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A lesson plan, notes and homework on completing the square and putting a quadratic into vertex form. Aligned with Larson's "pre-calculus: a graphing approach".

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1. Standard equation for a quadratic equation. 2. Completing the square and vertex form 3. Graphing quadratics Materials and Handouts Homework

1.

1. Go back and finish any practice problems from class 2. Do the following problems from the book: pg 95 #1-8, For the following, 5 problems, just rewrite them in vertex form and graph them please: 16, 19, 21, 24, 25. 3. Do the extra problems attached to this lesson

Activity Go over homework Instruction point 1: Standard form of a parabola and completing the square 1. So if the first polynomial was a linear function, which polynomial do you think we should study next? 2. Quadratics are considerably more complicated than linear functions and in pre-calc, were going to study them deeply and systematically. Bear with me if you know some of this already. I guarantee were going to go over stuff you havent learned before. 3. Quadratics have the form ( ) . Theres a problem with this form, however. It doesnt really give us any hints of how to graph the parabola. This form is called standard form and its pretty useless. Forget it for a second and were going to analyze a parabola from scratch. 4. Go through problem 3 with them discussing how to shift the parabola around. 5. Then do problem 4 where they essentially write the equation of a parabola in vertex form. ( ) 6. Explain that vertex form is the form ( ) and its useful because it shows us how the parabola has been shifted and stretched so that we can easily graph it. Specifically, ( ) is the vertex of the parabola. 7. Have them keep working through the worksheet where they practice simple completing the squares examples. Once they get to the part where it asks them why is it called completing the square start working the following examples with them. a. Ex 1: So lets say we have something like this: ( ) . i.) Step 1: Look just at the and put parentheses around it. Determine what needs to be added to complete the square A: 9. ii.) Step 2: Take ( ) ( ) and add a 9 right after the +6x in the parentheses. iii.) Step 3: Is it ok in algebra for me to just add 9 on? How should we balance this 9 we just added on? Add 9 to the other side so we get ( ) ( )

( ) iv.) Step 4: Factor whats in the parentheses: ( ) v.) Step 5: Subtract 9 from both sides to get ( ) by itself. b. Have them try a few of their own. c. Ex 2: ( ) and we want to rewrite this in the form: ( ) ( ) . i.) Step 1: Put parentheses around just the terms with xs- around the . ) ii.) Step 2: Factor the out of both terms to get: ( . iii.) Step 3: determine what number needs to be added on the inside of the parentheses to complete the square. A: 4. ) iv.) Step 4: Add this inside the parentheses to get ( v.) Step 5: Is it ok to just add something random on? What number do we need to add to the other side to balance it out? A: 8. vi.) Step 6: Subtract the 8 over to get ( ) by itself and youre done. 8. We need to discuss how to graph parabolas from vertex form. a. Step 1: First thing is to plot the vertex on the coordinate grid. b. Step 2: Write out the table for the parent parabola ( ) -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 9 4 1 0 1 4 9 c. Step 3: a. if there is no coefficient in front of the ( ) term, just count these points out from the vertex (i.e. put your pencil on the vertex and go right one up one and put a point there. Then go left one up one and put a point there. Go back to the vertex and go right 2 up 4 and put a point there. Go back to the vertex and go left 2 up 4 and put a point there. Etc.) ) term: Use that number and multiply b. If there is a coefficient in front of the ( all the y values in the table by it. Then plot out the points as we did before. 9. Go through some examples: ) a. Ex 1: ( ) ( ) b. Ex 2: ( ) ( ( ) ( ) c. Ex 3: ( ) d. Ex 4: ( )

Pre-calculus Lesson 7

Name:__________________ Date:_________

1. Standard form of a quadratic: 2. Its useless because: 3. Take a look at the function ( ) new function. b. What would I do the equation of f(x) to produce this shift? c. Move the original function to the right by 2 units and sketch the new function. d. What would I do to the equation of f(x) to produce this shift? e. Stretch the function by a factor of 2 (use the same input, figure out what the y output is for that input, then multiply the y output by 2.) Sketch the new function. pictured below.

f. What would I need to do to the equation of f(x) to produce this stretch? g. In general, what do I need to do to the function ( ) to move it up or down?

i.

to stretch it?

4. Lets consider a new function g(x). It used to be ( ) the vertex is at (-2,-5). a. How has it been shifted?

b. Thinking about parts g and h from above, how should you write the equation of this new, shifted parabola (do not FOIL)? 5. Define and explain vertex form:

6. The tricky part is getting it into this form. Parabolas are normally written like this: ( ) , not like this: ( ) ( ) . So how do we move between the two forms? Notice how vertex form has an (

a. ( ) b. (

) c. ( ) d. ( )

look at how a binomial squared behaves. FOIL out the following binomials.

e. Focus on the number h in the parentheses before you squared it. Look at that number carefully, then compare it to the linear term (number times x) in your answer. Whats the relationship?

f. Focus on the number h in the parentheses before you squared it. Look at that number carefully, then compare it to the constant term (the number by itself). Whats the relationship?

g. If you had the answer to a binomial squared problem, we should be able to go backwards quickly to find out what binomial was squared to create it using what you just figured out. What binomial squared produced the following trinomial: ?

7. Suppose I dont have all the terms in a trinomial, so going backwards becomes a little harder. Take a look at the following problems. What number needs to be added to create a trinomial that was the result of a binomial squared? What was this binomial squared? Make sure to check your answers by FOILing out the binomial squared. a. ( ) d. ( )

b.

e.

c.

f.

8. This process is called completing the square. Why do you think its called that?

9. Putting it all together: Now we get to a trickier part. We want to take the equation of a parabola and rewrite it in vertex form. So lets say we have something like this: ( ) . a. Step 1:

b. Step 2:

c. Step 3:

d. Step 4:

e. Step 5:

10. Some practice: Use the technique from above in the following problems to rewrite the equations of parabolas in vertex form. Then explain how the parabola has been shifted. a.

( )

c.

( )

e.

( )

b. ( )

11. When theres a stretch it gets even trickier. Lets work an example together. We have the function ( ) and we want to rewrite this in the form: ( ) ( ) a. Step 1:

b. Step 2:

c. Step 3:

d. Step 4:

e. Step 5:

f. Step 6:

12. Practice: Take the steps from above and rewrite the quadratics below in vertex form. Explain how the parabolas have been shifted and stretched. a. ( ) c. ( ) e. ( )

d.

( )

13. Vertex Form is SUPER useful. There are two uses youll learn about in the homework, theres one awesome use well talk about in our next class (it has to do with roots) and perhaps the most magical use is how easy it makes graphing parabolas. There are just 3 easy steps to remember. a. Step 1: b. Step 2:

d. Ex 1: ( )

f. Ex 3: ( )

e. Ex 2: ( )

g. Ex 4: ( )

Pre-calculus Lesson 7

Name:_______________ Date:_________

4. Go back and finish any practice problems from class 5. Do the following problems from the book: pg 95 #1-8, For the following, 5 problems, just rewrite them in vertex form and graph them please: 16, 19, 21, 24, 25. 6. So now that you know the vertex form of a parabola is ( ) ( ) and that (h,k)

is the vertex, we can use what you just figured out about rewriting a parabola in vertex form in two ways. First of all, we can use it to find the equation of an unknown parabola if we have the coordinates of the vertex and one point on the parabola. a. Suppose we know that a parabola has the vertex (-2, 5) and passes through the point (0,9). First, plug the coordinates of the vertex into ( ) ( ) for h and k.

d. Finally, put it back into vertex form with the correct a, h and k substituted in.

7.

Use this process to find the equations of the parabolas that have the following vertices and pass through the indicated points. a. Vertex: (4, -1); Point: (2,3)

8. The second application we for which completing the square is useful is finding the maximum or minimum values of the parabola. Because the vertex is where the maximum or minimum value occurs, all you need to do to find a maximum or minimum is to find the y coordinate of the vertex of the parabola. a. The height (in feet) of a ball thrown by a child is given by . What is the maximum height the ball reaches?

9. A farmer has 100 feet of fencing to pen in his cows. He wants to enclose the maximum amount of fencing possible so that his cows have plenty of grass to eat. a. Write an equation relating y (the width of his rectangular pen,) x (the length of his pen) and the perimeter of the pen.

c. Solve the first equation for y and plug this expression into y for the second equation.

d. Find the maximum area possible of the pen by finding the vertex of this parabola.

e. Find the maximum possible area for a rectangular pen that has a perimeter of 36 feet.

f. What do you think the maximum area is for a pen that has a perimeter of P feet?

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