A ------------------------------------------------------ of locusts devoured every growing plant. 3) The mother hen was accompanied by her -------------------------------------------- of chicks. 4) Under a small ---------------------------------------------- of trees a tent had been pitched. 5) Several plays have been performed by this brilliant ----------------------------------------- of actors. 6) The police are searching for a ------------------------------------------- of car thieves. 7) The -------------------------------------------- of directors met to consider their companys losses. 8) The match was watched by a huge ------------------------------------------ of spectators. 9) In his dream Jacob saw a ------------------------------------------------- of angels. 10) The children saw a --------------------------------------------- of swallows making for the sea.

A special study E) The suffix logy means the study of or the science of. Match up the words in the box with
their correct meanings below. criminology theology biology vulcanology astrology gynaecology meteorology speleology





1) The study of weather and climate: --------------------------------------------------------2) The study of womens diseases: --------------------------------------------------------3) The study of crime and criminals: ---------------------------------------------------4) The study of caves: ------------------------------------------------------5) The study of the descent of families: -----------------------------------------------------------6) The study of the mind: ------------------------------------------------------7) The study of volcanoes: ----------------------------------------------------------8) The study of the influence of the stars: ------------------------------------------------------9) The study of living things: --------------------------------------------------------10) The study of relics from ancient times: ---------------------------------------------------------11) The study of animals: --------------------------------------------------------12) The study (or a system) of religion: -----------------------------------------------------



Adjectives are words that describe or qualify a noun or a pronoun. They are divided into: a. Adjectives of Quality: e.g. useful, foolish, wise. b. Adjectives of Quantity and Number: e.g. no, whole, nine c. Demonstrative Adjective: e.g. that, this, these, those d. Distributive Adjective: e.g. each, every, either, neither e. Interrogative Adjective: e.g. what, which, whose f. Possessive Adjectives: e.g. my, your, his, her, its, our, their. Present Participles [V + ing] and Past Participles [V + ed] may be used as Adjectives. Example: The music is amusing. That was a tiring job. [Present Participles] Look at the amused boy. He was a tired man. [Past Participles] Some common Suffixes used to form adjectives: -ive, e.g., attractive, expensive; -able, e.g., appealable, agreeable; -ful, e.g., fruitful, wonderful; -ous, e.g., dangerous, courageous; -ious, e.g., prestigious, luxurious -ible, e.g. horrible, sensible; -al, e.g. national, sensational; -ic, e.g., romantic, pathetic; -ant, e.g., vacant, tolerant.

Adjectives are used to:

1. Point out, e.g., those papers, such mangoes; 2. Show possession, e.g., my idea, their school; 3. Ask questions, e.g., which book; what pen 4. Indicate number, e.g., each student, four apples; 5. Show and indefinite number / amount, e.g., some money, any girl; 6. Indicate order, e.g., the first viewer, the third window; 7. Indicate the kind of person or object we are referring to, e.g., the fat man, the blue sky.

Order of Adjectives:
When a series of Adjectives are used to describe / qualify a noun / pronoun the adjectives are arranged in the following order.

a) size, b) general feature, e) colour, f) material,

c) age,

d) shape, g) origin, h) purpose

Example: The President led the long enthusiastic procession. He chose some dark blue chiffon saris for the dancers.

G) Insert missing adjectives using appropriate form of the word given in brackets.
1) A -------------------------- day. (sun) 3) A -------------------------- hand. (skin) 5) A ------------------------- chimney. (smoke) 7) ---------------------------- trousers. (bag) 9) A ---------------------------- path. (stone) 2) An -------------------------- chair. (ease) 4) A -------------------------- animal. (fur) 6) A --------------------------- class. (noise) 8) A ---------------------------- tree. (shade) 10) A ---------------------------- night. (fog)


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
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Lesson 6
A) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said)
Renting a Flat
Owner: Hello, this is 6541278 Enquirer: Hello. Is that Mr. Mehta? Owner: yes, speaking. Enquirer: Im Vasudev. Ive just seen the advertisement in todays paper. Im calling to enquire about the furnished flat you have to rent. Is it still available? Owner: Yes, it is. Would you like to know something about it? Enquirer: I would. Could you give me the address of the flat? Owner: Its number 309, Shahjahan Enclave, defence Colony, New Delhi. Enquirer: Okay. How big is the flat? Owner: Its big enough for a family of four or five. There are two good size bedrooms. Enquirer: Is there running water? Owner: Twenty-four hours. Besides, drinking water is available from the corporation everyday. Enquirer: How much is the rent? Owner: Its ten thousand rupees a month. The electricity is extra.

Enquirer: Do I have to pay anything for the maintenance of the flat? Owner: Yes, you do. Five hundred rupees extra per month. Enquirer: If I decide to rent the flat, when will I be able to move in? Owner: It will be available from the beginning of June. Enquirer: Thank you very much. Ill be in touch. Owner: You can come and have a look if you wish. Enquirer: Yes, Id like that. Owner: Just give me a call before you decide to, Mr. Vasudev. Enquirer: Of course, Ill do that. Thank you very much.

B) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said) Planning an Excursion
Pallavi, Kartik, Sharma, Deepak
Pallavi: Its getting hotter day by day. Unbearable! How much vacation time do you get, dear? Kartik: Only two weeks this year, Pallavi? Pallavi: Where shall we plan to go? Kartik: How about going to Mysore and Ooty? Pallavi: Oh, a great idea. Dont you think itll be nice if some of our friends join us? Kartik: Shall we ask Sharma and Deepak if they are interested? Pallavi: The other day Mrs. Sharma asked me whether we were taking a vacation. Kartik: Let me try. [He telephones Mr. Sharma] Hello, Sharma. Sharma: Hi, Kartik. Whats new? Kartik: Were planning to go to Mysore and Ooty on vacation. How about joining us? Sharma: Really? Wed be delighted to join you. When do you propose to start? Kartik: I think in a weeks time. Please come in the evening. Well work out the details. Meanwhile, Ill find out if Deepak and his wife are willing to come with us. Sharma: Please do. All right, then. See you in the evening.

Kartik: Ok, Bye. [Telephones Deepak] Hello, Deepak. Have you made plans to go anywhere for your vacation. Deepak: Are you planning to go somewhere? Kartik: Yes, we have plans of going to Mysore and Ooty. Sharma and his wife will join us. How about you? Deepak: Thank you for asking me, but I cant make it. My brother is coming from the States. Kartik: What a pity that you cant come. Have a nice time with your brother. Deepak: Thank you for the invitation, Kartik. Bye. Kartik: Pallavi, Deepak cant make it. But Sharma says Ok....... Now something to drink? Tea? Pallavi: No, no. Not tea in this hot weather. Ill bring a soft drink. Kartik: That would be great! Thanks, Pallavi.

C) Go through the meaning of the words given below.

exile: A person banished from his native country genius: An exceptionally brainy or gifted person hypocrite: A person pretends to be better than he really is lunatic: A person who is mad mimic: A person who imitates the voice and actions of others pedestrian: A person who travels about on foot prophet: A person who foretells coming events traitor: A person who betrays his country, friends or any trust tyrant: A person who uses his power to oppress others. vandal: A person who wilfully damages or destroys property

D) Give one word for each of the following from the list above.
1) A person who attends church regularly yet leads an evil life in secret. -------------------------------2) A man who sells his countrys secrets to a foreign power. ------------------------------------------3) A king who treats his subjects harshly. ------------------------------------------------4) A person who is not in his right mind. ----------------------------------------------------5) A person who has not seen his native land for many years. ---------------------------------------------

E) Complete each sentence by using a word from the list above.

1) The event was foretold by a --------------------------------------- who live in Israel. 2) A ---------------------------------- who crossed the road without looking both ways was knocked down by a car. 3) Shakespeare, who wrote some of the words best plays, was a ----------------------------------------. 4) A ------------------------------ had uprooted shrubs in the park and smashed several windows in the pavilion. 5) The --------------------------------- in the variety show gave wonderful imitations of television


F) Change the words in heavy type into adjectives.
1) a credit performance = -------------------------------- 2) a plenty supply = ----------------------------3) a labour task = ---------------------------------5) a deceit person = -------------------------------7) a skill craftsman = ------------------------------9) an admire achievement = ----------------------11) a value necklace = ----------------------------13) an exception athlete = ------------------------15) a profit business = ----------------------------17) a monotony lesson = -------------------------19) a collapse chair = -----------------------------4) an occasion error = -------------------------6) an apology student = -----------------------8) a friend neighbour = ------------------------10) a doubt goal = -----------------------------12) an accept explanation = --------------------14) a triumph general = ------------------------16) an attention class = -------------------------18) an offend remark = --------------------------20) a competence teacher = ---------------------

G) Uses of some Adjectives:

Much, many, little, few, a lot, plenty

We use much and little with uncountable nouns:
e.g. much time, much luck, little energy, little money We use many and few with plural nouns: e.g. many friends, many people, few cars, few countries

We use a lot of

/ lots of / plenty of with uncountable and plural nouns: e.g. a lot of luck, lots of time, plenty of money a lot of friends, lots of people, plenty of ideas e.g. Theres no need to hurry. Weve got plenty of time. Ive had plenty to eat. I dont want any more.

Plenty = more than enough: We use much / many especially in negative sentences and questions. A lot (of) is also possible.
e.g. We didnt spend much money. (or We didnt spend a lot of money.) Do you know many people? (or Do you know a lot of people?) I dont go out much. (or I dont go out a lot.)

Little and few (without a) are negative ideas (= not much / not many):
e.g. We must be quick. There is little time. (= not much, not enough time) He isnt popular. He has few friends. (= not many, not enough friends)

You can say very little and very few:

e.g. There is very little time. He has very few friends.

A little and a few are more positive.

A little = some, a small amount: e.g. Lets go and have a drink. Weve got a little time before the train leaves. (a little time = some time, enough time to have a drink) Do you speak English? A little.(so we can talk a bit)

A few = some, a small number:

e.g. I enjoy my life here. I have a few friends and we meet quite often. (a few friends = not many but enough to have a good time) When did you last see Susan? A few days ago. (= some days ago)

Note that only a little and only a few have a negative meaning:
e.g. We must be quick. Weve got only a little time. The village was very small. There were only a few houses.

All and Whole

Whole = complete, entire. Most often we use whole with singular nouns: e.g. Did you read the whole book? She has lived her whole life in Scotland. We normally use the / my / her etc. before whole. Compare whole and all: e.g. the whole book / all the book her whole life / all her life You can use: a whole..... e.g. Jack was so hungry, he ate a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet) We do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. e.g. Ive spent all the money you gave me.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
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Lesson 7
A) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said)
Receptionist: Good day, Star lamps. May I help you? Customer: Good morning. My name is Ramesh Sharma. I bought a lamp from your store recently but I found that its not working. Receptionist: I see. Would you please hold the line while I connect you to the Complaints and Suggestions Section? Customer: Thank you. Sanjoy: Hello, Mr. Sharma. This is Sanjay. Im in charge of Complaints and Suggestions. Customer: Yes, this is Ramesh Sharma. I bought a lamp from your store two days ago and it does not seem to work. Sanjoy: Do you have the receipt? Customer: Yes, I do. Sanjoy: Can you please give me the code of the lamp? Customer: It is FX 43029. Sanjoy: Ok. Thank you. Now please tell me what exactly the problem seems to be. Customer: Well, when I turn the lamp switch on, it takes several, may be ten seconds, to light up. Sanjoy: So, is the problem the length of time it takes to light up? Customer: Thats part of the problem. When it eventually does light up, the light is very dim. Sanjoy: Aah! I see. There seems to be a loose connection. Why dont you bring the lamp and the receipt in? We will replace it.

Customer: Okay. Ill bring it in tomorrow around noon. Thank you very much for the help. Sanjoy: Sorry for the faulty lamp. Dont worry. Youll have the lamp in excellent working condition tomorrow. Bye. Customer: Thats all right. Bye.

An adjective for a phrase

B) Write down an adjective for each of these phrases.
1) able to be seen: v---------------------------3) exactly alike: i------------------------------5) able to be carried: p------------------------7) careful in spending: t----------------------9) quite likely to happen: p------------------11) able to be heard: a------------------------13) without any faults: f----------------------15) not allowed: p-----------------------------2) very plentiful: a------------------------------4) out of the ordinary: e------------------------6) able to be believed: c-------------------------8) pertaining to the moon: l---------------------10) strange or bizarre: w------------------------12) able to be dissolved: s-----------------------14) having plenty of room: s-------------------16) generally liked by people: p------------------

Describing People Character

C) Intellectual ability
Ability: intelligent, bright, clever, smart, shrewd, able, gifted, talented, brainy (colloquial) Lacking ability: stupid, foolish, half-witted, simple, silly, brainless, daft, dumb, dim (the last four are predominantly colloquial words) N.B. Clever, in a negative way, using brains to trick or deceive: cunning, crafty, sly

D) Attitudes towards life

Looking on either the bright or the black side of things: optimistic, pessimistic Outward-looking or inward-looking (i.e. to the world around one or to ones own inner world): extroverted, introverted) Calm or not calm with regard to attitude to life: relaxed, tense Practical, not dreamy in approach to life: sensible, down-to-earth Feeling things very intensely: sensitive

E) Attitudes towards other people

Enjoying others company: sociable, gregarious Disagreeing with others: quarrelsome, argumentative Taking pleasure in others pain: cruel, sadistic Relaxed in attitude to self and others: easy-going, even-tempered Not polite to others: impolite, rude, ill-mannered, discourteous Telling the truth to others: honest, trustworthy, reliable, sincere Unhappy if others have what one does not have oneself: jealous, envious

F) One persons meat is another persons poison

Some characteristics can be either positive or negative depending on your point of view. The words in the right-hand column mean roughly the same as the words in the left-hand column except that they have negative rather than positive connotations. determined thrifty / economical self-assured assertive original frank / direct / open broad-minded inquiring generous innocent ambitious obstinate, stubborn, pig-headed miserly, mean, right-fisted self-important, arrogant, full of oneself (colloquial) aggressive, bossy (colloquial) peculiar, weird, eccentric, odd blunt, abrupt, brusque, curt. unprincipled, permissive inquisitive, nosy (colloquial) extravagant naive pushy (colloquial)

G) Match these words with their opposites.
1. clever 2. extroverted 3. rude 4. cruel 5. generous 6. unsociable introverted tight-fisted courteous gregarious kind-hearted half-witted ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ...................................................................... ......................................................................

H) Do you think that the speaker likes or dislikes the people s/he is talking about?
1. Dis very thrifty. ...................................... 2. Mollys usually frank. ................................ 3. Lizs quite broad-minded. .............................. 4. Sam can be aggressive. .............................. 5. Dicks quite bossy. ...................................... 6. I find Dave self-important. .................................. 7. Dont you think Jims noisy? ............................. 8. Jill is very original. ...................................

I) Reword the sentences above (of Exercise K) to give the opposite impression.
Example: Dis very stingy. 1. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

J) Magazines often publish questionnaires which are supposed to analyse your character for
you. Look at the words below and then match them to the question which aims to decide whether a person is like that. Example: If you arrange to meet at 7 p.m., do you arrive at 7 p.m.? Reliable argumentative extravagant sensitive assertive sociable inquisitive

1. Do you prefer to be in the company of other people? ..................................................... 2. Do you find it easy to tell your boss if you feel he or she has treated you badly? ........................... 3. Do you always look out of the window if you hear a car draw up? ......................................... 4. Do you often buy your friends presents for no particular reason? ........................................... 5. Do you frequently disagree with what other people say? ............................................ 6. Do you lie awake at night if someone has said something unkind to you? .....................................


A short list of some DIMINUTIVES / YOUNG ONES

Adult animals Ass Bear Cat Cod Cow Deer Dog Duck Eagle Eel Elephant Fox Frog Goat Goose Hare Hen Horse Mare Lion Owl Pig River Sheep Stream Swan Young babies of animals Foal Cub Kitten Codling Calf / Heifer Fawn Puppy Duckling Eaglet Elver Calf Cub Tadpole Kid Gosling Leveret Chicken Colt / Filly / Foal Filly Cub / Whelp Owlet Piglet Rivulet Lamb Streamlet Cygnet

Tiger Wolf Whale from the list above.

Cub / Whelp Cub Calf

L) Write the word which is required to complete each of these sentences. You can take help
1) The lioness at the zoo gave birth to two ----------------------------------------. 2) Our spaniel is kept busy looking after her mischievous ----------------------------------------. 3) Betty, the Persian cat, carried one of her -------------------------------------- in her mouth. 4) The little --------------------------------------- were sheltering beneath the mother hens wrings. 5) The little ------------------------------------------ followed the mother sheep wherever she went. 6) The she-goat and her two ------------------------------------------------ were lying down in the field. 7) Followed by her six fluffy yellow ----------------------------------------- the mother duck wadded happily about the farmyard.
8) The eagle dropped the food she had brought right into the open mouths of her ---------------------------------.

9) The cow mooed loudly for her --------------------------------------------- which had gone astray. 10) In the park we saw a graceful deer and her lovely little ----------------------------------------------.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
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Lesson 8
A) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said)
Making Purchases
Shopkeeper: Good morning. Would you like some help? Customer: Yes, please. Id like to have a look at pens. Shopkeeper: Right. What kind? Customer: Umm.... Fountain pens. Shopkeeper: Well, we have a wide variety of fountain pens to choose from. Here you go. Customer: I really like that maroon one. Shopkeeper: Yes, its a top of the range one. It comes quite cheap too at 44 rupees. Customer: Really? Thats quite a bargain. Ill take it. Shopkeeper: Anything else I can help you with? Customer: A bottle of black ink please. Shopkeeper: Any particular company? Customer: Do you have Chelpark? Shopkeeper: Yes, we do. Thats 11 rupees. Customer: Do you have document paper? I mean paper for computer printouts.

Shopkeeper: Yes. Any particular brand? Customer: I prefer the Millennium Copier. Shopkeeper: Which size? Customer: A4. How much does a bundle cost? Shopkeeper: A bundle of 500 sheets costs 132 rupees. Customer: I want two bundles..... Im afraid I dont have that much cash. Do you accept cheques? Shopkeeper: Yes, we accept both cheque and credit card. Customer: Who should I make the cheque payable to? Shopkeeper: Please write it out to P.S. Das and Sons. Customer: And the total please? Shopkeeper: The total is 319 rupees. Customer: Right. There you go. Shopkeeper: Thank you very much. Customer: Thank you. Shopkeeper: Have a nice day. Customer: You too.

People who work

stewardess farmer porter sailor fishmonger potter window cleaner gardener fireman teacher guard soldier hairdresser policeman tennis player gardener

B) Write the missing words in the blanks below. The list above will help you.
1) I asked the --------------------------------------------------- when the plane was going to land. 2) The ------------------------------------------------- had some fine fillets of hake. 3) The -------------------------------------------------- is giving an arithmetic lesson. 4) The ---------------------------------------------------- wheeled Martins trunk to the luggage van. 5) Jane has gone to the ------------------------------------------------------ to have her hair cut. 6) The ---------------------------------------------------- blew his whistle and the train moved off. 7) The ----------------------------------------------------- went aboard the battleship. 8) We watched the ---------------------------------------------------- cutting the hay. 9) The ------------------------------------------------------ on sentry duty carried a rifle. 10) A big crowd saw the ----------------------------------------------- rescue the boy from the burning house.


C) Complete each sentence by using the adjective formed from the word in bold type.
1) The Adventures to Tom Sawyer is a --------------------------------------------------- story. (humour) 2) The travellers gazed at the ------------------------------------------------------- scenery. (marvel) 3) The millionaire lives in a ----------------------------------------------------- house in France. (luxury) 4) The history of Britain is studded with ---------------------------------------------------- deeds.(glory) 5) When he heard of the retreat the general was ------------------------------------------------------.(fury)

6) Paul has always been a --------------------------------------------------------- boy. (mischief) 7) Hosepipes were turned on the -------------------------------------------------- crowd. (riot) 8) The show is ------------------------------------------------------- from 5.30 to 11 p.m. (continue) 9) Dense fog and smoke are --------------------------------------------------------------- to health. (injure) 10) The crew of the trawler had a ------------------------------------------------ escape from death.(miracle)

D) Match the adjective from Column A with a noun from Column B and write them down in
the blank space. Column A
mountainous scorching deafening shabby fragrant gigantic intelligent hoarse ferocious devoted

Column B
flower pupil tiger mother voice heat clothes country shout strength Ans: -----------------------------------------------------------------Ans: ------------------------------------------------------------------Ans: -----------------------------------------------------------------Ans: -----------------------------------------------------------------Ans: -----------------------------------------------------------------Ans: ------------------------------------------------------------------Ans: ------------------------------------------------------------------Ans: ------------------------------------------------------------------Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------


She wrote hastily. (Hastily is an adverb, it modifies wrote.) You are very quick. (Very is an adverb; it modifies adjectives quick.)

Adverbs are words that modify verbs or adjectives or other adverbs. For example:

Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to adjectives; e.g. heavy- heavily.

Adverbs are divided into Adverbs of Manner: (show how something is done) e.g. She speaks slowly. Adverbs of Time and Place: (show when and where something is done): e.g. The train will arrive tomorrow. Adverbs of Degree: (show how much or what degree): e.g. She sings quite well. Interrogative Adverbs: (when, where, how and why are used to ask questions) e.g. How did you finish your work? Relative Adverbs are; when, where, why e.g. I know when he is coming. Adverbs of Reason are: therefore and hence. e.g. The teacher is on leave and is therefore unable to give his class.

F) Uses of some Adverbs (well / fast/ late, hard/ hardly)

Good / Well
Good is an adjective. The adverb is well: e.g. Your English is good. but Susan is a good pianist. but You speak English well. Susan plays the piano well. well-paid

We use well (not good) with past participles (dressed / known etc.): well-dressed well-known well- educated

But well is also an adjective with the meaning in good health. How are you today? Im very well, thanks, (not Im very good) Fast / Hard / Late These words are both adjectives and adverbs. Adjective Adverb Jack is a very fast runner Jack can run very fast. Ann is a hard worker. Ann works hard. (not works hardly) The train was late. I got up late this morning. Lately = recently e.g. Have you seen Tom lately? Hardly = very little, almost not. Study these examples: Sarah was rather unfriendly to me at the party. She hardly spoke to me. ( = she spoke to me very little, almost not at all) George and Hilda want to get married but theyve only known each other for a few days. I dont think they should get married yet. They hardly know each other. ( = they know each other very little) Hard and hardly are completely different. Compare: He tried hard to find a job but he had no luck. ( = he tried a lot, with a lot of effort) Im not surprised he didnt find a job. He hardly tried to find one. ( = he tried very little) We often use hardly + any / anybody/ anyone / anything / anywhere: e.g. A: How much money have you got? B: Hardly any. ( = very little, almost none) Ill have to go shopping. Weve got hardly any food. The exam results were very bad. Hardly anybody in our class passed. ( = very few students passed, almost nobody passed) She ate hardly anything. She wasnt feeling hungry. (=she ate very little, almost nothing) Note the position of hardly. You can say: She ate hardly anything: Weve got hardly any food. We often use can / could + hardly: e.g. I can hardly do something = its almost impossible for me to do it: Your writing is terrible. I can hardly read it. (= it is almost impossible for me to read it) My leg was hurting me. I could hardly walk. Hardly ever = almost never e.g. Im nearly always at home in the evenings. I hardly ever go out. or or, She hardly ate anything Weve hardly got any food.

Assignment: G) Complete each sentence by using a suitable adverb from the list below.
awkwardly frugally mournfully bitterly gracefully patiently contentedly hungrily politely courageously intimately soundly distinctly merrily uproariously violently

1. The thief struggled -------------------------------.

2. We waited --------------------------------. 3. The robin chirped ----------------------------------. 4. The child wept --------------------------------------. 5. The old man fell ----------------------------------. 6. The champion fought ----------------------------------. 7. The miser lives --------------------------------------. 8. He ate his food ------------------------------------. 9. The cows grazed ------------------------------------. 10. He raised his hat ------------------------------------. 11. The wind howled -----------------------------------. 12. We all laughed ---------------------------------------. 13. The girls danced -------------------------------------. 14. The baby slept ---------------------------------------. 15. He speaks ---------------------------------------. 16. I know him --------------------------------------.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 9
A) Listening Skill: (First listen to the tape and then try to answer the following questions.)
Receptionist: Good evening. City Police Station. Can I help you? Woman: Oh hello. Id like to report a stolen briefcase, please. Receptionist: Just a minute and Ill put you through. Repeat Police Officer: Lost property. Can I help you? Woman: Oh, yes. Ive had my briefcase stolen. Police Officer: OK.... Ill take some details. ..... Tell me what it looks like, first of all. Woman: Well..... its a soft leather one, you know, not a heavy box-type like a mans. Police Officer: Mmm... and how does it close? Woman: Its got buckles at the front .... two of them. Theyre gold-plated ones. Police Officer: Fine .... Was it locked? Woman: No, Im afraid not. Police Officer: Never mind. Any distinguishing features? Woman: Pardon? Police Officer: Any marks or badges on it that make it stand out? Woman: Only the brand name. Police Officer: And wheres that?

Woman: Its on the back ..... at the bottom in the left-hand corner. Its Sagi. Oh and theres a scratch ..... its quite bad but small ..... directly above the brand name. I did it recently putting it on my bike. Police Officer: Right, got that. So, what did you have inside the briefcase? Woman: Well all my papers from college. Its so frustrating but, thank goodness for computers. I havent lost them completely. Police Officer: Yes, youre lucky. Woman: I had my wallet in my pocket so I didnt lose that but there were also my pens which I got for my birthday and a novel I was planning to read on the train. Police Officer: Right. Where exactly did you lose the briefcase? Woman: Well ..... I couldnt believe it. I was standing on the platform ..... it was right next to me. Police Officer: You were holding it? Woman: Id just put it down on the floor but I could almost feel it beside me. I was watching for my train because sometimes it comes early and then next time I looked, my briefcase wasnt there. Police Officer: And what time was this? Woman: Ah ...... it was .... it must have been about 5.20 .... no a bit later. Id say 5.30 because it was just getting crowded and the train normally comes at about twenty-five to six.

B) Listening Skill: (First listen to the tape and then try to answer the following questions.)
Police Officer: Right, if youll just give me some personal details. Woman: Yes. Police Officer: What name is it? Woman: Im Mary Prescott. Police Officer: Can you spell that? Woman: Yes, its P-R-E-S-C-O-T-T. Police Officer: And your address? Woman: Flat 2, 41, Fountain Road. Canterbury. Police Officer: Fountain Road. Woman: Yes, number 41. Police Officer: And have you got a contact telephone number? Woman: Yes, its 7-5- double 2-3-9. Police Officer: 7-5-double 2-3-9. Fine. One last question what would you say the value of your briefcase is? Woman: Including the contents? Police Officer: Yes. Just a rough estimate is fine. Woman: Im not sure. Well, the briefcase itself is quite new. I bought it last month for 40. I suppose about 65. The contents are worth about 20 or 25 pounds at least. Police Officer: Thats fine. Well, if you could come down to the station tomorrow, you can sign this form and have a look at what weve got here. Woman: OK, thanks. Bye. Police Officer: Goodbye.



1. Existing since old times - Antique 2. Public sale by bidding - Auction 3. Refraining from pleasure - Abstain 4. To turn friends into enemies - Alienate 5. A thing impenetrably hard - Adamant 6. To increase the speed - Accelerate 7. A person who practises some fine art, like Poetry, Painting or architecture - Artist 8. A climb to a hill - Ascent 9. An expert or a skilful person - Adept 10. Rural economy - Agronomy 11. Liable to be easily broken - Brittle 12. One who cannot pay off his debts - Bankrupt 13. The life-story of a person - Biography 14. Government by officials - Bureaucracy 15. Happening once in two years - Biennial 16. A person with golden skin or hair - Blonde 17. A man who acts as a servant to any army officer - Batman 18. A man who is not married - Bachelor 19. Science of vegetable life - Botany 20. Writings of purely literary kind - Belles letters


A short list of cries of some creatures

Ass Bear Bee Bird Camel Cat Cattle Cock Crow Dog Dove Duck Elephant Fly Frog Goose Hawk Hen Horse Lamb Lion Mice Monkey Owl Pig Pigeon Puppy Root Sheep

Cries of animals
bray growl hum twitter / chirp grunt mew low crow caw bark coo quack trumpet buzz croak cackle scream cackle neigh / whinny bleat roar squeak chatter hoot grunt coo yelp caw bleat

Snake Sparrow Swallow Swan Tiger Vulture Wolf

hiss chirp twitter cry roar scream howl / yell

E) Complete the passage with who, whom, whose or which.

Keswick, (a) ----------------------------- lies at the heart of the Lake District, is the perfect for a holiday, and the Derwent Hotel, (b) ---------------------------- overlooks the town, is the perfect place to stay. Peter and Debbie Jackson, (c) ----------------------------- bought this small hotel three years ago, have already won a reputation for excellence. Peter, (d) ------------------------------ cooking attracts people from far and wide, was once Young Chef of the Year. The comfort of the guests, (e) ----------------------------- the owners treat almost as members of the family, always comes first. Omar Sharif, (f) ------------------------------ once stayed at the hotel, described it as marvellous. And the Lake District, (g) -------------------------------- has so much wonderful scenery, will not disappoint you.

Words which save work

annually died returned list above. 1) The reporter told his story in very few words. ---------------------------------------------------2) Keith could not make up his mind which book to buy. --------------------------------------------------3) Peter worked ten sums without making a single mistake. ------------------------------------------------4) The Welsh National Eisteddfod is held once every year. ------------------------------------------------5) Without any warning a policeman appeared on the scene. ---------------------------------------------6) Nobody admires a man who hoards his money. -----------------------------------------------------7) The boys went to school with nothing on their heads. ----------------------------------------------8) The little boat turned completely upside down. ---------------------------------------------------9) The boarding-house was kept by a woman whose husband was dead. -------------------------------------10) The lifeboat saved the lives of the crew of the sinking ship. ------------------------------------------------11) The old man passed away in his sleep. ----------------------------------------------12) The managers went to London but came back again next day. --------------------------------------------13) As a result of the fire several people were without a home. ------------------------------------------------14) I hope to see you before very long. ----------------------------------------------------15) Cyril was of no use in the garden. ------------------------------------------------------16) The shipwrecked sailor was out of his mind. ---------------------------------------------17) The pickpocket soon went out of sight. ---------------------------------------------------18) Marys writing is getting better every day. -----------------------------------------------bareheaded disappeared soon briefly homeless suddenly capsized improving useless correctly mad; insane widow decide miser rescued

F) Use one word in place of those in bold type in each sentence. All the labour-saving words are in the

Short forms

is not - isnt; was not - wasnt; does not - doesnt; Notice that the () stands for the o which is left out. We can also join is to another word in this way.

has not - hasnt

he is - hes; she is - shes; it is - its; who is - whos; that is - thats; what is - whats where is - wheres; there is - theres Remember that the () stands for the i which is left out.

G) Write these sentences, joining the two words in italics type in each.
1) Brian says he is too busy to play. ------------------------------------------------------------------------2) I think that is a lovely dress. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------3) Carol is tall, and she is pretty, too. ----------------------------------------------------------------------4) Thank goodness it is a fine day. -------------------------------------------------------------------------5) We cant work when there is a noise in the room. ----------------------------------------------------6) I can guess what is in the box. --------------------------------------------------------------------------7) I wonder who is going to the party tonight. ------------------------------------------------------------8) It is not raining now. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9) Roger does not like going to town. ----------------------------------------------------------------------10) The pears are not quite ripe. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 10
A) Speaking Skill: (First listen to the tape and then try to answer the following questions.)
F= Female student M= Male student C=Clerk F: Excuse me. Can you help me? I was looking for the Main Hall. M: May be I can, actually. Im looking for the Main Hall, too. I think its in the Administration building. Are you a new student? F: Yes, I am. M: I thought you looked as lost as me. Im trying to find the admin building, too, so that I can register for my course. But I dont seem to be having much luck. F: Well, look, according to this map of the campus here, you go straight up the steps, turn left and the building is on the right. OK, let us see if we can find it. M: Oh, this looks right. Oh, yeah, it must be. Look, there are hundreds of other people here! F: There must be at least 50 people in the queue well be here till gone 2 oclock at this rate. M: And Im starving! F: So am I. M: Actually, I was on my way to the canteen to get something for lunch. Why dont I go to the canteen and buy something and you stay here and wait?

F: Good idea. M: What would you like? Pizza, sandwich, hot dog, fried rice. They do everything ...... F: Oh, something easy, take away fried rice sounds good. M: OK, fried .... F: No, on second rights, Ill have a cheese and tomato sandwich. M: Right one cheese and tomato anything to drink? F: Yeah, get me a coffee, would you? M: Oh, hot coffees a bit hard to carry. What about a coke or an orange juice? F: Oh, um .... get me an orange juice, then. Look, heres five dollars. M: Oh, take two dollars back, it shouldnt cost me more than three dollars. F: Well, keep the five and well sort it out later. Oh, and could you get me an apple as well? M: OK. Back in a minute.

F: Oh, hello. Im here to register for the First Year Law course. C: Ill just have to fill out this form for our records. Whats your name? F: Julia Perkins. C: Can you spell that for me? F: Yeah, thats J-U-L-I-A P-E-R-K-I-N-S. C: Address? F: Flat 5, 15 Waratah Road, thats W-A-R-A-T-A-H, Brisbane. C: Brisbane .... And your telephone number? F: We havent got the phone on yet. Weve only just moved in. C: OK, well can you let us have the number once the phones connected and Ill make a note here to be advised. And the course? F: I beg your pardon? C: What course are you doing? F: First Year Law. C: Right. Well, youll have to go across to the Law faculty and get this card stamped and then you come back here with it and pay your union fee. F: Thanks very much. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------M: Oh, there you are. F: I thought you were never going to come back. M: Sorry! The canteen was absolutely packed and I had to wait for ages. Then when I got to the

front of the queue they had hardly any food left. So I had to get you a slice of pizza. Im sorry. F: Oh, thats Ok. I could eat anything. Im so hungry. M: And theres your bottle of orange and juice and your apple. At least I managed that. F: Great. Thanks a lot. M: Oh and heres your $2 back. F: Dont worry about it. Buy me a cup of coffee later! M: Oh, alright then! So howd you go? F: Well in order to register weve got to go to the Law faculty and get this card stamped and then go back to the Admin building and pay the union fees. That means were registered. After that we have to go the notice board to find out about lectures and then we have to put our names down for tutorial groups and go to the library to ...... M: Great. Well first lets sit down and have our lunch.

Missing adjectives B) Insert the missing adjectives to complete the following analogies.
1) Melodious is to melody as ------------------------------------------ is to luxury. 2) --------------------------------------------- is to thought as dreadful is to dread. 3) Humorous is to humour as --------------------------------------- is to glamour. 4) Angular is to angle as ----------------------------------------------- is to single. 5) ----------------------------------------- is to envy as industrious is to industry. 6) Painful is to pain as -------------------------------------------- is to mercy. 7) Optimistic is to optimism as ---------------------------------------- is to pessimism. 8) Decisive is to decide as -------------------------------------------- is to exclude. 9) ------------------------------------------- is to reverse as collapsible is to ----------------------------------. 10) Circular is to -------------------------------------- as ------------------------------------------ is to muscle. 11) Desirable is to ------------------------------------- as ------------------------------------------ is to admire. 12) --------------------------------------- is to rely as variable is to ----------------------------------------.

Adverbs C) Rewrite the following sentences, changing the bracketed words in heavy type into adverbs ending with ly.
1) He ----------------------------------------- reversed the car into a telegraph pole. (accident) 2) He drove ------------------------------------------. (danger) 3) They attended lectures ------------------------------------------. (punctual) 4) The fire raged ------------------------------------------- though the old building. (fury) 5) The sun shone --------------------------------------------------. (radiance) 6) The climber ----------------------------------- descended the mountain. (fury) 7) The thief crept --------------------------------------------- through the house. (stealthy)

8) She slept ---------------------------------------------. (peace) 9) He answered the questions ------------------------------------------------. (truthful) 10) They ---------------------------------------------- resisted the proposed changes. (stubborn) 11) The manager ------------------------------------------ stormed out of the room. (impatience) 12) She ---------------------------------------------- declared her innocence. (emphatic) 13) ----------------------------------------------- he agreed to invest the money. (doubtful) 14) The worker -------------------------------------------------- performed her duties. (conscientious)

Information Match up D) Link the person from the left-hand column with the correct identifying information from the
right hand column.
Person 1) fugitive 2) archaeologist 3) amateur 4) playwright 5) traveller 6) receptionist 7) conqueror 8) psychiatrist 9) interpreter 10) accountant Identifying information (a) a physician who treats mental illness (b) one who defeats others (c) a person who translates spoken language (d) a person who keeps financial records (e) someone who excavates ancient sites (f) a person on the move (g) a non-professional (h) a person who is fleeing (i) someone who receives people entering an office (j) a writer for the stage

Bee Bird Cattle Cow Dog Fox Goat Hen Horse Lion Mouse Pig Rabbit Sheep Snail Spider Tiger Wolf

A list of Abodes of some animals

Name of Animals Abodes of animals hive cage shed shed / corral kennel burrow shed / pen / pound coop stable / corral cave / den hole sty burrow / warren / hutch shed / pen / pound shell web den lair / den

Where they live

F) Fill in each space with the name of the home of each creature.
1) A snail carries its home, a -----------------------------------------, on its back. 2) The old sow and her piglets were lying down in their ---------------------------------------------. 3) Martin made a cosy --------------------------------------------- for his pet rabbit. 4) The lion was in his ----------------------------------------------- playing with his cubs. 5) Black Beauty was put in a ------------------------------------------------------ with another horse. 6) A swarm of bees flew out of the -----------------------------------------------.

7) We watched the spider weaving its --------------------------------------------. 8) There are now two budgerigars in the ---------------------------------------------. 9) The little terrier was fast asleep in his ----------------------------------------------------. 10) There were five eggs in the robins ----------------------------------------------------.



1. Talking disrespectfully of sacred things - Blasphemy 2. A girl who is going to be married - Bride 3. An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure - Barometer 4. Spoken or written in two languages - Bilingual 5. Missile with convex edge returning to its thrower - Boomerang 6. Having both sexes in one individual - Bisexual 7. Body of voters - Constituency 8. A disease which is spread by contact - Contagious 9. Countries touching each other - Contiguous 10. Gathering in a church or a temple for religious purposes - Congregation 11. Men working in the same department - Colleagues 12. Solicit votes from constituency - Canvass 13. Covering held over throne - Canopy 14. A person who has open-mindedness and impartiality - Candid 15. Animals that eat flesh - Carnivorous

B) Speaking Drill: (First listen to the tape and then try to practise speaking as it is said)
At the Beauty Parlour
Customer: Hello Hairstylist: Hello. Come right in. Customer: Id like to get a haircut please. Hairstylist: Sure. What kind of haircut do you want? Customer: Well, actually, I am not sure. I was hoping that youd advise me on what hairstyle would suit my face. Hairstylist: Thats not a problem. Let me have a good look at you. Hmm. You have an oval face with a square jaw. Customer: Yes, thats true. I want something that draws attention away from my jaw. Hairstylist: I have a few pictures here. These styles suit oval faces like yours. Have a look at them and decide which one you want. Customer: Okay. Give me a few minutes. Hairstylist: Take your own time. [A few minutes later] Customer: Excuse me, Ive decided on this one. Hairstylist: Itll suit you very well. Good choice. Would you like me to shampoo your hair? Customer: Yes, please. Its a bit greasy. .............................. Customer: Oh, I love this new me. Thank you. Hairstylist: Youre welcome. Customer: My husband will be very surprised. Hairstylist: Im sure pleasantly. Customer: How much is it? Hairstylist: Thatll be 50 rupees. Customer: There you go. Thank you very much. See you soon. Hairstylist: Youre welcome. Have a nice day.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Full Marks: 50; Time: 1 Hour

Name of the Examinee 1) Listen to the tape and answer in the booklet as you understand.

Obtained Marks 10

2) Choose the right opposite word in italics from the brackets of the given bold word to fill in the blanks. 1 5=5 (a) Fire is a good servant but a bad ---------------------------------------------. (slave, master, clement) (b) When a person is not calm, he is -------------------------------------------. (excited, angry, worried) (c) Smile at the guest even if he is poor but never ----------------------------------- at him after he has been received. (laugh, frown, jeer) (d) The purpose of the examinations is to test ---------------------------------------- (knowledge, intelligence, folly), not the ignorance of the students. (e) Ours is a fertile land but there are some countries of the world which are mainly ----------------(dry, rocky, barren) 3) Form the opposites of these words using prefixes and then insert them in the following blanks. 1






(a) An object which cannot be moved is ------------------------------------------(b) An ------------------------------------------- person is not responsible for his actions. (c) She wants to be an actress, but her parents -------------------------------------------. (d) ------------------------------------------- in wealth cause social unrest. (e) It is ------------------------------------------- for him to refuse a drink. 4) Put in the correct form of adjective or adverb in the following gaps. 0.5 10=5

I had a (a) --------------------------- (strange / strangely) dream last night. I was in a garden. It was getting (b) -------------------- (dark / darkly) and it was (c) ---------------------------- (terrible / terribly) cold. My head was aching (d) -------------------- (bad / badly). I was walking out of the garden when (e) --------------------------- (sudden / suddenly) I saw a girl sitting on a seat. She seemed very unhappy.

She looked up and smiled (f) -------------------- (sad / sadly) at me. I felt (g) ------------------ (anxious / anxiously) for some reason. I wanted to be (h) -----------------------------, (friend / friendly) so I tried (i) -------------------------- (hard / hardly) to think of something to say. But I couldnt. I just stood there (j) ------------------------------- (foolish / foolishly) 5) Link the person from the right-hand column with the correct identifying information from the left hand column & write them in the gaps. The first has been given an example for you. 1 10=10 Column A Column B
A place where earth and sky seem to meet Argumentative

a) A person prefers to be in the company of other people b) A person who imitates the voice and actions of others c) A business man who has 50 and owes 5,000 d) A person forced to suffer or die for a belief e) Pupil absent from school without permission f) A person frequently found disagreeing with others what they say g) A person from whom one is descended h) A place where monks live i) A person who looks on the bright side of things j) A fertile place in the desert Example: A place where earth and sky seem to meet = Horizon

Ancestor Bankrupt Mimic Sociable Horizon Oasis Optimistic Truant Martyr Monastery

Ans: a) A person prefers to be in the company of other people = -----------------------------------b) A person who imitates the voice and actions of others = -----------------------------------c) A business man who has 50 and owes 5,000 = -----------------------------------d) A person forced to suffer or die for a belief = -----------------------------------e) Pupil absent from school without permission = -----------------------------------f) A person frequently found disagreeing with others what they say = ---------------------------g) A person from whom one is descended = -------------------------------------h) A place where monks live = --------------------------------------i) A person who looks on the bright side of things = -----------------------------------j) A fertile place in the desert = --------------------------------------6) Match the name of the home from Column B with that of each creature from Column A. More words are given in the column B than necessary. 1 5=5 Column A a) terrier b) spider c) bees d) horse e) lion Column B (i) stable (ii) den (iii) kennel (iv) burrow (v) web

(vi) hive
Ans: a) terrier - ------------------------------------

b) spider - ----------------------------------c) bees - ------------------------------------d) horse - ----------------------------------e) lion - ------------------------------------7) Insert appropriate word from the given list in the following gaps. More words are given than necessary. 1 5=5 contraction gynaecology windows clarity genealogy confectioner tadpole (a) Socks are to hosier as sweets are to --------------------------------------. (b) Crimes are to criminology as female diseases are to -----------------------------------------. (c) As wisdom is to foolishness, so vagueness is to ------------------------------------. (d) A solicitor deals with law while a glazier does with -----------------------------. (e) As cat is to kitten, frog is to -----------------------------------.

8) Look at the picture below.

Now describe the picture in not more than 10 sentences.



English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 11 Homonyms
A word that has the same sound as another word, but a different meaning, is a HOMONYM of that word. For example, mare (a female horse) is a homonym of mayor (chief city official).

Same sound-different meaning

Some words are pronounced like others but are different in spelling and meaning. beat - to strike / a policemans round / to win, overcome; beet - a vegetable cell - a small room; sell - to exchange for money feat - a skilful deed; feet - plural of foot bow - to bend low / front of a ship; bough - a branch hall - a large room / a large building; haul - to pull need - to be in want of; knead - to work up dough peal - a long, loud sound; peel - the skin of fruit ring - to sound a bell / a circle; wring - to squeeze and twist time - minutes, hours, etc.; thyme - a herb yoke - wooden frame for oxen / part of a dress; yolk - yellow part of an egg

A) Choose the word from the above list which will complete each sentence.
1) A crowd saw Sussex ----------------------------------------- Kent by fifty runs. 2) The cook separated the ---------------------------------- of the egg from the white. 3) There was a merry ------------------------------------- of bells as the bridal couple left the church.

4) The man bumped his head on a low -------------------------------- of a tree. 5) The convict sat in his ---------------------------------- thinking of his family.

B) Use one pair of words from the above list to complete each of the sentences below.
1) At sunset they --------------------------- down the Union Jack of the town ---------------------------- flagstaff. 2) Bakers ------------------------------- not --------------------------- dough by hand today. 3) Autumn is the --------------------------------- to gather --------------------------------- from the garden. 4) Wendy took the ----------------------------- off her finger before starting to ------------------------- the clothes. 5) Norman walked for two hours for charity with blistered -------------------------------------- which was a remarkable --------------------------------- for a boy of ten.



1) A person who is stone-hearted - Callous 2) Persons living at the same time - Contemporaries 3) A list of name of books - Catalogue 4) A professional motor car driver - Chauffeur 5) A man who undertakes to fight in defence of a cause - Champion 6) A song sung by many persons - Chorus 7) One who is at home in many lands - Cosmopolitan 8) An insect with many legs - Centipede 9) A substance that can be consumed by fire - Combustible 10) Capable of being believed - Credible 11) A person who readily believes others - Credulous 12 That which can be corrected - Corrigible 13) A hundred years - Century 14) That which can be cured - Curable 15) Government of the people, by the people for the people - Democracy



There are three Degrees of Comparison. Positive, Comparative and Superlative Positive shows no comparison. It simply describes the simple quality of a person or a thing, or a group. The commonest method of forming the Comparative and Superlative degree is to add -er-and -est- to the Positive form respectively. Positive Comparative Superlative Tall Taller Tallest Wise Wiser Wisest But, to form Comparative and Superlative of longer words (with more than two syllables) more and most are put before the adjective. e.g. beautiful - more beautiful - most beautiful For example:

A double comparative is wrong.

For example: dont write: She is more taller than her sister. the correct form is: She is taller than her sister.

Before comparatives you can use: much a lot far (= a lot)

a bit

a little

slightly (= a little)

e.g. Lets go by car. Its much cheaper. (or Its a lot cheaper.) Dont go by train. Its a lot more expensive. (or Its much more expensive) Could you speak a bit more slowly? (or ...speak a little more slowly?) This bag is slightly heavier than the other one. Her illness was far more serious than we thought at first. (or ...much more serious.....or ...... a lot more serious.......)

You can use any / no + comparatives (any longer / no bigger etc.):

e.g. Ive waited long enough. Im not waiting any longer. ( = not even a little longer) We expected their house to be very big but its no bigger than ours. (or isnt any bigger than ours.)

Yesterday you said you felt. Do you feel any better today? This hotel is better than the other one and its no more expensive.

Harder and harder / more and more / more and more difficult etc. We repeat comparatives like this (.....and.....) to say that something is changing continuously:
e.g. Its becoming harder and harder to find a job. Its becoming more and more difficult to find a job. Your English is improving. Its getting better and better. These days more and more people are leaning English.

The ............ the better

Study these examples: e.g. What time shall we leave? The sooner the better.( = as soon as possible) What sort of box do you want? A big one? Yes, the bigger the better. ( = as big as possible) When youre travelling, the less luggage you have to carry the better. (= it is best to have as little luggage as possible)

We also use the... the... (with two comparatives) to say that one thing depends on another thing.
e.g. The warmer the weather, the better I feel. (= if the weather is warmer, I feel better) The sooner we leave, the sooner we will arrive. The younger you are, the easier it is to learn. The more expensive the hotel, the better the service. The more electricity you use, the higher your bill will be. The more I thought about the plan, the less I liked it.

Older and elder The comparative of old is older.

e.g. Tom looks older than he really is. You can use elder (or older) when you talk about people in a family. You can say (my) elder brother / sister / son / daughter: My elder brother is a pilot. (or My older brother .........) We say my elder brother but we do not say that somebody is elder-------: My brother is older than me. (not elder than me)

Than me / than I am etc.

We usually say: e.g. You are taller than me. (not than I) He is not as clever as her. (not as she)

After than / as it is more usual to say me / him / her / them / us when there is no verb.
Compare: You are taller than I am. They have more money than we have. I cant run as fast as he can. but but but You are taller than me. They have more money than us. I cant run as fast as him.

The Definite Article, the, is used with Superlatives. After superlatives we use in with places (towns, buildings etc.):
e.g. What is the longest river in the world? (not of the world) We had a lovely room. It was one of the nicest in the hotel. (not of the hotel)

We also use in for organisations and groups of people (a class / team/ company etc.):
e.g. Who is the best student in the class? (not of the class)

We normally use of for a period of time:

e.g. What was the happiest day of your life? Yesterday was the hottest day of the year.

We often use the present perfect (I have done) after a superlative:

e.g. Whats the best film youve ever seen? That was the most delicious meal Ive had for a long time.

Sometimes we use most + adjective to mean very:

e.g. The book you lent me was most interesting. (= very interesting) Thank you for the money. It was most generous of you. (= very generous)

There are some irregular comparisons of Adjectives: Positive

Little Bad Far Far Old Old -

less worse farther further elder older -

least worst farthest (of distance only) furthest (widely used) eldest (of people only) oldest (people & things)



Three Degrees of Comparison (positive, comparative & superlative) are also used for some Adverbs. The sentence constructions are also similar to those discussed above in the Comparison of Adjective section. Rules for Comparison: i) For Comparative- er is added to the one syllable Adverb. e.g, fast - faster; long - longer ii) For Superlative -est is added to one syllable Adverb. e.g. hard - hardest; soon - soonest iii) Adverbs with-ly ending and more for the Comparative and most for the Superlative. e.g., swiftly - more swiftly - most swiftly
iv) The following common Adverbs form Comparative and Superlative Degree in an irregular manner. Positive Comparative Superlative Ill, badly worse worst Well better best Much more most Little less least Near nearer nearest Far farther farthest Far further furthest Late later last Assignments:

F) Write the correct degree of the adjective which will complete each sentence.
1) This is the --------------------------------------- blizzard I have ever seen.(bad) 2) The patient was very ill yesterday but he is even ---------------------------------- today.(ill) 3) Both boys read well, but David is the -------------------------------------- reader.(good) 4) Your cold is -------------------------------------- than mine.(bad) 5) Dorothy is the ------------------------------------------ singer in the school choir.(good) 6) August is the month when guest-houses have the -------------------------------------- bookings.(many) 7) $1 is the ----------------------------------- amount that can be invested.(small) 8) Geoffrey has little common sense; Francis has even ---------------------------------------.(little)

G(1).Complete the sentences using Choose one of the following from the list given:
bad quietly comfortable soon fast well long well-qualified often

1) Im sorry Im a bit late. I got here -------------------------------------------------- I could. 2) It was a difficult question. I answered it -------------------------------------------------- I could. 3) How long can I stay with you? You can stay ---------------------------------------------- you like. 4) I need the information quickly, so please let me know ------------------------------------------- possible. 5) I like to keep fit, so I go swimming -------------------------------------------------- I can.

6) I didnt want to wake anybody, so I came in ---------------------------------------------- I could.

G(2). Use just as ..... as in the following sentences.

7) Im going to sleep on the floor. Its ------------------------------------------------ sleeping in that hard bed. 8) Why did he get the job rather than me? Im ----------------------------------------------------------- him. 9) At first I thought you were nice but really youre ---------------------------------------- everybody else.

H) Complete the sentences using the right form of word given in brackets. Use a superlative
(-est or most ....) or a comparative (-er or more....)
1) We stayed at ------------------------------------------------- hotel in the town. (cheap) 2) Our hotel was ---------------------------------------------- than all the others in the town. (cheap) 3) The United States is very large but Canada is ------------------------------------------- (large). 4) Whats ------------------------------------------------ river in the world? (long) 5) He was a bit depressed yesterday but he looks ------------------------------------------------ today. (happy) 6) It was an awful day. It was ------------------------------------------------- day of my life. (bad) 7) What is ------------------------------------------- sport in your country? (popular) 8) Everest is --------------------------------------- mountain in the world. It is ---------------------------------than any other mountain. (high) 9) We had a great holiday. It was one of the ------------------------------------------------------- holidays weve ever had. (enjoyable) 10) I prefer this chair to the other one. Its -------------------------------------------------------- (comfortable) 11) Whats --------------------------------------------- way of getting from here to the station? (quick) 12) Mr. and Mrs. Brown have got three daughters. ------------------------------------- is 14 years old. (old)


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 12
Roles and occupations
celebrity physicist electrician traveller ambassador proprietor applicant industrialist barrister neighbour burglar technician pedestrian counsellor plumber professor chauffeur apprentice foreigner acquaintance

Person to Person A) Write down the list-word that fits each of the following definitions.
1) A person who breaks into a house or shop to steal property. --------------------------------------------2) A person who is travelling about on foot. ------------------------------------------------3) A person who fits and mends water-pipes. ----------------------------------------------------4) A (usually) young person who is learning a trade. -------------------------------------------------5) A person whom one knows slightly. ----------------------------------------------------6) A lawyer qualified to present cases in court. ------------------------------------------------7) A person who applies for a job or position. --------------------------------------------------8) A diplomat representing his or her country. -------------------------------------------------9) An owner-manager of a shop or business. -----------------------------------------------------

10) A person who is employed as a car-driver. ---------------------------------------------------

Inserting List-words B) Insert the appropriate list-word into each of the spaces below.
1) The university ---------------------------------------------- completed her lecture. 2) The laboratory ---------------------------------------------- began the experiment. 3) The --------------------------------------------- accidentally triggered off the alarm. 4) The --------------------------------------------- supplied valuable information about the course. 5) The driver could not see the -------------------------------------------------- crossing the road. 6) The television --------------------------------------------- earned a million dollars in five years. 7) The British --------------------------------------------------- spoke to the Soviet diplomat. 8) The wealthy --------------------------------------------------- purchased a new factory.

C) Insert I or me to complete each sentence.

1) Ann and ------------------------------------- have won prizes in the drawing competition. 2) Prizes have been awarded to Ann and ---------------------------------. 3) June and ----------------------------------- have been invited to Barbaras party. 4) Barbara has invited June and ----------------------------------- to her party. 5) This is a secret between you and ----------------------------------------. 6) You and ------------------------------------ must keep this matter secret. 7) The Headmaster scolded Robert and ----------------------------------- for being so late. 8) Robert and ----------------------------------- were scolded by the headmaster for being so late. 9) John and ------------------------------------------ are to share these sweets between us. 10) These sweets are to be shared between Johan and -----------------------------------------.

D) Reading & Understanding Skill Doctor Goldsmiths medicine

Oliver Goldsmith, the author, who was sometimes called Dr. Goldsmith because he had studied medicine, gave away so much to the poor that he had little money left for himself. One day a poor woman called at his house and asked him if he would come to see her husband who was sick and would not eat any food. When Goldsmith called on the family he found that they were very poor because the man had had no work for a considerable time. He discovered that there was no food in the house. Come and see me this evening, said Goldsmith to the wife, and I will let you have some medicine for your husband. When the woman called that evening Goldsmith gave her a small box which was quite heavy for its size. This is the medicine, he exclaimed. See that it is properly used and it will do your husband the world of good. But please do not open the box until you get home. What are the directions for taking it? asked the woman. You will find full directions inside the box, he replied. Immediately on reaching home the woman sat down beside her husband and opened the box very carefully. It was full of money, on top of which was a slip of paper bearing the words: To be taken as often as necessity requires. Once again Oliver Goldsmith had given away his money to help the poor.

1. Why was Goldsmith sometimes called Doctor although he was really an author?

2. Why did he have little money left for himself? 3. What did the poor woman who called on Goldsmith ask him to do? 4. Why was the womans family so poor? 5. What did Goldsmith tell the woman to do? 6. What did Goldsmith give the woman that evening? 7. What did Goldsmith ask the woman not to do? 8. Where did Goldsmith tell the woman she would find directions for taking the medicine? 9. What medicine did the box contain?



1) To make an attack on the good name of a person - Defame 2) To reduce the value - Depreciate 3) To deprive a sacred thing of its holy character - Desecrate 4) Arbitrary rule of a king - Despotism 5) Sweets and fruits served after dinner - Dessert 6) Going from bad to worse - Deteriorate 7) Using of right hand with great skill - Dexterity 8) Rule by one man - Dictatorship 9) A follower of a religious leader - Disciple 10) That which kills germs - Disinfectant 11) A place fitted up for making medicines - Dispensary 12) A person who does not agree with the doctrines of church - Dissenter 13) To fritter away energy - Dissipate 14) A man who manufactures whisky - Distiller 15) Want of rain - Drought 16) A song sung by two persons - Duet 17) Fit to be eaten - Edible 18) A man who conducts a newspaper - Editor 19) One who is fit to be chosen - Eligible 20) A statement which can have two meanings - Equivocal


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 13
A) Reading & Understanding Skill

And He Went to Bed

Amit went to office in the morning. Almost immediately he came home and went to bed. Why do you think he did that?
Amit opened one eye. The sun was shining brightly. His mother was up. She was in the kitchen. She was singing and making breakfast. He looked at the clock beside his bed; eight oclock! He was late. He had to be at his desk at half past eight. Mr. Sharma his boss, was strict. Amit was quite afraid of him. He had a loud voice. When he was angry he shouted and his face turned red. Every one in the office could hear him. Amit flung his bed-clothes aside and ran to the bathroom. He looked at himself in the mirror. He needed a shave. He started shaving and cut himself with the blade. His hair was untidy but he was getting late. He didnt comb it. In ten minutes he was ready. It was ten past eight. There was no time for breakfast. There was no time even for a cup of tea. The bus always came at twelve minutes past eight. He had to hurry. He ran down the stairs. He slipped! But he was lucky. He fell on the carpet and did not hurt himself. He grabbed his bag and ran to the door. Bye, Mum. Im late, he shouted to his mother. Amit! Amit! his mother was calling out to him. But he did not hear her. He was already outside. He was running down the street.

Exactly at twelve past eight he was at the bus-stop, but there was no bus. He waited and waited but no bus came. He looked at his watch. It was nearly twenty-five minutes past eight. Ill take a taxi, he said, I dont want Mr. Sharma to shout at me. He was lucky. Soon a taxi came and he got into it. There was not much traffic on the road. He reached his office in ten minutes and raced up the stairs. He reached his office in ten minutes and raced up the stairs. He looked at his watch. It was twenty-five minutes to nine. Only five minutes late. Mr. Sharma wont be very angry with me, thought Amit. He pushed the big front door of the office but it did not open. He pushed again but nothing happened. It was locked. There was no one inside. He could not hear voices or the beep-beep of the telephone. Suddenly a loud voice behind him said, Hello, Amit. What are you doing here? It was Mr. Sharma. Amit turned. Mr. Sharma was standing there with his two children and he was smiling! He was not wearing his grey suit. He was dressed casually in a red pullover and blue jeans. He was carrying a big green shopping bag. Going to office, are you, Amit? said Mr. Sharma and he started laughing. Its Friday today. Its a holiday. Theres no work today! Friday? said Amit Oh, no, Friday! Slowly he walked back home and went to bed.

B) Read and Find facts:

1) When did Amit get up? 2) When did the bus leave for office every day? 3) Why was Amit afraid of his boss? 4) What happened when he was shaving? 5) Why did he not comb his hair? 6) When did he leave home? 7) When did he take a taxi? Why did he do so? 8) When did he reach office? What did he do there? 9) Who greeted him? Why was he smiling? 10) What did he tell Amit? 11) What did Amit do?


THE VERBS [Part 1]

A verb is a word that a) tells us the work someone or something is doing, e.g., play, sing b) the state, someone or something is in; e.g., be-verbs The various forms of verbs to be are: am, is, was, were, be (infinitive), been (Past Participle), being (Present participle) c) the process of change someone or something is going through; e.g., become, grow Two suffixes frequently used to make verbs are: - ize, ify, ate / te, en e.g., Terror: terrorize, terrify; Motive: motivate; Length: lengthen Verbs are also formed by using the following prefixes en - en + able em - em + barkex - ex + change

Verbs are either Transitive or Intransitive.

Transitive verbs require Objects to make their meanings complete. Intransitive verbs do not require any objects. Example: The mother feeds her baby. [Feed - Transitive] The baby feeds on milk. [Feed - Intransitive] Read these sentences:-------1. The boy kicks the football. 2. The boy laughs loudly.
In sentence 1, the action denoted by the verb kicks passes over from the doer or Subject boy to some Object football. The verb kicks is, therefore, called a Transitive Verb. (Transitive means passing over).

In sentence 2, the action denoted by the verb laughs stops with the doer or Subject boy and does not pass over to an Object. The verb laughs is, therefore, called an Intransitive Verb. (Intransitive means not passing over)

Def.- A Transitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or
Subject to an object.

Def. - An Intransitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an
object, or which expresses a state or being; as, He ran a long distance. (Action) The baby sleeps. (State) There is a flaw in this diamond (Being) Note- Intransitive Verbs expressing being take the same cases after them as before them.
Most Transitive Verbs take a single object. But such Transitive Verbs as give, ask, offer, promise, tell etc. take two objects after them - an indirect Object which denotes the person to whom something is given or for whom something is done, and a direct Object which is usually the name of some thing, as, His father gave him (Indirect) a mango.(Direct) He told me (Indirect) a secret (Direct)

Most verbs can be used both as Transitive and as Intransitive verbs. It is, therefore, better to say
that a verb is used Transitively or Intransitively rather than that it is Transitive or Intransitive. Used Transitively
1. The ants fought the wasps. 2. The shot sank the ship. 3. Ring the bell, Rana. 4. The driver stopped the train. 5. He spoke the truth. 6. The horse kicked the man. 7. I feel a severe pain in my head.

Used Intransitively
1. Some ants fight very fiercely. 2. The ship sank rapidly. 3. The bell rang loudly. 4. The train stopped suddenly. 5. He spoke haughtily. 6. This horse never kicks. 7. How do you feel?

Note - Some verbs, e.g., come, go, fall, die, sleep, lie denote actions which cannot be done to anything; they can, therefore, never be used Transitively.

Forming verbs D) Write out these sentences, changing the words in brackets into verbs.
1) The teacher tried to ------------------------------------------------- the problem. (clear) 2) The students were asked to ---------------------------------------------------- the equation. (simple) 3) The photographer will ------------------------------------------------------ the photograph. (large) 4) It is impossible to --------------------------------------------------- between the two designs. (different) 5) At sunset, the sky began to --------------------------------------------------------. (red) 6) The old home unit was ---------------------------------------------------------. (modern) 7) The dictator was ------------------------------------------------------------ (assassin) 8) The prime ministers life was --------------------------------------------------------. (danger) 9) He was ------------------------------------------------------ without a trial. (prison) 10) Her heart was -------------------------------------------------------- by the news. (glad) 11) Water ------------------------------------------------------------- at freezing-point. (solid) 12) The witness tried to --------------------------------------------------- the cars number-plate. (memory) 13) The swim -------------------------------------------------------- the lifesavers. (fresh) 14) The scientist will have to -------------------------------------------------------------- the water. (pure) 15) The businessman had to ------------------------------------------------- to avoid bankruptcy. (economy)

Choosing the Right Word E) A word is missing from each of the following sentences. In each case, choose the correct word from
the pair in brackets. 1) a) The dog liked to ----------------------------------------- along the shore. (gamble / gambol) b) To save his dog, the writer had to ------------------------------------- with his life. (gamble /gambol) 2) a) It was an ----------------------------------------- act of bravery. (incredulous / incredible) b) He was ---------------------------------- when he first sighted the alligator. (incredulous / incredible) 3) a) Jack remained optimistic in the face of ----------------------------------------- (adversary / adversity) b) The alligator was a terrifying ---------------------------------------- (adversary / adversity) 4) a) The alligator heading for the day was an awesome ----------------------------------- (site / sight) b) The ------------------------------------- for the new factory was approved. (site / sight) 5) a) In spite of defeat, the ------------------------------------- of the team remained high. (morale / moral) b) The minister leads a --------------------------------------- life. (morale / moral) 6) a) The writer was the ------------------------------------------- swimmer in the lake. (soul / sole) b) There wasnt another ---------------------------------------- in sight. (soul / sole) 7) a) We ------------------------------------------ to your request. (exceed / accede) b) We did not ---------------------------------- the speed limit. (exceed / accede) 8) a) The ranger condemned the ------------------------------------- capture of protected fauna. (illicit / elicit) b) The police were able to ----------------------------------- a confession. (illicit / elicit) 9) a) His --------------------------------------- was that of a writer. (vocation /vacation) b) The writer was on ------------------------------------ when the incident occurred. (vocation / vacation) 10) a) The crocodile had a ---------------------------------------- appetite. (veracious / voracious) b) The writer gave a ------------------------------------ account of the incident. (veracious / voracious)


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 14
A) THE VERBS [Part 2]

Verbs are also divided into Finite and Non-Finite. A Finite verb forms a Tense and has a Subject.
For example, in the sentence, She is singing loudly, is singing is the Present Tense and she is the Pronoun and the statement refers to she (the Subject). Is singing is determined by the tense and pronoun and is therefore a Finite Verb. Note: Every sentence must have at least one Finite Verb.

When a verb is not limited by Number and Person, it is known as the Non-Finite Verb. The Verb Non-Finite can be of three types - the Infinitive, the Gerund and the Participle. Uses of the Infinitive
Structure: [To + the simple form of the verb] forms the Infinitive

e.g. : to draw, to frighten, to hold

Bare Infinitive / Zero Infinitive: Sometimes the Infinitive may be used without To
i) When it follows the prepositions but, except and besides. but e.g.: She does nothing except speak on the telephone all day long. besides ii) After Verbs of causing such as let, help, make, see ..... etc, e.g.: Let - Please let me leave now. Please let me open the window. Help - They helped us pass the test. I helped him reach home. iii) After Verbs of sense such as watch, behold, dare, hear, feel ..... etc. e.g.: Feel - I felt her pulse beat. Hear - They heard the bird attack the child. iv) To is also omitted after shall, will, do, did, should, would, may, might, must, can, could. e.g.: You should call him now. I must attend the meeting. v) To is also left out after had better, had rather, would rather, rather than, sooner than. e.g.: You had better apply for the post in time. I would rather die than beg for help.

Verbs frequently followed by Infinitive:

Afford, Agree, Aim, Appear, Arrange, Ask, Attempt, Beg, Cant afford, Choose, Claim, Decide, Demand, Deserve, Determine, Endeavour, Expect, Forget, Fail, Happen, Hesitate, Hope, Learn, Like, Manage, Mean, Neglect, Offer, Plan, Prepare, Pretend, Promise, Prone, Refuse, Seem, Swear, Tend, Threaten, Train, Undertake, Wish, Want.

B) Use the words in the list above to complete these sentences.

die; dye right; write four; fore stair; stare pray; prey steal; steel rain; reign; rein wait; weight seam; seem waist; waste

1) A horse has ---------------------------- legs; two hind legs and two ------------------------ legs. 2) There knives and forks are made of stainless --------------------------------------. 3) The Second World War broke out in the --------------------------------- of George VI. 4) Jenny decided to ------------------------------------- her red dress black. 5) Two pieces of material can be joined by making a -----------------------------. 6) You will ------------------ a lot of material if you make the dress too slack in the ------------------. 7) Thousands of people -------------------------------- for the peace of the world. 8) Most people ---------------------------------- with their ---------------------------- hand. 9) The film star stopped on the top ------------------------- to -------------------------- at the crowd



1) That can be described - Describable

2) That can be tamed Domestic

3) Place of permanent residence - Domicile 4) To wander from the main theme - Digress 5) The art practised by statesmen and ambassadors - Diplomacy 6) A thing or a person that can be dispensed with - Dispensable 7) That can be divided - Divisible 8) A match in which neither party wins - Drawn 9) One who drinks to excess - Drunkard 10) A man who is more like a woman than like a man - Effeminate 11) A man who thinks only of himself - Egoist 12) A person who goes on horseback - Equestrian 13) Practice of spying - Espionage 14) Study of insects - Entomology 15) The science concerned with the derivation of words - Etymology


A short list of Similes

As black as a crow As straight as an arrow As poor as a church mouse As quick as lightning As flat as a pancake As hard as nails As dead as doornail As warm as wool As slippery as an eel As hard as iron As sharp as a needle / razor As fit as fiddle As happy / rich as a king As deaf as death As smooth as velvet As cunning as a fox As silent as a graveyard

As blind as a bat As clear as crystal As soft as silk As green as grass As hungry as a wolf As tough as leather As punctual as a clock As round as a ball As light as feather As proud as Lucifer As brave / bold as a lion As cool as cucumber As proud as a peacock As heavy as lead As busy as bee As good as gold As bitter as gall As witty as a fox As light as feather As wise as Socrates As sure as a gun As gentle as a dove As black as soot / coal As fresh as a daisy As faithful as a dog As weak as water As cold as ice As blue as the sky As slow as a snail As hot as fire As fierce as a lion As venomous as a snake As innocent as a new-born baby

Missing Words
exploration sufficient satellites desirability damage vehicles utility system struggle attached universe unique enormous assault hostility resistance preferable security atmosphere calculations

E) Fill the gaps in the following passage by choosing appropriate words from the above list.
Together into Space
E------------------------- amounts of money have been spent on the effort to probe the u---------------------. Although rockets and s----------------------- are confined to our solar s-----------------------, radio waves and other techniques have been used to probe deep into space. The d--------------------------------- of exploring space in collaboration with other nations seems obvious. A combined a------------------------- on space should ensure that s-------------------------- funds are available. Fewer space v----------------------------- would be required, the technology and the cost could be shared. Damage to our own a--------------------------- and to other parts of space could be minimized. The knowledge gained could be shared among nations. Unfortunately, there is considerable r-------------------------- to the idea of joint space e---------------------------.

Open h---------------------- has even been expressed by those who see space as presenting a u--------------------opportunity to gain a military advantage over other nations. Such people have a---------------------- more importance to national s-------------------- than to international peace and co-operation. In the long run, however, a united approach to space exploration will surely be recognized as p--------------------------.

Cryptic Clues F) Find the list-word that best fits each of the following cryptic clues.
1) Ends with jumbled tiles: ----------------------------------- 2) Disorderly chat in its middle: --------------------------------3) Ends with a mixed slice: ---------------------------------- 4) Ends poetically: --------------------------------------5) Begins with mixed-up cures: ----------------------------- 6) Starts with confused atoms: -----------------------------------7) Begins with a water-barrier: ------------------------------ 8) Opens with a wild shot: ---------------------------------------9) Has a donkey at the beginning: --------------------------- 10) Needs an e to end with a rodent: ---------------------------

G) Choose the most appropriate list-word to fill the blank in each of the sentences below.
1) The mathematician checked her -------------------------------------- carefully. 2) --------------------------------------- buildings, such as the Sydney Opera House, tend to attract tourists. 3) Many inventions turn out to have limited ------------------------------------, and are therefore not developed. 4) David Livingstone is an important figure in the history of European --------------------------------------- in Africa. 5) The dance team made a new --------------------------------------------- on the world non-stop dance record. 6) When he had consumed ------------------------------------------------- food, he stopped eating. 7) Any firm as large as this should install a computer ------------------------------------------ to handle accounts. 8) The ------------------------------------------------ against unemployment must be continued. 9) Most people consider constructive criticism ---------------------------------------------- to apathy.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 15
A) THE VERBS [Part 3]

Uses of Gerund
Structure: The Gerund is [Verb + ing] used as a Noun. Although the Gerund has the same form as the Present Participle, it functions as a noun. e.g. Walking in the morning is good exercise. / He enjoys playing football.
The simple Gerund or the Gerund phrase is used in the sentence in a Noun position. It can function as,

Subject: Listening improves competence in language. Listening to the radio is a good practice for improving English. Direct Object: He enjoys cooking. / He enjoys cooking for friends. Subject Complement: His hobby is singing. / His hobby is singing Tagore songs.

Object of Preposition: I am tired of waiting. / I am tired of waiting for you everyday. Appositive: His hobby, collecting old watches, is rather expensive.

Verbs frequently followed by Gerunds:

Admit, Appreciate, Avoid, Cant face, Cant help, Cant stand, Carry on, Confess, Consider, Continue, Defer, Delay, Deny, Detest, Dislike, Enjoy, Escape, Fancy, Finish, Forgive, Give up, Go on, Imagine, Involve, Justify, Keep (continue), Keep on, Mention, Mind, Miss, Postpone, Practise, Present, Put off, Quit, Resent, Resist, Risk, Save, Suggest, Stop, Tolerate, Try.


The Participle and Participial Phrase

The Participle: The Present Participle (the -ing form of the verb) and the Past Participle may be used as adjective modifiers. They can modify Nouns occurring in any position in the sentence. e.g. The crying baby is suffering from fever. / The broken hand of the watch has been replaced. Never cry over spilled milk.

The simple Participle may have 4 (four) positions in the sentences.

Before a noun: The crying baby is suffering from fever. / The exhausted child is resting At beginning of a sentence: Crying, the man asked for water. / Exhausted, she went to bed. After a noun: The baby, crying, woke his mother. / I saw the thief caught. Subject complement: He seemed disturbed. / The report is distressing.

Participles, especially Past Participles, may be used with auxiliaries.

e.g. Having eaten, the child went to bed. Being worried, I forget to keep my appointment with the doctor. Having been listening, I knew all that had been narrated. Note: Present Participle = Active participle Past Participle = Passive Participle Present Participles (V + ing) tell about the job and Past Participles (V + ed) tell how somebody feels (about the job).

Words with more than one meaning

blind ring felt rock foot suit long top mean trunk

C) Use the words in the list above to fill these spaces. The same word must be used for each pair
of sentences.
1) The dress is too ---------------------------------------------- so I must shorten it. I often ---------------------------------------------- for a holiday in Spain. 2) The miser was too ----------------------------------------------- to buy food for himself. Some words --------------------------------------------------- much the same as other words.

3) I think this dress will ------------------------------------------------------ you. Henry wore a navy blue -------------------------------------------- at the wedding. 4) Under the carpet was a layer of -------------------------------------------------------. Carol ------------------------------------------------- ill, so she went to bed early. 5) A ----------------------------------------------- person cannot see.

She pulled the ------------------------------------------- down over the window. 6) Mother packed the -------------------------------------------------- for the holidays. The elephant took the bun with his long ----------------------------------------------------. 7) There was a hostel at the ------------------------------------------- of the mountain. He was lame because he had hurt his ------------------------------------------------. 8) Please ----------------------------------------------- the doorbell. Emma wore a --------------------------------------------- on each finger. 9) On the beach was a huge --------------------------------------------------. Jane tried to ------------------------------------------------- the baby to sleep.

Completing the Similes

D) Complete each of the unfinished similes by inserting word from the box. Use each word once
grave lightning horse lark lamb glass fox nails bat weather judge poker mule fiddle feather cucumber clockwork daisy silk pancake

1) as regular as ---------------------------------3) as cunnings as a ------------------------------5) as quick as ------------------------------------7) as sober as a ----------------------------------9) as changeable as the -----------------------------11) as fresh as a -------------------------------------13) as smooth as ----------------------------------15) as cool as a ------------------------------------17) as fit as a -------------------------------------19) as silent as the ---------------------------------

2) as happy as a -------------------------------4) as stubborn as a ----------------------------6) as strong as a -------------------------------8) as light as a ---------------------------------10) as blind as a -------------------------------12) as brittle as --------------------------------14) as hard as ----------------------------------16) as stiff as a ---------------------------------18) as flat as a ---------------------------------20) as meek as a --------------------------------

E) Fit the verbs in the list below into their proper places in the sentences below.
trickled shuffled sniffed trampled repaired welcomed wriggled galloped

1) Miss Haines ------------------------------------------------ the children to the party. 2) Patch -------------------------------------------------- at the food before eating it. 3) Sheila ---------------------------------------------------- across the moor on her pony. 4) The worms ------------------------------------------------------- about in the rain. 5) William ----------------------------------------------------- the holes in the fence. 6) The rain ---------------------------------------------------- down the window panes. 7) Some of the audience ------------------------------------------------------ their feet. 8) The runaway horses had --------------------------------------------------- on all the flowers in the park.

F) What do you say in these situations? Use a superlative + ....ever..... Use the words given in
brackets (in the correct form). One has been done for you.

1. Youve just been to the cinema. The film was extremely boring. You tell your friend: (boring / film / see) Thats the most boring film Ive ever seen. 2. Your friend has just old you a joke, which you think is very funny. You say: (funny/joke/hear) Thats ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Youre drinking coffee with a friend. Its really good coffee. You say: (good/coffee/taste) This -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. You are talking to a friend about Mary. Mary is very patient. You tell your friend about her: (patient/person/meet) She -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. You have just run ten kilometres. Youve never run further than this. You say to your friend: (far/run) That --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. You decided to give up your job. Now you think this was a bad mistake. You say to your friend: (bad/mistake/make) It ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Your friend meets a lot of people, some of them famous. You ask your friend: (famous/person/meet?) Who --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------?



1) A man with abnormal habits - Eccentric 2) A thing that produces the desired effect - Efficacious 3) To throw light on something difficult or mysterious - Elucidate 4) A person who is in favour of emancipating the poor - Emancipationist 5) To beautify something - Embellish 6) A disease regularly found among people - Endemic 7) Flowers or insects lasting only for a day - Ephemeral 8) Concluding part of a literary work - Epilogue 9) Words inscribed on the tomb of a person - Epitaph 10) The part of the government which enforces law - Executive 11) To assist the progress of a process or measure - Expedite 12) To make amends for a sin - Expiate 13) A statement which is absolutely clear - Explicit 14) Articles sent from one country to the other - Export 15) To set forth a doctrine in detail - Expound 16) To take a thing out of a difficult position - Extricate


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 16
THE VERBS [Part 4] A)
We also use -ing after: give up (= stop);

Infinitive and ing-form

put off (= postpone); carry on / go on (= continue);

keep or keep on (= do something continuously or repeatedly) Paula has given up smoking We must do something. We cant go on living like this! (or ..carry on living...) Dont keep interrupting me while Im speaking. (or Dont keep on interrupting.......) Note the negative form not -ing. When Im on holiday, I enjoy not having to get up early.

With some verbs you can use the structure verb + somebody + -ing. I cant imagine George riding a motorbike. You cant stop me doing what I want. Sorry to keep you waiting so long. Thats all right. Note these examples with the negatives not to......... We decided not to go out because of the weather. Ann pretended not to see me as she passed me in the street. I promised not to be late. Would like / would love / would hate / would prefer are usually followed by to.... (infinitive): I would like to be rich Would you like to come to dinner on Friday? Id love = (would love) to be able to travel round the world. Would you prefer to have dinner now or later? After the following verbs you can use a question word (what / whether / how etc.) + to ..........: ask decide know remember forget explain learn understand wonder We asked Have you decided I dont know Do you understand how where whether what to get to go to apply to do? to the station for your holiday? for the job or not.

Also: show / ask / advise / teach somebody what / how / where to do something: Can somebody show me how to change the film in this camera? Ask Jack. Hell tell you what to do. Verb + (object) + to........ [I want (you) to do etc.] want expect ask beg help mean (=intend) would like would prefer would love would hate

These verbs are followed by to.......... (infinitive). The structure can be: verb + to....... verb + object + to....... We expected to be late. We expected Tom to be late. Would you like to go now? Would you like me to go now? He doesnt want to know. He doesnt want anybody to know. Be careful with want. Do not say want that......: Do you want me to come with you? (not Do you want that I come) After help we can use the infinitive with or without to. So you can say: Can you help me to move this table? or Can you help me move this table? The following verbs have the structure verb + object + to ..........: tell order remind warn force invite enable persuade teach get = (persuade, arrange for)

Can you remind me to phone Ann tomorrow? Who taught you to drive? I didnt move the piano by myself. I got somebody to help me. Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me not to touch it. In the next example, the verb is passive (was warned). I was warned not to touch the switch. Note that we cannot use suggest with the structure verb + object + to........: Jane suggested that I should buy a car. (not Jane suggested me to buy) There are two possible structures after these following verbs. advise recommend encourage allow Compare: forbid permit

verb+ -ing (without an object) I wouldnt recommend staying in that hotel. She doesnt allow smoking in the house. Smoking isnt allowed in the house. make, see, watch, hear, feel, let etc...

verb + object + to....... I wouldnt recommend anybody to stay in that hotel. She doesnt allow us to smoke in the house. We arent allowed to smoke in the house.

Compare these examples with (be) allowed (passive):

These verbs have the structure verb + object + infinitive (without to): The customs officer made Sally open her case. (not to open) Hot weather makes me feel tired. (= causes me to feel tired) I heard her sing. We watched Jerry go. Her parents wouldnt let her go out alone. (wouldnt allow her to go out) Let me carry your bag for you. But in the passive voice after all these verbs except let the structure is verb + object + infinitive (with to) Sally was made to open her case (by the customs officer) She was heard to sing by me. He was let go by me. (not was let to go) I was not let do this by me. (not was not let to do) The following verbs can be followed by -ing or to..... with little or no difference in meaning. begin, start, intend, continue, bother, love, hate, cant bear So you can say: It has started raining. or It has started to rain. John intends buying a house. or John intends to buy a house. Dont bother locking the door. or Dont bother to lock the door. I love meeting people. or I love to meet people. She cant bear being alone. or She cant bear to be alone. Some verbs can be followed by -ing or to... with a difference of meaning. such as, remember, regret, go on I remember doing something = I did it and now I remember this. I remembered to do something = I remembered that I had to do it, and so I did it. I regret doing something = I did it and now Im sorry about it. I regret to say you = Im sorry that I have to say The minister went on talking for two hours. = continue doing the same thing After discussing the economy, the minister then went on to talk about foreign policy. = do or say something new. But normally we do not use -ing after -ing. Its starting to rain. (not its starting raining)

Assignments: B) Complete each sentence with one of these verbs in the correct form ------ing.
apply be answer be listen make see try use wash work write
1) He tried to avoid -------------------------------------------------- my question. 2) Could you please stop -------------------------------------------------- so much noise? 3) I enjoy -------------------------------------------------- to music. 4) I considered --------------------------------------------------- for the job but in the end I decided against it. 5) Have you finished ------------------------------------------------- your hair yet? 6) If you walk into the road without looking, you risk ---------------------------------------------- knocked down.

7) Jim is 65 but he isnt going to retire yet. He wants to carry on ---------------------------------------------. 8) I dont mind you -------------------------------------------- the phone as long as you pay for all your calls. 9) Hello! Fancy ------------------------------------------- you here! What a surprise! 10) Ive put off -------------------------------------------- the letter so many times. I really must do it today. 11) What a stupid thing to do! Can you imagine anybody ------------------------------------ so stupid? 12) Sarah gave up ---------------------------------------- to find a job in this country and decided to go abroad.

C) Complete each sentence with one of these verbs in the correct form, to + -------.
buy be post say use go

1) Dont forget ------------------------------------------- the letter I gave you. 2) There was a lot of traffic but we managed ------------------------------------------- to the airport in time. 3) Jill has decided not --------------------------------------------- a car. 4) Weve got a new computer in our office. I havent learnt -------------------------------------------- it yet. 5) I wonder where Sue is. She promised not -------------------------------------------- late. 6) We were all too afraid to speak. Nobody dared -------------------------------------------- anything.

D) Put the verb into the correct form, to +------ or -------ing.

1) When Im tired, I enjoy ------------------------------------------------ television. Its relaxing. (watch) 2) It was a nice day, so we decided ------------------------------------------------- for a walk. (go) 3) Its nice day. Does anyone fancy ------------------------------------------------ for a walk? (go) 4) Im not in a hurry. I dont mind -----------------------------------------------------. (wait) 5) They dont have much money. They cant afford ------------------------------------------- out very often. (go) 6) I wish that dog would stop ----------------------------------------------. Its driving me mad. (bark) 7) Our neighbour threatened --------------------------------------------- the police if we didnt stop the noise. (call) 8) We were hungry, so I suggested -------------------------------------------------- dinner early. (have) 9) Hurry up! I dont want to risk ----------------------------------------------- the train. (miss) 10) Im still looking for a job but I hope -------------------------------------------- something soon. (find)

E) Complete each sentence using what / how / whether + to + one of these verbs:
do go ride say use 1) Do you know ---------------------------------------------------------------- to Johns house? 2) Can you show me ---------------------------------------------------------- this washing machine? 3) Would you know ------------------------------------------------------- if there was a fire in the building? 4) Youll never forget -------------------------------------------------- a bicycle once you have learned. 5) I was really astonished. I didnt know ------------------------------------------------------------. 6) Ive been invited to the party but I dont know ---------------------------------------------------- or not.

Verbs F) Insert the sound-verbs from the box into their appropriate positions below.
cheep babbles rings rustle creak crackles chimes toots cackle sizzle tramp whistles zooms clank howl patters jingle twangs buzz rumbles

1) The plane ----------------------------

2) The horn -------------------------

3) The wolves -------------------------5) The phone --------------------------7) The fire ------------------------------9) The brook ---------------------------11) Coins ------------------------------13) Rain -------------------------------15) Bees ------------------------------17) Hens ------------------------------19) Chicks -----------------------------

4) The clock -----------------------6) The bow -------------------------8) Thunder -------------------------10) The wind -----------------------12) Sausages ------------------------14) Leaves --------------------------16) Hinges --------------------------18) Feet -----------------------------20) Chains --------------------------

Words with more than one meaning

check spoke hiding stamp lock stone score swallow sound train

G) Use the words in the above list to fill the spaces below. The same word must be used for each
pair of sentences.
1) You should --------------------------- the working of every sum. Farmer Brown wore a ---------------- suit. 2) In very cold weather workmen ------------------------------- their feet to get warm. I put a ----------------------------- on the letter and posted it. 3) The ------------------------------------- arrived at the station an hour late. Footballers -------------------------------------- hard to keep it. 4) It was quiet; not a ---------------------------------------- was to be heard. One apple was damaged, the rest were ----------------------------------------. 5) Pams plum had a huge --------------------------------------- in it. A big ---------------------------------------- had broken the classroom window. 6) The two boys were -------------------------------------- behind the oak tree. His father gave him a good --------------------------------------- for robbing birds nests. 7) A ---------------------------------------- had built its nest under the eaves. His throat was so sore that he could hardly ---------------------------------------. 8) A forwards job is to ----------------------------------------- goals for his side. There are twenty in a ---------------------------------------. 9) When people go out they should --------------------------------------- their doors. There were two boats in the canal ------------------------------------. 10) Nobody ---------------------------------------- a word during the music. There is a bent ------------------------------------- in the front wheel of Rogers bicycle.


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 17
Listening Skill A) First listen to the radio adaptation and then answer the following.

Radio presenter:
Well, last week we talked about buying camping equipment and today Id like to talk to you about buying a bicycle. A simple enough exercise, you might imagine, but there are lots of things to look out for to make sure you get the best deal for your money. Well, the range of bicycles is enormous - there are racing bikes, touring bikes, mountain bikes or just plain ordinary bikes for riding round town. They vary enormously in two basic ways: price and quality. This means that the choice you make will probably be determined by the amount of money you want to pay, your own personal needs, what is actually available or a compromise of all three things. However, in broad terms you can spend anything from $50 to $2,000 on a bike, so youll need to know what you are looking for. Single speed cycles - that is bikes with no gears, are really only suited to short, casual rides. Their attraction is their simplicity and reliability. After years of neglect they still manage to function, though not always too efficiently. If its basic transport youre after, then you cant go wrong. Three speed cycles on the other hand are all that is really necessary for most town riding, going to the shops and things like that. Like the single speed bike, they are simple and reliable. If you are going to be going up and down lots of hills, then youll probably want something more efficient. Five and ten speed bicycles are best suited to riding over long distances or hilly terrain and to serious touring, so if its serious touring youre interested in, get a five or ten speed bike. However, its worth remembering that the difference in price between a five and ten speed cycle is usually very little and so its well worth paying that little bit extra to get the ten speed one. So I would tend to recommend the ten speed bike as the price is similar however youll be getting better quality components. Now the next thing we need to look at is size. Buying a cycle is like buying clothes, first of all you find the right size and then you try it on to see if it fits. Contrary to what you might imagine, the size of the cycle is not determined by the size of the wheels. (except in childrens cycles), but by the size of the frame. So youll need to measure the length of your legs and arms to get a frame that is the right size for you. Well, thats all from Helpful Hints for today ...........

Speaking skill B) There is a picture for you. Look at the picture for about half a minute.

In this picture a number of actions have taken place. Now you are to speak about the picture in one and a half minute.

Missing Words
C) Fit the correct words from the spelling box into the spaces left blank in the passage below.
mischievous hostility sarcasm annoyance directory suppressed anticipated substitute individual accurate naturally reputation impudence eighth commotion obedience assignment deceptively cynical deplorable

An Honest Reporter
A persons r-------------------------------- has to be protected. Some people with d------------------------morals tend to s--------------------------- rumour for fact when writing about others. Such behaviour is more than m----------------------------------. It is a c------------------------ act of h-----------------------, a trampling on the rights of others. N-------------------------, Im one reporter who just wont be in it. I refuse to work d------------------------------ or to report gossip. The last time my boss at the newspaper office asked me to take an a----------------------- featuring a well-known i-------------------, he said: Spice it up a bit. I had a-------------------------- this so I asked, with some s------------------, You mean, tell lies? He wasnt impressed by my i------------------------------. He has come to expect unquestioning o----------------------- from employees, so he showed quite a deal of a-------------------. Not wanting to cause a c---------------------------, I s------------------------------ any further reaction but decided, instead, to look for another position. After checking with an agency that kept an employment d-------------------------, I was able to land another newspaper job on my e-----------------day. Im much happier here. My new boss has values similar to my own.

D) Put the verb in the right form: -ing or infinitive (with or without to)
1) She doesnt allow ----------------------------------------------- in the house. (smoke) 2) Ive never been to Iceland but Id like ---------------------------------------------- there. (go) 3) Im in a difficult position. What do you advise me ---------------------------------------------? (do) 4) She said the letter was personal and wouldnt let me ---------------------------------------- it. (read) 5) We were kept at the police station for two hours and then we were allowed --------------------------- (go) 6) Where would you recommend me --------------------------------------------- for my holidays? (go)

7) I wouldnt recommend --------------------------------------------- in that restaurant. The food is awful. (eat) 8) The film was very sad. It made me ---------------------------------------------. (cry) 9) Carols parents always encouraged her ------------------------------------------- hard at school. (study)

E) Fill in the blanks with the words given in the list adding -ly into each space below.
neat slow easy busy proud sleepy quick safe heavy 1) The flames spread so ----------------------------------------- that the house was soon burnt to the ground. 2) All the boys were working -----------------------------------------------------. 3) The ship arrived ----------------------------------------------- after a stormy voyage. 4) The small cat crept -------------------------------------------------- along the garden path. 5) The old man nodded his head -------------------------------------------------------. 6) It is raining too ------------------------------------------------- for you to go out. 7) The young mother looked ------------------------------------------------------ at her baby. 8) Sandra wrote the letter very ------------------------------------------------------. 9) Philip jumped over the wall quite -----------------------------------------------------.

F) Put in every of each (Sometimes both are possible)


A: Four of us share this flat. -------------------------- of us has own bedroom, and -------------------------------person pays a quarter of the rent. The rent is due on the first of -------------------------------- month. B: Do you have parties here? A: Oh yes, all the time. We have one -------------------------------- week, more or less. B: Isnt that rather expensive? A: Well, we ask ------------------------------- guest to bring sometimes to drink. Actually were not having a party this week. Just now were spending --------------------------- spare moment working for our exams.



1) Things which can be explained - Explicable 2) Things which can be expressed - Expressible 3) Hard to please - Fastidious 4) Capable of committing errors - Fallible 5) A disease which ends in death - Fatal 6) Murder of ones brother - Fratricide 7) One who believes in fate - Fatalist 8) A person with excessive and mistaken enthusiasm for religion - Fanatic 9) A man interested in the welfare of women - Feminist 10) Cat-like - Feline 11) Courage in pain or poverty or misfortune - Fortitude 12) A story which is not based on historical facts - Fiction 13) Blending of different things into one - Fusion 14) An animal living on grass - Graminivorous 15) A man who sells vegetables - Greengrocer


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 18
A) First listen to the following and then answer the questions. Guide:
Good morning, everyone, and welcome to the maritime Museum.

Now before we commence our tour Id just like to tell you a little bit about the history of the museum. As you can see, its a very modern building built in the post modern style and it was in fact opened by the Prime Minister of Australia in November 1991. Its been designed with a nautical flavour in mind to remind us of our links with the sea. But the museum isnt only housed in this building; there are a number of historic ships docked outside in the harbour which form part of the museum and which you are also free to visit, and well be coming to them shortly. Id just like to point out one or two things of general interest while were here. Handicapped toilets are located on this floor and the door shows a wheelchair. The cloakroom where you can hang your coat or leave your bags is just behind us here. The education centre is on the top floor and theres a good little library in there which you might like to use. Follow the signs to the Education Centre youll see a lot of little green arrows on the wall. The green arrows will take you there. The information desk, marked with the small letter i on your plan is located right here in the foyer, so if you get separated from your friends, I suggest you make your way back to the information desk because well be returning to this spot at the end of the tour. All right? Now, if you look out this window you should be able to see where the museums ships are docked. If you want to go on a tour of the old ship, the Vampire, shes docked over there and you should meet outside on the quay. However, a word of warning! I dont recommend it for the grandmas and grandpas because there are lots of stairs to climb. Right, now, lets move on. Oh, I almost forgot to give you the times for that hour. Now, tours of the Vampire run on the hour, every hour. All right?

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Lets take a walk round the museum now. The first room were coming to is the theatre. This room is used to screen videos of special interest and we also use it for lectures. Theres a continuous video showing today about the voyages of Captain Cook, so come back here later on if you want to learn more about Captain Cook. Now, were moving along the gallery known as the Leisure Gallery. This is one of our permanent exhibitions and here we try to give you an idea of the many different ways in which Australians have enjoyed their time by the sea: surfing, swimming, lifesaving clubs, thats all very much a part of Australian culture. At the end of this section well come to the Picture Gallery where weve got a marvellous collection of paintings, all by Australian artists. I think you can buy reproductions of some of these paintings in the museum shop. Well worth a good look. Now were coming to the Members Lounge. As a member of the museum you would be entitled to use the members lounge for refreshments. Membership costs $50 a year or $70 for all the family. So its quite good value because entry to the museum is then free. And down at the far end of this floor, youll find the section which weve called Passengers and the Sea. In this part of the museum weve gathered together a wonderful collection of souvenirs from the old days when people travelled by ship. Youll find all sorts of things there: old suitcases, ships crockery, first class cabins decorated in the fashion of the day. Just imagine what it must have been like to travel first class. Now Im going to leave you to walk round the museum on your own for a while and well all meet back again at the information desk in three quarters of an hours time. I hope you enjoy your time with us at the museum today. Thank you.

C) Fill the gaps in the life story of a British woman.

At 5, Nelly Dawes went straight to ......................................... (1) school, because there were very few .......................................... (2) schools for younger children in those days. When she was ready to go on to secondary school, she passed an exam and so got into her local ..................................... (3) school. Nowadays a her own children dont do that She left exam, school since at most 16 and children did not go go to on ......................................................(4) school.

to ....................................... (5) education but she goes to ........................................... (6) once a week to learn

French. She would like to take up her education again more seriously, if she could get a ......................................... (7) or scholarship from the government. Her ambition is to go to a ..................................................................... (8) and become a school-teacher.

D) Correct the mis-collocations in these sentences.

1) I cant come out. Im studying. Im passing an examination tomorrow. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) Congratulations! I hear you succeeded your examination! Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) You can study a lot of different careers at this university. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4) I got some good notes in my continuous assessment this term. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) Shes a professor in a primary school. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6) He gave an interesting 45-minute conference on Goethe. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7) She got a degree in personnel management from a private college. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

E) What questions could you ask to get these answers?

1) No, they have to finance their own studies. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2) There isnt much difference; its just that the courses are more practical in a polytechnic instead of being very academic. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3) Well, they learn one or two things, like recognizing a few numbers, but most of the time they play around. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4) Because I wanted to be a teacher, no other reason. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5) Its sixteen, but a lot of kids stay on until eighteen. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6) Well, Ive been up all night revising for an exam. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7) No, ours are given in grades, you know, B+, A, that sort of thing. Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8) No, I was ill. I didnt miss it deliberately. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 19

A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun and shows relationships such as Position, Place, Time, Manner, Agent, Possession, etc. between the objects and other parts of the sentence. e.g.: The school is across the street. / The train arrived in time He leaned against the wall. / She entered through the door There is a tree beside my kitchen. / She loves to travel by train. The letter was under the book. / She sat beside Laila. She came with me. / A letter came to her. N.B. [The rules regarding the use of Propositions are not clear. It is better to learn them from their uses in different well-written English passages.] Here is a list of the most important Prepositions: At, by, from, for, in, of, off, on, out, through, till, to, up, with, under, over, down, during, about, above, fore, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, inside, outside, underneath, within, without, into, against. Phrase Preposition (Groups of words used as a single Preposition) according to, along with, apart from, as against, as between, as for, as regards, as to, away from, because of, by means of, by reason of, by virtue of, by way of, contrary to, due to, except for, for the sake of, for lack of, from above, in accordance, in addition to, in case of, in consequence of, in course of, in favour of, in front of, in place of, in regard to, in spite of, in the event of, instead of, on account of, on behalf of, out of, owing to, next to, preferable to, previous to, regardless of, short of, subject to, south of, under cover of, up to, up against, with a view to, with reference to, with regard to, with the exception of

In case of need, send for the doctor. / I want to live in a house by the lake The office will be open from eight to three everyday. I want some chocolate on top of my ice-cream. / I am acting on behalf of my client. He continued his studies in spite of difficulties. / In course of time, he saw his mistake. On account of his carelessness, his business failed. / They put their books in front of them. Can we go to Dhaka by way of Comilla? / She sat next to her sister.

Finding the synonyms B) From each line below, pick out the two words similar in meaning.
1) bravery 2) imitate 3) commence 4) enormous 5) careful 6) decision 7) hold 8) respect 9) fast 10) safety 11) disease 12) surrender 13) protect 14) manner 15) anonymous cowardice retain change medium uncertain though purchase hatred nimble help medicine victory leave rude famous failure copy begin gigantic cautious option retain wonder slow disaster malady defeat change insolent illustrious courage destroy abandon size slow choice buy agile calamity health yield guard mean imaginary ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

amazement -----------------

C) Reading & Understanding Skill

A Day off work

Amit loves cricket. He is very keen to watch the Asia Cup Cricket Final between India and Pakistan. He pretends he is not well and doesnt go to work. Does his boss find out?

Amit works for an import-export company. Last Wednesday morning Amit rang his office at nine oclock. His boss, Mr. Sharma, answered the phone. Mr. Sharma: Hello, Sharma here......... Amit: Hello. This is Amit. Mr. Sharma: Oh, hello, Amit. Amit: Im afraid I cant come to work today, Mr. Sharma. Mr. Sharma: Oh, whats the matter? Amit: Ive got fever and a sore throat. Mr. Sharma: Yes, you do sound ill on the phone. Amit: I think Ill stay back, if you dont mind. Ill be able to come to work tomorrow. Mr. Sharma: Thats all right. Amit. Stay home until you are well enough. Amit: Thank you, Mr. Sharma. Goodbye. Mr. Sharma liked Amit very much. At ten-thirty he got into his car, drove to a shop and bought some fruit for him. He went to Amits flat and rang the doorbell. Amits wife, Susan, answered the door. Susan: Oh, Mr. Sharma! Hello ....... how are you? Mr. Sharma: Fine, thanks, Susan. Ive come to see Amit. How is he? Susan: He doesnt look very well. I wanted him to see a doctor. Mr. Sharma: Ill go in and see him........ Hello, Amit. Amit: Oh..... hello....... hello, Mr. Sharma Mr. Sharma: Ive brought some fruit for you, Amit. Amit: Thank you very much, Mr. Sharma. Mr. Sharma: Hows your throat? Amit: It seems a little better. Im sure Ill be OK tomorrow. Mr. Sharma: Well, dont come in until you feel better. Amit: All right ........ but Im sure Ill be able to come in tomorrow. Mr. Sharma: Goodbye, Amit. Amit: Goodbye, Mr. Sharma. At five-thirty that afternoon, Mr. Sharma locked his office door, and switched on his portable television. He wanted to watch the final moments of the Asia Cup Final. Pakistan had scored 222 all out. It was the last over of the Indian innings. India needed only four runs for victory. The Indian batsman at the crease was not taking any chances and played five balls back carefully to the bowler. It was the last ball of the match. There was a deathly hush in the stadium as the Pakistani bowler began his long run up, reached the bowling crease and delivered a ball straight and fast as an arrow. The batsman stepped out and smashed it. And the ball flew to the boundary. Four runs! India had won! The stadium went wild! Mr. Sharma jumped out of his chair. He was very excited. He was smiling happily when suddenly the cameraman focused on the crowd. Mr. Sharmas smile disappeared completely. Amits face, in close-up, was there on the screen. He didnt look ill and he didnt sound ill. He was smiling happily and cheering wildly!

Read and Find Facts

1. When did Amit ring up his office? Who was his boss? 2. Mr. Sharma visited Amit. Does this show he--------------a) was kind- hearted? b) liked Amit? c) was foolish? 3. What did he tell his boss? What did his boss ask him to do? 4. What did Mr. Sharma buy for Amit? 5. When Amit saw Mr. Sharma he could not speak properly. Was this because he -----------

a) was nervous? b) had a sore throat? c) was happy? 6. What did Mr. Sharma watch on TV? Why was it an exciting match? 7. When did Mr. Sharma jump out of his chair? Was he as excited as the crowd watching the match? 8. Amits face, in close-up, was there on the screen. What was he doing? 9. What did both Mr. Sharma and Amit love? 10. Was Mr. Sharma angry because -----------------------. a) Amit had told a lie? b) he had been taken in by the lie? c) he had bought fruit for a man who was not ill? d) Amit was enjoying himself? e) he could not watch the match like Amit? 11. What do you think happened the next morning when Amit went back to work?



1) A room for physical exercise - Gymnasium 2) A place where grain is stored - Granary 3) Any medicine that destroys germs - Germicide 4) To use expressive motions of limbs while speaking - Gesticulate 5) Money paid to employees on retirement - Gratuity 6) An extremely talkative person - Garrulous 7) A day of gaiety and festivity - Gala day 8) A post for which is no salary is paid - Honorary 9) Murderer of a man - Homicide 10) Feeding on herbs - Herbivorous 11) Things which contain elements of the same nature - Homogeneous 12) Things which contain elements of opposite nature - Heterogeneous 13) A plan which cannot be put into practice - Impracticable 14) A person who can neither read nor write - Illiterate 15) A loss that cannot be made good - Irreparable

E) Use the clues, supply pairs of homonyms --- words that are pronounced alike but have different
meanings. The first one has been done to help you.
1) This grows on the head: hair A member of the rabbit family: hare 2) Eaten at breakfast: c------------------------------A story in installments: s-------------------------3) Opposite of female: m---------------------------Letters and parcels: m---------------------------4) An island: i----------------------------A passageway in a church: a--------------------5) The spiritual part, essence: s---------------------One and only: s----------------------6) Gain: p---------------------------Inspired religious teacher: p------------------------7) Painful: s----------------------------------To fly high into the air: s---------------------8) In this place: h-------------------------------To listen to: h--------------------------------9) Not moving: s-------------------------Writing materials: s-------------------------10) Ships are loaded here: q--------------------Used to open a lock: k-------------------------11) Loud ringing of bells: p---------------------To strip away the skin or rind: p------------12) To lift: r----------------------------To destroy completely: r---------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009
Lesson 20
Listening Skill:

A) First listen to the following and then answer the questions.

Tutor: Ok, everybody, good morning! Its Mark turn to talk to us today, so Mark, Ill ask you to get straight down to business. Mark: Right! Tutor: Now following on from what we were discussing last week in Susans tutorial on approaches to marketing, you were going to give us a quick run down on a new strategy for pricing which is now being used by many large companies known as revenue management ....... before we go on to your actual tutorial paper on Sales targets. Is that correct? Mark: Yeah, Ok, well........ Tutor: So what exactly is revenue management? Mark: Well, its a way of managing your pricing by treating things like airline tickets and hotel rooms rather more as if they were perishable goods. Susan: Yeah, I just tried to book a ticket yesterday for Perth and would you believe there are three different prices for the flight? Mark: Right! And what was the rationale for that? Susan: Well ..... the travel agent said it depended on when you book and the length of the stay, like its cheap if you stay away for a Saturday night, presumably because this isnt business travel, and even cheaper if you buy a ticket where you cant get a refund if you have to cancel; in that case the ticket costs about half the price. You wouldnt think it would make that much difference, would you? Mark: Well it does; and thats basically because the airlines are now treating their seats like a commodity. You see if you want a seat today, then you pay far more for it than if you want it in three weeks time. Susan: That seems rather unfair. Mark: Well .... not really .... when you think about it, thats just common sense, isnt it? Susan: I suppose so. Tutor: What this actually means is that in the same row of seats on the same flight you could have three people who have all paid a different price for their tickets. Susan: And is this just happening in Australia? Mark: No, no its the same all over the world. Airlines are able to market a seat as a perishable product, with different values at different stages of its life. Susan: Well like mangoes or apples at the market. Mark: Yeah, its exactly like that. The fact is that the companies are not actually interested in selling you a cheap flight! Theyre interested in selling the seats and flying aeroplanes that are full. Tutor: Mark, why do you think revenue management has come about? Mark: Well, as far as I can see, there are two basic reasons: firstly because the law has been changed to allow the companies to do this. You see in the past they didnt have the right to keep changing the prices of the tickets, and secondly we now have very powerful computer programs to do the calculations and so the prices can be changed at a moments notice. Susan: So you mean ten minutes could be critical when youre buying a plane ticket?

Mark: Absolutely! Tutor: Thats right! Mark: And I understand we have almost reached the stage where these computer programs that the airlines are using will eventually be available to consumers to find the best deals for their travel plans from their home computer. Susan: Heavens! What a thought! So the travel agent could easily become a thing of the past if you could book your airline tickets from home. Are there any other industries using this system, or is it restricted to the airline business? Mark: Many of the big hotel groups are doing it now. Thats why the price of a bed in a hotel can also vary so much ... depending on when and where you book it. Tutor: Its all a bit of a gamble really. Mark: Yes, and hire car companies are also using revenue management to set their tariffs, because they are also dealing with a commodity if you like ... so the cost of hiring a car will depend on demand. Tutor: Well, thank you, Mark, for that overview .... that was well researched. Now lets get on with your main topic for today ....

B) CONJUNCTION A Conjunction is a word used for joining together sentences or words.

In the following examples, Noun, Adjectives, Adverbs, Pronouns, Conjunctions, Prepositions and Phrases have been joined by the Conjunction and. e.g. a cow and a boy; old and weak; thoughtfully and sincerely; him and her; if and when; to and from; up hill and down dale. Sentences are joined with Conjunctions. Conjunctions are divided into Co-ordinating Conjunctions and Subordinating Conjunctions.

The important Coordinating Conjunctions are:

and, but, else, for, lest, or, nor, also, still, yet

Coordinating Conjunctions are used:

i) to add one statement to another: Example: She wrote to me, and I wrote her book. ii) to express opposition or contrast between two statements: Example: He is efficient but not honest. iii) to express choice between two statements: Example: You may wait or you may leave. iv) to express an inference: Example: There is someone at the door, for I head a knock.

Conjunctive Adverbs are also used as Coordinating Conjunctions.

besides, consequently, furthermore, hence, however, moreover, nevertheless, notwithstanding therefore, then, thus Example: Kim moved to Chittagong; however, his mother stayed in Dhaka. You have disobeyed me; therefore, I will not help you again. Lawrence is kind; hence, he is generous I tried my best; nevertheless, I failed. Television is entertaining; furthermore, it is instructive.

Notwithstanding I live too far away to visit you often, you are never home. The road was wet and slippery; consequently, there were many accidents. A decision is needed now; besides, we must meet the deadline. I will study medicine for six years; then, I will be a doctor. The boys were brave; consequently, they came out of danger. Conjunctions used in pairs: although ...... still as as ............. therefore either ............or neither.................. nor since.................. therefore so ............... that though ................. nevertheless though .............. yet whether.................or Examples:
Although / though he became angry, still he kept his cool. Although/ though I have no money, yet I wont go with you Although the lady was deprived, yet she didnt complain. As the student was guilty, so his teachers scolded him. As the passengers were robbed, therefore they had to starve. If I only knew the fact, then such a disaster would not have occurred. Either you will confess, or I will complain. Neither the money, nor the jewellery was missing. He should neither do it, nor should he allow you to do it. Jessy failed not only in Chemistry but also in Physics. He not only rescued her from danger, but also helped her with money. Since your brother is present here, therefore you should talk to him. Both his brother and sister appreciated his effort. We both like and respect him. Such an idiot as you can never succeed. Though the beginning was not good, nevertheless they came out successful. When the passengers get down, then the other passengers get in. I must accept the proposal whether you approve it or not. She is so intelligent a girl that she cant fail.

although ........... yet as ............ so both ............ and if ................... then not only .................. but also so ................. as such .............. as though .............. still when ............. then

The most important Subordinating Conjunctions are:

that, hence, since, as, in order that, so that, lest, if, as if, whether, though however, than, so far as, according as, as soon as, while, before, until, after, unless

Subordinating Conjunctions are used to show:

1) Time: She went to bed after she had finished her work 2) Reason: She left because she had a train to catch. 3) Purpose: We eat that we may live. 4) Result: The noise was loud that we could hardly hear anything 5) Condition: I will go if you come. 6) Concession or Contract: She did not wait, though everybody was eager to talk to her. 7) Comparison: She is not so/ as serious as her brother is. 8) Manner: We reap as we sow.

C) In each group below select the word which is similar in meaning to the word in bold type.
Tick () the right word.
1. squander: 2. cautious: 3. obstinate: 4. abandon: i) roam i) willing i) tender i) leave ii) wander ii) serious ii) stubborn ii) gather iii) waste iii) sad iii) proud iii) search iv) hoard iv) careful iv) cruel iv) renew

5. vanish:
6. celebrated: 7. pathetic: 8. reckless: 9. slender:

i) conquer i) wealthy i) aged i) careful i) stout understand sordid

ii) disappear ii) handsome ii) honoured ii) clever ii) slim attempted residence

iii) paint iii) muscular iii) dishonest iii) rash iii) tender weariness summit

iv) scatter iv) famous iv) pitiful iv) timid iv) flabby irate determined

D) Rewrite the sentences that follow replacing the words in heavy type with synonyms from the list.
abruptly indifference i) The angry teacher suddenly left the room. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii) The old dwelling was so squalid that it was condemned by the health inspector. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii) The resolute runner suffers great fatigue. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv) The teacher could not comprehend the reason for the students apathy. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------v) The climber endeavoured to reach the peak of the mountain. Ans: ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

C) Say which of the words in italics are gerunds and which are present participles.
a) The retreating army took up new positions. -------------------------------------------b) They hated retreating before the enemy, but by retreating they avoided capture. -------------------c) They were retreating because they had lost their heavy guns. --------------------------------------d) Mr. Green is working in his garden. ---------------------------------------------e) By working hard he hopes to get the garden ready for sowing seeds.-----------------------------------f) There was a rustling that seemed like a bustling.---------------------------------------------------Small feet were pattering, wooden shoes clattering,----------------------------------------------Little hands clapping and little tongues chattering.------------------------------------------------Out came the children running.--------------------------------------------------All the little boys and girls, -----------------------------------------------------With rosy cheeks and flaxen curls,-------------------------------------------------And sparkling eyes and teeth like pearls,---------------------------------------------Tripping and skipping, ran merrily after ---------------------------------------------The wonderful music with shouting and laughter. --------------------------------------------------


English Language & Grammar Course 2009

Full Marks: 60; Time: 1 Hour

Name of the Examinee 1) Listen to the tape and answer in the booklet as you understand. 2) Name the part of speech of each italicized word in each sentence.

Obtained Marks 10 1 5=5

a) The Muslims fast in the month of Ramadan. fast - __________________________ b) Sit down and rest a while. c) The after effects of this drug are bad. d) She pronounced the word quite correctly. e) The books are where you left them. while - _________________________ after - __________________________ quite - __________________________ them -__________________________

3) Choose two words (one from each box) to complete each sentence. One has been done for you. 1 5=5 completely reasonably absolutely changed damaged cheap unusually unnecessarily slightly enormous quiet long a) I thought the restaurant would be expensive but it was reasonably cheap. b) What a big house! Its --------------------------------------------------------------. c) The children are normally very lively but theyre --------------------------------------------------. d) The film was ---------------------------------------------------. It could have been much shorter. e) It wasnt a serious accident. The car was only -------------------------------------------------. f) When I returned home after 20 years, everything had --------------------------------------------. 3) Insert the sound-verbs from the box into their appropriate positions below. zooms twangs tramp patters babbles cackle rustle rumbles jingle whistles a) Rain ----------------------------------c) Feet ----------------------------------e) Hens ----------------------------------g) The brook ----------------------------i) Leaves -------------------------------0.5 10=5

b) The bow ------------------------------d) Coins ---------------------------------f) The wind -----------------------------h) Thunder -----------------------------j) The plane -----------------------------1 5=5

4) Complete each of the unfinished similes by inserting appropriate word. a) as silent as the ------------------------------------------------------.

b) as light as a ---------------------------------------------------------. c) as cool as a ---------------------------------------------------------. d) as regular as --------------------------------------------------------. e) as brittle as ---------------------------------------------------------. 5) Complete the conversation. Write the complete word in each space. The first two has been done for you. 1
5=5 Vicky: That was an exciting (excit.....) film, wasnt it? Sarah: Oh, do you think so? Im surprised (surpris.....) you liked it. I thought it was rather (a) -------------------------------------------------- (disappoint.......). Vicky: Well, I was (b) -------------------------------------------- (puzzl.....) once or twice. I didnt understand the whole story. It was (c) --------------------------------------------------- (confus.......) in places. But the end was good. Sarah: I was (d) ---------------------------------------------------- (bor.......) most of the time. I didnt find it very (e) ------------------------------------------------------- (interest.......).

6) Fill in the blanks using part of the verbal phrases from the list to make appropriate sense. 1 5=5 out down round into up

i) The patient will come ------------------------------------- soon. ii) The astronauts of Apollo 11 will go ------------------------------------- in the history. iii) Look ------------------------------------------ this word in the dictionary. iv) The petrol of the car has run -------------------------------------. v) Owing to poverty, he had to run ------------------------------------- debt. 7) Fill in the blanks with appropriate conjunctions from the list. unless though while since or
a) Make hay ---------------------------------------- the sun shines. b) We must hasten --------------------------------------- night will overtake us. c) -------------------------------------------- you wish it, it shall be done. d) You will not pass ------------------------------------------- you work hard. e) A books a book, ------------------------------------------ theres nothing in it.

1 5=5

8) Insert these nouns into their appropriate places in the passage that follow. The first letter is always given, to help you. 1 10=10 aborigines effects populations regions homes countries life attention seasons movements

Nomads are people who have no fixed (a) --------------------------- but move regularly from place to place. Hunting peoples, such as Bushmen, Pygmies and Australian (b) ---------------------------, move in search of larger animal (c) --------------------------------. Pastoral nomads, in the Middle East and Central Asia, move with the (d) ------------------------------. Other pastoral peoples, also depend on the seasons, cultivate crops but are nomadic when their crops require no (e) ----------------------------. Some agricultural workers, in the United States particularly, follow a nomadic life also, migrating northward during the growing and harvesting season and returning to the warmer southern (f)

----------------------- in the winter. Gypsies might be another example for some (g) -----------------. Generally speaking, the nomads (h) --------------------------- are regulated by the seasons and the (i) --------------------------- of the seasons on plant and animal (j) -------------------------.

9) Write your own short conversations on the following idea.


Two mosquitoes talk about the people they bit the night before.

N. B. Use the following page to write the conversation.

E) Rewrite these sentences changing the words in bold types to give them the opposite meaning.
1. Food is very dear in some parts of Europe. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. The cotton mills have been idle for many months. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. The lake was quite shallow in places. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. In only one classroom was the temperature above freezing point. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. The new pupil proved to be a bright boy. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. Our Christmas turkey was very tough. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. The shopkeeper was a very foolish man. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. All the occupants of the boat were dead. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. The police found that the motorist was sober. Ans: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. The wood had a smooth surface.

Ans: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

bank clerk reporter decorator newsagent cameraman umpire bookseller salesman fishmonger potter cashier veterinary surgeon bricklayer shepherd model

F) Write the missing occupations.

1) It took the ----------------------------------------------- ten days to build the garden wall. 2) A detailed account of the accident was written by the --------------------------------------- of the local paper. 3) I asked the ----------------------------------------------------- for a statement of my account. 4) This vase was made by our local ---------------------------------------------------------. 5) The ------------------------------------------------- reduced the prices of the gardening books. 6) Patrick handed the bill and the money to the ---------------------------------------------- at the care. 7) We hope the --------------------------------- will finish papering and painting the lounge by next Saturday. 8) A ---------------------------------------------- was trying to sell Mrs. Grey a washing machine. 9) The ------------------------------------------- was displaying the latest fashion in summer dresses. 10) The ------------------------------------------- raised his hand to show that the batsman was out.

G) Use whose or whos in the blanks.

1) Do you know ------------------------------ bag this is?

2) I wonder ------------------------------- on duty in the library today. 3) The doctor was attending a patient -------------------------- arm was broken. 4) The club leader wants to know ------------------------------- responsible for the damage. 5) The woman --------------------------------- purse was stolen / reported it to the police.

Using the right verb

built spent mounted stamped packed taught returned thanked sheltered warmed

D) Choose the right word from the list above to finish each sentence.
1) We ------------------------------------- from the rain in an old barn. 2) James -------------------------------------- from his holiday yesterday. 3) The carol singers --------------------------------------- their feet to get warm. 4) Father ---------------------------------------- me to ride a bicycle. 5) Marion has -------------------------------------- all her money. 6) I --------------------------------------- the parcel and gave it to Michael. 7) Sally ------------------------------------------ herself by the blazing fire. 8) The new house was ------------------------------------------ in less than six months. 9) I ------------------------------------------- Susan for the lovely present she sent me. 10) The cowboy -------------------------------------- his house and rode off.

annual attempt cease circular coarse courageous drowsy generous inquire insane yearly try stop round rough brave sleepy kind ask mad manufacture moist necessity portion purchase putrid rare regret reply scared make damp need part buy rotten scarce sorrow answer frightened

F) In place of each word in bold type write a simpler word which has a similar meaning.
1) Sir Malcolm was thanked for his generous gift to the hospital. ------------------------------2) There will be a big crowd to see the champion driver attempt to break the world record next month. -------------------------------

3) I have received no reply to my letter. ------------------------------4) After his huge Sunday lunch Tim felt quite drowsy. ------------------------------5) The material is very coarse. ------------------------------6) People purchase warm clothing in readiness for winter. ------------------------------7) The annual Flower Show is held in September. ------------------------------8) Anne was scared of the big bloodhound. -------------------------------

9) The murderer was found guilty but insane. ------------------------------10) Captain Smith was decorated for this courageous deed. -------------------------------

G) Write the missing words by adding -ing or -ed to the verbs in bold type.
1. We saw a small dog ------------------------------------- a cat. (chase) 2. The fire ----------------------------------------- when a log was put on it. (blaze) 3. The old man was ----------------------------------------- most of the night. (snore) 4. Nobody ------------------------------------------ to answer the door. (dare) 5. Paul sat on the rug ----------------------------------------- the cat. (stroke) 6. We got there just as the shop was ---------------------------------------------. (close)

H) Choose the correct word from the pair above to complete each sentence.
1) The bus ------------------------------- to school is twenty pence. (fair / fare) 2) The cut on your finger will soon -------------------------------------. (heel / heal) 3) The big brown ------------------------------------- sat up and begged. (bear / bare) 4) The ----------------------------------- of the womans shoe came right off. (heel / heal) 5) Peter won a coconut at the ------------------------------------. (fair / fare) 6) Many trees are -------------------------------------- in winter. (bare / bear) 7) We saw ten -------------------------------------------- in the park. (dear / deer) -4I) Complete each sentence by using a noun of the opposite gender to that in bold type.
1) Farmer Bond keeps ten pigs, two boars and eight --------------------------------------. 2) The drake swam on the pond while the -------------------------------------- waddled round the farmyard with her little ones. 3) A record price was paid for the --------------------------------------- and the cow. 4) Lord and ------------------------------------ Bryce were at the garden party. 5) The wool on the ram was thicker than that on the ----------------------------------------------. 6) The red deer stag had antlers, the -------------------------------------- had none.

B) Copy each sentence and complete by inserting the past participle of the verb in bold type.
1) We rested our visitors had --------------------------------------- go. (go) 2) He had ----------------------------------------- of a good answer to the question. (think) 3) Several passengers were ------------------------------------- in the collision. (hurt) 4) David was -------------------------------------------- to captain the school team.(choose) 5) This lovely scarf was --------------------------------------- by hand.(weave) 6) The condemned man was -------------------------------------- at eight oclock in the morning.(hang) 7) Margaret did the sum after her teacher had ---------------------------------------- her the right method.(show) 8) The ground was ------------------------------------------- so the match was postponed.(freeze)

D) Select the word from the list below which will complete each sentence.

announcer postwoman plumber butcher

chef chemist

florist waitress

nurse jeweller librarian steeplejack tobacconist undertaker

cricketer upholsterer

1) The --------------------------------------------------- at the public library has three excellent assistants. 2) The ------------------------------------------------ at the corner sells lots of different sweets and chocolates. 3) The ----------------------------------------------- at the beach cafe served us with tea very quickly. 4) The --------------------------------------------------- had a large selection of medicines and pills. 5) The ------------------------------------------------------ offered Maisie a gold watch at a reduced price. 6) The twins went to the ----------------------------------------------- to buy their mother a bouquet of flowers. 7) The ------------------------------------------------ displays all his meats on trays in his shop window. 8) The ------------------------------------------------------ climbed to the top of the church steeple to inspect the damage done by the gale. 9) Our --------------------------------------------------- uses her bicycle on her rounds. 10) The ----------------------------------------------- took Toms temperature and pulse every four hours.

E) Use the words in the box in the blanks below to complete the following sentences.
merrily errors homeworkgiggling a) You have made a number of ---------------------------------------. b) They sang ----------------------------- at the party. c) While the comedian was making his jokes, the girls started -----------------------------. d) The teacher asked all the students to hand in their ----------------------------------.

F) Complete these sentences so that the meaning is similar to the first sentence.
a) My father said I could use his car. My father allowed-------------------------------------------------------. b) I was surprised that it rained. I didnt expect------------------------------------------------------------------. c) Dont stop him doing what he wants. Let----------------------------------------------------------------------. d) He looks older when he wears glasses. Glasses make--------------------------------------------------------. e) I think you should know the truth. I want ----------------------------------------------------------------------. f) Dont let me forget to phone my sister. Remind ---------------------------------------------------------------. g) At first I didnt want to apply for the job but Sarah persuaded me. Sarah persuaded ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. h) My lawyer said I shouldnt say anything to the police. My lawyer advised ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. i) I was told that I shouldnt believe everything he says. I was warned --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. j) If youve got a car, you are able to travel round more easily. Having a car enables ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.