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GENERAL LINGUISTIC ANNISYA NOOR BAHAR ENGLISH DEPARTMENT UNIVERSITAS MUHAMMADIYAH YOGYAKARTA 2010/2011

INTRODUCTION General linguistic . in this paper all abaout general linguistic will be explain and explore to undersatnding abaout what is a language, uniqely language users, fourth part of grammar,phonology,phonologu rule, morphology, syntatic rules, semantic, semantic follow syntax. This paper perhaps can be modul or guide to develop grammertical also understanding to pronounce it , know the specific about phonology rules and how to comunnicated. And language proccesing to babies and children. Based on some references.

WHAT IS A LANGUAGE? Language is a tool for communications with our fellow beings not just human beings, and but all living creatures as well as discussa important tool to communicate with each other. Language is also not only incurred by mouth alone but facial expressions and body language also includes a communication tool. According Keraf in Smarapradhipa (2005:1), providing twolanguage understanding. The first notion of language as statedmeans of communication between members of the public in the form of a symbol of the sound produced by means of said human.Second, language is a communication system that uses symbolsvocal (speech sound) which are arbitrary. Another case in Stiawan according to Owen (2006:1), describesthe language definition language can be defined as a sociallyshared Those combinations of symbols and rule governed Thosecombinations of sy mbols (language can be defined as a socially acceptable code or conventional system for delivering conceptsthrough the use of symbols and combinations of the desiredsymbols are governed by the provisions).

4 PART OF GRAMMAR PHONOLOGY Definition:

The branch of linguistics concerned with the study of speech sounds with reference to their distribution and patterning. Adjective: phonological. A linguist who specializes in phonology is known as a phonologist. "[P]honology is not only about phonemes and allophones. Phonology also concerns itself with the principles governing the phoneme systems--that is, with what sounds languages 'like' to have, which sets of sounds are most common (and why) and which are rare (and also why). It turns out that there are prototype-based explanations for why the phoneme system of the languages of the world have the sounds that they do, with physiological/acoustic/perceptual explanations for the preference for some sounds over others."

PHONOLOGICAL RULES Phonological Rules noun Linguistics . an operation in generative phonology that substitutes onesound or class of sounds for another in a phonological derivation. An underlying assumption we are making: 1. Derivations and underlying representations: a. A systematic modification of stored representations assembled into larger constituents undergoes systematic modification via a class of mental operations. b. An underlying or phonological representation will contain all and only the unpredictable (distinctive feature) information for each lexical item. c. Predictable features of pronunciation are added to the underlying phonological representation by grammatical rules and principles.

d. These rules operate on the basis of the information in the lexical items phonological representation on an underlying form and the context in which it is located. 2. Phonological Rules are of two types: a. Allophonic rules: fill in qualities of pronunciation that are absent in the lexical forms of morphemes but are required by their circumstances in speech, like the aspiration of word-initial /k/ in coats and the rounding of the word-initial /r/ of rules. English stop aspiration: Rule 1: Voiceless stops are aspirated when in initial stressed syllables Rule 2: Nouns, main verbs, adjectives and adverbs have at least one stressed vowel. b. Morphemic rules: also known as morphonemic rules and morphophonological rules change or choose between meaningful qualities given as part of the lexical entries of morphemes, as where voicing of the /z/ of the plural suffix is replaced by voiclessness, giving /s/, in words like /kots/ coats and /saks/ socks.

MORPHOLOGY

Morphology is the identification analysis and description of the structure of morphemes and other units of meaning in a language like words, affixes, and parts of speech and intonation/stress, implied context. Morphological typology represents a way of classifying languages according to the ways by which morphemes are used in a language.

While words are generally accepted as being the smallest units of syntax, it is clear that in most languages, if not all, words can be related to other words by rules (grammars).

The rules understood by the speaker reflect specific patterns, or regularities, in the way words are formed from smaller units and how those smaller units interact in speech. Morphology is the branch of linguistics that studies patterns of word formation within and across languages, and attempts to formulate rules that model the knowledge of the speakers of those languages.

SEMANTIC

Semantic is emantic analysis is the process of relating syntactic structures, from the levels of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole, to their language-independent meanings. It also involves removing features specific to particular linguistic and cultural contexts, to the extent that such a project is possible. The elements of idiom and figurative speech, being cultural, are often also converted into relatively invariant meanings in semantic analysis.

According to Ferdinand de Saussure (1966), Linguistic signconsisting of:

The components are replaced, in the form of the sounds of language. 2) Components are defined or the meaning ofthe first komopnen.

Kedua komponen ini adalah tanda atau lambang, dansedangkan yang ditandai ataudilambangkan adaah sesuatu yang berada di luar bahasa, atau yang lazim disebut sebagai referent/ acuan / hal yang ditunjuk. Jadi, Ilmu Semantik adalah : Ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan antara tanda-tanda linguistik dengan halhal yang ditandainya. Ilmu tentang makna atau arti

Type Semantics Semantics has to have meaning within the overallobject of study semantika language, but not all levels of language has a semantics problem. It can be seen from the

following chart:function (o semantics) grammar (grammar) The role of syntacticcategory of grammatical morphology phonology semantics (asemantics), but each to distinguish phonemes (phonemic)Phonetic meaning (semantics o) Lexicon lexical semantic

SYNTAX

(1) In linguistics, the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar.

(2) The arrangement of words in a sentence. Adjective: syntactic.

"Syntax is the study of the principles and processes by which sentences are constructed in particular languages. Syntactic investigation of a given language has as its goal the construction of a grammar that can be viewed as a device of some sort for producing the sentences of the language under analysis."

Syntax is how a sentence is worded and structured. It consists of the type of sentence (Declarative, Interrogative, Exclamatory, Imperative) and word order (passive vs. active voice) It also refers to length of sentences (short vs. long).

Syntax can be used as a literary device to add extra meaning to your sentences, whereas grammar adds no greater meaning to your sentences.

Syntax would refer to the sentence being declarative: stating a wish that the boy had. It would also refer to the length of the sentence mimicking the long twisted paths in the mountain and the long time the boy had been wishing to walk them.

"Would you convey my compliments to the purist who reads your proofs and tell him or her that I write in a sort of broken-down patois which is something like the way a Swiss waiter talks, and that when I split an infinitive, damn it, I split it so it will stay split, and when I interrupt the velvety smoothness of my more or less literate syntax with a few sudden words of bar-room vernacular, that is done with the eyes wide open and the mind relaxed but attentive."(Raymond Chandler)

GRAMMAR

Grammar would refer to not splitting the infinitive: "to walk slowly" rather than "to slowly walk" and subject-verb agreement.

Grammar consists of set rules regarding language and sentence structure, such as no splitting infinitives and no hanging prepositions.

Kinds of grammar.

prescriptive descriptive transformational-generativ

REFERENCES (Geoffrey S. Nathan, Phonology: A Cognitive Grammar Introduction. John Benjamins, 2008)

(Noam Chomsky, Syntactic Structures, 1971)

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