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H1 Physics

Measurements

Base quantity It is independent of other units.
Derived
quantity
It is expressed in terms of the product and/or quotient of the
base units.
Random errors
Errors of measurements in which the measured quantities stray
from the mean value with varying magnitudes and different signs.
Systematic
errors
Errors of measurements in which the measured quantities are
displaced from the true value by a certain magnitude and
constant sign.
Accuracy
Measure of how close the measured value (mean value for a set
of data) is to the true value. A highly accurate measurement has
a small systematic error.
Precision Measure of how close each measurement is with one another.
Scalar quantity Has magnitude but no direction.
Vector quantity Has both magnitude and direction.
Coplanar
vectors
Vectors that lie on the same plane.


SI Base Quantity
SI Base Unit
(Name)
SI Base Unit
(Symbol)
Mass kilogram kg
Time second s
Length metre m
Current ampere A
Temperature kelvin K
Amount of
substance
mole mol

Derived Quantity Derived Unit
Area m
2
Volume m
3

Velocity ms
-1
Acceleration ms
-2
Force kgms
-2
or N
Work Nm or kgm
2
s
-2

Power Prefix Abbreviation Power Prefix Abbreviation
10
-15
femto- f 10
-1
deci- d
10
-12
pico- p 10
3
kilo- k
10
-9
nano- n 10
6
mega- M
10
-6
micro- 10
9
giga- G
10
-3
milli- m 10
12
tera- T
10
-2
centi- c


Absolute, fractional and percentage errors
The absolute, fractional and percentage errors of a quantity xAx are given by:

Ax
x
,

Ax
x
,

Ax
x
x 100%

Sum and difference

r = x y Ar = Ax +Ay

Product and quotient

r = xy or

r =
x
y

Ar
r
=
Ax
x
+
Ay
y

or

Ar
r
x 100% =

Ax
x
x 100% +

Ay
y
x 100%

Exponential

r = x
n

Ar
r
= n
Ax
x

or

Ar
r
x 100% =

n
Ax
x
x 100%

Kinematics

Displacement
It is the length and direction of the straight line drawn from the
initial position to the final position of the particle.
Speed It is the rate of change of distance travelled.
Velocity It is the rate of change of displacement.
Acceleration It is the rate of change of velocity.

-

v = u+at

-

s = ut +
1
2
at
2


-

v
2
= u
2
+2as
Dynamics

Newtons First
Law
States that a body will remain at rest or continue to move with
constant velocity unless acted upon by a net external force.
Newtons
Second Law
States that the rate of change of momentum of a body is
proportional to the net external force acting on the body and
takes place in the direction of the force.
Newtons Third
Law
States that the forces of action and reaction between
interacting bodies are equal in magnitude but opposite in
direction are of the same type and act on different bodies.
Mass
Measure of the quantity of matter of a body. It is a property of a
body, which resists change in motion.
Weight
It is the attractive force exerted on the object by the Earth.
W=mg (Units: Newton - N)
(Linear)
Momentum
It is the product of its mass and velocity.
p=mv (Units: kg m s
-1
or N s)
Impulse
It is the change in linear momentum of the body.
Ap=(p
final
-p
initial
)=(F
net
)(At)
Force (net
external)
It is the rate of change of momentum of a body.
F
net
=ma (Units: Newton - N)
Principle of
conservation of
momentum
States that the total momentum in a system remains constant if
the net external force acting on the system is zero.
Elastic Collision
Between two interacting bodies in a system causes the total
kinetic energy of the system to remain constant.

-

w = mg

-

p = mv

-

Ap = ( p
final
p
initial
) = F
net
(At)

-

F
net
= ma

- Conservation of momentum: total p
initial
= total p
final



m
x
u
x
+ m
y
u
y
= m
x
v
x
+ m
y
v
y


- Conservation of kinetic energy: total KE
initial
= total KE
final



u
1
u
2
=v
2
v
1

Forces

Force It is a push or pull due to interaction between objects, which
produces or tends to produce motion; stops or tends to stop
motion.
(Units: Newton - N)
Normal Force It is the support force exerted upon an object, which is in
contact with another stable object. The normal force is always
perpendicular to the surface.
Frictional Force It is the force exerted by a surface as an object moves across it
or makes an effort to move across it. The friction force is
parallel to the surface and opposes the motion of the object.
Viscosity It is the property of a fluid, which tends to resist relative motion
within itself as one layer of fluid moves past another.
Viscous Force It is opposite to the motion of object relative to the fluid. It is
dependent of the speed of the object. It also depends on the
fluid involved.
Upthrust It arises from the pressure, which a fluid exerts, on an object.
Pressure It is defined as force per unit area.
(Units: Pascal - Pa or N m
-2
)
Static fluid
pressure
It is the pressure exerted by a static fluid, which depends only
upon the depth of the fluid, the density and the acceleration of
free fall.
Hookess Law It states that the amount by which a material body is deformed is
linearly related to the force causing the deformation, if the limit
of proportionality is not exceeded.
Centre of
Gravity
Centre of gravity of an object is the point through which the
entire weight of a body acts.
Moment Moment of a force about a pivot is the product of the applied
force and the perpendicular distance between the line of action
of the force and the pivot.
Couple A couple is defined as a pair of equal but oppositely directed
parallel forces, whose lines of action do not coincide.
Torque The turning moment of a couple is called a torque.
Translational
equilibrium
It is the vector sum of all the forces acting on the body equals
zero.

F = 0


Rotational
equilibrium
It is the vector sum of all torques acting about any point equals
zero.

t = 0



- Pressure

=
Force
Mass
= hg
-

F = kx
- Elastic Potential Energy =

1
2
kx
2

- Moment

= F(dsinu)
- Torque =

Fd
Work, Energy & Power

Work Done
The work done on a moving body is the product of the force
acting on the body and the displacement of the body in the same
direction as the force.
Work-Energy
Theorem
The work done on a rigid body by the resultant force is always
equal to the change in kinetic energy of the body.
Potential Energy
Potential energy is the energy possessed by a mass by virtue of its
position or shape.
Gravitational
Potential Energy
Gravitational PE is the energy possessed by a mass by virtue of its
position in a gravitational field.
Elastic Potential
Energy
Strain energy is the energy stored in a mass based on the degree
of elastic deformation (the amount of compression or extension).
Electric
Potential Energy
Electric PE is the energy possessed by an electric charge by
virtue of its position in an electric field due to forces of
attraction and repulsion between electric charges.
Principle of
Conservation of
Energy
The principle of conservation of energy states that the total
energy of an isolated system is constant. Energy cannot be
created or destroyed, up may be transformed from one form to
another.
Power Power is defined as rate of word done.