Está en la página 1de 14

MICROFICHE REFERENCE LIBRARY

A project of Volunteers in Asia

Cookstove Construction by: Roberto Lou Ma

bv the Terra-CRTA Method

Published by: Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada 15 Avenida 14-61, Zona 10 Guatemala City Guatemala Paper copies are $ 2.00.

Available from: Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada 15 Avenida 14-61, Zona 10 Guatemala City Guatemala Reproduced by permission of the Centro de Experimentation en Technologia Apropiada. Reproduction of this microfiche document in any form is subject to the same restrictions as those of the original document.

roberto

lou

ma

** * .* . ,. . 1 .., * * A(?, .,. .. . .. . i . I A .. .

roberto

IOU

ma

cookstovti THE TE

cohstrucztion

by

Cl3A
15 AVENIDA14-61, ZONA10
GUATEMALA,C~TRALAMERICA

CENI-RO EF'ERIMENTACION 7ECNOLOGIA DE EN APROPIADA

I.-

INTRODVCl'ION

To be effective, a fuel conservation program must promote, among other matters, the generalized adoption of improved cookstoves by people for which fuelwood is the main domestic energetic source. One severe limitation of most existing cookstove designs is that they cannot be readily and cheaply ,produced in quantities suitable for ample dissemination. to this problem, a simplified system of stove I tion, using mass produced, low cost prefabricated components, designed assembly by the potential users, 'has been proposed elsewhere (Lou Ma, \ As a result of the continued efforts of the Centro de ExperimentaciGn As a possible solution construcfor self 1982). en Tecno-

1ogiIa Apropiada, CETA: a novel quick and simple procedure for the "in situ" construction of monolithic earthen cookstoves has also been developed, which shall be followingly presented with the name of TEHiYl-CETA an alternative as solution to the referred problem.

II.-

urn TERRA-CETA ijfi~R0~

The key element to th' proposed method is the use of a special dismountable f mold, fabricated from/metal or lumber. The mold consists of a rectangular frame, to which a number of cavity forming inserts are fastened, With reference to the enclosed drawings: ' A B C D E Frame Sides Frame Ends Duct Forming Insert Pothole Forming Insert Chimneyhole Forming Insert

Drawing 1 depicts the dismantled wooden mold. The mold is assembled as shown in Drawing 2, by means of bolts with wingnuts (in a simpler version, the frame is held together with four tie rods, instead of the four steel corner brackets shown in the drawings). The stove can be built earth, at floor level, or over an elevated base made of rammed

adobe, masonry or other material.

To form the stove body, the assembled

mold is filled thoroughly

with successive

layers

of damp earth

(clayey

soil),

each layer

Because the compaction is performed Consequently, at low moisture contents, very high densities can be attained. ,earth materials with high olay content can be used without the danger of cracks appearing on drying, and producing a very strong and durable mass. the cavity forming inserts are extracted. InUpon completion of the filling, sert C is pulled straight out 'as indicated by an arrow in Drawing 3, and inserts D and E are removed by combined rotating and pulling actions. To fa- '. cilitate their removal, the inserts are covered with paper prior to,filling the mold. Lastly, the frame is dismantled. The stove is completed by placing a baffle block (F) beneath the second pothole, 2 or 3 centimeters of the potpiece, or can be molded in place

compacted with a ramming tool,

in a manner to step up the duct floor to within bottom. The baffle block can be a prefabricated

from the same material used for the stove body. In the former case, the position of the baffle may be qdjusted along the duct for best performance. According to the described procedure, a stove can be built in less than one hour, not counting the time needed to prepare the earthea; material.

III.-

ADVANTAGES
the TERRA-CETAmethod are: and equipment are involved.

Advantages gained with

- Only cheap and simple materials - Simple labor required. - Short construction - Mass production - Production - Stronger time. is possible.

can be standardized. and more durable high clay content design. well with most rural households. materials can be used.

- Great flexibility - Stoves are visually IV. -

in regard with eppealing,

harmonizing

OTHER CONSTRVCTlON MATEXALS


relating construction materials are soil-cement, concrete,

Other possibilities

v. - PROTOTYPES
The first lowing

TERRA-C'ETA stove 'prototypes


characteristics material (dimensions

were-built in centimeters).

in August

1982, with

the fol-

- Building

Sandy clay 24 H 12 H Two 22 10 D Butterfly 300 L vaive at the chimney base 40 w 16 W 85 L

- Body dimensions - Duct cross section

- Number of potholes - Diameter - Chimney - Damper - Baffle block of potholes

Soil-cement 10 H 18 W

prefab 30 L

- Finish - Remarks

Lime whitewash The pots bottoms Laboratory water boiling sink bearing tests deeply into the stove body, their in

on the side walls and in actual cooking.

of the duct.

have shown good efficiency

VI.-

DESIGNINGSTOV!&
specifications the ,framework are only In doing illustrative, application. within efficiency, et al., it so, however, and may be'varied to suit care should be taken in keeping to be essential design, for identified to stove by CETA (Lou Ma, see De

The above given any specific the design high fuel 1982). Lepeleire

of requirements

considered

las have been experimentally and scientific approach 1981.

For a more rational

In any event, fined motion. laboratory

is recommended that of iperformance

the designs before

are finally intending

verified both any large

and rein the scale pro-

on the basis

observation

and measurements,

as in actual

use in the field,

4
VII. block

OTHER .EXPElUE&ES
applied to building for the basic the duct, earth potholes

The TERRA-CETA method has been successfully for the Lorena with design, including efficiency,and and chimney, been as well great economy in time.

the pilot

openings

constructed'for

Some experimental shielded fires have usefulness studies (See Drawing 6). ' tried by the Proyecto is consultant. de Estufas y Re-

The TERRA-CETA method is being Rurales, curses Representacidn HidrZulicos General de Mbxico,

at the present

en Puebla de la Secretarla,de to which the author

Agricultura

VIII. Further fabrication etc., A latest inserts Drawing

FURTHER DEVELQPMEm
development and use, will is being earth carried on by CETA, and a manual describing seiection, stove construction mold material produced. does without the cross Instead, bolts, time. and removed by pulling (D) and (El. To ease wire beto form a cylindifficulty, also members by which the referred' as indicated filling in procedures,

be eventually version

mold, of the TERRA-CETA inserts design (D) are fastened renders

means the pothole 5. This

to the frame. (C) with working space,

are mounted directly operations,

on the duct insert unobstructed reducing and thus

expediting

and compaction On completion them with removal, fore

construction are unbolted

of the stove body, jacking of light

the inserts first

a special a strip

device,

insert sheet

(C), iron with

then

gauge galvanized insert, lining

is.wraped

der around each pothole construction. leaving removed. tapering In addition sides. the sheet metal

and bound in place the insert the pothole. inside

a loop of light out without

T,hus, when pulled, For the same given

slides

This lining

is in turn

reason,

duct insert

(C) may have slightly

to the cylindrical

configuration, rounded,

pothole flared

forming or belled, built.

inserts to suit

of other needs.

shapes can be used, An all

such as tapered,

metal mold has been designed, account

and is now being prepared

A photographic and other

on CETA's work is being by CETA.

as a complement

to this

publications

.5
IX..
. Roberto Lou Ma (1982). de Experimentacibn en Tecl. BRIEF NOTES ON THE DESIGN.AND CONSTRUCTION-OFWOODBURNING COOKSTOVES,WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCETO THE CETA SYSTEM. Centro nologia Apropiada (CETA), Guatemala.

REFERENCES

G. De Lepeleire, Group, Eindhoven

K. Krishna University

Prasad,

P. Verhaart,

P. Visser,

(1981). Stove

A WOODSTOVE COMPENDIUM, 4.3 ON DESIGNING STOVES. The Woodburning of Technology, The Netherlands.

KM

Jw

82

r:

-,

1,;. *,a. . . . . . *. . . .: . .,

* .

,-

P L / , I* 4