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Bo co Anten PIFA 4/5/2012 L S An. in t 7. K54 I./Tm hiu chung v anten PIFA 1.

Cu to Cu to ca loi anten ny c miu t ging nh hnh sau:

Hnh 1.1: Anten Pifa

Bn trn l mt ming Patch mng, phng. Ming Patch ny l thnh phn bc x ch yu ca anten. Ming Patch c ghim xung mt mt phng ni t (Ground Plane) bi mt phin mng c rng Ws c gi l Short plate. Mt phin na vi tn gi Feed plate c dng tip in cho anten. V tr t Short Plate v Feed Plate c nh hng nht nh n tn s cng hng ca anten.

2. M hnh in C th coi phn ngn mch ging nh in cm song song vi Ground, cn phn h mch bn tri c th coi nh nhng in dung. Khong cch t ming Feed n Short Pin xc nh in cm, tng ng vi n, khong cch t ming Feed n cnh ca Patch xc nh in dung.

Hnh 2.1: M hnh in

Nhng in cm v in dung ny to thnh mch dao ng LC dao ng vi tn s f no . iu chnh v tr feed, kch thc ca patch c th cho ta c tn s cng hng mong mun.

3. u/nhc im Anten PIFA thng c s dng lm anten cho cc thit b di ng. L do l v n c cc u im sau: -

D dng n pha trong khung ca thit b di ng. Gim c bc x ngc v pha u ca ngi s dng, gim thiu c s hp thu sng in t, qua nng cao hiu sut cho anten. tng ch theo hai hng phn cc ngang v dc u mc chp nhn c. iu ny ht sc hu ch trong mt vi h thng thng tin, ni m nh hng ca anten pht l khng c nh cng nh c s phn x gc, cnh ca cc thnh phn trong mi trng.

Tuy nhin, bng thng hp l nhc im ca loi anten ny. Vic t Feed Plate v Short Plate l mt cch rt tt gim thiu kch thc anten, nhng i cng vi n l gim bng thng.

4. Cch tng bng thng cho anten.

Qua nhiu th nghim o c c t trc, chng ta c th rt ra mt s phng php lm tng bng thng ca loi anten ny.
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Bng thng anten b nh hng rt ln bi kch thc ca tm Ground Plane. Vic thay i kch thc ca Ground Plane s lm bng thng ca anten b thay i theo. Thng th gim kch thc tm Ground Plane c th gip m rng bng thng ca h thng anten loi ny. thay i c tnh kt cu, qua tng bng thng, ngi ta thng to 1 vi khe, rnh cnh ca Ground Plane (Hnh 2).

Hnh 4.1: Cc Slot trn mt phng Gound Plane

Ground hnh L Thay v s dng 1 mt phn Ground, ta c th s dng Ground hnh L. Hnh dng ny gip lm gim bc x ngc v tng tng ch ca anten.

Ground hnh L

Ground thng

Mt ming Ground dc c thm vo, qua tng hiu sut ca anten. Hn na, cng v c ming Ground dc, ng feed v short c th cng trn mt mt phng bc x (Patch) hoc vung gc nh thng thng. Ming Patch lun c t gn Ground dc gim chiu di ca feed ng trc, d dng phi hp tr khng tng bng thng. ti u vic phi hp tr khng, khong cch d gia shorting Pin v Feed thng nm tng khong 0.75-2mm. Gi s ta c mt mu PIFA antenna vi cc thng s nh trn hnh. Tc ng ca vic thay i L, W n bng thng s c th hin qua cc hnh di y:

S dng cc b cng hng k sinh vi tn s cng hng chnh. Kch thch a mode S dng Stack elements

5. Tnh ton l thuyt anten.

L+H Ws+h=/4 (4.1)

Vi L v h l chiu di v rng ca ming Patch. Ws l b rng phin Short Plate. h l khong cch gia ming Patch v mt phng Ground Plane. Tnh c ta d dng tnh c tn s cng hng f ca anten. Tuy nhin, theo nhiu ti liu, cng thc trn ch l cng thc theo l thuyt. Vic p dng n vo thc t gy ra sai s kh ng k. D dng so snh, kh nhiu i lng hnh 1.1 khng xut hin cng thc 4.1, nhng theo thc nghim, nhng thng s u nh hng t nhiu n tn s cng hng. Chng hn nh: -Tng h, L, W lm gim tn s cng hng. -Tng Ws, Lb, Ls lm tng tn s cng hng. Cng thc tng qut bao gm cc yu t trn l:

f = c/(3W+5.6L+3.7h-3Wf - 3.7Ws 4.3Lb 2.5Ls)

Tuy nhin, cng thc trn vn ch l cng thc c c do thc nghim v vn c sai s nht nh. Vic tnh ton anten vn cn phi c s chnh sa t ngi thc hin c c kt qu nh mong mun.

6. Phi hp tr khng. Phi hp tr khng i vi anten PIFA c thc hin bng cch xc nh v tr t ca Feed Plate v Short Plate v ti u ha khng gian gia chng. iu ct li khi thit k anten PIFA l khng dng thm bt k mt thnh phn ph no phi ghp mng, v vy trnh c nhng tn tht khng ng c.

7. a bng. a bng y c hiu l anten cng hng khng ch mt m mt vi tn s. Trong thc t hin nay, gn nh tt c cc loi anten c s dng u c th chy trn nhiu bng tn khc nhau. i vi anten PIFA dual-band, c 2 phng php chnh thit k: Dng 2 ming Patch ring r to ra 2 tn s cng hng khc nhau. 2 ming Patch ny s c ng Short v Feed ring r.

Hin ti, phng php ny t c s dng do c cu to phc tp hn loi di y. Ch s dng mt ming Patch nhng s dng cc rnh trn ming Patch :

S dng 2 ng cng hng khc nhau to ra 2 ch cng hng ring l. Cc cng ngh thit k trong trng hp ny l:

: S dng rnh L Rnh c khot t bin vo, c tc dng chia ming Patch thnh 2 thnh phn con. Rnh c to ra sao cho 2 thnh phn con ny s c 2 tn s cng hng khc nhau ging vi tn s m mnh mong mun.

: chip-inductor loading

: folded slit Trng hp ny cng tng t nh trng hp s dng rnh L. 2 thnh phn con c to ra cng hng 2 tn s khc nhau. Tuy nhin, tm subpatch b, tnh t im feed, m rng vo phn trung tm, b bao bc bi mt phn ca tm subpatch ln. Do , tm subpatch b (cng hng tn s cao hn) s c u im trong vic gim thiu bc x ngc, dn n gim sng in t hp thu vo u ca ngi s dng/

: S dng rnh ch U Anten s dao ng 2 tn s tng ng vi 2 ming patch c kch c (L1, W1) v (L2,W2). f1 c/4(L1+W1)

f2 c/4(L2+W2)

: b cng hng LC

Cc phng php ny s chia ming Patch bc x thnh 2 ming patch con vi kch c khc nhau, cng hng cc tn s khc nhau.

S dng 2 tn s cng hng u tin ca mt ng cng hng n to ra dual-band. Cc cng ngh thit k trong trng hp ny l:

: S dng mt khe phn nhnh lm tng di ca ng cng hng Nhnh chnh (Main slit) cng vi nhnh r di hn (Branch slit 1) l thnh phn ch yu un cong dng in mt kch thch. Mt khc, nhnh r ngn (Branch slit 2) l yu t chnh nng cao phi hp tr khng, lm tng bng thng.Chiu di ca nhnh r ngn phi nh hn nhiu chiu di ca nhnh r di. im Feed v im Short phi c t gn nhau v phi cnh ca ming patch gn nhnh r ngn.

: thm mt vi rnh thng lm ming Patch thnh gp khc.

: s dng di xon c vi b rng khc nhau

:gp np ming Patch Ming Patch c t trn mt lp in mi FR4. 2 rnh c ct vo to gp khc cho dng in mt kch thch. Tng di hiu dng ca dng in mt kch thch c th ln hn rt nhiu so vi chiu di vt l ca ming FR4. T lm gim yu cu v chiu di ca anten. Bin i t s mt ct (L/W), t l tn s ca 2 tn s cng hng u tin cng s c m rng hn

8. Tip in cho anten Vi Single-Band, cc phng php tip in sau thng c s dng:

: Ghp khe

: Dng Probe ng trc

: Dng ng truyn vi di

:Coplanar probe feed

9. Anten WLAN.

Nhn chung c 2 kiu anten c quan tm cho h thng WLAN, mt l cho nhng trm WLAN c nh, hai l cho cc thit b di ng u cui. i vi loi anten cho cc trm pht WLAN, phi c s phi hp tr khng sao cho VSWR khong 1.5:1 hay ReturnLoss xp x 14dB.

Trc y, loi anten ny thng s dng 2 ng feed, lm tng tnh phc tp ca anten. Gi y, phng php s dng 1 ng feed c pht trin, v d nh dng Coplanar probe feed.

II./ Thit k ch to anten PIFA dual band 900MHz v 2.3GHz

1. Phng php la chn Phng php la chn: Ch s dng mt ming Patch nhng s dng cc rnh trn ming Patch . L do: Ti u ha din tch. Hin nay y cng l phng php chnh dng thit k anten cho cc thit b khng dy. Trong phng php ny, li c chia tip thnh 2 phng php:
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1. S dng 2 ng cng hng khc nhau to ra 2 ch cng hng ring l. 2. S dng 2 tn s cng hng u tin ca mt ng cng hng n to ra dual-band. Tuy nhin phng n 1 c la chn, c th y l vic s dng rnh ch U. L do ca vic la chn phng php ny l do phng n 2 cha c cng thc c th tnh ton 2 tn s cng hng u tin, vic s rnh anten theo cch ny cng cha c 1 hng dn c th no. Vi phng php 2 v c th l s dng rnh ch U, cng thc tnh tn s cng hng ca tng ming Patch bit, do d dng cho vic tnh ton c tn s cng hng, thch hp cho ngi mi lm quen v anten PIFA. Tt nhin, phng n 1 thng ch thch hp cho dual band. Khi yu cu nhiu band hn, phng n 1 t r nhc im so vi phng n 2.

2. Kim tra cng thc

kim chng s ng n ca cng thc, em thit k 1 anten PIFA dng c bn (cha s rnh ch U) vi cc kch thc sau: (n v:mm).

Hnh 2.1: Hnh nh m phng trong file 1.cst Ming Patch c kch thc L1xW1=46x44. Dy 0.1. Chiu cao h =10 Substrate: S dng FR4 c hng s in mi 4,4. B dy 0.8 Ming Short c b rng Ws=17mm. Dy 0.1mm V tr feed t chnh gia 1 cnh ca ming Patch nh hnh v. Tnh ton l thuyt: p dng cng thc: L+H Ws=/4 . Thay bng cc gi tr c th nh trn tnh c: f0.9Ghz Kt qu m phng:

Hnh 2.2: Kt qu m phng S1,1 trong file 1.cst Nhn xt: Cng thc tnh ton l thuyt cho ra kt qu gn ng. Nhn chung bng thng cn hp. 3. Thay i cc thng s Th thay i rng Ws ca ming Short xem s thay i:

Hnh 3.1: S1,1 thay i vi cc gi tr khc nhau ca Ws trong file 1.cst


Nhn xt: T cng thc cng nh t hnh v trn c th thy tng Ws lm gim di bc sng, dn n tn s cng hng gim. Vi m hnh trn, Ws=17 cho kt qu S1,1 tt nht.

iu ny cng kim chng cho l thuyt: Phi hp tr khng i vi anten PIFA c

thc hin bng cch xc nh v tr t ca Feed Plate v Short Plate v ti u ha khng gian gia chng.
kim chng li l thuyt trn 1 ln na, v tr feed c thay i sang gc nh hnh v:

Hnh 3.2: M phng anten trong file 2.cst Kt qu m phng:

Hnh 3.3: Kt qu m phng S1,1 trong file 2.cst

Nhn xt: R rng S1,1 su nht vn ch t -15.06dB tn s 0.957GHz. Kt qu ny km hn kt qu Hnh 2.

4. To dual band S rnh to dual band. M hnh c th hin nh hnh di y:

Hnh 4.1: M hnh anten PIFA rnh U trong file 3.cst Vn gp phi: Khng bit ly gi tr Ws i vi ming SubPatch bn trong l bao nhiu p dng vo cng thc tnh gi tr tn s cng hng. Th vi cc gi tr sau: (n v:mm) L2=21 cho n L2=25 W2=13. Nh bit, tm Patch ln c nhim v cng hng tn s 900MHz. Kvc nhy cm tn s 900MHz i vi ming Patch ln ny l cnh. Do c th suy on vic khot rnh trung tm ming Patch to SubPatch cng hng tn s 2,3GHz s khng gy nh hng hoc nh hng mc nh vi vic cng hng tn s 900MHz.

Hnh 4.2: S1,1 i vi chiu di L2 ca subpatch thay i

Nhn xt: So snh gia hnh 2.2 v hnh 4.2 ta thy tn s 900MHz, S1,1 l ging nhau. iu ny khng nh suy on trn. khong tn s gn vi 2.3GHz, gi tr ca S1,1 cng trng xung tuy nhin khng ng k. Kt qu ny l do tn s 2.3GHz cha c phi hp tr khng. 5. Kt qu hin ti

Hnh 5.1: S1,1 vi kt qu hin ti v chi tit 2 tn s 900MHz v 2.3GHz