Está en la página 1de 75

LA JURISPRUDENCIA DE LOS TRIBUNALES COMO FUENTE DEL DERECHO

UNA PERSPECTIVA PROCESAL


I

1:

'

,.

'_' -

-1

JURIDICA DE C H I L E

EDITORIAL

L JURISPRUDENCIA DE LOS TRIBUNALES A (;OMO FUENTE DEL DERECHO


(Uria perspectiva procesal)

Niiii:iiti.i I B , I I I C (1,. i ii.1 ~ > ~ i l .ICii ~ i iiiii l i i i i l t , ( - 1 i l i ii<, 1.1 < iil~ii.ii.i, ) i i ( . ( l ~ , ii.l)io(liii 1i1.1. , l ii . ~ <I<l \(.t .~IIII.I, ii.i<l.ii i i ~ . ~ ~ i ~ t i ii iii.iiii~i.i l . i i ~ i ~ i ~ ~ .ilg~iii.i 1"" iiiiigiiii iii~.rlio.t.1 \(..I <.I(.Ii t o , (IUI~IIIIO, iii ii l l l l . < ~ 1 1 1 0 , ~ ~ o, I l C gl:ll)'l( 1 0 1 1 0 (l<, l 0 1 0[)1;1, 5111 ~ ~ c l l l l[)l<YiO 1 ~ O II 1 l0 l ~ o <l<,l <~<lliOl.

LA JURISPRUDENCIA DE LOS TRIBUNALES COMO FUENTE DEL DERECHO


(UNA PERSPECTIVA PRC)(:ESAL)

EDITORIAL

JURIDICA
DE C H I L E

Fstt' 11 rtl~;ijoe4 e1 rc9iiltado firial del pr oye( to de irivestigcici6ii Foiiclccyt N" 1010712 del 2001, ''1,'~ j i i i ispt iidt'ric i,i <oirioliierite <le1elci e<Iio". (:,il)(. iri,iriilcsi,ii i r i i gi,itilii<lI ) C I I '1 ( 0 1 1 1,i IJriivcisitl,icl (le 104 Aii<lc\,c.11 c\1>c( ( o 1 1 sri I , i < i i 1 1 , ~ ~el<. 1)t.r t.< 110, iiri Iiig,ir cii (1011i,il I g01.u cle. i i r i , i r r i l ~ i c . r i i <gi 'ito ~ ) ~ ~i re1 cs~ii<lio(-1 di,i~ r y (le \c. p~ic(lc o (le Iogo .ic ,i<li.riiic A\iiiii\iiio ,igi ,i(lc/c o ,i 109 .111111iiios 104 1'1 ogr 'iill'l\ tl<, 1)0< t o r 'i<lO <.ir I)<.i c.< 110, de. I'i l l i i i v < ~li< l ' i < l <le.los \ (:,iitilic ,L tic, (:liilc, c111(' elc.Alidc.\ y ti<. 1'1 l'oiitili( i,i l J i i i v r ~ i \ i ( l , i < l 1)ic.i oii \o1>or1'11 los ( 111 so\ e.11 lo\ qii(-, ~11~1r\~i11(1o I ) ~ I (ic.11<1(- \ I I ( i'l, pll(lc~ c~x[~orlcl 'l\'ill( e, (le, 1'1 lllvcstlg'l( l ( 5 l l (lile ( l l l l l l i t l ' i C O I 1 el este l i l > i o. 1)t. r i i i i c Iio\ (Ir ello\ I (Y il>i i i i e - r C'4<111tC\ \irgc:<'i irl\ y c'11c . t p o r t." ~oiic\, c111c(Icritro ( 1 ~ ' 10 posil~lccst'iii i i i c oipoi <i(l<i\cri n t ' i vc-rsititi liii~il. (;oriictci 'i 111i'i i~ijiistic \ i 110 (o~isigii'ti cri e\lcl p~ii cl i'i 'i te rpisotlio qi1c rrie rrioti~ti i~iici~lt t r dt>djo.L',I~ npr ctntl,t 411'1 este ti\is: t ~ riii cdlidctd ( 1 ~ 'nl,og,itlo litig,iritc, ('11 i i r i n oc,-isi<jrisolic ii t i i i i n aildieiicin eri tiri jii7gndo civil de Snritingo pnrci explicni C al j11e7 10s nrgilriie~itos que, 1 r r i i jiiicio, deba corisitiernr eri l a ' cleci\iciri de i i r i iriciderite; eii csc rriisrno ncto, hice preserite que el escrito pertiricrite vrrid iespnldacto por abiiridnrite jiirispr-iicori deiit ia. Frriite a e4to filtirno el ~ri~igistrado, vo7 fiier te, es1xt6: "i<:olcp, a rri rric b,ist,i rrii < tidigo!". Kecoriozc o qiie eri i i i i III iiricr rriorrierito < ~ r i t . t i C [dejo freiite ,i triii c,itcgcricn re\pci pii<lst,i;(oii e1 111so (te los dns rrie di < iicrit,i cliic lo nwjor era p t \ ' i i el<% 1 c1.c ej>( 1' itiri ,i 1,i iricclitc~< .ic c.1 c r i del v'ilor de 1,i cxi0rl ( C ~ i t ic 'i 111 r o<I'trri'i (le1 r~i~igistr 'iclo.

I':sic* ii.;il);!jo iro i i ( . i i < s iii;is ~)i.(.i(.iisitii (111cinvit;u- ;i iiri;i i-(,llcxi(ii i l ( i ( * ( . o i i ~ i . i I ) ~ i y : i;I s~ip(>i.aii. a(~tiiiiti (lcs(1C1i( 1 1 1 ~ r i i i 1;l cit. i ( . 1 1 ; i \I-(.(Y scb tit.ri(. sol>i-ic.1 \ r ; i l o r - (1c 1;i ,jiirisr>r-iidr,ii<.i:i. Na<lic 1)ocli-i;i (.iicstioriar qiic el corr-ccto filiicioriarriiciito c l i csia liieiit(. dt.1 tlci.c.clio es c.st.iic.ial par-a el iricjor tlcscrripelio tle la fiiriciii jiii-ist1ic.c-ioriiil. Por ltiirio, eri el ao d e sii ceriteiiario qiiicro reiitlir i i r i hoiiieiiaje a la Krrii.\la (Lo f)~~.rc.ho 11 Juj-isfc,ru(l~n~c.in. aporte al saber Sii j~irdico riaciorial rrie obliga a 1 1 0 dejar pasar esta oportiinidacl.

se ~ (:oii la (.o(ii/i(,ac;(j~/ (llev ii riivel ( 1 (iog111:i qiic la1 jiii-ispr~itlciicia iio iiciie viiloi. coirio fiit-iiic (lil (Ic-i.i.clio. l ) i i i i i irio<lo gi-iidii;il, y poi- c1istiiit;is r.aioiics, t11 crcvbiii.i;i S<- tiai ido al~aiicloiiaiido e11 los aiialisis tc(jii(.os;cii S I I 111g;ii. (.olji~iicIo li;i vitla la pi~opiicst:i scgl11 la cll>ilc.1 cst11tIio (1C 1;) , j l ~ r i s ~ ) l ~ ~ l ( I ( ~ i is i111ai tcii15110 i c i ~ i tic.ir cx(.l~isiv;i los 11;isc.s (Icl r ~ o r r ~ r ~ In-icl.i tic. ~or 1;,1 c - ; i i i i l ~ i orlr*or.it~rit;ic-iii c.xl)li<.ar, sea cri1i.c oir-as fiizoiics, poi' t i a 1)ci-c-1ric.i-gi(lo itl(.;i qur o/ / ? r ( ~ r ( ~ / ~ ~ b (fi.ii6riiciio (x)riifiii a lo1;i 1111 ~ c s dos los or-rl(~ii;irriir.riiosicri(lcii(~iilrri<~iitc v iiiiitario. 'Iiiinl)ii.ri tia coiiti-i1)iiitlo 1;i siipc.i;ic-iii de la i-gitl;~ iritc.rprc-tac-ih 1 1 1 ~ ( <1ufiiiitciiiiiclio a secyiri la riciripo S<, ;isigii;il~;? la doctriria tlc sepiir;icitiii dc ~)odcrcs, (.ii;il la at.tivid;itl.jiiiistli(x.io~ial i i.cdiica i iiria piir-a liiriciii tit. (les c-lii-;-ir- (.1 der-cclio saricioriado prrviarricrite por el Icgislatlor. (:oiiio lo siiitctiza ~iiia ricicritc: riioriografia sohrc el tenia, "la ci(:ricia dcl del-eclio vierie ~riostraridoiiri crecierite iritei-6s por e1 p;ipel que las tlecisioriesjiidicialcs anteriores tierieri e11 la soIiicin de los casos fiitiiros. Tarito i s as qiie, en el kmbito de los sistenias eiiropeos dc dcrccho codificado, henios pasado cle hablar d e la jurisf~rucitn.rin los tirganos tle casacin a los f7rucc.de dni,lus; de posiciorics coiiio 'la jiirispriiclericia n o es filerite del tlcrectio', a 'tiay qilc terier cii ciieiita los ~~recederites', i-ecoiiocibridolc:~d e este rriodo cierta relcvaricia jil~.dica"~. razhri "],a

q u e c\t,i iri( orpor.i( i(n 11'1 \ti\( it,i(lo t.1 iiitcr6s d(. 1.1 ( ieiitiel ( 1 ~ 1 110 si' CIi( l i ~ ~ l t>Illllfl~i '11 ('Ii( (C 0111~>1C'll\l~l~t') ~ ( ~ ~ i ( ( l t b lo\ \istvril'i\ J I I I d i c o\ ( o i ~ t i i i e i i t ~ ~ l t * \cxi\i(>iiii~i no : te01~ s e ll(~r'11 d(>los 11e( tYleriti5, 't l'i rrl'irlt~l (le l'i / I O ~ ~ T / t / / /1P /(/ ]/17"L\ 1 ' i f~rudrrrr o (Iottr~ncrdr I o c f ) f ~ c c . ( l v n nriglos,ijoria. Poi e s o , /~c c iie\tiorics e\eiic inles t < ~ l cc\01110 por (11i. \ e tleberi torrinr cii ciieritn los p r c ~ e d e r i t e \ ? <crrio se deberi iitiliiar en el ra7orino rriicnto del j i l e ~ coritiriental? quetiaii sir1 i e s y > i ~ c \ t a " ~ . Desde el plinto de vi\ta cr)ri\titiiciorial, la exten\in clel priric ipio de igual(1,id h,i obligado n perfccciori,ir los iiistr iiiiieritoj jiir tlico5 p,irn gnr,iriti/,zi, cie iiri niotlo <,cc i v o , 1,i r cgl,i_tle clet rric;nt~il jli\ii( id qlic e-xigr ti'~t'ir clc, ig11'11 o i iii'i '1 1 f :' \ i t ~ i ~ i c i o n c ~ \
1)oi I,i

lo, 110 4(

(1.11.1

CI d

( , X ( lll\l\'llll(~lll~~\ti t.11

( 1 ~ '~ I ) I ( ~ I I ( * 1111 ie\1)(*1o 104 1 ) i c (~1(~111(~\ I '1 ~ fi111<1.1<10 o r g'Ll10 ( 1 ~ gcll(h~'l( (1'1 i ; o 1 te Sli[llerrl'i), iOl1

4 i i o cliic, sil \esiiirriicrito tlcl)ci ,i \o\tcrier\c1,,icltlrri(i\,eri r.l/orit.\

,iri(ilog,is, pi ohi1)iciitlo 1'1


1)i~iicIc clcl c o i I

disi i iiiiiii,ici t i i

El1 si '111 l ~ l ( ' ( ~ plc\ligiO (le i ( ~ ~ l ~ ~

1'1

<l( il\ l ( l < l ( l ~ 1 1 \tllC C 1011~1~ 1


4 ~ 1 1 (li,

(1~'-

cc l o

t i ,it,iiiiic.iiio

pro( ~

1'1

j i i i i\pi 11(1cii(

el re5peto ril piiricipio dc jir\ticin f o r r r i ' i l , (le oitleii pr.k t l c o y (lile- evite lns tli\ci iiiiirincioiies tlt, oiigcti jiitlicial. El \egiiiiri~eiito dc los prc-cedcritc-\ ticrie iridudnhle\ veritajns pr ,cticn\ pni n el fiiricioriarnicrito del si\tciri,i jiidic inl. In i~riiforrrieaplicaci6ri de la5 rioi riins jiir dicns, ln pocible pretlic ciciri del res111tado de la\ decisioiic\, la \cgiiridn<l jiistlica, etc. D e d e el piirito de vistn de la jilsticin f0rr11~11,el sigiiirriieiito de ilri precedeiite deriota Lin,i coiitiriuilnd cri ln aclividdd jiirisdict iorinl, qiie evita In ,1t>\iir<Ir1 pi eteiisij>ii qiic PCII n c nd,i <le< i\i<iri iiri jiic/ \ c ven tcii t'ido ,i quct ci irivcii t,lr la r i~c(l,t el liilo iicgi o. o LJii ,\(le(ii,i<Io cii( ,iii/,iiiiicriio ilt. 1'1 j i i r ispi iitlcii( i , ~ > o t l,i '~yiir (I'ii '1 r(~\olv(~r c r t ~ sitii<i( ( i \ iorie\ (lile i o r r i p i orilcxtcriel ici t o (les-

N o r c.\iilt,i s,ilii<l,tl>lc11.u '1 1.1 1 I H I ( 1 6 1 1 j i i ( l i (

1'11 (111'.

\ti\

( 1 ( ~i\ioiic.$
(

~ I ~ > C'111 ( ~ / ( (.\c'ii( i , i l i ~ i ( - r ~ i V'II 1~11)1e\, i ~ i r , ~ (101i (1'14, riii1)rcXI I ( o1110 (' (o I

t1(~ iI>lc\; ('11 \ i i i n r ~ , [)o( o <il('ii(lil)l(~\ 1111('\11o j i i r ( 10, A


iiii,i

oti\iiliiy(~

~ I ~ ~ r 1 1 1 i l ~ 1 ~1~ ~ s ~ ~ (]llC., ~ s i grlll rrlc(li(ll, S(. v i i l ~ ~ l i l i ll llos lll(.11 1 l l ~ (-11 l s t c~;iiiisiiios > i ~ o ( ~ ( ~ s i \ l ii.;ri;ir ~ I);II';I ~ s <

gi,ivcL (Ii\torsi(ji~l 1 1 ( ~tiii('\tto t

\ r 4 i ( b ~ l ) (,b i ~ ~ ~ ~ , I I I ~ 1' - I I ~~ i ~ > I l , i 1( 1~

(1(,

iiiiilic~;ir~i ~ j i i i ~ i s l > i ~ i i t l c ~ ~ c i ; ~ . I;

1 Ioy,

(l~~liiiicl~iiricrii(.11~14 iiiiic <Ii\( 11\1oii('\j i i r

i ( l ~'14, (

4iii (III(. ('xI\~<I 1111

c1i;iritIo ; I I ~ I ' Isc(,toi. (le l;i ( I o ( ~ i i . i i i ~)osiriIi (~xisic*iicii 1111 II ~ la (le irioviiiiic~iito do,sc.o/ii/ic./rtlol; h e Ii;~('c (111c' 1);11('1ii(' I I I I ;iiil(.i'ii~in;~('II I 1 ) I c ~~ ) i . o < l i i ( xt ,i ii i (Ic. I(tyc*sesl)cciilcs,I;is t l i i ( . v;in (.i-(.aii<l( ) v(.i.<l~(leros c.oiii~>;ii~tirricriios (.siiiic.os (I(. cLsosi i i l ~ ~ i i t o s soliiciii glol);il tic. qiic sc. 1)c~siI);i cI;ii~i;iii los (~O(ligos, ii(u.siti t.ii(.oiitr.;ii. cbri11,jiiS<. r~is1>1.li(it~i1(~1;1 ( I I I C ~ti6 (.ic>rti 1111 sitio tr-iri(]ililic~;i(i, ] ~ i r ~ s 1>1.5(.11il ti (.o,otor.garido a I;IS I . ~ I ; I c ~ ~ I I ~ s 1;1 C < ~ I . ~ C Y ; ~ I I la~ It,y, t>ii ,jiiri(lic;is L ( iiiiiclias ocSsiorics, es iiic;ipiz tic otor.wr: i;oriio l o tlesci-il~c ccrt e r nrritLritt> (;iiirri(iri Bi ito, "riiiestr o tlcr c'c l i o li'i Ile*itlo ,I I c c ei stl ir

lirriiic.

iluc ~ ) i o \ ~ ctl(. ~ g ~ i ~ c.xi\i<.iici,i


llll

1'1

tI(. i i i i , i t l o c

i i i i i ~i i i i\1)1 i j i

(lell(1'11 \Ol)i

1)l i~ill'i.1)'i

1'1

(lc1(,1i1llrl'l~lo ( ~ ~ l I('Il( , '1~11'1(l,l l X ])O1 1'1 i 4 1 i(. Sil0 i l ~ l [ ) r ~ ~ \ l o r l l'l\ tI(Y l\IOilC.\ ( l ( ~llli(~\tr (:o1 1 ~ . (]lle '1

Sii~)rerii,i ~iiii1)~<~iri<~riiciio ( iicrii,iri


(

(1i

I ~ I I I ~ I o iI I ~ i , L I1 I1 1 I ni , ~ '1 1 -

1 o ,iriici i o r e \ \iti I)<'I I I I I ( 10 (le1 Ic.giiirio ( ~ t r n 1 ) i o(liic 1)11c(lc i o(111cir c-11 1'1 liii i\pi 11(1(>1ici't, \itii'i( i61i p (lile 'll1or~l~ircl1los 11l'\ n~lc~l'~rl1c. N o entender q i i t ~1 iiriid,id (le 1'1 jiir i\pr i i t l c r i c i,i ticric 1111\,i1' l o i iritr irisec o coritr ihiiyc ,I giricr,ii iiii'i c i i\is d i ,iiitoridad (lile rio berielicia n rindie. C:unrido rcinn l,;~li\~~cr \itiii, rri;i\ que fiierite del del echo, la ~ i iispr~ideric e5 fileritc de coiilii\iii Por cierr id
Iio\ liiig~uiti'\ j i i c ~ ) ('4.

'.

d i r c iriiievi rriil y laritn5 leyes riiiIcyc.4 del siglo pn\ado (XIX) que rio llevar1 iirncros, 1115stodos lo\ decreto5 leyes y todo5 los decretos cori f i i e r ~ a ley que coristituyeri leyes.. ."4. de Compnrtirrios el juicio qiie haca en 1956 Josef Esscs, cllarid o seinlnbn que "al cle\varicccr\e la fe eri ln aiitoiidnd dogniliti( ,i del legisl,idor (. . .), se h n desriioi oria(1o t n i i i l ~ i ~iiiin itlen tlel ri
rriuy corril~lelo, piicsio qiic ,i 1'14 rrierntb4 deheiiio\ siurinr

toda5

la5

rriil;igro (-le la codificaci6ri (.. .) LA crccicritc corripli(:acicri de las tal-e;isjiir<lic;is los fiillos,catla vez rris frectieii res del poder ley gislativo (. ..) obligan a volver la atcricitiri liacia aqiiella rriultiplicidad (le ideas y priricij~ios jiirdicos n o sisteiriatizados, qiic 1 eri la prActica fiierori sieriipre e apoyo d e la casirstica.jiir-isj~riidericial y qiie si s i riegabaii, era slo por- el deseo d e ericasillar axioriiticarrierite las verdades jurdicas eri iiii sistema lGgico d e coriceptos. Este cambio, qiie desde el plinto de vista legalista aparece corno crisis fiiricional de los 'rritodos d e interpretacin', 'es i i r i hecho, n o iiria cirestiri d e perrriisibilidad' qiie pueda resolverse dogrriticamiiite. Los fenrrierios de la ,jiirispriidericia sigiiri principiosy d e las nic>dci-riiafi>rrrias (le prodiicci6n d e pr-cwdcritcs y redacciri d e directrices rio irripideri ser.jiistificados, sirio eiicaiizados y iyiitl;idos"". Esta iriv:stig;icii,ri l>iisci f0r.iriar. coric.ieii(.iieri loi-rio 21 ciicstioiit-s c:lcrric.ritirles, qiic ~~crriiitiri cxarriiiiiir. c.1 ~ l t ~ s ~ r i i p c l i o tlc 121 jiiris1~-~idcriciii t.1 sisterria d e li~eiites <lcr.cc~lio. iiiiiegac,ri tiel Es i i r i trc-r~ic~riclo iviiiicc iiccptiii. coiiio 1)r.irici11Ic (lile coristit~~ir~i~ pio 1-cctor(te 1;i ;ictivicla(l~jiiristlic.<.ioiiill i c h 1111 c;iso sirriil;ir (lebe tl sci. i.c.sii(.lto tic ig11i11 iiiodo. I , o ; i r i t c ' i . i o i . ('S si11 pc'rjiii<.io de liis ric.c.<.sarias~i(lapiac.ioiics ciiiiil>iosqiic se ~)iic.claii r . pi.o(li~('iciiy i tlcl tlo cii la :ipli<.a<~i<ri cicr.c.<.lio,pero < l i i c x ('1 sc.iiic.iicia(loi.(le11c.r-ajiisiific;ir- criiii<lo ci1ti.a cii (.oiitra<licc.iOii coii iiiia dociririi qiic~ Iiir sc~ritado.jiiris~)r-~i<l(~~i(.ii. ya Por- o(ra parte, la iiiiitlatl tlc la,jiir-is~>i-ii(Ic~~ci~r iriirxda (lc.11~ set. coriio iiriii aiit6riticii giraiit;-i, qiic. pei.iriitii -dc i i r i rriotlo razoiii[)le- ~x-evcr- coritcriido firial (le la decisiri pira casos arilogos, e1 evitarido l a arbitraried-ljudicial. IJa corriiri o~>iiiitin.jiirispr-iidericial sobrciin~diterrriiriado terna es algo deseable, eri el siritido que exista uri criterio claro al qiie deheri atenerse losjiwticiables. Lo coiitrario es el caos o dispirsicn jurisprildericial, sitiiaciii qiie i r i niiestro sistema ha estado presente ~ n s de lo deseable, corriall proinetiendo eri rniichas ocasiories el valor d i la seginidad jiii-clica" y actuando corno alicierite para la litigiosidad ternei-ar-ia.

l < ' , l l ( . \ l l , ~ l , l I ~ < (l, l~ ~ ~ l l l o ~ ~ l l ~ l ~ o l ~ l ~ [~l l * l ; l s O (l(* los ~ ~ ~ ( i ( l slll~g(~ll (l(* I;I ~ I I I ~ ~I (II (I. I II ( I , I M.; I ~ ( I I : I C Y I 1111 :~~iilisisC . I : I I I I ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ) i ~ o ( ~10-~ s i ~ I , I II (* ~ c.1 (.liilciio y I;r,jiir-is~~i-iitlc~~icii iii;iiitlo ( . o i i i o I~iisc. oi-(1cii;iiiiic~riio <.ivil ( 1 ~ .los tr~iI)iiii;ilcs siil)er~ioi~cs. dclirriitacitiri iios parece Esta iicccsar-ia, y qiic I;i relaci6ri qiic rrietlia eiitr-c proceso y Jiirispr-iltleiicia pirrriite observar la ciiesticri eri uri carripo d e iritcrc's para el anlisis jilrdico7. Eri sunia, el propsito qiie se biisca es miiy coricreto: se liiriita bsicarrierite a llarnar la atencin sobre la iiecesidad de corisiderar a la jurispi-iidcricia eri niiestro ordeiianiierito .jurdico, revisarido la validez d e los postiilados de la visin legalista, que Iia servido pai-a ociiltar su fiiriciri eii el sisterria d e fiieiites. (:orno lo exporle (lalvo Vidal, eii palabras que liaceriios riiiestras, "para coiic.(.tai-t:l clereclio coi1 la realitlati, iio iiay esciicla '11"' 1r1t:jor. f0r-rrie, r i i ticiiicir qiic rri~jor criscric qiie la~jiirispriiclcriciir (. . .); clllii siiitoriiza coti Iii vida y ivoliicioria a sil cc~riiprs"~.

Entre la ahtitidaritr bibliografa qiic drsdr la per-spcctiva filos(ifica se Iia ociipado de esta ciicstii>ii,cfr. PUIG RRU'I'AU, Josb, I,n j~rri.\f~rudunc.irc corn,o P ~ ~ n rlrl tr drrorho, Boscli, Bar-ccloria, 1950; VON KIK(:HMANN,Jiiliiis Herrri;iriri, I,rc jutispnlr l ~ n c Wno P.\ c - i ~ r ~ c iIrlstitutos dc ~ : S I I I ~ O SPolticos, Maclricl, 1!)8 1 , :3+e<l.; SPO.I'i\ (~, (:. , Albt.r-lo, ,1 juvz, 01 rc/~og(ct/o Ir1 /orrnnci(jn (/u/ d(>r~>c.ho I r r ~ r i r ~ t /(c jlll3.\/1r1~(l(~n(.il1, y ci d~ l)t.r);tlrri;i,I)iicrios Aires, I<)X!); (;C!TIERRE%KOL>RI(;IlE:%, Mal-cos, I,r1 jicri,~pi.~idrn, ,liiric.eiit i . o , I !)82: c.irc corno / I I ~ I I / P tlrl I)c~rc.rlr,S;iii .)os6 ((le ( :OSI;I Kic;~) E:<iitori;il A(;LJIl,O KF.(;I ,A, ,]oscp, 'li,or;(~,q(~r~(,ro/ ~ 1.5 /IIP~I/I,,\ (101 I ) ~ r ( v / ~I\:i~~(~cloiii~, (11 1 o, tZi.icl, 2000, [jl). l01-12:3. ' ( :1\1.\'() \'11)111,,FClix, I,IIjttri.s/)t II(/(,~I(~I(It ~ o r ~ /( /rP,/ I ) ( , I ~ T / I ~\';kll;~~loli~l, , x i/; ?, l~ Novit, l!)!)2, 1). l!).

'

1. FORMAS 1)E MANIFESTARSE EI, D E K E ( X i 0


Existc.ri (1isiirit;is f0i.rri:is (le pi-otlilccitiii tlcl (Icrv.clio. Si coiisi<lcr.airios el crgario < I t x crcacicri, ~~oclenios (listirigiiir-critr.c <Icr.cc.Iio (lc~jiir-islas, tlc.i.cclio tlc.,jiit.c.c.sy dci.eclio Icgal. El <Ic~r.c~c.lio (Ic-,jiii-istas sci.i cii;iiiclo la soliicitiii de1 corillicio (1~. ;I 1)or (1istitit;is i.;t~oiics, ( > S ix~ ~ i ~ o v i c i i cl;i l)c~i.soiii~(l~iicii, (.oiioc.r.(.ap;icitla(l I>;II.;I r(.~)lvcr.r i (lr.tc~i.iiiiria<lo ii prol~lciii:i,jiii'idico. K i i 1:i c.iiliiir-;i occiclc~ritalesta f0r.tria <Ic pro(liic.ciii (Icl cii ~>;is:itl;is. la aiiLri (1r.i-cc.lio1i:i i(.riitlo ir.cotio(.iiiiic~ito 6poc~;ts iigiia Koiii;~ c.st;i sitii;icitiri se clio t.litrc firics (1t.1 siglo 11 a. (:. y riic<lii(los siglo 111 (l. (l., cori 1;i iritc.i.vr.iici<iii dc los fiu.l.rc.o.rttlr. .cml/os, c.iiy;i iiiisitiii t,ra ~jroljot.<~ioiiai' pr-ctot' los crilcrios [)asa al 1;i soliici6ii tic los coiiflic-tos". lJiia segiiritliCpoca tle tlci-cclio dejilsis~is c.oristala cri e1 sc. perotlo dcrioiriiriado coirio cic..rit.ho c.om~irz, qiltava destlc el siglo XII hasta firics del siglo XV111, y q11e culniirla cori la c.odi/zc,cicicn~ Cori cl retlescut~r-iniiciito der-echo rorriario, al volver el Didel gesto ;i ser utilizado riucvarrierite coino instriiriierito esericial para la pr-Acticajurdica, se inaiigilra una nileva etapa, doride el jiii rista juega i ~ r rol preporiderante. Segin Gr-ossi, los histor-iadores del derecho rorriaiio silialaii enfaticarrierite como relevante irria fi.t:lia y iiria circilristari<:ia, el 1076 y el Ilariiado dictarricii
" I1ii;i siii<.sis t1(.1 tciii;i,

c . 1 ~I'b:KNANI)E% lZAKKb:IKO,

Al<:j,iii<liiiio,"El iiio-

tlclo

i-oiii;iiio tlc tlci.(.c.lio <1t~jiii~ist;is", l Z ~ 7 1 i . t l n l u l ~ r c l i o tIl~.tltit~~c~o~/~r,.Ili,.oc, cii (Ic V;il-

p;~i.;iso,3 ; t l i ( ~ i o i i I ~ \ I I \ ~ ( ~ I - s I ~ : I I ~ ~ ; I s l ( JI ti(, Val1);11~;1so, l!)7(i, [ ) p .

3:<-42.

(le, M:it,tiiri, iiii:i :is~rriil)lc:i jiitlic.i:il cr~lc~l)i;rtl;i 'li)scaii:i cri el cii irioiiastcrio-t.astillo tic Mrtiii.i, li.ctia y c.ir.(-iiristaiic~ia c l i i c . S<, c.11 ~)roporie;iI 1)igcsto corno riiatci-i;il iiiiliiatlo y iitilizablc cri la ~~"ctica,jiiritlicai". Esta seguricla Gpoca, que co~~ipi.eride pi.cticarrieritt: siete siglos -en ex[>licacirid e Toiris y Vnlierite-, coristitiiye i i r i pt:rod o caracterizado por la iritervericiGri de los doctores, profksorcs iiriiversitai-ios,jueces, abogados y prcticos foreiises, que actan como sujetos activos, constructores, sisternatizadores y uriificadores del derecho conin, alcanzarido su opirii6ri el valor de fiiente del derecho". Es la etapa d e los glosador-es, postglosadel jui-ista es relevaridores y de los coiiieritaristas. El dic~iirieri te para la decisin del caso, ya sea porqiie se daba iiria comm,un,i.s opinio eri i i r i tenia, o bien, porqiie a algiiiios (Ir ellos se les rrcorioca nuco'vr'tn.si2. El derecho ser- de jiicccs cuiritlo 121 rcspiicsir al caso coricreto provieiii (le iiri te1.c.t.r.o qiie est irivisticlo (Ic 1;i potcstatl i tle juzgar y sil siritiricia, t)-jo ciertas cori(liciotics, a<lqiiicr-c. i r i val;)r tte fiieritt* <lirv.(.ta(le1 dcr.eclio. 1;,1 c.;iso rriiis clociicritc <te esta niariikstaci6ri se {la eri el sisteiria ariglosiijtiii. k:ii Iriglait-1.~1 la ttecisitiri dada poi- ciertos trit)ii~ialc~s ((:Airiar.ii ( 1 los 1,oi-csy ~ los tributialt~s que coriiporicri la Sut,r.omr ,'ot~rlo/'lti,(Li(.(~11~1~) . . V;I seritaritlo los /)r~cr(lu.rrtvs, cori i i r i valor viriciiliiritc par;i los cilsos postu-iorcs id6iiticos. El pr-iiicipio t6ciiic.o tliit- <lett.i.rriiiiala ohligatoriedad ciel prececierite se deriorriiiia .s/nr~ ducl.si.~':~. Por iltirrio, el del-echo sera legal ciiati<lo I;i creaciri d e la riorrria proviene tiel proceso legislativo (cri sentido lato). Cori la codificacin, iniciada a partir del siglo XVI, este rriodelo pas a ser predorriinante eri los paises coritirientales, aiiii~

"' (;ROSSI, Paolo, 12 ord~rt.jurrilic.o mrdic-iic~l,Madrid, M . Poris, ti: Fr211icisco Torriis y Valierite y Clara Alvarer, 1996, rspic.ialmiiiie pp. 160 SS. " (:ti: TOMAS Y VALJENTE, Fraiicisco, "El pirisaini<.~ito,jilridico", i Ohrrc., ii O'n~$li.ln.\,Maclricl, i:critro d c Esttidio9 Polticos y (:oiistit~iciori;llis, 1097, t . V, p. 4007. " Sob1.c. c alcaiicc. di. csti. coiicrpto, ctii L)OMINi;O, R;if;it.l, A'~rr./ori//~.c, 1 R'ir. ci.Ioii;i, Ai-<.l.I<)C)C), 111). 1 :{-50. ' \ I ~ ~ l i t l ~ O (Ic 121 2 i t ~ l l l l ~ l ; l ~ ~ti~ ~ l i o ~ l ~ ~ll lfi ctx ~ ~ I i ( ~ ; l ( s O 6)1 1 ~ ' l l ( ~ ' i i l ~<l(.l l l l~ t I , ~ i I I C c.1 ~c ~>l~llC[)iO~ 1.\f,IlH' / / l , ~ / ~ icfr. ( ~ ~ l ~ , ' l ' ~ )~ ~ . ~ , , :6\:ii', O(~~1lllWll~r/ b . /\l.('$, (1 .\, ( ] t i ~ /','/ /.//711, Al)<.litlo-F'c.i.i.o1, rcc(l. I!)!)T, 111). 89-1 05; 1'1 I'KIC\l,I)L':SI.:SMA, Victoi.i;i, l i l p r n ~ ~ l r r ~ / ~ ~ I ~ I I 1 cotrtr~tott / I ~ I IMi~(Ii.itl, 11 I , (;ivi~:~s, l!)!)5.

,1111t.l i i t l ; i t l I i ; i l ) i ; i t i c.xisiicIo o i i . o s i i ~ l i . i i i o s( I ( . ( I ( * I ( . i o (.Iio c . o t l i l i c . ; i t l o , sic*iiclo(.I iii;is iiisigiic. t.1 ;or])rc.\ I~tt-i.\ i ~ i ~tll i .\ (: ( J i i s ~ i ~ ~ i ;l.i i1.0 ~ i o :tv:ts;tll~~~loi~;i IX*SIIII(\ I'OI.III;I qiic (*SI;I 1~1.1)tliiccicii (le1 dereclio es niiiy hiiri dcsc.i.iio 1)oi' (;rossi: "I1:ii ( - 1 riiiiiido iiioderrio el prol~lerria(le la ~)i.odii<.(.itiii. l < l ( . i ( . ( . I i o tl( ha sido resiielto d e manera sericilla y colicr-eiiic*: ( I ( . i - ( * ( - I i o c.1 lia vuelto a sei- considerado corrio iirio de los ol?jc,iivos i.c.I(.varites del Estado; y ste torria a sii cargo la pr-o<lii(-(-i6ri 1110riopolizarido el sistema d e las fuerites, es decir; , j t ~ i . ; i i . ( i i i i / , ; i i i dolas y rediiciridolas siistaricialrnerite a iina, la ley, ciitc-ti(litl;i coirio'la expresiGii d e la voluntad suprerria ttel ~.st;ido. i ~ i tierario d e la civilizacic~i .jiirdica inr)derria tlel siglo XVI c.11 ;idclaiite 110s testiirioriia iiria creciente viiiciila(.itiii <1(.1 (1(.1-(.clio cori el potler. poltico, tle i i r i creciente totalitat~isiiioj i i i - I tlic,o, cluc 1 1 0 s6l n o ser-;; dcsiricritido por la I~iii-giicsi;~ tloiiiiiiaritc., sino irihs I~ieriiriiiclio iris at>soliitiz;ido rric.t.(,c.tl ; i I iristi-iirricrito oiririipott.iitc- tiel (:titligon'". tlc (;;id;i i i i i i i (Ir estas t1.t.s ~r.rriiis triariifi.st;ici<iii<1(.1 < I c . i . ( * c . l i o se di1i.i-ciiciaii 1)or' la c.lcc.ci(iri deal rri(,(lio a1 qiic sc. c~otisicl(~i.;i iii;.; i(l6iic.o piir-a soliit.ioiiiti-los coriflicios jiirdicos. Siii ( ' ~ I I ~ ) ; I I . ~ oI I, O se p u < ~ I perisiv qiic e s ~ o s <' rnodos se (liiri cii 101-iria ~)ui';i, 1)11(~sio qiie lo qii<* (.ar-t(.tei.iza iiri iiiotlclo stilo 21 el ~>r-~~(loiiiiiiio tl<. i i i i ilciiiiiito por- sobt-c. los otros. I'or- c:jerriplo, eii e1 pi'oc'c'so c.vil (.liileiio el jiic.z dcl>c111-oiiiiiiciar ~ ~ i i t e r i ct~i-riiriciiiitlo la ia I;is Icycs, y cii sir d<,l+cto,los pi-iricipios de cqiiitiid (a1.1. 1'70 N" 5 (:1'(:); eii todo caso, lo aiitcrior i i o iriipide que cri la tlccisitiii lirial piiccla irifliiir ilria rriariifkstacin del dci-echo dc.jiiristas, ( 111~' de i i i i riiodo residiial recoge riiiestr-o sisterria, a travs de los i i i fi)rnics eri dereclio. (hrrio se sabe, para ilustrar i los jiieces sc, xirriite, en segiiiida iiista~icia en el conociiriiento de iiri reciir.so o d e casacin eri el forido, pedir el dictarrieri de iin jurista, qiie sc. niaterializa eii los denominados informes e n derecho (arts. 228 al 230 y 805 CPC). De igual forma, cada vez sor1 nis frecueiitc.~ las sentencias qiie rcciirreri a desar.rollos tecr-icos proveiiiciit(.~
( I I I ~ .( O I I
( l ( b

14:l

de 1it docii-iria cieritlic;i, eiiriqiieci<~riilo si~staiici;iliriciitc vae1 lor- d i las decisiones jirdiritles, y dcrriostraiido qili el resiiltaclo tiri;~liio es uria sirriplt: ;ictividad (le c~f)lic.nc.itin k ( ~I ~ J " ' . (ir Dicho eri otr-os tr'.ririirios,la dcicr-rriiiiacir~ cier-eclio-corno clel quod iusturn es1 o c:oirio la re,\ iusi~-iib es uiia liiiiciii excliisiva d i i i r i jiiriscorisiilto, de iln juez o i i r i legislatlor. (:ada actor-jiicpi sil propio papel, aiiriqire no se debe ignorar qiic por diversas razories rio hari faltado iiiteritos reducciuriistas, qire hari biiscado supriiriir, eri algurios casos (le un modo radical, la riecesaria coriexiri entre los diversos rriodos d e ~>roducciGn dcl der-eclio, proporiicriclo cxplicacioncs cic~irrieiite legalistas o,jiic1 diciilistts.As, para la visi6ri j.utlic.ic~li.\ta dereclio s6lo se tratiiiciria eri seritc.ri(:ias, y para las tesis no?-rr~ccl~7ii.sb(1:.s solo lo &te coiif)rrriari las iiorrtias,jiiri<lic~~s. tlc. ijiic 1.a iiiilx)i-t;iri(~iii la 1;it)oi-(It.l ,jii(.z (y (I(. las s<~rit<~iic~i;~s viiii r-csiiliiiii<loi1(. sii :i<.iivida<l) <.S <.viclc.iii<. <.ri c.1 i i i i i i i t l o i-c;il i1t.1 iIc.i.<.c.lio,~)l;ig;t(lo (le c.oiicc.ptos ,jiii-itli<.os iii(lc.ic~i-riiiiii<los ( T I . gt:, f ' i ~ ; i i i c Ia 121 ley, : I ~ ) I I S O c l c l clc-r~~3(~l10, ~ :tI)iiso (lc* posici(5ri (loI)iic.riii li,, tl(.l>iil;i <liligc.ri<.ia,i t i l i t l ; i t l ~ ) i ' ~ l ) l i ( , ; i ,iirtci~Cs i iriiii~~iiic, pil)lic.o, c-ic.). F,ii c.stcx c.oiitcxto, la i-clcv;iiic~i;i I;i,jiii-isl>i-ii(lciitic. (.a c l i i ( ~ l ;11ic.11 rcti;ttii<l;i cri iiria l'rase (Ic (:le~iric~iilc l)icsgo, ~ (1(* ( I I I < * y;' Ii;i :ilc;iii~~<lo e1 valor ( 1 ~ .<.lsi<.a: "Sitt o/ j l r t z , (4d(~ui~.ho o/,jl.lho roin ccricl, /)oro (174 iz(i 11 o go/)orr~ (J~;(J"' 7. b:ii c.1 rriisriio s(.riti<lo, es cci.tci-;i121 i(lvcr.l(.iic.i;i (:;ilvo Vidirl, <I(' ii rc.iliiicrc qirc se cti;iii(io sr.ftalii qiic "(.oiio<-carr i sist<.rii;i,jiii-tli<.o 1 : , (.orioz(.a r i o s0lo la ley, sirio t;iriil)i.ii la , j i i i - i s l ) i - i i ( l ( ~ i i c . i a .1 dci-eclio vieiie pr.odiic.i(io tarrihiCii a riivcl de iictivi~liitl~jiii~istiiccional"". CJri sistcriia j~ii.dico coirio el iiiiestro, ~~orif)r.iiiado fiiridarrieiitalirieiite por ~iorrrias legales gericralcs y a1)sti-actas,est supetiitado, para sil biicri fiiricioiiirriiento, a la y>licaci6iique liagari tie tales preceptos losjucces eii los casos par-ticiilares, tlaiido vida al derecho jurisf)rufiencial.

(:o1110 silc'lc' oc I I I r i r e11 c1 ( ~triipo c1(.1 (lere< 110, 1'1 ~ ~ I I < I I'1) I j i ~ 1si pr ii(lcrici,i rio tieric. r i i ha teriido i i r i iiriic o sigriific 'itlo, eco( ,lrido n lo rriiiios Ins Ggiiicntes c iicstiorics:

Eri esta accpciii sigriifica docti.iiia d e los jiiristas, sicrido estos nltiirios los qiie cori sil actividati iriti1ictir:il dar1 vida al "dcre1,os roiriirios, cri la cblil~r-e deliriiciri d e ello ,jiiris];~r~iiclciici~~1". ;i dr IJll>iaiio, Il;iiiial);iii .jiii-is1)r-iidc~ri& I(L c~irrrc.ln Io ju.vlo y do do ir'j?~.~/o"'. cxplic~;iciii(le Mc.r.t.llo, e1 ,jiri.isl>i-iitlt.i&cri-t.1 (leLri i . c ~ . l i o1-oiri;iiio<lcsii~i~oIl;ilai ;i<~iivi(la(l sil rric~<li:iriic 1;i r.csl>iic*sii ( I I I ( ' <l;il)ii ;i cli~ic~ii<>s r.cciii.i.iaii ;i Cl c h i i I)iis(~iiI ( . c.oris(.jo.jiiriclic.~; i . (.sl;ts i'<~sl)iic~sl;is las ( ~ I I ( * ,~ ' I I 1111 sc~iilii<io <.i.;iii i-c.sii.ic.tivo, c.oiisiii i i L i i i l;t

j11i~is1>1~11(lcri(~i;t~~'.

El1 'llgllllo\ 'l~lll)itos, (ssp(Y i'ilitlciltc 'illglo\clj6il, 1'1 (~x[)lcsi(-iil ( t o t / o (]~~ I ; ( / I ( ( I es c~(~iriv~~Icrrlt~ i~(lcri( ( ) I ~ / I \ / ) ~ I I ( ~ O T I ( O ) . I '1 j i r r ispi i'i b,ii cstc ('iso s(>t i 'ii'i del i i r t ( ~ i i t o(le, c~iici ( o r ~ t ~ (i or 1 1 I I I I , ~"e i t ~ r i i,i ci c (101 ilcr e( Iio", ('410 es, e11 pnl,il,r'i\ (le Oll(~r logi ,ir i i i i < oiioc io, (l(1 iriic,iito que stb.i(ir~.w coiioc er los src r (,tos d i 1'1 coriviv(.iici,i liiirrinri,i y de coiitr ol'ir l,i eri l>eridiciodel horril>rc".
( b l

- l o 1<:11 esle scllli<lo,l ~ l l l \~~~' I ~ ~ ~ L1;i ,s<~llicllci:l lt (:s. <le lo~jlllio I C 2001% l ~ c.11.. s <le ( <1<. Kl?j, l. X(:VIII, scx.. 1". 1)1). 177-181, coii i i i i ; i s~iicsis I;i <loc.ii-iii;iii;ic.ioii;il soI)r <.i i iili(l;itl r>t.o(-cs,tl. I l)Y, l)lF.(;O, ( ; I ~ I I I ~ I "I;a ~ , ' ~ ~ ~ i c i ~ ~ ~ ~ j i i ~ - Ios,jiic(~cs liioirplicii- l II( ~ i s ~ I i ~ ~y i ~ ~ ; i ~ ~ citiii tl<.i <I(.i-(.(.Iio g<.iic.i.iil",c.11 Ii>r7ii.\//rr / Ikrrc./io I'r/7icro'o, N" 3, 19 13, 1'1). 71-77. cii IH A 01 ,i x 1 . 1 I I ~ / ~ I j,l4lr11/r tlcl I)rrc,c./i?, 01). cit., 1). 22. / I I

"' Sol>i-c.VI ;ilc;iiicr tic ~ s t i e x ~ ~ . ~ s ierir Koirxr, y siis difki-riicias cori el ac1ii;il r i sisiciria, ch.. KKINOSO, Fcrtiaiido. "lu1.i~ Actoi.cs (Rrflcxiorics so11r.c la jiirisl~riitlriicia roriiaria y CI jiirisia actiiiil)", rri I \ l ~ / / l i . c 1)urt.i.ho Hornnno rri lionor //v A / ~ I ( I (LP m 1 ) ' 0 r \ . l'iiiiiploii~i, k'.iriia:i, 1987, t. 11, [>P.!)81-1010. (:1i: MI'Rlrl,l,O i\KTi,(X:O, It~ilo, i.cl;ici<i~i~jiii~is~~~~i~(It~n~c-~~~~~~to~"1,;i cii 1;i gi.11c.si5 (I(~rcc.110 (1c.I iorri;~rio (.l;\ic o", c.11 , S ~ J I ~ I / Ic /I /~I \ ~ cf\//i/iio.s~IIII//I?I/I.\, UiI~);i~~iiso, Ixli<.ioii<,s IJiiivc~i.sii;ir-i:is, vol. 1, 1977, 1). 141: Si\l.\~AOORKS I'OLZN. M;iiiii~l,"1,;i , ~ i i r ~ i s ~ ) i ~ ~ ~ ( I ( ~ i ~ ( ~ y : 1i1 ~ I I I ~ ~ s ~ ) I ~ I I (~ i~i~oI ~ C ~ ~ :r I~ r iI{~TII.\/(I 111 I ~ ~ I ~ ~ I 1 / /~~ I I / I~OIII:III:I i i ~ I l ~ ~ ; ~ " , //c' I1 M:itliitl, I!)Xl, 1'1). 1 17-1 22. I)c,rr,c.lio 1). (,'o~n/ilo/r,i/\c,, " ( XI. ()l ,l .b:K( ) 'I'ASSAI<,\, ,111(li.i.s,2 'I>(,II(> ~ r z ~ j 01 (/c~rc~i./ici?, r r/ bl:~cIri<l, :o~igr.(.( o\, so llt, l o \ l ~ i ~ ~ l l l : l l ll!)!)(i, 1). 21.

-"

los ciiltoi-is de la cic>riciadel der-echo, sta dehe coristitiiir iiri cor!jiiiito tic: proposiciones cstalilcs, qiie se alcarizari a travks de la clcrioiriiriacla juri.\j)rutlrn,cic~i corrc~/)lo.v; r ~ niediantc este rritodo se lograra iin marco coiiceptiial riorriiativo qiie pcrrnita abarcar pr-cticarrieritc todas las iristitiicioiies. IJa ciericia del derecho teridra la tarea d e descubrir, coris~riiir elaborar los y coriceptos para sii propio desarrollo. Tarribiri se conoce a esta escuela cori el nornbre d e dogrnc-iticajurdica, concepcin desarrollada par-ticiilarrnirite en Alernariia diirantc el siglo XIX, ciiyo ol?jetivo era iritentar explicar d e i l r i modo sistcrntico el coritenido d e i i r i dcterrniriado ordenamiento jiirdico. Eri esta acepcicri, para Caririata, "lo qiic desigriarrios corrio ciencia ,jiir-idica o jiirispriideiicia t>si i i i coiiocirriierito Ccriico cic la esti-iictrlra iritcrria d e Iis iristitiicioiies~j11r-i(1ic~is rriisirio ticrripo, i i i i rrietoy, al d o cliic pci.riiitc ti.;il)i~jir~ so11i.t. c,ll;is y por- c l I i ~ " ~ ~ .
l'iii.;i

Iii c.xl)i-(.si011i i i s l ) i ~ i i ( l ~ ~ i; li. c t . 1 1 411 \ c . 1 1 1 1 ii i.(*lc.i.ii.sc. sc.iiic.ii(.i;ij i i t l i c . i ; i l , siii i i i i i ~ i i i i . ~ ;i otrii <.xig(tiic.i;i. l':sti ict~p<'itiii coi'i'(~sl)oii(I(. iiso i i i ; x I I < Y I I ( . I I I ( . iiI ( ~ i i t ' iv:cil>c el tbrrriirio eri iiiiesti~o Ic.rigii;!j(. y l)i.;c.iic-;i I o i . ( * i i . ; ( ~ , <loii(iees recurrente que se ideiitifiqiic j i i i ~ i s ~ ) r ~ i i ~ l ~ ~ .ioi1c1 ~.;(.ti ( i;i tcricia judicial.
' l ~ i i i i l ~ ~ \(. i i i t i l i / ; i ( ~

(lo iii;s ; i i i i l ) l i o ,

I);II';I

S. ALCANCE DE L EXPKESION EN NIJES'IK( 1 M l<:l)I( A )

Uiia tcbi.cc-r;i ;ic.t~ljciii la voz,jiii-isl)r.iitl(-~ici:i i.clici-c.a1 III'Od(. S(. cliicto qiic S I I I - ~ C -el(, 1;i sciiteiicia,jiitlici~l. Sil iiiili~iiciii csic. sc,iiiiclo iio tieric. iiiiivoc.itlii(1. F.ii sil f0r.tLri iriiilaciii iris gcii.ri(.a, 1;i jiir.ispi-iidc.ii<.i:isci.:i 1;i iiit<.i.pr-ct;icih del <icrcclio vigeiit<.cliic Ii;ic<.ii los tr~i1~iiri;ilcs ~ .jiistic.ia, pci'o (1 . siii que exista coiisc-iiso so11r-e 1;i fi)i-rriay riioclo cri qiie se tlai-a esta sitiiaciri. Eii cfkcto, c:ri algiirios ;iiriliitos ello sc (.ir.ciiiis<.ri11c .sbr-icto.srn.slra la doctriri;i selitada por los tr.ibiiri:ilcs siiprcrrios o tlc casacin, que ticrieri coirio rriisicri cstalilccer la,juri.vf)rucl'urrc i c ~ materia de iriterpretacin d e la ley. eri Eri carribio, en otros sitios lajurisprtidcricia sera i l r i cor~jiirito d e decisioiies sobre iuia iriisiria rnateria.jiirdica y se coiifigiiraria cixanclo existe coiricidencia eri la decisin de un rnisnio prohlerna, a travs de fallos reiterados. El carcter aislado d e iiria decisiri, o la disparidad d c criterios sobrc iiiia niisrria rnatiria deniostrara que aiii rio cxiste.jurispriiclericia.

El <:6digo Civil no iitiliza la voz jiirispriidcriciii; ii lo iiiiis ; i l i i t l ( * al tkr-niirio sentencia, agregarido el calificativo ltic. d(~iii;iiitl;i; i I iristit~iciciidoiide se iitiliza. As se re1iei.i: a sc~iiiciic.i;ii i < l i c - i ; i l ,j (art. Y i i i c . Y ) ,21 scritcricia qiit. tcriga f\ici.zi (1c cosii ,jii~g:i(l;~ (art. 1687), a st.ritcii<.i;i(le absoliiciri (;irt. 2503 N" :3 )"'. La oriiisitiri (1<,1 (;<digo <:ivil poclrkt ot)c.dc<.<.r ~)c.r.fi.(.i;iiiic.iite ;i la prccisicii filolgica que c;ir;ict<.r-iztit:l tralx~jo (Ioii A i i (Ic t1i.i.s Bcllo; sil esticla eri 1riglatr:r.r-a le tlchi siig<brii.( I I I ( * 1;' cxprcsiri~jiirispriidericia r r r i ; i voz pr-opia para aliiclir. :i ( . i c . i i cra cia tlcl derecho. 'liirrihiri es tictiblc sosterier qiie esta aiiscrici:i ticiic i i r i ; i r.ii/ rris profiiri<la,qiie se oxplica por e1 aiit6iitico ciilto ;i 1;i Icy ( ~ i i ( . erriaria del (:digo <:ivil; rl sisterria d e iritcrpr-etaciri plasrii:itlo eri dicho (:i,digo adriiite que slo cuarido la ley riada diga i-(bsiilta lcito al intrprete recurrir- al "espritu gerieral dc la 1egisl;iciri y a la eqiiidad riatural" (a1.t. 24 CC:). Eri i i r i iriterito tlc recc)nstriicci6n sobre el cornplejo tenia de la iriterpretacicri tic. la ley, Fernando Fiieyo dej claro que eri la visin de Ar1dr.s Ih.110 todo rmide e n la ley y nnada mcs que e n la Zty2". Ratifica lo aiiit,rior Giizmn Brito, cuando piiritualiza qiie "el Ttulo Prelirriiriaidel CGdigo Civil Chilerio est coristrilido e n torno a la ley. Y isto n o slo por el perisarriierito d e Bello, sirio tarrihiri por la poc;t eri que le toc6 actuar: L,a ley era el ideal d e fuente del clereclio,
( ;f'i.. FL lEY( 1 1 ,AN k:KI, F(~r~ri;r11~10, /I'IJ~I/,I./O~LII 71oro\ y ,pro.\ ( / P / f ; t j ( / j g o ( ; 1 7 ~ i 1111 11o / /atto, Siiritiago, Kcvistii (I<. l ) < . r . ~ ~ . I iI'rivaclo, 1!)5:1, t. 11 1, 1'1). 375-37fi. o " (:lii FllF.Y()1 .AN1'121,F ~ ~ i - i i : i i i < lI ot, / ~ r / ~ r r / ritiri j , / c r ~ z ,S;riiti;igo, Iliii\,c.i-sitl;icl : t ic clc. (:liil<., 1!)71i. l q ) . 47-52.

iio poi-(lii<~ w (.oriocicr;iri otr;is, siiio por-c111crio se desca1)a iio adiriitir otro tipo de fiie~ites""~. El Merisaje tlrl <:digo (:ivil rio piiede ser. rris clarificador-(le1 pensariiient<; de Bello eri este terria: "h no f,rp,szcrnoo/+~(;c.ro.s b/ljo e\tos re,spectos una h prr/Pctn; n i r ~ ~ p n n ha .snlido hasta nhwra (io ~ t(~1 lf~.s rnanos del hombre. I'mo no 1umo avrnturar mi,juicio anunciando que por lc ndof~cin presente proyecto .se desvanerer(i muchn parte (Le las drl difirultacie,~ ahora embarazan L(L admini,stmcin (Lejusticia err rnntuque r i civil; .se cortarfin en su raiz <gr(Lnn,.rnm de pleitos, y .se ,qf~njearc-i ~ tanto mayor cor~/ianztr. vmmacin a la,~udi(::catura, y cunnlo mci.s finlente .sr halle L ~ Lconforrni(ind de .su.s d~cision~vs los fn-rcrj)iosIegfclf!,s. f)rtic.tin 1,(.a $cscu/)rir(i ciutia [i</icto.s la c~ecucicin tnn a r h ~ n r r ~ ~ ~ r u ~ s ( ~ ; sir1 un de ~ L ~ Ll<lyisl(~tum f)ocL.r(i,/iicil~n~r~,to cnrrq~rlos (~~rt,o(~i~rrt~Y~~nLo (un ( 1 (.(CU.S(C, ~ (.rn,o .sr hec.lro ~ r o1ro.sf~ccistsy ert L(L rni.srnn Fr(cnc.ic~. ' r .. : 'Iiirripoco c.1 <:<ligo 1'1-occ(Iirriicrito(Iivil ; i l i i ( l t ~cxl>lcita;i cjiic. iiicritc. a la voz,jiir'isj)i-iiclca~i(.ia,i i r i ( 1 1 1 ~ ' (le los ~iritc~cc~l~~iilcs sitr~gcri 1;i liistoi-i;rtlcl cst;iI)lc~(~iiiiicrito i.cXc.iii.so <.as;icitiri (Ic (1<.1 (le (.ii c.1 LOritlo, rio Ii;iy clii<l;i que los Icgisl:iclorcs 1);u't;ui ( 1 i ~i i ( . o i i i <.(.pto(le , j i i r . i s l ) i ~ i ~ ( l ( ~ r i (viii<~iilatl:i 1;i (l(.<.isi<iii 1111 t i . i l ) i i i i ; r l ~i;i :\ tic. s~i~)c~~lol~~('. 1 ,;I i i ~ i ~ ) l c . i t ~i o I I s ~ ( I c - I ~ (le~ l~ ; ~ , j ~ i i ~ i s ~ ~ (1\1(> i ~ ;~prc- ~ ~ i ; ~ ; I( ~I~ ~ ~ ~ S<, l ~ ~ i ~ (.i;i cri I;i iior.rii;itiv;i ~,i.oc(*sal el iltiiiio 1icriil)o 1i;i i < . i i i ( l o 1111 cii iiit<.r.c~saiilc giro. Lii prirricr. Iiigai; se tlcl~c prestar atciicicii :i 1;1 i.clOi.iria iri1r.otlrici(l;i 1 ) o i . l;r 1,cy No 1<4.:374,(lt, IH <lelt.l,r-cxi-o I!495; ;rll st, lia ~i(~ept;itio c o i i c ~ ] ~ tlo ~ j ~ i ~ ~ i s ~ ~ i - i( ~ I(I l( > ,a iiiticstr~o u11 c e ~ c ~ i c i ~ i erilcii(lci; tlel 1211 se ;icerc;~ clai.arricritc al Seiiciricrio~jiii-tlic.o f)ri.odor~ll: corrio se cxl~licai-; rris adel;uit<,.F,sta iiiieva oricritaci6ii siirgi bisicarrierite al haber-sc dotatlo a la (Iortc Siiljr.erii;i tic i i i i or-igirial iristriirrieiito para qiie, actiiarido cri plerio, piieda iiriifi,ririar-doctriria arite la existencia de coritr-adicciories (art. $80 CPC:). En segiindo lugar, el riuevo Ccdigo Procesal Penal (L,cy No19.606) ha iricorpor-ado otro rricdio para afrontar i ~ r i o los de problerrias ins cl&sicosque genera la jiirispruc1crici;i. Eri ckcto, el 'Ttiilo IV, ctcclicatlo al r-c(:iirsode iiiilitlacl, i-egiila i i i i rrie< I t b
( 1 ~ 5

c - ; i i i i s i i i o I, I I ; . ( I I I ( * I:i L I

(:oi-I(.

SIII)I-('III;I I)IICYI;I ~rnijic.crr cioc./.rlntr la

j ~ r i - l . \ / ~ ~ ~ ~ r l ~ ~ t / c . i1,;i . Iiipctcsis se d;i a ~)r.op<sito la peti(.i<jride rrl (le

iiiilitlatl tlcl ,juicio oral y d r 1;i seritericia, ciiarido eri el pr-oriilriciarriieiito de sta se hicierr iiria errnea aplicacicri del derecho que liubiere irifliiitlo siistaricialrrierite eri lo dispositivo tlel fallo (art. 373 letra b) del CPP). Si sta es la causal de riulidad y existiereri distintas interpretaciones sostenidas eri divcrsos fallos enianados de los tribunales superiores, se altera la cornpetencia natural de las Cortes de Apelaciones, y el recurso de nulidad debe ser conocido por el mxirno tribuna1,justarriente para que uriifiqiie la Jurisprudericia coritradictoria (art. 376 CPP) . I,a .correcta iitilizacicri de anibos iristriirnentos procesales piiede ser- el piirito de partida para dar vitalidaci a la .jiirispriideiicia. Volvererrios iris adelante sobre esto, ciiarido arialicerrios la casacicri corrio iristr-iiirieritopara siibsanrzr las coritr-adicciorics de la ji1ris~riideiicia2~. Eii cstc repaso legislativo iiiii iririiriia rel'irencia rric:re(:e la iitiliza(-i6ii (te la voz jiirispi-iitlcricia cri el iribito del dere<-lio a<lrriiiiistrat.ivo,tloride se coiisvata iiria cxplciti rrierici6ri cri la Icgislaci(ri. Aderris, bajo ciertos supuestos, la jiirispi-tidcricia adrriiriistraliva de l;i (:oritr-aloria (;t:ricr.al d i la Kepiblica aclquier. i i i i valor. viricillarite par-;i los 6rgarios qilc (-oiri~~orit~ri * la a(irriiriistr.aciri del Estado (arts. 8" y 11 I,cy No 10.36fj)2H.

Eri la literatiira jurdica riacional, de forrria abruniadora, ha prepara referirse a las dominado el uso de la expresi6n~iirispriidencia sentencias de los tribunale5 dejusticia, sin restringirla necesariarrierite a un rgano de pro(lucci6ri deterrriiriado. Para coiiipr-obar-lo anterior, se debe considerar que desde hace tiempo en la prctica
~~

" 1nF-a (hp. IV.

' 9 o l ) r - c rl tvittt cli: SOTO KI,OSS, E(lii:ir-(lo, "Acci-catlt. la ol~ligatoi-ic<l:i(l <lelos ~ > i ~ c ( ~ c ~ lcti i1;i c;ic.tivi<l;itl:i<irriiiiistr-;rtiv;i 14:st;i<Io", Ii>(w~\lo : / ~ i i o ~ ~ o ci ~ s <Icl cii (/< /)(-~r',ho, N" 26 N" 2, pp. .'3!)!)-.40.? ( c i x ~ c,sr)cc,iitlri~l?~r.c~t~ciit lit,jttt.isl>t ~ t < l < ~ r ~ < . i i t Ii;i i < . < oiro<ido c.1 \.;iIoi viri<-iil;iiic<~ (111c. ii<.iicii 1>;1fij propia (:oiiii.;iloii~ 1" siis pi.<'c.(Ylclll(~s); ~ : s l ' b : I ) ~ , s (: l'UO'I.0, uO(ll.ig0, -1;1 l'llcr/:i \~ill<~lll;llllc l i ~ j i l l ~ i s ~ ~ l ~ l l ~ l c l l tic ci;i ;itliiiiiiisti-;iliv;i", Ibliis/rc (:/liic,tto (/(, l)cwc./to, vol. 2X N" 1 , 1 ) ~ ) . 1/1!1-1S ! ) . cri

citiii es tic. 1!184. P:ri la iiiisiiia liriia st: criciicritraii los ti~;il~\jos del p r o f ' c ~ ) (le (1c:r.t-cho civil de 121 LJiiiv'rsi<l;~d (:o~icel)citiii r de dori Erriilio Kioscco Erircliicz, ril;~tivosi 1,a /)o.co,sicinin.\c.r?la ccnl~ la juri.sj~r-/~cirr~c;ic~ 1 ) , (1<)<) pr~,scr-il,cirinc~xlindiric~ ~ n d ~ jjurisf)r~rc L(L d&c,ia (1994), y la iiltirria cdici6ri (1~:- clasica obra I,n /)TTL~>/)(L sii ccndr 11 jwris/)r~~(Luncia, cuya ter-cera eclici(i1 es d e 1 995. Ilcl rriisrno autor es el trabajo l l ll~rucho Ciuil y In (;onstilucirin nnlu L Jua ri.s~rucLrr~~cia, 1996. Todas las ediciories citadas a cargo de la de Editorial Jiiridica de Chile. Eri el derecho perial es obligatoria la rrieiicicri al trabajo irioriiirrie~ital profesor Alfretio Etchebvrr-y O., b,'L (iwucl~o clel ppnccl el r L(L jum'.s/~r~rcLrncicc, prirriira e(iiciri es de 1966. Sii iltirria edicuya ci<iri,la segiiiitia, fiic cdita(li por. 1:i Etlitor-ial.Jiirtlica (Ic (:liil(. cri 1087, y rc.irripi.c.sa cl 2002, cri ciiati.o torrios. 1 , ol?jctivo (1c 2l esle. ii;il);!jo, scgliii VI aiitoi; c.s ~~i~c'sc'iii;ir-~xinot';un;i iiii c'onil~let o ( 1 ~ . la jiii-isl>i-ii(leiicii los ir~it)iriialcs (le siipci-ioix.s (le, ,jiistici;i 1;i (1c.l (;titligo (cri 187.5) cii iii;ltcr.ia l)(.iial, tlc.s<lc* ~)r~oriiiilg;i<~i<iii I I I ~ I I 1982. Aiiiic1ii(' niiigiirio t l v los iiiiior(.s (le. las o1)i.n~ i.c.fi.i.i<l;isli;i pro1>11c~sio (Iiscir(ii.;icci.c;i (l(sl v:iloi- (le, la , j i ~ i ~ i s ~ ~ i ~ i i ~ I ~ ( ~\ i sisic,- : i > ~c~i i i i i i ti(, fiiciii<.s(1(.1 (Ic~rc.c.lio, i.c~:llitl:i(l css(lutL l < . ~ l c I;i ( 1i;ic.c ticiiipo I;is s<~iii(~iic~i;is l>iil>li(.a(las (1-;ivi.sti(. <listiiif:is iiii<.i:itiv:is, ;i soii :i lo riicbiios coii i i r i liri c ~ i i i i i i c ~ r i t < ~ i i i c 3 ~ i t e ~ ~)i';iclico. LJiiii c.xccl~itiii se. <I;i (.ti c.1 ii.al>:ijo ( 1 ~ . F,<Iii;ii-(10 Soto Kloss, y ci tc i.c.c,ogitlo(.ir dc<.c.iias(Ic ;ii~tciilos f i i i i t l ~ i i r i c ~ i i i ~ i l ~ ~ iciii sil 110ciiyi c,tlicitiri es (le iiiayo tic. I!)!)(i. ~.oc./~o t~//vrrirri.s6r(~li7/0, ~)i,iiricli.a ( csi;i f'ii<.iitct1t.l dcrc.clio las Soii 1-cvelitloi-;is 1 ~ . sil visitiri sol~i-t. (llic sigiriirites ;~firir~:icioiics: i i i i liiclio irrclisci~til~lc irtia Ijircb''ES iia I I ; ~ ~ I C ' ,~ ; i ( I i iescasa, de iiiicstro 1)c.i-c.c,lio y Atliiiiiiisti-ativo, iiis sea (111e er~i;~iiar- la ley ;ii.raiica siis r-accs dc la.jiirispr-iitliiici:~,, clc coiitr.;iloi.a,sea jiiclicial". "Eri el terria tlcl acto ;itliiiiiiistr-ativoello es particularrriciitc notorio, si s i tierie en cuerita la iricxistericia (le iiria ley gerier-al clc proccdirriiciitos adriiiriisti-~iivos rior-qiic riic por- va legislativa el piirito; 1i:i siclo ol>r.a,i i i cariil~io, la clc. jiirispt-iicleiicia d<.la I:oritr;iloi.ki C;erieral d e la K(.piil)lic;i, cspelos cialiiiiiitc ;i pai.tii. <Ir. la (1kc;itla clc 1950, el i i - sciit~iriclo ~ ~ i ' i i i c.il)ios y Iirs iio(~ioiics cst;i rii;iir.i.i;i y los it1c:iiicc.s y cfi.c.tos tic cii Iiis (.sc;is;is tlisl)osi(~ioii<-s 1e.gilc.s (lile I;i i.(.giiI;iii.Y ;i 1);u'iii. (lct 19'77, (.o11 1I;iiii;~~lo> ( - I I I . S O pi~o~ccci(;ii, c.1 ~-( (lea

11.1 \ ( . i i i c l c ~ . I c c i i i i l ) l ( * i . i i
.1(~1111111\11.111\0"''.

I>(*I

1c.c <iori,ii c.1 <~iitcri<liirri<~iito t o (le1 .I(

l J i i c~ 1'11 .i iorri,l (le p,ir tido por la ci~e\ti<iri foritlo qiie vn cie c~iiviicbltn c\tc tirria se (iprecin cii Soto Klos\, t ii,irido afirrria: eii " ( . .) volvirrido al e4tiidio d e la jiirispriidericia, ue hace revivir t.1 inter\ por el Derecho, tarr dismiriiiido por el fro tioginntie riio del legali4mo positivista o corrompido en siis bases por uria 1~seuc10 pura tecriologia norrriativista. Y es qiie rio existe mejor reniedio para revitalilar dicho inters cliic estiidiar y anali7ar jiiri\priidcncia; cri nirign otro iristarite s i iirieri d e riinriera ms iititla 1'1 teora y la pric tica, lo eupeciilativo de la ciericia jiirdicn y el 'iiie (ir \ i i ,iplicnciii (...)"".

k,ii i i i i c - \ i i '1 c~ii~e~,iii/,i 1 ( 1 ~ <Ic.i c~ l i o 1i,i \1<1o f 1 'i(li( i o i ~ ~c x ~ ~ l'1r c il 1 el \ ~ l o i 1'1 ~ I I i\pi 11(1c~ri(i~ ( I c ~ i i i o (le, lci t(*iricti( ( 1 1'~ i ( * o i 1'1 I i ~i 1 <Ic. I'i le.), < ~ 4 ~ > e ' c l ' \ I i i l < ~ icii ~el ["Ir"'" ltc < "'\O '1') I)<*ie<I r 0 (:i\iI. 1':s ,illi tloii<l(~ 11'1 (lilirii(li(lo, 4i\1c'11i~iii(i i i ( * ~ i i ( 1',1 1(1c'~i (le1 r/11/o 4c ~i ' 7 ~ ( 1 1 0/ /~O 10 / l l t / \ / ) j l l ( / / ~ r //(i ( 1':ii lo ( l i l e > c on\titii)c~ i111,i ( 1 ~ ' 1'14 (*xpli( ioiic~\ I I ' I \ 11 ~ ( 1 i ( ,I( ~ 10ri'll(x\, c * i i c.1 ( 9 / l t \ o (10 I ) / ~ t O / ~( ~ /OJ / / , l)'i\'i(lO C.11 l<l\ ( l'i4c4 (l(* (1011 ,' 7 Ai i i i i o AI(.\~,iii(Ii Kotli gi1c.1 y (le. tloii M,iriii<.l Soiri,ir 1 iv,i IJii<liii 1 1 'lg'l, \e ~ ) O \ t ~ l I 'C b i l 1 0 1 1 1 0 '11 \ ' i I O ~ (le l<l j l l i i\1II l l ( l ~ ~ i li'l ( l i i ( ~ " \ l l l C I i i ~ /,i ol>lig,ii~i e \ i ~ i i l y i 1'1 liriiii'l(1'1. S'II\IO O i i i < i ( l r ~ \ <'p< ~ <*x( ioiic4, '1 c ] i l c x y'l llellio\ ' l I i l ( l l ( l 0 (Id\ \ ~ ~ l l i c1'14 ~O l > i e c.1 e\l<i(lo ivil), 4610 ll \ ( ' I I ~ ~ I I ~ / ' '1 105 l ~ t i g ~ ~ i i t c ~\iqiiielCi'it'i 'tl jirc~que f c i l l ~ ~ (011I Ni \ . el Ilic to; piie.tlc ,iqiikl cri c a\o4 ,iri(ilogo\ ri\olvcr c,ri foi iri'i di\cr\,r. Y s, ver cirio\, poi rjciriplo, qiic riiie4tr n Cor tc Siipr c.rii,i, ,iritc\ tic \ i r i t , i i ln tloc ti iri'i tleliriitivn del .irt( tilo 688, iriter pi et6 c.51'1 rli\1x>~iti6ri rri,rrier,is diler ciites". I,iiego, \e agregi: "Pero si tlc. 1,icii e\ ver ci,lti ciile ln dccisiri tlc lrihiirial nlgiirio tieiie fiier~,i obligntoi i,i gerici '11, oc i i i r e tluc c i ~ i l i ( < 1 1'1 Cor te Supi crri,i, cir )
( l c b

varios casos arilogos, a1)lic.a Iii ley cri i i r i rriisiiio sr:ritido, toclos los otr-os ti-ibiiiialcs ticiidcii a iriter1)retar- la disposiciri respectiva eri el rriisrno sentido. Le<~alrrieiite, tierie riiiigiiria ohligario ciri de I-iacerlo, porque eri (Xiile, conio eii Fraricia, a tlifer-encia I,Q?O, o derecIiojiiri~pri~<:lericial irigls, de lo qiie pasa eri el (A'n.rt? los otros tribiinales y auri los riiisrnos d e qiie eiriariari las decisiones constitiitivas de la jiirisprudericia as fijada, conservan amplia libertad para estatuir en iin sentido diferente en los litigios ulteriores parecidos que e n el futuro terigan qiie juzgar. Sin ernbargo, de hecho, se producen pocas veces tales desvos y los fallos precedentes si bien no l g i a los jiieces, los inspiran d e iin i(n modo fatal (cita a Coliri y (hpitarit). AgrEgiierrios qiic riatur-alrriente las ciecisiories d e la Corte Siiprerria ejcrccri griiri infliii~icia arite los derri5s tsihiirialcs, cuyas seritericias cstkri expiiestas a ser- ariiilitlas si las ~oiitradiceri":~~. E:ii las exl>lic;icioiies tltl iritr.otliicci(ii ;i1 dt.i.ec1io se lia rii:iiit<.riiilo iiialterxblc la cxl>liciciritsatlicioiial. K i i iiiia i.c.i~i<~iitc ixlx)sici<ri,Sqii(rl1a Nai-(liicci, ciis~>ii.s (listiiigiiir. y <I(.s;ii.ro(le llar las tlistiritas iiccpcioric.~ l i la p ; i l ; i l ~ r - a ~ j i i r i s l ~ ~ - ~ i ~ l ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ i a , t Ic asigtlt. ria el valor <le"riorrria jiii.(lic;i iiitlivitliiiiliza<la", pci-o c:ii.thrittol~ligaioric~i;~c1 .jiirtli(.a gciici-;il:"'.

( , ' l l f \ l ///, / ) / p l . ~ ~ / / l (;;71// ( i ~ [ ) ~ ~ : l ( ' ~ ~ 1 l l s ; i ~ ~ ~ l S o l i i ( ~ s ('11 ~;IS <'1;ls(,~<l<,l o \ ; i i l t o i ~ < ~I~(~<~;I<~I;Is, <I;is, ;iiiil)li;itl;is y 1)ucst;ks ;11 t l k i A i i t o r i i o \'otl;iiiovic. Il.), S;iiiii;igo, N;is<.iiii<.iito, 4,l (-(l., l ! ) l , 1). 1:<:<. (:oiivi(~ii<, ;itlvcr.tir- (III~' 1;~l > ~ ' i ~ i c . ~ ' la ~ ~ i c(Ii<.si;i oI)i.;i i I \.;iIoi- ;iti-il>iii<lo I;i ('11 c< i ii ; i ~ I I ~ ~ ~ s ~ I ~ ~ I I ~<I I C ~ ; ~ i El t ~ ~ ; i i ; ~ i i i i c ~(Ir cstc. ~CJII~I ~ c iii;iyoi~. ~ iito li;ic k t cI(~iitr.o l;i ( o . \ / ~ i r r / , / i ~ ~ ~ (1~. j/rri\/)rt~rlr~~~c~i/~I, <lctiriiCii<lolii<.oiiio "1;i 1)r;c-iic;i tlc. l o s ti-il)iiii;ilis <I(.,jii/g;ir (-ic.1 t:rs ciicSsiitiii (sic ) clc iiri:i iiiisiii;l rii;iiiii.;i". A cli1i.i-<.iici;i t l c I;is ctlic.ioiic.~post<.i-ioiis, ;ill s i ; t i r i r i ; ~ b iq11i 1;i j u i - i s l ~ ~ - ~ i t l i . i i c i i ~ , "l)c.s<k 1111r s t r i c i o p i i i i i o t l i v k t n lc.giil, <.ai-cc.t. t i c t o d o viiloi- y fiici-/;i ol)ligitoi-ia. 1'cr.o c i i 1:i \.itl;i i-vi11r s e l h c r l i o clric \c. i i i i l > o r i e y ol~ii<,ri(, rcspcio, y i i o v i l o l i j a y ;icl;ir sitiiplc.rriciitc. e l i i x t o t l i i i , Ic); sirio t;~iiil>ii.ti c i i ; i l i t L ~ ii i I l r i i a MIS \.;ico'i \. ;II c.11 los c i ~ s o s CIII~ l a i.e<.tilica r>or coiisi<lir.;ici(iii ; I;is iiii<.\.;is Y III e11 r ~)o<lc.i-osas cii.ciiiist~ri~cias soci;ilis, r>.ir.;i las (liic. i.11 sil sc.ritido p r - i i i i i t i ~ o ir\iilt;ir-ki i i i l; i iric.tli;iiitc. 1;i iiitirt)i-ct;ic.i<ii (Ic. I;is Icycs, i t c o g r : i :i<lcc.ii:itl;i". // " . ,jiir.ispi-ii<leii(.i:i, iiic.iiiitlo i I \ < , i i i i t l o ( 1 1 1 ~i i i i l x n ~ c I;i c o s t i ~ i i i l ) i . c ~ I;is < o i i i i i i i i ( l ; i ( l c ~ so(.i;il(.s. I 1 o d < ~ i i i o s . (Ii 6st;i q i ~ ~ o i i s o 1 i ~ lii;iii<Io ;i<l(liiic.ic, c.1 ;i~)oyo < ;i l o s ti~il)iiii;il<~s". ((,'III.S/J I/, t l < ~ . i i<III<' . I ) P I O ~,I' O I I /1'' c ~ l l!)3!), %111ti:igo, l ~ ~ t I i i o i ~N;is( ~ I I I < , I111). ~ , ( I~ , . i;il I ~ 155.159). ~ " S ( ~ L ~ l I N,\I<l)['(:t~l, ~l.,l I\~IISI~II, / I I / I ~ I ~ / / ~ / ( I /( I ~ /I) Io I ~ , ( ~ / I I I ,S;IIII~;I~O, / l~~(Iitoi~i;il \ii~.(Ii(.;iclc, (:Iiil(,,2 0 0 0 , [ ) p . 2(i0-26!), t : o i i ; i i i t ~ ~ i ~ i o i v, li;iI):i o c ~ i ~ ~ ) ; i(1c.lo t c i i i ; ~ i(I;i(l (I i i i 1111 tc.xio tic. i i i t i o t l i i < < i ( i i ;iI t l c . i ( ~ lio 1<1\':1t:01'~2 1' I<IV,\(:OI~/\, M;iiiiic.l, / ) ; i r / \;(;// y / / i ~ i / / f , $(//,/ ~ / ~ / , ~ // /) f~li \ / / / i l O , \';ll~);ll~;lso, l : ( l < ~ T ; l l , I!)(iS. 111). 7 1-80.

i i i i iriotlo c.xccpcioii:il, iilgiiiios itiitoi-escii iiiiisiso iiit.clio 1i;iii iiiicia(lo la 1-ivisi6iitlel clogrria clsico, qiic itr.il,iiyi :i la,jiii-ispr-11tliricia i i i i rol rriiiy scciiii<iario.1711 pr-irrici iiitciito se api-ccia cii V I ti-ah;?jo (le tlori Aveliiio I~,eciiHiir-tado, pill>licado cXri 19.59; ~lcspuscle calificar a 121 .jui.ispriidericia corrio la iriariifistacicri iriks perfecta de la costiiriibre, recoiioce qiie ella tierie el siguicrite valor: ". . .los jiieces a trav6s de la costiiriihre ,jiirispriidencial vari creando tani1,iri el derecho cori fuerza y poder iridisciitihles. Y aiiriqiie el artciilo lercer-o tiel Ccdigo Civil Iiaya dispiiest o 'qiie las scritciicias jildiciales rio ticricii fiierza obligatoria sirio respccto d e las caiisas eri q11c aetu;ilr~ieiitese proriiiiiciarcii' y 's6h toc:i al legislaclor cxl>lic;ir c iriterpr-etai la ley (le i i r i rriotlo gc~iiei;iliiiciiicoI>ligator.io', la vcr(i;i<les qiie la ,jiii.is~ji.iitleiici;~, sol>rc 1 0 < 1 0 si tbsdi<.iadaI>or.1;t P:xciiia. (:or-ic, Siil>scriia, y (le ticlic i i i i v;iloi- iii~~iic~stioriiil~lc Iieclio i-csiilta 'g<~iici-alrricrilc ol>ligitoi~i:i"'.Mis a<lcl;iiiii,e1 rriisirio aiitor. tbxalia la l>osil~ili<li<l (le iidapl;~.iii que licric I:i jiirisl>i.iiclc-iic.ii,i.ccoiiocic~i<lo qiii e1 ,jiit.z siiplc 1;i (Icficic.iici:i Iigal, al 1)iinto que es v;ilitlo sost<.iicigol>ici-~ia":<~. (liic la ley i-ciii;iy 1:i jiii~is~>i~iiclciici;i k:ii la (l.<~ii(la 70, 0 1 1 - 0 ;iporic~ i t.ri<.ii<.iitr-a el ti-alxljo riio(1c.1 s <.ti riogi;lic.o iIc.1 ~)rol'csor- I)cn.clio Iiitt~i~riacioii;il 1Iei-iiai.tlo tic (loli c.1 (;isclii Miillir: '1311 coiiio l o i.c~.oiio<.c :iiior, iiiotiv;ttlo eii iiri 1)i.iiiici. irioiiiciilo :I (.oriiciiiiir li sciitciiciii (le la (:orSte(Ic Apcliicioiies (le (:oiiccpci<iii, (Ic 27 tlt. iliiiyo ( l i l!)tj<),(lile 1i;il)a acc>i>iado coirio tic iiovc.tla(l la i.c-~ijiist:il)ilitl~i<i la iridiiiiriizacicri de perjiiicios poi. r~t~s~~ori~d~ilicI~i(l exti-a<.oritr.actiial(tlcs(le el Iieclio ilcito a la fcclia tic 1ii seiiteiicia qiie ordcria pagar-), tirniiriti escribicrido iiria nioI)incirnic.cr, en la qiie rrogi-aila cori e1 siiger-ciite ttiilo,jz~risjfrru~lvrrt~i(i irivitaha a r-eflexioiiar-"sobre la iiecesidad de atlccuai- el Der-eclioa la r.ealidad social, a travs de la Doctriiia y clc 1a.Jiirispi-~idericia"~~~. Eii uii br-eve y coritiiridirite al-iciilo pul>licado eli l$)X5 1101- el pi'oSesoi' 'le 1)ereclio (:i\il tlori Knrriri Dorririgiicz Agiiila, se Iiaci

I)(.

riria 1"-ofiiri(1a llarria(ia d i iteiicitiri so1)r.e e1 valor. de la jiirispr-iidericia. (:o11 graii realisriio el aiitor afirnia: "...aparece hoy eri dki ya filcr-a de toda diida el Iiecho cliic, de iiri rriodo u otro, lajiirispriidericia es creadora de regla.jurdica y no al rnodo o seritido kelseniario, de regla iridividilal, sirio de sentido comuri de regla general. Evideriteinentt:, esa creacin se hace de tiiodo insensible, tal vez encubierto; las ms de las veces bajo la figura o disfraz de interpretacin de una regla legal, de precisidn de si1 contenido y alcance. En un sistema de derecho tan influenciado por el legalismo y el positivismo, como es el nuestro, es evidente que muy raramente iin tribilnal pretender directamente dictar uria norma para una situacin 110regida por la ley y sieinpre pretendir encubrir sii soluci6n eri tina regla escrita. Pero quienes nos dedicariios tanihiri a la prctica del derecho, sabeirlos perfectamente qiie el debate sobre el liigar de lajiirispr.ii<ienciacomo fiiente del dereclio rio tieiie gran serirido, porqiie la realidad de cada (la demuestra que, al decir de hll~aladejo, la Icy r-eiria,la jiirissi pri~'enc:iagol~iei-iia, lirista c l piiriio qiie iiii;i seiiteiicia piicdc liaccr iriiitil iiria ley o tiarle uri alctncc iiriperisado. 1,a qiierella al respecto, maritcnitla hasta estos tieriipos por- los doctririadores, es iin qjerriplo de inversin de eriornie ingeriio y grandes taleritos; pero divorciada t-le la realidad":'!'. A fines de la dGcada tie los iioventa del siglo pasatlo, dentro de una discusiii acadniica sobre iiria eveiitiial reforriia al Ttulo Prelirniiiar del Cdigo Civil, el profesor Doniiigiiez Agiiila volvera sobre el tema, proporiiendo derechamente qiic " ( . . .) sera bueno abordar de una vez la consideracin de la doctriria jurispriidencial como fuente del derecho. En tal sentido, la regla debera ser alterada, porque sin perjuicio d e mantenerse el carcter relativo de la cosa juzgada, qiie es uii problema, existe otro, cual es el de extraer de la jurisprudencia constante una norma que tenga efecto vinculante. Ello determinara ms certeza, que es absolutamente necesaria en Chile, de que la Corte Siiprerna, por la va de sus poderes absoliitos, mantiene una jus-

l l ( . i ; l .(..\\O , l # l \ O ' . ( l l l ( k l~(~slll~:lt ~ x ~ ~ l i ~:i \,(,( l(.Sl:ti 1 ) l t i ; I l ; l . iil ~;l ~ ~~ ;\ii~c*sO I I;i \.i;i t l ( . l i.c.(.iii.so (le. ( ~ i i r : j ; i . Iii(.go I ) O I . 1;' vi;( tl(.l (.j(.i.c.iI) (.o tl(. siis I;ic.iili;itlc~s olicio y atierris p o r I;i v;i (I(* I;i ~ ) I . O I ( Y (lec.itii. I':s iiecc~siir-io 1)oiic.i. i i r i c . i c . i - t o or<lc~ii ol)lig;ii-i i i r i ; i i i i < . i i ( . r y c.ritcrios c.oiis~:iritis"'~'. TirribiCii se percibe i i r i iiiterito i.evisioiiist;i, aiiiiqiic. iriiiy tiiiitlo, eii 1 1 explicacioiics tic don (:arios Ducci (:laro; eii iiriiis 2s iiotas coriteiiidas eri sil Inlrodz~ccin n l d ~ r ~ c k o despii6s de ciuil, c.x~)oricr tesis tr-adicioiial, el aiitor- advierte: ". ..ailiiqiie es tala cil decir que la,jur-ispiiidericia rio crea el derecho, qiie las sciitc.iicias iio tiencri rrias Siiei-za qiic la qlic se;ila el ai-riciilo :3" tlcl (ktligo <:ivil, es posible ver qiie eri 1;t pr5ctic;i i l j,;irior'arii:i es iiiiiy <lif'crc~itc"'~'. segiii(lo, Ihicci piiiitiializa: "Es por. lo ;liiActo tc-rior.riicritc'c'xpiieslo (]tic los iiiitore.~ Iiaii pl;iiite;ido iiiiic.ii;is se cbs vcccs Iir ir1it.r.i-ogiiiiic( 1 ~ .si la jiirisl)i-ii<lc~ric.i:t o no i i i i ; i fiiciiic. 101-iriiil (1c.i-eclio",coiicliiy(.ii(lo (1ucX, tlcl "...si l)i<.ii I;i,jiii-isl)i.iiclc.iicir no es i i i i ; i liic~iitc101-iri;il (Ic.~.<~c~lio, se-iiticlo ~ri.i(.o (1c.1 c.11 e1 y (le la c,xl~i-(.si<iii, M I I1;ilt;i (le gciici-;ilicl;i<l ol>lig;i~oi.ic~tl;itI, por 1);ir;t e1 p:i~-lic.iil;ii lo (.S, y;\ (lile sil fii-c.iciitlitlotlei.e.clio, cii cl s c;iso (Ic clisciisiii, s6lo sc.15tal si e-l ,jiic./ l o i-ecoiiocc."". l;s i i r i :llltol~ p;iiIc (le- l;1 I)~sc (lile 1 1 0 c-xisl(. ~>ol~t~llilc (l(~sl~lcIr~ qIlC iiri; 1);ii.alos <-:isosc.oric.i~<~tosi iiii<.:isoliic,itiii, sic,ii(lo la i i o r - r i i ; i , j r i r<li<.:ii r i c-r-iic-1-io oric.rit;ic.itiri, ya q i i ~cii, siis p;il;il>i.:is,"el (le,i (le ~ r.c.clio se. i-eiliza ;i ir;ivi.s de. 1;i tlc.cisi6ii jiii1ici;il"'~~. ~ i~ 0tr;i c'xplic;tc.i<jri tlivcrs;~a 1:i tii(li(~ioii;il ) r o l ) o i1'al)lo lio(Irgiicz (;rez, c > l i S I I tr;~I):ijor/ijorf(~ I(L ;~tL(~rf)ro/(~ci(;/~ (l(, IIP jur(ljca, 10I)O. I)<~sl~ii.s tlesai-r.ollar-i i i i i tesis sol~r-c iiiitc.r-i;i que (1;i <ic Iir iioiril~rea 1 ; ~rrioiiogi-;ifla,coiict.tle a 1;i~jiirisl,riitlcr1ci;i i i i i (lctci~ iriiriatio valor, deiiiro tlc lo que rlcrioriiiriii el r.ri-//.rio (lp I.OII,OT(>~II.~(I ,jzrri.s/~ru~i~r~~i(cl. el aiitor; "caste critcr-io delle scr estiiriatlo Segiii c-oriio auxiliar, ya qiie iio pr-opor-cioria-o rio <iebt.~ pi-opor-cioliar- i i r i elerneiito directairieiitt~ destinado a extraer- de la 1101-iriii
(
>,

N o o l ) s t : t i i t c s los ;itisl>os(1~. r.cvisi6ii oiic i i i c ~ i ~ ) i c ~ i i l < ~ i i sc. 1 1 1 ~ ic iiiicbslr.iii.c.iilitlatl, la vci.riad ( ~ i i (c.~ (.st;itlo ;i(.iiiiil 1 del tcriia coiitr-asta vivairit~iitc. . o i i lo qii(. Iiii ociir-i.itlo c.11 o1i.o~ ( ~);~isc.s, tarril)iCii ti-i1)rit;irios ilel sistt.iriii coiitiri<.rital. I'or- c.it;ir. cjcrriplos de p:iises ~jiir.tlic:iriic.titt~ iifiiics, la 1itt.i-atiii.a c.spiiiola c itiliiria las iltirrias ili.c;irl:rs 1i;i sido prolfica eri la prodiicde ciii de iriattli-id acir-c:i tlcl valor- de la jiirispi.iitlericia. Desrlc las y aboi-darido tlistiritos ti>picos, irlas v;ir.ixlas tlisci~~liiias,ji11-i(iic:1s se haii ef'eciii~icio ~)rofiiridas r-eflexiorics solrri el valor d e los pi-ecc(1eritcsjiidiciales. E:ritr.e la ahiiiidaiite literatiira es obligatoi.ia la r-ifei-crici:t a los trabajos tlc Diei--Picaza, Oller-o, Nieto, Moral Soriiirio, (;asctiri Ahc.ll;iri, (;orla, <:liiassoiii,Tii-iifti)ls,cic. Eii el t l t - r v ~ l i ocoriil)tr.;itlo,triiil~ic'.ii coiiii~il~iiiiio estc 1i:i n (:orisiitircioii;iI~~s. 14:ii dcs;ir.i-ollo I:i iiiic.i-vc.iicitiii t1(. los '1'1-il)iiiialc~s c.li.(.lo, 1xir':i ltrtc~l:ii- cit. i i i i iiioilo i-(.;iI c.1 ~)r.iii(.il)io igii;il<l;iil, c.ii iiiii~~liiis oc~;isioiicssc. Ii;iii iiriiil:iilo sc~iiic.iici;isciri;iii;i(l;is (1(.
;i(lvic.r.lc~ii cii
t l ( b

sc. iii;iiii li(bsi;i sic.iiil)i.c. r.11 i-c.gl;is;il)sii.;ic.i;is, ;i Iiis ( ~ I I C '

soiiicslcbi~s(~ ;iI i.c.sol\.c.i.i i i i


triir-io,
c b l

c,iiso siiigiil;ii:

F:ii I;i iiiglc~s;~,

('1 jiic'z (I(.l)(. l>or. c.1 (.oiilos

I)asa(l~is. I+:sio i ~ i i i i ~ i i ~ (:liil(. liici~ii i i i i i M c ~ ~ ; i j i i r ~ i s ~ ~ i i i ~ I c ~ i i c i ; i l . o si ; ~ i (Ioiitl(,

< l < ~ i ~ ~ .i i oi i oi i i i i t i v o ; i p ; ~ i - ( ~ r ( ~ I . <.oiiio i i i i (I(.i.(.(~lio tl(.

I;IS

I('y(-s liit.i.aii ti111 c1;ii;is chii~)iop'siio t . x p i . c s i ( i ~ l a 1 1

;li<'i.cs,< ~ O l i i O illl

citiri

<l<~r<~c~lio l.i~\/t~l:i<lo los r~;lsos.l i i i 1;i <.O"<<.[><.il c ~ o i i i i i i ( . i i l i i l , 1;i iiiisi(ii1 (ir los ~ i i ( ~ c ( ~ s chsl0ririiil;ir- cri ~ i i c;iso i

,~oiill>i~c"siivls cii;iiito ;i e11

(I"'.

10<10slos llliiii;irios i ~ ~ i i i <;1r1ic lO~

los

ti-it>iiri;il(,s<Ic'jiistic.i;i fiicr.;lii ~)i-ccis;i iinifi~r-rri(.riic~itc ,jiiz+.

('oiicr'cbto iiiias 1-cgl;is iiiiles oi.tleria(liis cii ti'i.iiiiiios gciici~rlcs.


Aplic;i, iio ci-c;i, iioixrias j~iridii~;is"!'~.

g'ltiO\"

cl 111:iiio t.riipii-ice ;iu;il;i l o ;iiitei.ioi- Iii exposici<iii qiic liin) Ricli:ii.tl (:app;illi, profesoi- i i o i - t e ~ i r r i e i - i c ~cliie ~ ~ ~ i i \,isit<i <:liilc diii 11 I 1 1 I O ~ I I Esie iiiitoi r o i i gi.aii cl;iritlitl tl<:j<i I . ir'ti';ttii<lo el cstii(lo <le121 ciic'sticii, r-csiilt~iii~lo ~ l i g ; i t o ~ ti;iiisol ~io c,~-il)ii. s i g i ~ ~ c ~ i l c s los j)5r-i.;i[Ostic sil iii\~(*stig:i~~i6ii: "(~Iiilcl ) i i i ~ ( ~ ( ~ ( ~ p('i's('giiii; cxsi ( . o i i \ x ~ i i g i i i z i i ,c.1 ~ ~ o s i i ~ l i i t l o tl(. qucX I('gisl;it.i\ril 1;'
Eii
l i l l ~ ~ >,, 110 I;is ( : o ~ . I ( ~ s , 1;i ( ~ i l ( ~ ; l l ~ g i l ( l ~ l l c,s (lt, ci~cb;li~ I ( . ~ ( % S . l'liil1iis 1,;i

I,a f , t l t ~ tlc I,I coc iip'ic icri por 1" c\tlhiliti,ul (le I,i jiii ispr iidiiilis nericr atlo iiiia ienlidatl cii 1'1 cliie cstd pc'rrriitido, jiii iiirigri l i ~ i t r , i i e cisos ;iii.ilogos se pilrclari i-csolvcr cii t o r r r i ; ~ q <liuers;i, siii rcpai:ir qile ello coiistitiiye iiri;i ahi(brta irilr;icciii al p le 1 1c S 11 o i s t i t ~ i (ii r . 19 No2). LJii caso rrrih1crr~'itico cii esta rri;itc.rii se dio el $1 (te octiibrt: dc l < M l ; ~ 1 (1irh:i ol)oi-tilr~i~iicl, 1 121 (k)i-tc S \ I ~ K . ~ I I I L (los setiiiotiir6 i,t
<1

tcri<.iasc~stiil)lccit~ritlo soliiciori~s rri;iiiificstaiiic~i~tc coiiti':i(lic.lor1i;~s


so1)i.c iiiii ii~isiilii iiiatvi-ii coiiir~ovci~ticlii: iiuli(I;i(i la

l l i i l l 0 1 s i s t s c i l i l l ~ l l l l i l 1 i

;1Iic;

( S I

<"'si.I)o

(I(.

i i o i - i r i ; i s I(.g;iI(>s -ctitligos

oii.;is

I(*),c.s-;i los

li(~.lios (le. (.;i(I;i(.;iso".

- l s i ( ~i i o ( l o ti(. i

I)<~IIS;II i(~.li;iz;i (loiii.iii:i iI<.sc-~i(.ii<i;i I;i 1)i.es-

c.c.tl(.iiics ( . \ l ( t ~ clwi.\i\) r~

(1(,1

( . o ~ t ~ ~l(170.o t ~ ( . O I I I i.;ii.io,S(* (I(y.i(l(. (.;i(I;i t~

/21

(.ilSO i l i i ~ ~ v ~ l i l l ~ ~ l l l ~. O 1 , I)O(.i, ~ ) i ~ ( ~ o ( ~ i l ~1)OI.( 1;is (l~ ( ~ s 0 I i l si11o ( ~ 1 );l ~i ~ll

(.ioiicssj~itlic.i;il(~s ~ . ; i tliis (.ii i.c

(.;isos s c ~ i i i c : j i i i i t c ~csi i i

c.1

~>:is;i<lo. ( :liilc

ll(>g:i (*sit\ . t > ~ ~ i I i i i( ,(I Il ov i t ~ i i ( I( l ( b l i i i ; i i ~ ~ I ~ i ~ o i i i ~ ~ t.11i c*ll (:(j:I ~ ~ t o i i ~ o (ligo (:i\,il ( . l i i l ( . i i o , c.1 (.ii;iI ;~(l\~ic.i-ic*' 1;'s (I(*c.isioii<.sl ( t los ii-i(IIIC t I ) i i i i ; i l t ~i c ~ i i ( ~ i i i Iii(.i.z;i ol)lig;iioi.iii s6lo ( 5 1 1 los c.iisos (.II los c.ii;ilt-S
Iiiiii

sitlo

l)i.oiiiiiic~i;itl;is".

"...los ,jiic.(-(.s c ~ l i i l e ~ i i c ) ~ iiitliii;iii iiiiiy S<.


111 i i i c i p i o

~ ) o ( .;I o l ) ( * ( l ( . ( . c ~ i o

(11

( 1 ~ . I;i

iiiisiii;~ o l i i c . i t i i i I);IK;I s los iiiisiiios c.;isos. 1~:sc~;is;i-

de iina cxl>i.o~)i:i<~i(iii; tLiii i i i c . ; i s i iic~ogi6 i i i i.ct~iii.so 1 ~ .( I I I < : ~ ~ (l;iti<loliigai. ;i I;i i ( I, ;ic.ciiiii ti(, i.c-ti.o(.c~sitiii poi 1 1 0 1 1 i i I ) ~ ~ w c.iiiiil)li(lo ( . o 1 1 1;i liiiiili(l;i(l ~ ~ i l > l iq ; ie ~ i i t o i i / , O ~ ~ x ~ > i ~ o l ) i ; i cLii i i i ; ru I;i i ~ i i oti.o. (Ics(~stiiil<i rerl el (.iii.so tlcs c.;is;ic-itiii ( > i i el1 I O i i t l o iiicr-l>iic.sto1)oi. ('1 (Ic.iii;iii(!iiiit(~, sosl(~llicll(I0 (lile lil i l ( ~ ~ i 0 (l(, l~c~ti~O(~c'si(~11 11 1 1 0 (~stilxl c~oilic~1ll~~ll~l;l (,ti riii<'sti.o oi-tlc.ii;iirii(.i~~o. 13;ii.;iI;i gai;iiiiia coiistitii(.ioii;iI (Ic. igiiiilil;t(l ;iiite lii ley chst;tliii(li(.i~ c.oiii(~i(I(~ii(~i;i 110 1)1i(losoi. 11i:s I(>S~V:I, y;\ (]U<', c g l i i Ii<.~>O<li<lO~ \ ~ ~ t ' i g 1 i ; ili iIi1;l f i l < ' l l l < ' <lilX'<lil, illli i)O Vil I)os i.c.c.iir-sos c.1 p;ii~.o(.iniuitc el rriisirio ;il)og;iclo"'. ci-;i Ll I i l ) c ' - i - i - i i r ~ o cstiitiito (111ci i c i i ( ~ jiii~is~)rii(Icri(~i;i i i i ~ ( ~ s t i ~ o 1;i e 1 1 or-drbri;iiiiiciito Ii;i sido li.iito (Ic r.cc.or-r.c,iiiri 1211-go c.;iiiiiiio. Atiriqiic ni;is ;i(It.l;irit(- ~ I c s ; i i ~ - o l l i i ~ - csiis o s i i ~ c;iiis;is,
1)e1~ie)si i ( . q

l l i ( ~ l l l (S(* \,eb ~ c,I ( ~ O l I ( ~ ( ~ ~(10 O ( ~ i l t c ~ ~ l ()~ ~ ~ ( ~ ( ~ ( l((>~ li I;is ~ ( ~ l l I ( ~ i 1 ) l s ~ l i(l i lic ~

poi

iiIioi.;~ iiitiri-

~>osil>l(* i i i i \,oliiiiic.ii (.iitcbi.o 1cx.i. cIc ,jiir-is1,i-ri(leii<.iii siii ~ ( - 1 -c.iti(l;ii i i i i i i i i sol;i s<*iit<.ii<iiiju(li(iiii iiiil<*i~i<)r:( . o ~ i i o 110 Ii~il)ici-ii es si 1111 ~)iisil(lo 1);ii.ii l j s i c i o l i i l c i o i i i o (111c. sol;iiiieiitc Iic-(.llos (I(,I c;iso y las p;il;il)i.as t l r la Icy". r . . . roda lo qiie I i i tliclio sciicilliiiiiciitr pocli.i;i ser. iii1:i siitiI c ~ i , c.1 jiii.ist;i cliilcrio l'iici.;~ si c.al,;ir tltl o1)iciic.i. i-csiilt;i(los (.oi'i'c'c'los y coiisistc.ritc.s, siii i.(.li~i-ii-sc. los c s f ' i i c ~ i . ~ o s siis ;iiiic'i (le

(.i;is c.liil(.ii;is t l t b ;il)c~l;i(.itiii. Es iiii;i i.c'\'ist;i

ello se
iiria

vi~iciilii~ ) i - i i i i o r ~ < l i i l l i i i v r(.o11 las sigilictiics ~tc

(1(.

1") (;o11
aplicaciri

tro iiiedio se ha

f o r rri,i (le ciitentlrr cl firirririio jilrtli( o. Eri iiilisqilr toclos los prol:>lviii,is<le tlcl <Irricliopara cl c.i\o con( reto \r rcsolvri-iaii con cl
ncipintlo, cieg,urierite,

6'

<:;\I)PAI,I.I, Uii.liai r l , "1'1 o < - c t l i i r i i r . i i t o c i v i l coi1il>;ii.;i<lo: < : s ~ ~ l o si l i d o s , (:liilr I Ll y S ~ l < I : l i l ~ ~ ~ ~ c.11 ; ~ /"J,T I ~ , ~ / /(,7/i/,1t,, I / , J I),~tv/It,, v o l . l \ j , N" 2, l$)!12,111). 24:?-245. ic / I I.;ic ~;<.IIIVIIC~;I\ <.51<ii11)111)lic~i<li1s lii 1<1?Ii 1. S%, s c c . .:>". 207.228 (I<(.c.11 ])p. (.iii-.;o tl(. cltl<:j;i < I ( s t l i i < . i c l o 1)oi < I o i i , l o i - g c . I\;ii-;iIioii;i l l.; i ( ~ c - i i i s o(11. (.is,ic i t i i i (I<.<Iii(-i(\() (,ii 10s , , ~ I ~ o".hsl)ill;ig,;i i.oii ( : o i ; i V ) . 1';ii-;I c.1 < . o i i o c i i i i i c i i t o ( \ c ;ilil1)o< 1r~r.Iii-SO'; .; t o i i ( . ~ i i . i . i < ~ i . ol io s i i i i i i i s l i s < ~ i i o i . c ~ s l o s < : ,i I*:y/;igiiii i ~ . I\/l;ii.(-os i\l)iii-lo (). ). 1;sM;II , 1:1lli\l;l~l Y l ' 1 i l i ~ : l(:.

"'

c'oiictto iii:iiic.jo tic. las i.cgl;is (Ic. iiitcij>i-c.i;icitiii<I<. I;I ICV, ~,i.c*visi;i~ e11 los ii~~tc~iilosal 24 tlc.1 (:)tligo (:vil. 1,;i postiii.ii ;iiit(~i~ioi~ 19 Ii:i Ilc~irlo ci-i.(iico ;il coi1vciiciiiiic11to<Ic. ( l i i r . l:i (,crtczii y ~ < . g i i i ~ i < l ; ~ l ji~i~(licis ( ~ 0 1 1 ~ i ~ l l t ~ l l se ~~i~oi~iiilyiiiitlo s I I C R ~ ~ I I ( i O jiii.isI>~~iIIcy~ , ~ Iii i (It.iic,i;i ioda ~~;trticip;ici(iii Iii c,orisc.c.iicitiii tic tiiclios Kilor.cs. cri

(.I,C*(%

:i l ) ~ ~ i ~ ~ i c ~ . ; i vist;~,iii(.Iiiso (-11 1111 sistciri;~ c.oi~io

el

i i i i t ~ s t i ~(lchlio,

l l i ( l ( ) vil

(SI

ter.i.ciio

cI(. los

l>i~iii<.il)ioso i i i o (~ escii(~i;ili~i(~iit(~ I(.g;ilisiiii:i

;l 10s (.;ISOS cori(retos ( 1 1 1 ~ ~ ~~rcsciitiiti l;i se cii

2") El IYgi~lii<l~ii-tiii ~~~~~~~ido cii;iiiiific;ir 1;i ~ i l > ; i ~ i < lrc:il l iio ii< <IrI;i <:or-ti Siipi-rrri;i [ n i ~lri<lrr geiici-ai-~ e i i t c i i c ~<Iiieteiigaii i is v;ilor de ~>i.crclerite.El clev.~clo iiiiincro (le caiisas que le 1. coii rresporiditlo risolvcr a riii(~stro rrixiriio ti-ihiirial lia sido hisrcir-icarneiitc 1111 elelileiito dcterriiiii;iiitr. qiic Ii;i iiiricliclo i i c g i t i ~ i -

i 1 hrtaleciiiiieiito de la,jiir.ispi~iidciicii~. sitii;iciii Esta q11e los ciitci-ios (le clccisitiri scaii j~i~cticniririitc iii;rl)ortl;il>lc.s, ~1;i11<10 Iiigii ;i coiiti~;itlic(~io~ii.s (.oiiipi.oi~ic~t<.ii <iucb el i;iloltl(. I;i sc.giiritl:itl jiii-(lic;i. (:oiiio coiisc~c~ri(~iici;ilo ;iiitci.ioi-,VI i-c(11. c.iii-so (1~.cas;ic.i(iiic1ri (-1 fOii<lo1i;i si(lo i i i o l x ~ i ~ ; i i ~ t ( ~ (~;ii;iliz;i(.OIIIO t l o i - (1c Iii tloctriiia j i i r ~ i s l ~ r ~ r i ~ l ~ ~ i i ~ ~ i ; i l .
irieiitc cii 1i;icr.

ri.gIx <Icd ( . l i . < t i ~ vida r c ~ lriis>ir~(~li~iii, (10 o liiiiiuiido e ciiiillo <le aplicac-i0ir rlc ia1t.s iioi-iii:is. L'.I pro1 1,lcrria cri rsti piiiito es slo sat~ei- liiiite qiic se dehc rc.coii<rcci. el a 1 ~ )jiicces a la Iiora <Ir <lcci<lil;espr;cialoieiitc ciiaiido rxisicii s tiir-cctrices.~iir.isprudericiiles sohi-c ti11 tlrtiiiiii~iacio tenia provrriieiitcs cle la <:oi-te Sirprenia. (Z)iiio l o apurita Ollcro, "la pi-actica del d r i r c l i o iio coiisistr cri la r ~ f ~ l i m c i h i i iiiia receta tc<ii-ira,coiiteiiitl~i de <:ti la ley""'. "1 .i : ;ictivi<li(l jiii-clica es csciri;iliiicritc iiii jiiicio, iiii cn~iiiciiiiiiciii<> coiici-ct;i ;i 12, 1 i 1(le iiiios priiici[~iosr i i ~ o ~ i t i \ l o s " ~ ~ . ~ \ (le i i i i a c(;iic~iict;i "l.;, li/y,>,yj(jr/ f i i j ( j o , i n C I I I ~ . 1" s(.nle~ici;i t,iicici-i-;iiio es i ~ < . s i i l t i i < ~ ~ > (1<,
{:t.I.;i iiiisiii

<l<.t o < l o jiii.ist;i es I:i <le:il)lic:ii.

,111 ;isil)ti(,o /~,orno (~>oiil/i(o; iiiil)li(-iiI;i iiiilisiiiiiil;il>lc :i1>ii<'st:i I>OI. iiii;~ ~ < b l < . i ~ i ~o /i~ rij; ; r< ~ii ~~ 1'1 < i i i ii l i ( .

~ ) i ~ o < ctic-iic. < . o i i i o f'iiiiciti 1121so

3,') I i l

:lllsc~llci~l l l l l ~ ~ l l~ 1 1 l~l ~ ~ l l : l s -~ ll~ (lc(~;ltl;ls-(le, l 1 l < ~ ~ ~ : l l l i s l l l o s

(.ci.I;i i~;izoiiiil~lc, ol>ligiiiitloi ;ii~giiiiiciit~ii1;i. ,iiic,r i i o I:,l <l;icl;iiio(-oii patciitc.

cfi.c.livos l>iii;i

c.vilai. I;is
Ii

( l i s c ~ i . i i i i i i i ; i ( ~ i o i i (ji~(li(.i;il<.s'~. .s

1,os ~)os~til;i<los liiii-ic.os (]ii(. 11iiii cliici.itlo i.c.tlii<.ii.

(SI

li~iitrii(~-

1 J 1

01 l i [

rrl,/j(.cli.i(jr/,

si ic-iiiii-

I)c.ii <-ii:i~i(lo ol)sc.i~\;iI;i ix.;iliil;itl rlii<. siii.p. (Ic. I;i j i i i ~ i s l > i ~ i i t l c ~ i i ( - i ; i . S(.

k:ll chliTl0,;ltlll(]~l(b fli.c~tciltl;l ~ i ~ o c l i l l 1tiiic l ~ <lci~c<~llo S(, ~ 1 ~ l c.1 es l>\ l e y i~;itlic j>iic'tIc. <I(.sc.oiii)cc.i-I I C ' Ii liiii(-ioiijiii-istlic.c.ioii;iI (I ; <.ii iiiiigiii c;iso (.S 1111 i i ~ i i O i t i ( ~ i irigi(lo, ).:i ( ~ i i c .I;i 1c.v uii sic.ii(lo :i(l;il>t;io cI;i p o i losjiicccs (Ir. iiii iiio(Io iiiii(.lio iii;is 1lcxii)lr (Ir lo c ~ i i c se

es 1111 ciii(le coi.so ~ ~ a riiiil)oiici SIIS 11rol)i;iscx)ttvi(,ii ( ~ i o i i c s 1,:i siiyi l i i i t l c b ser- i i i i ; ~opci(ii1 C t i c > i , e11 lo posil)l(~ . '(l(.irioc.r-;itic.;i'; (.oirio (I<.l>iti sc.i-lo 1ii 1c.y que 1 ~ sii.vc iilior-ii <lel'iiii. d;liriciito. b i (o(10 c.;iso, S(. ti-;tt;ii-;i(le iiiia ol)(.ii>ri vigil;itla, soiii<.:i ti(l;i ;il r.ortlri)ltl<. siic~c.siv;is iiistiiiici;~~; I)iisc.;iiitloi i i i i~csiilta(1o itis 10 iiji~stil(lo posil)lc, I>CI.O CI 111~1101 i.011 'costo ~ ~ > < . i i i l " ' ~ . (le 1115sri~<licitl lit cotli<le I)cs(lc o 1 1 . o ~ > i ~ i i t o visiu, Iii post~i.;i fic;ici(jii,qiic pi(,t<biitli<i cxoiilsiii ;i 1;iiiii-is~)i-ii(lc~iiei~ coino l'ii<.iiti' del dir-cclio,Iia sido <lc~si~icritida iioiiil~lcs cori ~jciri1,los. A cxstii
iiltiii.;i, iia(lic piic.(lc sosteiici -sci~i;iiriciit(~- 111-ci11is;i Iii ilu(' t'ljiicz

In I f y ~>:ii.;i soliiciri <Ir. iiii caso < - o i i c r . ~ ~ t o , la si sil activitlad Iiicr-a l a tie iiri iristriiriicrito iiit'rtc. Eri cstc orcleii de ideas, la p r e o c i ~ ~ a c i por e l estiidio de la ii iiii-ispril<lrriciair iriiplica rii 1111 clespi-ecio por las iiorriias legal ~ . ; rii rrieiios iiria proclariia para caer cri la metodologa d i la
siilo
tlrbc c c / ) l i r m coriio
1 1

do eri

cr.iter.ios ideolgicos

alierita

yjiistifica ciialqilicr- iriterpi-e-

l;i(.i(ll tlc*
,jii(*/ i i o

I:is llol~lll:ls~"'. (:oiilo lo t*X1l0i1tS (;;li.(,;l (lt* I : ~ l l t ~ l ~"k;I ~ i ~ tbs,(,oiiio y;i s;il)t~iiios, i i i (ii.g;iiio (.ic*o-o ;iiiioiiiiiiit~o I t . i y (

i :

alAi(,:ic-itiii
i.c.iIio

1)11('(1(~scXr scrioi. t l ( b l (\t.e1 <%ii ii11;i so(.i(~(l;i(l l ~ i - ( .(. igii;ilii;it.i;i. 1)i. i i i ~ < . \t-1 l)~l)(.l (1(. li ~o
tic
l;is

I(~y(~s, 1)('1.0

1;1111po(.o

la ](.y se i-t~vcl;i t r;il c irisiistiliiit)l(~ > i i 1:i soc.ic(l:i<ltl(.riio<.r;itit.cii ( por 111:is( ~ U C Iiiiya (le coiivivir. c.oii 1;i ~~rc.ciiiiiic.ii(~i:i 1i ( A O I ~ S clc ; ' tiiii(i(ii1 y coii el p;ipcl, yii 110 iiciiii.o s i ~ i o activo. (lcljricx, I>W.O siciiipi-t. ;il>or:i(lo ;il scl-vicio de I;i <~oi~siitiici<iii y <Ir1;1 Ley y clc siis valorcs propios. iZ1 sistirriit jiir-tlico rio le iriter-esaii iiatla las opiriiotiis [>u-soiialcs(Ir qiiiciics acti:iri coriio,jiieccs, siiio stilo sil c a p ; ~ i t l a dp;ir.a expr.s;~r-las iiorrtiiis qrie la sociccli(l st, h;i <l;i(Io a s i ~ i i s r i ~ ;~ : I I . ;li;i(.t~rl:~s c p i . :i sil (~fk(.~i\~i(I:i(l y ~ I Il 6Itiiri:i,
c;i, 10 <111<' )<'S illlj><>li(. Ol><'l.ill. l l ' < ~ ~ i l l ~ i i l l l l < '('011' \lis ~ > l i l l < ' i [ > i O ~ , ~ ll~t < l i ~ ) ~ i ~ ~ ; ;iiii;iiitlo sii ;iI(.;~ii(.c""~'. i~i<lo

1'1
i('s
< I t b I

i ~ ~ ~ c ~ o r i o c ~ i < lrt bI:i,jiii~isl>i-ii<lc~~~t~i;~ i i i ~ ~ ~ ~ l o t L i i rI sisit~iiiii (leb Iiic.ii<l<*i~t.(Iio (.S iii;is iio

la

IIii

i i i ~ < ~ s ii i i~ .o l i o ~>ic~tloiiiiii;i itlc.;i r ( t I;i

tic.

(lii(.

c.1

~):ii.;i(ligiii;i tl(. 1;i

~>i.oyt.(.<,i(ii I:i rlt-

iii;ixiiii;i t j i i c .
(,(,(1

Iiiciiic

i l i l , ; l l i ~ i s ~ pl.:(,li(.o ;l

(\(.I

tlei.t.c.lio

es I;i

1~-y.r ) ;iiitci-ioiI cxs(-oiiscciicirti;i

tlcl

I)I'C-

11 i l i l ~ [)[icYlt,p(~iIl(.i. ~ ~ l

//y (I(~r.c.c./~,ctsi,^

jrr(~-,.

\~isl;l, S;) ;i t)tT:

,/o

iloiiiiiiio ( ( i i ( . Ii:i i < . i i i ( l o ( . i i i i x -

i ~ o s o i ~ ~ o(I(.iioiiiiii:iilo t.1 s

l)o,\ilii>i<-

Ilr~v:i<lot b i i iiiii.sii~osisit.ili;i ;i (jiit.i.(.i i g i i o i ; i i . I ; i , j i i i - i s ~ ~ ~ - i i ( , i it c.1 ~ sisit~iri:~ Iii~~ii1t.s tIr%i.(l<.Iio ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ t tl(. t1c.l soii tlt. i i t l o l t t i,;iii;i(l;i. y S(, ;il)oi.(l;iti c.11 los ~ ) i ~ < i x i i i i o ; i l > i ~ ~ i l o ~ . (. s
1 .:is
i . : i ~ o i i ( . s( 1 1 1 ~ 11:iii

~ t ~ e ~ ~ ~ ( I / ~ . s~ ( I ~ ( - t o ( I o l o(gt t;. i 11.ii1ii / ) I ~, l i


jiii.iili(~o ~):it~ti(.iiilo I:i tI(* ~>i-oiiiiilgi<Io t 1)o

(lc,

rxl)Ii(.;ii. (-1

I i ~ i i O i ~ ~ c i i ~

I):ist.

qu(.

"o 11:iy tii:is

rlt.i~~iIio i i ( . <~

('1

c.1 l'o<l<.i; ~ ~ o i ~ t - t ~ s ~ > o ~ i ~;i iIos,jiii.t<.s y t ~ s l < : ~ ~ ~ I o I il>ol)~.iiiic'i.o

g;i<Ios1;iii s(ilo i i i i i ~ i ~ l ) i ~ c ~ . o; i i 10so~ ~ I S ~ I ~ I I I ~ ~ c g iIt I ( o s S t ~ i ~l < l I ~ ~ i ~ <.oii~ ~tsiii<losi i c-

c.1 i i i i i l o
i i o 1

(1c.I

(:(<ligo(:ivil6'. 0 1 t i l 0 l 1 l l 0 l 1 1 I;i

svgi

l t i

lile

i I g i i s : ~ i i o ~o s o M c i l i s Aiiiiiiidit~giii IXryrs ( 1862- l<)4!)) o l,iiis (:Iiiix) SoI:li. ( 1 857-1!1,13). 14:l l ) i . i i t l c ~ 1.0, c.11 ti11 ( ~ o i i ~ t . ~ i i : iI ; i i i ( l : ~ ~ o i so1)i.c I:i (Icf'iiii(~i(51i ~. o ~io clcs l(*y coiitc~iiitl;~ c.1 ( :ticligo (Ic t l o r i Aiitli.is Rc.llo, sosciiia ( ~ I I ( -" 1 1 0 cri iitlllor(it (lile sr <iig;i (liie 121 ley es i i i ~ j i i s t iiii<iiii 0 i i l > ~ i i ~ ' < l i i ; ~ ;il; 110 iiiilx>riialiir q u c se ;ilegiic que ~ ~ i i c o ~ i s i i t i i c i o i i piirs cli t o ( 1 0 r;iso, irii<lr;i qiic svr oheclcci(1;i: ric s<i.i/)ki <~,s/""". 1(1 otro aiitor-, cri sii clsic;t obra de tlci-cclio ci\lil ;ifir.rriaba q i i c

/u, qiit*.ilc.iiilti sil .ipogc.o <.ti los (:<tligos(:ivilcs tlrl si$(, XIX. h i j o cstt' ~)iirito vi\t,i I,i Icy, c oiiio f r u t o <Ir 1;i i,il<iii.t1et)a tlc
.iit.iri/.ir i i i i grado clc pcr tecci<iii t'il qiic cliirtlar:~ a1rj.itl.i <le los cdrlil~ios i ~ t r i t o s iriclilso h,i\t,i cic la riiisrnn iiiter D I ct,ih r .. cio~i. I.ai leyes clchiiiii aspiriir a corivertir\e rii i i i i pi-otliicto pci-rririr, iiitlcleblr, q u e ;isegiii-ara para sicrriprc la lihir td, la igii;ild:itl, la Sr-dtc.riiicl;icl,la srgiiiitl;id, la felicidad, el hiriiriilrc los liorrll~rc~s. ley ser I"I 1'1 ex~~re\icii 1,'i rst'ir y IClj i ~ j t i t i ~ a I ~ I I ~ I I d ~ I 1'1 \ot)or/~rtkr,iiioiivo j ~ o r el ciicil \ i i I e ~ ~ t ~ i i n i t ~1 0 l o 1 ii
1

CI(

S(lgiiii (;iizrii5ii I3riio: "1 I;il)ic~rielociiii-;itlo (. . . ) ( > i i (.i.isis c.1 tlci-c-(.lioi.orri;iiio (Ic jiii.ist;is 1~i.ovc~iiic~rii~~I':tl;i(l (le 1;i Mccliii. <.oiiio el (Ici-c(1io Icgis1;iclo (le los ix.ycbs.I;i gi.;iii soliie,itiii 21 I'iiic~s tlc.1 siglo X V I I l y cliii.;iiiie t.1 siglo X1X 1i;i siclo I;i
l;iiito

.....

la \~iclsit poi- ll ( 1 I i V ;ltrlv~.s~; t l ~ ~ l ~ ( ~o ~ 1 0 ~ i c l( b i l~ i l l ~ l l uicl VI c1 ~ ~ ~ Ii $oc;i riiotl[.i~ii:i. l<ri cxl>lic;icitiii (le S;iiiclio K<~l~iillitlii: "li)<l;i1;) ohi-ii i.cfi)iiiiis1;i (le los i.cvolii<-ioii:ii-i<>s apai.<.cc~ iriql>r-ii<la, coriio poi- i i i i ciego kii<~liisirio. 1;' ~ > i i i ~ l i l ~ ) t ctc ~ <ley:i el ilci.eclio olipor < . 1;i ~ i i Iiist6rico rii evoliicicii, i i i la rii,jriivo iio es y;i i i i i ~iio<liccto c ~ i r ~ i i ~ c icle i 6 1 prir~cipiosi i i i i i ~ i t ~ ~cli ~ s eticit o tec)lcgici; b l r-;iz dc r s 1111 pi-ocliicto [le la rar(iri, el resi~ltaclo iirios pi-incipios fiIs<ii<:os nl~str-;ictos, v.iliclos pai-a todos los ticriipos y liigires, y
:i

1ij;itlos I ) O I . c.1 or;i<.i~lo 1:i \~oliiiii;itl tic. gc'iic*i.:il,c.1 l i o ( l ( ' i . (1(.1 le.glsl;lli~o (IIlC* t O ( \ O lo ~ ) I ~ c ~ ~ " ~ " ' . I.:is I);isc.s I'~iii(l;iriit~iit;ilcs del positivisrrio I<.galista r i i k r.a(li(.;iI soii las sig~iiciites: ixiste iiri ordciiarriiciito~ji~r-(1ic.o coiripiicsto j>oi i i i i sistt~iii;i<Ir riol-iii;is, plriio, c;il>az <leautoiiitcgr;ici<iii, (loiitlc. c.1 iiicz rio tieiic iriargcii cie discr-ecioiialidatl algiiiia, sieii(10 r i r i 1ricr.o esclavo de la ley. La Siiriciri jiirisdiccioiial, eritoriccs, sc rec-lucira a aplicar la soliiciii legil al caso coiicreto. A lo iiis, si el sciititlo de la ley no es claro eri sil terior literal, se piiecii rcciirrir a la aplic;lci6rl d e uria serie tlr i-rglas tic iriterpi.ct;icicii siil~siclii~rias I;i literal, paix (la1 coii lii soliicicii <IcI cle caso. A la drnorriiiiatia Esciicli de 1:i ExCgcsis se Ic rcprit;i coirio pai;i<ligrrra de la tlcti.risa clcl leg;ilisrrro; tlicli;~ c~sciiela apar.t.ct, t-11Fi.iii(.i;icoiiio c o ~ ~ s c c ~ ~ i c i i c i ; ~ (le, la siii~ci(;ii (Iii-ccti ctcl <ltx N;ipolctiii cii 1804. L<ii iiii<.sir;iliistor.i;i, 1;i iclc;~ tlc i-;icioii;iIiz;ii- sisiiiii;~ liicrie1 clc tcs i r i c . t l i ; i i i i c ~ Itr c.od{/i/.t/c.itirr yi seL;ipi.cc.i;t ;il c.oiiiicbiizo ( 1 ~ . I;i l<(.l)i(111c. c.ii I,lic;i. 1 ,;i tIc.s<.i-il~c-itiii II;I(-;i 1837 t l o r i Aiitli.i.s 13c.llo sol)r-(. el cslaclo <1(. \;i Icgisln<.i<iii ;ilioi.i;i to(lo c.oiiic.iitai.io: "Niic~str.os <.Ocligos son i i i i oci.;iiio tic- clisposic-ioiics( - i i (IIIC. 1111c(lc ri;iiili-;ig;ii.(-1 pilolo 111;s (lic~sti~o ~ x ~ ~ c r i i l l ~ ~121s ; l,(ychsl < x l ' i l i ~ l i t l ~ lI,( ~ V C ~ S( 1 ~ . y~ l r l 1 ~ l o .t 'lbr-O, Icpcs (Ic [ii<li;is,Niicv;i l<c<-ol)ila<.itiii, oi~<Icii;iii~,;is Kii.i:n <lcb c.l;isc.s, s<~riatl(~c~oiisi~ltos, ([cl gol)ici.iio, Icycs t l riiicsiros clcci-ctos ~ <.origr.<.sos, ;tiitor-i~I;~~lcs coiric.rii;itloi-es,e t ~A cst;i iririiciis;i (le los .
c a l

1'')

S,lN(:[ l ( )

l<b;[$[jl,l

,ll))\, 1~1~;111(.is(~o,' I ~ I I ~ ~ ~ ) I O ( ~ , I I ( , I . 11<'1C S ~ 1 ~ ( ' ~ ~ 1 0 ' ' , "[,os I S I~ ~ )

I (, t T e11 l + . ' . \ / ~ , d i o , ~ ~ o r ( , ~ ~ / ' Io I / ,

(l(,

1,

I';i~ii~~loii;i, k'.1111~1, l!178,

k:ll s ; l l ( c s i ~ ([e l<lll<l<()Sl < O ~ ~ l Z I b ' ": I ) I I ~ ; I I I I siglo , ~ l i ~ o y i l i i i ~ i ic.o(iifi<.;itloi.,I,;rii.o(.iir;i(lo \() I:is i(le;is r-a(.i<)li;ilisi;is, ~ < I ~ ~ i r r -es;is i<lciis el eii i i i r i i o c.oii

(,l

1). 16. XVIII

11;iI1kicxisli(1o L I I I

p o r los
cI

pi.iii<.ipcs 'iliisir;i<~os' iiiii->iiidos <i<'

) ( ~r(.ci"i ro

coii

(:titiigo (:ivil fi.;iii<.i.s(1c N;l[>ol<~<\ti ;i<i-

po(1~1-x g i i t l s i v opl-opio (\e lii r-evol11ci01).Mil-ii<lo .1 1C.116~ los ojos y 1;i 1c~riiiiiiolog;i f>i-cscriic3, del podi.'i p;ii.cccr- aci.rl;i<io 1iairl;iies, < ~ i i l c i i d sils < l i ~ l ) O ~ i < . i O i l i . ~ ~r <'OifiO potlrr- est;it;il. I)ri-oello

( j i r e c l i ( ) posiiiyc) ; c.si;\s <.()<lific;icioiirs, i cslo

se r i t el rioi-iii;ts cii,;i viii<.iilal)ili<l~icI fiiii<l;r c . x c . l i i s i ~ i i i i c ~ ~i c es


0 I (:O: (11
(

iiii;i s i ~ i i ~ ~ l i l i e ; ~ c .X)<l;is I;is cotlilic;icioric~, I'i.;iriccu;r y Iiis viii<-ii1;iti;rs CIIii, iOri, I;i ;i

I 1 ; l I ) I ) I N l , , ~ i i l i o O. "I;I

k:s<.ii<'I;i tlc I;i

I';xi.gc.sis < > i isil\

~><.i-lil<.\ IiisitiI-i-

esi;ii i(lroltigi<;iiiiciiicliiii~l;i(l;i.;. 1 c.1 i.;ic.ioii;ili.;iii(," 11 (1Z:ZKROS R O l l R I K , L'iii.icliic, ;iI 1~.<.%'.lit<'", /:(?Iji.\lfl f / ( ,(:ll'n.11 "I)cI l)c>sitivisili(> ci<*lifli(.() (.o(lili(.;ici<iii <I<sr-<.<'l10

os", ( . t i lc.r~c.r/rr (10 (:ior~c.inc Sor.itrl~~.\, 1,-, (;I1%M!ZN I%IZI 1 ' 0 , AI(.j;iiitli.o,

II. t l < . V;iI~);ii.;iiso. 24, 11)X3, 11. I !l. N" "1 ,;I sc,gii~-icl;i<l( . ( s ~ . i <~. I/ ; ~< l i < . ;(i. i i v I I

( j / ~ . \.Yo(~i/,/,~\. (J.
~)(~i.sl~<.(-

(lc ( :liil<.

( % i l l ) ; ~ ~ . ; ~ . ; o ) , 1). /l,lli).

l!)7(i

I':xis[<.ii011.;is ~ i i ; ~ i i i l ( ~ . ; i ; i ( -c1c.l~ ~< s ~ i t i i i i c i i o io I c~ jiii.tli<-otlciioiiiiii;it~o g<'li'i'i(-;l-

i i K i ~li%l6l'i(';l", /{17Jj.\//l / ~ \ / ~ l ~ / / / i r~ / , ; ~ ~ r ~ o - / ~ ~ t~ l, ~ / j~ ;~ o b;(ii(.ioii<~\ ilii('11 f/,, lo ~ ~ ~ [ ~ il;l~so, r, 1


v(,isii:~~.i:i\ \';III):II (l(, ;tso, l!)!)!{,

I I I < . I I ~ <( . o ~ i i o ~ o s ~ ( i v i s ij i ~o ( l i ( .(lli<,II;III i l ~ ; ~ ~ i ~ l o1;) \ ( ~ I . ~ I ( c ~ iIl ~s< i~ , , l ~i ~ o, ; ii;~~lo I ~ I i i >i<l~


iiiiii(.iitlo ( I I I ( %
(

1). 68.

c.1 j11c.1

(.S

i i i i "l(~gisl;itloiiii<Iii(.c.ic~" (,\iisiiii),

o (IIIC' ('1

jllc'/

''SINI

i-c.;itloi-t l < . iioi iii;is ~ ) ; ~ ~ . i i c iil;ii-(.x (I\c,ls(,ii).

(,ol(.(.c,itiri

(i(-ii(. ( ~ i i ( , iii.i.oj;ir.sc el j i i c z

i_l'o<ii- lisoi~je~;rr.sci tl

iio

sc. Ii;rg;~ iiri;i riii<>v;i <-oiripil;ic~itiri csi;rs le-yc-S, iriic~iiti-;is tlc iio se las retlilzca 5 lo q u e (Ic1)cn sci; <Icspc~j;iii<lol;is siij~<~riici;ilitl;~(tcs tlc ): li;i<~ii.iitlol:is ;i(~ci:siI)lrs la iritcligcii<iadel,jiic~ (IcI ~)il,lico, i o 110;i y i
rlairios ririei-,jarrisi1ii;i l>iicria;ulrriiriisii-aci<ii (le jiisti(~i;-i""'.

(I;ii. coriii.;~ :ilgiiii c.s(.ollo? 1 .;i (.oris(~(.iic.rici;i ( I I I C . nii<'iiii.;ts i i o (.S

I':l

;iiiiCiiric.o ( I ( . s l ) i - c b ( . i o

1 ) o i - I ; i , j i i i . i s l > i - i i t l ( > i i ( . i ; i , ( I I I ( . q. ~)c*n.il)(.

( * i i 1 i iiic~iii;ilitl;itl ; ti(.

los ic.eir.ic.os (1c.I

Ic.g;ilisiiio c b x i i . < ~ i i i(o .i i ( ~ l ; i l

c.11 c.\~i<lcii<.ia <.oiila c.;iicg<ii.ic.;i;iliixriiiciii cbxl)i.c.sitiri ~jiii~isl)i-iitl.i1ei;i ti(.

2. IA JUKIS1'KUDENC;lA EN El, SISTEMA


I)E LA I,ECA,IDAD
d t ' I:r Kcvoliici<jii FI.;I~ICI'S;I,acept SI' clue 211 l'o(l(~i- Jiitlici;il Ic csi; v(~(latlodicl(/r nornl(is g~ln~~.cllo~s, ~ s(i ~ u c1;' l > l ( ~ i i i i i i <(Ic I;i (,i.c;ic.itiii(le iioi.iii;is,jiir~itli~)iic o ' l GIS y tic. sil i i i i c . r . l ) i ~ c . i ; i ( ~ i t i i i;iiii<'iiic.a i.:itlic,;ii.i;i c b i i c.1 1'0<1(.i. ,<.gisl;ii 1 iivo. 1)ic.lio ~)osiiil;itlosc* i-cbll(:j;itlo(.I;ii-;iiii(.iiic.l i i (4 ;ii~iciilo ( 3" (1c.l (:tidigo (:vil, c.iiiiitlotlisl)oii(. ( I I I ( ' "30 ~ o ( . ;;i1 Ic~svisl;itloi. i cbxl)lic.;ii.o iiiic~i.l)t.(~l;i~~ Iii 1c.y (1(. i i i i i i i o ( I o g ( ~ i i ( ~ i ; i I i i i e . ~ i i o * ) l i g i i i o i . i o . (l
;OII

el

tr-ii~iifi) i I;IS ide;is tI

coiiio dogui;t

<le l<o\,<~sl)ic.i.r.cs: "I(.si;i los ii~il)iiii;iles'tlcl~c. c.:iii(.(.l;itl;i sesi(le, iiiicsir-;I Iciigii:~.Krl iiii l~.si:icIo q ~ i c iiciit. I I I I ; ~ i i s i i i i i ( ~ i ( \, i ~ co ~ iiii;i Irgisl;tci<ri,1;i jiii-isl)i.iitl~~iici;i itlciiiific.a c o i i I;i Ir./""!'. se Idas ideas fi-agi1;itl:is cii Fr;tiic.ia tiiriibiCri 1-cpci'ciitic-i.011. I I ( iiiiestr-a cotlificaci<ii, (:ilaiido se disciiti acci'c'a t l i la coitil>ci(.iicia tle los potler-es pihlicos, (1eiitr.o de la riiicva or.giriizacitii t1c.l Estatlo basid:i cri 1;i s c ~ ~ a i a c i 6 1 i po(1c.r-es,sicrripre s i iii\,o (.ti tie ~iiciiic 1iiriit:ir I;i :i(-it~;iciii (lcl I'o(lci~.Ji~~iici:iI. i i i f l ~ i c ~ i ( 10-~ i ~i eii cl ti-iil>;~jo i.;jiica cii cstc piiiito sc coriipr-ricl,;i iiiti<l;iiriciitc~ 1)iiljlic;itlo c b i i 188%)) o ii.i i i o ( 1 ~ 1Ios,jiii-isi;rsiii;is iiril)oi.i;iiii(.s tl(.l ~ siglo XIX, ( l o i i M;iiiiic.l Kgitlio 13;111(~sic-i-o~, iiiiil;i<loc . o i r i o "1,iiiiiicxs(1(.I l ' o t l e ~ i ~ . J i i t l i c ~ i : i l " " ' ;:illi se. c~ori(lc~iis;i oi.igc.ii y ;iI(.;iiit.(. c.1 tl(.l ;ii-iic.iilo 1"(le. 1,;i 1.c.y (le* 01-g;iiii/;ic.itiii /\ti-il>ii<-ioiic.s los '1i.iy tic.
I)iiii;il(~ tl(. \rigc*iiic. a 1 1 (

1 1 1 iiii

sisic*rii:i < l o i i ( l ( * i i l ~ i ~ i i i i i ; i t l o i ~ ;~)i.c'tloiiiiii;iI;i~ I(.y ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ c

c.1

1875, (.ii!,;i i.c.(l;ic.(.itii(.S itl<'iiiic.;i iiiisiiio ~ ) i ' ( * ( . ( ~ ~ ) i o ;iI (:ti(ligo 01-g;iiiic.o (I(. '1'1-il)iiii;ilc~s ~>i.oliil>i(lo ("1':s ;iI
iric~/c.liii.s(*i i 1;)s ;iii.il)iic.ioiic~s cx tl(*

I'otl(.i-

( . o i i i o I);isc. tlc.1 oi~(l<~ii;iiiiicii~o, i l o i~;iIoi. c.1 i i i tl<. 1;i j i i i . i s l ) i ~ i i t l ( ~ i i ( ~ i ; i

,] iitlic.i;il

o i 1.0s l)otl('i.('s

sc*i.cbii;it:i

< . o i i I;i ii~;i(lic~ioii;il i.c.li.i-(.iic.i;i I;is ~>;il;il)i.as ;I

(le,

~ ) l I ) l i ( ~)'O V I 1 g c ~ l l c ~ l ~c;; l ( ~ l . ( . C i ~( ) i i.:is l ~ l l l i ~ ~ i o( l lll ( . ~ s ~ jl ] ~

I ~ I S ( I ( ~ i ~ ~ li-~ l l 1

Moiiic.s-

('1 , j i i ( l ~(I(.l)i;i s(.i. i:iii stilo I;i I ) o c ; i (111c' ~ > i ~ o i ~ i i ikis ~ i ; i i < ~>iil~il>i.;is I;i l e y ( " / / r / ~ n ~ / c cllli~ tic. . h / /i~o~lotlc.r /(>,S /)/r~ile\ I/I IoY) o ( I I I (" I o s , j i ~ ( * (soti s(.i.cbsi~i:iiiiii~;i~Ios,\ i i o /I/J > ~(~s (liic p i i c ~ l c . i i :iic.iiii:ii- I;i lii(.i.z;i y c.1 i.igoi. ( 1 ~ .1 i l(~y''"~. ;
c l i i i c ' i i , c~ii;iiitlo :ilii.iii;il);i q i i c *

ii:itl:is c,ii

los :ii.iiciilos

~>i.crc.tlci~tc~s").

( 1 ~ .ii.;iiis(,i-il>ii. iioi-iii;rtiv~i 1:i Ii~;iric.c~s;i so1,i.c. 1i sil>;ii.iicitiii tic los I ' o t l c ~ i x ~ Il:jc*(.iiiivo y ,liitlic.i:il, sol)i.c. (.I ; s ~ > i i i i i (111c. n o s ociiljii l O i . i ~ i i i l ( > sigiiic~iii(. ~ O i i i ~ ~ i i i i i i ~ i o : 1)i.c.o ('1 < "1711 c('1)io M ~ I I I C : ~ : I I I;~ 1~ 1( (1c.I ;ii.tc.iilo 3" iiiic~sti.~ i:ti(ligo (:vil 111.0Iil)(. t;iiril)ic'~i 121-;iiici;i los,jii<*(.c-s c.ti ;i 1)i-oiiiiiici;ii.sc, ) o i . va (le. 1 tlisposii<ioiicsgciici-;ilcs o i.r~gl;iiiic~iii;ii.iis solli-c las c.;iiisas (lii(. 1c.s
l'>;ill(~sic~i.os, (1c.sl)iic's

cst;iii

soiri<~ti(l;is"".

gaiiizaciri

;r pi-opcsito (le 1ii 1,cy tic, 0 1 . tic los 'li-itjiiiialcs, (Ic 15 (le ociii\,i~c~ d i 1875, eri la pr-iriier-ascsiri de la i;oniisiu Kcvisora -cilil>i.;i<la cl 30 dt. jiilio <le 1869-, s i propiiso iiiia iedacciii para c.1
Ileiiti-o

tlc la

(lisc~iisi(ri sili-gida

Atribiic.iorics

~11~1~~lllOI ( , i . ( b l l ~ i t los lirlit(~s ~ I I Csc i]ilcritllt. l li ~lc1rl;I4",( ] l l ( ~ c.itiii tlcl I ' ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ i ~ ~ erii ~ l ri;rc.ic-iitt. sisterriir polti<,oc.ori s(.l);i] i e1 c ~ i ; r l 1-icitiri po<lcxi-tls; se (lispilso (]u(' "El I'odcr-.Jiidici;il iio tic'tie (le all fiiciiltad 1x11.;~ tlictar. (lisposicioric-s gciicr.alt~s i i piii-a iiript-clii-ti r siispc>ndc.r-pot' irioii\w >ilgiiriola t:jcic~iici<iri uria ley"". Aiiiicie C I U Y tal pr-opuestario pr-osper-ti,211 cor~siderar los coriiisioriiidos <]u: liiriitc y;t estaba fijado eri la (:oristitiici<iii d e lH:%S, e1 irie1 terito sirve para dernostr-ar el rol que riuestros legisladores quer.ari asignar al Poder.Jiidicia1 eri aqiiella poca7:'. Conlo se explic, para riiiesti-a doctr.iria rriayoi-itaria la.jiir-isprildencia rio es fileritc del tlercctio; I;is razoiies d i esta posiciri se f'iiiid;iiiiciitiii-bsicarric.ritt~- rri los sigirierites rrioiivos:
1 O ) P()t. 1;1 cr.et'rici;i 1x1iiy at.r;iigii<l;t clii(. i-ctliicc. I;i :ici ivitl;id ;i jiii-is(lic(~ioii;iI i i i i ;icto de ;il)lic.:ir- a los 1ic.c.lios (le 1;i c.;riis;i 1:i i i o i - i r i ; i <Ic. (I(~r.c*c.lio ~)i.oilii(.i(lii ('1 Ic.gisl;i(loi: l<I tir-gaiio jrii.ispor. iiiiigiiii;~ c.oriil)<.i(.iic~i;i 1);ii;i I;i (.t.c.;ic.itiii (le, cli(x,ioii:il iio i ( ~ i i c l r ~ L i iiiicv;is iioi-iii:is jiii.i(li<.;is, (l(~l)ic~iicloi r ( ~ i i : i ( l i ~ ; isri :iciii~ii~itri I;I <~ r;i iil)li(~iicitiii Iii ](*y, Iir i1uc S(' ol)i('iitli.a ;i ti;ivi.s t l I;i ;il>li(.;i(,itiii ti(% ~ (le. las i.r.gl;is ( 1 ~ . i i i i ( ~ r . l > i ~ c ~ 1 ; i < . t co~ii(~iii<las los ;ti-iic-iilos19 ;11 iii (.ti 24 dc.1 (:<itlgo (:vil.

gaiitvs iiiia o1)ligacitiii (le ol)sci-v;iiici;i.1,;i t.xisicric-iii tic i i i i c.i.iic,i.io iiiiili)r.iric, ;i lo rii;is, tiii(li-ia i i r i v;ilot. (le pci~sii;rstiii.

3") t;,] pi.iii(.ipio (1(.1 cfi.c.to i.cl;itivo tic las scritcric~ias, coiisiigr.;itlo cii t.1 ;ii.iciilo 3" tlel (:tidigo (:vil, iiiipctlirii (I;ii. viiloi- 21 la,j~ii-isp-iide11ci;i.

3. EL EFE(:TO RELATIVO COMO SUPUESTO IMI'EDIMENTO


La coriiiiri exl)licactiri sol~i-e efecto i.elatvo de I;r sciiteiicia 1i;i el sitlo el pi.iiicil>;ilai.giiiiic:rito 1>;11-;1 swic.ntii-el nulo v;iloi- tlc l;i.jiii~is[)i-ii(lcn(.i;i iiiirsir-o sisic~tri;i. Ixisc l t . ~ ; i I (le csic pi.iiicil)io eii 1,;i c~si;i i.e(.ogi(l;l (.ti c.1 iiiciso 2" (Icl irriciilo :Y tlcl ( :ticligo (:ivil, c x i i los sigilieiiic~s 141-riiiiios: "/./L.\ .rr,rlar~r.io.si , ~ ~ l i ( ~ i (~ l o s ~ ~ I o Y / / / A ~ ~ ' ) z ( ~ j ~ I O/ I ()/dig(~lori(i o ro,$/)o(fo k1.s (./i11,\/~,\ or~(1140 (LCI A ( ~ ~ ~ I ( ~.soI 1L m r 1 /L?I(./(I ~ Y Y ". ,sir/ (10 I Y P I ' l ' r . ; i ( l i c i o i i a l i ~ ~ c ~ ~ 1;i~ Iioi.:i (le. c.xl)l(.iii.c.1151 c.1 c.oiiteiii;I ~ c ~ , es (lo tlcl cf.cio i.cl;iiivo riiicLsii.os ;iiiioi-c-sIiaii sostriii(lo ( ~ i i (Cste ~ ;iI>iiiiiaeii (los tlii-c.(.<.ioiics:
(.iiliii. ;i

2") Ni siqiiic.r;i (.ti (-1 ciiso qiic c.xst:r


i ~ i sol)iv. ( ~

,jiir~sl>rii<l(~iic~i;ri l 0 r ~ iiii

iitia (Ic1c.i-rriiri~d;~ rri;iici.i:i siii.gc. 1);ir;i los jiic.ccs y liii-

1 " ) 1.21 decisitiii jiid(.iil cloc,id~r r r (.(/.so i or~/i)r.trtn .sirrgnl/~~; \,tisiii los oiros,jii<~c-es iiic.iios a oii.os si!jt.ios t l i i c ' n o f'ii(bron iii 1)iit.icb en c.1 ~ ) i . o c e ~ ) , siilvo ( ] i i c 3 t~itos~ltiirios ~)iit~l;iii I)t.ricfii.;ii.se coi1 la cxcc.pc.itiii de. (.osi,jiizgadii, sc. <la la ti.iplc i<l(.iititlatl si dc.1 al-i. 1 7'7 (le1 (:1'(:.

I < x < - c l ) ~ ~ i o t i ; t l i S<, ( ~ ~ ~ i ( ~ ;iIgiiii;is vo<-<.\t l i s i t l < * i i t ( ~c i i i i i i < . s i i ; ~ i ~ ;il)~<'(.i;iii \ do<.ii.iir;i (1t.I s i g l o XIX, c o i i i o <.S CIc.;iso t l c ~ O I IKot>iisii;iiio \<i.;i. l;~i 11-;il>;ijo ~)iil)lic.;i1111 ( l o t.11 IXHH ;irlvci~ii;i: "i'ci-o v o l v i ( ~ i i < l oi i i i i i ~ s l i - o ; (:ti(lipo, (.licolltl.;irrios t.11 s i i i ~ i i l o

+.,

''

~ ) ~ l i r i i i i i ; i(i - i w l i i.ostilrri1)i.c iii la j i i i ~ i s ~ ~ i ~ i i < l c<le liois ti.il~iiii;il(~s o i i 1iieiitc.s ~ iii ; iic i s cit. ci(.rc.clio, 211-ticrilos Lo y 3". y sir1 ciiili;ri-go es t a l 121 f'iici./a cit. iiii;i y oir-;r <I,IC a t l c s ~ ) c i . l i od e l Icgisl;i<ioi; cll;is s r cii;iii 21 c.;itla I>;rso y si Ii;iv 11gic;r .11 l o s k i l l o s ci<. l o s iii;igisti.ados, es ( v i d c i i t c q i i c icritlr.ri q i i c r<.solvci las c ~ i i s t i o r i c s i i r i i i i i s r r i o <Ir ~~ <lt. ciii.;tetcr~(~s". ~\grcg;i c.1 i i i o i i o , c.;i<l;r \.e/ ~ I I C sc < ' > r v s e i i t < ' r~e\~csii(liis l o s ~ r ~ i s i i l o s III~SITIO ;~IIIOI; " l ~ i , ~ i i ~ ~ i s ~ ~ r s r~\,ir ( lIo t i ~ i : i~ ~c o ~ ( lso ; i ~ i i c i ~ i c ~ i ~ri(s(lio ~ ~ i~ c~ i i~i ~ t por. I c (le l o s I~illO~ l111il.01~111~~s l o s ~ l i ; i g i s t l ~ ~ l c ly, s ~ l l i c l - l l o lli)e l lcgi9l;i(tol; cIl;1 \vi-; siciiiclc oi yi * (III<.l o s 11 i l ) i i ~ i ; ~ l c s \~:III 111;i1)i.c Iriciiic. i l t . ( i ( ~ i . ( ~ . I i o , (III<' "o c ~ ~ ' o s l ) l (\III)OII(.I. si15 t l < ~ < . i s i o i i c ~ s :i<.I;ir;ii;iii, t~tis:iii~~li;ii-;ii ( ~ i i i i i ; r s(.ti 1;i :il)lic.;i(.itii ( 1 ~ . 1;i Ic\; y I;is ;iiiiolil;ii-;iii; I;is i.cgl;i\,jiii-ilic.;i\ (III(' \ c < . o i ~ i t ' i i g ; i ~ i l o s (.<i<ligos 5 c.11 t;11 i ('11 1;i i ; c;iao, 1 1 0 es [)o\ii)i(, ti<:i;ii- (11. ~ c ( ~ o i i o ( . ( ~ iiiiil)oi-l;iii<.i;i (IIL~, 104 lii11os t i < . i i c ~ ic.11 11 pr.:(.ii( ;I" ( L ' l ~ ~ I L I,~ O ~ ) I I S I ~ ~~ \I I~ . I .( / , , I /I ~ r (( [ i ( , , , (1,~I I I I ~ \ / I O , \ 7 i ~ i l 1 , , , , ( , / ~ \( / , J / I , \ l 1,([~ I I ~ I / ) ~ I ,~ ( / i ~ . t i r ,S;iiiii;igo. ~III~>I.<.III;I tic. l o s I)(.l);ii(.s, 1888, 1)1). IL'(LIL'7).

2") E fallo jiitlicial rio sii-v<.i i sietita i i i i prc.(-c-tieiitccle obli1 i gitorio ;ic;ii~iriiiriiio I3:ii.a las (lccisiorics posteii~)rcs. iio piic'clc y trrier caractei- gciic.r.al,esto t:s, iieiic. uri r!/ijc.lo rvlnlko. Desde iiri p~iiito e vista t.criico, iio tiay tliida qiie la pi,irric.d r idea sc r-efiere a la iristitirci>ri d e la cosa jirzgada, eri virtud d d e la cual la sentencia tirnie alcanza im grado d e iiiriiiitabilidaci qiie 110 perniite rcriovar el dcbate sobre uria ciiestiii qiie ya hic decitlida ciitre las niistrias partes. Eri i~alabi-as la Corte Siitle 111-cni;i,"el princir,;rl e k c t o tie iiiia sc.iiteiicia yjeciitoria(1a es qiicx qiicdiri ohligatlos a sil ciiiiiplirriiciilos litigaritcs y siis 1iercdcr.o~ t o y i cstlr y p;isil.poi. elll. (:illlc~ilie~r.i sea11 los ci.i.oi-c~s que (1C (111~';~d)lczc;i, tIrl>t-icii.~.s<~Ia ex11r-csi)ii (le 1;i vc.i.datl so1)i.c. por. ('ii <le la iii;ii<.i-iii cliic S'. 1 i.;~liicc Iir icci<riy exce~)(-itiii (.osa jiiz-

g ~ i i ( l i ~ " ~K . t i ( I C i i t i ( ~ o si C i ~ i i i i i i o s ,S(. 'i csc~iici;iles

II;I

t l ( ~ ~ I i i i ~ ; i (( lI o I ( ~ I "los i i i i ; ~ c.iilc'ric.i;i s

(\I~,tos
cl(>liiii-

I ) . i ~ o( ( ~ ~ ( l i io c i ( \ r r l i / o i ~ ( / i / i o t i ( ~i)' , / o i i i i t l ( . (.\,i I o i iii'i

1)oi

1'1

11.11 \ I

( 1 I;i cosa ~

('11'1

~ ' 1 ~ 1

j i i ~ g a ( l ; t (III(' l)r.o(lii(.(.

le.

C ' ~ ( I I ~ ~ ~ iL1 I1 )1 ~ I ~ ~I I i i i i c ' \ ~ i o 01 ( t e i i ' i ~ i i i ( ' i i t o i ~1 L . \ c i i t c x r i ( ir14

tivii c x j c . c . i i i o i - i ; i ( l ; i ,
; i ( l o ~ ) ~ i ( I : i ) o ~ i c >i i i j l [ ) l - e ~ s ( ~llli t iv;1
( l ( b

c . o i i s i s t c i i ~ ~ r ~ c c ~ i s ~ i i r ic c i i rqi i ti t > 1;i ( I ( ~ c ~ i s i t i i i x~ (~

( l ( h l i i i i t i \ j ; ~ i ~ i c ~ i i litigio ( . o i i i o ;iI ( ~

111 o111l)ic i o r i

tle l > r o r i i i i i c i , i i

c oii(li< i o ~ i ~ i I e \ \t.

<1'1<1'1 1'1 (1r\1)1i ci

c . x 1 ) i ~ c ~ s i ( j i1-ei

121 \ ~ ( - r ~ ( l ; l ( l . .''7r1.

p i i c ~ l cf 0 r ~ i r i i i l ; i i - a I;r c x l ) l i < . ; i ( - i ( i r i c l i i c tlcl efecto relativo tlc la s i i i t e r i c i ; ~el c-fc.c.to tlt~ cosa jiizl~;i<la. r i tal sirititlo, r i o piiide s e t . i r i " cxiicta la f o l . E '1s iriulacicri del i i i c i s o 2" tlel n r . t i c i i l o 3" tlel (:6tligo Civil, e i i ort l e i i a q i i i los e f ~ t o clel acto , j i i r - i s ( l i c < - i o i i t l se p i . o d i i c e r i sclo s vritrc los s i i j c t o s q i i t , c o i i l i ) i . r r i a r . o r i 1;i r-il;ici<iri l>i-o<-<.sal. ( : o r r i o es s;ilji<lo, c , o i i s t i t i i y ( . i i r i ~>r.iiicipio clirric.rital tic i i i i c s t r . ~s i s t r i i i ; ~ j i i i - c l i c - o (111e los ( . f i s c . i o s (Ic I;I c o s ; i . j i i z g ; i < l ; i i i o sc. c x t i c * i i t l ( ~ i i;i los i c . 1 - c . ( ~ i o s i " . ' I ~ i i r i l ) i i . r i (,S < ' x ; i < . t o cii c . i i ; i i i t o ;i los l r r i i i c . s ((.1111)ot.;il ~ ( s ~ .ti11 ( I r c i s i t i i i : (.II;i i - c . s i i c ~ l v c . i i i i c x ) i i l l i c . i o ; i ( . t i i ; i l , i i o i i i i o I i i 1 N i i i g i i i i ; ~ ol)jc*<,i<iri cleiitr.o c.oirilx.cn(tc 1iii.o iii ;iI

1iil)otCtic.o.

S<si.i;i i i r i l ) i . o l ) i o

(Ic.

iiii;i s(*iii(.ii<.i;i iiiil)(.i;iii\,o

(y c . o i i t i . ; i i . i o
c.II;i

(le. tlc las i i o r rri,i\ q i i t ' w~u1.11i .ic ( i t i i i tic. c 04'1 j i i / g a t l , i ('ti 14. 1.1 174, 1'75 (:1'(:), y tlel c o i i t c r i i d o ( l i l t i t i i l o e j c ~ c i i i i v o ('11 t 439 (:1'(;). E\ i r i t l i 4 c i i l i d o q i i c el ciirriplirriic~rito<le iliin \criteri<ici jiitlici,il (e1 titido ejeciitivo por ' i r i t o r i o r r i n \ i a ) 4 6 1 0 se piicdt, r eali7,rr cirnndo c x 1 4 t e 1111i1 o b l i g n c i 6 i i lqiricl'i y rio hay p l n l o piridicrite ni coridici6ii (ar t\ 2:'~ 1 , 235, 285 CPC.), rlc. l o ctinl 4 c d c \ p r i i i l i qiic i i o piit.(leri d i c t , i i \ c sc.iitiiici,ir \iijctn\ ri tiec ho\ L i i t i ~ r o \c i r l e i c x r tos'H k,n ( , i r r i h i o , i i o p,ircc c cxnctn 1'1 te4i\ q l i c \ r d i ( t i d < ) \ ~ tk1 c.fe< (o i (>l'iti\o tic 1'1 \ c x i i t c i i ( i'i, li't i i c g c u l o \i\tc.~ti~ti(~ r i ( ~ i i t\r ~ ~ i l o ~ 'i '1 1,i j i i r i \ p i u c l c . i i c i'i c r i i i i i c . \ i i o o i t l c i i ~ i i i i i c ~ i i t o . i ( ' \ i 4 i < j i i I.'i (.\tri 1)i O ~ ~ i l ~ ~( l ' t\ i' (i '1 4111 se-(le ~ 0 1 1 4 i ~ l ~ ~( il i ll el el \ ~ ' i l O l (le* 1'1 J I I I i 4 p l l l 4 '
( l ( , l l ( i'l

cl(.l)i(lo

~ ) i ' o c < . s o ) (IIIC'

('1

iii;iiitl;ito

(111c' (le,

11%-

s r i l i : i liic*i.;i ;il)lic.:il)l(.

:i i i i i ; i s i t i i : i c . i ( i i i

I i i i i i i . ; ~ ,; I I I I I ( ~ I I ( *c.1 i i u ( . \ , o ( . o i i -

I l i c i o ( I I I C . S(' 1>11<*(1;is i i s c ~ i i ; i iscb;i ; i i i ; l o g o ( . o 1 1 ~ i ' c ~ s i i c b l l , j i i t l i c . i i i l i i i c ~ i i i ( ~' .l i ) c l o ( . o i i l l i ( . t o o I);II';I ~ I I C 'W<';Is o I i i ( . i o i i ; i ( l o ( . o i i \ , ; i l o i .

c.1

( I I I ( ' M" ~ - I I ( ~ I I ( ~ I ~ I I . ; I ~iii~tlic.ii.

<lc i . c ~ l c v ; i i i c . i ; i

(Ic* CO\'i ] I I / ~ ' ~ ( I ' I . F l l i i g o i , \c. 1 1 ' i l ' i ( 1 ~ 'i i i l ' l l ~ . i i l ' i t i ( '1 \ i i i c iil'i(l'i < 0 1 1 l i i i ' i o p c i o i i [ ) O l l t i ~'1, ( I I i O 1'14 i r i i l ) l i c .I 1 o i i i . 1 1 I).II t i ( l o \ o 1 ) 1 ( ' 1'1 1111\1011 ( 1 1 1 ~ ' \(' ( 1 1 ) ~ . <1l1I I ) I I I I ~ t1c.c i 4 i O i i < ' \ tic, 1'1 ( : o 1 te \ l i [ ) l <'l11", '.\I>'.< l"l"1e~lil'~ c i i ' i i i t l 0 c o i i o c
t l i l l(~lll'1 ( l l \ ~ ~ l \ O (>l(Y l o '11 l t i 1 \o (l(.
(

'i\'l(

I O i i c.11

c.\

1 0 i i ~ l 0 (1c.I y

i C.( 111 \o

(le

liiili(\'l(l

(le.

< ~ o s ; i , j i i / g ; i t l ; i , tl(.l)c% ~);is;ii.

(It.1 ( : o ( l l g o 1'1 O ( (b\'ll I ' ( ~ l i ' l 1 .

si(*i~il)i~c~

I I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ ~ s o , j i ~ i ( ( .i osi i t ( ~ i c (~ i o~ o )o ~ i ; ~ l ~ ~ l i i ~c s i .
l i o

1 ) ~iiii

i i i o t l o ( o i i ( i c.lo,

ii'iri(lo

c.1

(:ti(ligo

('i\il

( ( ~ \ t ~ i 1 ) 1 ( ~IIIC'

~ I I I I I O (1'. \ i s i ; i , ( . i i ; i i i < I o scl ; i l i i . i r i ; i ( l i i o 1;i s c ' i i i ( . i i c . i ; i . j i i t l i c . i ; i l r i o 1ic.11~. lii(.i-z;i o l > l i g ; i i o i - i : i s i i i o i.c.sl)cbc.to tI(. I ; i s (.;iiisiis ( ~ i i c .;i<.l i i i i l r r i c - i i t(- S(. ~ ) i . o i i i i i i c i ; i i . ( ~ ti11 tl(.cl. i -. .' o i i IIO t i ( ~ 1 1 c , d 'te i

l>c.stl(. o

"/(/\ \ O J / / l ~ l l / i ( / / / I ( / ~ / ( / / / J \110 / i ( ~ l i O ~ ll 1 f y i ~ / /O / ) / / , ~ ~ / / O l /\(i li / O l / ' \ / ) O ( / O /f' /(l\ \ /


( ( / I I \ ( / \ (,t/ ( 1 1 1 ~ i ( / r / ( / / r t / o i ~ / o / ) t o t i / / t i ( I ( I ~ / , / " c b i i i i i ~ ( ~ o le~o i i ( ( b l ) l o , i i o ( w1 I, \

c.\t,i

i i i i c ~ i i t ~ i i i <\lool i i ( i o i i C i i

i i i i s s i g i i i l i c , ; i t l o q i i c ' ~.c'(.oiio(.c'i. ( ~ i i c

1;'

1'1

i i i t c i i o g C i i i t c . ~ ~ o l i t'1 c i (juc. 1'1 ~ i i i is p i 11-

s e n t c - i i c ~ i ; i~ ) i . o t l i i ( . ( ~ i i s c*li.(.s

tos l ) i i i - ; i y s i r i i p l e r i i c . i i t c . 1)itr;i c.1 c . ; i s o p ; u . i i c i i l ; i i . (Ic.c.itli(lo. S c g i i i los c a i i o r i i s t ; ~ ~ , s c i i r c . r i c i ; i tlcbc sri- cierta, r i o tliiclosa i i i c - o i i t l i la c-iori;tda. Estos i . ; i s g o s t l t - Iii s e i i t t . r i ( . i ; i p r - o v e r i < l i ~ k i i idc la i r i i s i r i ; ~ l i i i a l i t l a t l que 1 x i x ~ ; it.1 p r - o c ~ s o ,q i i c es la c o i i s c c i i c i t i i i (Ic la j i i s tic-ia r r i e c l i a r i t e el r-esial)lc(-irriicrito de 1;i verc-latl.A i e i i t a r - a corit ~lai certeza que tlel)e establecer- i i r i a s e r i t e i i c i a qiie ella sea dada

--' l . ; ~ ' I)~.olijl,i(.icii I;I s<,iiic,iit.i;ic.oiitlit.ioii;il ti(,


i.c~<.ofiiil.i cii
I,II\ 1'1rrlitlirc (1011111 111111 711111~ ; l l y z ; o ,,/

c oii s;iii<.itiiitic iiiili<l;i<l l'iit. ).i (111, I'iiiilo XXII, Ity X l V ) , rii los sigiiit~iiit~s ii.i~iiiiiios: / / / l o o \ ( / i l / / l / .\o / ~ o l l i / ; l ; ~ ~(1 l//O1 / l ~ ~ l l ~ / l \-0 ~ o l l l / / l ~ ; ~ 1101/ l / ( ~ l / l ~ l l / , ) , ;tl
1, .A; / ) I I ~ I 11

/o\ ; I I I / , ~ I ~ I / I ) ~ < I, /. I\/ I . / I I


(//II/o\

/II?ZIO\,

I ~ I I I I I ~oI\ I /

I / ~ I ~ / P I I, , 111 / M I Y / I , ~ Y I ? I / ~~ /I / ; I , /~I I , / / P I I I I I

10,. . . ". ' V I i i i a c~c.c.~>ciciicst;~~ - ~ i l i < i ; i t l ;i pro\.iciir tlc I;is tlc~ioiriiii;itl;is c.ci11t1~11tr.c (Ir / , i / i r ) o , t111c C S I I I ~ ; ~ t.spcci:il 1oi i i i ~ (iiicl;~ <Ic ~>i-cvt.iitiv;i, i~ic.diaiiie cii;iI .;t. pcriiii1;i coiic-(~l(.r. ~)i-ot(.(.<.itiii ,jiii.istli(.c.ioii;iI ;iiitt.s (1i1(.S<. c.oiisiiiiic 1;i Icaitiii (1c1 tlci.t~(.lio. (:o11 I;is (.oiitIcii~i.; f i i i i i i . ~ ~>i.otc,gc. ;I(.IOI- <Its 1 1 1 1 iiiiiiiiit~iiic[~c'ligi-o tic sc. ;il (le ~ ~ ~ c ~ sil (i;ifio Iiitiir-o, (~ui(. t ~ ~ t i c i i i i i ; t I(,sioii;ii-i;i gi-;iv(~iii(~iiit~siiii:it.i(iii jiii.i<lit.:i. KII (1t. I;i I;ib ;i<-c.ioiit,s(I(, <.oii(I(.ti;i I i i i ~ i i - o cj(.it-ii;i iiii;i ;i(.c.itiii 1)ai.a oI>i<.ii<.i- iiiicI;i tlt. iiii;i I)I.(.\I;N itiii l i i i i i i ; ~ . (lii(. iio iotl;iv;i <.xigil>l(..Siii c~iril>,ii-go, i;iiiil)iiii (.TI (,.;los t ;isor Ii;iy i11i;i tlisc-iisitiii .;ol)i-c.uiii~i iit~sii(iii I i ( ~ I i o t tl(, (.oiiiio\,t.iiitl,i, i-(~l;iiiv;i ;i 1;i \ / l i i c r , i t i ~ / 11,. / ) r , I t , y r o c111c. ii~siilic-;i iiii;i c.~t.c.l>(itiii ;ixioiii;i li;itlic-ioii;il (III(' I;is .il (.jt,ic c.1. ~ . I I ; I I \t. IIi;i It~.;ioii;itlo<,I t l ( , i t ~ H ~ Iio. ;it.c.ioiic,st l ( , c olitl(~ii;istilo sc, ~)iit.tl(.ii
/o
f / / r ( r / / i , , / I O I ti11 I ~ I Z O I I~ I I I I I O 1,/1(1
e( ;.

(I<.\(
los

4. LAS KAZONES PAKA REWSAR EL, DO(;MA CIASICO


Aiiricluc terieirios coriciericia dc. ir- coritra iiiia coii\~icci<iii rriuy a1.i-aigada cri iiiiestro rric.<lio7!', varias sitiiacior1c.s poricii al desciihiri-lo cliic rio r.cs~ilt;i l o s i l ~sclgiiir c.sgr.irriieiitlo i 1 efkcto re~ lc Iaiivo coriio iriipctliiiicii(o I>ar.;ic.oiisi(lci-ar;i 1;i jiii~is~)i~iitlc~iicii cii iitiesti~osistciii;~ I~~ic~iiic~s dtl (le1 (lc~i~ccllo. tciisi(5ri se pi~o(Iii(.c~ IAI I);sic.;irric~iitc cl pr.iiicil>iocoristitiicioii:il (\c. igii;ilcl~i<l coi1 iiii(. 1;i Icy, ( ~ I I C ' j)i~oliil)c~ ( l i s < . r - i i i i i i i ; i < . i t i i i i i i - I ~ ii i; i i - i i i (:irt. 19 No2 (:1'1{). 1;i Aiiii(liic <.S i i i i i c . g i i l > l ( . ( I U O c.1 o l ? j c . i o 1ji.opio (le i i i i ~)i.o(.('so,ji~(.S i.is<lic~cioii;il ;ilgo coiici.cto y siiigiil~ii;c~110 iio 1)1ie(I('Ilcv;ii. ;i

i ( I I I C . i(.\iili,i iio( ivo ( l i i c . se. c.\iiriic. coirio iior riinl (11i(' iI)iiii~iI(~s A ( A 4 0 4 riii~l~)gO\ 1 C \ I ) ~ I C \ ~ Adivt'r w\. I>.II <lt'ti \ I',ii ,i 1)' o( c(lcr 'r I,i revisi6ri (Icl <togrri,i t i del( iori'il c ~ I i c advci tir cliic In rriisrii,i (:o1 te Siipi ciiin t ' i i ,rlgiirici opor tiiriidnd lia poclitlo distirigilir, ptxilect,~rrieritc,critre el electo tic c o s jiilga~ (la y el ~ i l o de la jiirispint1cnci.i. Uii,t 'iritigiia scntr.rici;i (Icl 1921; i nccpt;l cori totla claric1:itl la separaciri critr e ;irrihns catcgoi ai. All se tlesestirri iin recurso tle casnci6n eri el Iorido, que de' iiuiicint>a iiIia i i i f i ncciri nl iric. 2' del nrt. 3 tlel Cdigo (Iivil, por el liec h o qiie la seritericia del juet tle prirncra iri\taricia, coriii ni,i<l,t t i o i 1,i (:o1 te d e Apclnciories, linyci rc.prodiit ido y apli(idoeii otro j i i i c io -el qiie iriotiv cl r cc i i r so- 10s t 011s1dc1 ,irido\ O I I ~t i i v o 1jic.sciite\ 1'1 (Ioitt' S111)rerri'i' 1 IAIIII otro juicio. 1'~r:i 1 i e( Ii,i/,ii t'il iiiotivo tlc cas,i<iii, 4c s c ~ ~ l : O " j Qclr P ~ I trcrdu c o r r OIIO(

ii

/ l / l l ~ O \l/ O / ) t ~ ~ / O / ) / lO l \ O t l / O l / ( / ( l r o l l l l l / ( / ~ / L / ~ / ~ l ~ r / ~ / o \ /t / ~ 1 / / 0 0 ~ 0 1 1 ~ 1 ~ / 11 / l /

rlrrnc IOIIP\

~ t l P ~ r lu\ l( (:o)

I ~ c r \ / n P I I lo l~lrrtrltr In\

a(11r l d n t

rrr

ct n I I I I ~ o l

o Y I c r l o , q o /,o) Irr

/ r , 5 r r f ) ) o 1 ~ 1 0 , f)140\ I U ) / M I / P 0 x 1 \/7"1 ~ ~

/ I / P I / O 111 / U " /

/ / / / l ~ O ~ O / /~ l/ / g / / / O l l ( / ~ (10 / O / / / / / / / ( / O l ) l / /J\O / l / l O O ( / 1 / / ~ ~ ~ \1l t0/ ~ , / / I l O \ O / ( / O


I I / P I / / P P \ / I I I I ( I I I (~/ ~ I / / I ~ o (Ir $ 1 1 / ~ t o / ) t o/ ) I / O I I nr~oglcrdo t l ( + r r c I ~ oy I I / / ~ I ~ (1

((rhlo
isi

nl / ) l o ~ / o(1, 1 1 r n 1 , lo\

/ I I I I I ~ ~ I I I drl ~ I / ~ c l r r l ~ r t o r ,01 ~ ~ /o110 ~

I r ~ h u t r c 111xo ~l

I':ii

iiii

ii;il);ijo <I(.IXH(i, (Ioii ~ 2 1 < ~ j . i i i t l M<'iitl<./ I.'siiigiii<.ii so\i(,ii,i: io

\llV/l\
~ ' ~ I i i ~ i

/J\O\ / l ~ t / ~ / ~ l l l l O ~ /l t ~ \O $ /,/ l l ( / O ~ O \ 011 $11 / ~ ~ l l f ) l/ ( l / ~ O " x O . l Ot O

Kii
(

i;i gc.ii(.r-;il ) iiiiiloi i i i c . iii)~ ) o t l i - ,iiiil)(.tlii ;iI,il>og;itlo c oiiil);ilii (.oii stii i.i(i o < . i i i i o iiii;i sc~iii<~iic.i;ii i c . (.II(.III(, (.oii c.1 ;il)ovo t l < . iiii i i i i i i i c ~ i i i~ t l i ~ l i i i i t l o (~ . i i l c , oii.;i\ ~ ) i o i i i i i i ; ~ ( l ~ s , c;isos iiICii~i(.o\,i . 1 1 c.1 i i i i ~ i i i o i( 1.11 \i.iiii(lo. Si l;i\ S(,III(.II( i;is jillli( i<ll(,s I I O l i ~ ~ l fll(~l~/;ii g ~ l i o l ~ i ; l (,ll LIS 1 ;l[l\;l\ l ~ ~ l l ol~l si110 <[lli, ; l t ~ ~ l l ~ l l l i i ~ 1)i.O- ~ ~ ~ l i i i i i i i i ~ ~ i ~ i i . c ~iio (.\ ~ ) i i s I ) l ((~oii( c~l(.i.; iiii c . i i i i i i i l ~ ii, I (Ic(,ll;is, I)OI.I I I ; ~ ~ <IIIC S(. IC V;I~IO s i i ~ ~ o l l g ; 1 , < , I i Y i O \ tl<. I;i I1.y. tlc.stlc. 'Ill'. ';"<.'.<. <I<. ii;lllii;ilc/;i <\,l'. (;,I'," los I;i clc.<.ios i\l~:j;iii<li.o, "Sol>tc. I;I iiii(~i-l)i.i~i;ic~itiii Ic,t l 1.1s ~ ;it;iii.i~;i". MI<NI)1':% I~:(;l~l(;lil<l<N, lG-iiiil(r I ' i ~ r t , ~ ~ . t r (;l~ilt,tin,N" IO , IXHli, 1'11. tH(i-487. ycs", iTii 1.l :ii.i;iigo (le 1'1 (csis i.Iibi(-:i II;I i i ~ ~ l : i ( Ii~eil(;j;i(lo c.11 rl il~iiiio q o iiei111~0 121 ibri <lisciisicii d e I,rs i c ~ l 0 r i i i a s ONC se ~>liis~ii;u-i;~ii i c g o c.ri I;r I,cy N" l!).:>>'il. Ii IIii~i clc 1.<I.. . l<I/oiIc's 1);Ir;i o ~ ~ o I I r . r s; iil " i ~ i ~ i i ~ ~ t ; ~ ~ ~ i i i ( ~ (111e ~ e I ; ~ ( ~ ' se ~>i.cl(~il<ii;i <i;ii f;rllos ; 10s I jii<lic.ialcs (le l a <:oitc. Siil>rriii;i ci.;i q i i i t;il id^:^ r.i.;i coiiii-;ii.ia : 1;i iiitci-pi-cc;i<.itiii I iiiitiiitic.a q i i c e l (;<itligo (:vil r.c\ci.v:i p;11.;1 e1 Iegislit(lo~-(cfr. 1;i o ~ > i t i i i > rclr 1;i Sr.i iiaclor-;i Oiga Frliii, r r i 1)itlrio (1. S(,tiott,,c (10 .S(vtcido. Scsicii 1 O,', rii;ri.Lcs 2 c1c i i o ~ i c i i i [>re t l i 1003, 1'. 1423). F,ii oir.;i o[>or(iiiii(l;i(l, VIs<.iiiitli)i- M i g ~ i c O t e r o I,., iio l ol)st;iii(c r~ci\~iii(lic;ir ~:II-:I (:oi.tr Siipi.ci~i;iII ~CIII(.I~~II clc c s ~ i i l ) I c c c ~ ~ .~ I la ; I;i COII CC(; y <Icl)iilii apli<-iic-icii( l e 1;i 1t.y. iii;iiiifii~sl;ic ~ i i c "... li;iy <lii(. c i i (-l,iio (jiii. I:i,jiii.is<Icj;iip i y CIII~. 111ii(lt.ii(.i;i <Ic I;i (:oi-ii Sii~)i.ci~i;i ~ w < I < i, o sci. iiiiil)i-iii<~, IIO < ~ ~ ) I ) l i g : i i o i - i ; i I);ii.;l i-c,sto d e 10.; 11-i~~iiir;rlcs, 10 (.ii;iI I'iiiicii')ii ci.(~:i<Ioi.;i 1. iiii;i~iii;iii\~;i1'1 ('1 1)oi. 1;) <.ii iiiii~i.l>~'i~i;ic.itiiiI;I 1c.y sil i i i ; i i i i i c , i i < . c.11 io<I;iiiic<~iisitl;itl( . t i Iox ii-il>iiii;il<~s p i i tli. tl(. iiici-;i y s < ~ g i i i i ( I iiii\i;iiic-i:r" ((-1I. 1)icrrio i .V(,\lott(,c (Ir,LSrr~crtlo, S(,sitiii 17,', iiiiCi.<.oli.s l l ( 1 ~ . :1gii510 ( l c , 1!)<)3, 1). 175.1).
iitl<.iic

jiii litlo

itiii

(IIIC.

iiii,i 1c.c 11,i11i~4 (jxiiri'i 1'1 (:o1 te Siipiciri~i c'il('i C I 1'1 (li\tiri111 I \ciiiiiios ~ei,il,iii(lo, iii(lic ,iiitlo: "l,l c o r t l ~ j f ) l odr co\o 1 1 1 z . q ~ ? r ~ l / ) o \ l h l / l l o r 1/1 ~ n ~ l t l r n ( 1 l110 / e 6 1 1 1 0 \ ?j / ) 1 0 f ) / ~ ~ 1 1 1 ~ 1 \ r \I(rYll/i((l

t/(l / ~ I I I I ( I \l l n b l n \ c c r d o

d l ~ ~ l / c (1~ ol,o\ q 1 r r I l c l y / c l / \ / / / O ~P\II/'IIO\ ( O t I / 1 1 / / l ~ r / 0 ~ 7 / l ( /1'\10 l ~ \ ~ I ( L 111 / / / I \ e l r ( 1 o

/u l q q 7 / 1 ~ ~ I ~ I / I ~ I v/ jI t(l (11) j t 1 1 1 SI o -/ o t l / ) r ~ u l ( > r(t 7 ~ hVhLo\(> ,)ro/o71(10 I I I I / ) ( Y / I (/e r o/ ~ II I WLII / ) r o / ) k r r ~ a(>\/)/)( . ~ ~ \ 5, y t ( l v 1 1 1 1 d ( ~ ((IP / ) Y ~ \ ~ I ) I I d~ ( WC / ) o d z d ( ~ i l (~n n s n (IY { ) ( l ( l z ~ - \P f ) l n t ~ l r o11 rcol IP\ILP///I /)ur \ o t ~ / ~ n/ L ~ P ( U / O Y I ( I ~ ( L " ~ ~ . I ( l i c l r i r r n i r ~ l p t f ) n r ; \ 11p / ) n / ) ~ r \?do Por otra parte, que In iiiiificaciri d e la jiir-ispr uclcricin rio es algo iiicoricilialile cori e1 efec to relativo d e la wntericia jiltlicial -conlo se ha credo e n riiie\tra doctriria-, se aprecia clararninte en la pr irrier a pr opuesta que hilo don Andl\ Bello para tlelirriit,ir est,i ciicsti6ri eri e1 \istcrria cle fiierites. Efcctivarrierite, i r 1 el dciioiiiiiiatlo 1'1 o y r c t o (le 1841 a 1845, qiie r or r c\poride nl T(/o
o t l /r/111/rr
((

II~I/)I~\

I'royt.(~~o (:6tligo (:vil, c.1 ; r i . i i c ~ i i l o tic. 1 1 O cst >tblcc "1,os j ~ior(j.s ki: /)f11(~(1(~1i / ( P I ~ ) I ~ J/(/,S I ~loy(j,\ (,ti (,11,(1 t i /o (I/)/;i'rl ~ c.ahlo.snl c.(r.socs/)ocicll.sorriwlido n .su r.onoc.i.rnionlo;y /o,s (s /)(.rrriilie/o/ i r 11ck(~r inlor/)rob(c(.io'n doc.ision(~,s .sm un ju(/ic.iolo,s unloriorr).\, /)rnri rrric.io(la.v /)or W I /C c.c~rl~ ~ / ) ~ ~ r Si U / r Y P T I Iy ~/)(L.s(I(~(L.srn (r ltloricint/ ch. la.\cL juz.S ~ 0 . o~ , I, ,..(~tle~; /)c.r.o.sr /)rohii,o f/ic,l(cr(vi, .\u.s/iilo.s di,s/)o,sirioriI~.so I ~ P ~ T L ~ o , ~ ' : ~~ ( : o 1 1 1 0 se p i i e t i c advii-tir-,diclio precepto asigriaba i i r i valor al p i - e c e t l c r i t e , destlc el iriorrierito que a i i t o r . i z a b a ii los j i l c c e s para fiiiitlar sus fallos cri decisioricsjirciicialrs ariteriores, si11 que ello Siier.>tirnpcdiclo por el priiicipio del ekcto relativo de la siri1 i i 1 0 p i ' ~ ~ l i i i i i i i ; i i(1c.I I'i.iiii(.i.
k(1.s

1 1 1 c b 4 l ( >p t i i i l o

1'1

O[)( i(-ill

( 1 ~ ~ l1 ( l l g o (
(

(:lVil (,I'l

OllI( l ~ l ( ~ i i (011 l(~

c.1
(

i c.\tili,itlo

tlcl

rrioviriiiciiio

otlilic , i ( l o i

c t i i i o l ) c . o h l , ( 1 1 1 ~ ' <1(lol116

o i i i o \oIiic i 6 i i

gcr~cbr c.1 pr i i i c i l x o "1

I c l , t ~ i \ o( 1 ~ . 1'1 \(.iii(.ii(

i , ~ ,p 0 4 -

t i i l , l i i t l O t j i i c ''104 i i o ~ ) o d , r i i li,i( i i

jll('( ('4 t 1 ~ ' 1 ) 1 ~ 1 1 1 l l l l i 1 ~ l l 4 < ' rl I C ' \ O I \ ' C I I

1 0 4 C ' 1 4 0 4 '1

e l l o 4 \Oiilc.ti~lO\, 4ill 4crlt'll

i c g l ' l 4 g ~ ~ ~ l ( ~ l ' l l\ e c ],l l ( b 1'14 4 e l l t ( ~ 1 1 ( i't\ \

tciiciit jiltIiciil. K i i i i i i ; ~ r t i c i i l oi . c l a t i v o al i r i o t l o de acor.dar- las sc.ritc.ri<.i;ts, ti1)lic;itlo cii I:I /Ir(~ictnr/or i 1850. Bello ~otlava i i i i i i t c i i a s i i c , i i i p c . x i 1-10 ~ ) o i '11':11;1i' tlc < , o i i c , i l i : ~ i . CI c'li-c.~o. c . l ; i ~ i v o (l<. 1;) s(.iit(.iic.i:i r y c.1 v i t l o i . (Ir. Iii jiii.isl)~.ii(lcii(~i;~; c , x l ) l i c . : i i i ( l o 1;) i . ; i z 6 i i ( l e s(,i. tlt.1 111.0iilli, ( ~ ~ ~ ( l i i i i i ~I);II.;I i o~ ) i . o ~ i i i i l ( . i ; ~1111;i s ( ~ i i ~ ( ~ i i ( . i ; i ~ii i. ('ti I ( . g i ; i t l o s ;i~)iiiii;iI):i:

\e i x t i i i \ i v ~ i s o r r 0 4 c ,140s o per s o i i , i \ . E i i cst'i '1 o i i c r i t , i c i t i i i \e i r i , i r i i i c ~ t ~ o ri i 104 < Odigo\ <le P r iisi'r, Fr , i i i t i,i ( , i r t t( t i l o 5) y A i l s t r i,l ( n i tc illo 12)"N. S i i i crrib'irgo, r i o \e p i i i d e dc,jnr de .itlvci tir qiic ln cxi\tcri<i,i tle tal reg1,i i i o irripicli, e i i crt\o ' t l g i i r l o , q i i e e11 p'iw\ 4 i l ~ i i s c l i ~i ~i ' t 9 o I i i t i 6 1 1 LCCi ~ i c ~ ' i ~ pcticit i ~ x i ~ ti(> AIC< i ~ i / ~1 r i i ~ i i t l ~ i (lc) 1'1 j i i i i 4 p i t ~ t l c r i ( ii t1 ' cl i't, c\pc( i ~ l i r i c r i t c . por I n cid <icc l o t , l i r i 1'14 \ t ' i i t e l i < i r \ \ 104 t~ i l ) i ~ i i ~ i l e 4 (<\\,\< i 6 i i ( 1 ~ . r i r i p o < l c i \ i i i c i i l , i i i t c M,i\ , i ( l c 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 <~~ c . 1 1 1 1 0 4 ( 0 1 1 1 0 e O C i ~ o l l i l c 4 i i o\ l ( ~ g i 4 l ' l ( l o i ( ~ 41 1 0 ~ ) l l ~ l ~ ~ ( ~ Ii l O ill ii' l l el ~ o l i l ~ ~ i l(le1lc - l < x -

los

i r . i l ) i i i i ; i l < - s (.ol ; l l l l ~ ~ l lc.1l ~ l SI\!<,l < , ])l(T(Yll'.l. I i 1 1 1 1 , \ N O \ l 1 , l si\i<.iii;i tk.1 I ) I ( Y c ~ l < . i i l jci~ t l i ci;il I I I I I I ( - ; I ~ l i i \ o <.ti c.1 ( I < . I < Y I i o <~;1.;1~~11.1iio-iii~li;iiioi i i ( l ; i ( l ( l ( . .il<;iii/;ii i i i i g i , i i i t l < . \ ; i i i o ol)oiiii l l t l , ~ ~ l ~ c (lll<. (4 o l ~ l c ~ l l ; l i l l i , ~ l > l o (li( 0 i l l ~ l i ; > l l o l t l O I ) ( ~ ( l < ~ (:1~ l1lIl;l ( ~ 5 l l l i ( l l l ~ l ~ \ l o ;111 l 'l l si\i<.iii,iii( ,i tl(. I(.\(.\, s i i i o .i i i i i ( o i i i i i ~ i l o tl(. i i o i 111.1s i i t l i v i t l i i ; i l < ~ s(,s(,ii( ; i l i i i c ~ i i l ( ~ i , i ( ; I \ I I ~ . ; L I C ~ ~ ; I I I O ;I i o ( I c i : I I ~ s ~ (I i(11 ((.O, 'l'!\[ I, ,I~ l , \ N X O ! Y l ' l * X ; ~ \'( I O I , " ( , o \ 01 l'g(,11. 1ic.s < I < , I,i ~ ~ I ~ I . ; ~ H I Ii;i ~tl(, ~ lo\ ~iiil)iiii;il(.\ c.11 I;i ; \ i g ( ~ i i i i i i ; i " , c.11 l(c7~1\/(111r / I / \ / o I I I ~ ( < I I //o/ I)/~I~~I/IO, , \ i ~ ( , \ , I) i , 1%. !+S N" (i,) ~ ) . 3 2 0 - 3 2 1 ; (l(,l I I I ~ S I I I O; I I I I O I ,;(~III;/II(, o/ ( / ~ ~ t ~ j r / ~ o l ,\l)<~I(YlO ' < ~ l ~ l ~ O l , (.(l. I!)S2, [ ) [ ) . !)-(S). s ' l i l \ l'.llIi(l;i\ l ~ ~ \ o l v l ' < l l l I 2,l ; l / l / / l ~ l l o ~ 1%. / \ i l ( . \ , . c.1 V;IIOI ( l ( , I;I M ~ I I I ( ~ I I i.1 j i ~ ( l i ( C i.11 ( o 1 1 I;I s i g i i i c . ~ i I c ~<.gI;i:~ ( I I I C . I I O I I cl(.\(, v;II<,I I I ~ I I ' giiii iiii< i o ( I I I C . III<.s<. < l ; i < l o 1 ) o i . I;I/;I";I\ (1~. O I I - o ; Iii(.i;i <.ii(l<., \i Ii)iii;iac~ii ;i(~ii(~11;i I;i/;i;i, <I<. jiiic io ( ~ I I < .c.1 I<<y Iiiil)i<.s(~ l ; i t l o m , c.11 ( . i i ) o (.;iso <:si;i tl(.l)i;i ~ i I ( . i ( - o ~ i i o t I(,c i i o .;tilo c.11 (,I ~ ) l ( , i i osii\c.i;itlo, s i i i o "(.ii los 011-os ( I I I C . III(.S<.II s ( ~ i i i ( ~ j ; i i i i ~(I1;ii~s" tiilii 111, X X I I , l t ) . bI:iyoi.c< <lc,1:\ll<.s, <,Ir.' l ' , \ t l t \ N Y , O ! Y l ' l ~ ' , ( ~ L ~\lr < . l o ~ . ,:II l . c i t . , ,
h1

"11
los

iiiCioclo

( 1 ~ .(11ic' x" II.;II;I n o 3\10 (5s i i < ~ i ~ c . s ; t i - i o


Itigicx)

1'01

Oll'l I L I l l(,,

([ll(,

c.1 l ~ ~ g i \ l ; l ~ 1 o 0l ~ l 1 li;l\;l <.\l;ll)l(~( ( l o

(lil(X

p;ii.;i ( I I I C ' l ) u ( ~ l ; il i i i i t l ; i i - s c b t l ( ~ l ) i t l ~ i i i i c . i i i 1;i s ( * i i i c . i i ( . i ; i , s i t i o ( ~ I I Ciic.ii(~ .

1ll.l

tic

;i c . s i i i l ) l c ~ c - ( ~ i c.11

i i ~ i l ) i i i i ; ~ l ( ~ isi i s i s ( c . i i i ; i i

(1(.

clo(.li.iii;is

(l(4 i

~ ~ l ~ c ~ ( < ~ ( g l l~, ll ll~l l(; l~ o l l ~ ~ l ( ~ 1 ~ 1;) ll;l(li( i1;11 l ( ~ i;l 0 1 l i ~

j i l l ( l i ( '1 ( l l l < .

~ i ~ i ~ ~ l iLt J~ ~ ~\,CY q i i c 1 ) o i . l:\ i ~ ~ ~ s o I t i c i 6 l1e1 i i i i i ~ ~ I ~ I I X ) L ~ ( ~ ~);II.-~ ; I i ; i is . ( C I~S c.i;il, (.ti i i i i l i i i g i o < l ; i ( l o ,

sc,

l 0 i . i i i i i l ; i s c ~ i i i i ~ ) i . i t i c . i l > i o , i i i i ; i iii('i.j)i.('-

l : i ( ~ i 6 1 1 , l l l i ; l i ~ c ~ g l ; l(*SI(. : l ~ ~ l l ~ l~~ r ( ~ i~ i ll ;ol l ~ ; i t I i ~ < ~ l i ~ i (( l (i% o l i ~ o s , l ~ l Iil l

litigios r - i i

(111c.

xs~

> ~ ~ ( ~ S ( ~ ~ I n iIi S i(r ~; ~< . o i i l i . o \ ~ c ~ r . s i ; i :i i o sc.i.i;i, ; s i

1:'

;I I;i

\ ~ c ~ r ( l i i t li,i i i ; i i i o i . i i i ; i o l ) l i g i i t o r . i ; t

I);I~;I

los

; i c . i i c % i - ( l o s l i i i i i r . o s , p c . i . o ;i

lo

iiic.iios tc.ii(li~'i i i i i i i i f l i i j o iiioi;il

~)o(lc~r.oso"".

Ancl1.6~ 13<.11o I,;ir.;i ( . a i i i l ) i a i . al 1 - c ~ l i r c , t i ic.1 t 1 c i i o i i i i i i ; i t l o I'r~oycciode 1853. i K i i e s l e i l t i i r i o tralx~jo,~ i l t .es c p r i i i i e r p i . o y c c i o coriil)lc.to tlc (St 1 tligo (:vil, el 111-iricil~io c l i ~ i o (lcl ~.elati\~o I;r scritcxii(.iase p l a s i i i t i tic tlc la sigiiicritc l 0 r i r i ; i : "1,n.scl/'ciciorr~,s1 k1.s /Iihlr?raln?c tirrlrn /iicvztl ( ~ no jl,ar%icul(i~~)s~ I L .sv j~ronz~rron P oOli,q(cloric~ sino ris#)o(.lo(10 las r.o?r/ro7~c.r:sins cinrev~".a i~cdacci6ii Pr.oyccto de 1853 se rriaritiiitlr-a luego cii L del el i r t c i i l o 3' del C6tligo Civil tle 1855, auiiqiic cori i i i ~ rriiriirii;i ~t r r i o t l i l i c a c ~ i ( i i i , carrihiar Iir cxpresi6ri " c o i i t r - o v c r s i ~ t spai.ticiilar.cse i i al
l ) c . s c ~ o i i o ( ~ ( ~ r r i o ;is i . ; i ~ o i i < ~ s Is tluc' i i i v o s i l ~ ~ i . o ~ ) i w 0s1i- i; g~ i i ; t l , i 'IlIC'

1>1'. :>'y'>-:>,y:>,.
I < ~ i ~ i l i c lo : i t i t c i i o i . (;llY,kll~\N l ~ l < I ' l ' O ,;iI \ ~ S I C I I < .(Il.i l e " ( ...) I I ~ ;i e11( : : i s ~ i I l : ~ c < > i i i o1;1riip)( o e11Iiitli;i\ l i i i l > o iiii(,i.Cs p o r . c o l < ~ < . c i o i i ; isc.iiicii(.i;is i i i l > i ~ ( l <Ics;ii. o i r r o I l ; ~ r s c IIII;L I i t c ~ i . a ~ ((~ ~ ~l)f,r;\iot~f,\ c o i ~ s ~ i ~A i l~ ~ ~ l a s li Ia~ i ( ~ ; i ~ ~'1i G,iii;Ii\is J 1i . i a ~~ ~ y 1 ii c.oriicrit;ii.io <1<, 121s scritciici:is t l c los t i - i l ) i i i i ; ~ l r ss i i p r - i i i i o s , s i i ~ i i l ~ i:ir -I;I (111t' tsxistfi( cii o t i . o s i.r.irios l i i a p r i i c o s < . o r r i o Ar;igGri o (:;il;iliiiia o cri o t i . o s t'ht;i(los r i ~ ( . o 1 x o s , y hiiiiil,ii. ; I;I c . o i i c c i . r i i c i i t c ;r l o s I;rllos (Ic l o s t r i l ~ i i i i ; r l c sc c . l c i i s t i c o s (li>oi 1/11>). / / 1 k ( , S I C i i i o ( I o , ~ I I < , S ,I I O l ) i i c ~ 1 ( ,I I ~ I I ~ I ; I( I ~ s i r ~; ~ j i i i ~ i ~ ~ ~ r t ~ ~ ~ i < I~ ; i~ i~; ;ii 1 ~ .i ~ i , i i c i i( ~ l l i c ~ ; l ~ l t ~ l l : l l l:lpli(.:ll)l<. ;1 1li<li;l.;, < ~ O I l l O i l ( ~ l l l < ~ < I < ~ I . ~ ( ~ I I O ;l f <l<,l ili(li;lllo. I~.s10IIO sigiiiic.;i ( \ I I ( . los li.il)icii;il(~s i i o Iiiil)i(~i-;iri . i i i ~ i [ > l i ( l o ( iiii [>"[>el <]t. < ~ i i o i ~ I i i l i [ ) o t ~ t a l l <~ (.i,i ~>.II.;I 1.1 i-c..t(l,il>l;i(.itiii <I<.Itl<.i.<.c.lioI(,gisl;irlo ,I l o s (.,isos c.oii< i . c i o s . ..". ( ; I I % M A N lil<I'I'( ), , \ I ( ~ ~ ; I I I (:t~ tt//r,;.\ lj,,//o ,OI/I/I, S ; I I I ~ ~ ; II ~~O , ~ i v ~ ~ i (~ es ( :liil<., ~ l I~~, u///I~, ~ l i ~ I ; i l!)82,

w",

J'or

"c;"ls~~"ll

']"e

l < ~ l l l ; l l r i i c i i t cse"":'.

Idii ~ i i ~ ~ i ~ t i i Icgiilisi;~ ~ r i p c i ~ i i ~ i l c l i ~ l ~ i ~i l t;iii11>o(.o 11;i ( ~ i i ( ~ i ~ II;Ii(~o

~ u c ;t igiiiil iiitr.i.l>i-c,i;i1 los jiiccc~sr i o s i c * i i i 1)i.c: w c o n s i g i ~ e . I,ii ic:sis c l i i c i - c ~ < l i i c ~1 ;icto <1(. jiizg;ii- ; i i r i i i tc . r ciicsiicii iiiec;iriic~a, c.oiiio l o ~ ~ o s t i i l a i i algiriios tc(ir,icos del 1'0sitivisrrio Icgalist;i, es tlcsrri~~ritida cada d;i por. la realicli<l, qiit. iios prescrita cri rriiiclias ocisiorics tlicisioiics coriti-atlictol-ias sobre iiri iriisrrio pi-ohlerria~jiii.c1ico. esta,jiir.ispr-iielericia De exis(.c,i.sc.
c.;ir.go (Ic iiria al)lic.acitiii

ix.ali(la(l

iriricg;il)lc.: c

ci<ii

del

dc~i.cclio

por

I>;ir.icd c .

Nii(.str-o

sistc.rriii

(Ic protc.ccicii (le gai.ariias

(~oiistiiiicioiii~lcs iio

ter1

varios

cjerriplos rriily sigriificativos, aiiiiqui

resultarii iriscri-

tratar de eriiirrierar aqu todas sirs rriariifestaciories. Sori elocirciites los ejcriiplos qiie surgeii casi a cliario csi las (;or.tcs tlc Apcla(.ioiies eii toi.rio a 1i cl5iisiila (le ;icc~lcracicii!", la iiite; a rr-iij>(.i(ri (le la ~)rcsci'ipci(ii, 1;i c~xtcrisicii iriaiiclito ticito ;i (le
s;iio

c ~ i i i r ' ((~orriiiiici~os ~ p;ii'a tlcrriiiiit1;ir;


i.c.l>c.i.ioi-io

<sic. R;isi;i

c~x;iiriiii;ii~ cii;il(liiic.i-

~>iil)lic.;icitiii (Ic. j i i i ~ i s l > i ~ i i t l c ~ i i I);II';I ~ o n i ~ ) i ~ o I ) ; i ~ . c~ii~ (

(~iicel itlciil
pi.c.i;icitiii

ictti-ice (Ic* i i i i i~c~siilt;i(lo i i c o < . i i c.1 :i(.io ( 1 ~ 1iiii(,i.ii (Ic. I;i I(,y c.s iiiiic.li;is \zc.c.(.s~ > i ~ c i i ( . a i i i c iri11)osil)lc. .i~~c~

(1C :ll(~;lllx;il~.
1,ii ~ i ~ i l ~ l ( ~ ilillc.r~iol (ll pl-ovo(.;i llll;l l ' L l c ~ l ~ l l( ~ l l ~ i < i c.11 1i gilll ;

serio pr-oblerria <le<Iiscrirriiriiici<iri (le oi.igeii jiidicial. A tr-aves (le Iii accicri iii;iplicabili(l;itl slo se p~w(lc irripirgriai- la iricoristitiiciorialic1:td (le la ley. De igiial f)rrria, l a accicri coiistitiiciorial dc proteccicn -segiiri doctrisia jiir.is1x-udeiicial rriayoi.itari;i- iio procc~clc cor1ti.a las resoliiciones ,jiidiciles, rrsiiltaiido tairil>iCiiiiificiiriclii esta va pira exarriisiai la iiif~.acci<ti la gai-uita<leigiialdad (liic provt'i~g;i iiri;i dca cle cisi6ii jiidiciitl!". I , o ;iritci.ioi. S(. c ~ x p l i c ; ;itlcrri;s, 1 ) o i ~ q i i c1;' o1~wrv;inci;itlc ~, I;i giii-;iiit;i (Ir. ig~i;ilcl~i<l 1i;i riic-(litlo <;\si cxc.liisi~;iiiic-i~tt~ sc. cii I;i ;i(.iii;ic.itii Ir.gisl;itloi; ( . o r i i o si Iiicnr.;i c.1 i i i i c o <ir,g;irio ~ > o 1 i i c . o ( I I I C ' 1 ) i i c - ( l < ' <lis(.i-iiiiiii;ir i r ~ l ~ i t r ~ ; i i ~ i ; i i i i c I)ic.lio ( 1 ~ . oti.;i ; ~iii~~. l'oi-riiii. (.I ~ ) i ' i i i c . i l ) i o tlc igi:ii;il(l;i(lIi;i cliic~tl;i(lo sii1)siiiiiitlo ( l ( . i i t i - o tic-l ~ > i ' i i i c . i l > i ol ( * 1 i Ic*g;ilitl;itl, por c.iitl(., soii igii;il(,s ;i cliiicst ; y iics 1;i Ic.). c.oiisitl(.i.c. igii;il(.s, (lil.i.c.iiic.s ~ i c l i i ( ~ l l o;I c l i i i c ' i i ('1 s
l'ii<. i<lc.;i<lo 1);ii-acnlrerit;ir- cstc
t l c b l

i - i i i i t i i ( ~ o ~ i s ~ i ~ i i ( ~ i o i i ; ~ I cxiiel : i i ~ ( . i i I o l!) i.c~.ogi(l;i


iiiiic.i<iii, r i

N'' ( 1 l;i (i)iis2 ~ ( 1 ~ ' . ;isc~giii~;ito(1;is I;is ~)c~i.soii;is: i,q~/tk/cc/ r t i l r 1/91; ;I In ~ In


(1 (1/OI.I//~L// ~t / /I/ /L( i

Icgislii(1oi~I ( ~ l " i i i i i( - o i r i o tiil(*s. (


' I ' : i i ~ i ~ ) o ( ~ ; (~;is;i(~i6ii o ~ ) c ~ i ~ ; c ( Io i i i o( ~ I ( ~ i ~ i c i cor.i.(*(,~i1i o II;I i~ o iio
vo, y;) q i i c . ( . o i i i o 1 ) i ~ o i i i o\x-i(*iiios, (-sicL . c ~ i i i ~ s (o 1iiiiii;i ;I (.oicti S * ;;ii. l i l ( ~ o r ~ l ~ c;l~)Ii(~;i(.i611 1;i ~cl~l (1C v(.i.ili<~;ii. si

10 11y t i

/)o//witr o . ~ / ~ I //i/ivrj~~ ~ (11hi1 ~ / ~ / ~(.i/,s ~ J ~ ).i/i.?'''. I./I I L I iiiil;~ viii<~iil;~c.i(iii c.1 (logiii;\ olic'iiil ~)i.ctli(.;i 1i jii1.i~(1iicx ;

ley, pcix)

I ) O l'll(> i(lc~;l(l;l [);ll.;l

~ ) r ~ l i ( l ( - ~ ( ' i ; i ;i ~ ) I ~ C L ~ ~ I I I ~( ;~IiI~I ) I( I~I O I . ( ' S I I ~ ~ ; I iiivii;i II;ISI;I S 'I I i Ic'giiiiiio

(-1

(.i.i.oi< I ( b

(I(.

t l ( . i - c . c - l i o ( ~ I I ( ' inllii)zc. (,ti

lo (lisl)osiiivo tl(1l

Ilillii(los 1x)i-i ~ u c ~ ~ i ~ o ~ i ~ (Ic* ~ u ~ ; i l c s il t1ivc.i-S;\ iii;iiicbi~a.i c.1 lOiitlo, iiii;~ l, :i r.oi.i.cct;ic.oiicc~>ci<iii iicci.c.;i tlc 1ii gii.;iiii;i coiisiitiicioii;il igiialtl;itl ;iiiicX Icy, (1c.l)c.i.Li IIc.\~;ii. coiiI;i ; r
~ U C ~)i.oI)lc.iii;is ' itlCiitic.os sc.;iii
c,ili;ii. 1ii ii

liillo pi.ovic.ric.
(jtr

iiii;~ tlisc~i~irriiii;ic~itiii,jiii~is~>riicl~~ri~~i;iI. b:ii c.oiisc-

Icgitiiiiii
iio

li1x.r-tiid (1ucbtic.iicii

los

jiicc.cs ~>;ii;i (1;ii. soliici6ii

los

cx)iillictos pai-ticiilai-es,coii

el

(Ici.cclio rliic tic'iic to(10,jiisti-

ciablc :i

sci- cliscrirriiriado fi-eiitc 21 pi-ol~leirias itlCiiticos.

(111c' /o//o.\ ~<\/ntt~o.s i,yrrcrl/tlo.scrrlr Itr //y, /)oro tt//i/./~o.\ /1ri7t///o.\//o,j~r.\/i/~i/i, ] I I ( ~ la ley 110 c>s1xiix;j;i p;ir.;i (,//,so,\ yi C loelos, p o i - c.1 ( l i q ) ; ~ ci'itc.i.io qiic- rriiic1i;is vc.ccs se iis~i j);ii;i apli(.;ir- iiiia iiiisiril tior~iri;~sitiiieioiics iiii;Iog~is. I > i coiiit~il~iiido ;i l :I cste resilltado el r-giclocoiiccpto qiic se 1i;i rriaiitciiiclo (le 1;i ciiiisal fiiridaiite tlcl i-cciii.so tlc casacitri e n el f o i i c l o : k t ~iy/int~,icin (11. Ir? cpto ~nllyjcc lo cli.s/~o.si/i-oo t ~r .sc.ntc.?l(.ic~ rrr d k (al-t.767 <:Y(:). a j o R csie l)r~isrria, pai;i 121 \risi(iii tr;idiciori;il iio sera iidrriisil~lc fiiiiclaic.iiciici;i, se. ~)o(li.i;i (I<.c.ir-

i i i i i.c~c.iii.so(Ic. <.;isiic.i(ii c.11 ,jiisi;iiiic.ritc~, Iii Aiiricliic

c.1 lOii<lo i i i v o c , i i i i ( l o c . o i i i o c'l

iiilr-ii(.c.i(ii,

tlis(,r-iiiiiii;i<.i<iri ji~i~isl)r~ii(lc.ii<i;il"~~.
i i i i Iiig;ir- c o r r i i ~ i sostciici. (lile

c.s

IXY.II~M)

(le c;is:i-

tlcl,c. coiisc.giiir- 121 igiiiil ;i~>li(.;ic.itiii I;i ley, ;i tlc I;i Iioi;i tlc (.orisi;it;ii- sc. lia c.iiriipli(lo efi.(~iiv:rrriciiic si csii iiicta, e1 i-csiilta(lo i i o es para ri;id;i iilciit;idor: S610 cori 1;i r-cl0r.rri;i(le Iir l,cy No 19.374, (le 18 fcbr-cro (le 100.5, se ha piiisto ti.i.riiiiio ;i iiiio de los pci.otlos 1 1 s iiefiistos que 1i;i teriido e ti-itarriieiito 1 5 1
citiii
cii

e 1

lOii(1o

de
c.s

la,jiirispriitleiicia eri iiiicsti-o

sistirria (iiiici:rdo

eri

1937); iio

iiveiitiir.a<losostciiei. cliie 1;i 1-cfbr-rriaaliitli<la frn

rP/iittdndo k u

,i)rlr Slr,/)rijrtta, clotAii(lolii(le tiiia


jiii.is~)i-~i(l~~ii(~i~.

estr.~rc.tiii-a qtie, por. ~)i.iirici-:r\Y>L

(,ii sil Iiistoi.ia, It. 1)c.i-iiiitii-a ;il<,iiiz;ii- iiilic.l;i(la riiii<l;itl(le, 1i 121 ;

1)icli;r i~c~l)i.iii;i ic.i.iiiiii6 ( . o i i Iii (.i;il>;i (Ic.ii(.i;il, ose,iir.o 1 ) ( b i i o ( l o

< 1 < ~ 1/ni.\.\~rlirirv, jiii.isl)i.iiAi~ii(luc' Iii


<.o(lificiic.itiri ~)rc.sc.iii;il);i iiitlii(l;tl)lcs vc.iiii!jiis, riiiic.lios

(lex

i i i i c ~ s t i ~ i i is i o i ~ i : i , j 1 1 ~ 1(]ir(. ~ : 1 l I~ ~ ~ ~ ;iliiiic*ii-

i t i - ( . o i i gi.;iii (Iosis (Ic. i . i i ~ t i i i - 1;i ;i(.iiiii(l (Ic* (I(~s(~oiil'i;iii/,;i !, tlcsl)i.(.(.io(111c- c'ii niii(.li;is oc.;isioiic*s i i ( s i i c . , i i i l ' i i i i t l i i c l ; i i i i ( ~ ~ ~ i c ~ , scs (le* I:I j i i i - i . ; ~ > i . i i t l ( ~ i i ( ~ i : i .

( 1 ~ . siis

postiil;i<los t<~<ir.i(.os <.iril>cz;~r-oiisei. ~)iit.stos;i a

1)111c~l,:i,

c s ~ ) c ~ ( ~ i i i I i ~p o i - ~ i i c ~ r r ~ ~ ) o r ~ i i i i ~ i i ( ~ i iI:i o j i ~ ~ - i s ~ ~ ~ ~ i i 1,;i c ~ i ~ ~ ~ i ; i . i ( ~ c.1 ( o (lc. i ~ I


i.;i<Iic.~il ol>(,i<iii por- I;i Ic.g:ilicl;icl (III<' i i i s t : i i i i x i c.1 (:ti(ligo (:vil, :i1 l)o('o1 i c r i i l ) o tic ser. iiiil)l(~rric~riiatfa clc~iriosir.<i siis liil(.ii<.i;is. 1li.c.liv;iiric~iitc, i o ol)st;irif(~ i Ii;il)(.i-s(.;i~)i-ol)iitlo i i i a y o i l>;ii.tc. I;i ti(. 1;i Ic~gisliic.i<iii siisi;iiiiiv;i tliic

(lio

oi-igcii

nl tlci.cc~liop;iii.io,
poi'
cii

i i i 1i ;

igii:iltl;i(l r i i I;i ~ ~ c i - i i < l i i r r i l ~ i ~ c ~ ~ j i i r ~ ~ l i c ~ ; i -pr.oiiic.ti(la

Iostc.(ii.ic.os

(1c. la

c-otlili(.:ic~itirivi-aii iiii;i r ~ c ~ i i l i t l : i <iiiiigil,lc. l

iiiicbsir.os1)i.i-

irici-os ;irlos 1,;is

<1<. I i r

I<(.pil)lic;i. clilt-

la j i i i - i s l ) i ~ i i t l ( ~ r i ( ~csial~a ii gciici;iiitlo cri de. la (.o<lific;ici<ri tlcciiiioti<irii<.a se, a1)r.c.ciaii cri v;iri:is f ~ l r e ~ ~ t e s liist(ii~ic;is. Eli pr-iii~ci. Itigri., 211 (~is(~irtir~sc la 1,vi (/o Or;iri~/,iz(~(.i(;?l % /11'1.1/~~(~10~10,s '/i.ihu?rtclos (lo jrl,,stic.tcc (Ir ( 1 los ~ ,'lriko, de 1875, val-ias de las opcioiies tCcriicas iitlopt;id;is parir la ri:icierite estriictiir~ajudicial cliilcria se virici11;iii directairicritc cori el tlesenipefio practico de la jurispr-iidencia; al tlel~atir-se iinel riiero tle riiierribros qilc deba tener la Corte Siiprerria, eri Iri scsi611 clc 25 de agosto de 1875, se pr-opiiso iirici corriposici6ri iriipar- tle siete Ministros, darido corno r-az6ri que diclio tr.ibiiiiil deba t:st;ti. t:ri(.;iriiiiiii<lo,critr-c: oti-as c-ii'stiories, a , / i j ( ~ r j?rw'.sL(L n f) ILP(~P'YI . S / ( L ('11 (/(!SY ~ / ) i ~ ~ ( l o n p Lo.$ /)?ctslo.s(In I / I M di.st1rt 10,s 1 rilni 11 c~c.u~rrdo. c.xpli<-;i(-iii r . Kallc~stt.ros,esta coiriposicicri veiiii Eii d (Ie.ic~i.iiiiiiii(l;r) o i . 1ii sigiiic.iiic. i.<.iilitl;itl: "1 Ioy iiiisiiio cxistc. c.scX 1
tlilit.iili;itlcs
I;is 111-iiiicr;is (li.(.atlas
(~k(1.s

~ I c ~ s i i ~ ~ i icc i~ iiiiicsii.os i i ~ i I ~ i ~ ~ isiip(.t~ioi~cs ~ i i i ~ ( ~ I i ois i S i ~~lo ;ilc~s e-11 l~ i

tos: I)C*I'O . O I I N ) i i ; i ( l i ( . c*si:i ;iiiloi.iz;i(lo p;ii.;i i.(.solvc*i. ciic~sti~ii, ( Iii cii(l;i i i . i l ) i i i i ; i l S(. iii;iriiic.ric (.ii sil ~ c - o i . ~I i ,C ' niii(.lfii~~c.(.~.s ( U (.si;i (.ii oposicitiii coii i-csoliicioiit~s tlic.t;idas por. oii.os ti.iljiiii;rl~~s. A(.ti~aliiiiriic~ <I<~st(~rici-tlo tcoi-Lis ( l i i ( , prcdorriiii;rii cii las 1i;ig eii las SOIII.C ;ilgii~ios1)1iiitos.L.:\ (:oi-te Sup-e(:oi.tes d i A~~el;icioiies i i i i r tictic t;irril)iii teoras que r i o soti las (le los otros ti-il)iiriales y catla iiiio iiiariticiie la siiya, por.clile rio liay riiiigiiri tri11iiri;il llarriado a iiriifi)ririai. la Icgislaci6ii y la,jiirispriicleiicia. y <lile piieda decii- qiic el ir-il~iirial qiie cst5 e n la verdad es la Cor-te Silpi-eiiia o las (:artes cle Apelaciorics <leLa Serciia, de (:oiicepci6ri o tlc. Saritiago"!"'. 1',ii 1;i rriisiiiii tlis(.iisicri Irgislitiv;i,1;i pi.eocii~~;icicii los propor (Ic t,lcrri;is que est;ilxiii siii-gieiiclo(Ic 1;i,jiir~is~1i~iitleiicia los tr.il)iiii;ilcls se i.cflcja cii 121 r~xcc~iiirici<l~i(l cii <lucb iii(.ui.i-i6el I<.gislitloi (Ic 18'75, ;il (-oiici.tIci-c.oiiil)cteiici;i ;i 121 (:oi.k Siipr~rri;~ co1);ir-a iio(.c.r (l(~1i-ch(.iir-so (.;is;ic,i<iii ;iiitcs que i'"~. tic. (~stiivic.r.;i I(.gi~lit(lo!'~. (~oiiio sil)(.,I;I (.;is;ici611 i i r i i i it~siiiii(.i(ji~o r ~ i 1 ~ I c ~ i i i raje-1 i ~ ( ~ sc* C,I.I (~ it~ ii;i :i 121 ii.;itlic.ititi ,jiii.(lic;i (l(~1t I c . i . < ~ . l i o c~;ist(~ll;iiio, ir-oii(.o;i1 pc.ric.ii<.ccriic,s( - i i c.1 ;iiril)ito ~)i'ocx~s;il. (111)(. i-c.c.oi.d;iiqitc niic'sii.o i i ~ i l ) i i i i ; i l siipc-i-ioi; ~ U C (Ic~s(1c ( : o i i s i i i i i c ~ i < i i i d(. 1828 i.(.(.il)(. el ' I;i ~ i O i l l l (le ~: ~ t ~( - s 1 l ~ ) l - c ~ l l i ;c.11 Sil oi~igcbii 0 l.ll(, C~r.c~;l(lo ) ~ ( o l l, 11 (.O1110 113l ) i i i i ~ i l( 1 ~ c.;isac,itiii.1 ,;i c~oiril~ci(~iic~i;i pi-iiiiitiv;~1 ~ . i ~ i i ~ ~ siri;ixiirio ( ii-o i r ~ i l ) i i i i i lsc. t ~ i i ( ~ ; i i i i i i i ; i l ) : i c.otiociiiiic.riiorlc. iiii;i sc*i.ic iiI dc. i.c.(.iii.sos ( 1 ~ 4sisic-iiiii (le iiiij~iigii;ic~i(iii t l c ~ i . c ~ . l i(;isi(~ll;iiio, esl><~<~i:iliriciitc~ tiel o c.1 ( 1 it~j~r.\lic.icr ~ r~olorirr.

<lo

II,\I.I.lSI'b:KOS, l , ~ ; i i i i i < ~ I /,e/ 1e.i r/r o t , q ( ~ ~ ~ / z / r / .ii t/ ~~> i l ~ r r c . i o t t,Ir, /o.\ / > . i / ) t i / ~ / / b b:., i /t rc
S;iiiii;igo, 1 1 r i ~ ) i c i i t ; i N;ic.ioii;il,

/P\ e//, (,'ltile:

18!)0, 1. 1, 1). '1!)2.

'"

I:ii;i

cii i i i i o

al)tiv\i;i ;i I i i i i i i . o 1)or el \ ; i l o i - tlc 1;i,jiii~is~~i~iiclr.i1ci;i (:liilc cii ;ipi.<.c.i,i <le los ~>riiici])itlv<i ,jiii.i\l;is (.liilcitos <icl siglo X I X , (1011 R~I;IIIII(.I I:,ji<lio E;,-

lIv\ltTos.

k:slc ~ l l l l o l ~11 l l l l e,

l l ~ ; l l ~ ~ f j~o l l l ~ l i ~ ~ ~l;t ~ l o l VI1 l lf,7li.\l// P / l t l , l / . \ ( ~ I ~ I / / ~ / 1 ~ / , ~ V I I ISSH,

<~x[)l.<'sill>;: ":\IIII<]U(,

I;i j i i i . i \ l ) ~i i < l < ~ i i c . i ; i/ l o t / ( ' ~ i ~ i t ~ / ~ e ~ ~ i t r (,ti :/t//e, 1.1 / r ~ ~ / i o ~ l n ~ t / c lotloiricr /~e//i,,/

si;isiiio (luc(l;i i.c.tr-ata(locii iiria iiic-rrioi.iaplil>lic;itliicii il)i'il t l ~ 1 !)O:<, <luclcxpr-es;':". . .lis "(lo taii tlhil 1;i i~esistc~iici;ii i ( >se Iia <l Ii(~.Iio cst;il)lcciiiiic~~to 1-eciirsode (.asicicriquts piicilc dc;iI del la cii-sc. que casi 121 iiiiariiiiiida<l d i los 1iorril)r-es,(11 pas cbiitt.r-o Iia pctlic-lo i aiiliclalja coriio iiria gi;iri iic.ccsiclad"; "(. . .) la (.(L.\(Lu i j n ( l ~ /jxxi.slir,decaii todos los qiic ttlriiaii algiiii;~ h ~ iiiflucricia los tlestirios del pas, pcro llegar5 a sil tieiripo, ciiando cl pas piieda tenerla siritierido i apr-ovecliariclo los berieficios qiie d e ella se alcanzarari. . Desclc el rnhito forc.rrse, ratifica el corriportarriie~itoto poco pacfico tle la jiirispi-iitlericia el tr-;lbajo tlel abogado Fer1i:iiido C;. (:oiii-t, ~x~ljlicaclo 180.5. Aiiritliie las citas tlel rriisiiio piiecri cl;iri parecer ;i pr-irrier;i vista exteiisas, estirri;lriios qiii sti valor testiirioriial ,jiistifica sii tr;iiisc~riljcitiii.Eii el priirier. j)iiiiio (1"" iiiicr-c.sil, i.cl;itivo a 1;i existr.ricia ( 1 ~ - tlccisioiies c.oiiti.;itlic.toi-iiis, (:oiirt sc,fi;il:~: / A (;(1(7>/(1(l12 lo.s ' / i i / ) u r ~ ( ~ /rri;iiiiIit~s~;i 1;il)oi~ " o.s la (le iiiicsti-;i,jiicli(-;riiii-;i, y (~iiicri I<-;i coii c!jo tlc~s:ip;isioiiiiclo, la iioia1:i i. iiisiili(.ieii(.ia (1t. los ~ ~ o i i o ~ ~ i i r i i c ~ i i ~ o s ~ ~ ~ ~ r ~ l 1-5 siil)crlic~i;ili(l~i(l (-os que cll;i c-oiiiic-tic..( : o i i t i - ; i ( l i < ~ c ~ i o i i cses <.ii<.iicii(i-;iii <.ii(iii ~ i riioriiciiio y c.s 1;ii.c;i I)OC.O iiicrios tluc iiri~>osil~lc i ~ , j i i r - i s ~ ) i . 1 1 ( 1 r ~ 1 ~ Iija (-aso1,i-c ~lgiii pi-cc(~~)to [ J i i tlisiiiigiiido j i ~ i ~ i s c o ~ i s i ~ l ~ o lc.giil. cliiIciio l i ; ~ c-oii~pil;itlo i i voliiiriclii c.ti lOi.rria tlc (lic,c.ioii;ii.io ii cori las tlivcr-s;is seiiiciici;is c.xpctlitl;is IIOI. los ti.it)iiii;il(.s (liii;iiitc' c.1 csp;icio (le t1ic.z anos" !'!l. "13;isi;i coiisii1t:ii~c.sti o1)i.a sol>rci i i i ~ i i i i t o <1(~1(~i~niiii;i<lo pii.;i c.iic.oiiir-;irsoliicioiics (.ti divei-so sc.iiii(lo, y aiiti sir1 cx;igci-;~ci<iii, p;u.;i los siil,tc.i-fiigios tlel riiisrrio pr-ecc.l>tol~.giil.Mas, si sorrios avalar-al- los rri6i.itos tle esia ot)r;i, g li.licit:irrios 1101siricci.os l~ai';i t,llo sil aiitor; r i o esta14 cic iris atlvcr-tii. t.11 riio(lo t.spc,cial 5 la jiivc~iitiicl,qiir iio d c l ~ c tl;ir.sc 5 las seiitcricias tlc los ti.ihiirialcs y iiiitoi-itla(l tlticx la (le l o s iriigisti-aclosqiie las rrihs iriij~~~i~t~iricia lirrriaii. (:orivicric giiai-dai-setle csc exagei-ado pi'iii'ito qiie ixiste eri (:liile <le pr-ctciidei. p i a r plcitos cori fnlsa aiitor-itlacl (le las sciiterici:is. I,a ohr-ii clcl serioi- Ravrsi ticric adcrii;is i i i i c.ii-Ac.-

( / l / / , $0 //>ll/t (/.s/gtte/(/o PIl 1 0 5 /l(/;\l,.\ t / / l \ / / / / f ~ / / t / / / ( / ( / O . \ , , ~ . \ / i / ~ / i / / l t t / l / t t , q//~/ / , , t r ( f ,llosoll 1 ~ /l (

o\

;i i c ~ s i i i i i i i I- ) ~ - ( ~ \ ~ ~ i i i c1;ihi i~i )cl .~i ~ i ( . i l ) ; i l ( . \ ~(.'iolii(.ioi~~.\i ( l ; ipoi. ('1 ( :OII~ <li<.~; ~( cjo 1':sl;itlo t.11 < . i i c ~ \ i i o i i i ~ s ( ~ o i i i ~ ) < ~ I < ~ i<i .(I I ~ Ii . < '; i i i i o i i<l;i(l(,s;itliiiiiii\ii-;itiv;i'i \ (i<. i; j i i t l i < . i ; i l ( . ' i t l ( , h t l < . I;i ~ ) i . o i i i i i l g ; i < ~ i t(I<. 1;i l.<.\ Oig;iiii(;i tic, los ' I ' ~ - i l > i ~ i i ; i l < ~ s (I<.Ziii ..."
(...)
\,;IIIIO\

1.1,1':S'1'1~:1<(iS.l ; i i i i ~ <l.:.," I , i i i i i ( . \ t1c.l I ' o t l ( . i . , j r i t l i c - i N , h ~l ;16o l\', N" l l , l SS!l, 1). (iSl ) . (l<:l ( I ( Y I , I ( lo I I I I ( , ~ I O). I

< , t i I,'c,71ic//r I*i~tr.tt\c,: l i / / c ~ i i ( i ,

il

ici. <lcb ;i(~iii;ilitliici, Iioy q i i c .

sc.

1)ic.iis:i s e i ~ i : i i i i c ~ i i tr.ii c.si;il)l(.c.c.i. c~ c.1

i.cc.iii.so ti(.

c-asac.itiri; la

v;ir.ic.il;i<l (~oiisit1c~i~;iljIc~ tlc, coriir.ii<li<.c,io-

iics

y de. Iitls;i :tl>li(~;ici(ri la 1c.y (le, ( ~ u ;~lolc.cc'ri (le c c-ori iiii;i I'i.(*los
liillos

( ~ i i t ~ i i c tloloi.os;i ia
rriaiiilicsto

<le riirc~sirosir~il~iiiiales csi;i

iilli

(Ic.

Ii;ic,c iiccc~sai-io iiitlicado r-(.(.tii.so, a i i t o p;ir;i el t

iirii-

Si tl;irrios

c,r..tliioa I w ;

iOi-riiirla ;ijjIic~citiii d rriagistr-atiir.a"'"",

i la ley

ctririt.o p;ir;~ pi.cstigiai. Ii.jiisticiay

cliisicri qiie

ol;)iriioiic.s r-<.<-ii.ii cxpiicstits, 121 pr.irricr.a coiisc. ~>iii(le tlespi-cii(ler es ( ~ i i c; iiicor.f>or-a(,i<iii r-e1i tlcl

r-elacicri a la iiicertidiirribr-e y cliver-sas aplicaciories de la ley, Ferriaritlo (:oiir-t expoiie: "Si el legislador-qiiisier-aproceticr uria revisiri cle riiiestr-a legislaciii sirstantiva, el (:6digo (:vil tierie aproxirriadarricritc ciiaririta aos de vigr:iicia, e l cte (:orriercio t i - e i r i ~ ~ aos y e I'erial veiiite; rio potlra ociir-r-ii;coriio la 1 f'uerit(: i r i k ii~tor-iz;icli irifor-iti>ici(i~I:i,jiir~is~j1-i~(1crici;~, (le A (lile cs o (]ilc S(> O(.LlI.i.(~ l piil.:l estos c;isos i r 1 O ~ I ~ li;i(~loli~s. ~ s ~ l S I , l[)lie~;lciorics pr'ic'iicis(le. Iiis (1isljosic.ioiic.s I<~g;il(*s li;icc.ii coii rii;iyoi-S(.giii.i(l;id i-c.saltar. siis tIc.li.c~ios p o i i i r i (le* iiiiiriili<.sio siis tlclii.ic~ii(5 ci;is; ~ ) c . i - o6 ~ 1 ~essiris (til'cil coriocc.r.l;is c~ii:iii(lo 1 los ti.i\)iiii>il(.s sc. c.orisiitiiyc.ricri Ic~gisl;itlor-(.S, ;iplic.;iiiilo 1i 1t.y i c.;isos i i o ~>i.(.visscbii ; tos ljor ('1 Ic.gislii(loi; scx ;il>i.ic.ii(lo sol>i.c i i r i iiiisriio ~>i.c(.c.l>to leg l iiiiii v;ir-ic(l;itl (1. iiiic.r-l>r.c-iacio~icsi c . p('i.tiii.1)iiii el criicli-io, i (li Iiiic.c.ri pii.(lcr-1i fij(,z:i y (.i.(.;iii(les(-orili:iiiz;i ; c.ir I:i 1cgisl;ic~itiii"'"'.

En

iriisrria

ciri.so (le c;isac.i(ii cii riiicsti-o or~deri;triiicritojurilico ol>etlc<-i<i a razoiics de orderi pr5ctico, corrio tiir i.rrrrcdio pu-aterrriiriar cori la catica situacitiii gciiir-ida p o r - I;is ser1tcricias.jiidicialt.s, qiie aplic;ih:ui eri fi)rrria <:oiitratlictor-ia legislaci6ri s~istaritiwi la siirgida de la codiGcaci6ii. El riiisrrio (:oiir.t, t1cspiii.s de f'oriiiiiliii- tiria descri11<.i<iri crtica ;ic.ei-ci dt.1 tIcsc.riipcio tlr la,jiir-isljr-iitlcrici;~, seial;il>a qiic "la (.1.ciici611 I I I I ; (;oi.tc> (lc. I (le- (:is:i(.i(ri 1. .. 1 irie;jor~;i~~i i iiicl (l:iljl~~iriciiic~, pai.tc., ('1 rriil ! siis i-csolii(.ioii(~s (-11 , sci-kiri iiii;~ giiki sc.giii.;i l);ir.;i los l i i i g i i i i c ~ sy ;il)og;i<los; ) c . i . o tliit1;iiiios (lile 1)11<'(1ii 1 (.xiii.~);ii.Io 1101. ~ o i i i ~ ) l ~ ~ i o , ( iiiic.iiii,;~si o se* 11ic:joi.c. c.1 ;1(.1iiiiIc*st;i(io i
l~sl;llllos ~ ~ ~ ~ l ? i o i l :1;i r l l ~ l g i s l l ~ ~ l ~ ~ l l ~ i l . ~ i c * l l ( l oIO(IOS ll

los dk1s ( I l l O 121s(:oi.ic.s ( 1 ~ ./Il)c~l;i(~ioiic~s c.oiiii.;i I ; i , j i i i ~ i s ~ ~ r ~ i i t l ~c.si;iI)l(*11111:iii ~iic~i;i (.i(lil 1)Ot. 1 i ( : o l . l ( b s l i ~ ) l ~ ( ~ ; l ; l r sill)ic~ll(l:ls i (l(. ( l i l ( % si S(. o ~ i l l ~ l -(*SI(> ~ c ~ 'li.il)iiii;~l Ii;il)i.;i t l ( b sc.1. i-<.voc.;itl;i sc*iiic.iic.i;i, i i o sc.i.ki c.xti.;iiio I;i y
( ~ i i c . , visliiiiil)i.;iii<lo ; (.;is;i(.i<iir 1i ;iiiic.i.ioi; (*iiii.iii.;iir (lis(.iitii.l;i c.11 ii

la sigiiic.iii(.cxlior-i;rc.itiii: Si las (:or.tis (Ic Al)(-l:~eioiic~so lijair sii~jiirispi.ii(ler~ci:~, i.csiic.lri rii vcLii los iii.go(.ios c - o r i siijcci0ri ('sii.ic.iii ; los pi.c.ccl>tosIcgal(.s, las i sciiiciic.i;is iIi ~)i-ir~i<.i;i irisiari(,ia sc.i.;ri ric(.c~s;ii~i:iiri(~iii(~ tics(.ili(l;itl:n ( Ililias tic. cstiidio, por-cliic iio Iiay cstrriiilo parx t.1 ,jiicz, si diit1;i (111(' d i iiiia pliiriiacli sil fiillo piicltla sci- siisiitilitlo por- otro. Milcli2is vcces se ilota clilc las sc.ritericias tlc los juiccs Iclr-aclos soii siipcriores cii icicar-toy estudio 5 I:is de las (101-tes cle iIpelaciorie~"~'~2.
I'or"
Y

iiltiiiio, iiiicsii.o iiiitoi. i.oiic.liiyi cori

I;i iiiisiii;~ sc.iii(.i ic.i;i. oi.(liii;ii.ioy I;i

I ;I

c.;is;ic.itiii I;IIIII)O(.OI ( Y ~ ( s i l . i i i i r(.c.iii.so ~)I '


i i i i c ~ i i t i . ; i si i i c b i i o s

j i i ~ . i s ~ ) i . i i ( l ( * i i ( ~ i : ~iii;is l)i.c.stigiosi (,S

r.(.c-iii.sostl(. c.;is;i.i(ii sc. i i i ~ ( . i . ~ ) o i ~ ~ i ~ i " ~ ~ ) " .


[,os ;iiii(~(.c~tlc~ii(c~s 1i sol)i-c. ;

I r isioi.i;i tl(.l c~sc;il)l~(~iiiiic~~iio (1c.I

rc,-

c.iii.so

tic

c.;is;ic,itiiii i i

es1

I O i i t l o , (.ti i i i i c . s i i . o oi.(lc~ri;iiiiic~ii~o, ;i\.;iI;iii

( l i i ( . sil l i i i (\I.:I

e*ii(.;iii/,;ir. , j t i ~ ~ i s ~ ~ i ~I):II.>I~ lI i~ i~ x ~~r.(~iili(I;~(l i i i c i r~ ~ i ~ ~ ,, ~ cl

I:I

p i . i i i c i p i o ilc, i~ii;ll ;~pli(.ii(.itiii I;i l ( x > z ;I to(1os los ( ~ i i ~ i I ; ~ ( l ; i1111-. (le, i~os i,;iiiic i o t l o c.1 p r o ( . ( ~ ) Icgisl;iti\:o (~iic<lti coiisi:ili(~i;i 1 ~ .1i c.sti.c(.li:i ( ; CIC .'O I I iliic*il(~1jii I . ixistir. i i i ~ i . r * istcLi r i ( ~ l i ot l i i~i~piigii;i(.ifiri ;i v1 iiiiiclatl tlc la~jiir.is~>i.iidciicia. V't~ariios coiitiriri:ic-i6li los Iiitos 1115s a
l ~ c l c ~i~ i l t ~I(

~~.

-~

""' (:OlJlCl., Fer-iiaiido(;.


Li~?trr,;iiio

"Norril)i-;~rriie~itos j~itlici;iles", I</,c.-i~i\/n eii /;,,Y-c.n.5~ (,'/ti-

'~:

X, N, "

18!).5,

[>. :$HC).

"" Ibtlviii, 1).

:$!)O.
l l ~ ~ l ~ ~ l l:5!)2. 1). l ,

11iiiico i i ~ i l ) i i r i ; i l tic I;i Kcpiil)li(.;i 1 (~iic ci.itic;i t l (:oiii.(iio ;ilc;lii/;i rs :I 1;i 1;i ~ (:oi-r<. SII[)I~<~III;I, Sil ;rl>soli~(.icii 1;i <-oii<.<~lc~ c~xl~lic-,iiitlo "1;i~s<~iiiriic~i,is (111c. tli. c.si(. '1.1-il)iiii:il, l gc.ri<.t..il, < I ( ~ i i i ~ i ( ~ s i i - ;csiiitlio y ~ ) i . < . l ) ; i i a c . i ( y isol)i-ciotlo 1>o1. o iii ~ 1111 str iii(.tiiiiiciiio<.\ii i < . i o ; 10s [>i.(.(.c[)ios i l(,g;ilcssy I;ts ;i[)i.(~(.i;i<.ioii<.s 110sgii:ii(Ics los Ii<.< t l ; i i i ( ~ s i i - ( ~ I (oriloi-iiiitl;itl i;i (.o11 iiii(.iicioiics tic. I;is I ) ; I I . I ( . ~ (5 (.o11 ; i I c ; i i i ( . ( , ( I I I C . 1;is <.1 6si;is I i ; i i i tl;itlo ;i siis ~)l.ol)ios;i.io\ 1;i s c ~ . i i < , l ;tlc.1 jiiic-io". c.11 r
Io2 l l ) ( l ( ~ 1 1 1 ,1).

"" SoI)i-<. ii~<~oi.~)o~;ic.i~iii (I(, c;i\.ic itii c.\ tic. ol>lig;iioii;i I;i tlc.1 i-<Y iiiso (oii\iill;i c.1 ii-;il);ijo ~ ) i ~ l t ~ t\ ol i , i c ~ . l i ci-oiii.iiio iiiiiiisiio <Ii, I;i (:oi-le.l ( . \~)c'l;ic (l(,l tl , t < ~ \ t ioii(,s

:<!)l.

(\c. s~lllli~lxo 1 ,\~,l,lll (lo1 l<t,lll g,lc.,, ~ L l ~ , ~ i l~l 0 Il ) il ~ VI 1c.c t I l 5 0 (le, c ; \ ~ ' t ~ i < ; l l " (Mc~ t .) 1. ( \ t . ( : l l i l c 9 , I ~ ~ i'l I~ ~ l ~ ~ . l ~ l i1 ;) O ~ l l;<ll lc;l( l l l l : l ( l ([c. 1 ,(,\,(,S \ ( , i < ~ l l i(i i \ l'olii<~;ls .l;1 O l I (1~ c.11 / ( I , I J I \ / ( I F O I , , I I \ V ( , ' / I I / ~ , I I ( I ,;tilo X I I . N"' l Y 2 , l ) ~ ) . .-l2, v N'" .) \ 1, l)[). 12!)-1!):3, " I S!)S.

a)
i.;i

1"ii I;i

(lisc.iisicii

gc.ii(.i-;i<la c . i i i i . o (1

de

1i (:oiiiisitii ;

( 1 ~ - 1~ ~ ' o y c (~ ~t . i.cc.i~i,so casirc-iri eri 1 o (lv agosto (le I H H O , el coiriisioriiitlo (loii (:osiiic (:;tiiil)illo 1)r.ol)orit. la sigiiiciitc. idc:i: "K1 s<.or-(:ariipillo irisistr. rii la o1)iiiitiii ~ 1 1 lia rriariiSesta(1o eii otr;is oc-;isiorics par-a q u e el i . t . n i i . ~ ) 1 ~ tic c;is;iciri cii cl f'orido clitrde r-esti.iiigido A 1 1 scritcric-iasi11;il)c2s lahlcs proiiiiiiciar1;is por las (iortes de Ape1;iciorics. L,a irripoi-taricia (le este rcciirso coiisiste eri la i1iiiforrriid;id qiie prociira de la jiirispriltlericia tic los trihurialcs, y este objeto slo se corisigrie cstablecierido iiri tr-ihiirial iiiico (le castciii eri el fibrido.. .".
iiii<>iito, e 1

Kc*\,isoel l>iitlo, 10 tl(. c.1

I,I(

I O I I (I I \ I \ ~ I ~ ~ I . i(io~i i ~ 1'1 ~ l ,1i ,~ i,( i'i, lt,iIici,l<Clgi( >L,~ i io ~ 1: i i '1,


"

(1~-

Al(,-

iil<iiil,i, . I ( C
7

.". 5011, pilcs,

clev'i(1os liiic~s (le oi(lc~ii

pfil)li( o ' ~ ~ i t cls i c ~(le iric i


I,i ide,i

ici 6s 1 1 \ ~ ~ llos, que 1i o


"Accptida corrio j~ericr~il, (:orrii\iii

scb l)~rsigticii o r l c\t'i irislitti( itiri". ( se Iiall't por c.1 Horioinl~lc~ Seii,itlo

pni i tr,icli~cirl;~ lcy y cii

i eglarricrit,irl,t dcl~itlarrieritc,a l ciiidntlosi-

irierite prcparatlo\,

h n poditio aprovccliai- los clerri~iitos, ya clc los pi oyectos nrites aliidiclos".

"Campar-ritlolos, arrrioiiiz;riclolos e iritrodiicic.iido en ellos


tri pririt ipnlniente r cglnrrieritario, h n f o r rrintlo el qiic 1 1 4 ~itIeI;i~itc iriscr t;i y ( 1 ~ 11s 01)011c 5 ~ i ~ e s t r ; l 15 sc' e < oiisiclci nt iri" (. . .) ""'. K'itific ,I todo lo ,iiitcr i o i el prop0sito cliic llev n 1,i c rcac i6ri tlc. 1'1 Ii~-c,r\/n I ) ~ r t . r / ~ o/ I I ~ I ~ / ~ ~ I I ~ ~ ~< Ii iI' i~ iI( l~ L (-11 , I,i riot'i (Ic' (10 y i o " " 111('sc~i.r(( i i i (1(' 411 111iiiic.~ i ~llili<'i e1 30 ( 1 ~ 'iio\ic'irll)i(' ( 1 I!)O:i, o, ~
rriodificaciories tie c:ir(
C.X[>i <.\'l.
''151 c ~ \ / o / ~ / ~ ~ t l l l011 o ~ ~ / o f / f l / 101 1 0 \ 0 l ~ (,'/ll/O ( 0 1 ~ O , ~ I I~ II \I I / ~ ~ I IOIIC\ I (( 110 / ~ l O t I l l l t l f l /OfIO\ f

1)) El Mviisajt. cori q r i e flic erivia(lo el (:6tligo (le 1'1-o<,ctli1 (1~. f i . l ~ i . < . i - od c . 189'3, cxpoiic: "1,;i c;is:ic.iii c.ti c.1

IOiitlo i i i t i - o t l t i c , c * c.ti iiiit.sii.;i I(.gisliicitiri iiii;i iiov<l(latl i.cc.l;irii:i(l;i 1x)r Lis i i c ~ c ~ c ~ s i c l ; i ~ l c ~(1;ii t i i i i l O i . i i i c ;iplic.;i(.i(ii :i las Ic.ycs. S<. (le s Iia l i i i i i i i i t l o s d o ii I;is sc.iiic~iic~i:is Iiis ( i o i ~ c b stic AI~;i(l;i,. o i i i o tic. ( c.ii(.;ii.~;i(l:is (1:ii. Ii iioi.iri;i l)iir.;i c.1 ( . o i . i - c . < . i o liiii(.ioii;iiiiic.~iio1 ~ . (
( I c b

los

i i . i l ) i i i i ; t l o s iiili~i.ior.c~s".

(10 l(1

l ( 9 otl

~1/ f / l l o

(10

\ l l \ />/Of / O \

$1 I l f l Il(Jgfltf1

do ( ( I \ t l ( l l l , f01110 l ~ f ~ d lf/('l f 1t1s ( ~ I I / I ( , ~ I ~ / /( II I\ ~ / I I(( I / P \ , f l 11111/01 k l l f l l $ 0 ltl / l l t l \ / ) l 1(-

(*l I I I ~ O I I I I ( * I:i (:oriiisi6ii Mixi:i ~ ) : i i ~ l i i i i ( ~ i i t : s o ~ )iii~c.1 <lc* ~~ li . i.cL<.iii.so ~ ~ i i s i i < . i t""', t l < . ' 5 1 (1(% tlic.ic.iiil)i.c* t l ( . I X!M, sc. 1c.c.: "l)c.stlc. (1(. iii c.1 ~)i.iiric.r iiisl;iiiic. I i i r i c.si;i(lo ;i(.oi.tlcsto(los los siisc.i.iios(.ti (111c~ 1;) ~ ~ I ( . o I . ~ ) o I . : I c I.I~I (* S i.;is ( 1 C*S;I : Iiis I ( ~ I ~ ~ ~ iiisiit i i c i ( i i i j i i i ~ ( I i ( ~ :ii ~ i i ~ ) o ~ ~ ~ ; i i ~ :
c.)
1,ii

110 / f / O l / f 111 /)O1 l l l ( ~ f / 1 0f/O //1 ~ 1 / / 0 / )101/ ('11 / ( / / / N ( / \ O l l / l / f l , ~ ~ ~ t / (/O( /1111~1 / / l l k ~ f / l / t l\ / ~ l l / f l ( / f l/M11 /tl ( ' O l / f ~k ~ l l / ) / O l t l t l " .

"1,n
/(l\fl\,

( : 0 1 / ( ~t l r ( , ' ~ I \ ~ III ~ I I r l ~ c t ~ t ~ rc,,ltrt /ore,\ , lo\

tlr /u\

I ' t r ~ ~ t l c(tI \ /

I~~~IIIy
f/\O-

/ 1 / ~ 1 1 0 / ~ ~11/1\1011 l l l f l l l / f ~ l l f ~ t l l l l l f l t l f / f l l ) l / l ] l l t l \ / ) ~ l l f l f ~ l lltl 11 ltl f

i i i i i i i ( : j o i . ; i r i i i c s i i l o iiic.oiilc~st;il)lc~ l):tr.;r 1;i ~i(litiiiiisir;i<~i(iii <I<.,jiis(i<.i;i".

g11rt11 0 1 l ( ~ \ / l f ~ / fO I / l 117 l

511 f 1 / 1 / 1 / t 1 ~ 1 0 1 1/ ~ \ / t l I / ~ l "".l ' t l t f l / l l l l f l / l l / ( / l l t l l

" N o cbsV I
10
<,il

i1i:s i i r i l ~ o i ~ i : i i i ((lcb c

~~110s r r i i i y o i . g;ii.iiiilkr clc 1:)

;i(~ic~i.-

f l ( l / / (10 l(1 / l l l 1\/11 l l t l f ~ t l ltl ( ,'or/c .\rr/~rrrtltr nlt,rnct,r/

o\

111f/1\/1011 \ f / l ) / / ~f / l 1 t J l f l \

l ( ~ \ O I l l fl f l l l f ~ \ f10

los fiillos". "1;ii cbfc.c(o, I,i iiiiitI,itl cii 1'1 iiitci 1 1 1 ei,i( itiii 1 ,ipli( ,ic ioii 111,ict i c , i de 1'1s 1cjcs es iil(llspcils,ibl<'[I,II,I ( ~ I I C ' ~ > l i < ~ d , i < iiiripiii\(~1 (' 1" iiic i p ~ )Iioy iiiiivei \al, tlc 1'1 igiinl<l,icl,iritc 1'1 I<.v". , " N o l,,istn q u e uri.rs rriisrrias 1r.vrs i ij'iri p,ir ,i iotlos los Ii,il>it'iiites; e \ p r e c i s o t,iiiil1i6ii ciiic r ij'tii pnrn totlos ( o s 1 In iiiisrii,i i r i tiligeii( in". "(:ori

/otltr In

/ ~ r ~ I ~ l ~ c ~ rt rl ~ t rt c t r ~ l tir / t u t l t ~ t r l t

ltl clrrr S r

/ / O t ~ 1 l / ~ ( O I l O ( l l t l l O l l / f l ! / O \O/O f / / ~ (11 /O\ f / l l f ) /lOl1fJ1l f / l l f J f l / ) / l / ( l r /(L\ /f'y('\, r t11r1go11 \ ~ r t o ~ I I I I / ) I J ~ tlc / O f / O \ t r t j c ~ v l l o cq l t r t r r i ~ ~ ~ l li n n ( I l l / l , q t l ~ l / f ~ \ f l f ) 0\10\ l l z l \ l r i o \ " . y

In

c/c c

tlo los

/ tl P "13ot 11t t r 1 r\/n /1111)hf ~ttrtl 11n t ~ r t n t ~ rnc)/d~t y r r v t h t c l t l ( c J ~ I /tic L / ( o r t \ III'/~I,o s f j l / J ~ I I ~ ~ 01)~tlo la fa \ 15 1 1 1)l 111 I<l, 1 1 0 1 1 Y<I5I'/i'l Y V /A3'. PI (10 1 ) /

esc. ol~jcto,o i 1 e tlcl)er dc. obtcrier 1'1 c 1


liriii iclcdclo

i i i i i f o i iriiclntl t.11
Lis

1'1

jiir

iy)i iidiiici[i

y cst,rt)lec ido 1'1 c ns,i( i6ii

lcgis

;il);wOosicrisil)l(.riie~i~c' tlc

los

iiioilclos

c.xistt~rircse n

;icliii.lla

Cpo-

(.;i,i.cl)c-r-cuticritlo <lic.lii irriiov;ic.i<iiiilii-cciaiii<.iiii. i u


F'ii

cl viilor <le

gciici ,tl, 1'1

irl<>,i

tlc

iiii

i r i~~iiii,il (le

(.i\,ic 161ip i r

ic

cit.

1'1

I),i\(.

1;i jiii.is~)i.u~liiit.ii (Icrili-o 1)iclio tlc

<liicb cal \isiciii,i iicccsit,i tic iiii tirg.iiio, tliic, t-iigiilo (oirio jiic./

otra

fi)rrria, n i i i i q i i r

t1c1 sistcrriii (1c. l'iieiitcs. cl ;iiilic.lo tlc tliir

iiriili)i~rriid;i<l

cr litliirrii)r(, jiir itlic ,i 'trite e1 c b c i i t o 4ic.111tx po\il,lt> cle 1rii1tiplt.s y li'i41,i c o n t r ~ i < l it to r i'ts ilitcrpr ct'ic i o i i v 4 jiiclit idle\; la iiii\iii tit. cliclio 61 g'riio 4 e i 1'1 iiripiiriiii iilin tlir e t citiii iir1ic.i 1 In iiiter pieiacicri t l i 1,~s ' mi riias jiirciicas, c ii,ilqiiiir't clcle fucse sil i arigo, cvitaritlo qiie bajo el rcciir \ o de aplicar iriter pi etar \ e colrict'iri i r r ore? j i i r (li( 04 e i i 1'1 dcci41(;1i CIC' 104
\riprcrrio, g,ir ,rritic e 1,i t
(

;t 1i ~jll~.ispi.~~i1cri(.i;iiiii e~citicrito ~ c t c r ~ r i ~ i r i ;p:i~-:ic J ~ C O I . ; f.iie c ~~il

(ic pofiir el i.e<~ii.so c;is;ici<iii eii el fOiiilo, el riirc;iiiisnio rio hit. dotado clc toclos los rricdios tcriicos qiie uria ciiestiri tari seiisihlr riecesiialxt para alcanzar <:fi:ctivarrierites ~ fiii. El l)riricip;rl i reparo provierie del hecho iliie a las sentencias de nuestro tribiirial d i casaci6n rio se les rccorioci valor viiic~il:iritc, sitio de
.mora f)c.r.sun.sitirr rnor(~1.
Siii rrrih;ir-so, se t l i b c ~ r-ccoriocer

orillic (04. I.;i vt.1-sicii

cCs,

coiiio

c.lisic.i clc. Iii c~isiici<iii (~or~i.c.spoii(1c~ ;iI iiioclclo fi.;iiitina pic/.ii Iiiiitl;iiriciit;rl ilcl "go1)ic.i-rio cI(, las I(.yc.s".
( I ~ W ( . o ~ ~ s i i < ~ *c~o i i;iiol > ; i ;iiiiCiitic~o S" . ~ iti r (51-

q ~ i c sistciii;i oi-igiiial coiie1


el
iierii-

taba

coii

ciirtos

ptli;itivos, cliic

tlc

Iiahcr- fiiricioiiado cii

J I I S I ; I I ~ ~ ( ~ I g ; i i ~ ; , i ~ i ti 1 1 : i iii~ ( l t ~ l o11;iciti ( > i i I~i.irit~i;i t i + 1);ii-ii I ~ ( ~ ~ i~ i o VI


l)iiii~il

po

po(li,;iii 1i;i1)c.r ;ilc;iiiz;itlo I;i ;iii tirl;itl;i iiii il'ic;ici<iii (le 1;i

( 1 ~ .(~;tsa(.itii. iil

jiii-isl>r~(li.iic'i:1, 'fill (-oiiiose cxl,lic;irA, ;i r;i/, iii;ls

(le siic.csiv;is i.cl>i-

l)olic,ki, tl;itlo 1 ) o i . ('1 I'ot1c.i. I .c.gisl;iiivo I);II.;I (.o111 i.o1;11.i I ; 1;iI)oi ( 1 ~ . Ios,jii(.(.cs c.11 sii ;i(.tivitliitl tic jiizg;ii.. 1 1 Ii.il)iiii;il t l c b C;Is;ic,itiii I ' i . ; i i i c ~ i s S(. i i i s i i t i i y t i ( , t i 17!)0, v sc~giii(-1 o l ) j ( . i o lij;itlo ( . i i S I I ( I c ~ i ~ ( * i o i i i ~ ) I ~ i i i t ~ i (( 1( ~ i i , i ' ~ i i~.iI)ii~i;il c.;isi(,i(ii 5 (l(t iiir~iI;ii.; to(I;i
g;iii()(1t.
( l c x

stxiil(.ii(~i;ii i ( . (.oii1('iig:i iiii;i c.oiiii.;r\.c.iic.itiii( s x ~ ) i . ;iI ~ ; ~ (~ (b~( ~ I i Ic'Z."i"Y \ (.si;i I i i i i ~ ~ i t i (Ic* I:i t.;is:it.itii, 1 ) o i . iiilliic.iic.i;i ; / ii iii;iiitli.(~i, tl(~iioiiiiii;i. o i i i o I i i i i c . i t i i scS (

x (Ic. io

Icgalc.s, iiiti.otliii.itl:is (-11 c.1 Iiiii<~ioii;iiiiieiito 1;i (:or.lc Siitic, l ) l . ( b n ~ \ , iiic.(.aiiisiiio oi.igiii;iliiiciii(. i)i.cvisio coiiicii/;\r'k'i ;r ser<I(~siiatiii;ili%;~(lo gi.iitlii:ilriic~ric<., ~)riiito i i c x cbn 121 (li.(.;icl;i ;iI q ti(. 10s ocIiciit;i (\vi siglo XX ~>r.;c~tic.~riiic~i~c iio ol)ci.;il);iiiiiigiiiio dc 10s <.oi-i.c.(,tiv<)s tC(.iiicos l)i.c.visos 1);ii.iiol)~ciic'r. iirisi;i(i;i iiiiiclati clc 1ii
1 i jiiris1)i-iitlciit.ia. ;

tlc

(:iili-

tiot~io/il(ic~ic/~~/~o ~ t ~ o / ~ l ( r , ~ i , \ ) , (o ~ i

(III(*

c o ~ s i s i ( (.ii .

iiI<.;iii/;ii. "1;i (.xii(.iii ol)sc~i.\~;iii<.i:i cigiiilic.;itlo

;ll,sli.;i<~lo

( 1 ~ . I;is I<.y<.sV.
tlcl
i.~t.rii-stit. o

A i i i i ( l i i t . i i o Ii;iy (Iiitl;i ( I I I C * I;I i i r ( . o i . l ) o i . : ~ . i t i i i

( ~ i s ; l ( ~c.11~ (SI lOl~(I0* t i l l l l ~ ~ s t o~ ~ ~ l ~ ~ l r ; i l l i i ) i i~ i ~ 1 o ci ~ l ( ~ l I l i( ll ( l lo l ~ ~(liil) K I I . I:i j i ~ i ~ i s ~ ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ( ~ i g i i~ ; i;t i ~ i ~ i i i ~);ii~;i . i i , r( I;I igiiiiI(lii(i ;iritc Iii

ley, p o ~ .

(livt~i.siis i-;izoiicst ; i l iiisti~iiiri<~iilo siciirl)rc. Ii;i c.iiiri~)li(lo iiiiiio sil


~i(li. (:oilio ~ ) l ~ O l l t sc*(~x[~lic.il~, ~ sisl(~11l;l O l l l l c s 1.0

(i(1 t ~ : i s l t ~ i se l ~i

"IS 1 1 1 S i l ol.ig<~ll i l ~ i l ~ l l l i ~ l l(.:l\:t(,i(li l l ; i l l ~ ~ c>l~);ll.c<~?'l \ i i l ~ ~ l l l ~ l ~ l o VI IC\ 5 ili's :,1 l,c<) , ~ ~~ i (les ;iIgi~i g i \ I ; i ~ i \ ~ ~ I I ( C Y ) I I I O IIII \ci-(I~i(l(~roI . * I I I O~ i i i i s ~ l i t < ~ i o i ~ ;o I1,1 1 ' i i ~ 1 1 1 ; 1 1 i ~ l o iiiotlo 1;) ~)o\icitiii(IIIV I(,II~;Ic.1 l>o<lc~i-,jiitlic tl<,iiii.o tl<, iotl;i (.\I;I c~sli.~ic.~iii;r, i;il c.slo < O I i i O llli ~ i l ~ g ~ l~ ~o l ~ ~ ; l l g : i ~~ ( ~ \ O I \ (< ~ l li l l lo olilli(~los ~ l l l l ~ ~ ~ i l ~ l i ~ ~ i l$;1,0~ \ , ( (; l l ; l l <,SI<, ~ <~\(III<'III;I ii-il)iiii;il tic, 1 ;i\:i<.itiii ~ c ~ i i i( oiiio iiii\itiii ~ ) i o l ) i ; c oirii-ol:ii (1tit. c1 1'0('1 ;i i <I(.i Iiitlic i;il iio tl<.\viiiii;ii-;iI;i voliiiii;~tl \oI)(,i-;iii;i ~ ~ o i i i c ~ i i t.11 ;I;i le.\,. ,\ ii;i\.<:s tlc. itl ~ I;i c.;is;ic itii S(, c.jc,~<<,i.~i c.oiiiiol < I ( . I;i I<.g;ilitl;i<ltl<.l 1;iIlo. i~ii<~tl;iiitlo ( liiitlo iiii <.S
c s i i l;il <.x;iiii<.iiI;i iiitl;ig;ic iciii \ol)i-c. los li<.c.lios lij;i<lo\ 105 ji1c.c c.\ (1c.I Ioiitlo ( . t i \ l l \ \ t ~ l l l t ~ l iil\, '11 1 1 0 < oll\iilllil c.1 I X Y l I l \ O clc. ('l\;l(~i~;ll lt lIl1;i l ~ ~ l ~ ( ~ < ~ l ' l (,ll \(.llili\l;lll< ,;i

S(-$11 I;i Iii4tot i,i tlc 1.i Icy, tl(.\1)ii6s rlc ;ilgiiri<isv;i( i l , ~ 1011c\ 40l>lcel par tic iil.ir, los i oriii\iori,iilo\ o ~ t . i r o i i por <Ir\(oiiot ci toilo valor viriciilariti a la jiir i\pr ucicricia que r e\iiltni ,i clcl t r ibiiiinl <r c'i\driciri, apartiidosc cri este piirito de 1;i Icgi\lcici6i~ I vigerite e11 ilqll~lld ppoca (lii ~ ~ I I I C C I la, e s p : ~ l ~ l d por ' ~itnr las irid\ ~ ~~ ( ', iriiluyiritcs eii iiiiestro medio). La opinicii cle do11 Jos (:Ier~iente Fdbre\, eriiitida el 9 de eiicro de 1895, a propcsito tiel pi oyecto de lcy qiie qiicrn crear In Corte ele (:a\ncii>ri, \ i i i t e ~ i / arriagistr alirierite los piiritos o e r i (inles de riiicstro sist(.rri,i d i < awc icri: "(. ..) cl proycc t o i i i dciir' So1)i.c. cs~c,iiiotl(.lo, c 1.1: V A S ( , ~ l l l % SoI'1~1,O,,Jo.;i. I.iiis, "El iiiotlc~locq1>;1y e.voliic-itiii I < ~ g i ~ l . i ~ i ~ , i ) S ,1?111 I I I orlo<.ir " o1 t l < , (.;is;i(.iti~i(c-oiiligiii ;it itiii Iiisitii-i~~;i ,/,, / , , / / O p(l;z,,/,,,,, ~ l i I ; i i(;iiilf~.C, , l9:):$, vol, :$, 1)p. 355-420.

iitlo lc',<,lli< , o

,.,,

\ (

\ \ \ ( l(t v

l\l(1

l V \ l I < l fll V I O l , \ l < \ 1 h( \ l l / \ l < 1 \ ~ l l l < l \ l ~ l <\( ~ 1~ ll l \ < l \ l l1

iiiiiiiic-itiii ser-vil ii la I(.gislii<-itiii 1'i;iiicc.sii. Nos Iic.iiios scxpiii-;itlo cII;i c b r i v:ir-ios ~)iiiiios (le iiiil)or.i;iiiics. As, I ) O I c:j(.rriplo, iio la Iitlrrios scgiiitlo (.ti Iii tt.oi.;i ;iclol>i:i(la cii j;i.iiii<.i;i cliic coiisi(1ci-alas sciiicii(.ias (It: la (:o]-te. <le (hsacitiii c.orrio i i i tcrl>rclaci6ii aiitCritica tie la 1c.y o1)ligalor-iiip;ir.;i totlos los (Iciiiis Y ti-il~iiriales. rios Iieriios sep;rrado d c esta teora por (los razaries: la priiiiera, por rcspcto a iiiicsti-o sistci11;t poltico, apoyado iiiiivcr-salrricnte por la cieiicia, qiir divide los poderes plblicos y deslirida siis respectivas atribuciories. Seguii este pr-iiicipio, es al Potler IJegislativo a qiiieri corr.esporide iriterpretai. la Icy de una rri;irier;i giiiel.;il~~ierite ol>ligator-iapara tocios; tlr iriodo qiie roriccdci- esta fircilltatl a la (:oi.tc tlc (Lisaci(i1 sci.a dai- al I'otlcr,Jiitliciiil uiia parte de las atr.il>iicioiit-s del Potlcr 1,cgisl;itivo". pai;i iio ;iecpi;ir, "Ida s(.giirida r-a~cii que M, tuvo pr-~sciite iqiic.lla icoria fiit: qiic. se 1;i <.oiisidci-6pei-jiidici;rl por. io(los los c.oiic.cptos.Y <.ti i.c;ilitliitl iio (.oiivicric qiic 1;' (:or-it' ~ I I (1ic.i;~ i i i i ; i C sciitciic~iii 1 ) i i r ~ I ; irii;s tir.(le,cii i i r i t (.iiisaiiriiilog;~, iio volvc.i-iitr-;is y (1;ii. i i r i ; i tlivci-sa. Si stl itliiiiticr.ir(1iic. I;is sciitc~iicias 1 ~ .la (:oi.t<. ( :iiiiCriti (Ic (:;is;i(.i(511 l'iici.:iii l;i i111(~1~~)1~ci:ici6iic ~ ; i ( 1 ~ -l;i ley, esto 1 1 0 ~>otli.i;i siic-cclci.;y la vt.1-(latlc.s (luc' s ~ < c . ( l ii . iii<~iiii(lo,(.ti Fi-aii( y c.i;i, (.oirio c b i i oli.as [):ti-1c.s ( 1 ~ . li:iir.op:i doii(lc. cxistc.ri (:oi.tcs (le ( :,ts,i< ' . .. .' ioii, se vc. riiiic.liiis \zc~c.cLs UH;I wiiiciici;i c.si;i c.ti (.oiiti;ique tlic.c.itiii coii I:i <li(.i:i(l:i ; i i i i c . i - i o i - i r i c ~ i i i c " I "'. I,;r iic.g;iii\.;i ;i r.ccx)iioccLi. v:ilor. v i i i ( ~ i i l ; i i i l i;i las sciiiciicias (1c.I i i - i l j i i i i ; i l ( 1 ( c.:is;ir.iiiii sr. <~xplic.;i, ;itlciii;is, por c.1 Iic*cIio( ~ i i < . iiiicsii-o Ic.gisl;idoi-iio cliiiso coiiiciiil)l;ii~ coiiio caiisiil I'iiii(1;iiite. (1c.I i-cc.iii-so 1 ~ .c,;isirc.itii <.ti cal l O i i ( l o I;i tlcrioriiiii:i<l;r itt/ircc,( cihrr do In j~nri.\;l,~-rtrlrr~(,i(~, coiioc.itla cii C I 5iiil)ito tlc la (.;isacitiii (It. c>st~;i")l;i(.oiiio "(locii-iiiii Icg:il"' l . Aiiiiqiic~ la iiifi-a<.ci<iii
I);iic. i i o cbsi i i i : i

1'1 (Ioctr-iiiii 1c.g:iI Iiic. c.oiitcriipl;i(l;-it.11 el pi,oyec.to tlc <:ti(ligo (Ic. 1'r.oec~dirriicrito(;vil pi.cl)ar:itlo por- tlori .losi. Bcriiardo
I,ii.;i, tal iiitc.rito cri tfcfiiiitiva rio prospei.(~, i l c s t o ~ tlut., seg'ri los cotriisioiia<los,con ello sc coiif'cr-a :iI I'otler Jiicticial f.acii1tadc-Slegislativas, Iieclio qiie se coiisitlcr6 dt. "erioriric~ iiicoiistitii~ioiialidati"~ 12. A la llora de 11iiscar las r-azories qiic Ilevarori a esta opcicri, hay iiiia que fliiye clarariierite: los legisladores 110 piidierori conjiigar el valor qiir deba atribiiirsc a las seritcncias cle casacicri cori el priricipio tlel efecto relativo d e la scritericia. 1,as diidas dogrniticas se api-cciari eri 1;i scsi6ii tlc 7 d e septicrri1)r.e de 1880, al (lisciitii-sela ~~osihlc. iiicorpor-aci0ii dcl 1-cciirso(le casacicii cii iritc.r..s tIc la ley' 1"; eii dic-li;i ocisi<iilos corriisiori;itlos Fahrcs y (:ood l0riiiiil;iii (los ciicstioii;iriiic~~tos ti-asc.c~ritlcrit;il tic. iiiipor-t;iiic.i:i, ( l i i ( > ( 1 ~ paso <l<:jari (Ic~s(~iil>icr.to iiI 1:i poc:i cliti.i(li~l qiic sc' iciiiii sol)r.<. 1.01 (le i i i i t i - i 1 j i i i i ; i l (Ic. c.;is;ic~iii. c.1 So1)i-c.c.1 ~~;ir-iiciiIiii; 1;)s ~ ) i ~ ( ~ g i ~ i ~ i ; i(~oiiiisiori;i(los i o piic.tl<-ii cbsios ~ I c ~ i ser- iii:is (*lo( ~ ~I ciiciiic>s:"j(.&iC (111ic~i.c~I c ~ . i i .( I I I ( ~1;is s(~iii(-ti(.i;is~ i ~ o i i i i ~ ~C * I~ i : ~ t l ; i s

(.S(<,

'

"? I<:ii sc,sitiii SI),', tl<,l 2 <I<. I;I iii;iyo (I< I 87!), 1;i ( : o i i i i s i t i i l i c ~ \ ~ i \ o i -(. li i s ( - i i i i ( i I<,iii;i ( , t i l o s sigiiii.iii<.\ ii.1 iiiiiic~.;:"I':I s ( . l i o ~ M i i i i ' i ~ i o I)I.OI)II\O 1;i \ i i l ) i ( . s i ( j ~ i 1;i i.(.gI;i i-<.l;itiv,i ;iI i-<Y o t l i . c.;is;i(.i(iii c i i c.1 l o i i < l o . <.sic) (,S, lo<lol o c111<' ('11 ('1 iii-s ;ir i i c . i i l o c.11 (lis<iisi<;ii sc, i-cli<,i.c. ; I;i tloc tt.iii;i I(,+iI, ~>OI.(~II<. i i i c s t ~ . ;I(.gi\l,i( i(iii110 i ~ (1;ii; s i i i o (.ii i,ii-os y tl(.i<.iiiiiii;i(los (;isos lii<.i/;i 1c.y ; I;i ( o s i i i t i ~ l ) i ( ~ . s(,iioi<I<. i 1<1 li;il);iv;i<.il;itlo iiiii(.lio ;il irtl;i(.i;ii cst;i ~);iil<. l)ioy<.(.lo. I':l (1<.1 1.i1-;i <orii(.siti c ~ i i c c j < ~ l i l l ~ (l<, l(~gi$l;l(~i(ill ~ ~ ; l i i o l[;>,o s l ( ~ l ~ i(,Il(,sl;l lll;ltcl~i;l ; 1;i l'l~;illc(~s;lS : l a l o l;1 <~s l ol~ I)rlg;i, as c o i ~ i o l i - c s p < , ~ o l o s p l . i i i c i p i o s (ILIC so11 1;i I);iw (le1 l ) ( ~ i ~ ~ ~cstr.i(.io y e ; clio (111c e1 Icgisl;idoi- ~ > i i c ( l c li;il)ci- tlyj;itio t i c coiisigii;ii- c i i I i I c y p i - c c i s ~ i i i i c i i i c ; poi.q i ~ l o s h i i p o i i c ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ S ; I ~ I I I ~ I I I ~ i ~ c ~ ~ o ~ i o c i l< l o s , e e i11~~lii1:111, r . iiii;i [);ir-te, i (~st;il)lc~po , ; ~-ecoi~<~;idil esla t-cgl:~: rI <:j('illplo ( l e ott.;is I c g i s l a c i o ~ l v s II iri(lol<. dc' 1;i IIIICS~I.;~

p o r r 1 s c o i - M i i i i s t i o y li;ist;i l a i i i i s i i i ~ coiitiaii/;t <111<.SLI sit>i<liii.;i l e i~ispit.:i, I<, i I l c v a i i , p o ~otra p i t - t e , l i i i i i t a i - I;i r<,gl;i (r l o s i i i i c os casos <Ir . iiili.accicii <I<. 1;i ley; c s i o i s , d e I i Ir?dicv~<itpor ; Iegi&l'ldor. El seiioi. A l d i i r i a t e a p o y ~a i r i < l i c t c i i i l

tlrl seiioi. M i i i i s t r o , poiqiir i i o act.pt;i l o s rrciii.sos d e casaciii c r i e l I ' o i i t l o s i r l o c o r i i o i i r i rrieclio ( l e p r o c i i i - a r l a r.cctii i i i t r r l ~ i . c t n c i r i t l i 1;i le).: y iio es 1;i I r y l a <lo<.~ l st i i ~i t ~u ~ i l se t r i i i ; ~recil>ici;i por I ~ ~ , ~ i ~ ~ - i s de ~ o~ - r~ Ii) ~i il~c ~l ;i ~q~i,e e l > i i ~ t c i i l o r c l i r r c . S(. ;i<.oi-(l<i 1x)r l a ~ ~ ~ ~ ; i ~ ~ is iiiipitt- l r iii iti l 1;i segiiii<I;i 1mi.te (Ir est;i i.rgI;i, es 5 s;ihri; i i; i ii las p;tl;il)i;is ' 6 coii1i-;t < l o < - tiiiii l e g a l ' <ir1 i c i h o 2.' y toclo c I i i i c i s o 3." <II<' ( I c l i r i c
cs1;i ~ l O < ~ t l ~ i l l i " . "" 1.;i 1,cy d < s I*:i!jiii< i;iiiii<.iito (:vil csl>;iiiol;i < l e 1855 i-c.giilt<,ii s i i ;ti-tciilo 17x2 <SI i-<.(.iii-\o ( 1 <.;is;ic.itiii (,ii ~ iiit<,i-6stl(, I;I 1<y, cst;il)l(,c-i<.ii<lo c{ii(, !;is s t ~ i i l < ~ i i c i ;<11it' is

~(~i~ se <lic.lc.ii (,ii <,s~os i.c.<-iir.so\ sc.r-vii.;ii i i i i i c ~ ; i i i i c i i i < ~ 1x11-;I Ioi.iii;ii. j i i i . i s l ) i ~ i i t l < ~ isol)i.c, ~ l a \ c l l c ~ l i o l l I< ~ 1 l c . s l i s ~ ~ l l l \i ~~l (~ ls l l ~ ~<,ll\ [)I<.ilO. c ~ ~ l ~ s l l ; lc.1

<*sios i.c.<.iirsosstilo sii.v;iii I);ii'a L)r.iii;ir. i i i ~ i s l ) t ~ u ~ l c i ii_(lii;il(.S j ci~~? l;i I'iici.~;i, (.ii;I el alcaiicc. positivo (le cLsia jiii-isl)r~iiilt~ri(~i;i?"" l. 1,;) rcspii<.stii <l;i<l;i 1)or iion .Jos. 13t.r.ii;ii.ilo I,ii.;i ix.llc.j;i qiic I ; I I I I ~ ) O c'o cstc. coriiisiorirtlo tciiia (-11 iriciitc' cloiirr. ii I;w s c i i t c i i i ~ iiIc.1 ;~~
Ir~i1)iiiial tle

casat.i(ri tic.

iiria f'ii(,i-~;i qiitl pei-rriiticar.atlar- coIi<~r.eii-

scYor- 1,ii-a r-ccorioce la tic las ol~sei-vacioiics los scrior-es (:ootl y Fa11i-es,por(le qiic eri i.calidatl rio piietlc l a Icy ilar- iiiiportaiicia ifectiva 5 1;i jiirispr-uclericia cloctririal quc: rr.siilta (le las se~itciici;ls del tr-ihiirial de casacicri, y a quc la r-rgla drl artciilo 3" del (:ticligo (:vil rio (1;i 5 las tlccisioiics iIc los ti-i1)iiri;ilesliicr-za o1)ligitoria sitio i-c'sl)ecto (le I;is (.;iiisiis cii (111c i(.tii;~lnx.i~t(.1)r-oriiiiici;iii". se il I;i c,l ( ~ 0 1 ~ se [)il(Ylc l[)l~r~ci;ll~, l10r.;i (le (I(~lir1iii:ll- v;iloi. (i(, 10 las s ~ ~ i i i < ~ i i cIii; ic~;rs~icicii, c s (c.11 los Ic.gisl;itloi-c.sc.1 c.oiiic%iiitlo ( s ~) (le1 ~ i i ~ i ~ ~ O lclcl (:(i(ligo (:vil, t l i l ( b ( I i ~ ] ) O l l (ilIlC~''~)10 :3 l l 0 ~ lo<,;\i ;1
uiiitlail tlc 1 i jiiris~~i-iitlcriciii: ; "El exactitiid I(*gisl;i(loi. (.xl)lic;ii. itii(~i.l)t.<*i;ii. o I;i oI)lig;iioi.io".

cia y

los dtlr-cclios tic, los litipiitcs los <lii(. sc. ilisciitc'ii ;iiitc' <~astcititi, siiio la r.c.<.ia ipli<.;rci<iii (I<,l tlr,i-c<,lio ol>j<.iivo. Eri (.arril)io, cii e scgiiritlo c;iso, se ti-ai;ir.Li tic 1111 siiiil)l(. 1 iiist i.iiiiieiito 1>;ir.a d<.lt~iisi 1 los ~>;ii-ti(.iil;ii-csi 121 ( ~ "'. Eri iiiicsti.o sisteiria Iia pr.c(Ioiiiiriac1oel i1k.s /illi>.cldo?.i.s,salvo I;rs exccpcioriales iiitrrvericiorirs dc las salas <le Ii (:oi.te Supreixia i ti-av6s de la casacitiri cii el forido de oficio. Eri toclo c;iso, esta iriariifestaci6ri del ius con.slilulioni.s es tarda, piieslo qiie se irilro(lujo rcciri por el DL No 1.682, de 25 cle riier-o de 1077. (:on los aritecedcrites exarriiriados, se piicde coricliiir- qtic 1115sqtic crear- iiri aiitt;iitico ti~ibiirialilc cisaciii, iiiiestros ItlgisIat1oi.t~ piisici.ori e ac,t.rito cii t>l cstal>lr~c'irriic11to iiii iiiicvo 1 tic rcc'iirso, lirriii;~iiilo cxti.c.iiio t.1 poticr. tic. la (:or.ic Siil)i.eiri;i ;i1 cri
i i o sc.i.Liii
1111 ir-il)iiriil (le coiio(.(.i. tlil iiiisriio, e s ~ ~ c ~ c i a l r i i r i~ lo q i~c~ i.t.sl>cbc.;i v;ilor' i( r~i i . ii1 viiic.iil;iii(c. ti(. l:r.<Yii(*;i

1c.y tl(* i i i i

i i i o c l o g(~iic~i.;iliiic~iiic

la j i i i . i s ~ ) i - i i t l ( ~ i i c (111c i i l l ~)iiilic.i.;i ~ i ~ i (1t. i-(-siilt;ir: l o ;lili(~r.iol., (.;il)c* ti0 111;s( l i I ( . ;i(llilitil. ilil<3 1 (bst:l0 (,iis;ic.itiii i i o sigiiilic,)(.ii iiiic,si 1-0 sisI ) l ( ~ c . i i r i i c ~ i i t(l('1 i . c ~ . i i i . s o o
t<.iii;ii i t i i.<-<.oiio<.iiiii(~~~to;il v;iloi- ( I c I ; r , j i i i . i s ~ > i ~ i i c l c ~ t i (t1c.l i ~ > l c ~ i i o ~i; ii.il)iiii;il tl(. c.;is;i(,itiii,siiio ( ~ I I c . ,;I

lo

ni;s, SS'.

Ic

;isgii<i i i i i 71/1/01

y ~li ;~I~ los otros /)O~~,\t~,1/,\;710/)r.~/(lot~(.;(l/,iitili~;tI~lc~s c ' t ~ c ~ c ~ i o i ~ \)o(. ~ ~ e i i ~ c


1l~il~llll;ll~~s.

Siii (.iiiI>;ii.go, c's


I(.gisl;itloi- i i o

<I(.

,jiisti(.i;i i v ' < ~ o i i o ( ~ c ~ i ~ ;iiiiicliic*i i i i c b s i i . o clii(-

cliiiso

;isigiiiir. v;iIoi. viiic.iil;iiiic. 21 I;is s(.iiic-tic-i;is (Ic

~ x . < . g u i i ~Ii.iy<i sitlo toi-iiiiil;itl;i l)oi. rl t c i i o i ;i i i r i a 11ic)gr~il';i \ii!.;i, piil)li(.;itl~ip o r t l o i i 1,iiis Aiiiiiii;tc.giii licycs, 4 l e I .JI; c <I III c o i i i o ( oiiocc(101~ 1;i lcgi\l;i<.i611 cxli.;iiijei.;i, ( ~ s l ~ c ( . i ; i l i i ll;i ~i ~g~c - ~ (Ic ci i l~ ri si1 y kaiic-<si. K i i i-igoi., 1;i iiil(~i.i-og:riii(. i i o r-r\cl;i c~x;ic.i;iiiic~iitc~ i i fie.1 ~ . o i i o c i i r i i r i i l t l l yi lc l o (l<,l~ c g i l r l ( ~ilcl. c ~ l s ; i c i ~ (lli<.cxis1I;1 el1 OIl.O\ p;iscs, lo\ t l l l c 1 1 0 i ~ l ~ s l ' l l lcs1;Il~ i i ~ t.1 i ~ ~ ~ oi.g;irii/;i(los ~ ~ o l i i i ~ ; i iI);ijo ~ i isisi(~iii;i r l c sc.l>;~i.;i<.itiii( 1 ~)o(l<.t.c.s, ~ ) i i ( l i < ~ i o i i c ~ o ~ i < ~ ~ ~ t(lilic-iili;itl i ;iI;IC ~ ~ i i i ~(I(, ilos~ii-il)iiii;il<~s (.;is;i<.itiii iiii v;iIoi viiil~~i.si i ~ ~ i ~ i ; i ~ <1<. (.iiI;iiii<~.(SoI)i.(, 1.1 I)iogi;il ;i tic. c.si<.;iiiioi; c.11: /\M [N;\ I'Is:( ;ll l KI.:YI':S, Migiic.1 I.~iis, I?r7ii\lri l'ot/,n\i (:/II/PII~I, N" : 3 , IHHX, c . \ l ) < ~ c ~ i ; i l i i i < ~ i 177). 1). i ~ ~ ~ I r ' Sol)i<. c.1 i<.iii;i, ' I ' K O N ( ;OS( ) M(212 1'INI( :, I'<.tlio, :(i\ric.iti~~ ( ~ 1 (-11: (,II /o,i(lo r i 7 ~ i Y r.ocori(i~~ l o/iciol. S;iiiii;igo, I<tliloi.i;il Iiii-tli(.;i tic. (:liilc,. I!)!)?, 111). ]!)-Y!).
(:oo<I, y q u e r
c.11

' ' IZ<~siil~;i( ~ s c o r i c . ~ i - i ; iqi ~i ~ r1" (I i c

"' l :i i;t l i c i;ii.io (1(,1 c - ; i i ; i c 1c.i ~ii~(~I;ii tl<~i-(x.lio.; 10s ~ i i i g ; ~ i i l ~ ~ s .II~I(,S. .i tl(. lo\ tl<, (~II(' I ( ~ g i ~ l ; ~ ( 1IIO1 II;I?;I~ i ( ~ o ~ ~ ~(,l I(Y.III.<O l oc , c;i\;i(i(ii ~ 1 I I I / ( J ~ r//,\ /(I /(%y, 0 i ) o i ~ ; i ~ cl 1 /~ i111(, c.11 .iIgiiiio\ o i t l c ~ i i ; i i i i i c ~ i i t o s <.si;il)l~.c-l,i ( o i i c1 c~uc.liisivoo l > j c i o ( 1 ~ . 1 0 1 iii;ii jiii-Y~)iii(lciic.i;i v cbvii;ii Iiiiiir;~.; i i ~ ; i i i s g i ~ c ~ s i o Ii I;i iiiisiii;~. N~I(~~;IIII(~III<., iiiii.\<. i ; ~~s ;iI (lis( cst;i iii;i~(,ii i i l ) ( . i t i 121 i(l(.;i i;i i <~ii<, c i i (.SI;I ;iciivitl;itl c.1 1'otlc.i ,liitli<.i;il [>otli.;r iiiv;i(lii. 1;i cslc,i.;i t l c l I,cgisl;itivo. l:ii 1;) srsitii tl(.l 7 (1~. \rl)iic.iiil>i-c. tlr 1880 .;<, p i i s o ( ' t i (lisc i ~ s i ( i i(11 i c i r ~ cl(4 ~ . ( ~ c i i r s o c;i\;ici611 c.11i i i I ( ~ i . 6 l~ l;i ley. 1 ) c i i i i ~ o lo (liic. iiii(.i ;~ ([(> ( e (Ir i-rs;i <Icsi;i(.ai- (Ir I;is Actas c o i i v i c r i r ir;iiihcr.il,ir: "1<1 \ c i i o i - 1 l i i r i c ~ . i i s ,si11 o l ~ o i i c i ~ s c f i ~ i ~ r i i ; i l i i i < . i i i I;r ;iI)i-ol);icitiii (Ic csi;i p;ri.tc. <le 1;i Icy, i i i ; i i i i l i ~ s i t dii<l:is acci.c;i (Ic. 1;i t i i 1 i l i t l ; i c l c ;il<.;iii(.c tlc. r h i o s r~rc-iii-sos, q11r ni <.SC'C <,spi,r;ir ({u(' S(' i i i i ~ > V aa i 1x.oyi i iiiovci-los l o s fisc;llc,s, iii 1r;iii t i c . 111-ocliicii. r-c's~ili;itioa l g i i i i o i-c.sp<~'ici tl.l i i r g o c - i o c.ir q i i r i.<y.;i<.ii. I i cs(os I~C<.~II.SOS ;rcci(ii (IcI Ii 1;i 'll.il)iiii;tl S I I ~ I VIIIO h;il(' d e l o s liiii1t.s ( l c l I'o<l(,i-,liitli( i;ily p;ii-<~ iii\.;itlii. I;i(~II<, <.spi-ul)ia tlc.1 I'otl<.r l.rgisl;iii\o. ( :oiiI i ) i ~ l i ( ~ o ( I o s los I)I.(,~(.III(,S is CII (~II(, 1;) i1111)oi~t;iii(.i;i~ ) i ~ i i i i o ~ ~ ((l<, I i ; i los ~ ( ~ ~ i r (lcb s l so <-;is;ic.ifiil c.11 (.Il;)ii(lo c s 1;i (I(. iiiiili~i~iii;ii; sicliiic.i.;i ~I~~~~~i~iii;iii;iiii~~iii~~, I;i jiii.isl)iiisiil>c~i.ioi(.s, ;I(.(.~I~II<,SI~I ~>;II.I<. 1)1.oy(~ s:!vo 1;is IIIO(1<,1 10, tl<.iir.i;i (Ic. los 11-il)iiii;il<~s tlilic.;ic i o i i c . , (III<. (.II;i <.\ iii<~ii(..;i(~i IKII;~ Ilcii.ii ,ilgiiiios vi<lo\ y ~);ii.;i ~)oii<.il;i <,II Ii;i(-c.1 (,ti ;ll~llloll'l (.O11 1;is l ~ ( ~ l i ~\i< l ; l l l~ l o l ~ ; l ~ l ; i (.sl;l l l l ; l l ~ ~ l ~ i ~ i ~ ~ . ~ l ~ ;l ~ <.ll s
1i.0

'

1'1 (:o[ Siipi eiii'i, i,iiril>ou)i ciiiiiic ic .i1 ide,il (le c oiisc~giiii 1'1 iiriid,itl de 1'1 j i i i ispr iitl<.ric i'i, coiiio [>d\d11104 t'xl)li( rii.
CI

la proniii1g;iciri del (:digo tle I'r-occclirriierito (:vil se estreri iIri origiiial rriecaiiisirio, q u i sir1 r-ecorioccr valor cie precederite a las seiiteiicias cle casaciri, segiri los legisladores (lcha coiiclircir- prActicarricrite al iiiisrno resii1t;ido. El prop6sito intlicado se alciirizarii corljiigaritlo ti-es ilenicritos: 1 ") iiria (~asac,iri e1 li)rido sir1 t-eciivo; 2') cori el f'uricioriacri rriiciito i r 1 ~jlciiode la (:oi-te Siiprerriii ]>:ira coiioeci. y liillar el r.c.c.ii i-so; y 3 O ) c.oii 121 [)iil>lic~itl;itl 121s sciii(~iicias ii.il)iicita tlcl i i ; i I (le. c.asiic.itiii 17.
(:oii

tlc I'r o( ctliriiicrito, el 1 (le fcl)i el o <le 1893, c oiiiiciic iiiotivos d e esta opci61i: "Aiiii < iiirido, 1)ai.i con\erv'ii a 1~ ( 'is~ic iii sil V Y I tI(i(1c1 y cIc~'i(loc ' i r d( t t ' ~ , <icoti\clriii rii11< 110s o j i i i is( o~isiiltos liiriit'ir 1'1s l i i i i t ioiit's tlcl t i i1)iiii'il 1 slo 1'1 <lec1'1' i 'i< iii cliie irivalida cl f,illo i e( l,irri,ltlo, rt. li,i ( rcic-lo pi cfcr i l ~ l c iiiconicridnr lc t,iiribiri 1'1 r esoliic i6ri tlcl ,isiirito cri qiic 1,i c nsnciri rct ae, cori cl f i r i tlc evitar dilnciories y gcistos a los litigaiite5, y iiiia orgarii7aciri i r i r \ \Iast'i del tril>iirial n quieri \e ericai ga esta rriisiri". Al legislador le par cc i0 lgit o qiie el rriisriio t i ihinial qiic nriiiIti y rerit la cor r cc tn docti irin sobre 1n 'iplic clciri tle la Icy, piit1icr.i i,ilI,ii e1 loiido del nsiiiitoli". El pr iiiiitivo ai tic tilo 958 (le1 (:l';, n( tiinl 785, (lispoii,i: " , ' ~ ~ a t ~Ir o A ~ r / Suf~rornt~ d r ~rracrlrd~~ro urrcr
( .otligo
104
O

'

\ O I I / I ~ ~ I O (J O J /I

( ( r \ ( r o ( j r 1 or1 0 1 / o r r ( I o ,

/ / I ( / ( I ~ I ; ( L ( / O ( o ~ ~ / r r \ t t ~ ~ 1o 1 ( ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ l 1 1

or\ln, /)o!o \ ~ / ) ( I ~ ( I ~ I I I ~ I ~ I\ o /l )Pr r /(L ( 1 1 o \ / t o r 1 ~ I I I I / ( ~ ) I (OPI 1 1 1 t (/ o , 111 S O ~ I I , I /rrrc 1/r c/rro 1 rrlr conjor )I/P (1 111 / ( y y (11 n r ~ ; r ~ /( or /o\ I ~ c 110, c o l ~ r oS Ircrn I t r / l ~ l / l O ) O l 0 t l o I ) l o t l t l 0 \ otr 01 / / l l l O l o / Ir l r / / / o " " 0 . f Aiiii(liic~ <lc.\tl<. c.1 ~)iinto \ i \ i , i tic- 1'1 cbe oiioriii,~1 ) ~ ) ('s.11 1'1 (le. t
~ ~ ~ ~ ) i ~ ' ~ ~1 ~ 1 <lebcc'il\O C i i i i ~ i l l ~ t ~ l ~( ' ~ 1 )l I < t l ) l ~\C. 1 O ~l ~l 10 . \ l ~~ l i ,

10 t11ic' i ~ ~ h q l ' ( ;I (Iii liiisiiiii(.i<iiitlcl i.c.c~iivo, ~ ~ i~ :i~);ii.i5iitlosc~ tlcl iiio(I(.Io Ii;iiic.i.s, y sigiiicii(lo c.1 iiiotlc-lo csl);iol' '" iiiiic.sii.o 1c.gisliitlor pc.i.iiiiiiti qiicS1ii iriisiiiii (:oric Sii~)i.c~ni;i tlici;ii;i I;i sc.11ciiaritlo ii(liriiti;i el i-r.ciii-sotic. cirsacicri e-ri iciic.i;i (le. 1-c~c.iiipl;izo, c.1 lOii<lo. Il:sic ~>iiiiio, que liic i i i i ; i (.iic.sii<iii i i i i i y <lis<,iiii(l;ix i i c oii-os p:iis<.s t I i i ~ - i i i ~ c ~ la co<lifi<.ac.i<iri pi.oc.csiil, cii (:liilc se sol iicioii6 coi1 ctiioriiic. ~)i~iigrii;iiisiiio, cstiiii:iii(losc qiic i i o ci-a rict.c.siii.io Ii:tccar i i i i i-cc.ri\iio. El Mciisajt. coii qiit. f i i c . ciivi;itlo cl
111

"' vc.1 iii(.oi.l>o~.itlo r-c.< iir-so ( I i c.;is;it.itiii cii e1 lOii<lo, lo q i i c . o(.iii.i.c IIii;i e 1 r (:I'(: tic 1!)02, sigiiiii~oii 1 voccs coiiii.;ii-i;is ;i i s i i iiisiiiiito. 1.11 1!)10, c.11 iir1;i tlisciisitiii cii cl Scii;itlo, siir-giti iiiia coi-riiiitc al>olicioiiisi;i, ~11cat1e/a<l;i 1)or. <lo11 Vic.ciitr K i y r s , y oirii coi-r.iciiti re'i)r.riiisia, coiii;rii<latl;i por. doii (:ai.los Al<liiiiaic Sol:iii Urio (Ir. los ar.giiriii.titos de los ;il>olicioiiiskisr.r.;r c111c 10s t'illos tlc 12, (:or-ic Sii~>r-e~n;i soii o l ~ l i g ~ i o r - ipai-a los <I<.tiiis iio os jiic<.c.~. Aiiii t a l i~i;i<liic, s r-iIi)i.r~lislo las ~ ~ ( ~ [ ~ I i (]lle~ d ltil~cllllsi;illt~i~l ] l llos I~IIIOS<le ll (:ol-ic s l l ~ ~ l ~ c l110lsc;ii1 ~ ~ It ~ L l l ~'< i ll;
coi1
oI)lig;itoi.ios 1);u';i Ios,jiic3c<.\ iiif,i.ioi-c.xi i i 1t:jos

(1<'1 (Ic.1)~ ct oiioc c x i < 1 i i c b cb\i'1 o ~ )i(ii i i i i i o<liicc. c.1 i icsgo (le qiic' 1.1 (:o' ict sil[>icllicl1 <ill'li el 1 0 i 1 ~ 1 0(Ic* 1'1 ( ' l ~ l \ ' i (y 1 1 0 I l l i J i l e b / (le, l't 111s'1 t ' t i l t 1'1) l i l t 111 i ' i C l l l l l i c x i i 0 1 (lec sor io liiis (lile se pci [I(~ilc~, y'l qii(. iio existe' 1111 I I I < Y ~ i ~ i i s i i (le I I I I I > I I ~ I I < Ii(( ~cio i i i i '1 l<iscL11tc*11io c i,i (Ic.liiiiti\,i (liic onunc ic 1111c~s11 ~ r i i x i i ~iiio o il>ii~i~il. lio de l)ic Otl'l 1 0 1 lll'l, i l \ ' l i l ~ I O i l i l ' t cx~llcsi611 (ic l't ( I O ~ t ~ i ~i lt ''i lli ' l i i < l , /tt I / ~ i r n ( ~l o c c ~ \ ( 1 1 1 o n ~ \ / I /el( u l / ( r t l o f)crr(r t o ? r c : q r lo, o t / 0 ) 0 5 do 10s / I I P ( C \ , ( l go, cs'i ol)jc~ pi~ecic i611 \osI'iyir sex / ) ~ r f ) o / ~ r ( ~ ~ 105 i f ) r o f ) ~ o t . Si t i ciri1)~tr re o sostciiieri(1o qiic 1'1 siiprisiori del rcciivo es iiri,i riicdid,i qiic 011jr.tivniiicrite potciicin el valor dc 1'1s tlcc isiorics d e 1'1 (:o1 tt, Silpr erria, yn (lile C s t ~ 4610 fija eri la scritericin de c,lrnciii 1'1 rio pauta absti acta nccrc a de In correc tn aplic nci6ri dc ln ley, 5irio que tarribi6ri re ericarga cle aplicar al c a w concreto la coi recta del forido piieexgcsi\ jiirdicd, evitarido el riesgo qiie el j i i i ~ cln di5torsioiinr la r ecta iiitrrpietdc iil filatin eri ln seritcricia tlc
i
(21

de s i i - i i i i t l i l ( ~ . t o <.S ,

10s C;ISOS ;~illogos i111c. se ~)i~cs<~i~t~~ii, iiii;i g;ri~;iiiti;i, t1iit. Lis s(~iii(~ii(.i;is (.;is;rc.itiii i i o sic.111y;i il<.

p i - ( . s i l - i i i iiil';ilil>l(~s". ((ili: (:II'I)Al)


I)I). I

F.Sl'Il0,

I,iici;iii;i,

O V I ~ O I/I/ ~ \ / i m o 1 / 0 //,, 11)s

o/I,-

" ' (Xi: KOI)III(;IIE:%, /\giisiii, "Estii<liosol)ic el i.ct.iii.so

( 1 ~ .c~:is;ic~iOii", t i i . , ;ir-l.

tttOtt/O.\ / t i ~ l / / / i f t l l ~ l / / / ~///,~ /\ / i / / l \ / l i ; / j f ! , ~ ~ i l l 1 ~ ~ ' : ( ~ 0l, l , ~ i l l ' t ~ i ( ~ ; l( ; I I ~ ( ' ]!)(;S, /l ~ 1 ~ l ) ~i;i~ ,

i(i-l i7.

' I x (;I'I..A1.i.

17/15 l,l;,(: ( 1 ~ .188 l .

'I\~I( 1011. 1)c 1>,i\o, IIICI

11it 1 ( c'\~it~il)~ic ~ r 1 > o r i c - 1111'1 iiiic*\~i,is'i( 1011

\r

tl('1 I o r i ( 1 o cxr i ' i l ,iI .il>lic<ri I<i j).iiit,i 1111 ( l ~.i( (l,itl,i 1 ) o i I,i ~ st-iit t - i i c i,i (le c ,ir,i( i t i i i i 2 ' . I'or o t r o I'ido, seb(1c.ht~ r cc o r i o c cr qiit, 1.1 \u1>1 (-,"iri (le1 r cXciivo t - i i riii<.scr,i c ,i\,ic i6ri es In v,t que, ti,^ tcriic-lo la (:o1 ( e S I I ~c-I I rria p.ir.1 i o1ivc.r tirsr. -de f,ic lo- cri iiri'i tert cr,l iii\tnrii i,i, .iiiriqiicb leg'il y t i 6 r i c 'irrieritc \ierripri se ki,t c.riteritiido q i ~ ? \ti Iiiiicitiii esti lirriitad,i n proriiiritiar In seritc~icia r c e r i i p l a ~ o de qiie c res coritorrrie n la Icy y nl niki ito tlc los lieclio\, corrio s i liari dado por est,ihlit idos cn el f,illo i eciir ritlo (at. 785 (:P(:). ( I o r r i o \ e \,LI>c, ' (:or t i Siiprrriia 1i'i tlic 110, iirin v otra ve/, (lile "t,irilo I r i 11 do( triri'i e o ~ r i oI'i jlirispr 11(1cii( ' ~ri~ic i iori~illiciii c o i i \ < ~ g r t l o ~i el p r iric ipio tliic el re( 111 so (lr i <i\'i(i611 cr1 e l f o r l ( 1 o 110 11c1 srgiic c oiiio liii,ilicl,icl c.1 c.st,it>lctiiiiiciiio (le. los tic^ 110s (1c1 ~ ) i o c c ~ \ o , y'i
el

(IIIC*

tl;ii. v;i :I

c ~ 1 1 oes l:ihoi- (1c. los <,r~r.or-cxs qiic


los

los,jii<~<.t~s t1c.l li)iitlo. Sir firi sc, c.orrictcSii cri

os e1 (le criiiic~ii-

la

;il>lic.acitiii tlt. I;i

Icy

i-clati-

tic(.lios dc.1 jiiicio

(. . .) 12'.

Eri

1,:11 ~ ~ l l l l<.ki\lCl l l t l ~ ( l i l ( ~ l < ~ l l ~ lo l iil \llsI;l11< i'll < ~ l l l1;1 ((<ls:l, i<',ll lollli;l l ~ b:ii \ii i i i i ~ ~ l ~ ~ i i i ~t ~i ii i01igiii;il I,i I ~ I I I ( ~ i.i(tlt. (..is;i( i t i i i (,II 1.1 IOIi i , i , (III', i i i.ic II t ;IIIIII;II):Ic.1 l;111o ] ) o 1 IIII \(.o ( o ~ i i ( ~ l ic.11 o1<1 (l isi(iil. \ i ( . ~ i i l ) i ( .~I)<.I,II);I I<,III~I~(,II( 1 0 los ~ I l l l O \ill lll(,/~ l l s l i l l l o ll(,l(lll<.o l i o ( i('l( 1 ~ . l:l llllli~l;lll < l l '<l l l I C , C\ll, l~,~solvi<.( ]) I < I (4 ; i s i i i i ~ o .I'oi iiii.1 i i i o t l i l i c ; i c - i t i i i iii(i-o(li~( (.II I!I'iT i(l:i I)OI t.1 I ) I . N" l.1iS2. S,. I;i (,is;ic.i<iii <.ii I:i I o i i i i : ~ I).II;I10s vic.io\ i oiii<.iitlo\ t.11 I,i \<,irc.liiiiiiiti (,I i ( , ( . i i \ o c,l ~ I I I ( i I;I .;~, I<,II(.I;I, ~ I i \ ~ o i s i o ~ i ~~i( ~ I ~ ; I I I I ~S~SI<.III:I ( ~ ([<. ~ I I I ~ ) I I ~ IiI ;i I iI. I,:II l ) ~ ; ~ , ~ i ((.\I;I i ~(lo t-(.;ili<l;itl [)i~i.iiiii<~ (:oi-i<. ;i 1'1 SIIIN.<.III;I ;ii 1 1 1 ; i i - (YIIIIO ~ i i i i < ' i i i i c o jii<,/ tic, Ioii<Io.\iii ;tlgiiiio, ( i i ; ~ i i < ,i( og<. 1111 i<.(.iiiso cI(.(:i.i(.itii 1.11 I;i Ioi iii;i 1101 I ; I ~ lo <;III~;II<,~ liiiii<~ l.', 3,'- (i", 7,' ~ ~ 1 1. 7liS (:l'(:,~ I I ~ S I I ~ I ~ Isil ; I ~ ~ ~(11.I III~~I)IIII~II ) ( 1 '11 I I IIIII( i(iii ; I I ~ ~ ( 1 ~ . c;I\,II i t i i i . I':l <.ii-oi. tic. I:i i-c~loii~i.i 1!)57, .i i i i i c ~ s ~ jiiic.io. i ; i t l i c , i (,ii i i i i ; ~ o i i l i i s i t i i i tl<, io < ('iiIi<~ i i i s o s tic. i i i C i i t o (I.II).;I i(v <.;iiis;il c.s c.1 ; i g ~ ; i \ i o . I)OI 1111 I<.III;I( 1 ~ . I o i i < l o ) , IOII IIII l ~ l ~ ~ (11. llllli~l~l~l ' l ~ l ~ ; l v i o 1'1 i l l o l ~ s ~ ~ l \ ' l l 1( ~ ~ . < :ic.1 1;is l o l ~ l l l ; i S ~ l l l ~ o (( 1 l ) O (,\ 1 ~i l g'l1 :llll:i\ [ ~ l ~ o l ~ ~ ~ s ; l l ~ ~ \ ) . I'or oIi.:i [);ii.icS, <.sl;i \i111ii(.i011 i g ~ i i I i c ; i ~ lIIII ( l ~ ~ I ) i l i ~ ; ~ (1c.l ~\~SI(>III;I i i ~ o < ~ 11;i s o ~i i~~ (l <IoI)I<.\ i , i i i ( - i . 1 . E i i <.I<~(-io.~ i i ; i i i t l oiiii;i (:OI-II. tl<. A l ~ c ~ l ; i ~ . i o i i;iiiiiI;i I:i <.iilciic.i;i iii c cs p o i ' 1111 v i c i o coiiic.titlo c.11 1;i iiiisrri;~( ~ ~ s l ) < ~ c ~ i ; i l i1;ii c1;ill;i(t~c <.oiisiclci-;i<.io~~~~s) i ~~I i y [>i-oiiiir~<.i;l I';illo (ic icbriii[)l;i/o. e1 ;isiiiito sc3 csl;i r c ~ s o l v i r i i ( l oc i i iiiii~i 1.1 iiisi;iiic.i;i. 2l [ t i b;s 0I)vio q1ic 5 i Iil s c l l l ~ ~ l l c i110 l c ~ l l 2 1~ 1 l I ; l ;l<ic~ll;l~l21~ o l l ~ l < ~ l ~ ~i lccliocs~l il c c l l o \ y c1.I t l c r - c ~ l i o , ;ill 110 opci.ti ; i i i i ~ i i t i c n i i i c ' ~ ~ t < ~ it~c//rnc.in. \e <liiici-e st.r c o l i < ~ iiii;r Si i-<.iiic <.oii c.1 sisicni;r <le 1;i t1oI)lc. iiist:~iici;i, iiiiii<.;r < I < ~ l ) i <lcs;ip;i~.ccr~i- i-c<.iivio <1<, ti e1 1. <.. .. : I I <,ti la f'Oi~l111. ' '1 'IS'l( I O
I2l

\ Ioiitlo.

lo que respecta a la oi-gtriiziciri(le la <:orti Siipi.errii,~ I I - ~ I coriseguii- l a iiriidad tlr: la .jiirisprucl(~rici isigric al sc ,nncitiri cri el plciio e1 coriociiriieiito y tallo de los 1-eciit-sosde c. : . fi)iido, i i o obstaiite qiie al iiioiricXrito de pr~oiriiilg:ir~sc (:tidigo el c-lc 1'1-occtliriiierito(:vil (e11 1002), (tic-lio tr~ibiiiiil a I ' i i i i < ~ i o r i i i y 1x1 tlivitli(lo c,ri s;ilas, coiil0r-riic l o 1i;il)i;i tlispiit~sto ; ley i c 1') 1i 1' (Ic c.ri(lr-o(le. 1881) (1)i;ir-io0lici;il N" 3.4!)!l) "". 1,;r 1,cy N o l .552, (I(. 28 ( 1 ~ .;igosto (le 1'.)02, ( I I I ( ' ~)i.oiiiiilpi1 (:<)(ligotic I'i.occ.tli(' i i i i c b i i t o (:vil, tlisl)iiso ( I I I C , p;ii;i (-oiio(.c.i. los i.c.(.iii.sos (le. (~;is;ic~itiii o i i c.1 l O i i ( l o t.1 t i - i l > i i i i ~ i l liiiic.ioii;ir~ki c.11 i i i i solo ('irc1'1)o. ('011 1;' e~oii(.iii.i.c~ii(~i;i (le* si(~cc~,jirc~c-c~s ;i 10 iiic.iios. 1);iii( l o 1;i (.oiripotc*iic.i;i l ~ l < * i i ii;ic.ki i i i i r < y i ~ t l u r l tlr t.tr.strt.iti,/ ;iI o
tratar- (le
71tv./i(.(1l, t111<~ ('11
I;I~ c.l.(.io, I)I.III;I ii;itiii.;iI ~ > c ' r . ~ i i i tc-\,it;ii. ki lii
i i i o i i c . ~sol>i.c.iiii;i iiiisiii;~ tc,iriiitic.;i, i i i i i l i c . : i i i ( l o

<lis~)('i.si('i~i ol)i(1cx I;i,jiii~isl)i~ii(lc~~~c~ii~.

(-1

sistciii;~ (lc.1 l)i.(.c.c(l(~iitc' ~c.i.iic,:rl ;il>it111;1('oii;I

s(,giiii. 1111 ~ ( ~ g i i i i ~ ~ i c (le* tliis iIc~(~isioi~cs o \ ~ c ~ i i i i ~ i i t c ~ s -ii o ~)i~ cl(,l (5i.g;i110 j ~ i ( l i ( ~ i : i l i ~ p ( - i . i o ( . o r i i o I I I I \ ~ c ~ i ~ ( l ~u r g - ~ ~ot ~ o (10i o s i (Ic~i. t t r (rtr/ort~It/tl.

Se s i i l ~ o r ~ c (111c'

iit(~il(lii1;i Iii

posc.itiri ,jci.iii.(luic.a t1c.l

Tt.il)iiii;il Sii-

1)i.e111o, uiiitl;~ 1;i iriiiyoi. ~>i~el>;ti;ic~itiri tic.11c.11 siis,jiic.cc~s, ;I (liic. ii\~al;i c.1 i-ccoiioc.iiiiiciito ( 1 tbst;icliiriciisi(ii ilcl 111-c*cc~tlciiic ~ ,jii(liciiil, fOi.jaiitlo iiii;i,j111-ispriitlcriciii cori 71crlorrt~ortll f ) ~ r : \ / ~ / / . s li. ~ t o I ~ o

(:oii i i i i r r - i o i . i c l ; i t I

~ I l ~ i i i ~ ; i ~ ~ i 25 ~ i ~ ~ c , ( l e 2000, Rl)], 1. X V I I , M.C. 4". 1 . 12% ((:"3". (:S. ~ <le iri;iyo 1 1;i (:S. 1ial);i s < ~ ~ i l ; i <cl oi i r "e1 re<.iii-so < I r cas;icicii c i i e l t o i i t l o l se i i i s i i t i ~ y <c o ~ l i i i c s t i c iiitcri.s piil>li<-o,c.oirio 10 s o i i l o s t i c vcl;ir por I;i coi-1-cci;i; i l ~ l i c ; i c i ~ i ( il e I;i 1c.). y I o g r ; ~ ~ . iiiiitlacl (le I ; i , j i i i i s p i ~ i i < i ~ ~ i i c iNr o coiisiiiiivc. IIII;~ i I;i ; . I(,I-~~I.;I iiis~;itic~i;iI liivor. c l c . l o s I i ~ i g ; i ~ i ~ c (:S. 5 (le j i ~ i ~ (l(, ; 's" i o l9.5!), R l ? ] , 1, I3\'l, %<,C.. l,', 1). 1 12). 12'' l)i( II'I Ic.1 iiiocliIi~~( SIC, 1)11ii1o I;I1,t.i ( l e Oi~piiii/;i~~i611 i I ) i ~ ~ ~ i o ~ i ~ ~ s t.11 21 \, , \ t s ii ( , <le 18'75. ~);is;iiitlo ;i (.oiiil)oiici~sc~ i i ( . s i i o iii;ixiirio iiil>iiii;il 1 ~ .'7 i i i i < ~ i i i l > i o sIiiii(.io~i;iii(Io c.11 (los s;iI:i\, s;iIvo (III~. ley i ~ ~ ~ c ~ i ~ i ii ~i i~< * i i~~ :( i~ ~c.11 ~ il(( i, ~ i o(al I . 17). l;i SII i (~ v ic p ~ ;iI<.;iii(.c. tlc,l ~ ) r < . c c ~ l ( . i i ic.oiiio ;II.~IIIII(.IIIO c~ (1'' ; ~ i i t o i - i t l ; i t l ,<.II-. SoI)i.(. hlOl<;\l, S( )l<l,\NO. I , ( ~ ) i i o b ,,' / / ~ t ( ~ ~ j1ll11.i11, (.l., l ) ~l32-1:45. ~ //~,t~/~ 011. ).

'"

"'

(:oi.ic Siipi~c~iii;i critr.cb I;is

(los

s;il;is S<. Ii;ii-;i 1 ) o i . soi.ico,

q u t L1 ('i(la iiriii cori-cspoiitlaii seis" (...) Al cx;irriiii;ir-I;i 1iisiori;i (Ic Iii Icy <lii(.tla(.l:ii.o <lu(' I;Lr-;iz'in 1);ii.;' <lic.i;ii- 1ii I,cy N o f>.!)XO rio hic oii;i ( ~ I I < c~~f'rcntii- r i o i o i - i o i-c.ii.ii' el so que icriia l a ti.ariiit;icitiri (le 1;)s (-aiisiis ( > i i I;i (:ortc Siij,rv.rria, iiliiqiit> ello sigiiific;lr-a roiriper y1 niotlclo (Ic casacitiri or.igiiii1rrierite pr.evisto, qiie eri la visiiiri clc sus idetilogos llevara -por va jr~clirccti-;i la arisiatla fitr.is/)~'11/Gn/.ia~ ~ : r u / x . s i u n ~ - " . Aiiriqiie la or;) rniila diseriac-la para conocer de los rt.<:iirsosde casacitiri e11 salas se pcrish corrio tmrisitoria, cri la prActica l o cxrfiior-cliriiiriopasc a sci. l o or.tliri;irio. Al (lisc-iiiii-secsiii riiodilic~;icihrii i o se c.liiditi qiic c11;i ~)o<li.;i gc5iicr-;iriiri;i tlii;ilitl;i(l (le tlc.cisioiic~s vri rri;itci.i;i (Ic c:is;ici<iii t.ii c.1 lOri(lo civil. Kc.<-og<* <.sic. 1 ) i i i i i o (.ri Iii clisciisi<jii ~ ) ; i r - l ; i i i i < ~ ~ i i ; i r - i i i I;i o l ) i i i i t i r i (1c.I sc.iioi. I;,sii.vc.~, l i i i c b i i <'xl)orii;i: " N o stl Ic. o c . i i l i t i , c sc.iioi. I ' i ~ ~ ~ s i t l c i i;icIi, (:oiriisiii ( 1 ~ . I,c.gihl;ic.itiiiy.Jiisiic.i;i,;i1 cst ~ iirtli;ir. (.sl(*[ > r . o ) r ( b c . t o , q i i c . 61 of'tx~c.ki c.1 iric.oiivc.rii(.rii(. ( l i i c * [)ir(Ic*
(lic.i.;i l ) ~ ' o ( l i i c ~ i i . s iiii;i (lii;ili(l;i<l l < . , j i i r - i s l ~ r - i i t l < * i i ( . ie-ri iiiiiic.i-i;i t. t ;i c~;is;ic,itiril i i c

"'.

( 1 ~ 'i r i o ( 1 o

qii(.

VI

i i o i r i l ) r ,iiiiiciiio cit. do4 riiiiii4tr os 11i(Ls,(11ic' V'III '1 (li\ir iljiiii-

~)osit)lc 1)~1i\rii cliit. 1)11~'(l~i ' i l i o i r ~ ~\ I I ~ ~ ~ L I I ( \ c i~ilr~icritc jilr i 4 p r ~ ~ ( I c r i c / / ''A e4tc I c'\1>c*<1'1 iri" 10, \ e Iii/o 1 ) r ~ ~ s c i i t c "1 1" I,cy N" :.3.:-1!)0, tiel ,lo 1 0 1 H, se (liique i o r i/<i i 1 fiiiic iori,rriiirrito di- la (:o1 te Siipi crrin <.tidos wl,n p'ii ,i (oriocer de los r cciirsos de < ns,icicii cii el Ioritlo, v cjric c oii esto iio 4 i prodi~jc) rrinl qiic sc tcrrie aliorn, y qiie p o r el coiitr ni-io, el sirvi6 para qiie la Exciria. Corte cri I>rcvi pla/o pildicrn porieise al da y qiled'ir ~ o i su trnbnjo ordiii,irio, dcritro del niovirriierir
\e' ('11

< r ~ t l ri111~1 i dt'

1'14 \rtl,i\, 110 1i,i<

tC>

l1ol~rr1'l1"~ "0. Siri r r i i l ~ ~ l i 1,i (:o1

go, la irioc-lific'icitiii 111 o(1iicicIa eii cl fuiic iori,iiriicrite SII~)I iio piitlo ser iris iriopoi tiiiin p i r a I,i ii~iierrin lic,ic iii dc 1,i jiirispiiiclcii< i,i. Kii efecto, ("1 c'irri1,io Ilcgii jii4io ( ll'irl(I0 iiiI(~\1ro rlr'xilllo 11 il)llll'il t(,rl'i ' L ~ I I ~ I ~ (I'ir'LrilcIllc c.1 ~(IO 101 (le Ici e 'i\<ici611, i'il c o i r i o l o t ~ ~ v 1'1c \criiciic i'i (le1 10 (le 'igo\io l ~ ~ tic. I !):3(i, ,il t1c.c I,ii 'ir qiw: "(. . . ) u o\/(> / I I I / ) ~ I ~ I I ~ I / l/ ~ (oI ~ CI o 1 1 r \ o L ~ d )P/ (/(' ( / l \ / / ( l / , t l ('rl 0 1 / O l l ( / / l , 1 l / ) l / / 1111~1011 ('S 1 / l //(' / l ] ( / f O / g O l / / / l ~ l O O l l / l / ~ / l 1' \
l o clc
/ I / ( ( I I I ( O/ / v / ( y , / ) o t / o ( ( I O I I / I I I / / Ol(1 (/110

c.1

l O i i ( l o (.ti

(1~. iii;iic.i.iii c.ivilV.// "l'(.r.o ~ i i v i i i i o s l i i c b 01)(

\o//

o\( / i r ( / ,

/ / ~ ~ ( / o \ o/ I / I ( O I I I / ) / O /

/ / I I I I ( Y / I ( I ~ I /I/ IJI I / I ~ / Y / ( I I I / ( ~ ~ / ~ ~ O / / IyO/ O/ ~ ~ /, I ( I / ) ( /I/ ( ~ 0 5 / / 1 I I I ( / I I O ~ ( o/, I ~ I O I I ) I I I ( l / l l / / / / / / ~t o o r \ o , I , I ; ~ I ~ / ( / I I q~1 J 0 1o 011 0 0 ~ l~/ O / / O , l l / / l \ / ) l ( l l l t 0


(10 /// / / ~ l / O O ~( /I( J / I ' / I ( / ( , ~

i;ii. < z i i i i . ( b (.sic.

p i i i i i o iiii

~>c.ligi-o, lo I i < ~ i i i o s ~ o i i s i c l ~ ~ 1i;isi;i l io . i . i o (luch ~ i~;i~c c po('o I i i l ) o i i . t i c . o . y l;i ( ~ o i i i i i i i i i ( l i i t l tl(,l (~si;i(lo c.os;is tic.
c'si;i
~ > ~ . o ( l i i c . i ( . r i ( l oi i i : i i

/u

( 1 ~ /1I I / / I O / I / , / ) ~ O / ) I ( I I I I O I I / 1 1 ( / 1 o , y 1 ( / / / o ( o 1 1 / O ;

$0 / r / 1 1 / 1

~i<.tii;iI,I I < ' <I

c . o i i g c ~ s t i t i i i (Ic. c.;iiis;is

(51)

I;i

do O / ) / P I I O ~ /u

11 ) I I ~ N ( do /

/u

I ( ~ I \ / ( I (I / ~ I I/ ~ o t1 1 1 o / 1 t o / l o 1(1 I ~ I I I ~ / /N ~ 111 d~ I

( : o l ~ i c * s l l [ ) l ~ ( ~ r l i i l~ l l c ~ ( llcy+i

)&l. c>iil ~ l ~ i l ~ c;is;l(~i(li* i r c,l (le* ~ ~ ~ i ; ~ c

iorr-

(lo, 211

iiiiirici.o ~ I I V

yo

;ic-;iI)oclc (I;II."'~!'. 'Ii-;ii;iii(lo tlc jiisiilic-;ti. I;i

o l ) c ' i t i i i , c.1 iriisriio ~>iu~larii(~iii:ii.io i i i i ; i l i "'liivo ~)i.e'se~ic'i c b ~~~ zii: qi c.1 pr'ovccio t r o v;i ;i CI.VII. (los (:oi.ics ( 1 ~ . (;;is;ic-itiii ( * t i c.1 l O r i ( l o ,
( ~ 1 1irl;lici-i;l civil, sir10 ( ] i l ( % sirli[>l~~rIicrlic~ ~lirlor~i~;ir-, Vl i ii~iiilsitoi-i;iiric.iitt.,(1iic.

c.1

'TI-il~iiii;il de (:asaci<ri se c-livi<l;i (los c.ti

salas y

Estii ley tiiiiil>iCii rst:il)l<-iti iiii liiiicioiiirrriirr~to <.xii-aoi-tliiiiii-io I;i (:oi.tt2 <le cii:iiitlo V I iiiiiicro <le Siipr-i~rii;i, p;ir-;i e l coiiociiiiicrito (Ir la c;is;icicii cii 1:i 101-iiia, i'cciii~s<~s rx<.c3d;i 30. F.ii este (.:(so se pocl;iii iiistii1;ii- ti-es sal;ts, coi1 (.ii;itr.o iiii(le llis~ros c;lcl;L 1Iri;L. ' " : ic. iiiloi-~ri(~ I;I (:oi~iisitiii ? Pi 1 <Ic (Iv (h)ri\tiiii(.itiii. I,(~gisl;i(-iiiri y,Jiisii(.i;i (I(:j;i c i ~ i ~ s t ; i i (1111. ~ los iltii~ios ~ l i o s i ~ ~ o ~ ~ i i ij~i(Iici:ili t oI:I ( :OI.I(> S I I ~ ) I . ~ ~ I ~ I ~ I ~ci~ CII : "(,l ~ i ~ ~ i (le llit [)i.ogi.c.si(iii (Ic' :iii~i~<.iito s(. hii ti.;i<lii(.i<Io 1;1 <111(. 1.11 <losiil)ic~ii(locri IIII;I (~oiisl;i~ilc 1)1.:ic iic ;i c.ii iiii iiiiciiao i(~(-iiigo ii;il)iijo tl(.l 'li-il)iiir:il". (31: S<.aitiii oi.(liii;iii;i 21" (I(. I;i (:;tri:ir.;i (k. I)il~iil;itlo\,(.(.1<.1)1.;1(1:1iiii(:ic.ol(.s I"<l(~,jiilic~ I!):3(i. c.1 (I(. I T I ( :I'I. S(~si~;ii or(Iiri;ii~i~i (le I;i ( ::~III;II.:I(l(, I ) i ~ ~ i ~ t ;(.c~lc~I)r~ii(l;i:{O ili\ !)" ~ ~ l o ~ , (,1 llovic~llll~l~c l!)36, 1). 52!). (l(,

l o (]IlCX (oli\iitllyc 011 '1 c 1'11 'L v'lloi 'l( l O I 1 ( I C I 101 c.1 r11r4rrio 11 il>iiri'il li'iI><i tlrsc*\itirli'i(lo< o 1 1 .iiiic.i i o i itl,i(l i i i i i<.c i i i 4 <le< .i\~ic 0 iiiri ('11 ('1 f o i i ( 1 0 c1iich (l~-tri11i( 1'1(le1 '111. :Y del (:<i(ligo(:i\il, p o i l l ' l l ) ( ~ l 1)'l 1'1 i l l l l ' i ( ( l o r l '11 lll( . i cpi o ( 1 i i c i < l o y <ipli(,i(lo (-11 i i i i ' i sciiiciic i,i los < ori\itl(.r ,iii(lo\ (lile tiibo 111 cw'ntc' 1'1 (,o1 ic S u p w i i i ~ '11 f,lll,ir o i i o jiiic io' ". l Al ~>~otiitdlg,\rsc. tic junio (le 1'143 el (:ticligo 01g;lriico i l 15 (le T i il~iiiinles, rriniitiivo iiii'i (:o1 te Siipicrrin cori 13 rriicriibros sc y c o i 1 1'1 la<iilt,icl tle clivitlii~c ~iorcliiiarinrrieritecii d o \ saln\ exti cle forido, cle siete rriicrril~ros cntln iiria, cunritlo el pi-esidiiite d\ lo tlcter rriiiie, 'i objeto de conocer de los reciirwc d i casnciciii Est,i divisihri seria obligntori,~ eri tori(1o y (le los de icvi~itiri.
l l \ / ~ t l l / / , ~ ~ l / , ~ l l. " k,ll { ~

(1(. 1'1

jiir i\pr i i ( l ( . i i c 1'1,

cii;iri(lo el iiiiicro (le los i.t2ciir-sos casacitiii eii el f0iiclo ( l i i c * tlc cstcri cii tal~la eri estado ile t;il)li c.xcccla de st'tcxrit;i (;irt. I)!) y <:OrT'). i i iiitcgi-;icitiii (le las s;il;w cxti'aor-diriarias tarriI>ii.ri liiiL se. cia 1x)r x)rttxo;~iiiiaII:':~. Eii cstc repaso poi- c1 itiiier.ar.io legislativo relkrt.rite a la corripeteiicia y fi~iicioriarriieiito la Corte Supr-criia, rl 111-xiiiio i i t o clc I es la Ley No 17.590, <le 31 tle clicierrihre tie 1971. Este ciiei-po legal rnoditic riiievarriciite el fiiricioiiarriierito d e riucstro rrixiirio t.rihiinal, estahlecierido en el iriciso lo del artcillo 95 qiic "La (:or-te Suprerria liiricioiiar or.(lint~r.iclrrr,~'r~1~ dividida eri dos saI;is o cii pleno, corr-csporidiericio a la propia (hi-te deterriiiriaiA la Si>]-riia sil fi~ricioiiarriiciito". par-tir-de este cariihio ya i i o (le cliic>daravcstigio algiiiio tlel p;iliitivo oi.giiico ( l i i t a ' r i algiri iiiiriiito sc' pciisti 11o(li'iii iiiiificii-la,jiii.ispr-ii(lcricii~, traves del ir ri.giiricri <let . n r n c . i t i r t 7 ~ ~ r . / i r n l ' : " . Eii la (ICc;i(lii ( 1 ~ . los ocliciii;i se. proiriiiIg;i 1;' I,cy No 18.374 (11.0. (1<.1 15 ( 1 ~ .(liciciril)i~c. ]!)M), (1iicL sigiic. ~~roliiiicli~~iiitlo (le <.ti (-1 sistc.iiia tic, (.iis;icitiii 1ioi.i~oiii;il ) o is;iliis, (luc*1;' i'<'lOi.iii;i ~ ' <le. 1!)7 1 li;il)ki c.:iiioiiizii(lo (.oriio i.i.giiiicii oi.(liri:ii-io. F,st;i i i i o i l i fici(.i(\iil)c~i.iiiiti6 (1iics I ~ (:oi.tc St~pix~iii;~ I f'iiii(.ioii;ii.;i oi.(liii;ii~iiiiiciitc (livitlid;~ ti-cbs c.11 s;ilas y c.xtr-;ioi.<liii;iriiiiiiciitc(.ti cii;iti.o s;ilas ilt. ciiico iiiiciiil>r-osc;i(I;i iiria, siti 11ci:jiiicio (1~.I;i coiril)cht(.ri(.ia t1c-l ~>lciio ichiiiiis(listiiitos <Ir- Iii c;is;i<-itiii). cst;~ ((.ii A ;iItiiri tlii(.cla toc1;ivi'i iiiiis c.lai-a la (lcsor~iciitiicitiii I(~gislii(loi; tlcl qu<'

'"

I\I

igii;iI ( I I I C , I;I

ley (l(, 1!):37, (,l

; I I ~ I I ' ( ~1 0 ~ O I I 1 (1c.l

(:o'l'

i;iii~I)i<~ii> i ; i l ) l (1111 " ~ (~ ~i

I'ii~i(~ioii;iiiii<irio <.xii-;ioitIiii;ii.ioI>;II.;I ( . ( ~ i o < . i i i i i e i i i ( , el 110i 1;i I o r ~ l l l ; ~ , l l ; l l l < k ll o ~ ~ llllllcl~o(l(, l - < ~ ~ ~ l l cxcc(1;l rsos

I;i (:S.

(le 1.1

<-;i,i(-itiii c.11

(le 30.

l?.ll (.SI(, (-;lso S<, [)O~Iklll

11-es s'll>is, COI1 c~i;lll-o lllillistl il1sl;iI;ll~

os

(.;lcl;l llI1;l.

Ii;il)i;i~)(.i'(litlo toclo irit<~rc'.s dotir-i la (:ortc' S~iprcrria irispor <le ii~~ri~ieiitos pt~i~~riiticr-:iii (lile (,oiist:giiir-el firi (liit>t>ii ilgii 1110iiic*iiio clctcr-riiiriti la iiicor-por-acitiri(le1 reciir-so de <.as;ici<iii eii e1 fOii(1o. Siii cxagci.ai; chstt'estado ilc cosas dqj a la (:arte Siipi.ciii;i ~x;icticarricrit<: i~iiposil~ilitada potlei- procliicir- L(~jur?.silc /)r.ri,(l/.rtc.icr ~ i t ~ s ~ r c c . s i -a i q~ c c iic aspi r.al>aiilos legisladores t1t.l siglo XIX. Al c'str.afalario parioraiiia qiie pi-eseritaba el r.ecurso dc casaciri, por las iiiadeciiadas rrioditicacioiies legales ya referidas, se dehe agregar otra tergiversaciri 1115s.Nos i.eferiinos a la silplaritacitiri qiie se 1ial)a clailo gracliialrrierite eiitr-e cl 1-ccilrsode casicicii eri el Sorido y cl reciirso de quqja. I'or i i r i siriiplc qiiei.er jiiiliciil, iiiiciado a rricdi:itlos del siglo pasiclo, iiri rclciir-so tlc rixtiirale~iiiliscipliiiai-iii pirs ii corivrr.tii.si cri el iiicdio oi.iliiiar-io <le iriipugn;ui<iii 1,ai;i i ~ i w i(:or.ttb 11; Siipi-ciiii c.oiiocicr;r tlc los ~)oi' tlivcrsos :isiiiiios litigiosos, c.orivii-tiCii<losc. cstc ciriiiiiocii iiiia i i t i t C i i t i ( . i r17ci~(~c*~~:~ i ( ~ i 1'iii.a ~ ~qiic iiii11o1.1ii Iiisti~ : i ~ ~ lo . cori rc'I;t(.itiii :iI wiloi- (I(. 1i jiii.isl)i.iid(~iic.ia, csia vai-iiiiitc iiiil)iigiiaiiv;i f'iic iixX~ Iiis I):isc.s iC(.iii(~iitl;iiiiciiic ) c - i : j i i ( l i ( . i ; i l , 1)ucsio ( I I I C ~ ~)ulvc-i~i~;il>;i iii(.as ~)i.(visr;is p;ir.;i ( l i i ( , 1:i (:oi.tc S i i ~ ~ i ~ c~)ii(lici.;i ~ i i i ; ~ ~)ro(lii(.ii.i i ; i ii j r t r i \ [ ) ~ . ~ r t l o n c . i c /iou:vrrn.\iutr ;i ii;ivCs del i-cciir.so( 1 ~ . l (,;isac.itiiicii c.1 IOii(10. ~ : 0 1 1 1 0Iiis s(~rltc11ci;lsl l ( \ i~csoI\~~l11 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~iI(. I ( ]~l (Sj i0 1 1 0 (l VI i l l i l iiiil)onkiii iii;iyoi.cs c.xigc.iici;is 1);ii.a sil liiiitl;iriiciiia~~itiii,i ;iiiiii it los la 1)oc.ocxliiiiistivi~l~t~l jiicc-cs 1)ai';i sil 1-csolii(.itiri, iri;iyor- p;iiL i t s (le, 1ii jiii-is~~i~u(lci~t~i~i iilli gciiei-;i(li irisiist;iiicial. cbs el (Icl i.c~.iii.so (1iic:ja S(*(le l)iclio ( 1 ~ .o i i . ; i li)i-iii;~, <I(-s~~iril~co r.ia t.1 iliiiiio fictoi.(le iiiia c;iilciia (It: ilcsacici.tos legislativos, que tci-iiiiiiar-iari 1101. i't>l)i!jar-cl valor (le la.jiirispriiilciiciii ii iiii iiivcl iritolerahlt. d e coritr-adi(.ciories y crri~>ol)r~ecirriieiito la fiiritlacii rriciitacitiri. El reciii-so dc qiiqja iio f'iic iris cliie iiri golpe de gra-

I { I psie e. , , .iiiil>io iio coiii;il>;i coii el I>ciic~>l(icito 1;i tlo<i i i i i ; ~ , i i c (o11 iiiiic(le q 1.,le.'101111aI)ki :i(lvcrtitlo I;I ;irio111;11i1 qlic s i g ~ ~ i I i ( ~ ;que ila (:oi.ic S i i p i - c i n ; g c i i c r ~ i il)~ ~

tlcl

VI ii-~ilmjo profesor (Ir D r r c c l i o (;vil (loii ,2\.clirio 1,cri tliii-ta<lo,piibli(-atlo cii 14 ! ; all ! 54 se lec: "[,a ;ictri;il orgaiii~acicri(Ic riiicsii Exciri;~.( : o r t c es ;i este r c s ~ ~ c c <I<~ficio ~ I I O Sp i ~ c s ; ~ , cxisiicr~clo (los S;il;is de, (:as;ici('i~i, l ~ o s i l > l ( ~ , rs corrio oc-~~r-i.<. ;iIgiiii;i (-oii s;il;i, SI-t.c.iiciic.i;i,clric c;isos sriricjaiiics s<.;iii i-csiiclios (le clisiiiit;i iii;iiici;i p o i <.;i<I;i
r i i , j ~ i r i s ~ ~ ~ ~ i i r Io r~ t ii~ ; it I i ~ i o i - i t c~ . i ~ i i o i ~ (le ello h e e r i < - i i e ~ i t i a c ~ i~ ci~ U11 ~ s t io cii
I I c g ; i i ~ l o s ;i ~ < vc.<.c.a : ~ o i i liisioiic~s< I i ; i i ~ i c t i - ; i l i i i < of)iicsi;is. 1)cl)c itlc;ii-sc iiii sisi < ~i~~c ic3111;l (lll<s illl~)i(l;l <.sl;l ~ll1;lli~I;i~l (.l.ii<~l~iO<, (l(, ~011l0 >c. 11:i llc(.llo e11 1:l~ill~ y <,ll i;1 oii-os ~);is<'s. 1'otli.;i I>('IIS;I~S<. ( I I I C . l i i i i ( . i o i i c ~1;i k:xc.iii;i. (:oi-ic cii iiii solo <-ii<.i.e1 1 p o , (.oriio o<.iii.r;i; I I I I < ~ I ~ ~ o I - I ~<,ti (los ~ ~ ~ , I)<'I.o ~ I)i<.ii I ~ I I s;iI;is, (.i\.il
(l(b

""I,a ;i<-rl>t;icitiiide csi;i 1-<.alirl;itlSorcrisc qiiccl6 \.ali<l;r<l;ipor 1ii iriisiria (:oite


S i i p i e r i i ~ icluc ,

eliccti el 13 <Iriiovi~riil>i-c I$)(i3 <le

1111 i i ~ t o ; ;i<.oi.<l;itlr> para

la

ti';i-

tlc iriip~igii;i<-itiii, < . r l > t a ~ ~ ( l o 1111 ;i cotiio lieclio coiisiitii;ido iirit;iciOii tl<. c.si<.iii<.<lio

VI

IIII;I <'~i<.;irga(l;i lo <I<, /\vcliiio, "V;ilor

l;i oii.;i

tic* lo

(.iiiiiiii;il 1 < l < ~ i i i ;isiiiiios" s

(l.l.:ON I IIJKI'AI)O,

I;I ~ I I I ~ ~ S I ) I ~ I Ii;i3',e11 \~P71;,\/~1 / ( ~ / ) o r ( ~\ ~ ~/ lI ~ ~ ~ . \ / ) ~ I ~ ( / o I;II.I. I , ~~(~II( e ~, I o I ( ~ ; (.ii., ~

1).

l(i7).

<le1i<.ciii>o( d i ~ ( - i ~ > l i i i ; i y- i<le foiiclo) q i i c y cst;il>;i i1isi;ilatlo i o SoI)r-<. i<~iii;i, MIJN171'A tlKKKtllZ~\,12ol)ci.to, / G / ~ r t l i o el cI'I. c.r-;li(.o cobw~ l rn111\o t l (/iroler, S;iriii;igo, b:<liioi-i;il r ~ Jiii-i<lic;i <I<.(:liilc, Il)fiH, <.sl>c<.i;iltiic~ii1'1). 57-(i5. (:o1 i < ~ s l > o i ~ < l c;i-1;)i [,<.y N" 1!).:37,1 I > O I I < . I i.cii~<,(lio c.si;i siiii;icic;ii, i i; ;i o ;iiiisiiio <lis(-il>liii;ii-io(Ic c;iy <Icj;iiitloc.1 i ( ~ . i i i - s (le (1uc:j;i. (.II 111 iii<il>io,< oiiio i i i c ~ i-;i(.i(~ic.xc.cp(.ioii;il. S o l ~ i c c.1 i c i i i ; ~ , 1.1. '1'/4VOI,AIZI OI.IVl~.liOS, , < Ikiiil, I G ~ ~ r r \ o . t c/c e.ci\trc.itit~y c/~r(.jrc, C;iiiii;igo, ( :oiioSiii, I !Mi.
c;ii-icici- iiiixio <.ii irii<~sri~o sisiciri;i.

c.i;i, ( ~ I I ( ' c i . ( " i

i i i i c.si;i(lo t lc.

c.osiis

v c ~ i ~ t l ; i t l ~ ~ i ~ ( .rxi ;i I~~ )~ ~I~ ; I I~ ; ~ ( ' 1" t ~ I .

sol>i-c.c.1

el sisic.irii jiir.icli(.o. 1:stii sitii:iciOii, af)ririiiatla~iic~it(~, g<'iici.<iiiria i-ci(~cii,ri qiic clii<.dar.i'i l~lasrriacla cri la pr,ofiirida r(~l)r-riia Ic.gal quc pasarrios a arializ;iri

1-01 tic. la.jiir-isl~i-iitlcri(~iii c.11

:ii

c.sc. (.oiitcLxio se

;icorii<.tciiria

riiicva

i.c>lOi-iri;i fiiricioii;ra1

iiiic.iilo

tic.

Iii ( ; o r t c Sii~)i~c~riia.i i t o E1 I

se

ciiciicri1i.a cbiiel Mc.ris>i-

,jc.

6. LA KEFOKMA IIE L,A LEY No

19.3'74

Las r-eforrriasiritr-odiiciclaseii el fiiricioriarniento de la (Ibrte Siiprerria a partir rle 1937, corrio era de esperar, teriniriarori crearido iiiia siiiiacitiri riada alcritadora para el tl(~scriipeiiodc 121 jirr.isl)i-utlt~iici:i. Uii estiitlio piil,lic;itlo a ljriiicipios tle la cl.cadi tlc los i i o v c i i ~ ipor e1 (;critr.o tlc F,stii<lios1 3 b l i c . o ~((:El'), ljajo e1 t i t i i l o I'r.o/)o.sic.ior~~o~s k~ r.o/ormtr jtrclirierl, ;il)oi.tl:i (.st;i i-c.iili(liiil /)nr.c~ clc~sclc tlisiiiiios lji~isiriis. Alioi,i.ii iii;iyoi.<.s cxplic;ic.ioiic.s -~);ir;i ('1 ic>iri;i I I I ( ' I ~ O H ) ( I I J I1;) c b x l ) o s i i c i t i i i d c . I;iig<.iiio \';iI(~iizii~~Iii ( >;ISolll~ll~l~i\~;l; ~ ~ l l c s l l l ; l I i ~ ; l l ~ ~lcs tic. ~ la l;ll)ol. j i l l ~ i s ~ l i ~ ~ ~ ~li(olil ;(;or.lc( ~l l l l S I I I > I ~ CL 1I I I c ~ i,i ~ i i c 101-iiiiilii ~ ~iI;I ~I:i iiii;i ci.iiic.:i iiiiiy (.oii<.i.c.i;i: . ..) (11 "( i.c,c.iii.so t l c b c.;isiic.i<iii i i el l ) i i t l o , c~s1jc~c.i;iliiic.riic~ los iiltiiiios r c.11 \rc~iiiiiiii ;ios ( ~ i i c 'S(* Ii;iii ;iri;ili~;itlo, 1i;i i c l o ~ ) c . i . ( l i c . i i < l o gi~;i(lii;ilr r i c b i i i c . sil iiiil)oriiiiic.i;i
c1;itlc.s cliie S('

c.iivi;itlo 1 ) o i . ('1 1'1-c~sitlcritc. . la Kcl)iil)lic.:i, tloii 1';iti.ic.io Aylwiri dc Azcic.:ir- y sil Miriistro tIc.Jiisiic.ia, tloii I;r;iiic.is(.o(:iiiril)litlo (:r.rccctla, c.1 20 de octiil)re clc 1902. Estc proyecto terriiiii;ii.a coiivirtiCiitlos<. eii 121 1,cy N" 10.3'74, piiblicada eri el D . 0 . No :3.5.09'7, del 1 clc fcl,i-ero cle 1995, cori el rioiribre: 1'~oy~clo ley .so/)r~ 8 dr ( ~ a com/)osic.in, oqtLlrizacirr y cllri/)ucion~s l L ,'or%r Suf)wmn ci(j,J~l!.vticicl 1 r,ro(liJic.ac.icn los r.c>cur:ro.s queja y cn.sncin. cc (Ir Par-a el terna qiic iritcr.isa, se ii-ata (le iiri profiirido c;lrriI)io cii e1 trat;irriiciito t l c ~ jiir-ispi-ii<lericia la coirio hit-ritc tlcl <lci*.<.lio. N o cxag~i.;iiiiosaIiati.il)iiir ii csii i.c.li)riiia iiii c;ii.r-cit.r rcf'iiiitlacioiial <leI;i 1 i i i i c . i t i i i (Ic l;i (:oi.ie. Siipi-ciri;i,(lii lo i.cl;itivo :i Iii i i i i i ji(.. .'t i i i tic la j i i i . i s l ) i - i i t l c i i ( , i i ~ .Kii cf'cc.to, 1)oi. l)i'iiii('i';i vex/ e" ,i( i iiiic*sti.;il ~ i s i o i ~ i ; i , j i ~ ~ I i cIiii : i l ~ (:oi.tc> Siipix~iri;~i ~ r ~ c ~ i o r i c b iri ~ ~ ~ I' : i s;iI:is cs~)cc~i;ilizitl;is, c~xistic~ii(lo s;il;is, )' c ~ x i i ; i o i - t l i i i ; i r ~ i ~ .i~~i i~i - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ ti.cLs ( ~

ii.o. (:oiilOi-iiic,;11;ii~ii<.iilo tlcl (:ttligo ()r.g;iiiic.o (1c. 'Ii.il)iiiiii!)9


c.si;il>lc~c.c,i. (.:itlii

Ic.s, c.or~i~c~sl)oiitlc~~~;i Siil)r.(.iii;i, ;i I;i (;oi.ic iiic~tli;iiii(~ ;iiiio ;ic.oi.tl;itlo, (los :ios I;is iiiiiici.i;is (Ic. (lile coiio(.c~i.;i c.;i(I;i iiri;i

tl(, I;is sitl;is ( , i i i ~ i i c ~ tlivitlitl;il'". b:ii c~si;i


I;is

e 1

M(.iis;ijc. tI(.I 1'1-c~siclc~ii-

cii \~,i-tl:itl y;i i i o ( ' i i i i i l ) l ( . ( ' o i i Iiis liii;ilivist;i ;i1 iiisi:iiii.;ii~lo,y;) t~iic,1;)

tii\'ic\i-oii ;i I:i

j i i i . i s l ) i . i i c l c ~ i i ( ~ ciii;rii~itl;i 1 ~ . 1;i ( :oi.i(. Sii~)i.(.iii;i ii~ ( 1i;i


i i i i i y c.st.;is;i iiic~(licl;i, iiiiili~r~iii;ii~c * i i i i i i i o scriiitlo e1 g

Iogi;i(lo,
I;i

(Ic. 1;i l<c.l>il)li(.;il i i c ~ t l t c.oiisi;iii<.i:ic l i i c . I;i c ~ s l ) c ~ c ~ i : i l i ~ i i ( . i t( iI ir i* ( saliis tic. 1;) ( : o i . t c b (si-;i i i i i i i i i i c . c l i t l i I>;II';I c*vit;ii' tlc iiii;i vc.7 1 ) o i -

(*ti
(,ti-

tlc

1c.y y

iotliis I;i (lisl)c~i sitii , j i i i - i s ~ ~ i ~ i i c l c ~ i i c ~ i ~ i l .

i - i t 1 1 1 ( ~ (y~ viviIi(.:ii. 1~
i i i i i o i - ;ipiiriii:

el

1 ) t ~ r ~ c ~ ~ I i o. o y 1)oc

ii;i(I;i Iia ( ~ o i i i i ~ i l ) i ~ i ( l o al

1,as ~ ~ ~ I I ~ I I ~( l I( b ~l ; Mciis;ijc ( l ( x l 20 IS
(le11sc.1.

t l ( x o ( ~ i r 1 1 ) i . c(~1 ~ . l95)2 i i o 1)iic-

pi.ogr-cso <.ic.iitifico (...)". l)(.iiii.o tl(, I;is c.:iiis;is,

criii-c oii.as, c.sic


1~ictl;i iiriicri

''LI

f'iiricio~i:iriiieriioil(b

la

(;ortv S111)i~ciri;i CII;IcLri

ir-o

s;il;is, siri qiic. clxist;~ i i i iiicc;iiiisiiio pai-;i cluc, i

qiie este derivc~ fiillos coiitr-atli~toi~ios"'~"~. cri 1,as api-cciaciories ci-ticas sobr-c cl liiricioiiariiicr~to de la (;or. te S i i ~ x e i ~ iproveriicrites de los riias variados sectores, iiivitahaii a, a ei.i.adicai-coi1 prorititlid el cst;ido de Ini~suz /i~ir.u jiirispr-irclericia1, t11w sa'bcrrios pr-ovcria tiel fiiricioriarriierito cori corripc-teiicia corriiiii <le siis s;il;n y por la d ( ~ s i i ; i t i i r ; ~ l i i a c ~ i < i i siirgidii a1 c~orivci~tii~sc el i-~.iii.so qiic:j;i c.ri iiii iiietlio rior-iii;il clc irripiigriac.itiri. tic
f o r i r i r - i r - l i i cii acliicllos

casos

fiiiicioriairiicrito

l)c~r'sigiic~, coiiio cbsiiiiiiii.:il, Iogr.ar iiiiii e~spc<~i;tlizac.i<iila Ia1)or (le, I;i (:ort(. Siic.11 ~>r.c>rii;i (lile i i i c i t l i i - i i , (le i i i o t l o dc1tc.r-iiiiriaiiir.,thii 1;i clicii(.i:i (lcl ir-al)ajo.jiitliciiil y pci-rriitii-2,21 1;i v c ~ ;iviiri~ai. , s<li(l;iirit.ritc liiic.ii la iiriifi)r-rriidaddc* l a , j ~ i r - i s p i ~ i i t l e ~ i c i ~ ~ diver-s;is iriatcrias qiic cii las tlcbr coiioccr- la (101-te. / / Actiialriieiitc, ;i1 teiier coiripcteiicia corriparticla las distintas salas, se dan corriirirrieiite sitiiaciories de fiillos coritraclictorios entre ellas, lo qiie protlilce la irupr-esi611rle iio Iia1,er iin solo rrir-salto tr-ibiirial (le la Kcpi1)lica7"~". Eri 121 tlisciisitiii parl;irricri~iri;i, dej;~ riiiiy cii claro el tcriia ( ~ u e
;iqii iiiieiv.s;i 1i iiiicrveii(.iri ;

rri;is c . l o < . i i c ~ i i t ( ~ s"(:oii c ~ i ; i : i-c*l)i.iii;i se

del

s<.ria<lor. 1101-iriazl~l, ciiuitlo al

tlcl~ii(1ei- aiiiiiciiio (le. 17 ii 2 1 rriiiiisii-os tlc 1;i (:oi.tc. Siipr-c.iii;i, e1 cxporie: "(Li1)c tcwer prcstxiitcqiie e1 ~>i.oyc~to, otr-;~s tXiiti.c c.iic-siiorics, ~)r'c~teridc c a e ;iIto ti.ihiiriil piieda gciici'ar iirii jiirispi-iique tlcricia estable y, a<leiiiAs, tiiritlatfa, ya qiie esta es la iiiiic;i rriaiier;i <le fi)rtalttcer los 111-iricipiostic igiialdact y certeza jilrdica. Por-cliie ])ara quieiies rio sor1 ahoptlos resiilta iiicoriiprerisil~lc qiie eri iiiia sala tie la Corte piieda deijriir-se iiria ciiestihii litigiosa cri el seiitido A, y la niisrna, en otras eri e1 seritido R. Y eso corresponde, iia~iiralriieiite, iiiiestro ordeiiairiieiito jiirdico, i i o a uiia actitiid cri dc banal o pequea de los iii~cgrarites tari alto oi-gariisrrio.jiir-istliccioiial, siiio al le;il sil~cr- eiitcritlcr de ellos r-csprcto de c i c r t ; ~ ~ y iiorrrias jiirdi~is. Pero eso protliirc corifiisitiii eii la opiriicri pil,li(~;i"'~"!'. I';ir.;i c~iaiiiificar- objetivo rliic. pr-cteiir1;i il<.ari~;ir- i.ef01.e1 la iiia coiivieiic i-c:coi.tlar- la iritc~i~veiicicri iscsoi.t1.l Miiiistc'i'io tl-l (le .Jiisiie.iii,JOI-gc( ~ o i ~ i ~ c ~ i i i ~ c ~ i i I i ~ i (ili i i i t , la (~oi~iisi(;ii Siitil, (le. (:oiistiiiic.icii, I,egisl;ic.i(riy.Jiisiici:i t1t.l Sciiic(1oi'". Scgiri c.1 [c.1 1 0 i - ( I C las I ( . ~ I s , "El sc~iioi~ t ~ i ~ ( * icx[)i.c-.~(; (:o i (ltl<., <511 ( * ~ ( . l i ( ~ i lc.1 , 1)roycc'to ;~iiiiciit;i iiirrici~o los iiiic.gr-aiitcs la (:or-ic. Sil('1 tic. ~ ~ - c i i ie.stiil>lcccla c~s~)cci;iliz;i(~i)ti siiliis cii (liic. i.si;i se. (li;i, (Ic Iiis vi(lc., f';ic.ilita la iiiici.l)osic~itiiiy ti.iirriitat.i(ii ( l e a l 1-c.c.iii.so tlc casircitiri cii (-1 IOiitlo y l i i i i i t i i el ;irril>iio(Icl (le. (111c'j;i". "M;iiiili~st <,S tti qiic el objetivo cxl>lic.i o t1c.1 ~)i.oy<~c.iopi'oiriov(.i- i i r i i i prof'iiiicla itio(lc~i-iiiz~<~ii>iiI'odc~i-.Jii<lic~i~l c~spc.c.iil, sil cii e1 y, eri cri m5xiriio ti.ibiiiiil, la (:ortc Siil)ririi;i, (;irito eii sii oi.g:irii~icitiii qiic corrio cri las rriatii-iiis y ~)i~occdiiiiicritos Ic iriciiriil)cii, scrirse~jiistificiiri 1101-cliic,coirio dilarido que t;i1c~ti-aiisli~rrriaciories versas irivcstigac~iorics(111ese 1i;iri lieclio piiblicas lo liaii dcinostrado, la (:arte Siipr-criia tieiie actiialriicritc ilria esti-iictiira y corriposicicri qiic r i o se ajusta a los r-eqiicr-irriieritostlc la lioi-a presente". "Agreg qilc del ~ e r i s - j epiiede iiiferirse qilc lo que se busca es devolver a la (:arte Siiprenia el rol que le fiiera asignado en la 1,ey d e Organizaci6n de los Trihiiriales d e 1875 y eri el C6digo de Procidiiiiiento ( h i l y que consiste eri ser uri 6rga1"" 1)i..ii: (le scsioii(*s tl<. Scii;itlo, S(,si<iii 10'' <I(.I io S(.ii;i<lo, iii;ii.i<.s 2 l c i i o v i c i i i I>i-<* <le 1!)!):3, 1). 140(i. lo (:li: R o l < ~ t i iN" 858-07, IiilOi-iii(. ti<. I;i (:oiiiisitiii tl<. (:oiisiiiii< itiii, l.csgisl;ii <.i<iii,.Jiisii<i:i y l<cgl.iiiic~iiio, i-cc.;ii<lo <,ir c.1 l > i o y < ~ . i o It,?, <.iipiiiiic,i. ir-;iiiiiic (oirsiiiii<.ioii;il, .;ol>i.(. < oiiil)osic~i<ii, oi.g.iiii/:i<~i(;ii y ;iii-il>ii<.ioii<~s I;i (:oi-i<,SIII>I(~III;I ioii<,s .ilos i<.< (1~. iii-sos <lii<.jay (1c <-;t\;i<.i<;ii. 1'1). 1))-'>O. (I(.,Jiisii<i,i y i i i o ( l i l i ( ;i<

~.l(~:l(lolh ~ l l l ~ l s ~ ~ l ~ l i ~ l c ~ l i ~ y il ~ l l l i ~ l ; l c l piii.;i ;is I O l ~ l i l (It (~sl:ll)lc* i ~ ~l, l o s ~ ) i . i i i c , i l > i o<le igiiiil(l;itl y ( 1 ~ . (.(.i-ic.~:i ,jiii.<li(.:i;> c ~ i . i i i i t i i . s l c.1 c.iiiclaclo y iiciiiiiliz;it.i<iiitlcl tlci.cclio, y, e b i i (Icfiiiiliva, iisciiiaiel po(lcr tlc los 'Ii-il)iirialcs cii sii rol rrias 1)i'ol)iode fijar i 1 sentilos tlo y alcarice (le las iior-iiias jiir.clicas. Scil6 qiie eriti-C. iil~ogados cs coirifiri la apr-eciacitiri critica tlc qiie la (:arte Siipi-ciria s i Iia apartado tle este rol, pcrdierido as pai-te de la fiicrite (le sii ailtoridad, para coristituii-se eri iiiia tercera instaricia que, porla va del reciirso de queja, risiielve siti necesidad de rnayor fiindarrieritacicii, eri iiriajiisticia tle eqiiidad, qiie siicle recibir crticas poi- sii excesivo car-Acterd i ~ c r t . c i o r i a l " ~ ~ ~ ,
110
I(.(.(.i.

7. AI,(;UNAS (:ONSE:(:Ul<N( :]AS DF, 1 ,A REFORMA

iiiic.sti.o

( ~ O i I l O(,ll

eiiic.iid<.i.,1;i i.eli>riri~i -1aiito cii sil ;isl>chcto 16criic.o lo <]lle ;ll;i<~ l;1 ~)oltic:ljll(lic~iill-, l ~ ~ l l l l t i l lC l l 121 lii ~l

'

I i i N o oI)\i~iiii(~ ( oiii( i(I(~ii(~i;isc ( i i i ( ; i \ los i ~ ( ~ ~ ) ; i (~IIC.s S(, Ii;i(~kiii 1)oi (tiI;is ~ y io (l(, (:oi ((, I;i 1)1o(lti(.ii.jiii.is1)i i i ( 1 ~ ~ 1 1 v(,isos s(~.ioi.c.\ ;iI IIIII(~~~II;IIII~(~II~~ SII~)I~(~III;I. ci;i ( o i i i i ~ ; i ~ I i ( ~ t oI;I ii ~ ~ , l o i ~ I'II(, ; r(.sisii(l;i :I~)~(~I~:IIIICIII(~ 1)oi. 1:i III~SIII;I i~ ; c ~ ~ii ~ (:o~.i(,Sil~)I~~III;I, I,II OI)IO (.OIISI;I cl(,l O l i c io :'di<)(k!)Y.1.0s ; I I ~ I I I I I ( ~ (I1I~I. ~ ~ ( SII ol)o~i( (.I.;III i611 lo\ \igiii<,ii~<'\: "I.;ic'sl)('c i;ili/;ic-itii <I(. l;il)oi iiii-i\tli<-< 1;i ioii;il ~ ~ i i(liir l < . < ~ ;iv<'iig;i (l(. 1;1\ pi0pi;i.; < l e 111s i l ~ i l ~ l l l l ; l (le1 so l l ~ l o\(.;lll l~~ l , <l<. <.o11 l;i ll;lllll~;ll~~/;l l l l l l ( ~ i o l l c s l ~ r i i i i ( ~ i -iiisi;iiit i;i o tic. \<.giiiitl;i iiii;iiic.i;i, I)('I.o o I . i . < ~ sc.1-i;is i<.s<.i~;is i-<.l;icitiii ;i c c.11 c o i i I;i icsl)oiis;l)ilitl;itl (~II(' ( ~ o r ~ i ~ ~ s l ) i I;i i( ~oli c( , SIII)I~('III;I, I>II('s M, ( ~ o i ~ i ~ c<.Ik i ;o ~ : i 'i~ 1)clixio t l ( , tl(~\ii;iiiii;ili/;ii- sil iol iiii(~l;ii: ( , l ~ (.IIo ~)otli.i;i c o i i t l i i ( ii ;i iiii;i ( i<,i.i;i 10, i i (.c.lc~i-itl,i(l i . 1 1 i.1 tlc~\,iiioiii(~(~;iiii(.,i iiiicil)i~(~i;iii\..i OII(,, ;iiiii (.ii;iii(Io c ~ s ~ i i i i i ~ l ; iI:i ~ i 110 (l(,I;I ;I< i i v i ( l ; i ~ lj t i c I i ( ~ i ; i l , t)o(Ii.;i Il(~;ii III;IIII(~II(~I~~ i s i ( i 1 1 ; i II; III ~);ir(~i;iIi/;i~l;i v i.gitl;i tl(,l oi~<l(~ii;iiiiic~ii1(, jiii-rlic-o, ;il < - i r ( - i i i i s c i-i1)ii- ,i \ t i \ iiiiciiil>ros, <Ii. iii;iii<~i;i I)CIiii;iii(~iii<. y ~)ioloiig;i<l;i,; iiii ;i-c,;i c,sl~(.li(.;isiii iiii(,ii.c~l;ic.ioii;ii-lo\(-o11I;i\ rcsi;iiiics. I I;si;i siiii,i(.itiii, c.11 (4 (.;iso tl<. I;i ( : o i i c Sii1)i-c,iiia, c~iic;ii.g,i<l;i ( l e o i i(,iit;ii. I;i Iiiiic~i<iii jii(lic.i;il ii:ic.ioii;il ;I ii-;ivCs tl(, siis I;illos, 1)otliki i~c\iiIt;ii-;iii)iii~il;i". "E:l (.oiiociiiiiciii(, 1 ti-aio <li;ii.io <I<. 1;is tliv<,i.s;is i.;irii;is tlrl t l c r c c l i o l>ositivo, <It~stlc. <listiiit;is ~>ci.s~,<~<.tivas, ;rliii;r ? ciiri<liii.cc c'l ci.ii(,rio ( i r 1 cxCgci;i, ol)ligAii(lolo ; i i o ; i l ) ; i i i t l o i i ; i i - sil iio<.itii tiiiii;ii-a y liii;il, ;is < . o i i i o l o s ~ . c ( j i ~ ( ~ i . i i l i i < . iy~ ii io sj i i sl i ~ : i ( ~ i o i i (s o ( , i ; i l ( ~(l(, il;i(.i(;ii. k:l Y(,III(,II( ~s I;I i;i(Ioi (lc,l)(, ;i(Iii[)i;ii. \lis d(~(.isioii(.s II~I~I;I <Ioiitl(. I;i\ i-(,gl;is tl<, 1;i Iic~i~iii<~iii.iiiic~;i( ' i ' i i i i t ; i i i , ;i ('sos ~ ) i , i i i ( , i l ) i o s iiiiiiic ;i<Ioi.(.\". lo ~ ) ~ ~ ~ i 1 1 ~ l (l(, l l l ; l la\ l ~ i l l l ; l s(l(,l l ( ~ l ( ~(,\ ~ I l 0 ( ~ 1;lIl ;llll(illolll;l ( ~ O I I I O1);ll,;l ~ ) l ~ ~ ~ s ~ ~ i l l ~ l i l ~ (l(, i i i s i i i ~ i ( ~ i o i i(III(. \ o 1 1 ~ ~ ~ I I I I : I I I I I ~ ; I ~ ~ ~ S ;I o i i ; ~ .1';sio I (~III(~I~/;Io i i v ( ~ i i i ~ i(lc, ~ i ; i 1;is (~s la ( ~ i~ (111<' I;IIIIII ('1 i(,( s o t l t . (..i\;ic.itiii (.ii c.1 loii<lo( o i i i o los t l ( ~ i i ; i . ; ;isiiiitos (IIIC' iii (011( i < ~ l l l ( ~ l l(:o1 '1 1;i S l l ~ ~ l ~ ( ~ lc.11 . l(, l l < 1 1 l 1 0 ;i \ll [);11)(,l I ~ ~ ~ ~ l O l , ~ ~ l l l l ~ ~ g ;:i ~ l o s ll ([ll(~ll(~ll l jii(.((.\ ( o i i iii),i \.i4i1ii. lo I I I ; ~ ;iliil>li;i~ o ~ i l > I ~ ~ . (I<.l i i ( . g o ~ . i o i i i ~li(.o, ;I(.~,I.(.~I j .;oI)i.(. 1'1 I);i\(, , I;i ('*I)(.I i(.ii(i;i iiiiliil)l(~ 5'' \ i(,ii< c-oiiic.iii.iiitlo". tl< (~II('
I3:ii

iicS;ic.oi~rcbc~t;i. riiicbwi Ii)i.iii;t 1.a

l ' i i ~ ~ c ~ i o ~ ~ : i i ~ i i c ~ i i ol);ii.:i i(I(*;i(l;i

la <;oi.tc'Siil,rc.rri;i tlisiriiiiiiyc rio~oi~iairicritc j)osil>ilitlicltlc coiila tra<lic.ciorics,queh s ~ l j e ~ r i o s s e 111-odiicari irri~unerrtciitt~ cii~iiitlo tlyjarori tic acriiar los corr-cctivos prcvis~os origiii;ilr~ic~~itc~ p;lr-ii tratar de iiriific;ir la jiir-ispriitlericia. Ha coiitr.ihiiitio tarribieri a potcriciar- el paljcl de l;~.jur-ispr-iitliricia el sistcrria de iiitrgracihri tle las salas pr-cvisto para ritiestro irixirrio tribiirial. Eri efecto, la reftjrnia terrriiric rori la v i ~ j a tradiciri dcl sorteo ariiial, opciii tkcnica qiie niirica coritrib~iy6 a foriiciitar la unitlad de 1a.jiir-ispriide~icia, cspecialnicrite dilrarite el perodo i i i el qiic actiiabari varias salas coi1 corripctcricia corrilii para coiiocer- (le 1;i c;is;tci<iri eri el f0ritlo. Es cvitleritc q u e la iiiii(l;itl (It, la.jiir-isl~r.iiclc-iic-i;iJ-cqiiici.ede i i i i a cic-r-i;icoritiiiiiidatl cri I;i ii<.tivitl;id tlc los jiic<-c.s. tr.;ivi.s d e . iiri tral>iijocoriA tiiiiiaclo (.ii iiciiilx) se vaii d(.ciiitaiitlo las r.c.gliis .jiii-ispi.ii(lc~ii(.i;llcs (le f O l ~ ~ ~ l l iciI)i(ll, ~ l t i i l ~ l o (IO(~ti~iill l l l ~ ~ g o 1115s sc li t1iic p c i . r r i i t c . iiiiif0i-iri;ii los critcr.ios (le. dccisi(iii. 1'01-el c . o i i i i ; r r - i o , c.1 ciiiiil)io 1'1-c~.iiciitr los,jii/,g;tcloi.(.s ( 1 ~ Ilrci1it;i la irril>i~ovis:i(.i(iii el y c.;iiril)io (le. oi-it.iiricitiii, re~si~iri(lo r i i i i i i i i ( l ~ i c l al siciiipi.c. l e - t i t o c.o pr.o<-c.sol0r.rii;itivo tic. clc.<.isioii<~si i i f 0 r ~ i i i c ~ s . ir
(a1

f't( i i I i ~ ~ (lc'1 '11 t i c 1110 782 c I c . 1 ( I'( (1 dc c a d a iiii~i I,i\ \,iI,i\ (le. I,i ( , o i i c . \ I I I I I ~ ' I I I , I cIc cri el \eqiiiido c\tiictio de adrrii\ihilid,ttl tlc.l i c.( i i i 40 ( I c . c .i\.i( 11 ~ I . eri el fi)rido, poclcr i-eclia~arlo clc. iri~iit'di:i(o, c s i i o l > i i i i O ~ 1 1 I 1.1 si i riirrie de siis iritegrantcs adolece tlc iiria rri;iriific~st;i l;ili;i c I ( . I I I I I
(:orrio

se ~,~il>c,i l o i r i i ~ ~ 'i toi ~t 1


,

e\

coriipctciicia

darrieritos.

I , o (111ee n

pi'iiicipio ip;ir-cc't> c.e)ino iin;i lii<.iili;itl(.o11i i i i ; I I I I

tlisci-c~<.ioiialitti~(l, potli(1o st.1. iiiili/;itl;i I ) ; I I ; I 101 tia rol ( 1 ~ 11:i jiiris1)i.ritlc~iicit. eli~<.io,I I I I ( I I I ~ 110S(. I I ; I I . I k:ii ;I ~ tl<. i i i i pi'ot'c(l(>ri i r i i f 0 i - r i i c . c.11 .1 fiiii(~ioii;iiiii(~~i~o <I(. io<l;isI;I\ 4.1 ];\S, Ii;i), <.:isos cii los c.ii;iic~s) iii:iiiilic~si;i 1: kil1;i Iiiiitl;iiiic~ii ) 4 ic Ii;i(.(.s i i i t i i i i i r i o (1c. 1i c.xisic~iic~i;i iiii;i ~ I o < ~ i i ~ i i i ; i , j i i i - i s ~ ~ i ;~ li. i ~ l ~ ~ i i c ; tic. i I 111 c ~ j c . i r i l > l o csstii liii(.:i S<. < x ) i i i i c . i i c . c L i i I;i i . ( - s o l i i ( . i ( ' ) i i ( I c . 1.1 l, ( ;ii;ii~;i S;II;I, (l(1 1 (i( 1 ~ . j i i l i o (l(% I!)!)S (Rol N"2 . 0 8 0 / ! ) 8 ) . !\ll
iiiirgc.ii (le i;iI(~.c.iel
(Ics

plio

(.l;ii.tiiii;i(liirisil)l(. i i i i.cL(.iii.so tI<* i c~;is;ic.itiii * i i c

(SI l 0 i i t l o

i i i i c * i l )iii'\ic)

cbii iiii ~ > i . o ( ~ c w ) I;il>oi.;iI, l i i c ' (Ic~iiiiiic~i;il);t i i i o i i i f i - i i c - c - i t i i i ( (.o

(Ic,

I.\

A<-iiialriiciitc1ii (:oi.tc Siipr.c.iiia, rriccli;irit(. ;itilo t;il)lt.c-c la fi>r.iii;i tic. (listr.il>iic.itiri

iic.oi.(la<lo,

(.S-

iiii;i iii;itc*i.i;i sol)i.c~ ;i (.ii;iI 1;i s;tl;i y;i ic*iii;io l ) i i i i t i i i l0i.iii;itl;i ( i c , l . i i i 1 ~ , ;;i i

( 1 siis Miiiisiros ciiti-(. las ~1ivc.r.~ sas salas (Ic sii liiriciori;irriic~11to oivliriar.io o cxtr.;ioi~(liri;ir~io. l,a clistr.il>ii(.i<iri tlc Miriisti.os q u e M- c l k c t k ~~t~r-ni;irierc"' iiiv;ii.i;tI>lc por- u11 periodo tic a los iiierios tlos anos (;-ii-t. (:OT)' Es eri95 corriiiiblc ctiirio la <:ortc lia tlado tiria coritiriiii(ta<i a la iritcgi.acitiri de sus Salas, rri;iiiteiiierido csva1)le sil coriiposiciri, salvo los qjiistes qiie sor1 propios dcritro de su rior-irial lilricioriairiieiito. I;i rnantericicri de este criterio es clararrierite iiri aporte a 1i geiier;t; cicri de iina jiirispr-iidericia de caliclad. De 1111 modo punliial, el fi~rtalecirriieritode la jiirisprudericia en este perodo se aprecia filndarneritalnierite cri tres direcciones:

si

I;is iiic.i;is iiiil)iic~st;is~ o i i t i ; i ( . t i i ; i l i i i c * i i ~1)oi I;i c . i i i l ) i c (~

1 jiic.

( I c ~ i ie~oiiligiii.;ii. i i i i i c ~ i i i i i l ) l i i i i i c ~ t gi.;ivc* ii ~io

tic* I;is e)l)lig;ic.ioiic~\ . I (1

'.

t l ~ : l l ~ ~ l ~ ~ i ~ l o i ~ ) . i l l t c ~ l - c ~S(, li - ( ~ s o l v i (&.(. l~;li~lqiir lo s~ ~: ( I I I ~ ' 1i;i

. .)

c.1

(l(.s])iclo1 t . l (

siclo o l ) j ( . i o

1i a(.ioi;i ;

c.s

ii~jiisiili(~:i(lo, ;ic.oi.tlc.,; i t l c ~ i i i ; e ~ 11 I c i-c-l;icitiii(-011

I;i j i i i . i s 1 j i . i i ( l ( ~ i i c . i ; i 1-t.iic.i.;ul;itI(' cLstii S;iI;i c.ii

c.'ric. . I \
(

1>cSc'tot1(.
(:tidigo

( I c . i . c ~ ~ l i iiiil)iign;i~lo o

f)i.rriitl;itlcori

l o pi.evciii(lo

e.ri

('1 r.cXc.iirso, 10 ( I I I ~ ' ,(1'. 11o1' (-1 iiic. 'Lo (1r.l ;ii-ti(.iilo /S2

)i I

tli.1

tic.

k:i!jiiici;iiiii<.~ito<:i\.il,(1c.l)c.i

IXY-iii-so Fri

por. atlolcrcr-de

iri;iiiiIicsti fiilta

(' . .t;i ~ii,ir

otra opor-ttiiii(la(1, coi1 fi.cli;i Sala dcsistirri, - p o r iriaiiificst;i fiilta tic fiiritlaiii(*iiio~ t i i i r.cc.iir-sotlc casa(~i6ii cri cl fOiitlo, al-giiriic~iitari<loI I I ( ' 1;' ( 1 ( . ( cisicii tlc los jticccs (Icl 1i)iitlo c.st:ilja acoi-tlc "coii la i - c . i i ( . i - i i t l i i j i i i ~ i s ~ ) i . i i t l < ~ i i (c~stil>lc<~itli ~i;i sol~i-e esta iii:itci.i;i" (Rol N" 2./(i:: $18). lhtc liillo cbsiiitc.i.c.s:iiiic. 1 ) o i . (1ostiiioiivos. [Jrio. I ' o i . ( ~ i i ( ' 1.1 s(.iiic.iic~i;i (Ic 121 (:oi.ic. (le. Al>c.liic.ioiic~s Siiiiiiiigo 1i;il);t e . o i i (le. lii-rii;itlola ( 1 ~ .1)i'iiiic'i' gi'ii(1o iiiili/,;iii(lo (.oiiio ;ii-giiiiic~iiie)i i I ) I ( . ii
c.c~lc.iiic., ;iI

i-ccliiz;ii~sc~ c * s l ) i ~ ~ ~ ; i i l c ~ c.1 (le f'tiritl;triic~iiio". 26 dc agosto (le I!)!)S, I , I

sosicbiic.i." I o

(,lile I;i , j i i i ~ i s l ) i . i i < l c ~ i ~ (.oi.i.oI)oi.;iI ; I \ c~i;~

l i i l l o , coriio 1)or yjciiiplo la s c . i i t c ~ i i ( . i : t I;i (:ortc Siiprcrria i'c.cai(ta cii el i.eciii-so tlc citsaci<iri cri el f O i i ( l o (. ..) q u e iii:iriificsta qiic el iiicrciri<.rito dc cai-<.teirt~riiiirici-iicioiial cst;iblcciclo cri el a l - t . 2" (1(,1 Dc<,rxbto 1,iy N" 3.50 I , scilo tiivo por- firialitlad rnaiitcricr el rriorito licliiido (le la r.erriilric,raci<iri (le los trabajadores, a raz tlel traspaso a Cstos cIc la carga irripositiva ...". En segiiritlo liigar-, porque los .jiisticial>les a quienes se les aplicc cl valor del prece<terite erari ilri grupo de filricioriai-iosjiidiciales, iricliiidos rniriistros tic la (lorte Siiprerria y riiiiiistr-os tlc (:ortcs de Apelaciories, qiie ha1,ari deniaritlatlo al Fisco de (:liile para ol~teiier-: r-elic-liiitlacih tlc i i i i 1i dcsiliiicio aiitic~ipado pagado a catla iirio tic los actores cii vil-tiicl tlc 1i I,cy No 18.IiXI (Aiitos c.ai~:itiil:i(los"l):iz, Osvaltlo y : oti-os cori Fisco", Kol No 2.555-92 (1c.1 28" Jiizgii(lo (livil d e - Sirii(I<s

coii<-liisioiics(Icl

121s sciitciicias t i para


Eri

iritc.rioi.c.sse toiiia

(licliidocti-iiia ;i iiri ciso aiilogo i-esolveii

la r.cc/io Ooc.idcndi, proycctaii(lo qiie se le prescrita iiiicwirricii-

1i;tgo). F,ri I;i I~~~iiiic~i~ii Iii ( : o r i c ~ i i ~ ~ i ~se*II;I ~ i ~ ~ l i ( ~ icsi;i ~ , ; I I I Siila (l(, S c~i :i ;~ (lo . . .. S'II (IC\ ill;l~lilllsll~lll~l~i~l, ill\~oc~;lll~lo l l : l y , ~ l l l ~ i s ~ ~ l l ~l( ~ i~ cl~~ ~ : l~ l~l ~ ~ i ~ l (lll(b ~ l t l~ t : el1 tOI~ll0 (lile (h. ~~o1llol~llli~l;l~ll ~ ~ H0l o il :iI i l ~ ll (:(>(ligo (le\ l'l~oe~(~tliiiiiciit~ ( :vil, es siilic.iciit(*~>;ii.;i 1 i(.ii(.i. 1101. <~iiil)lx/;itl;i iiii;i soc.ie,ii (liitl ( . o 1 1 1;i iioiilic.ii<.i(iri ~)cic.ii(~ii<liii i i o (le. los i.c~l~i.c*sc.iit;iiiic.s ii i tic*
( l e 3 1

esta iitilizacitiii de la jiii-ispi-iidcii<.ia, c-oirio l o piiritiializa Moral, "el rri:irco ofrecido por el argiirnerito ah vx~rnj~lo logra dos objetivos. Eri primer Iiigar; explicar la filnci<ri de los precetleiites eri el i-azoiiarriic.ritojii(iicia1 descle el p i i ~ i t o vistii del razoriariiiende to jiirdico ((le la argiirrieiitaci6ri) y rio dcsdi sil recoiiociiriie~ito (o rio) eri el elenco de fiic.iitcs tlcl (ler.eclio tlel itiisrrio sistcrri;i.jiir-(lico; y, eii segiiiitio l i i y r ; pi-oporicr iiri iriotlelo vlitlo pai-a cii:iI(liiicisistc.iiiii,jiii.tli<.o t.ii tiiitot ~ u c ~ ('1 valor- <lelos t)i.ecc<lciite~s est;ii.G cii fiiricitiii (Ic 1i jiistili<.:ic.i<ri Iiis tlcc.isioii<.s"' ; de 'l. 1~:ll la S:iI:i (:iVil ( l ( ~l;i (:oll<xs l l [ ~ l ~ ( ~ l l st, ll>ltl~l(10 l:l cislc> :il(~;lll(.c. t1c.l ( I ( . i . ( ~ . l i o j i i i ~ i s ~ ) i ~ i i ( l c ~ i ;ic i ; ~ l i ii.;ivi.s (le. Iiis sigiiic~iiic.~c ~ ~ l i i (l i.:i(.ioiic.s: :i) "(,)iic., ;i iii;iyoi. ;il>iiii(l:iiiii(~iii(,, In I I I ~ . ~ ~lo(./u.ir~n I ~ .so
.XO,S/l7~0 /)Ol'O,\/~l / l / ( l O11 10s /lll/O.\ / < O / ,S

(. . . ) ,

( l ( ' ( ' ~ ~ i ( > l(lI l l C 1 0 l l i z O ~1110 1

i.:iiilic,;ii. i i i i : ~ j i i i . i s ~ > i . i i t l c ~ i i ( . i ; i.<.ii(.i.;i(l;i i (le. cLst:i (:oi-i(tn Isol,i-c. iii-

ic-i-i-iil)('itiii

(I(.

1i l)i.(.sc.i.il)(.itiii 15; ;

1'

11)

"()iic.

liii;iliiic~iitc~, ltrl

c.or~lo

;i(liii.ll;i, "(1(. i r i o < l o ( I I I C ' ; 1M ) S " I ~ I I ~ ~lo <~oiiii~;ii~io i.(~.iii.so, 1 IS~~ c b i i c.1 Ii;i(.(.

( I I I ( > 'SIO

;i(lol(.z<.~i i i i : i i i i l i ( ~ s i i i 1iilr;i (le. liiritl:iiiic~iiios"l

(1~.

"'.

1 I l ( 1 / l l ~ ~ ~ l / / r l(1 ( l~,~x(.krl(l. 0 /l lo (,lo)./o L Y l / / ~ ) 7 ~ l ~CI( / ])i.(YTpIo l ,

134H

i i ( * i i c , (.iiI);il ;ipIi(.;i(~i(jii si(-iiiprx* 1 1 i ( ~ sexti.:iicL, (

( 1 ~ ~iIl.1 (~llI0 1 110(l(% I;I riiii;i-

( 1 ~ .lo ( l i i ( > ( l ( ~ l ) cc.11~ ic~ritlci-sc.) i - iii;iiiilic*st;i p 1';ili;i clc. l'iiri~l;iriiciito 41-o i i i - : i , j i i i ~ i s l ) i - i i c.


1,;i li,j;ici(ii(le 1111 (.i.itci.ioo l ? j c * t i v o ;i(.ci.(~;i iI(.ii<.i;i dc. 1;i sa1;i-

c . o i i s t i t i i y c . i i i i i i liiiiii;ic.i(ii

ol)jc.li\.:i

p;ii.:i

clisrriiiiiiii-la tliscr-ccioii;ili(l;itl(liic sc. l>iic<l(' a i - c.11 el

(.st<.trriia.

( 1 ~ . \ric.ios o (I(~li.(.tos qiic se, i.(~fic~i.:iri griiclo ~)roIiil,i(lo 121 iiiiiiii.;iIc~/;i i i i - i t l i c . ; i (.ii ;i ,j (le los t1ivc.i-sos ;ic.tos c:jc(~iii;i<los 1;i ~i:ir~ti<~i<iii.. (,ti ."' 'Eiiril)ii.ii c b i i ;ilgiiii~is sc.iiic.ric.ias tle. Iii ( :ii;ii-tii S;i1;1(le riiicsiro
litl;itl jii(lic.i:iliii(~iii<. ~>i-olii;iriic~iit(* tlic'li:~,siiio

"'.

iriGxiiiio ti~iI)~~ii:il 1 i tl~iclo se 1 : ;ipIi(.:ici(>ii cst;i ( I i i i ~ c ~ ~ s i( t(i i i ~ I X - ;I l xl cctlc.rit(* o i t r i l ( * < icii(lo el i f

o l <le. 1'1

jiii

ispiiitlc'11( i<i ( oir10 I c l r ~ c i i t r

p'lr'l lll~ii~'iiiiellt<il OtI'l\ \eI1t(~rlc' 5 El1 lill'l o ~ ~ o 1 t l l r l i ~ l ' i ~ l ,l e 1 . 1 p'll't

c li,i/,ii
Otra
c i,i
rri,iiiileitaciri tnrigil,le p'irtc

de In

iitili/nciri

de

1,i

por

de 1'1

(:arte Sii[)retria
(

pi o\ieiie del

1150

jurispr utlericte los pre-

c( iiiso (le (n\at itiri iri el loiido, se ttccl,ii 6: "()iic, '1 tomo ycc lo hn ,o,ipn~(lo \ / U Ayor/r.. [\obre P ." 1t ic,i]intnbiliclad tlc iiii't pcri\i<n o rrioiitipo] li7.Eri o t r n seriteri,
iiri I irinyor al~iiiidairiieiito, y

c etlcritcs c oiiio

iiii '11 giinici)t

o cc0 ~xornit/lo,esto

e \ , ,itr ibiiycrido

1111 \r~llOi 1 1i i l ~ l ~ ~ \ 105 10 1 O '

1 te1O\ tic tt~~i51611 ~illC'1 ~ 5 F5tcl O1 .

( 1 ~ .( .,I\'I(i ( ) t i , cii \ I I \<il'i e\i)c( i ~ i l i / ~ t (c.ti i , ( 'LII\'Ii 01 No 4.324-00, l ~ l'i (,i( (l(.l iTli\irlo 'i\~liItO //a \0G(/~100 \ / < { ~ ~ ~ O///)(/~/k/(/. . 1 rlllli~l'l~1 <l(>\y(/ /o Y///~ tic* pido poi n o iritcgr o (te c oii/,u ioiic\ 1 " ' IH.
c i'i,
cb\t<i101 ( cb

de 20 ( 1 ~ .<igo\toc l ( x 200 1 , \ e 1 ( ~ , : "QIIC~

los, siiio

solaiiiciitcxsii (li(.isicii, 11oi'<liic's6lo Cstii

rii(1rii 1:i

;tiro-

i.it l;it l t le. cos;i iizg;i<l;i

y po(li.Li

S(, Iiigii.:t iiiit pi-esticitirir~ityoi. (Iistiritii o 1i (Ic~iri;tri(la, ; cii tario q i i i aiitoi.ila(l"'~~i; elc.

~)ar-ici l i ~ t a i l a (I;ii= ; al (le la cliic seb11i(li6c*ii los i.azoii;irriicritos cai-iccii di. (li(.li:i
;lgr.aviiir-;I l;i

Esta
iie

lrica

ticiiilx), iiicliiso aiitis

de jur-ispr-iidericia se lia ido coiisolidarido a trai\lks del tlc la i.eli)i-riiatlc 19!)5. Se ti-ata de iiiiii se-

tic.

~)r~oniin(~i:iiiiic~~itos ~jiri~is~>rii<leiic.iiiIcs 11;ui ( . i v . i ( l o vc.1.qiit.

(1;ttlci.a~ ciiisilc.s

( 1 iii:itliriisil)ili(li(l tlc ~

iiccioiics

y i-cciii.sos i~iic'
(.vi-

soii (1(.

c~oiril>c.ic.ii<.i;i Ii (:or.i<. (le Sii~>i.ci~i;i. 1)ciiii.o (le los iii;is

( I c ~ i i ~ ( . s (bii(.ii(biiii.;iiii . i ( c b i . i o s se c.
i i r c . i i t c % las i.c.l;iti\,;is ;i

( ~ i i ( 1i;iii (l;i(lo i i i i ilctc*i.iiiiii;i(lo ~ I;i li)i.iii;i, (*sl><.(.lir.;i-

las caiisil(.sd i car-csiiltaii iriadriiisihles aqilellos 1-cciirsos(le casaci6ti eii el Soiiclo que plariteari irifrac-cioriescliversas, pero iiiia eri siihsidio de las oti-as, porqiic ;il pi-occxder-se(le esla iriaiicra iio sc respeta e1 caricter clc r i c ~ i r s o dci-cclio cstr.ic~o de qiie posee l a casaci6ii cri el fi)rilo y que vxigc qiic las irifi-acciorirs legiles clile se atr-ibiiyeri al f'allo r-cciir.rido se p1:iiiteiri clt.r.ich;iirieiiic y rio cii fi)i.irii(liihitativa, <.oritr~a(li(.or~ii o siil)sili;ii-iii,coirio oc.iii.r.c cri la cspc.cic, 1101. o qiic el i.eciii.so i~itcr.l>iic~sto l ii(loIc(~c i~i;tiiilic~st;i cl(, Iid;i (le
kr :i

c1 caso .

clc,

la

iitili~aci61i coridiciorial tlc

sacicri,

la Corte

Siipr-eriia "Iia

r-csiielto

rcitci-~idariier~ (lile

c . o i i l < . i i i ( l o ;i c.ic'i,tis <.;iiis;il<.s c.;is:i(.itiii c.ii tit.

Iiiii(liiric.iitos""'.

los \,i(.iosc ~ o i i i c . i i i t l o sc.11 c.1

~)i.oriiiiic.i;iiiii(~iio

(I(.

1;)sc.ii(-iic.i;i. As, 1 ) o i . ( : j c ~ i i i ~ ~ l o , < I I I ( - 1>1'0s1)(-1.(~ ~);ii';i 1;)(.;IIIs;;I 1k.1

~ i i . i ( . i i l o7(iX

N" '7

tlc.1

(:l'(

:, i-cliitiv;~ " ( . o i i i c . i i c . r . ir
Iiii

Iii sc*iiic.ii(.i;i ilc-c.I);II.;I I I C . ( . O I I ( . I I I . ~ . ; I (I 1,;is lii<.as jiii.is~)i.ii<lcri(.i;~Ics, c~spc(~ialrririit<. iiitli(.i<lis las cii

sioiic.s (.oiiii.;i(Ii<.ioi.i;is",se.
I;i (,;iiis;il c.sgi.iiiiitl;i
IIIC*II~C* 1)or

i-c.siic.lio: "!)iic>

iic.c.(.s;ii.io,( . o i i i o S(. Ii;i

sosi(.iiitlo

i.c~iic.i.;itl;i-

los

c-sii ( ~ o i ~( 1 i i~s ,c*xisi;iii,;I los i r i c * i i o s , (los (Ic*~~isioi~c*s c c

1 ) i ~ i t o 7.1 s
tic

y 7.2 (1c.1
(le la

r 1 i i i i c . r - o iiritri.ior; i.c.veliiicliic

el

;i(.ii;iI 'iiii-

( ] l l ( * ~ ) l l ~ i l ( (~~i ll l l l ~ c ~( ] l l ( , S(* ;lillll~~ll.. lo. s, ."I


1gii;iI (.os;i o<.iii.r~* 1 (.o1 g;ii. si c l , j i i c ~ i c . i i i . i . i t i cii ii

cioiiaiiiicrito

(:oi.tc Siipi.ciri;i 1iii

pc.1-rriitido ~)otciiciai. i . o l e1

la

I I I ~ I . ; I ~ t i i( i i i ~7(iH l)( .

N" , l ( :l'( 1). 1

( : o i - i ( S i i ~ > ~ ~ ' I ii i ;i.(lii(.i-;i(lo sigiiic.iiic. ( . i - i l ( % i . i o : ~ i ii i c.1

a ) "I':ii.;i ,jii/c.1 v i c i o ( 1 ~ .iilti-;i~)('iit;i ( 1 ~ .rs;i iri;ii~(~i.;i y i i c ~ ) g c * i . i.c.ciii.so (I(. c,;is;icitiii (.ii 1;i 101-rii;i, c.1 iI(\l)(.stilo cs;ii~iiii;ii.sil tlcx.isitiii, ~ x ) i ~ q 'iiii(~iinic.ntc.Csia ~ c i i ( l i ~ i i uc ;iiitoi~i(lii~l c.os;\ (le jiizg;i(lit y l)oili-Liagi.iiviiii a 1;i j>ai'ic vt~rici<la coiilt~riai.lii iiii;i ii1 i ., pi~csticiori in;tyoi. (le Iit qtie flie rri;itci~i;~ l;t c o r ~ i i ~ o \ ~ c i ~ s i ; i , clcx e11 l a t i t o los razoriairiic,iitos eii (11it' w fiiru1:i la ilic.isitiii c.ai.t.ctLii l v t ciiclia ;iiitor-idacly r i o pei:jiidic;iri a la par-te vci~cicla"'~"; "Dc11) tt.i.riiiriai si la sciiteiicia 1121 iiiciirritlo eii t>1 vicio dc iilt1.a pctit;i i i o i i r i 1 ) o r t : ~ , cLri pi.i~icil>io, c1iitx se t ~ x p i ~ ecsii S I I S i.;izori;irr~ieiilo st~

la,jiir~is~>r.ii(lcr~(.iai i i e s t i - o sistr.irit~jiii.dic.o. t-ii i Aiiii(lii(. el (.ii;i(11-o rcf~r.i(lo j~ar-cid, es 11iicsto cliic es ~ ~ ; i c t i ( . a i r i c i ~ t c ~ iiiiposilIlc

iiiali~;irtodas

las

rc~soliicioiicscliic proriiiiicia iriiialriicritc. la

(:or.tc Siipr-erria, los yjcrriplos t1irriiic~sti;iri las ~~osil~ili<l:itlcs qiie

e1 disar-rollo clcl (ter-ccliojiir-isprii~lcricial. Aiiricliic loa 1111riivcl que pirrriita sostciicr que l a j i ~ r i s jx.11dericia goza tle grari corisidrr.aci>ii,las scfiales qiie pr-ovierieri de las pautas r.eci6n iridicadas so11los pririieros indicios tlrl acicrto de la reforma de 1995.
lioy tiiric

davia

rio llcgaiiios

- -

"

(:S. 18 tlc eiici-o tic. I$)XH, "Asci-i-;itlci.o S;ui I'c~li-o S.A. c-oii Ikirico (:oii<('~>-

(.itiim.
Ir" ( : S . 7 (1~. o(.iiil)i(. (1~.I!)!iX, Kol N" 2.243-!)X, i.(.c.aitl;i cii los ;iiiios "L'(~l~is(.o, 1 .<.tiiim, J;iiiiic.(.oii \'~~i.<-<~lliiio, tlc.1 2",Jii/g;itlo (:vil ( 1 ~ . S;iiiti;igo. I i i itlCiiiic-o sci~titlo, (:S. l (i(1~. I I ( ~ ~ ( ~ I I I I( )1I~. (1~ ( . !)!M 1<0l N" 2. 1 :$!l-!)S, ;IIIIOS "ILIII(~O 111: ( OII M;II ;iii111io": l{I ( oii I!)!lS, I<oI N" 2.2(;,1-!)8, "I'(.I(,I-S I.'i-igoi.li<.o( )SOI-110". (:S. 1 ( i (le s<~l)~i(.iiil~i(.

Es iiitliitl:il)l(- qiic c~iict1:iritcirias peritliciiic.~~ > oi'(.soI\~.i, i' y;\ qiie totlivki se pi.odiicc.ii tlccisioiics tlis(.i~c.paiitcssol>i.c.tcbiii;is iriilogos.El prohlciri;~ (.stas oscil;icioiics i;i<lic.a, c.oirio scbI i ; i t1c explic;itlo, <:ri la iiill-acciri que 1xovoc;u1 ii la iu-;uitia (1t. igiiiiltlacl aiite I;i ley, <:spet~inlriieiitc ~>oi'cliic rriayora (le las veces e1 la carril~io crilei-io se hace sir1 Iiirid~iiiiciitacicii'"~~. <le En todo caso, el priricipal iscollo para iiri siistaiicial tlesarr-oIlo de la jurispr-iidericia provierie, a iiiiestro eriteridcr; de iiria opci6ri poltica que la Corte Siiprenia todi\ra n o hace ( o rio qiiiei-c hacer). Eri efecto, las aleritadoras lneas jiirisprudericiales a que rios hirrios r.eCeritlo, y qiic robiisteceri el rol qiie d e l x tcricr la.jiirispriideiicia, picrdeii totla sii fiicrza ciiaiido iiiiestr-o rriAxirrio tr-il>iiiialsigiie f01-rniiliritlo (leclar-aciones qiic stilo deiiotaii la tiilta de voliiiitad par-;i c:jer-ter. -de iiria vez poi. todase1 r-ol tIc 6i.gario iiiiific;i(lor t1<. la ,jiii-ispi-iitlcii<.i;i.IJii cjcriiljlo r r i i i y ;tciiiil y dciiiosii-aiivo d e cst;i ; i c . t i t i i < l se' coiiiiciic c.ti 1:i 1-esoliic,icii tIc.1 I'lc*iio (le 19 tic. jiilio (le 2002, cloiitlc~ voio tic. iiiic.1 c "iio le. (.or~r~c~sl~oiitlc. yoi-i;i Ii;i sc~iial:r(lo j i i c ;I 1;i (:oi-tc\ Siij>i.c.iii;i diir- iiisti-ii<.c.ioiic'si i a(lolji;ii. tlccisioii<~s i i.c-sljc.ctotlc ;icliicllos,jii~g;i(Ios, e-11 cii;iiiio ;i los (.i~iic~i.ios (lc(~i(lii. ; ~ l ~ ~ t l iciics- s p;it.;i I;is ~l:~ tioiics, <.ti aic.iicitri :i (l1ic' (~oiili)i.ni(~;ii-ic~iilo (1(.1 (:ticligo al 3" ;i1 la (:vil, slo coi-i-es1)oiidc~ Iigisl;i<lorcxl)li(.ar.o iiiic.i.l>r-ct;ii. 1c.y (1~.i i i i iiiotlo gciici;tliric~ii~c~ iiiil)c.i-;iiivo,y las st~iiit~iic~i;is~jii<Iici:i1c.s iio ticric.ii fiici-z;i o l > l i l r ; ; i t o i ~ i ~ r sitio rcspc.c.to (le. las c;iiis;is cii qiic aciii;ilrric.iitc. sc. ~>i~oriiiiici;ii-cii, y (.sic. pr'cccbl)to1cg;iI t1(, (.ar.:ictt~i. gt*iici.aliio se criciiciiti.;i rriotlilic:rtlo i i i <Ici.og;itlopoi- (lisposicicii i~lgiiiiatIcl (:titligo 1'roccs;il I>ciial. 1'01. lo deiiis, el i i i i ; i g;irarit;i (lc~ iiitlcpcri<lc~~i(~i~i l;i rcl'ci-ido priiic.ipio r-e~~r-c~sc~iit;~ (le los jiieces, qiic es clirric.rito 1iiiitlarriciii:il piira t.1 tlc.sc~riipeo al tlc la fiiricicii~jiiris(liccioiial, rio cliiedar soiticliclo i i i i tril,iirial iii1i.i-ior a otra irriposicicii viriciilarite <lile rio sea cl pcso y la fiiir--

/;i

(I(. lo\

i ; i / o i i ; i i i i i c ~ i i t o s c.oiii(~iii(los i i I;i j i i i ~ i s ~ ~ i ~ i i ci.i ~ o~ ii iic c1 1 cL l .

(:oll(~i l l ) c i ~ i o ~ ~ " ~ r ~ ~ . s 1)c.stlc oir.o piirito tlc vis~;i, ~>osil)ilitl;i<l i i i ; i s i i i i i / ; i i t.1 i o l 1;) tic. (le la jiiris~)riicleiicia actiialiric.ritc y;i i i o cXs i i i 1)i.o1)1c.iii;i1 1 1'- r ' \ f ~ ' i ( 1-atlicado eii el fiiiicio1iaiiii~:11to Ii ( : o i . i c . S I ~ I ) I ' ( * I I(I S I .; i 11 i tle I . );( l~ios iritrodiici<lospor- la r-efi>r-riit 121 1,c.y N" 1 !!.37.1, ; t i I I I ( 1 i i " tlc soii pei.fectibles, parece11a prirric.ra vist;i siilic.ic~iiic*s: I / ' I / I , ~ \1 1 1 I;is ri.sf)ru(irr~cicilr;c r-eferitlas deniiiestrari 121 ~>oiciic~i;ilitl;itl" i i c . ya (III rie la.jiirispriidericia para coritrihilir- al biieii ilc.sc.iiil)c*iiot l ( * I , i fiiriciri,jiirisdiccional.Dicho de otr-a fi)rrria, iiiic.sii-osisic~iii;~c 1 )I cesal ciierita coi1 los rriec:~iiisrrios tkcriicos t ~ i i ( ' , ( ~ o i ~ i ~ c * ( ~ i ; i i i i ( * i ~ I ~ ~ iitiliza(los, piiedcii dai- vigerici:~ pi.iiicipio tlc.,jiisii<.i;r a1 101-iii;ilI I I ( ' ( ;istbgiircclar i i r i tr;ito igiiil ;i lo scrriejaritc, cvit;iiitlo 1;i ; i i . l ) i i i ; t i - c . dad c,ii las tlecisioriis~jiitliciales. 'Ii)do lo irit(hi.ior;cii c.1 li)ritlo, ~jiisapor' i i i i i'cbc~ii('iic'iiiio, I ; I (I( (:oi.tc Siipi.ciii;i <.o11 sil liistori;~, (lesic-i-r-;tii(lo i.;ii/ I;is S(*( i i < . l ; i \ (1c. t1<,1 evitlciitc. yci-ro I<.gisl;itivo(Ic 1937, qiic t l i o i r i i c . i o :iI ~ ) ( s i i o t l o cIc.1 Ini.c.\m /i~irc. jiii-isl~r-ii<leiici~il. S<. (lc~I>c No olvi(l;ii. (1ucb < b s ~ < ' ;icci.t;i(lo c;iiiil)io Ilcgtijiisio <.ii e1 iiioiric~iiio(IIIC* S(' tcxui;il ) l ( ' i i ; i (.oiici(~rici;i 1.01 (te '1'r~iI)iiii;il (les (:;is;icitiri, i;il <.oiiiol o i.c.Ili.j;i I;i tlcl sciitciic~ia 10 (le agosto dc. I<):Sfi,que (.onviciie ti.;riis(.i~il)ii~ ( . ~ tlcl iiii ~ i r i i e ~ i t"(.~ .) (1 o,s/o,/ir/f ) r i r ~ ~ o t ~/ior1(1001 ~or/~v:so c.//w/(.1(;11I ( .: li(~I (10 PI /i(lo /i~ri(lo, (.uy(~ rr/,i.sicn(s I c (10 ./ i. j o ~01 gorl uirio .sr~r y crI(,cr 11 c r //o I// /(,y. . / ~ ~ ~ / / v ~ ~~(ilo r /c/i/o.SNL o,sc/l,r(L, (L t i o l(1 cl~i(Lo,v(~ rort/,/)h~/(~ I / / P 11 11 ( 1 I P I . o ir/ yn,o(li(/ In 111lc~ri4nc.icj1/, y p(~rlk.i/)(~ o,sln ?ricu/(rn, d rnorrt.iorlc~tlo (lo tn-III / , 1 / $0. c.lr.y./o rr~,oclo, rrr(i.\ bien do I(L /innc.icn (lo1 I'ocl(.r I , ~ g i . s l ( ~ ~ IiI ~ o c l ~ l , / ~ r ( l / (~ P I(r cicrl, /)roj)i(~rnrt~L~ y a ( ~ L P (;I .SP t r ( ~ l d~ oI)Ivr~~r %111id(/(1lt/ (lic/~o, COYI (~ k~ IIP ~ (Ir lcg~.skrrio'r~ rno(1io ( 1 ln i~nida(l la ~jurs/~r~~dunciR""~~'. f)or
)
( 3 1 ---

i l ( l o i ~ : i (1~. lii1:l

tlr iiilio (lc 2002, 1201 N" 1.450-2002, el I;illo rst; p i i l ~ l i ( . ; i t l oc . 1 1 1.1 llolutin rlr,/uri.s~~:l,1-~~1I~t~r.i11 rlrl 12/littic/wioI'zi6lir.o. Existe eri cstc Fallo 1111 v o i o (le riiiiiora, s~isci.ito por. los iiiirii.;tros L . i l > < ~ t l i i i \ l \ . (:li;iigiie;iii y <:iiry,i ~ i i c cst cii la I i i c a <IrIOr-tale<-rr 1-01 d e l a , j i i r . i s l ) i . i i t l ~ ~ i.1.~ y1 ii 1)e i i i i iiiotlo coiicr.rto, la trsis (le r i i i r i o i . ; i qiirilc corisigiia<Ia de la sigiii(~iii(~i Io iiiii: ' 1 1,os iiiiiiistr.os] (...) Iirrroii <le 1;i opiiiicii tlc qiie el li.il)iiri;rl l'l<.iio t l ( . l ) i p i < n ~ ~ ~ " . i ; i i -sol>rc 1;i iii;itcri,i eri <lcl);ii(.e iiisii.iiir ;i Ios,jiircrs (ir g;ir.iiiili;i \, 1 1 I ac I)riii;tlcs ilr.,jriic.io oi.;iI r.11 lo l,rii;il r i i r aciiiitlo tlc < ~ I I < ' , rri los siil>iirsios ;i I I I I I ' \ 1 ' 1 ;ilii(lc c.11 el iiic.iso S" < I < a I ;ii-t<r i l o 376 (Ir1( :ticligo (Ir l ' ~ . o < r ~ l i r i i i c ~ i iI'cii;iI, lo\ 1 1 1 1 ) io i i i i i i < i;riiiic~i~os I;r S;iI;i 1'cii;il (1c rski (:oi.trSi111rcrii;i 1);is;in ii I.VV<.\II I ; I ( <I<. c.1 1 < I (<.t. (11. ol)li~;ilorios, pat. I . I I ; I I I I O ea ( ~ \ , i ( i r ~ i tlc ~ ' .c.11 '.MI" i ~ ) 1<1c ~ i , ( ; \ <iistiiil;is i i i l ( . i l~illos, ~ , i ~ ; i ( I ;(li.;posii,i~ii~; ~ ~ ~ ~ i - s ~I I I~. I ~ I;i i li ~ I 1 ) 1 . 1 ~ 1 ; i < ~ i o i i (s . ; ~ i ~ ~ i i i ~ I ,(Iiv(~i~sos ~o is
Ii'

(:S. l!)

r i i ~ l o

~ ) l ! l I l O ( 1 1 , 1151 * i I i / , l ~i 0 1 1 ,

El ltirrio c.lerrierito tlc la ti-ilogia prevista el siglo XIX ~);ii.;i coiiscgiiii- la uriitlatl t l i 121 ,jiii-isl~i-iidericia, dice i.r~la(.itiri c.ori Iii ~)ul~licida(i las scritericias. de Idapiiblicitlatl cri riiiestr-a histoi-ia judicial iiaci cle la rriario cori la gararitia de la fiiridarneiitacicri de los fallos, iiiipilcsta por. uria de las leyes niar-iarias de 1837. En sii prirriera etapa la piiblicidad se curriplia ii ti-avCs de la (;(~c.ula p /o.s ii-ihl~rrakes, lie es la prir1icr;i revista,j ilriciici (,liilcri:i d q (fiiri~lada I li de iiovicrrihw dc. 184 1 ). Sigiiierido el estiitlio qiic el ' hizo Elir-iqiie Br.aliiri (;ir-c;t acer.c;i tlr- esiii piil3lic.i(.'ioii, cri el pt.ospe<'io(le ~>rc~~itti'citiri se cxpi.csal~;i cliic "el ohjcto (le 1;i riiicva lxil)licaci<ri ci;i coiitr-il)iiir.;i 1:i rric:joi.;i (le I;is irisiitii(~ioii<~s, ;t 121 i.cf)i-rri;il i los :iljiisos y ;r f0i.iiiai- 1)iic.ri:is (~ostiii~it)iv.s"I~'~~. t "1,;i rc'vist;i, ;i ii.;ivCs (le, los iii:iic.i-iiilc.s cii c11;i ~)iil)lic~;itlos -fiiiitl;irric~ii(1c~I);i ;I iiiIr~i(~ritc scritc~rici:is los tr~it~i111~11cs- (,ooptbr;it. la IIICtic joi;i (Ir. 1:) ;i~lriiiiiisti.ac.i6ii jiisric.i;r : \ y i i ~ l i i i i < l o;i disciii-i-ii.( ~ i i i ' vicios ~>r~ovicii(,ii -1;i c.oiifiisitiii (le las Icyc.s, (.ii,'Icbs<I(* los I i o i i i (1~ ~i l,i-<.S (lucblas c:jcc.iiiari y (.ii:l(.s sor1 cI i.c.siill;r(lo (Ic 1;r 1-c-voliici611 tic Iiis idc.as tlorriiriaritcs y (le otr.as c ~ i i ~ ~ ~ i i i i s t ~ i r i ~ ~ i ; r s " " " . l'or lo (111t'cons11; e11algriiiiis Iiicrilc~s, ;nc.o//r rio c.iirri~)li( Iri coii los fiiies qiic jiistific.;ii.orl sii ci.(.ac,itiii, es~~c~ciiilriiciite eorisc.~~tl ~ lci;~. Ft-1-ii;ir~(lo gilir-t1;ii- r i i v ( ~ l;I l ~ r ~ j i ~ ~ ~ i s ~ ~ r .Sot)i.cxcel i1);i1~iiciil;ii~, (:OIII.I scrialal~a cri 1897: "I,r piihli<.;icitiiiqiic se 1iac.c.c.riii-c iiocr tlc y soiros cii I i i ( ; ~ c . ~ ldo lo.s 7i/)ut1~ak(~s1;is sc~ritericias i-c.solirc.iotics jiidiciales rio cor.respoii<lc ; sii objeto, es dcfic-ieritc. corrio I
c b r i
( l c b

illsc~l~\~il)l~~ j ' l l 1 ) l i l l c ~ i ~ (~l ( l. o; 1~1 i l \ l):li.;l I i ~ ) i . i ~ I c ~ i i ( - (: ; i i i i i i i l c.oiiio t l ; i l o c~si;i(lisiic.o" i "'". 1,ii i i i i ~ ~ c ~ i ~ l itlc* 1;i c )~. i i~i i ( ii ; i;oc~e~lrr i i ~ ; i ~ ; i i ~ ( I;( i. i c S \ c . i ~ i i . ~~~ ~ i i i ii v I;i 1)or los ~)~~r.ti<lai.ios casacitiii, c.011 I;i c.i.c.;ic-ic')ii l ( . I I ' ~ , I ~ I \ / ~ I de la t tlr I)c>ro(hoy , J~sr2.sf)r.utlot1c.i/1. <:oiil)i-iiic. 0 1 1 sil ~)i.c.sc.iii;ic~itiii, c "l'/lt/r/ I I ~ I clor k r ~rrridnddo In jrcri.s/)rr~cloncicr i~/tli,s/)c~t/.\n/)l~~ ri:sol~rc.to e\ c/rr/, //l.\ n ~ (L/:la ( L ' o ~, ~ u f r r u ~( tL~ (a; ~ ~ I ( ; P/O(//, /u f ) ~ ~ / ~ / i ~ .~~oe.o.s/rt.~(r e10 s ~ I?, i / l ( r / l / / I I q u , se Zlegt~/< cono(.i~r~i/~nio ~ (LZ no sclo tlt ko.s cprp / i r t ~ o (//ir(~//lic-c~t ~/ 111 \ luyp.s, .vino tcxrnbil~)~ todos riqu~ll,s i ~ czuxilinrr d i r i g ~ In~I I ( . ( . I , ~ I I (11, du q r ) lo.$ litigunt/s y du c~sios~ni.srno.s". "Proc.uvnrP.S((I f ) r ~ / ) l i ~ ~ 1i1~1l1 1~(r ~o ) 0 1 1 / l ~ r i cmrLcidic.cr y r(lurrndcr g do ,fikil ( . ~ Y I . S ~ L / I / I(v PI /)ri~~rof. /Ir / ( I ~ , ol)j(,/o l<rii.s~(~I ) P Y P ( . / L ~ J I ~ I I ~ ~ , ~ ~ ) Y " / I , ~ ( ~ ~ I / ~ ~ / I " . (IP y, Apai.ti de la r-ef?r.icla 1-evist;i vxistcii otras ~>ril)lic~;ic~ioiic~s (III" sc octipaii tle tlar- piihlicitlad ;i 1~i,jiir-ispr-ii(lc~ri(-ii1. l;,iiti-c. 011-;l.;, (.s corioci(l;i 1;i i-clcv:iiici:i cii c.1 riichtlio lOi.ciisc tic. I,cr ; t ~ c . o l ( r , / i i r - l i l i ( ~ ( ~ (14:tliioi-i;rl 1,cxis Ncxis), i-cvisi;i iiii<.i:i<l:i a i i 1!)7(i. '1liiiil)iiii c.s i i i i c ~x)i.f;uitc~ i.cvisia I'i/llo.s (101 M(<s (l',tlitoi-ial Fiillos t1c.l Mc*s), I i i i i 1:i <iitlic,ri 10513 y que' (liliiii(lc~ cxcliisiv;iiiiciitc*1ii ,jiii~isl~i.ii(lc~i~(~i:~ (le 1;i (:oi.icb SiiI~i.c~iriai5". ;iiiic.r-ioi-se (Icl)c.ii ;igi.c.g;ii. 1;) i i i i ~ A lo l)lc-iiiciit;icitiri(Ic I);is<.s (Ic <I:iios (rr~ic.>r?jrcri.s.c.onl.,~ x i s t ~ ~ ~ x. ii .i ~ . ~ ~ I . . I/ ( ti.cx oii.iis) qiic cstiii [)cr.iriiticritlo :ic(.c.<1<~1.i i i i i ~ i s ~ ) i ~ i i < l c ~ i it c (. .i ; i ii 1 i i I I I I riio(lo iiihs (~xl>c.(liio,~ ~ l i ~ c ~ i c ~ i itlcrrioi-;i cii 1ii 1 > i i l > l i c . i t l ; i t l . r. 1;) t l o (111i 1i:i sitlo r i i i i i ttiiii(.ic (le, Iiis piiljliciicioiic.~ cscrit;is. cii tl Siii ciiil);ir.go, iiihs all tIc 1:i cc.lc~i.itlatl la tlivril~ic~itiii( % 1. . sc~iiic~r~c.i;is, '15 . (11 icili;~ 1)1.ioi~it;ii.io, 1):ir.a l)oicri(.i;ir.el1 viiloi. (!c. 1;)

liii.ili<ln(l iiriific,iiori,i (ic 1'1 11iri\1)1 ~i(lc.irci,i-11c.c c\'iii,r p.11.1 IIA<<*te( c.1 iivo c l p i i i r < i p i o tic ifiii.rlrl,i(l ~ r i i i c 1 ley- ~ I I C \filo p i i r d c logrnrse rvc oiioci<.iitlo 1'1 c,iIi<1,1<1 1' tle preceptivo ;i k i l l o (Ic 1;i iiieiicioii:itta Sala cxpcciali/a<l;i d c i s t e '1i.il~iiii;il". l "'" (:S. 10 (le igosto tic I<)%i, Iil)J, t. XXXIIT, sic.. 1" p. 415).
-~ -

~p

RRrZIIM (;AIZ(:IA, l i i i ~ i ( l i i e "1.0s c o i i i i c ~ i i i o (le 1;i ~>i-itirci~:i , \ r-e\ista,jiri.(lic;i (Ir cliilcii;~: 1.a (kicci:i tlt. los 'Ti-il)iiiiiil<.s (*iiti-c 1841 y IX(iOn, c.11 /<~,iiitin I ~ \ / r r O i o c I1i.cl(jrico;/~~ri//ico\, \~;111);11.:iso, F,(li(.ioi1cx L ~iiiv(~rsit;ii~i;is Lf;iIp;ii~:iso, vol. XL'I, 1 S)<) l , 1). 45.O~IX)S ;itiit~t.(~(i(~i1i(~s, ; l l Z M A N 1'Ab:Z. l < o ( l ~ ~ i g111(Ii(.c~ I;I 1.cvisi;i (;I,~I'I..( o, clc coln r//'/o.\ ' / ~ . ~ / I I ~ T I I ~ e11 1;i ~ i i i r i ~ iI)II~)~~(.;I(.(~II, /(~\, i;~ I!)!):<, 1 (;1)-25!), 1)1). l.-'? l ( l ~ ~ l l 1 ,
I"
(l(s

c:( ) l Il<l', Fc.1il<lilclo(;. '.1;,1 l ~ t ~ s ~ ~ ~ ~ l i s ; ll l1~ 0i ll: lil ~' ~l ;(,lll/ ~ / , 7 1 1 \ / 1 / / ; l l t l ~ / l ~f l~~ / / l / ~ ~ 1 ' l~ ;iiio XI, N"' 3 \ (i,1807, 111). :500-:401. l)(%\l)iii'\ tlc tlcst.i-il)ii. (.1 iiiotl<,lo i < ~c i1 i i 1 ;il ( ~ L I ( ,( ~I ( ~ l ) ( ~ r k i \ ( Il(.g:ii. c i i 1;i (,\II II( IIII.;I (Ic, LIS s(~III(~II~~;I\ ji~(Ii(~i;il(~s I ( t.xl)o\i (~LII ~ ti\,>l. ] ) ; l i ~ i c ~ ~ ~ o l l s i ~ l t ~ i : pill.lt, ,l ~ ~ s o l l l i i ~ ; ~ l)l , t o l ~ ~ O l l ~ l ~ l y ( ~ l1l~l VI; l ( (lli<, (410 -1;i 1.1(,O11 (le lo^ t ~ ~ i I ) i i i ~ ; i\l c \ \ i ~ ~ i p I i f ~ i c ; ~\O~)I~~~III;II~(~I-:I I);II.:I ( ~ s i : i I ) l c ~ ( ~ c ~ ~ c i~C,i (sic.) 1.1 , j i i i - i s l ~ r i ~ ( l c ~ i i < . i ;1)oi (.II;III~O r, cxistii-i;iii ~.esoliicioilcsco~~c~.c~I;is ~)IIIIIOS sok)r<. <1c.1<.1 iiiiii:i<los, I);ist;iii(lolc o c i ~ r r i i cllos c i i c-~isos . ;iii;Iogos. S<. ol)iciitlr~i~i, ;i(lciii;i\. 1.1 v(~iii;ij;i (le Ii;il>iiii;ii. ; los ii.il>iiii;il(~s, (111c. pi.(.t.ix<'n iii;fisiis tl<~c~l;ii-;i<~ioiics. s i i - i i i i-t j;iii iiii i;iiiio (.s;i st.i-i(, iittci-iiiiii;iI)lc. t l c s c.oii\itlci-;iiitlos que ~u;111(1o ~ ;iii;ili/;iii i o 1111 1 i ( I i o <.oii(.i.(~ioi i i o c~spl;i\.;iiiSI ( i . i i c i i o SOI)I<. ~ t 1111 ~)IIIIIO I(.x;~l. <.S l o 1111(, o\ 111;s (.iii-ct.cii t.1 .ilc ; i i i c c t l t . lo.; I;illos, (III(, ~)~.o\(.<.Iio (le. (,llos se. s,it.,i" (;iit. c.ii). (~II(. I~H;LI ; 101.11iiiI;i(lo11,l. ,lo;i<luii l;,i~i;iii %;iii;iiiii. c.11 (-;iii;i citic I c~iivi;icl;i ,i I;I / ? I Y J ~ \ / ( / / ; I I W I / \ I , ( , ' / I I / I , I I I I , W" :<, 1885, pl), (i(i-67, "" Sol)ic. i-c.~i.;i;i ji~itli<.;i.;csi\ic.iii<.\ c.11 iiii(.\ii.o i i i c ~ t l i o .(.Iii \;t.; ,It.i;i\ tl<,l I I S i ~ i i l ) o \ i o o l ) ~ I < ( ~ Y ~ s I ~ I s ,) i ~I I I i ( (\II I~' I~ ; II\ \( , ' / / i / ~ ~ / I~I t, I I , I / I O , \,()l. 27 \ ~, ~ ~ I l ) l ( ~i~ l~; i,~ / f I, ; ~ ~~ ) N" 1, 2 0 0 0 .
tln,
1/12

iiic-ii(.i;i

C:orno se sabe, la fiiridariieritaci6n (le las seritericias es irria rriateria cori uria larga cvolilci6n histrica, en la qiie no hari estado ausentes las consideraciones polticas para exigir o dispeiistr de dicho reqiiei-iniierito. Eri la act~ialidacl, dilda algiiria, es iiiia sir1 de las garaiitas ~>roccsales rriks indisciititlas, priseiite pr-5cticairierite eii todos los sisteriias pr.ocesiles. K i i el dercclio Eiisti-ico el deber- tic liiritliiiicritarrio e1.a corisiist;rri<.ial r los fiillos. 1'01.c:jcrriplo, eii 1,as P;ii-ticlas se aliidki iris i 1)ic.ii ;i otr-os (Ir.l)c*r~cs (corrio c.1 tlc iiili~i~iii;i<~itiii y i.cflc.xitiri)'"". 1,;i fiilia (ltb rrioiiv;ici<iii tlc las st~iilt~iic~i~is pci.io(lo 1iii siclo cLx< - i i cbst(, ~)lic:iclii por ;ilgiiiios cii 1-c~l:ici<iii sisic,iii;i 1)oliiic.oirril)c.i;iiitc. K i i ii1 los c.;isos ( I I I C ' ('1 ~~iori;ii.(~;i (.oiistiiiii;i(-1 sii1i1)olo(1c.1 po(1c~i; I'iiiiI;i ( . i < i i i tl<.,jiizg;ii. (.;iso (.i;i iiii:i ;ic.iivi(l;itl (111c. "o iiiil>o~i;i I I ~ . ( . ( ~ (SI I;i si(liitl (le* : i ( ~ i i ; i i - jiisiiliciiii(lo I;I tltscisitii li.c.iitr. siis s~l,(liios'~". l ) i i i ; i i i l c * c.1 1)c~si)oiisirio Iliisii~:i(lo, c-oiiio i i i i ; i ~)i-oy(b(.citiii (le. la (.oiicc.l)('itiii;il)soliiiisi;i ( I ( ~ I ~)otlc'i;1 ~ . i i i i iiiotlo c.xl)i.c-soscbsii( 1)riiiiiti 1;i l'iiricl:irriciii:ici(i~~ las sc~iiic~ii<~iis. K(.il (:i.(liili Ilii;~ c;istlc 23 (le jiiiiio tic 1'7(iX (le. (;;ii.los I I I tlci.og6 e.11 e1 tlci-c~lio t c ~ l l : ~ i i i ~ r i i iriot~ii~iitivii o :ti~t(~rioi. -(Li(I;i por. F c l i ~V-~ ( I I I C - I i i i l ~ k i ) o1)ligitlo ii c%sci.ihii. sciitcii<.iiis las <l(*Liiiitivas 1;is iiitei.loc.iitoi.i;~s, o y los (lt.ci.ctos y pi.ovisioiic.s c b i i Ic.iigiia (~iistt~llirriaoxf)ro,\c/trrlo moy l i ~ ~ o..\ .El ;i~~giii~it~riIo,jiislific;ii. ti11 si~pi.r.si(jii . II);I~.;I er;i 1;i c o ~ ~ \ ~ ( " '~k:l j l l c ' / (lcl)c < ; l l ; i l ~ ,~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l l ~s~lllcl. l \x~l~ci:l<l l1ccI10 y s(yll1 1;i ln.i l ~ i I>l ~ l l ~ clc'l i i i i i i l ; ~(Ic, \i.iitciir.i;r iiisci-t;i c'ii 1i l);ii.t. 111, tl. 18, Icy 10'). cii c.11;i clcl>ctl(:j;ii. (.oiisi;iiici;i (111c' Iia o<loI;I\ i-;~/oii(~s al(.g;i(l;ls poi. I.iq~~ii-ics, <~x;iiiiiii;i<lo i<.s~igos 1i;i lo\
il10

c.vii;ii. giistos, cvitiii-c;ivilicioiies (le los litigaiitcs y alioi.i.ai-t i c . i ~ i ~ ) oA " ~ . dc all se or-cleiiqiie las seiitericias solo ~ pai-tirtiivierari palal~ris decisorias. Que las seiitericias diirarite inilcho tiernpo rio eraii niotivatias se desprende ya no slo de razones de texto legal, sino de la misma practica jiidicial. Eri uno de los rnanilales nis relevantes del perodo de los practicas judiciales, nos referimos a los Apuntrrmientos prcticos pnru to(1os los trcirniles de los juicios civiks, cuyo autor es el Conde de la Caada -el procesalista ms importante de la segunda initad del siglo XVIII-, propone corno frrriiila decisoria de las sentencias iina ms breve que la de las Partidas, ya qiie a sri juicio el acto de jiizgar se redi~ca lo sigiiiente: que la partc a actor-a prob bieri y cuiiipliclariiente sil accin y deiriarid;~ rriieriy ti-asqiic el dernaric-ladorio prob la excepcicri qiic: o ~ ~ i s o . l,a rriotiv;ici(ri tlc las de<.isioiit~s,jiidiciales, i i r i tiiodo gciiedc coiici-t.ral, se ;ipiiiita corno i r r i logro dc la Kcvolii<:iriFr~riccsa, taiiiciite cii 1ii ley de l(224 de agosto (le 1700. Esta 1t.y oblig a iriotivar teclas las seiitericias civiles, pcrialr:~,(Ic toclos los,jiieces y ir-it~iiii;iles. deseo (le proteger- 121 litcr-aliciad (le la 1t:y d i la iii"El tcrpretaciii (lile (le 1 2 1 riiisiria sr. Iiicierii por j i i e c i s y ti-il-~iiiialcs aiiiiii( a (lile los legislador-es fi-ariccscs iiripiisiei-ari, priniei-o, 11 ohligaciri de iriotiwir. todas sirs tlecisiori<:s,y, segiiiido, iriteritiii r-ari asegiirar- el edificio dt: la legalitlad cr-c;-iritloi r i ti-ibiirial de casiici6ii viriculatlo al I,cgislativo""':(. Esta obligaciri de rriotivat.

procuco, Y la.\ c.o.rln.squv n Las p a r k t s z p r n . . .).

~>l.e"~"l;lclos 1i;i 1 0 i i i ~ i t l O ) c~oiisc:jo 'Iloiiil>i~cs (IC I>iiciio.,\ s;il~<~tloi-cstic.i-f.c~l10"'. <Ic (:oiiio se ~)iic<I<. :ipi.cci;ii; <licli;isc.xig(,iici;is i i o ;il)i~~it;il~,iii i i i g i i ; ~i;iIc\ i.;i/o;i ( o ~. i '11 t~u~*(l;iI):i 1'1 coii<.i(~ii<tl<,l jiic'/. cii i;i iics I.II c.1 1':11Io, sic,ii(lo 1;1 s c i i ~ c i i ~i i~ii ~ i i o ([u<' tl<, S01)i.c' e1 i ( ~ i i i : i , t 11. tiK()I'!]O, M;ii.ilii/, "I.;i ;i<.(-iliii < ~ i i ~ ( ~ i ~ c . ;i i; iiii . ; ~ \ , i . t l c ' los ; I I ) I I I I I ( ' sIl(~iiiiol < , I;i h'l;ii,i I.iii;ii-c.\". 1.11 l i > ~ ~ ~ i \ l n ~(, t tlr flitlori/( tl(,l I)otrrlto, IIii(~iios Ilisiti~ic;is,1!)7i, 1'1). I 1 l S\. /\ir-(.s. liisiiiiiio tl(, Iii\(~~iig;ic~ioiic~s "" SoI)i<. liiiiic\ t l < . 10, iiioii;ii(~;i~ 1;i ;itliiiiiiisii~;ici~ii . jiisiic i;i, (.li. iLl/\los (.ti tl< I<Ol\'(;llI. .\iiioiiio, "1111 iiioiii<~iiio il)i<.o 1 ~ I;i iiioii;i~c~ii;~ 1 . iii<~tli(~\;il: jiic./". c.1 i<.\ t ~ ~ ~ r l / l. SSIII, 'Gl;i<li-itl, I!),:\, 111). (i7'7-'715. o c.11. l i / i r n r i o i l r ~ I l i \ l o t / ~ rl ~ ~ l ) ~ I'.'\//~~rir~l.

Uri estiidio Iiistcrico sobre la retcrida Real <:i-dula (le 1768 aliriria qiic tal medida n o encontr reservas iii opitiicri tic los autores d e la Gpoca sobre tan dr-Astica rnedida. Poi- el coiitrario, algurios rnaiiifcstaron sil conforrriidad y benepl5cito, como es el caso d e dori Pedro d e Roada d e las Costas y Figiieiras, qiie agrega a los argiiinentos dados por la Real C:diila el sigiiierite: "Si se perrniticse fiindar las seiitericias, podra darse el caso de iiiia seriteiicia,jiista apoyada e n razones iio coricluyentes, eti cuyo siipiiesto el litigarite perdidoso se iiicliriara a einpearse cada vez iris eii la causa presciiidieritlo de la eseiicia,jiisia d c la <lecisicri,jiidicial y alciitado por la debilidad de siis riiotivos". Sobrc el terria, ch. GARKIGA, (:arios, I,L,OKEN'I'E, Marra, "El ,jiiez y la I.ey: 1.a irioiivariri d e las sriitriic-iaa", rt. cit., 1 1 . 97-142. 11 "':' (;AKKIGA, (Lirios, l,I.OREN'I'k:, Miti-ta, "El ,jiicz y li 1,cy: l a irioiivacicii (ic las S C I I ~ ~ I I ( ~ ~ ;art., c i ~ .1 . 130. IS" ,1

1;i sc'iiic~rici;i sc.i.ia rccogi<l;iIiicgo por- los c6cligos iiapoli<iiii<.os, y sir orriisiri ser.ti saiicioiiada coii la riiilidiicl por- iiria 1c.y tic. 1 X 1 O. Eri sil cbscric.i;i,esta iclca d i los Iliistr;idos, positiva(l;i c b r i los textos antes iiidicados, dcs(~aiisa sot>i.ela l>ast. d e iiiia at)soliii;i cori-es~~oridirici:~ las pi-eiriisas legales y los 1ii.clios c,oricr.cc'iitr-e tos, sieiido la decisi(r1 del jiiez s<iloiiiia ap1ic;icicri riiccrii(:a tic' la ley. Toda esta concepciri vcria acoriipaiada cori otras icleas que reforzaran este ideal legalista, a saber: que la ley era la iiriica filt'rite del derecho, y por lo rnisrrio se prohiba a losjueces iriterpretar- la ley, ya qiie eii esta actividad el juez se coiiver-~a eri legislatlor. Eri clos exceleritc:~trabajos sol~i-e fiiritlarriiritaci6n de la la siritericis eri 1iriesli.o tlei-iclio liisitir-ice, do11 Hiigo fI:iriiscli Esy <~oiri(~i<lciiqut. 1;' 1110c'ri 1>n(lol;i tlori Iialo Mercllo A i . c ~ ( ~ o " ~ ' , i-ccorio<.cc,oiiio fi.cli;is iriiiy i.c.Icvaiitt.s tivacitiii cica la sc'riiciic~iii 1822, <I;itlii porel ;io l ti22 y 1H:E7. b:ri la (:oristitii<.itiii ( 1 ~ ( )' Higgi lis, c.si;il)lcc.(,i.ii iic 7i)//11 q .s~tr/orrc~i/r i c.rirnittcr1 (Iobr .srr. c.i-c)il I I I O / ~ ~ M L / / / I " .I . : t r i i ( ~ r ~ t ~ ~ l ) l ( ~ i i;iI c iritc~riio i o ~ ) r ~ o s ~ ~ c i ~ ( coiL i~ ~r~tc r por- 1i1 > , t i i vigc-iic.i:i (Ic Ii c.iir.i;i corisiitricioiial, piicsio qiic. c.1 I)ir.(.cioi-Sri(le 1)r'c1110;ilxtic<i c.1 28 (Ic cXiici.o 12123 y 121 (:orisiitiic.icii (51-;i tic. <li(.ic.iiil>i-c~ tic. IX22"". (loti El iritciilo ;iritc,rior.sc*r.Lilirc~go itiiit;i(lo por. el l'~~csiclirii~~ .Jo;i(liiii I'i.icto, qiiicii pi.(.sc'iitti iil (:origi-c'so N;ic~iori;ilc l i i c.1 iricLs (Ic' iiovicnit)r-c.( 1 ~ . lH3li i i i i ; r 1-ci)i.iii~i fiistigil>;i pi;cii<.;i r,c.i(1iit. I;i iiaiitc. cri ;iqlrella i'l)o(';t. I'iii.i lo qiic ;iqii irripor-tii,c.ti tlic.lio pr-oycc.10 se sosiic.ric. que i i r i i ~ < II;is cosas rii;is iriipor-iaiitc-s (IIIC. c i~cclarri;~ r-c.fOr-rria Iii sol~i-Y pr-oc.c'tliriiitwtojiitlicial "({S imf)orrtr(1 el lo,sj~~z,q~c/lo.s y I7.ihmr?alo.srJ11 ~ I L rr/)li/)licnk/c o/)li,q/ic.icnde /uncInl. su.s .s~rr~/errc.icr.s. llrrtc ;t,rtic.bicc~ rnon.slruo.str, r.~slo L(L zgno.r/~ncin doI cI~!,sf)olzsdr y rno, hu trr?,ido n lu Jizrnilic~chiGrrt~privada Iztc.s/n hoi (lr este henw/i'cio
"

(.o111 t l 11 / ~ I ( / o , \ /O.\ /)11,~/~/1),\li/)tr).s 1 10 /tot,ty~; r/~ior~/r(~.s. \ / ~ Y ) . S (~i//tgo.s 11 ( ~ y tt I I ( ~ /)o/t'/i(~o.s( I I I 1/(~(.1(1r1e(lo / ~ i ~ ~ l ( r ( l ( [/),S ~(/(~ro(~f~,o,sf)roctoso,s,y /I (1 lo,s ~t o.\ rrt,(,s /1,/1rt o,slnhkocitlo 10,s citr~irn/o.s (Lo1 ordrn il,ri/)lic.o;lo.s doroc.ho.c dr lo.$ ciup f)hlic.o /,,/en o,s/ndo11 l/r (~.rnrrc,vd 1o.s ci~ci.sion~.s dc nr~lnclccno.~oI or(l~rl birrt~ric~,s il,otl(~r,ju(licial. f)uecI~~rr, dol No oc.ultar:sr(L -c/ue.sm.sce/)idurin 1o.s f)ro(lll~ir nraomnlzl !)olP.Y~IL /i~nr?r.to.s rv.szrllndo.s, qut. producr y quo (Lrl)~ iicn, q u p ,s(LL~~(L 10 la oOhlig/c~Lri, (ker (.u,rnLa de .sus opcmecionu.~n los 1 (IP fi~r~c.ionnrio.s cAi.sf)on,en (le nurs1ro.s 'mhs (,aros i n t ~ e ~ s u , ~ , qur porque tzenpn p.n sus rnnno.s Z/LS vida.s, PI 1zono"r; y las Jhrtunms (IP 10,s intliuiduos.. . !)cmln l(?nliiuci con que proOcrhlum~ntuse procrdur.c-i rn la adof)cic.n de (<s/ni~rnf~oi-L/cnlr w/i)rrna, alfju co.tr,si/lort~blurn~nt~ de rrosotro.~ mo'mm01 lo /lo TIPY o . s I ( L / ) ~ P ~ ~ ~ ~ (/Lc.[YL ( " I I ~ / ~ . s irlr11oi1/rcior~o,\ kr.c cuals rLo f)~coderr .\in itr f)oliliccc.c. Lon 1.r.inJZlrjo ni oh.sewc~nc.inr/,u(<slr/r,s . s / i t ~ ~ c ~ % o n ~ ~ s (k'l A 1 . 1 ~ ~ c.ano N;' 325 tlr 25 (lu Y I ~ ~ I ~ P I I Ldu~ W K3h)"i0. / 1 'li)<toeste iiioviiriic'iito ciiliriiii> coi1 la ley rriari;iii;i de 2 d e (le li.1)i.c.i-o(le IX:5'7, sol>i-c.liiiid;iiricrit~i<-i61i las sc.iitcriciis,tlic-i;ttl;i ~>oi. I ' i ~ c s i < l c ~ i i i ~ ~ ~ J o ; iI'i.ieio, Ii;ic.ic.iidoiiso (1~.litciilt;i(lt~s ('1 c~iiiii c~xtr;lor~~~ill;lr-i;is t [llr-l cllf'l~t~rilill~ l l ~ ~ l ~ I ~ 1'c~l.ii.1<:11 lo (Il(l ~ Il g coi1 l ( l i i c . iriici.c.s;i, c.1 icxto leg;il rcfi.i.itlo (lispiiso: "'1i)dn srtri/~nc.ic~ .srJ.rort / ( r r ~ br-w y .~~rtr-illnnr~rt /~lnrl(inri~n/o rc~luc.irti /P. li/ .S(, .\tilo I I o.v/ablrc.r). L(L /~i~,o.s/;/jtl ~l/~rv./t,o (10 o /I~o(~~I,o.s .so/)r(~ rrJc./~o ,\/~iio~/~/.i/c,/ I / I ( ~ o I ~ //'/lo /U (L rr./i.rr,~rc.ic~ I/?rs qllc k .\r~rrt ~r/)lirnhl(s, eotr~,on/(lr.io.s olr(~.\mcr lr.s .sin tti ~)lic.crc.iorr(s". b:st;i ley c's i i i i ~ x ~ i ~ t ;pu ~-t(10s i.azorics: 1") I'or pri) i t~ ., rritxi-;i vez st. c~siahlcci s i i iiiiisti.o (Ic-r*'clioprtr.io la ol)lig~cioii c tlc riiotivai- los fitllos, qiic' liasta ;iritcs (1c. ctsia ti;isc.eri<lciital rey fiir-rii;i se sil<~rici;ih;iri corriplctarric~itc~;2") Sc'iitj>121 prirrier.a pie(11-ap;u-i e1 (lcsirrollo [le 121 gir.aiiti;i d e 1;i liiridtrrieiit;ici611~~'~, tlc ciiyo ctiriiplirriierito clcperide, a la postre, el desar-rollo de irii autkritico del-echojiii.ispr-iideiicial. (hrrio siiele ociirrir habitiialrrierite entre riosotros, la aplicaci6n practica d e esta irinovaciii procesal rlo fiie expedita, siir111). 72-73,
;i<I~iei.tc Cillvitt, " l . ; ~c ~ ~ d e i i c i i . ; ~ < . i o i ~ ; i ; i ~ ta i . c c c t ~l l ~p ; f01~r1111l;id;~ 1101.

(:lii tlANIS(:H ESPINI)OI,A, Hirgo, "(:oiiti-il>iicicii ;i1 cstii(1io del prir1c.ila pririicii <Ic 1;i fiiiicl;ii~icrii;ici~iii 1;is seiitciici;rh eii (:liilc (iiiraiie VI sitic glo X I X " , r i l /~rvi.sln !<tllct/i! /{?\6(jriro:/1rrifli,o,\, c/? \';ii{~;ir;iiso: I < < l i c i o i i c ~ s LI~~ivc~.~lit;lt.i;is ~ l ~ > ; ~ r i ~ i s o , pp. 1 f-31-173; M I ; R ~ l . I , O d<.K 1982, ARlj.(:(:O, li;rlo, "1.;1
lo'

pie

tlc

i'l" Il)idciii,
"'j (:o1110

10

pi.iiii<.i.;i ve/ V I I

VI

1)1'1.

(le

IH37, i.(~I:i<.i;i(Io poi. M;ii-i;itio F.'.gaiia, qirc.

1c.y 11l~ll~i;lil;i

f i l 1 l ~ i ; l l 1 l ~ l i ~ ~ ( i V ~ \c~rli~~llci:is < ~ l l t t ~ < ~ l c l l i < ~ l l c i ; l ~t i~~1l fl;i la jll(iiciil1 < , l l

iiiccc,s ;i ~iiciic.ioiiai. I I los I;illos qiic C

iii;iici.i;i l><.ii;iI", I;i iiiisiii:~ e11 piil>li<.;i(.itiii, I!)H3, cigi~c <.si:i11 l ) i < ~ ~ ~ i(I<. o s o ( l (.sios i~~iil);ijos.
''lj

I>I>.

<li< teti

1;is Icycs e11(111e f'u1i<la11, w coi1

71-98, 1,os tl;iioa Iiisitiricos < ~ I I < .

S<. ici-tiiiii;i e ;irl>iii-iojiitlici;il,I I I < . ~ > i . o ~ > o r ~ . i o ~ ~ i ~ l ) i i 1 ( Ilcxil>ili(l;~tl ii

ol>lig;ia l o \ lo (111c I;i,jiii-is~>rii<l~iici;i


V;ill>i~l.;i-

(:I'I.. M14:l<E1I d ( ) . Al<b:(

:( ;O, I i ; i l ~ 1.;1l(y I I I > I I ~ (;1 ~I'IIIII(~~I~II(*III:I<~~(~II , I I~I s('~I<l<s

iiitli;iii;in. (SA1,VAl' M O N ( ; l ~ l l , l .).l., M;iiiiicl, "1,os ~)i-oiitii;~r.ios ( jiiitli<.os<-lrilt~iios


< , i i I;i I ) I iiii<'i.;i i i i i ~ ; i d

:i ~ l, i(.iic-i;isli.c.tiic. ;i I;i < - l ( ~ i i i < ~ i i c - ijiitlic.i;il ( , I I iii:ii<.i.i;i ) < . i i ; i;iii.

< i i . , 11. 72.

<I<.I siglo

XIX", cii

I < P ~ I / . \ / / I (,'i~r~(.icl.\ //(, .So(i(~l(<\. ([c. Ll.

so,

N'' :5!), 1!)!),1,

1).

l:55).

tt>ri<.ia rriiiclias oc;tsiories r i o sii1)cr.a e1 ciifO(1iic piir.;iriicxiit(. t.11 fi)rrri;ilist;i, cori todo lo qiic ello irriplica p;ii;i I;i gt'rici;ic~itiii tl(, I~~jiirisprii<le~ic-it. (:oiistitiiye iiria prctica larrie~itablela iitilizaci6ii <le ~-(~(.iir.sos estkticos, que ayiidari i i i parte a ciit)rir la deficicricia cri 1:i fiindamcntacin d e las sentencias. El cxpedicrite rnks erripleiid o es el cle incluir largas partes expositiva, que trariscriben literal y casi cornpletanierite los escritos fiindameritales del perodo y d e disci~sihn, r:n mas d c alguna ocasi611 iiiclirsive las diligencias de priieba. A travGs d e este procccler se logran rriateri- 1meri'1 te fallos vol~irriiriosos,q u e a prirrier-a vista irripresioiiari a ciialqiiiera, pero que iiria vez letios eii sii corijiirito derriiiistrari sil fiileiicia argiiriic:iitativ:i. Estc coiisiclci-al>lcaiirricrito de 1;i par-te expositiva riiiiica logi;ii- ciiiriplii- con I;i gir-aiita pr-occs;il (Ic la fi~ritl;iiric~ritici~iri, sal~cirios cliic' dt.11c coiiit~ii~~i-se parti c.oiic h i i la sitlei~aiivii":'. El c;ir.5(.teiIliiri'lico (le los co~isi(lci~;iii(los(-1 ~.;i<liiitisriio o i;izoii;~iriic~iiio c~oiisigii;i(lo los fiiii~l;~iiiciitos I;isti-es 1);ii;i c.1 cii soti <Ics;ii-i.ollo i i i i i i ;ii1161iii~~;i,jiii~is~~r~iitlci1ci;1.X I I I I O II;I(~;I <le 14:ii c.stch I iri(.jor. qu(' i~c~.oi~(I;ii~ 1ii i-(*lii(.itiii (1ucS (1011 Aiitlr.i.s 13(.110 Ii;it)ki ~)r('(10 6 l y (l(> visi0 ( 5 i l l l x ~l ' i i r l ~ l ~ l r 1 l ~ ~ r l l ; ~ ~ ~ i1;irsc~l1lcrlci;t 121 ci~c;i(~iOrl l l i l i l jiirisl)r'ti<l(~ii(.ia c.iili<l~tl, tic. r.(.<.ogitl;is * i i iiti;is riotas piit)li(~;i<l;is r i c cL "l+:I Ai~aiiciriio", 1834 y 18:51). I4:ii ~xil;il>i;is c.11 (liic. iio pic~i.(lc~ii vigc.riciii, c.sic. jiir-istii c~xl~oriii (4 r.igoi. (lii(. lo (.;ii.;tctc.i.iz;i:"1,a c.oii ~)r;i(.iic~;i liirid;ii. las sciitciici;is, que 1);'jo este i.cy~ccio (le cst;i iritir r i i i i i i c - i i i t * liffatli c-ori I;i ii;itiii-alt1z;i (1<, I;is iiistitiic.ioii(~s 1-c.piil~lic.iiII;IS, propoi-ciori;~ oti-asvciitaj;is col~itt~r;ilcs gi.;iiitIt~ (le irnpori;i~~ci~i.
~ 1 ~ x 1

s;iiic.itii s o l ( ~ i i i i i (I;i i i i i c ~ i ~ ~ ) i - c ~ i ; i c . itO (i * 1;is I(.~ i i y's, y t l ; i i t l ( Iii(*i-z;i tlt, (~ostiiiiil)i~c~,oiivic.i.i(. c.11 i i i i i i 1c. 511I;i ( y ~>lctoi.i;i, qiicLIlc,ria los viic.ios y < l i l i i < . i < l ; i I;is osc.iii.itl;itl(~s los tic. ctitligos. 1;i iriai-clia d r los ir~il>iiri;ilc~s Ii;i(-(. tic. <.si;i iii;iii(.i.;i iiiis se tlivcr.g~~ritc~sc;isos ;iii;ilocit. i.igiilai- y coriseciierite. Las <Ie(~isiories gos, oprol~io la acliriiiiistr-acih de .jiisticia, soii (.;ida (Iki iii;is clc rar-;is. Y rio liahierido liada que tije tanto las ideas corrio el oi.tlc,ii y qiie las ericadeiia, esa rriisrna reg~ilaridad coiiseciiericia fiicilit;iii, y por consiguiente propagan y geiieralizari, cl coriocirriiciito (Icb las leyes. Idajurisprildencia torria por este nieclio i i i i car5cicr. vc.i.datle~trrieritc filoscfico; se Iiace iiiia ciericia tiel raciociiiio; (Ic'1)oiic. la ~niigre cscolstic;i; se herrriaii;i, ( . o r i la alta Icgisl~rci6iiy I;i poltica, cori arricrii<l;itly cori elcgaiiciii.. .""".
1':Il;i

i.c.\,isic.

tic.
) l ( b

iiii;i

1iitiil)ii.ii 1 1 f;ili;i tl(. iiiiii ;itlc( ii;i<l;i 2 liiti<l;iiiiciii;ici(i~~i . o v i c r i < l e c<liii\,oc;i~> c d:is (-oiirt,t)(-ioiirs a<-crc;i [ir los \isiciiias (ir ~>oiiclt~i-:~c.icri l a ~ ) r i i r l > a E l l)iol)l(,. iii;i se pi.cscii(;i coiicrcl;iiiicii(i c i i ;icliicllos proceso\ c r i los q i i c e l Icgislatlor. 1i;i opt:irlo p o r 1111 sisiciii:i t l c \,iilor;icitiii [Ic 1;i pr.iicl>;i 1113s li1,r.c; c i i csios c;isos ;ilguiios,iii(.c.c~s Ii;iii o i i i i i i c l o (.xl~oii(,r-(.ii 1);ii.i~. co~isi<l(.i.;iii\.;i 1;is i.;i/oii(.s t l r li<.clio ! I;i c1(. <Ic~i-c(.lio (111<' l o s IIcv;iii : <I;ii 1101. :i(.~.c(Iil;iclos los I i t ~ c ~ l i o s iiii;i <l(~ici-iiiiii;icl;i i <I<. f i ) l ~ l l l : l , ~ l ~ ~ ; : l l i~ l s<~1licllci:lh i t 1 1:i (lcl)i(l:i l ' ~ l 1 l ~ l : i ~ l l c l l i : i c ~ c~])iclls:l ( J I I V l.(.(.il: 1'1 o l s i ~ll, i-i-i<~ii(lo ; IIII:~siiiil)lc* 16i-iiii11.i (1~. , s i i l o . c.11 oi.<l<.ii (~II(, "los <I(.iii;i\ i < ;i iii<.tlios ( 1 ~ . 111 IIC.I);I IO~I;III O I I \ ~ ( ( i 6 1 1 (l(,l ~I)IIII~I~", k i ( I I ~ I I ~ ) I ~((o 1 1I I ( I ~~ l i 110 1'1 ( II (~SI;II . ~ I;I o l gil( i ( i 1 1 l l l l l ~ l ; i l l 1 ~ ~ l 1 i :1;i l ~s ~ ~ l l i ~ ~ l l l:sl:li ; l])l:(.li(;I (,\ g1;1\<,, s 0 I ) l c 1 0 ~ l 0 S(. :l(ll (~ . si \ . i c i i c (III(' 1>o1 ) 1)10l)i;i 1; siiigiil;ii.itl:itl tl(,l \is(c,iii:i t l ( . \;iloi;ic.itiii ( 1 ~ . I;I l)i.ii(~l);i, ( o i i l o i . ~ i i:i~ ( iiii;r ;iii(igii:i (lo( iiiii;i cI(, I:i ( ~ ) I . I ( ,S i ~ ~ ~ i ~ 1t.s~ (,\1:11i;i i , ~ ( ~ l : i ;Il I;i\ ~ ii: ( o II.III('\( Y I I I I I ~ I ;i~ tIl i ; i i i l ( ~ (,I ii i. i i i s o t i ( , (;i\;i( icii c.11 c.1 loiiilo.

"'

(.oii < l i i ~ c ~ ( . i\;,ii i i c . i i lJii;i csl)~~ci;il rii;iiiili.stac.i(iii tle I;i piil)lic.itl;i<l, 1.) c .. . (.ti c1 i c h i i i ; i ( ~ u 110soc'iip;~, , iori c dice i.(.l;i(.itiii (.oii el (.otti(,tilci)-io ( / ( J ;llri,$/)r.~~,(Lr~i(,i(/, ciiyo ol)jciivo iio (,S otro ; i i i ; i I i ~ i i .los a(.i(*i.tos o c.i.i.oi.<.scorisigii;itlos c 3 i i I;is sciiic.iic,i;is ~jii(lici;il(*s. I ) I . ( * Siii l c ' l i ( I ( ~ 1l~ l ( ~ ( * iii1:i l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o r l . s t lllisl6l~i~~;lI i) l la~~>l.cs(~ilc.i;l l l~ ~ l i ~ ~ ~ ~Si O ~ ~ c,slc. gi.iici.o cii iiiicsii.~~ rc.;ili(latl jiii.(lic;i, 1;i ;iiitigiic.(l;itl (le. S(.(.cioiic>s<Ic(lic:iclas:i cllo -(.oii rigoi- ciciitlico- yt sr. ( x i i ( . i i < ~ i i t ~ ' ; i c.11 1;i Ii'r71i.tbn l'i)rr~n.to ,'hiG~rcr, liiiiclatla cii 188.5. Scgiii Fc.lil)c. Vicciicio Eyzagiiii.i.c, csi;t piil,li(~;t(.i6iisc.i.ia 1ii "pi~iiiiei;~ i-c.\risi;i, j i i i-idica cii fOr,rii;i" cii riiicstro iiictlio"". L;i cs~wr~tii";i ~>uc'sttwii rriijoi-;iiriit,iitode 1;i calitla(1c1c. iiii(.s1' tra jiii-ispr-iidericia, a ti-avc'sde los coiriciitai-ios (le fiillos, se 1)c.i-c-it ~ r la liiritlaci6ri de la IZovi.s/n (Ir l)or.(~clro .jrAr7.sf)l,r1~(I(~itc.i(1, ('11 cri . ?; 1903. 'E11 corno coiista (le su pr.iriiei- ricrriero: "( ...) I,(L (rlltr t t i l si471 (ir In ZTori(j ,S?L~)~(WL(L, ( d (L.s(;~uT(cY. T P . ~ ~ I y I L~ exncl(~ ~ 01 ( /n cll,licc~c~iri (/o ((1 Ig, P,S ~ r . ytll/lcil clr?~zf)liw~ic.)r/c,,r ~por vr~stoc'crrnl)o rri ( / t i c , m . t(~ io cjrt-co . s ~ /in s c.ioncr y /)o),In.s g~171c' (1~jk.u ~ 71 I/(IIIO.S p~LPI)(IY/ la ((1 ( . O I I I , / ) / ( ~ ( I
(((1
(21

matmici clr la inlrrf)rrtncicn (le h.$ y s , como por k~/iic.ilidn(l (,o?/ (/,ir h r.sle poder .sobmno atribuido c L ~ L(:ortu flurde c.n,.riurli~su un -r.e\o ,j en en u n abuso (le nutoricl(~d". ccrhitrio mhs rficnz (ie f m r n z r r.slo j)o<qro 'F,'l cv someter cada fina de k(is cleci,sionr.s (Le la (,'hrtr ci una cm*ticn muclilndn y discrda, no srjko pam he~rtr senlir h:glimc~ influencia que cove.sponG la opinin ilustra(la del I'oro, sino tnmbiin corno medio de ruspnr! P r k ciar la inclef~enderzcia criterio & las (&es de A~elacion~s", En iin estudio realizado por Herrin Corral Talciani, que coiriprendi6 los primeros veinte aos de dicha publicacin, se da cuerita qiie all se realizaron 85 comeiitarios d e jurispriidencia, de los cuales, 43 son de don Liiis Claro Solar. Otros autores qiie ciiltivaron este genero sor1 dori Oscar Dvila Izqiiierdo, don Eliodoro Y.,ez y dori Julio I'hilippi, eritre otros"". Sin enihargo, el eritiisiasrrio d e los prirrieros aos decay6 corisiclcrat>lerrie~ite, pilnto al qiie diirciiitc iririclio tieiiipo los corrit:iitai-ios ser-ari es~>or,iclicos. Afi~rtiiiiatl~irrierit~el iltiriio ticrripo se 1i;i revitalizado el geiiceri 1.0, gracias a los aportes pci-riiaiieiitcs, ctitrt. otros, (le Ediiartlo Soto Kloss ((lercclio pil>lico),(le liaiil 'l';ivolai.i Olivcr-os ((lei-cclio procesal) y de (:;irlos Kiiriserriiillcr (tlei.ectio ~>c,rial). 1)c ti11 rrioclo sisterriiilico los coiriciitarios clc scritericias jiiclidc cia1c.s 1i:iii fl-iictilicado cri st.ccioiics especi:rl<~s iiii;i sc.i.it. tlc 1111Iliicacioiics jiir-(iicas, c1iii.c. las qu<' se 1xic-dcli c-oritir-:i /I'e+i+~ic.le~ 1: ; l ~ i k ~rvd~lj(wc.ho, de la 1;;zciiltad de 1)crr~clio la 1'. LJriivcrsi(1atl r ~~ c1c (:at(licr dc. (:liilc (tl(.stle t.1 No 1 dt. I998 tieiic. rlri;i sttc-ci<ii cspcelp (le cial); l;i I<~riis/n Il(~oc.ko, la 1;aciiltad clc (:ic-iicias Jiii.tlicas y Soc-i;iles t l r la lJriivc:rsicI;itl de (;oricepcitiii, lirrid;icl;i eii 1!)3:3, cori 209 cdicioriis a cricro-jiiirio tltl 2001; 1;i II'n~i.sl(~ l)cwc.ho, d i la c/u I;;lctilra(i <leljcrcclio <&la Liiiiversi(1;itl (:eiiti-;il (desrle 1987); /+ 7izsln (/u I)urrrho, Uiiivt.r.sitlad Ani.s 'li.rr(c~ (disde 1997); IZL.Sol I'r(~xi.s, (le la Factlltad d e Dcriclio de la Uriivcrsidtxd de Tdca (dcsde 1996); lus Puhlic.um, cle la Facultad de L)erecl.io tle la Uriiversitlad Santo Torris (desde el No1, d e 1998). Siri el forrnato de revista, riacido pero rniiy prolfico eri el griero, es In/Oime (;on.siit~ccional, cl aio 1090, qiie Iia ptihlicatio rris de dos rriil corricritarios tlc i scritericias, cspc(~ia1iricritc i i riiatcr.ia (le tlci-ccl-io~~iiblico.

Otro iristi iirricrito i r i c o1 por ncio por In IJcy No19.i374 p'ir n en( aii/'ir In jiirispriidc~iicinhLic In iiriifitnciri se c ontieiie cri el riiicin P / ~r(7(r\o d~ vo 'ir t( tilo 780 del (:P<;, qiie cst,iljlic e: "Ir~or/)l~~\fo ( (L\~L( xjrt 0r1 (4for/(/o, llcikc/r[~~r(~ 5 f)(~r//>$ e 0 lo 1 f)e)dv{\o/?(zlc~r,ch71I r 0 (/r/ (M/ , plazo pr hc~tr \u j)clrl~PTL YI / Y ~/)l~rtcll ( / I L P ~ (//LO P / TU tlr\o \IYL ( o v noctclo y rptud/o f)or PI />/e1110 el~l I I I / I ~ L ~ ~ 1 /LI / / ) P / I ( 7n \10 j)oe/r( /11r1 / ~ (lcrrtu P ~ 01 lto(i/o( I I L P I(L ,'oro Suj)rornn, rn /(rIlo\ dmrr\oc, he1 \o\lrrlrcio I oI)1(2o (/~\/tn/el\n t ~ r / ) , ~ / n o o\o/)rr In rrrect~ncrdo (l~rr('(//o ( / P / ro( I I Y \ ~ " . t n~\ LI:st,i iiiiiov,i<itiii \e c oriiicii/,i n gestar cii 1,t <lCc,itl,i tic los rio qiic vciitn tlcl \iglo j,,tsntlo, cri 1'1 (:orrii\iii de1 S c ~ i ~ i d o ti al~al'i cri 1,i I cloiriin '11 f i i r i c iori,iiiiiciiio ( I r la ( : o 1 t t . Siipr ciiin. Eri e1 111l,cy,i\ln< i'iri, .]iistici ~ y i Ioi iiic. de 1'1 (;orriisicri (Ic (:oristitu(i<j~i, Kcgl,~rricrito, dej0 co~ist~iricia ln iiri~riiiniitl,i<l 511srriierri\e qiic (le 1)ros pi eserites, los \eri,idor cs sior es Fir rirtidc/, Lctelier, Otecri ro Votinriovic, a( oi tinr ori iritei c,ilni el nrtciilo 780, ri~ievo, los tkrrriiiios recikri t r - a s c r i ~ o s ' ~ ~ . Scgiri las actas (le la Iiistoria d e 121 Icy, "el precepto ( . . .) tierie por firialitlad establecer i i r i rriecariisnio encaniiriado a lograr ilria iriayor uiiiforrriidad eii la jurispriideiicia --que tXsuno los de

1xo1"sitos tlt.1 p'oyc('fo- pci'rriiiic~ri(lo tliic st. pticda s o l i c , i i ; i i . ( ~ I I ( * i.esti(.lv;i el plcrio, eri caso tic qiic i 1 iiixirrio tr.ibiiiiirl, cii (lisiiiiiiiit~rpi.ctat~iori(:s dif'ci~critcssol)i-c 1:i los hillos, liiyt ~ ) s t c n i t l o iriatcr.ia cIc del-cclio cii qiic iricicl. el r - c ~ i i r - s o " ~ ~ ~ . Hasta la f'cclia el plt:rio <le la <:arte Supi-crri;i rio Iia rerii(lo op<)rtunidatld e resolver- riirigtiria d e las pr.csiri taciorivs qiie sobre el par-ticiilar se liari forriitilatlo. Los pcticioriarios qiie Iiaii coiisegiiido esta fbrtria d e coriocirriicnto del ieciirso se han desistido tle la peticin. Eri coriseciiericia, el arilisis de esta figiira sigiie qiied:irido eii i i r i plano piii-arrieritc te6rico. Eri todo caso, la aiisericia de tlecisioiics iio es ohstciilo para exarniiiai- el potciicial cliie este iiislr.iiiiicrito iieric. para iiiiificar- la,j~irispriitiericia, coiiio se explica ;i coritiiiiiaciri.

c b i i algiiiios sisic~irirs jrii-i(licos I;i (:oiiio seb t i c - i i c - coiio<~iiiii~.iii<>, (1c.c-ihitiri j i i t l i c . i ; i l ticiic. (.iioi-iiic i-c.l(~v:iiic,i;i, y a ( I U ( ' (Ic.1 (~iisiiisiiio jii(li(.iil ( { , ' / L S O 1 ~ 1 7 ~ stii.geii I;is l61.111i1l;is ~ ) i ~ i i ~ c i ~ ) i o s ) o si~iiiI;ii~cs 21 l l l l l Icy t~s(.l~il:l, i l t * (.O11 t.1 v:il01. ( 1 ~ . 1 l l ~ ( ~ ~ . ( Y l c ~~ l ll ( ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ l i l l ~ (l l ~ la (I(.c~isitiii los ('oiili(.los~)ostc.i.ioi.(.s leb (&\'d/rtr/ ~ ~ c ~ i . s i .~~:~c~liv;iiii<~rif s). i(., cii los sisiciii;rs tI(. tl(.i-c.c.liojiitlit.i;il, cic.i.ias iiist;iri(~iiis,jii(lic.i;i1c.s t.l~Ci11lil rcgI:i c.11 \ril.tll(l ( l ( ~la ci1:1l S<, (1vI)c li1lI;li~ l l i t S i i l l t O l <.orifOi.iiic. lo i-cbsiic.lio, lo tlc.ciditlo". ;i ''a Eii c.1 c.:iso (.liilc~rio, iiovt~l:i(lqiic :rpoi.i;i c.1 al-i. 72-40 tlc.1 ( :l'( :, 1;i ii iiti(.sti~o,jiiicio, cstii cii tial~ei iiiti-otliicitlo i i i i clcrriciito pr-ol>io <le los sist~rrias c1t.i-cclio,jiitlicial,piics se Iia (lotatlo a la (:()l.dt. le Siipriiiiir d i 1 potestatl tlc establcccr- aiil6ritit.o~ pi-ecctlciitcs, a los qiic dcber~aii ajiistar- ol~ligator.ianie~itc actuaci61i los sil tril~i~iialcs iiil'ei-ior-cs. Eii coiitra cle lo qiie se lia posttilado eri riiiesti-a doctriria proct.sil"!', \7ir-iasrazorics de~riiiestr-ari (lile a 121 sentencia de la ( h r tts S i i ~ ~ r ~ n i ; ~ , que uiiilica tlocti-iria jiii-isf>i-iidc~iicial, le de1)ciii se

l i l

1,a ;ictiiacitiri qiic i-c.alizii 1;i ( :oi.tc Siiprcrii;i, (le c.orif>i.rrii(lat1 al artciilo 780 del (:1'(:, es i.adicllriiciite diversa a la qtic siir-ge de su fiiiicioriarriierito or-diriario eri salas. Ateiiditia la prcemiricricia del ius liti,qcctori,,, que lia caracterizado a riiicstr-o reciir.so de casacii>ii, ciiaiiclo las salas 1-esuelveri 1111 dcter.riiiriado asiirito su rnisi6ri riatur-al no es depural- las iriterpretdciorles contradictorias que pueden existir sohre i i r i terria, sirlo ms bieii rcvisar- -para el caso coricreto- si existe el error de derecho qiie periiiite iri\~alitlai- seritericia rcciirr-ida. Esta 1-ealidad explica por la clui' las salas, r i o obstaiitc sil especializaci(ri, piicdcii coiitr;i<rlecii-se coi1 <Iccisioiiesaritcrior-es sot)r.c i i i i rriisrrio tcirit, ya qiic' :ri el j 1 t i c . k ~( / P ( . ( ~ . s ( r ( . i ( 121 s;tl:i 110 esta c~orisidci~;iri(lo i~ rieccsai-i;iriit:iite sri <loc.lr.iii~i aiitc.i.ior; s;ilvo las cxccl~(~ioric.s (1uc Iass";l;i~, cii i(.~iiicrric~itc, v i ~ i i~ t i l o s a sil 1)r.olli;1 ( l o ( ~ t i ~ i r i ~ ' ~ ~ ' . c j/l i ~ ( l c ;I F,~I (.;iiiiI~io, t.~iiii(Io ( ~ o r i ~ c s ~ ) oactii:ii.~ L(I ( . ( ~ . $ ( ~ ( , i ( 011 /)lor t o , I;i (:or.ic Siipi-c,iriarx.;iliL:i i i i i c'xairicii del irs.5 c ~ o n . \ i i / ~ r b i o n chslo t~~, (.o11 1);u';i c.s, t:jc.c.iiti i i i i i r Iiiii<~i<iii i i i i cl;ii.o sc.iiii(lo ~~iil)lic~istii, "nii c.i.ii(li.io(It. irii<.i.l>i.c.i:r(.itiii, ( I I I C . 1i:ist;i ;i~it('s c's1:i (It' li<.;ii.i i i (lisl);iiiri(.i.vc.iic.itiii i i o ('r-a iiiiiiiriic*so1)i.c i i i i i i iiiisiri:~iriiiicli.iii ti(. tic,i - < ~ . lol>jc.totl(,l i-<.(.iii.so. io sostc.iiic~ii(lo que la ,111t.i~k:s;i tlil.i.c.iic.i;i ~liictlcl)i~iiiiil;ii-se ~)i.u(lc-rici;iU < > ( b t i ~ ; i i i ; (le I;is sii1:is se, i r i ; i i i t i ( ~ i i c ' cXri 1;i li.;i(li(.i<iri (I ~ tlcl 7 ~ 1 1 o 1 /)CY:VIL(I.\I'YI~O I ~ L O Y . ( J /pcr-o 1;r qiiv stii:j;i tic 1;r ~iiiilic;iciil . , (liiv llaga c.1 I'lciio ticiic. c'lic;ici:i viii(.iil:~iiiv, gciici-ari<loi i r i ;iiiqiic r tkiitico f)u.oc~rtlrr~l~, tlcl)c s ~ respcra(1o taiiio por- 121 (;ort, Siipran;~ coriio p01' los otros trit>iiiiales. Esta tlistiiiciri ciit1.e el aciuar- tlc las sal;is y clcl I'leiio tlc la Corte Siiprerria per-rriitc advertir- Iiri;i rri;irc,ada tlif'er-ericia i r i el ir-atarnierito tie la jilrispriitlerici;t, qiie se tratliicc eri lo sigiiicriO )
-

1). 7 ) !. S(.giiii 1'11':1)121\1<1'i<n':\ lil< i,\I2i), 1.1 \;iIoi (11. 1;i ~ I I I :i i\l)~.i~(l<.~ic.i,i ; i t l ; i iiiiilic c.\ c.1 \ixiii<.iii<.: "1':l Iiillo tl(.l lll(.iio 1 solo oi-i(~iii:itlo~ iio g;ii.iiiii/;l (III(, c.11 c.1 111t i 1 1 0 1'1 III~\III~I i(,11 o110\ II~I)IIII;II(,\ (I~\~(.III:III if(.iio ~ I I I l i ( . II(.I<I (l(,l I ( ~ o M,III~.II-

'"'

'7"Iltl<~lii,

<-i;itlc.1 l'lriio, p)~.(luc. (:l~il<. 1.11 (-oiitiiiii,i \ig<.iii<. ~)~.iiicil>io (III<. Ii~llosi i c l i t.1 tl<. los j ~ , i : i l c ~ I~(,II<,II s(lo III(,I./:I ol)lig;iio~~i:i ~t.I;iii\:i 1;)s (.;IIIS;IS j i ~ l l i ( . i : ~VII( ~ I I (I,, 111.0I,II l ~ S iiiiii~.i;ii-c~ii". (I'III)K,ZI'I\~I',N;\ 121(:1 1i\KI), (;iiillci-iiio, lit,/l~,rio,~c~\ \oI,rt, Itr r . t i \ i r c . ~ t i ~ / , (/(,\/!/((;\ ( 1 /(\ /l/o(/i/;~(,f,~,//,~,\ ( / P /( /,(y ,A"' 1 0 . 174, s:1llli;~go,/'(r//o\ (/(,/ ,ll(,.\, ~ l!)!)(i, 1). 175)

te: las salas piiederi decir rriiichas cosas eri la iriterpi-etacitiii (1c.I tlerecho; CI Plerio de la (:arte Siiprerria debe decir iiria sola: /(L ltima f>al(~hra. Por otra parte, se debe considerar que cuaiido la C h t e Siiprerria depura las distiiitas interpretaciones no est cr-earido PX novo la soliici6n, sino qiie se limita a optar por una d e las varias soliiciones qiie ella misma haba dado para casos anlogos.

g;ir I i c ~ . I i o . ; ~)ost(*r.ioi.c.s,1)icii (.oiiio I;i ; i l ) l i c . i i c ~ i t i i i (le. i r i i ; i i.cSsoo Iiici<ii;iiiicr.ior cri 1111 caso igii;il o sc,iii$jaiitc (luc' sc ~ ~ ~ c ~ " ; 1 1 ~ ~ .

2') Si bien el Cdigo Civil ha reservado para al legislador la iriterpretacicn aiitntica de la ley (art. 3" CC inc. l o ) , se pueno
de desconocer que cuando la Corte Siiprema acta iinificarido sii d i ~ p a doctrina interpretativa, sii actividad rio se liniitd $610 r nl exanien tiel caso particular. Eri rigor, de la actiiaci6n del Plerio siiigr i i i i prrrrdrnlv, e\to es, iiirn re\piiestn qiic Id COI-tc Siipre~iia a la coiriiiiiitla(l j i i r dica, nl elegir la recta ,iplicnci>ii dt tlel tleric lio tleiitro <le i i i i c'itilogo de \oliicioiics c oritradit tor ins clrie' existe11\ot>ri i i i i riiisiiio itBrri,i. o teiidi in \c.titido qric N In (:or t<. Siipr c'rri,i i i r i i f i c l i i t ' iiri,i diter riiiii,itl,i iriter pr i I , i ( ion, (1,111( l o c oliercric ii y c cr t i < l i i r r i l ) r tx.i 1'1 f o r riin ( 1 ~ . r e\ol\~t-ri r i dt.tii irii i ii'iclo prol~lcrria U I idic o, pnr ,i qiic ello rio lrrig,i iiirigiiri'i Iiiei /,r J vitic iilnrr te r e\pec t o de 104 11il~iiri~iles i o r cs. ~iifer qiii \e del->(. ,isigii,ii I'oi o11<ip,ii le, cl valoi (le pr e( c(1c~ritc 'i 1,i do(lr/rto un//7ccctlcr c l i i ( .i\,ic itiri rio c.\ i r i c orrip,iiil)lc cXri i i i i i giiri ( 'iso c o i i e1 v,ilor r cl,itivo clc 1'1 tlcc si611i i < l i c i,tl ( j i i t . c .ir ,I< j t c , ~ ;i i i i i ( > \ tr o si\tc~ni~i t. 3" (KI). (loiiio licn1o\ cxplrc 'i(10, ('11 1,i tlcci\itiri (le c,i(l,i t n\o p i i ti( ul,lr sc d c l ~ c ~ er siirripic ,i iralint t \i ve\ tlc 7 ~ r 1 7 1 / ( / 0 orttrcj f)(~r/o\,t i i ' ~ c ic11 (lire> r i o iiripi(lCcri riii~gtri tn\o In exijterici,i tic preccclciitcs qiic otorgticri 1 1;is (Icc~sio' tic, fiitiir,is i i r i grado de cei titlii~ribrey prcvi\ibilicl,i<l. I,,i tirnt~ l ciiri\taricin qiic cxist'i tlcteririiiiado j i ) w ( ~ d ~s o l ~e 1111 terrl'l iiiiiica elirriiriar la necesidad de i i r i jiiic io ( ontrdciictoiio, qiie saherrios es 1111 reqilijito <'\cric par a dirirriir iiii coriflicto con inl vnlor (le c (>\a jiizg:itl'~~~'. Ni siqiiicrn cri el plntio \crriAritico e410 qiie vetiirrios explicnritlo \e be c oirio for /,itlo; cri iiiiestrn lerigiia ln expr e\iciri pr ccccleiite e\ dcfiiiid'i -por t.1 Dict ioii'irio tlt- 1,i K A K - c orrio u i i 'iiitct c(le~ritt~, 1611o c i r t iir~st~iiic~itiici ~ I I sir ve p'ii 1 j111'ir( i'~ ior C '

3") Todo sisterriajiirdico ha previsto riicc;iriisrrios para alcarizar uri cierto grado de certcza en las dccisiories jiidiciales. Eri el aritiguo dereclio de jiiristas, en caso de existir contradicciories ii eiitre las soluciories dadas por los juriscorisultos, sc: r<:c~irra la communis ojinio doclorum o a la nuctoritas del jiir-ista mas acrcdicado. En los sistemas de derecho judicial, el expediente tkcnico para alcarizar certeza es atenerse al principio del stnrr circisis, esto es, la regla en virtud de la ciial el jiiez debe "estar a lo resilelto", "estar a l o decidido", e11 otros tr-riiirios: ajiistcirse al precederitc. Eii los sisterrias lcgalistas, el iriccariisirio tradiciorial es la iiitirvcricicri 1egisl:itiwi -a trdvi-s d<:la iriterprv:taci6ri aiit6ritic;i-, coadyi~vatla por el ru'/Vr.,; l e ~ g i s l a t i ~ oo cii ,sil caso poi- el v:iloi~~? viriciilaiitt: de la sc:iiteiic-iaclc los tr-ihiiiialestic casacitiri. Eii cstc (.oii~cxto, :iriiciilo 780 tlcl (:titiigo de 19-oc<:tiiiriicriel to ( h i l vicric- a crigi.osar-121 lista d i los iristi-iriiiciitos1);ir.a evitar o, a lo riieiios, atc.riiiai- las coiiti.atlicciori~s I;i,jiirispi~iitlcricit. tic Aiiricluc 121 jiii-islx-1idt:n'iacoritr;i<lictor-ia i i r i ; i r-cali<l;itli i <:S i ricgi11lc cii todos los paises ti.ibiit:irios t1.l sistciria coritiiiciital, esta sitriacicri siciiiprc i.s al,ordatla a tr-avc'stl* tlivcrsos iriecaiiisrriosrX! E 1 iiiiestr-oriictlio, tiasta la r.ef0riria tle la 1,ey N o 19.3'74, 1 tle ll)O5, t:l pr-ohleriia rio se Eia11:i trat;ido con el celo qiic dcniaiidal>a. <:iialqiiier-especialista eri i I r i ; i dcteriiiiriada rea del cicreclio podr-a dar ctetlr-a so111-e las iritttr~iiirial~les coiitroversias jiirispriiticriciales qiie se prolorigaii eii el ticriipo, rris all de lo deseable. Las clsicas "dos doctririas", qiie Iraceri las delicias de los profesores y aluinrios de Derecho Civil, eri el mbito jurisprudencia1 fcilinente se piieden iniiltiplicar por iiri factor exponencial.

4') Desde el punto de vista poltico, la existencia de iin precedente obligatorio determinar iina mayor intervencin legislaIN2

Soht-c el tenia, cfi: GUZMAN BRITO, Alt:jan<lro"Historia dcl rcferirnieri-

to al legislador", eti I&71irtn ~ P I Ert7~/lio.r Hitirir~~J~irfilico,\, Uilparaso, Edicioiirs Uiii-

dr vet-sitar-i;is Valparaso, 1982, PI>. 107-130. IH" llria explicaci6ii clrl iiiccaiiisiiio dcl tiso c1e la,jiirisprii<lcii<.ia eii el 01-<leii;iriiie~itoesp;iol, ;iIeiiiii y Iiol:iri<lCs,cfii MORAI, S O R I A N O , 1.eoiioi; 1<1 />rtc.c.( l p r ~j~~di(.il~l,cit., 1>1>. 157-240. /~ 01).

iiva, ~>orriciitlo :i1 iiiiriovilisrrio que II;I pi-c<lorriiii;itloli.c.iii(~I firi ; I;is coricradictoiias r-cspiicstisjiir.isl>r-iidciicialis ac.c.i-c;i (IvI :il(.;iiiel cc, de iiri iriisirio pi-ecrjjto legal. Hasta la l~cIi;i, Icgislacloi-stilo se lia rrio1iv:itlo paix resolver tcriias piiiitiiilcs (casi sicrripi-c p;ir-;i deliri(ler- cl cr-;ir-ioiiaciorial), per-o Iia sido rciiiierite para z;u!j:rrdisciisiones qiie sc liari cterriizado en la pr-ctica f)rcrisc. Por otro lado, la recta iitiliz;ici>ri del riiecaiiisnio otorga viialidad al sistcrna poltico, ya qiie si se istirria que el criterio iiriif i a d o por el Plerio rio es reprcsctritativo d e la rriayora, el legisladoi- se ver5 ol~ligxio torriar pai-tido eri el asiiiito, realia zando los carril>ios riecesarios pai-;i J-cvertirla existcricia di. 1111 pi-ecetlt:ntc obligatorio para todos los tr~i1~iiii:ilcsji1sticia1)les. y Eii s i i i i i ; ~ ,si bicri cii iiiiesii.o rricdio sc. 1i;i c.stiiiiatlo qiit. 1:i , j i i i - i s l ) r - i i ( l i i i c . i ; i iio chsi i r i iii'to<io( 1 ~ .jji.o(liicci0ii <1t. iioi.rii;ts jiir-tlic.;is, iio vrLiiios irr(~oiivt~~ii(~rii(. c ~ ~ o n o c ~ ( ~ r cos;is 11;iii p;ii.;i r quch1;'s (.;iiiil)i:i(lo siist;iiic~i;iIrric~ii~(~, l i i z tlc.1 iiisti.iiiiic~iito ;i la i-c~c.i(.iitciiic.iit(. iiic~oi.~x)i.:i(lo c.1 C :(;(ligo rlc- 1'i.oc~ctliiriic~iito (-11 ( :ivil. 1 ,A ( : o i . t ( . Siij>i-c.iri;i- i i c . r i t ; i (.o11 i i i i iii(.clio ( ~ I I c ' , 1)ic.n iiiiliz;i(lo, pc.i.iiiiiii.;i ( tloiiii- ;i 1:is el(~c~isioiic.s jii(lic.i;~l(.s (Ic i i i i ; i i1i;iyoi. ~ , r - c . t l c ~ < . i l > i l i t l ; i ( l , (~iiiiil>li<~iitlo si1 iiiisitiii ( 1 ~ .1ij;ii-i-cgliis iiriili)i-iiic.sII;II-;I 1;' (lccisitiii (les los c;isos :ii~;logos. l i i i i ( . o i ~ c ~ i~~ilix:i(~i(iti riicc;iriisriio L .~;i (1c.I 780 l)(-pix*vislocii el :li~tc~illo (Ic-1 (;I'(; jlilctlc illci-1-c~slili;i~los iicficiosos, y;i que i i i 1;' c'xistcii(.i;i (le 1;i iiitc~i~l)i*.t;ic~i<iii aiiti.iitic;i (privativa (le1 Icgisl;idoi.), i i i el liisil jiir.tli(-otlcl rc7i;7-c;Icgisliitivo (1c.I ai-ticiilo 5" d ( ~(:(;(ligo (:ivil, cri rii;s de c.icarito c.iiiciic~rita l ;irios (le liiri<.ioii:iiriiciito liiiii poclitlo g;ir;iritizar- ii los jiistic-iaI>lcs(]II(~ 2iiite siipiicstos sciiitjaiites los ti-il,iirial-s (lar-Ari la rriisiria soliici<iii a siis casos.

iiil<~i~(~s;iril(~s (~ii(* g(Lirc-i.;i1 rl(.rc.c.Iio, j i i i . i s l ) i - i i t l ( . i i c . i ; i l (.S (.I t l ( , sii 1' (~~ii1ll~i0~~~. (1cEl p~.o\>lciii;i :itlrriitr, vii.i;is ~)cr-s~)cc.tiv;is ;iii;lisis. (;oirio Iicriios cxplicatlo, tlesclc el piirito d e vist;i (le la sc.giir.itl;i<I~jiir-clica, la corriilri o~>iriiiijiii~ispi~iitlericial sohi-e i i i i tciria es algo (leseahle, eri el sciitido que exista uri c~-itei-io qiic atiriei-se p2ii.a al la soliici6ri d e i i r i deter-niiiiado tenia. El extreiiio coiitr-ario es el caos jilrispr-iideircial, la dispersin, la coritradiccicn de opiriiones, realidad sobre la qiie nuestro sisterna tieric iina gran experiencia aciirriiilada. Si 1)ieri la jiirispi-utlericia dche sir- estable, ello iio sigriifica qiic ~; i~' c.oiif)~.iii~ 10 rio se p i i e d ; ~ ~i t i i l ~ i i;ilglirios criter-ios dc dccisi>~i, requiir:iii las iieccsi<lidessociales. I , o coritrar-io seria aliogai- la . capacicliclci-c-ati~i, d;iii<loi i i i ~ i l o idcsiritrsiiratlo al argiiirieiito tit. :i iitor.itl;irl (10 /loc,/r.lr~cr -riarrcr.\ .son/~nt~icr.v)iic ;iiicl iiilos;tri~i 1 de(lo ,q (' css iirio tlo siii-rollo (le1 cl(.i.c.clio. 1,;i r-igic1c.ztic los pi-c~<~~~<lc~iitcs los c~xirciiios qiic*xL(l(.l)c,ri c.vit;ii; y;i ( I I W 1)iw(l('iii(.c.;iiiiz;ir-1;i ;ic.ti\.itl;i<l jiii.is(lic.(-ioii;II. b:il 1.igo1., c.1 piiiito C X I l (lis(~ilsi(;il otro: (.(;lllo se- (l(ll)c 1 ~ c ~ > l l i (,S L;II- (-1 ( . ; i i r i l , i o tic- iiria (1oc.ir.iriii j i i i . i s ~ ) i ~ i i t l < ~ i i < ~ 1;l i 1~)i-iiic,ipio i; . ixb(.tot. C ~ I IC*SI:I rii;itc~i.i;i os ( I I I C * el (.;iiiil)io scL;isieiii~)i~(~ 11io1i\~;i(io, cori e-1 Ol~jc~io 1 1 0 s ; i ( ~ ~ ~ i ll;1c ~ l i ~ l l l~ ~ o ~ 1 s t i t i l ~ ~ i I:i ~ l l ~ l l (!c. i ~l r ~ i ~ l (le, ~ igli;ll. 1;i (I;itl ; i r i t c b 1;i I c ~As, si 1;i (:or-i(. Siipi.cirin c1iiisici.a iiio(1ilic~:ii. do<.ii-iiia que c." ;dgiii i i i i i i i i i o iiriili(.ti, <lc.l~ci. iiioiiv;ir t;il (.:irril ~ i op r ; i que 1;i iiiicva oi.ic~iit;icitiii r.c.siilt<, iio ai~ljiti~;~i~iii"~~'. ;11cs 1,os c:jcrriplos <te c:irril>ios~ j i i i - i s ~ ~ i ~ i i d c i 1 c iiiirriotivatlos sot,r.ari. Algiiiios ( I r ellos Iiaii caiis;iclo tliscr-iriiiiiacioiics rri:isiv;is, conio ociir-r-i< c.1 tciria tlrl cohi-o (le pc-risiories o rcliqiii(l:ieri
-

3. EFE(:T(>S DEI, PKE(:EDENTE QUE UNIFICA DO(;TRINA JUKISPRUDENCIAL


l,i de Atpptddo q i ~ e dcciicn proiiiiiiti~cln coritorrriiclad al artciilo 780 del (:P(: tiirie el \,ilor tic precederite viric iil'irite, ello iintiir,ilriierite ac arrea iirin wrie de coiisec iicric ins. Algiiria\, cri ,ip,ir iciic i,i, podr ,iri c r itic'ii \c. I,,I pi iricipal ohjct ihri qiic \ i i r gc e\ 1'1 tic. iiii,i ~>o\ihl<il,u/n/~ccrctort ( i kcl gurl~prucioncrn.Eii cfcc lo, iiiio del lo\ pi ol>li.iii,is iii,s ~

'"

F,ri c.1

pl;iiio gericr;il, 1i docti.iria 1i;i sc;ilatlo ;

q i i c el <.a'.ctci. ~ ; i i i ~ \ ~ i ;tl<,t c ( ii~

l;i,jiirisprii<lcii<-ia (Icici-iriiri;~

que <lrl>c iii*irse cl valos <lef'~icii1c; coiiio 10 sc;il;i t\N(;I.i\l)A: "1,;i jiii-ispi-irtlcnciacs iiii rlcrriciito qiir piir<le caiiil>i;ir- dc lictlio y I.iicgo i i o piir<lc ser- liiciitc rlcl <Icreclio pr-opiaiiicriic (licli'1. S<.I: I e11rl<,. <.;irril>i;i. Iiriitiv~i Iiiciiir <lesrgiiiido ordcii, Iliiiiasc liiiiitxia, sii\,sitli;iri;i o siil)lctori;i:el iioiii1)i.c c s lo dc iriciios (. . .) ". IINA(;I ,Al);I VIL.;\RI~l':RO, ,jii;iii, cii I(\ltldio., (lo I k ~ , ~ c . l / o 0';71i/ ~ r 1 1 0 ~ o (/(~//IIo/,J<oI 1 t~ (;(I\//;II '/~I/IP~~(I\, I ' ; I I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ I I ; I , ~ ~ t ~ i v c i s i ~ <l<, ( l b;<li(.ioiics I ; i N;!v;ii.i.;i, l!)(i!), 1). 78. I X ' F,sic 1 ) i . i i i c . i l ) i o c.\c;i ; I ( - < . ~ ) ~ . I CI i <Io<.ci-iii;i cii I O ; (Icl ' l i . i l > i i i i ; i l (:c)iisiiiii<o i i ; i l i (SI'(:,22 t l < . j i i l i o tlv I!)I):3, Ko1 N" 171). i\ll S<. sc;ilt ( ~ I I ( ."Iosc,itiil>ios (Ic < I o < . l ~ - i -

ii;i j i i s t l i ~ . ;1 ) o i ~

lo

f i c . i i < ~ i ; i l <l<.l)<.ii ~ > i - o ( l i i < . i i . s < . siciiil)~.<' clt~<' <.xist;iiii i i o ~ i ~ o si ; I / o o

cihri de las rnisriias. Diir-ante iriiicho tierripo, iiria gmri c . ; ~ i i i i t l ; i t l t l i piiisioriatios obtiivicron seiitcricias fiivorables, qiictiaii(lo protegida sri sitiiaciciri por la eficacia d e la cosa juzgada; otros, <.ri cambio, tariibitri qiiedarori viricirlados por la cosa.jiizgada, pero tina "riiieva sin pensin o reliquiclacin, al haberse ~>rodiicitlo iriterpretaciii d e la riorrnativa aplicable al caso". Desde el punto d e vista de los abogados, la existencia d e iiria fuerza vincirlante de la jurisprirde~icianos impondr la obliga cin d e solicitar.justificadaniente el cambio en la doctrina, dand o las razories para que los jiieces del forido acepten aplicar iin criterio distinto al establecido por la Corte Siiprerria. Si ello prospera ante los jiieccs del fijrido, cuando la causa Ilegiie riiiivanierrte a la (:arte Siiprerria, por la va tle la casaciri, se ver si el ni5xirrio tribiirial -coirio gararitc ( 1 ~ 1sistc.irii- adrriite o rio el o cariil)io f ~ - o p u c . s te11121 cloctr-iria.jiii-ispi-iiclt.iicial.

1. MIIES'TKA Al, I)II:KE:(;lIOF,N FOKMA AI'I,I(:ADA F,xistcb 1111 \ ) I I ( > I I iiirri~~r~o Y I Y O I ~ C11iii.i~f~ii~i(i;iiiic~it:~i~ (lcx I S I;i 11t.ccsicli(l ( l t b c - s t i i ( I i ; ~ i . la , j i i i ~ i s 1 1 1 ~ ~ 1 ( 1 ((~1r~i.(los~ 1 ~ i ti~il)i11i;1lcs. pi.iiii(~tF,ti Iiig:ti; ( ~ 1tl(.i-e(.lio c.oiiio iiicclio 1);u.ii ;il(.;uiriii. I;;i,jiisiici;i i i r i l ) o i i c . 1;i i . c ~ ; i l i ~ ; i ( ~ i < i<levii.i;is ;ic.ti\,itl;i(l(~si t c . l ( ~ . ( ii ir ii;il(.s: i i i i i i l ; i l ) o i . (.ogi ~ii i iros(.itiv;i,i i r t ( ~ i - ~ ) ~ - ( ~ t ; i iy\ (Ic* i i l ) I i ( . ~ i ( ~ i c ; i i ,1;is (]tic ~ ) i i ( ~ I e ~i~ t ~ s i i I ~ ; i i ~ iri;is o iiicbiios(.oiiil,l(:j:is. Iiic~liiso los sisiciii;is ( I I I ( ' 1)1~o(~I;ttri;111 cii (.oiilo 1)riiicil)io ( 1 1 1 ~ . l i i , j i ~ ~ ~ i s l ) i ~ i ~ (1 I c ~ ~ i c i ; ~ ; i I o i . ( 1 ~ .I ' ~ i c * ~ i t ( > 1 0 tic.iic \ ~ ( l ( ~ 1(Ic*i.(-(.lio, (~oiisiiIt;i igtialiri(*iltcsti (,S ol)ligiito~.i;~, ( I I I ( , i i lo y;] iiic,iios sci-vil-ii iiisti~iiiiieiito tl<. p;ii.;i i l i i s i i . ; i i ~c.(iiio Iiari i;i/oii;itlo o c(jiiio cbst;iii i;i~oii;iiiclo los ,jiic~cc.s ;iriio i i i i clc~ic~i~iiiiii~i~lo 1)t.ol~l(~rii;i,jiii.clico. El tlci.cclio cls i i i i li.iitiiiieiio pliii-al qiic iio M" ;1got;i s'ilo e11 (le el (1;~to iior.iii;iiivo le-gal, i i i cii c.1 cli<.tirricii i i i i .jiii.ista. I,;i.jiii~isl)~-~i(lc.ricii 11;u.t~ es iiria 1-~:lcvaiitt~,cxpi-csitiii iiiAs viva tic lo Ii quta r s c l tlri.cclio. lliclio (le otr-o rriotlo, el tlir-eclio es i i i i a r t i escricialriicrite 111-Acticoy la.jiir.isl>r-iitlciicia siri dutlas, s i l riiaiiiSesta<:i<ri es, rris tarigible. L,a.jiirispi-uclciiciaes lo colrti-ario a toda itlea a1)stracta (o tcor.ia 1xu.21) (Ir lo qrie es el fcri61rierio ,jilrdico; la .jiirisl>i.il(1crlci;i (>,\ PL ( / o r r ~ / { ~ p l ; r ( ~ ( i o . ~o (:o1110 hicri lo ~it1vicr.t~ Hcliriiit (:oiiig: ". . .iiirighiii oixleiiai i i i < . i i i o ,jiii-tlico sc. (Icr.i\.a de ~)i.iiicil)ios il>sti-ictos. Niiigi'iii oi-<Ic.iiiiriit~iito ~jiii.tli(.oes i i i i sistciiia I<jgi<~o-riiiitcriiitico. 1,;is iiisiitiic~ioiic~s,jiii.i(lic.;~sI>as;iii,iiiiis l ) i < . i i , (Ic iriiiliiplcs riio(los, se ( * i i 1:i (.xl)ci.ic~iic.ia. o siir i;i/,tiii (l(~(.iiiios c.sic i-<~sl)cc.to t s i i i i ; i N ;i tlii

i.(.giiliic.itiii se Ir;i iici.c~tlii~iclo iio se Ii;i ;ic.i.c.tli i ; i t l ( ) o cii 1;i 1)r';ictica. 1'01. cx1)c.i-iciie.i;rse. s;il)c, tlcstlc ;iiiiigiio, (111c. I I O io(1;i i.cgiil;icitiii legal c.oiisigiic sii ol?jc~tivo, s(,r.i;i iiif(~i-c~siiii(~ y (.I irivcstigai- tic- iiiia v c ~ a Ixisc tlc rriiiclios cjc.trit>los, si I;i ; i l ~ l i ( . ; i , citiri de las leyes, y eii 1>ai-ticiil;ir- los ctiiligos, lia coi-r-csl~oiitli(le tlo a las iiitcriciorics que teiiia cl Icgislacloi-"la".(:oiicliiyr est<. aiitor: "I,a expcr-iericia derriiiesti.a qiic rio toda i-egiilacicii legil o pi-iiicipio elahorado porjiiristas coiisigileri sieriiprc sii objetivo firial, ya (lile la labor- de los ,jiiices puede defoririar las biierias iiitericiories de los Icgisladores o d e los jirr-i~tas"~". Eri i i i i iritci-csante tral~ajopil1)licado eri 1991, ljqjo el siige~( ( ) rcritc ttiilo: 1,o ~ / I L P 111 j ~ i r i . s f ) r ~ ~ d ~ r .SP ~hi + c , Karritiii Doiriiigiicz I<eii:ivrritc y (:;iriiioi Bo~iiiiigiiezHidalgo expliciiii, coii i r i i i y I>iiciiosc-jc~rriplos, i-clc\~irici;i la CIIIC, tic,iic. I;i,jiii-isl~i-iitlciici:~. 0t.spiii.s (le i-cbsciiiii- tcsis clAsic~i, la i-cl;~ti\~iqiiv Cstii iio es Iiicritv a tl(.l cIci.cclio, los iiiitoi.<.sigi.cg;iii(liic. " c > i i rl lit~.lio, ol)siiritc. rio lo c-xlxi<-sto, jrrri.\/)r.rs/lonc.icr iic.iic iiiia tXiior.iiic I;i iiril~oi.t;iiic.ia iras(.(.iitlc.iital. I'oi- algo la <.oiioc-i(l:iIi.;isc. qiic '1,:i I<.y 1-c>iii;i y I;r,jiii.ispi.u(l<.iici;i gol~ic,i.iiit', tlaclo ( l i i ( \ (.S (.II;i I;i qiic, ('ii (.;isos ~>i.('(.iI' sos, sc~;ilii s<.iilitlo t1(, i t i i ; i r i o r . r r i i i I<~giil.o i , <.,siii ~ > ; ~ i ~ t i < ~ i ~ l i i - i t l ; i t l tlc Iii 11/ri;/"7~~lo~'icr, tlcici-iiiiiiitl;isiioi.iiias I(sg;il(.s tlc:jiiii [Ic. iciiei. ;llll ~ ' l ~l~)li(~;l(.i(;l1,1 ~ ] l l (la ' I ( ~ t ~ 1sigll(b vi\,a. 1+:11el l i ( ~ ( ~ t 1 0l j ~ 1 1 ~ i s ~ ) i ~ l l tl(.ii(.i;i se Ilcvti la iioi.iiiii I<.g;il"'"". li:l.(.iiv;iriic.iii(., iio soti ~)oc.;is oc;isioii(.s c.ii I;is (.ii;ilcs los Iiis jiic.c.c.s ticricii qiie I I c ~ i i i i i .liigiiriiis t l v I;i Icy, o iiitcr~>i.ciai.l;i coiil'ol~l1lc los c ~ l l ~ ~ l > i o s :i so(.i;llcs. K l l i:ilc~sc:tsos gl~~ltlll;illll~~ilt~~ S(, v;i l)ij;iii(lo121 rioi-iria jiii.(lic.a (lile Ii~<'fio 1.ccogid;i 1101.('1 I<.gisliies L~o~iirigi~cz Agiiil;~," ~ o i i tloi: (:oirio l o ;it1vici-(c cc~~tc~r~;ir~it~iit(' coriiiiri, 1;i ci-ciciiitlc iiiia i-cglii jiiti.ai-i;iiriciitc;i iiiia cr-t~c~iicia a es i-tli~i tr;i\&s d e la jiirisy>r~ii<leiici;~leii:i, rriiiclio iiis t l i i < . I:i clue w 11ro(liice 1)or.los ti~;i(licioiiales rritodos Iegislati\~os. Miciiti-as la regla iio se dcc;i~il:i,la iiicertitliiiril>i.e sii1)sistc y si los.jrietl(.ic.i.iiiiii:itl;i
'
(51

~)i.i.si.iiic. 1 . 0 1 (.i.c.;itloi;I;is solii(.ioiic~s sil t lisl);ii.c.s1);ii ; I (.;iros sc~iiic~jiiiiic~s i i i i i l t i l ) l i ( . ; i i i c~i~ciiiitlo sc. iiisc.giii.itlii(l y, 1)oi' lo iriisrrio, ol)stciilos y vall;is ii la j)i.;c.iica iicgoc'iitl. 1,ir iriiiiici-;i tic. (.i.c.:iciii clc 1:i r-rgla poi. rricclio tl(. la,jiii-isl~r-iitlc.ri<.ia sido pi-colia c,iip;~iiri cloctr-iriar-iay se destaca por. iiisigiies iri;tcstr-os c1tw e1 jiiez, al fallar, rio piietlc liiriitai-sc a r-csolvei-la sitiiacitiri coricrcta y que para Iiacerse ilria i d i a exacta tlc lo qiie 1i;i d e r-esolvei; es riecesario sohrepas~irla refkrii-se a pr-incipios gericralcs del y sisterriajiiridico"'*". qiic Sori rniiclias las reglas o tiecisiories.jiiris~~r~ide11cii11es luego sc t1;111 rccogitlo corrio rioririas lcgalcs. Eri rriater-ia procesal uri c1ai.o yjeiriplo se ha claclo coi1 la tercci.a de ~>osesiii, i ~ e q slo eri siir-gid;i coriio iiria creaciii,jiir-is~)i-~iclc~iciiI, 19XX fiic iriti-otliicid;~ (:<iligo dc. 1'1-o(.c.(liiiiiciito(:ivil, poi- 1;i 1,r.y al No 111.705, (le1 24 d e trixyo (1c l!)XX. A 1;i rriisrria Icy le c.oi-rc-spoii(IcI i cliti pI:~srii:ri.e11 1;i i~t~g111~icit')iii i i ( ~ i t I ~ ~ i(i i1( ~~i i i l i c l ~ ( i(ii1.t. 83 (:l'(I) iiria sc~i~ic~ -pi.iric.ipios, t;iiiiI)i6ii fi.igiiicIos (1 por. Iii,jii~-isp~~irc.1 cxigic.ii(Icri<.i;i, qiic*li;~l)iaii riioi-igc.i.a(lo l0i-iii;ilisrrio~>roccsal, ( l o pci.juic.io y ir-asccii<lcric~i;i I;I (l(.cliii.;r(.itiiide. riiili(litli!"'. I>;II-;I li:I ~ > o ( l r r .c.i.c.;iii\lo ( o ticsii-iiciivo, s(.gliri coriio se 1 ~ .cjiiici.a i i i i i . i i i - ) (le. la jiii~is~~riiclcii~~iiii i i i c;jcrriplo iiotihle.;i pr-ol>(isiti(.ric. 1 0 ( 1 ~ .la s i t i l ; l ( ~ i ( ~ i l gcilc~r~;l(l~l1 0 l ~ l 1 0 li ii1ilisolllt~ili~l;l~l lliil(,ll 21 del ti.iriioiiio. (:orrio c.s coiioc-itlo, 1);istO i i i i siriiplt. g i i . o , j i i i - i s f ) i - i i < i c , i i cial [>;u.;i( 1 t . j ; ~cii p;ipc.l iric?j;itlola iiit(.ricitiii del Icgisli(loi;(lue s:iI)cirios fiic la (le (lotiir. ii iiiicstro sistciii;i.jiir-clicode i i i i rri;iti.ir r i o i i i o iii(lisolii1)lr. (;irt. 102 ( K:). A t i.avCs la <.xtciicliclapr.ctica <le la riiilic1;id tlel iriati-iiiioriio por- iricorripeteiicia del Oticial tlil Registro (Iivil, qiic: se adiriitii por prirricra vez cri 1025, se abr-i6 paso i iiria 1riarier;t ficil y expedita d e alcaiizai. la tlisolucitiri del viiciilo iiiatr-irrioiiial, qiic, irisistiirios, el legislador dcclar, expresarrieritc como iiidisoliihle. Que las decisiories~judiciales puetleri aportar soliiciories origiiiales, qiiecla a la vista eri varios casos. De i i i i modo concreto, iiria cr-eativa tcsis se aprecia eri la seritericia de la (hr-te tle Ape(.(.S i i ( ) i i c . i i i . i i
d < b

I \ III<I\I~I:I~I)I 1 1I)I l o \ i i : i i ~ ~ ~ n i \\ (o r ~ i o i i lN I I i)i i i ) ii:i 1 i i o N( , i i

ostu tu la qiic. la c.osa jiizgarla Taiitliil<.ritapiiedt: ser- 1-erriovitlii ;i tr;iv6s (le1 iriciderite (le iiiiliilatl proc.esal, iio ol>stariteeii<-oiitr.ar.s(. la seii trricia fir-riicy <jccutoi-iada.I,ijiistificaci<iidada para csic procedei- se eiicuentra en el corisider-arido 17", al exprcsai- "qiic la riecisiclad tie erirneridar tiria seriteiicia irijusta debe iiicluso sobrepoiiersc al efecto de cosa jiixgacla, qiic tiene coniojiistificacitiri y fiii la st-giiridad y istal>ilidad de los tlerec:lios. Por eso iriisiiio, la posibiliditl tle corregir el er-r-01cornctido cri i i r i killo de esa clast. r i o piietle per-riiariecer-eritregada a iiria iiitei-pi-etacitiri drrriasiatlo r.esti.ictiva de la ley ~)oi' jiiez, ya qiii ste es el ~ ) d l > i c iiiti.rpretc cle la ley rii los <.asosl)ai.ticiilaiv.s, as corrio o e1 Icgislatloi- lo es 01-tlcii ;i 1;i iIcc.lai.~ic.itiri gciici-;il iIcl t1cr-c.clio coiisiitiiilo". t.1 li.iiiiAiiiitlii<'i l i s < ~ i ~ c ~ ~ ~ ; u i i o ~ Icxlt.gi(lo I>;U.;I r~(~ii~ovc~i~ iricclio c ~ l (le., 1;i sc.iitc.iic.i;i <I<.j:i i i i i i y c.11 c.1;ii.o la iiio\~ili(li(l~ i r t ,ic.ric.ii los c jii(.c.cs ;i 1;i 1101-;I t l 1)iisc:ii. soliit.ioiics p;ir.;i r.c~)lvci. c.:iso (.ori~ c.1 (.r.e~Ol!l~
c h i i

1, .. .it iorics de Saritiago, 24 d c riiayo dc 2000, rc<.:iicla t.11 los ;iiitos "Novo;~(:licvcsicli, Kiigciiio, y o t i - o cori Servicio (le Iiiil>iic-stos I~iterrios"~!". r.a l o qu" aqiii iiiter.isa, la seritiiicia <-oiri~~ritiitl;~ 1'a

'liiiirl)ii.ii i i i v i i ; ~ii pi.c.ocii1);irsc por t'I (-s~iitlio( ' 1;1 jiii.i~l)r.~r(lt~r~(l (.i;i 1;i <.:ipaci(latlqiic. 6st;i ticiic para iriti.o<lii(.ii. i i s I i t i i ( ~ i o i i c ~ s , j i r i r-clicas,claiitlo (liriairiisirio ii1 ortlcriaiiiic~ii~o. i~c~ilitl;~tl.jiitlici;~l I,;i (Ieiiiiirstr-a cliitXexiste cri l;i~jiir.ispriidericia iiri;i lal~ortlirirriica y crcidor.a, qiie ~~errriite;iplicicicti(le pr-iricipios clal~or-ados la eri Gpocas pasadas y coiitextos ciiltilfiiles niuy distiritos, para dar- respiiesta a sitiiaciories act~lales. De la jiirispriidericia dcpcride, eri rri~iclias ocasiories, cliie se piletiari iricoi-poi-ar iiistitiiciones qiie rio olxtarite coiiiar cri cl 5rril)ito doctriiial coii iiii rico desarrollo, 1iiist;i qiic iio sori corisitlei-iti:ispoi- los jiiecis eri siis tlccisioiies, rio ~)asiii riici-as de c.xposicioiics tc(ii.ic:is. Eii lo tirigil)lc, I;i iiicoi.1)oi.aciiitlcl cririqiiccirriiciiio siii (.;iiisai":',1ii cxtcrisitiii ile 121 i-c.l);iricitiii tlcl (1;iiio rrioi.;il, la ;iplic:ic.itiri (le la (lo<.ir-iii:i tlcl ;il,riso c1t.l dc.1-cr.lioy, rii;is 1ii al>licirc~icii la tlocti-iiiii tic. los ;i(.tos l)iol>ios, tlc r-ceiciitt~iii~~rit(~, vii;ili<l;itl t l i i t . li(.ric. sori ;iIguiios rlc los sigrios iii;is visil>lc.s( 1 ~ . 1 ; ~ la ~ l r i ~ i s ~ ~ 1 ~ l l i l ~ ~ l l ~ ~ i ~ l ' ~ ~ ~ .

I,;I ~ c ~ i i c i i c ~ i ~ i ~ l ) I i c ~ ; i ( l ' i c i i I<I csi' p l<l?j, t. Xt:\'ll, scc. Y " , pp, l(i-?O, I,;i ;icliiiisitiii (Ic. iiii c;iiiiiiio <livci.so ; I;i ;te(-itiii tlc ic.vi\itiii tlcl)ilit;i coiisii 1;i (.li(.;~ci;i t l ~ (.os;i jii/g;i<l;i. (:oiiio sc, s;ilj(., t.011 e1 liii clt. coii(.c.d(.i. ~1t~i~;i1~1ciii(~iii<~ : ~ ic;i t~jt~ciito~-i~i(i;is, 121 ~'riic;i va pi-ocrs;iI l i ~ ~ l ~ i l i t ;pifi~ ~tl;~ c c i - t ( ~ ~ ; ~ , j ~ ~ i I I;is Is(~iitc.i~t~i;is ~ < I r ~ i i i i i c i a iiiii Ii-;iii(1c. eri i i r i a s r i i t r i i c i ; ~firrric. r s l a :iccitiii t l r i-evisii>ii, ciry;~ corii<It. ~>t'teiici;i cxt.liisiv;i l;i ti<.ii(, 1;i (:ortc. Siipi.crii;i. IIii <lt~l)ilit;iirii(~rito 1;i t.fic.;ac.i;r <l<. cosa jiizga<li 110s piit.(lr llevar, riiirv;iiiiriite, a i i ; sitii;ici<iri (~iir rii 6poc;is p i ii i yi p aaclas se t.5tiirrc c-xerfiible,j~istaiiieiiteo r q i i e el esta(lo (Ic. iiicei-ti<liiiiil>r-ejitr-idic;i q u e puccic alcctar ; Iiis sciitc.iicias ,jiccliciales cs t;iiiil)i.ii Liri;i f0riira cIc iiljiisticia. r ; e A l ;ic<,p~;w I i iirtcr~)osicicrid<.1111i i i c i r l r i i i e dr i i i i l i d a t l p;w;i r ( A ~ ~ i o v c .l r ft.;iiiclr, fOiiclo, l o t111<~ cst1" ~ j r o v o ( ~ ; i i i t les ~ > c i - r i i i i i1;i ~)osil>ilitliicl 1 i~ i i c i a i iiii i i i i c o r ( i c i i VI vo,jiii(-io (iiicitlriit;il) 1xii';i i11ipligii;ir I;i cos;i,ji~/g;i<I;i, sosliiyiiiiclo e1 ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ I i i i i i r r i t o (le I;is ~-igiil.os;is <~xigcii<.i;is (IC, i i i i l > o i i c e l yj('i.t.icio ( 1 ~ . I:I :i(.ci<jii (le ~ ~ ( ~ v i s i ( i t i .
"" ""
i ci;i IIII;I (-ii<.siitiii ~>;icilic;ic i i (le icvisitiii, 1)ai;i 1>iiva1 (le c.lic;i(-i;i ; 1;i (-os;i jii/,gi(i;i, iiii(~sii.;i, j i i r i s l > i ~ ~ i ( l t ~ i i < . i(:11.. I;i sciii<.ii( i;i <i<. ;i. I;i (:S. tI(. :(O tl(. j i i l i o ( 1 ~ . 1024, l<l?l, i . X X I I , S . - I " , 1). 1037. ((.

i:oriio \ch \<il)c,i i r i ~ i(le 1'15 pi i i i c ip<ilc\ iiiriov~i( o i ~ c \ iiiic$tr'i i tlc clac t i i r i C i y jiir i\pr i i ( I ( ~ r i (1'1 e11VI filiiriio tic-iiipo e\ l'i 'i( (.pt(i(i611 ~ i I ( . i i , i tlt. 1,i do( t r i r i , i <le1 ,il)ii\o del tlcrcc Iio, c oirio cr iici i o iIc c or I i.c ( ioii eii c1 clcrc ic io ,il>ii\ivoo ~ ~ r iiii'il tI('1 der et l~o~""'. v I ~ . oi I) t r o tlc 11 r cccpc itiri tle I,r do( tiiri,~ ' ilcl 'ibiiso del dci cclio, 1,i jiii i\lx iidt>ii( iii rio lin trcpirlndo i i i iec oriot cr (liit2 e\te tipo rlc \itiincioiic$ t,iiiil,i6ri piiede wrgir ,i pi opsito del cjer c ic io tlel d i i eclio dc Licci<ri.

EIIt.1 ~rril)iio 1 ~ ~ 1 ( (lcrcc1 1 0 e( oiiriii( o, 1<1 (:oiiiisi6ri 1'1 ( ~ \ ~ ~ I I ~ I I . I te( orioc i<i cct,i rri,iicr i,i t b i i (11 l)i<i,irric.ri !)XO/52(i, t l < . 7 t l ( . o( tiiljre (le I!l<lli, que 11" ( oiilii iti,ido por 1'1 (:oiiiisitiii K(.soliiiivn, cri sc.riteii( i,i <le1 12 tle riovic.iril,i t. de li)O(i;.ill se csi~i1>1<~ 10: "Si I~icri s c ici to qilc iod,i pcrsori,i ticric In posil)ilitl,i(l Icgnliiiciic. te r ecoriocida de cleriiiriciar nrite c\t,i coinisiri 1,i existcrici,~ tlc actos coritiarios ci ln coriipetencin nuri sir1 terier iri~ers actu,ll eii Ec ello, y que tnrito c\tn Corrii\iGri c orrio In Fiscnln Naciori~l oricrriica tierieri el deber de investigar y conocer los hechos deriuriciados, no e\ rneiios cierto que ese derecho de accin piiedc sci ijirc ido cori la segilridn iritiiic iri de iitilitnr a tales rgirios de deferisa de la cornpetcricin pdi n iritcrit,ii logi ar (lile &[o\, cri el ejercicio <lesu\ fiiricioiic-s, saricioricri o liriiitcii el ,iccioii,ir de qiiiciniitc cri el riici t .ido. 1it.s < orripitnii coii c.1 dc~iiiirit I)c es1,i riiniici n, iiii dci ct lio qiic 1'1 ley cst'il>lctc c o i i iiiic.s (1t. or (1t.11 piil)lico, pilc~lc. ,iiisloi iri,-ir s(., por 411 iii,iI iiso o sil .il>iiir \O, V i l i i i i 1114t1 11111<'11tO I ) r i l r l O l > i < ' l l ~ ' l < ' ~ 1 1 I ~ < 1 ( 1< O l l i l r l l i O \ < l I ill1 0\ t i i es gtaritAr i r i l i irigic~ri(lo el (leriiliici,rritc. Ins irii\rri,is rior iii,is al, s ( iiyi .ipli( .ic <ir1 solic II,~"""'. k,ii 1'1 J I I I i\pi i i ( I ( ~ ~ i'i( (lc, 1'1 l. (:o[ icb i Al)eI~i( io11c.s (lt, S'IIInl~iiso <Iciccliocii (SI c31c'rtlcl ti,igo, otro iiiier es,iritc f,illo sol~rc c ic io (le ,ic ( ioric\ j i i c l i c i,ilc.s se pi oriiiiit iti cri 1'1 (niisn "1iiiriot)il i , i r i,i Nnt i o r i , i l ( o r i ( k r i t r ol>,iric o", d<.!) (le iiovicrril)i <Ir. 19!)2. I)cslx16s de siritcti/,ii 1'1 tIoctiiri,z ri,ic ioii'il y 1'1 cvoliic i(iri <.ii este tci~i'i,cl corisitlcrciii(1o( i ~ ~t io r \eic~I~i:I I ~ ~ i i ~ i l c ~ i i iseci ~ i "Q t ~ r el (Irribito dc nplit nci(iii tic 1'1 doctriri,~sol>rc el .il>ilso del dereo cho, dolo, ciilp,~ ricgligcrici,i, i i r nt ioiinlicl,id cri sil cjerc i( io, faltn dc 1ritcr6so 11ec~'~icidii Ic>gtirrios, r i t i i i t ili del dgerite cri i per jiidicnr, o coi1 desvo d e los fiiies de In iri\titiic iii o par los cliw fuire coiicibidn e iricliiso, ,iplicado a procedirnieritos judiciales, e5 evidente que, de parte del agente causante del rnal, debe existir 1111 niriio rriariifiesto dc perjiidicar o iirin evide tleiite faltn de iriteis o riece~idad lo que prorniicva o ilii actuar rriotivado por cl afiri de cniiwr ilri pirjiiicio n sii continpnrte o coritrntarite. Esa iiitiriciri de perjiiclic,ir no solo delje rriciriifestnr se, t orrio es lgico, c uniido se ,it ti,~ 1,i rljicri
(:e.iiti,il
( I c b

1;1

(l(.

I;i

l ~ ~ \ ~ l ~ l l l s ; l l ~ ~l~ x ll l; ~ ~l l~ ~ o l l l l ~ ; s i i ~ol i (l[ ;I Il tl. , i i~ l; l~i

l;lllil)i(~li

(-1 c . ; i x o ( . i i ( I I I C ~ ; i ( , i o scLc . j ( . c . i i ~ ; i c.s(.(.tlic.iitlo(.I i i i i c . i . c ; s j i i c.1 I ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ; I I1)1.oicgi(lo"~!'~. I I ~~ III ~ ~ '13irril)iCri eii el plario (1c.I ~>i.oc'<~so oii-o ; i i i i c ~ . c . ( l < . i i i c ~t i ( . c,ivil i.c.lc.v;iiici;i lo <.oristitiiy(:(:I c;iso "Agiiil;~0 1 ) ; i ~(oO I I Aliii;ic~c~ii(~s ' (%1 12i;iiiiigarii S.A.", fiillatlo poi- la E. (:oi-te Siipi.t~iri;i 28 ( 1 ~ .i r i ; i y o (Ic 1908, al corifii-iriar iiria scritciici;i tic I;i (hi-ic tic A~)(~l:ic~ioii(.s tlc (;oyliaicliic. Eri este caso es obligatorio tr;iiiscril)ir el coiisitlc.r;irido :" para cl tirria qiie nos ocupa: "(>iii la tloctr-iiia y ,jiii.is4 pri~deiiciaIiari deterrriiri;ido cliie 1;i r-cspoiisahilidad ciiasitlc.lic.tiial civil iio sclo pr-ovicrie tle 1ic.clios niatcrialcs qiie coriic,iitlos rlcl coi1 ciilpa <I;icii a oti-o sirio tariihi6ri piietlc origir1ar.s~ ( . j ( . i cicio ( 1 1111 tlcrcclio (.ii;iriclo i'st' se r-c;iliza t'ri f0riri;i il)iisi\,;i ~ \, c;iiis;i (I;inO.I)(. C S I ; ~ iiiirici.;i C I CIC. i i i i (Iu(' l)(~l:jilt1ic.a a oii-o,cbs1'11(.iiic* tic. r.c~sl)oiis;il>ili(I;~(l c.~i;isi(l(~lic~iii;il y ('IIo c.ivil ~ ) O i ~ ~ los l(lc~l.(~(~llos, ~ i ( ~ sc.g1'111 (~sl;ll>l(~~~c lo l l i l ;lllloi~, Lsolil ~ i ~ ~ i l l 1 ; i tlcbs qiic I;i 1c.y o i o r ~;iI ii i i t l i v i t l i i o ; I)C*I'O 1 1 0 1);ii';i ( I ~ I C , 10s i i i i l i ( . c . ;i ~ sii ;iiiiojo, siiio I);I~.;I i.c;iliL;ii(lc~tc~i~iiiiii;i<los "1.0s < I c ~ i . ( ~ c . l i o u , liiic~s"'. i iii;s tic. sil ;isl)(~'ioi t l i v i t l i i ; i l , iic.iicii i i i i ; i liii;ili(l;itl soc.i;il ( I I I ( * ii II(.ii;ii; (I(. 1i (1uc. "1 i i i i i l ; i i ~i i o l ) i i < ~ I ~)i.(w<iii(lii: ~ I ) ( . i i . I ) I I < ~ \ . < : j ( - ~ = (~ l)< c.(.i.scb ; i c . i i c ~ i . t l o ( . o i i los 1iiic.s I>;II';I ( ~ i i c1 ~; i i i sitlo oioi-g;1~1os. (le. i ()iiii.ii ~>i.c*sciii<lc~ tic, (.sios liiicbs y los i i i i l i ~ : i c.11 oii.os <li\rc.i.sos l(. t ;i(lii(.llos(luc' Ic*giiiiii;ii.oii c*xisic.iic.i;i, ~ i i i c . i ilos tlc~svii l < . 1;i i i i i sil < t sitiii soc.i;il i ( I I I ~ .c.";iii (I(*siiii;i(los, ;il)iis;i tic. c-llos, y si <.;iiis;i i i r i tl;io, (Ic*Ijciritl(.iiiiii~;ii-lo".( l i ; i sc.li;il;i<lo, S. ;isiiriisiiio, ( I I I C ' 1 1 1 1 : i i l i i i i t i i . el ;il>iisorlc. ~ l ( ~ i ~ ( ~ < . l i o cx)iiio I'iie.iii(. (le i-c~s~)oiis;il)ili(I;i(l iiriljoi.l;ii'i;i i.c*sii.iiigii. Csiii (,ii 101-iris c-oiisi(lci-iil)lc sc.giiii ( : o l i i i v y (::ipit;irit, "to(lo acto (Icl lioiril,i.e que 1;' ley i i o ~ji.oliil)c*< * 1111 tl itiotlo cxl)reso, c'oiistiiiiyc el yjci-c-iciorlc uii clci-e<-lio es 1 ) i x ' c . i y sairiciiie al iitiliz;ri- sils f'iicii1t;itlc.s ciiaiitlo aqilcl siir.1~~ (I;iii;ii. ;i otro. Negar- eiitoiic-es 1;i r-ipar.;iciciisc.r-a 1-ediicii- i-cs~>oiis;il)i1;i lidacl civil a los iiiicos casos cii qiit. el ;icto est pr-oliiljitlo I X H . 1;i lc.)., y estos so11 los 11iriios". "Atlcrris, c-oriio lo seriala rl pi-ofksor.iZrtiii-o Alcssiiii(li.i Kotli.gi~c'~, ;icc.ioii(.sy los 1.c.c-iii-sos I;is Ic-giilcs tlcl)(.ii iiitciit;rr.s< s(.r.i;irric~iii(. y c.xisiii,;i aljiiso (1c. tl(.i.c~clio cii;iii<losil i i i i i l i i r - lo c:j(.i-/;i
I);II.;I

(~iill~;il)lerricrit(~,la tliligciit.i;i o c.iiitlatlo qiic los Iioiiil)i.c~s siti (.iiiplcaii oi-tliriar-iirri(~iitc siis actos o ricgocios ~,r.ol)ios; lioiiieri c.1 I~rc dil-x. 1i;icer. 1111 iiso ~ ~ i ~ i i t l c i i i elas c.osas y si t;jcciil;i i i i i ; i tlc icci<irisir1 la pi-riclerit.i:i rit>(.cs;iria cori ello causa i i i i tl;riio, i i i y t'iirrv: cii ciilpa exti-acoritr-actiial,la qiic rio atliiiite gi;itlaciories, 1xieste1 qiie la ley Iiabla d c ciilpr-i,sir1 calificativo, iiicl1iyeiido eii ella Iiasta la leve"

Otro ejcrriplo d e iiiiiovaci<iri,jiiris~1r11~1~1ici:il tltirrio tieiricri e1 po 111-ovit.iic la xiiriisiri tic1 tlafio irioi-al eri la rt:sr>oris;il~ide lidatl coriir-actiiil.lliir-:iiiie (li.crcl:is la,jiirispr~ii<lciici:i Iiahia se 1.556 rii;iiiili.siiitlo coiitr.ai-ia, ar~giiriic~ritaiitlo el ~rrt(~rilo tlcl tliic (:titligo (:vil iio c~oiiicrii~~l:il~;ir.iil>r-o. i i 1004, siii iiie(li;iicstcx K c:iiril>io Icgiil iilgiiiio, cii los ;iiiios c ~ i i ~ ~ i i i i l ~"li:il';ii.i i~los Moiitlioii, M;ir.:i <.o1112:iiico ( 1 ~ .(:liil(." S<. : i < l i i i i t c ~tlct i i r i irio(lo tic c.si:i ; iiilitlo I i i ~)i-occ~dc~iic~i;i i-cl):ii.:ic~i(irii i i i c . i i i i iiic~iiiii~)li~~ l l l : i l ' ~ ~~ l~ . 4 ~ l se, 11:i ~ i~lie~lilo o l l t 1 ~ ~ l ~ ~: l(.i~ilc*i~io l l ~ ~ 1 ~ i o l r l l : i l l t ( ~ r l i ( l o C S I l c.1 iltiiiio iic-iiil~o, c-oiiio lo i-ellc.j;i 1i1 s<.iiic~iic.i;i 5 ( 1 ~ .iiovic.iritic. l)i-(- tlc 2001, r-c.c.:iitl;i (.ii c.1 j i i i c . i o "Kiiiz (.o11l,:il)oi.:itoi.io 1ZioItigico S.A."""'.

. i i i i o s "\ I ~ ~ , I I I I I ~ *J \, I, II , I I I I I I I ~ , 1 I I I \ . I ( . ( O I I \ . I I I I I I I ( . / . I 1's M,i~iii(~l"~"~. I,,i ,ic(.1>1.1< jiir ispi iitlc.ric ,ti t l ( . 1'1 ( l o ( t i i i i , i ( 1 ~ .104 .I( los I ) I o ioii ])o\ ic'ifir iiici l<i ol>\olc~s( 1'1 (le1 ( I O ~ I I I ~ Il t y , c ~ l ~ \ ~ , ~. 1 ( I I I ( - I I eiic (111t.1 i , (lo llei eii In ley In iriit,i fiieiite (le1 (I(~rc~(lio. 1,1110 , i i i . i l i / . i t l o 1;l cst'i tle11lostr'i1lclo,cori llecllos, el \~'ilOl clc Id j i l l ispi l l ( l t ~ l l t1'1 (.ti ( l sistcrria tie fiieiites. Eri este tnso pre\eric i'iirios 1'1 c ~ i i i i ~ i ~ 1 . 1 \ I c.11 gor d e u11 priricipio jiii dico, que \c lia des<i i l j i e i 10 I)OI I I I I ( * ~ II nixirno tribunal corrio criterio de morali/acitiii cii VI (.1cbi( i( i o ( I ( . Ins ncciories jiidit iales. Al efecto, el considcr,irido 3" sosiicbiic*: I/I P r ~ l v n r l A n i L c c/omnnd(lrrtr vn vt fv 1ILU LO n o ( o \ ( ~ r - ~ ( ~ r r1/11 ~ ~ / o c ~ ~ o (10111ilo \/,1 r i ( hrczcedn (10 n uc.rc/o t o n lc i(joria tlu /o\ ccc tos /)ro/17o\, r \ (/o( 11, ( I / / I I I J11)I I c I I c ?/)LO gorlornl (lo/ (/u()( ho f und~cio /(L OUP~I(C y110 1 I I I / ) ~ I I P (II'III'I orl /o 1111 /11r1(/1to //o IP\,~IO/O y ~ o ~ r i o / ~ ~ ~ t ~ 1ir1(1 \I/II(LO(;I~//1t(11((1O(YI(/(I (1 o r i L o 111

i,icl,i

ii

los

~)iiio/,i,

( )

"

( o r i ( / i l ( /(I 01 (1/1fio

(/o/

ir/ 15 1r1o \ 11~010, (T)I/(I11do (I \ 1

la

(c,qro\ I ~ I L 11 11 I I I / ( + I P \ / I / P I I O )

\ I ~ . ~ I ~ I O /~ L// / O . 11/11(1 $0 / I ( I ( / / I ( o o11 (/IL(> 50 (/o110 III(III/PII/,I / 11 ? (/o(

(4 (/OlO(//O/ l l / / l ( O l / f / l l ( / ( //(Y11 y l / o ~ / o \ / /y, (LO\(/tl //lago, 0%/(l / l 1 \ / 1 / 1 ~ / ~ / 0(111 e 1 I/I r<qIn flor In c i r t r l lrcc(11c~ ~ r ( ~ ((~/)to-rirt /) lc htrv\c (lo ir 1 10/)10 ( l o l o o / t 11 ~ i t l i , 1 r n t o ~ ~ / r n r / t 1o r n c ~ l o r ~ c ~ ~ l r t ~ t l r$11 II(I\P h ~ , g ( OII 01 IIIIN l11o 1 5 1 0 (Ir 1 0l1 co~ rnl ~l
('o(11,qo (,'IoI/ L S o I O / / I I I \ I / O \ (10 / ) I ~ ( O ~ O I I ((I 1I ()\/o / ) r / r l ( //)/o ~~ / ~

/o\ \ I , ~ I I I11 I

/ O \ . (1) l l / / ( l I O l l ( / l l t / t l c l l l / ~ ~ l / o /l/,/ O l(T)(~/(l ( lIll(1 //01~~v111/11~1~1~1 1 0 1 1/ l / /~0\/~ /l


( / / ( ( l (10 /Mirlo / / O f(1 / ) ( ~ / \ O l / /(1 y / l l ~ f t l lo / l ~ l / ( (10 / l / ) l / ( / l ~ l $0 / P\lO /~1/11~//110, 11) iincr t o ~ c ( / r t ( l o /)o\/(?/or do /1(11/o tlrl I I / I \ I I I ~ \rc/r/o, t o ~ ~ l r t ~ c / ~ t ( o t ~ ( r l // In cen/(.rlot; 2 1 ) qrrv 01 ( l ~ w r h o / I ~ O I O ~ I \ I ( ;(l110 1111(0 ~J(I/OI1(1 /J(>I\OII(I 11 1 o II (1/11ori111(I(/P P/ (i(1or / ) ( ~ ~ I I I ( / I I ~ I I/(1 ( o ~ ~ / r ( e / ) (/I~II'(/L((L". (1 ( J ~r/o

Otro cjc~riplo i lo qiic t i ' i t ~ ~ i ~cie s d i o jiistili( 'ir stl ' I ~ e( i'i eri 1:i (1~1I iio~iiiri~ida c/ot/r/rrtc ( / P )\ ( / ( / o \ / ) r o / ) ~ o \ ( ~ J P Y I Z ( o n / r ( ~) r o / ~ l i ~ r//1(11lrri ~P / r/ i). n ~ r l l tor~t(~c1zlrnr; l -riorizro t o n l ~ / a t t ~ r r r z/ ) r o / ) l u ~ nno 7 ~ n l ~Est'i iristitiin c icri fiie ntlrriitid,i cii iiiicutrn j i i r i\pr i~tieiic civil re( ieriterrieriie ia cri 1,i seiitericia de la (:o1 te Siipierri'i de 9 cle rriayo clc 2001, dic-

1 , i ~ g I ~ itlic .i i efc~r 1.4 dt. L i l ~ l.IC c c jiii id,i ~ i<iii cri to(109 los oi (I(.iiairiiciitos jiir idicos, < oirio iiiia crri,irint i6ri (Icl ~ > i i i iI(I I I O :"ti('i;il de hiiiii,i fe. Scgiiii lo cxplic,i I'liig Kr iitnii, cii cl rii~iiitlo tlc.1 t orrtn~nrr 1 ~ 7 0c\tLtI cgl't se ~rldiiiliest~i r 1 '1 fig11r '1 del O \ / ~ / ) / I I , /t.1 i ~' 1 . virtiid de 1,i cual sc iplic,i iiria pre\iiriciri t u n c vL clp Lrruo, ( l i i t L I I I I pide j~irdicnrriciitcqiic iiiin pc.r soiin nfiirric o riiegiic- 1'1 c.xisic.ii ci,i de i i i i lieclio deteirriiliacio, por linber aiites ejeciii,itlo i i i i riCt<>,i c c l i ~ I iiiicl (ifir rriClc1ri f o i ~ n ~ i l d d o riegntiva rii t*I \( i i o iiria titlo piicicirriciitc opiicsto; 111iiscoiifoiinc ,i cstc priiic il)io, I I , I

1)11c*il(' <oiitr,iiic.c11 lo tiic lio o licc lio ~ X ) Ic.1 iiiisiiio o <iqilel elt. t~uierise clciivt~511 der ( Y 110, (1(, i i i i irio(io . I I ) ' I I ( ' I I I ( * \I o\teii\~l)lca, o11 pc1 ji11c 10 (le I I I ~tcic e1 o qiic liclcto (le- e s ~ ~ I Is ' I ( ~ ) r ieric i'n, pr ocliic i(l,is iriteiicioii,il o riegligeritc~iiit.iitc por c.1 I c.\~x>n\.il~le e11,is, c orltr,t<si i r i , l o1)lig~ic o si~fre i r i perjiiic l o de 1011 i e11 sil llt>l\OildO el1 sil 1 ) d t I ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ ~ 1 1 1 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ . Lii cl ~rril~ito tcorico la doc tririn de lo\ ,ictos propios yn t'4tril)ri ,iteptntln por \trio\ aiitore5 dc derecho tivil"" y tnrrihiri de derecho piblico, cii c\tc iillirno caso corno i i r i Irriite n 1'1 niltotiitcl'i del Estado. (:o11 la \eritcricia rcfcridn, e\ de esperar qiie se proclii7c,i 1111 rri~iyor cte5~i~ ilel tcwi'l eri l'i jllrlspr ~iclc~icc i ~ ~ i l ~ ~ ' l . Y 0110 1'3 1'01 OIK't p'll te, 1'1 scrltellc i'l 'illte\ c-it<ltl<t I>OIlt>1 iltl\( illici t o c]ile '1 ('4 11c1 tri~iie~i1c fcc po\tl~lc r i c or 11oi.11.i los c r itci 1 0 9 (le dcc i\itiri lo\ i 111i r i c ipio9 gc~ric~r;ilc.s dcbl dc.1 ( Y 110, eii cvtc. ('iso, e1 pi i i i c ipio ile 1111t.11'1 feh. k.1 ~ o l l s i ~ l ~ ~ 1 '5 Ol 1 1 0 o ~ l i l pilc~(lc~ Iii'l\ c~xl)ll(1 0 s0l)lc el \,1se.1 1 I o i iioi iii,iti\o O I I C ' sc- I C Y orlo< (' 1111 111 i i i c il)io qc.ii(.i'il, '11 i l c l~i i , i r , (]llCL ' l l l l l (,ll c.1 ( ' 1 9 0 ( I C 1 1 0 l l ' l l > c ~ l c~xlstl(l0 los c.1 1 o1 ( I C 1 c.( 1 1 0 < ~ < ~ l l i l 1.1<10\ ll< ('11 1.1 < . 1 \ ~ 1 ( 1 0 1 1 ( ' 1 1 ('1 1 0 1 1 < 1 0 , <'110\ 1 1 0 Ilq11l 1)0(11t10 1111 1 i i i i ( s i l lo (11\1)osili\o (lc'1 1,1110, ' I / o \ ~ P(//(o ~ g : i l / ~ ~ l ~ //I /~/ ( ~: Ii ~ /I (r I I I /I(II r~ ~ l ~( 1))I(I //o sor ro/ /~(/:/i(l// /i/)11/ /o)/ / / ( J 1/1 //o( 1 )1 II(I (10 105 /// 10s /)Io/)Io\ /)o) ".
tlic.
CI
( l ( b

(le* I I I I I O \ ~ I (1011 11111( l l c i \ vcce\ cs ~ i i ~ t o l i ~ r i i t ~ i c l ~ i 1)rop1'1 1101 l<i jii~ispr ~ ( l ( ~ i 1'1, 1'1 ( I I I ( > i ie ilel>cx eiitrnr ,I Iij,ri lirriitcs qiie c'vileii pos11>lcs esos. Ve~iiiio\ c-x' nlgiiiior cjerriplos r ec it~rites. hri rri'iter in de ri~ilidncl dereclio pihlico. Eri ilri'i re<ieritc de scritcricia d e ln Corte Siiprerria, de 10 de jiilio d c 2001, rcc nid,i cri los autos 'Tnstitiito de Noiniali~dciri Previ\ioridl, Barico del E4tado de Cliile y (i)rporac i6n de Forrierito de la Prodiicci6ri se sicritn iiri iriteres,irite prececlcrite eri i i r i tema qiie estnhn sieiitlo objeto de alguiini tlticlns por p,irte dc ln cloctriii,i. 1.n dcc 1'1r,ici6ri jiirge ,iI tl.\e\tirrinrse tiria \irigiil'ir pctici6ii de riiili<l~icl tlircc t'irricritc ' i r i l c S 1'1 (:o1 te Siitle ctercc h o piblico, ~lrotriovitln (' 1)rclri,i, p'ii.~(lile cllri ' I I I I I I ~ ~ I <\Ii l \e1itiri( i d elc. 7 (le \cl>tieii11>1 (le 2000. Este filtitrio f'illo li~il>i'i e \ i ~ c l (111 1c.c i ~ r \ oi b I C \ I \ I O I ~ ~ to cc iiiicr 11ut.slo en iiiic io 111o~iiovi(lo ~ los ex t r ,il).ij'itloi cs i I c . M,i~ o r ( licis'~ A.2"-). S A ( I i f r i ciic i,i (le. lo (11w o( ur 1 i<c 011 l C ~ ( . ~ i ti,i n <O I I I I I I ( 1.1 e 111 c1,i e11 "Novon (:lic.vesit l i , Eiigt,riio, y oti o c oii Sci v i c io tic. 1111(

N o seb 1 > 1 1 ( ~ 1 ( el('\( oiio( ('1 (111c' 1'1 ~

~ I ~ ) 1(1'1(1 ~ I (

':

-""

1<1?], 1. X(:VIII,

(~c(.~;I~.;I(.~oIIcs 111;s

(*I,~IIII(~~OS;IS

scc-. l.', 1>1). 177.18 l. 1.05 < o i i ~ i < i < ~ i - ; ~ i i ((III<. < (IIII~(,II<.III.I\ los 5011: 8")QIIO, ~ ~ ~ J ~ . I I ~ I I I Iltr I trrrrrJtrc.ij~~ / ,10) (1110\ ~ ,II/I', (/

rlrio I/,~-c~t~ri cr c.l,o lo.\ lr-i/trr~~tr/r~.\ r n rc.ro (Ir In f ~ o l ~ . t l o t l rrr q jciritt/ir~c.iorrtcldo1 l',~\ltrtlo. rl1,111, ~ 1I1 y / r r ,/~,,,.\o,yriirw (1 ltt1711;tt l /o\ II/OI/;II.\ 1/11(,/ ~ / I I I ~ I I I , 1I l(91 /trocr~\tll I/II(,, . ~ ~ ~ ~ l t ~ t r r ~ t i11111 ~ r ~ ~ ~ I o , ,,I \loti 1~11Itr tl,~~./rttr~.rti~r tlr, rr?rlitln,l tlr o/;( 10 (1 (1 /)rlic.in t l /)(o.l(: (/ir? c ~ ~ ~ I ~ r t r lo\l trrlrc 11 ~ /) rt~ /o\ 83, 84 y 85 rh.1 ,'tidr,qo t/r2 /'rocc~'i~trirwl,,I~ (,'i-cii/, cr.ci c otno vrr /o\ i,,t ri>-toc I/I, I'(I ct11 11;il Y rr.-c~i.\ititrglrr ro,qnlnrr, r7~\pr~c.li?~rcrtar~r1/1~, LOJ 'l'11ilo\ X I X y XX tlrl I,?/IIU t l ~ IlI I I \ ~ I I /I,\/II 111 I/r \ nonno s jtorlitr~r~(o.\ ;rit/i,qo IIC111 i l r c . i ~ i t ~ i ~ t l'or~til, 0 hiorr, rxc.c.l,c.ior~o/~~rot~I~~~ do1 j 110 / J O ~ mrtlro (/al rjt?rc.ic.io (Ir, L/.\ /irc.uL/ncl,~ctii.o.i~tl~ncrti~r,tlo,\ '1i70 11rr rrlrc Sr~/)c.riorr,, o I I / ~ I 111r. dr ( I CI nrtcu/o 545 d r l (:i/igo O1yiriic.o I / P ' / ' l 7 / ) l l n ( d ~9') ( 1 1 (...) / n nulidnrl da /o$ tic.lo\ / l l t l \ ; ~ dircior~ctkc pronur~ciodnrW I I iy/rcrc.r.irjn (11.1 /crlic.rrlo 7"hr /u (:or~,ctilrrc.icn-c)i~qc7~//r,/lo 1111 (Lri(r rrc.lirntir.sr, p n .ctc c.rr.so, .sin flor. ltr\ 71Za\ qrrr c.ont~rnf)lrirrdrc.h(r.r rrorrnrrs / ) ~ I I I . I , . ~ I ~ I ' \ . pur.5 r l .sistrmn jurirlico nnr.ionrrl rro ~,.~tcrDl(,cr ot7.o.s mrdios rlr im/~r~,grrnr tl+c/o\ rlr I ~ I I I , los /tzr~tirrr(L(/OIP~.P;. /)rr)c.~di~nirnto.~ lo,\ jliric-iolr,\ y 10.5 vicio.\ rlr, fitfi,l.~ntr (Ir> o >~PIZ~ r ~ c l o n l ~ Il ~Io, s ~ I /trr,~~~lprr (~/rc.i(~r ,r.toluti~ir, d12 los / r % l t ~ i r ~ r r 16"), ~ . r l rr,chnzo ( l t ~ /to.\r/)ilitln(l 111 In, k ~ ~ (21.w Ln tltro c,x/~nrlrv((1 ~ i r r l ~ / l n d drr~c./ro (lr f)iOlrc~ cirt~hilojurictlir.tiorr(r1 y (21 c.r-i/t,r.i r l ~ r.11 1.t11 crl srjlo / ~ I ~ I , ~ I , I I ~.,I/III/(I rr rili(l(r(I~~\ trJ?rt>r I(I,\ /)roc(,.\/il~',\,,s1 1orr/i~~.rtrt/ 111 r~(r/rr~~rrIm(r c.011 /IIII/I~/I/ < , ( I(r / i i r t c ~ ~ r j/it/ir.rnly / I / \ c~cr)(rc~/~r~;,\lic~r(r r r ~ I r ~ c r c ~qrrr3.so\ / / t ~ - c ~ c rrrl l'flbt (,ti $11 1 ' / 1 ' 1 ~ 1 (/o /n\ r~~ l c io y I/IIO /I~L,.O qr,,, /(I ~ 1 1 , ~ 1 i / r ~ c i l(1.5 rr1r ~ l i t l ~/)roc,~\t~/r,.\ ( 1 ~~ 1 ~ t l ~ ~ ~ It,~lg(i/ir!///.\o I I I I I ~ I ;/ ~ I~I I / ) I I I Y tin,<~rilar- ~ ri l trr~r/tlro~-tr~ri/,o Itr /c,oricr tlr Itr 11 t r l i r l ~ r ~ l kr t r ~ c l i r n c ~ i otl? ~ ~ t tir,q(cI I O \ r tlr, tlt, t ~ lo\ p\/(i/o//,c, t / / ~ r r . j o r il to~ i~r/rtrc~titi~r /u.! I I O ~ I I Icon~lrlririonrr/,.( ro~~t//ic.c~rrlt'\ tlr ~ ~ (11iclbc11 t~tt~/,Irtn,t'r~/o / t t j t ~ ;/I/II rlo / I ; ~ ~ I / I I / grr, //I,/I~JII/ I ~ I > I . -11; I/ /IO \ O ~ , ~ I I I I I \ I ~ I O \ . 11~1 r (I(/ II ~I ~

~ ~ i i c ~ s i o ~ ~ i i c ~ i ~ la o s " " " Siipi.('~~i;i r i (:oi-tc. ~ i-c.iilizti i i i i i i iiiii(l;i ol)c.itiii (le, o ~ ) o ic'I l O i . t ; i l ~ ~ ( ~ i i r i i c ~ ~ i t1;i cos:i jiizg;i<l:i. l4:ii c.li.cio, C O I I : i l ) i i i r ' tlaiiics ciiiis Iiisii~ic~isclocti-iii:ilcs,sc. r.ccii(.r.(l;icliii. 1irriiic.s y iiicXy (tios existcii p:ii'a II i.ivisi(iii (le iiii:i i-csolii(~i61i jii(licial, saliciitlo ;i1 laso (Ic cic>i-ios ~~larite~irriicii~osvcriiaii postiilaiitlo la cx(lile tciisicri de la iiiilitlatl de tlci-eclio piildico al iiil)ito jiii-istlic.ciorial. Es iritliitlable qiie tlr adrriitir-se la procrtlcricia de 121 ;lcci<iri de riulidacl de tlcrecho pihlico eii el nibito,jiiris(licciori:il, el debilitarnierito (le la cosajiizgatla sir-ia sil rri;is lgica coiiscc~iiricia. Al rccoiioccr- este Iiriite, la (:or.te Siipi-ciiia rio hizo otra cosa qiie a~licariiria aritigiia cloctriria tic sii propio curio, que ya Iia11ki llevado a i.ccliazai. la iiripiigiiaciii tle las seiitciicias~j~i<fic-iaIcs ;i ti-aves (Ic la acciti or.diiiai,ia tlc iiillitiatl"". 1,;i coiitiiiitleiitc (Ic<.lar;ici(iri so1)i.t~la irril)r~occ~<l<~iici:i) de 1: i i i i l i t l ; i ( l tlc cIei.cclio ~)il)lic.o iios ~);ii.ccci r i 11iic.11 cjc.iiil>lo(le 10 i < l i i r Ltlcl~c. c~oiisitl~~i~~ii-se1111 :iiiic'iiti(.o flriv~u/lor~/~, (.ti evite cxiiiio (1iic c.:iso tlcal>c*r-ki Ilc.\cii- ii c.viiiii. 1:) clisl)iir-itl;itl (1(~iritcrl~i~c~i:icio~ics ;iccbi.(.;i t1(. I I I ~ic.rii;i (le. i i i t c . i . i s g~~iici.;iI. 'I'iiiil~ii.ii 1;i r-c.1)iii-;ic.itiii cri poi' ( l ; i t i o i r i o i . i i l sc. ;il)i.c~(.ii ilri;i liiiiit;ici(jii, 110 ol)si;iiitc qiic r*.c.ii.ii cx:iriiiii:il)aiiios sil :i<lriiisitiiicii lr1;lic~r~i~l corlir~~i(~t1lll.c*lY.to, la (;ol.lc sll~ll~clri~lc~sl~ll)l(~(~i111 llil ( 1 0 ( l i l e h c.sic i.iil)i.O 1 1 0 <.S ~,i.o<.c~<lciiic~ <~ii;iil<Io i i . ~ i l ~<le. i.(*(.l;iS<. l i r i ; i i - por i i r i (le-spido ii~jiistil'i(~;itio, ;itciicliclo qii(. I;r le-y 1i;i c.si;il)l(.c.i(lo i r 1 1 r-csitr.<.iiiiiciii(, cspc.e.i:il, qiit. iiici-cbiric.rit;i I:i i.c1>;1i;i<.icii (Ic.1 ti.;il);ij;i<loririjiist;iiri<.riic(Ies~)c(litlo"'".

o ( . ; i x i o i i c . c.11 I I I I ( .

los jiic.c.(.s I I ~ ~ i i ; i iI;is i

I ; i ~ i i i i ; i ut l <

1.1

~ ) i o c.\.il (

o Iij;111 (~oli(.(3~)los e,! l~~gislil~lol~ (]llc, 1 1 0 ~lc~lilllilo.

Ii1ig:irltc l ~ i c ~ t l i : i r l : i ~ ~ l ~~ i l ti c ~( ~ l isi ((~ , l l c ~ l c~\,l:ll~l I ) O ~ lli g l ~l .(~ lll c.1101-iio,est ohligado a cxariiiii~ii. (.i.iic,i.ios( l e * i i i ; i t l i i i i x i l ) i l i los tl;i(l de or-igeri,jiirispr-iideii<.ial,(IIIC' iiiii(.Ii;is ve.(-c.s ; i ( - i i;iii ( - () I I I I I lirriites cri el ejer-cicio de los clei-cclios aiiic*los 11-il)iiii;il(.s. I+:hi;i i.ealidad derriilestra que n o es efectiva 121 cr.t>ciiciii ;ilgiiiios i('0tlr ricos que las sentrricias "ticrieri i i r i valor sirigiilai.", ~>;II';I c.1 (';\so coricreto. Es evidente qiie (ir1 detcrrr1irr;ido criterio dc, i i i ; i t l i i i i s i bilitiad creado por losjiieccs actiia cori el rriisirio :ilcaiic.c. gc-ticral de iiria ley, desestirriarido todos los ;u.tos proccsiilcs ( l i i c * M<' ejercite11 sir1 observar tal cxigericia. l,a lx~occ(lt~ricia varios actos pr-ocesalcs, ;I 1:i I:ii-g:i, c.si: siide ~xditadi iricxor;ihlerric~ite 211 ci.itci-iojiir~isprii(Ic.ri(~i;i1. I ) I ' ~ * I ( ' I I Siii (1c.1- ;igot;ii 1:i c:isiiisii<.a, vca:zrrios ilgiirios tic los c:jc.riil)los iiiis cvitlcii ths cri el ;irihito pi-o<.c.s;il.
Llli

) I ~ I ~ ~ El po(Ic1. iior.iii;itivo (le, ~ I ~ J I ~ I ~ ~ s ~ llcgi ~:iI ikil~ ~ ~I II I ~ I( O(111c.~ ( I* I l ; i p~ic'tlcc-i-caars;iiicioric,s qiie 1 1 0 c.xistc-11 1;i I<.y, corrio o<.iii.i.i(; ( . ( ) t i cri la st-iitcri(~i;it a 121 (:ortc Sii11r.erri;i (le, t i ( 1 il)~.il I!l!):), ~ ) ~ ~ O I I I I I I (l ~ tic, ciitl;tcii los iiiitos "(;otloy S.,.Jorgc,y F,&i A. Krriilio (.o11 l).( ;.A."2"''. El ~)rol,lcrriasiii-gi ;i t)rol)'isiio (le 1;i :ictiial rc(iiccitiri(1c.1 :ii'~ic.iilo 7'76 del <:c<ligo 1'1-o<-<-diriiiciito <le (:ivilY".

3. TIENE PODEli N O R M A l ' I V O


Mis alli tle1 111iii( ipio de In Icgalid'icl qiie recoiiocc 1'1 (:oristitiicicri j t111c \e iri'iriifiestn cri ln\ niilc\ tfr riorrri,i\ que I egiilnii los piocediiriicritos, es uiia I calidad que 1'1 jurispr iicleiicia tairihic'ri actiin fijniitlo rcqiii\itos y coiitlicioric\ qiir Id ley r i o 1i,i pr evisto par a 1'1 oper ntividid de iiiiiclia\ iiistitiic iories. No \ori poca\ 1<i\

"'"

citiii S(, d;i15 ciiiiipliiiiic.rito ";i

iii\o t l < . ( .i\.i <.oi~cc(titlo el lo cstal>lccitloC I c1 iririso prirrirro dt.1 i i i ~ i ~ ~ iI!)/I o ~ i (Icl (:<i<ligo Pro<.e<liiriieiito <le (livil para los c k c t o s del ciirii~>lirrii~iito I;i sc.11 tic. tciicia y se oid<.ii;ri-(r cl~\;irlos i ~ i t o s origiriales al tril>iitial sii~>crioi~';ir;i ( I I I C ' I o rioica del rcciirso y devolver- las fi)tocopias o coiripiilsas r.csl>rctiv;is ti.il)iiii;il ( I I I < ' al (leha coiiocrr (lcl Fallo. Sr aplicar5 al rcciir-rriitc l o estahlrcido rir el i i i ( iso gurido (lil artciilo 197". Eii cl artciilo 107 iiics. 1 g 2" drl (:P(: s i rcgiila 1 i I O I I I I . I ; coiiio sc corii~~ils;iii iOtocol>iaii I;is pic/;is <le 1 1 expcciiriitc, rii los (;i\os ( ~ I I ( . o 11 coiic.~tl(. I ~ ;ipcl;icitiii C I I t.1 solo e'ccto rlevoliiiivo. P:II r1 iiiciso 3" (le (lic.Iio I ) I I ' I I ; ~ c c ~ > Ise (.stal>lrc<.i i i i r s;ill<.i611 I I rl sigiii(.rit<'I C I ~ O I . : "si f'l ill)<.l;i~it(, 0 (1;i ( 1 1 1 1 1 o i C 1 1 ~>liiiiic~iitc, ;I csiii ol>lix,t<.itiii, Ic i<.ii<l~-; <lcsisti<lo S<. poldcl r-c<.iii-so 111;isi ; i i i i i ~ ~ " siti i '1';iI ( . o i i ~ o o i i s t ; ~ ( (Ic.1 I C I I O I . Ii~(,r;il iii~i(1110 776 ( I c I (;I'(:, I;I I ( . I I I ~ S ~ ( ~\(;lo 51. (l(,l II II;IC(, los iii(.isos 1'' y Y ' (l(,l :ii.i( 1110 ;I l!)7, c o ~ lo ( I I ~ I I , I I I I ( . S ~ I O ~);II.(,(.(,I.,C . \ ~ . I i 21 IIO c.1 si c.1 i - ( ~ . i i i . i . ~ ~ i c.~is;icitii ( l r j ; ~l i i i c . i . o p;ii ; I l 1 1 l 1 1 i 1 1 tic. i ~ ( ~ 110 t ~ ) ~ ( . v i s l o< I ~ ~ s i s t i i i i i c i i i o 1)i>i\ (le 1;is ( olll~~llls;ls o (lt~lli1~0 [)I;l/o l<~g;ll. (l(.l

-"' Eii tlic-lio p i . c c < ~ ) tsor (lispoiic. qiic. I I I I ;VCL I

Kl?], t.

X(iC'I,

s < ~(i",[>p.ti:$-li.l. .

(lo. 1)cstle hace biist;iiitc iir.iiipo qiie se I;is (Icfiiic por I;i jiii.isprlidcr~cia traves d e la sigiiittritc lir-r1iiil;i:"(:at)c critciitlc.~. a viilrier-atlas las riorrrias rcgiiladoi-as <le la pr-iicl>a,priricil);iliiic.tiic~ ciiarido los scritcric-iac1or-c.s iriviertcri e1 onu.spr.oO/cn,(ii,o ciir.gi ( 1 ~ . la pr~iicba,r-cchazaii las pi-~iel~as la ley admite, aceptati las qiii qiw 'la ley i-ccliaza, descorioceii el valor prol>atorio d e las que se protliljeroii eri el pr-oceso ciiariclo 1;i ley le asigria lirio dcterniio nado d e carcter ol~ligatorio alterar1 la pr-ocrtlericia tliie la ley le ~liere"~"'. Reitera la rnisrria defiriicibn la seritericia del 4 de eriero d e 2001, recada eri los autos "Sociedad Dr. Manuel Daz y (:h.L,ttla. con Servicio de Irripiiestos Iriterrios"; alirique eri este tillo se iritroclticc i i r i elerrierito qiie erifatiza el caricter- garaiitistico d e la figiir-a que rios ocupa, ciiarido expr-esa qiic: " L x leyes r-cgiiliit1or;is tlt. la pr-iiil)a siisce11til>les(le cas;icicri cii e1 por- Iii ley lOii(lo, sor1 ~rcliiel1:isiior-irias fiiritlarriciitales irripiic~st;is :I los tiillatlor.cs tvi f0rrria iiit~liicliljlc, qric. iiiipor-tiriliiriitacioy iies coricrx.tas (le sii fiic.iiliad tle ;ipr.c<.iiic.i6ii, (lii.igi<las:i ascgii~ rar i i i i i i (Itbcisi611~ o i ~ i ~ ~ ~ ct.1 ji i i i ~ ~ i i i i i c ~ t i t o " ~ ~ ~
((;O<)).

M c * t l i ; i i i i ( . i i i i ; i c~l;il)oi;i(~itiii iic~i;iiiic~iiic~jiitlic.i;il I i ; i t l ; i t l o u.11 S(. ~~ 1) iitlo ii las c.xigc.iic.i;n tlc lo (11ic. ( . o I I s iiy(. I I I I ; I g(.s(i011( . I ~ ( l i ( * i i ~ < . y lo (liic. cat; clciitr-o (\t. la v o y "l)rc~.t-1)10 I(-g;il7' ( l i i c * S(.rc*Iic~i~(* :I 1.1 iri.iciilo 80 de la (:oiistituciii, 'Liiiil>ii.ii i i e . i i c . c.1 i i i i s i i i o oi.ig(bii la cairs;il cle iriadrriisibilitlad "por. liilta (lt. (Ic~ic~i.iiiiii;i(~itiii chsl)('c.ifica d e las riorriias tachadas tle i i i c o ~ i s t i t i i c i o 1 1 ~ 1(1i~c~ ~ " , I ) ( ~ I ~ l i * 11;' rriitido drsestirnar ceiiteriares tle estos r-cciir.sos.1':ii SIIIII:I,O II;I\. II diida que existe11varias cilestiories procesales de o r - i g c . r i , j i i i - i s l ) i . i i dericial que rio se piledrri soslayar a la hora [le tlecliicii-cXsi;i c i ~cori algiiria prohabilidac-1d e 6xito2". i

Aiiiicl~ic c:jciiiplos que' se po<lr.;iiic.iiiir. i<jtii los so11v:ii.iaclos, cxairiiiic.irios:ilgiiii;is iii;iiiifi.sta(.ioi1es (.lociic.riic-s.

itl i S I S Otra iriici.csiiitc ;1poi.t;1ci6ri~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ i s ~ ~ r ~qiic ctiai c I~ Ii) ~ ~~I Il I,; I ~ I ~ iiria oiriisiii Icgislrtiv:i, se Iia claclo cori r.t:laci<ri ;il i c b i i i ; i tic. I ; i Icgitiiiitc.itiri(1t.1 Ici.<.t.i.o1)ai-aiiril)iigiiiir: k:ri iiiicsti.o sislcbiii;i~ ) i ( ) ccs;il cs i i i i a coristaiiic t l i i c el Iegisl:itloi- iio sc.:ilc. c ~ x l > i . c * s ; i i i i c h i i lc q11i611t i t V l ( ~l ~ ~ g ~ t i i ~ l ~ l c i clc(11lcii~l I l rc(.lll~so.,>[S ~ l o l ~ i l l ; l ~ piiI~;i~ l l 1 1 ~ se ix.liitiv;ls i r los iiic(1ios ( 1 irri1>iigiia<.i<ri lirriitaii p ) i . lo o i . ( l i i i ; i r - i o a (Icliiiir- t.1 iilcaricc (le la iiri~~iigii:ic~iOii c.oiiii;r tic* ( 1 1 1 c y cii r~csolticiorit~s procc~lc(7). g ~ :;r.is. 186, 76.1-(:1'(:), 1)cr.o iio t l ; i i i , ~>;tut;~~;'ccr.c;l clc. quii.11 clcl)c ciitt.ridc.r-selegi tiiiiiitlo ~);ir;iI ( Y I I I ( cit. t1 i . t ~ - t i i - s os;ilvo cxc.ipciorics. Natlii clisclitc clric. c.s i i i i 1 ) i . i i i . , cipio t)Asic.o cri est;i rriatei.ia rc.c.oiioc.er-legiliiiiaci6ii 21 I;is 1);ii 1"s. iricluyeiido dcriti.o tlc esta (.att,gora a los terceros qiit. 1i;iy;iii i i i ter-vcriido eii CI juicio, coril0rrrie se dcspi-eritle del ; i i - i . I ( i tl(.l

<:1'(:.

Eri 1:i acciri coristitiiciorial d e iriaplica1)ilidad uria abiiridarite jiirispriidencia ha fijado varios reqiiisitos para la adrriisit~ilidad d e esta irnpi~griacin, sitiiaciii qiie se explica por la parq~iedatl d e la (hristitiiciri y tlel auto acortlado d e la Cor-te Siiprcrria de 22 d e rriai-ro de 1932, que 1-egillasil trairiitacibri.
~

Freritc a la regla ariterior, surge la diida acer-ea d e si ric.iit.ii legitiiriaciri otros si?jetos, qiie al r i o haber- iriterveriiclo t S i i i i i i ; ~ relaciri procesal tieterrriiriada de u11 rriodo origiriario o sol>i.c-vcriido, puede11 sir1 enihargo verse afectados por algiiria rc.soliici6ri que se proriiiricie o por- algilria actuaciri qiie sc re;ili(x*( - 1 1 i i r i proceso.

~-

'"' (:S. I:5 tlc,iiilio ( 1 ~ .2000, 111)J,t . X(:\'II, ~c.<.. p. 13%(;S. :<Itlc j i i l i o <1<.I l.', 2000. t . X(:VII, s t ~ l.. ' , 1). 1.1 l . I<II igii;il s < . i i i i t l o , < s i ~ i i . ( oii.os, (;S. 2:) (Ir ciic.i.o . ( 1 ~ . I!)!)%, K I ? J . i. X(:L,sc<-. 1). !); (:S. 1 " (lc ociiil>i-<.l ( , I<)!)X, 121)l. i. X(:\l, sc<.. l.', 1". t 1). l(i7.

I,lc~i:iii<lo i i ii (:ivil,

cvitle.iitcb v;ic.o (le1 (;tidigo (i<. I ' i . o c ~ ( ~ t l i i i i i ( ~ ~ ~ ~ o l ; i ~ j i i i ~ i s ~ ~ r i i l i l cadiiiititlo tliic tc,rc.c.i-os< ~ i i ( .rio i i ( . i i ( . i i ~ ; ~i ~ c i ~ ~

"c.s~; i i i ; i i i i i i i ~ ~ i i i iiic.liii:i(l;i ;i f,i\'oi- (le* I;I ligiii.;~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ tlc.1 t c s i x . ( b i . o

As lo i.c*solvic la (:arte Siipr.crria c.11 iiii:i sciiterici;i (Ic 22 ti(. jiilio dc. I0I):S. Eii I;i cspccic, e 1-ec,iiri-ido 1 fiic u11 j i i e z 51-bi1r.oqirc deciv.tti tiii;i rriedid;~prccautoria tlc proliibiciii (le celc11r-aiactos y coiitr-iitos, y que Iiirgo riegc la ai1torizaci61i par-a qiic diclia propiedad se cri;i,jcriara eri iiri juicio qjcciitivo tr-arriitac-to par-alclarricrite al arbitraje. Eii dicha ocasiii, la Corte Si~preiria resolvi " t ~ i i e el lieclio qiie ci Rarico de Cliile rio sea par-tt. eri el jiiicio ;zrhiti.al (. ..) r i o irripide qire piictla rjcrcer- los rcciirsos qiic tr-;riiqiiea 1;i ley, I M ) ~ 'ciianto aparece cl:ir.ariiciit: cst;ihlc<.i<lo tliicA i t ~ r i e ~ iiit ilri ter&s.jiii.(lic~o c,oriipi-orrieti(io qiic lo 1egiiirri:i 1);ir.atlcdii<.ir(11 11i.cIi (.:ilid:t(i :

dr p;ir-te pi1e(i;iii

( . o i i i o Ic~giiiiii;itlo1);ii.;i i ~ t ( * i . l ) o n ( > i . i.c~c'iii'soi c * al>csl;i(.it')ii t (.oiiii.;i


I;i

irripirgn;u- r.csoliicioric~s.

s c i i i e i i c ~ i ;<lici;i(Ii ~ cii i i r i I)r-o<.esso cri el cliic r i o 1i;i iritc.rvciii-

do y c.ti e1 clut', p o r i;uito, no 11;' sido j>artc, y;i qiic 110 ~t.ii;i que wr ircc<~sariarrie~~tt~ Ilaiii;icIo, pero ciiyos c f i ~ t o s riegativos le a l c a r i ~ a i i I I c r ~ o " ? ~ ~ . clc

Otra

iiiiicstt.a tlel rriagritico

al)or.tc q u e

1~1t:clc> hacer- la jiir.isprii-

tleirci;~,

para

siiplii 1:i

iiiei-ci;i Icgisl;itiw~cii

el

tlesai-i.0110 ti<:

las

iiistitiicioiics ~>r-occs;ilc.s, e.ricii<~iiti.i 1:i rcc.<~pc~i<jri (Ictiosc. cii tlcl

sciitc i-c(~\ii~so" ?'!l. 1,;i s c i i i c ~ i i ( ~ ii.c.fi.i.i(l;i i tic.rica iiii iiiiic~g:11)lc~ iiitcri.~ (loc.ii.iii:ir.io,

iiiiria(lo

litiscoiisor.<.ioiic.c.csar.io.1;,ri

v;ii.i;is o(.;~sioii(~s iiiiesti-os ir-i(~xistc~iici;i (Ic

yi

< I I I ( ' S''

ti:i(.cb c,;ii-goclc. i i i i o

(le, los

icbiii;is riiis

cioii;ii. c.ti iiiatc.i.i;i 1)1~o~.(-siil, i.(.l;tiivo i i I;r

tlif'(.il<~s soliitlc ~);ii.lic.il);~(.itiii los t<.r. tl<.

c,cbi.os I;is r.(~l;ic~ioiic~s,jiir.<li(.:is iii(.(lios ( I I I ~i'stos I ~ C * I I ( ~ I I c.ti y los ~ I);\I';I 1)i.otc'gc.rsris tlci.c<.lios ii~tci.c'sc~s'~". (1(.sI;i(.;il)l(. 1 ~ .1;i soc. 1,o ( liic.itiii (Ic. l : ~( : o i . i c l Sitl)i.c'iii;i c.st;i c L i i c.1 i.c~c~oiioc.iiiiic~irioIcgiiitic. iri;i(.itii I > ; I ~('I; I ( . ~ ( ~ ~ . ( . ( ~ r . o q ) i ~ ( ~ solicii;ii. Iii iiio(lilic.;ic~itiii la II cl:iii o
(~iiiiiic.iitl;i

c.st(' iiistitii~o ~);it.;i 1)1.otc(.c.i6ii 1;i (le' los tlci-cc~lios los tci-cci-os,IIc(Ics ii;iii(Io oii.:i oiiiisitiii dc.1 (:I'( :. Eii io(l;ts c,si:is sciitciici;is se II;I 1)i.ivilc.gi;itlo iiii;i i i i i r ~ i . l ) i . c * i ; i c ~ i t i i i ti-;iv<;s ~ .los ~)i-iii(.il)ios ) i o ( ~ ~ s ; l ( ~ s , ;i (1 ~
I)iiii;ilcs 1i;iii s;rii<~ioii;i<lo i 1 ~ l i t ~ i t ; i i i i ( ~ i i t rI:i iir ~ ;isiiiiiic~iitlo ; ,jiii-isyii.ii(l(.iici:~ 1i iiri;i f ' i i i i c . i ( r i

tl(.l t l ( x i - c . ( - l i o , rii;is ;ill;i (1(.


t i < ~ . I i 1:i iriisiii;~ o

los

(1(,

Icg;ilist;i, t:1i1 ;ii.i.;iig;itlos cii

( 1 ~ . c.rx.;ic.itiii ,jiitlic-ial <1(,1 ~ > o s i i i \ ~ i s i i i o ,<,<>,, ~ i c l i c . o jiir iiii<.sir;i<loc.ti.iii;\ ,jiitlic;itiirii-- '. I)(. y
~>osiiil;i(los iiii;r oiriisi6ii tci.rriiiioltigi<.;i

121 s(.iiicbiic,i;i, c.011

i;i1 c l i i c ~ , j i i s i i l i < l i i c ~iirii i iriic.i.i's

jii-

i~(li(~0 siti (]ll(,se,:i il(*(~c~s;li~io c ~;l l ~ l ~ ~ i i i l ~ ( ~ O lo I i ( . i 6 1 1 I C llll> ~ la i ~ l l ( ( \);\rte. k:st;i soliic~itiiiiiiiplic.;~ iiii c;iiiil>iotic. c.i.iic.i.ioc h r i c.1 cxiiiic.ri

1c-y 1i;i iiic-iir-i-iclo c.ir

ti(. I;i Icgitiiii;~c~iciii ~ ( 1 los ic.r.cc.i.os <.ti iii;iici.i:i (le, i-c(.iii~sos, t11ic y;i
( . o i i ;iiitci~ior.itla<I 1iiil)i;i d(.ic.i.riiiii;iclo-e11 r c ~ l ; i ( - i t i i i i I;L:ipcIisc :
ciii- q i i c * cstc i ~ c ~ ~ i i i ~ s o i i c ~ I c - i iiitci-11oiici-Io s6lo p i los q i i ( > 11;tl~kiii

sol~i-c. liiisc,oiisoi.<,io(,ii gc.iic.r;il. t l;i si(1o 1;i tloc.iriii;i ( l e s I:i (:or.(-1 t(. S I I ~ ~ I ~ ( ;i q11c I i-c.(-ogido 1~ I I I ; 1i:i c~xl>li~-ii;iiiic.ri~c (-1 iioiiil>r.c* N - O ~ pie (le c s t ; ~i i s t i t i i c . i i i , c b i i Iiis scrit(~ric.i;is li.<.lias25 tlc,jiilio y i ticIti (le oc-tiil)r-cclc. 1!341, ; L \ I I I ( ~ I W rccoiior.ci.sc ( ~ \ i c 'n o se ti'\(Iclx
t;i

1);irte(,ti el jiiicio"'. 1.a scritcricia del 22 (lc,jiilio 1093 se aliiie;~ cori la tlocti-iiiiprocesal c.oiiterrij>o~."'a, q u e , cri palabras tle Gisbrr-t, la
;itiqi"iritlo

la

(Ir.

iiriii VOL riiiiy tlifiiri<litl:i cri iiiicsti.os f';illosz".

c;ilitl;i(l tlc

" (:ISRI<K'I' I'()MA'l;\, ' M;irt;i, ' l i f r l c l d o ( 1 10 n / ~ / 4 n c i t i t i c 1 7 ~ i 1 , R.l;i<li.i<l, l<<lc.i.s;i, ~ I!)!)(i, p. 212. E i i io(lo c-;ts(, rlitli;i sc)liicitiii iio e.5 tic. ~ i i t i g f i i i iiiotlo iio~c.(losa, ~ I I V e11 1;is III~SIII:~~ P;~rtichsd e l Rey Alf011so X el %lt>io sc. ~ ~ i i i e i i ( I klegitii~~:i(I;~s i~i

--

""K F M N" 41f i , p. 467.


""

~-

I 1 t i ; i sirit(,.;i\ (It.1 ~ ) i ~ o l ~ l c i<.iiti-c.I;i ;il)iiiitl:iiiie l>il>liogi.;ilia, <.ti: (:ONZAri~i, I.K%, A i i l i o (:;irlo\, "1 ,ii Icgii iiii;ic.i<ii tl<. los t<'i.<.rros <.ii ~)i.oc.c~so c.1 civil"; 'l'l<SS( )NI-, /1II)(~i-io,lo.;6, "b:ii I o i i i o (1<. 1;i I(yjiiiii;ic.itiii 1);ii.a w <iii.i.ii.", ;iiiil,os ii-;il);ijos ~ ~ l l l ~ I i <,li l ~/ l I~f l~O /\~ i t l / l r ;(/\l\.\r\r.). l i l l < ~ l l o,\i,.c5. / \ l , ~ ~ l ~ ~ ~ l ~ 1 !)!l(i, i ~ i ~ ~ b l , ~ ~ ,f ~ ~ l /;ll s ~1~<~ ,)p. 27 1-278. v Y!).!-323.

p:i~.;i;iIfiii.sc 1;1s trr(-ci.;~sprrsoii:is (111e 110 li;i111'i11 sic10 p:i~-lee11 el,j~iicio,p r r o q i i c 1 .. 1. . . i(,iiicc c1 tl;iiio qiii. viiiicse (Ir ;iqiicI j i l i c i o (I,c,y 4", 'l'iiilo 2 3 <1r 1;i P;zriirl;i ,i\ , sOs~i(~llc % I ~ I ~ ~ ~ I I I ~ S ,(;ISIW:I<I' ~.~I;II~(I~) I; l ) o r a v r l \ , M;II.I;I, Y ; . ~ I I ~ I ~ I P 10 I/ o 111). AS^ lo f 1 / ) ~ 1 / 1 / ; 1 i i /,i7111, 01). cit., 111). 5 6 y 210. i 22 \ Sol>i.c (.1 i<.tii;i, c l i i iiiicsii-o ir;ilxijo. "1',1 litisc.oiisoi-(.io ~le<.<.s;it.io c.1 (I~1.c.e11 (110 ~ ) l ~ o ~ ~ c ~ s ~ i l (\liI<.llo; I)O( t l ~ i l l < l , , , l ~ i s ~ ~ l ~ l l ~ l c ~ < l, ~ ~~O i$(~ f,ll i i / l ~ l i 1 1 1 ~ 1 ~ 1 ~ t 1 ~ 1vol, ) l c i I~ ll 110 N" 2, ;il)i-il,jiiiiio IO!)X, 387-,192. 1 - - (:II.. I i l ? ] , I. X X X I X , S C Y . l.', l,~). y 27(i; b;ii igii;iI s<,ii~i(Io, 111). ( 1 \':iIL~ 127 (:. ~ 1. ~ 1);iiiiso, 30 (Ir jiilio (lc l!l(i5, l<I?l,l , X l l , scc. 2", 1). !Y?, y :<O (l(. r j ) i i < ~ i i i I ) i c iii<:tlii;i. 1!)!)7. (,si;i iiliiiii;~
I>,>

Otra val-iiiiitc jiir-ispr.ii(lericiiiltic crior-iiie iritc.i.i.s se tia cri los (-asos qiic losjiiiccs viericri a riioi-igcrar los efectos de iiiia ley. Airiique el (:6digo (:vil coritierie eii sil ai-tciilo 2:3 iiiia regla clara, eii ortlen a la ohligacicri qiie tieric el jiier. de aplicar la ley, aunqiie ella contenga algln clenicnto odioso, liay casos eri los ciiales la resistericia a este iii;indato es rriariifiesta. Esta teridencia es ostensihleiriciite la rrias riiptilrista cori el paradigiria tradiciorial, qiic Iia qiieritlo redi~cir fiiii>iricrio jiiel hny quo (.o'~l.\i(ior(~~ rdico al axiorria cfrnu iodo rst( c:rr L(L kqy y n n t i ~ /u,,, (i, P L ~ L . Aiiritliie el iiriia t~xcctlelos fir1t.s tic e-stiiiivcstigaci<jri, iio t)otit.rrios dvjai (Ic iri(1icai- qiie la iiriificaci<iri d e la ,jiirispriitlcricia S(. liace irripc~i;itiv;i f'rcritc. 21 este tipo tic ;i(.tii;it.iorit.s c1c- 1;z.jiio tlic;iiiii~a.l,:t irit(.i-vcrici(iri(le la (:or.tc Siipr-ciriii, r~;iiifi<~ariclo ~~c.salt~iit;iii<~oo r i i f > o i ~ t ; i i i i i ( ~ r i tes rc~c.lirriad;r c.sic ( . o, c-oriio iiiia airti.ri~i(.;i iic~c.csidatl, qiic 'vitc 1ii clis<.r~irriiiiac~icri ar-t)iti.;ir-ic.tl;itl o la jririspr-ii(1ciici:il. Ileiilro (le los v;ii.ios c:jciriplos qiic potli-kit1 citar-se, i i r i ; ~iriase cii riif~st;t(~itiir iiiti(la de <,str 1ric.a,jiir.isj)r.ii(l(~iicial al)i-c<.i;l 1;i ;iplic~acitiii dt-l.jiiicio cjt.c.iitivo (le 1;i 1,c.y (;c-iicr-al tic Baiicos. N o o1)si;iritt~1;) cl;ir-a iritericitiii (Icl Icgislaclor tlc i.cstr-iiigir-cici-tos cspccialrricritt~ el der-eclios al cjec.iitado c.11 este ~)roce(li~riicrito, dei.t.clio a oporier cxcepciorics o a clctliicir. 1-eciirsos,cri la jiir-is~>rudciicia advierte la adiriisiri dcl iricideritc de riiilidad corrio se i i r i aiitkritico rriedio d e irnpiigtiaciri, periiiitierido qiii los ejcciitados piiedari ateriiiar el rigor- tic la en?jeriacii>ri forzosa. Tal nulidad se f'undarninta en el priricipio d e la trasccridei-rcia o del perjuicio, y coii ello se biisca evitar, por- ejernplo, qiie el deiidor sea perjiidicatlo cori iiiia tasaci6ii del bien raz qiie n o reflyje su verdadero valor. A travGs de esta singiilar va se ha procedido a revisar las coric-liciones para pi.actic:tr el r<trriatc eri 1os.jiiicios espccialcs liipotccarios, que scgiiri la ley se del->er-aii fijariiiica iristaricia. (:orrio se sahc, cri e1 1)i.oc~ctliiriicrito 1;i I x y <;ciici.al de Kiritlc <.ti c.os se ~ ) r i \ a1i c:jc<.iit:i(lo(le po<lcr parti<.it);ii- la <lcit~r~iiiiiia~ citiii tlt.1 ~~i'c'c'io 1;i siil>isi;i,~ > c r cSst;ii.c'stri(.c.i<jri1ii siclo tlc o

1)I \)o\. sci\t(*ii(.i;~s,< * I I ; I I I ; \ i \ t i l i ~ ( l ( )11 (lii sosI;~y;i~l;~ ;~lgii~i;is c.c.s;il(.s ~)c~r:jiiclic~i;il(~s 1;' (1~~li~iis;i 1);ii i i i i i o i i i o ( 1 t . I c . j c . c 1 1 1 . 1 I);II.;I tl(.l (lo, ~ s ~ ~ e c f i c a ~ r ieii i i t fij;ic.itiii tl(.l iiiiiiiiiio I ) ; I I ; I 1;' \ I I ~ ) . I \ I . I . c ~ 1;) e As, la (:ortc clc Apelacioiics <leS;ititi;igo. c.11 s ( . I I I ( . I I ( . ~ (Ic. I(.(I I ~ I ;I 14 de septierrihi-c d e 10!).5 estat)lc~c.i(~ "qii(. ( . . . ) i i o <.\ ~ ) c h i l ) l ( . aceptar rriiiirrios arbitrarios [>aralas ~ ) o s ~ I I ~ . ; I H I ~ I ( * I I I 11.1 l)ii(li(.i; cerse eri la aiidiericia d e rerriatcs, corrio 1i:i oc.iii.i.itlo( * i i I;I ('\IN' cie, en qiie esos mriirnos hajarori eri cariti(l;i<lc.s iiili-i-ic ; i I ( )I-c.s dos tercios del valor d e lo adeiidado, sitiiacitiii qii(-sc. ;igi ; I \ , ; I ( . I I esta causa, por ciiarito rio hay riirigiri a i i t t ~ ~ c d ~ tlc.1i t c ~ I c.,il ~ i \,;iIoi l del irirriiieble sirl)astado. D i esta iriariera, i i i i t1<.ii(loi-i i 1 ) o i c . c :I r-io de i i r i harico se eiiciicritr-a cri la sitiiaciti~ipor i i i i ; i ( l ( ' ( . i 4 i o 1 1 iiriilatei-altlcl acrcctloi; i i i ciiarito fija i i i i iriiiiriio t o i ; i I i i i ( ~ i i t (~I 1 . k ~ lig;~lo cori el valor- (le1 c.r.Ctlito y segiii.;iriiciitc~ (1t.1 v;iloi. c O I I I ( . I cial del iiirriiichlr riiatci-i;r clcl.jiiicio, (lc vci.sc 111-iGitlo (Ic* i i i i I ) i ( . i i r;iiz, el qiic Iia sitlo i(ljiidiciitlo por i i r i i i c.;iiiti(l;itl iiisigiiilic ; i i i ;iI c:jc<~iitaritt~, qiie coii sir pro(lir(.ido sc. ~)ci-iiiii;i siii I);ig;ii ('1 ( - 1 1 . (lito itlciiclado i i i tiriil)oco ol)tcii<~r ,jiisto ~)i.(,cio I;i i i i i \ i i i q i el ticpropic(l:i(l, ol)tt~ii(~ritIo c.110 el acr~cc(1or.I I I : I g:ir.;ii~i I(.XI cori I :i ~Ic qiicI tirria; 5. (211~. *este iriodo, 1;i acljiitli<.i(.i<iii S'* 11i1 ~)iotliic ( l o cri t.1 prx)(.edirriic.iiio(le rc;iliz;i<.i<ri 1;i ~~rol~ic~tl;irl i , i iii;ii(.i de la siil)asta, se 1ir-i apar~tatloosterisil)l(~rri(~iit(~los liiic.i* (1~. cspcci;il t.i.c.;ic l <) 1 );i 1 , I vistos por- cl Icgisl;idor-cr i c.1 ~>r~o(.c~liiiiic.rito o1)tt.ric.r c.1 pigo d e la dciitla y por' lo iiiisrrio iio cr-;i l<.ito~ ) ; i i , i el tri111iri;il iccptar 1111 riiriirrio tot~~lrrici~tc (lcs1)i~o~)or~(~ioi1:i~lo (.o11 e1 (.r<'.tlito deriiaritlatio y coi1 el valoi- dc.1 irirriiit-l~lc,I ( N - lo ( I I I " I a1 fijarse coiiio rriiriirrio p;ir;i los reiriates posttlr-ioi-cbs;i1 1)i.i i I i c ' i c 1, caritidades irif.t:riori a iiri tercio de lo atlcildaclo y t1t.l viiloi. i.(..iI del iriniiieble, se ha irifringido la iiorriia prevista cri e1 ;ii.i. !)!) de la Ley Gerieral de Baricos, por lo que la attj~ldica~icii oI)i(.iii da coi1 el vicio serialado resiilta riiila, corrio lo fiiei-oii I;is t l i l i ~ gericias d e fijaci6n de niriinios y el reniate rni~rno"'~". Tarrihin por la va del iriciderite de riiilidatl de todo lo o l ~; iI ~ do, el t.jeciitatlo h a potliclo promovcr ciiestiories tle LOiitlo. ( ~ I I I ' corifi)ririai-ari cl;irairierite iiria situaci6ii dciiiiricial~le tr.;ivCs c l ( . a iiria cxccpcicri. Eri esta oric.ritaci61i iiiia sciitcricia tlc 1;) ( : o i - t i .
)\
( )

)\

<1ta

S i i ~ ) r c t ~ i(lt. , 2 (le* octiil>r<.( 1 ~ . I!K)fi, cst,il)le( O: "2") ( I I I C ~ 1.1 , I ( .~ (i('iii iiilcri(,iil,i c x i i 'ilitos e's 1'i c s p c ~11 I ~ I ~ ) ~ I c ( ' L I (le'I ( 1 1 i ( ~I I ' I I , I 1' I~ el Ilcc i < . t o 1,cy N" '25'2 sol>rc. 1'1 Lxy (;c.iit.i,il (le I3,iiic o s ( > i i siis '11 tic ulos 98 y sigilic.iitc.\, c.11I c-la l o t i ( o 1 1 t.1 '11 11c t i l o 434 y srgiire~iitcs clcl (:6tligo tlt. 1'roccdirriieiito (:ivil, r i o r iri,is que. o l > l i g , i i i '11 J I I i / ( t I r 1 Crlll\rl, <llltC\ C ~ C r i ~ < c d C ' ~1eqllCl I l r l i e i i t ~ ~ p'igo i I < ' 1' dl <le (lile tlatnri Ins riorrrias legales t itnda4, n nn,ili/ai c.] t t i ~ l o qilc. en , corista la acciii par :i dc'tcrniirinr s u p r ~ c c d e t i c i , i lo qiic ,iiitoli/ n al dcrn,~ritlndon reclani,lr p o r In va d e 1,r corresporidicrite iiiilidnd pro<esnl, corno lia ociir i iclo eii 1,i especie, c ii'iriclo tal ex,iiiieii i i o se li,i < iirril>liclo ,I c,il>,ilidnd, p a r a cvitnr ln pro\tbciic 1611 (IY 1111 juicio q l ~ n o t(>ii511'1 sufic ic'iitc slisteritac 1611 leg11"22'1. c 12,i riiili(l,i<l d e <l,ii ,itl,i pr o t c g i 6 . i i i i tlciiclor (le 1'1 cii,ijcri,ie i c i i i i t.11 i i i i j i i i ( i o liijjoti.( '11 io, c.s1'i1>1~~ i ( l o (jli(' ('1 (lchll,ll ic'i IrItllcbiilo01)j ( * l o (le, 1'1 \ciit,i f o r /os,i < o i I c.\l~oii<li,i i i i i c.(lili( io < oiisii i i i ( I o c'ii i i i i l o l e . (le. ( c X ir crio < ~ i i < ,i o ctsl,il,,i 1iipotc.c ,r<lo, piic-s i.11 gi ,I\,Ii I l l c ~ l lsolo 'll(*( t'11)'i '1 1111 lotes ( I C i(.I 1 ( > l l O 'lclv'i( c x l l l ( b .
CL

1&1711\//1 i ~ r rwf ~ ,~/ L ~ / /(1,I I f , ( ' J N" 3, 1888. tlcl I'oII~\I,I.I':S'I'1;I<OS, M;~riiiclIr., "l,iiiiit~s 1 ' 0 t l c . i - ~ J i i t l i ( ' i ; i l " , < * i i / i > ~ r i i \ / n t ? , t ~ .(s '~t i / / , t t / ~;ifio 11'. N' l l , 188!). , / , lI,\I,I kS17El<OS,M~irii~cl /,a / ~ (10 o r g ( ~ ~ t ~ z ( ~1t /o~t /t r t f ) t ~ / ~///>)105 / /~r ~ / ~ / / L., t o ~ t ~ U J / P S do ( ' / I T / P S,iiiti'igo, Irripi c ~ r i t ' iN'i( io~i~il, , 1890, t. 1. I ~ A I A O N A<;ON%AI,E%, .Jorgv, ''1,;i rxigil>ili<la<l las obligaciorics: tiodc ci6ii y priiicij>alespresi~piicstos(cori vspeci:il brif':isis cti las clAiisillas de acclci-acitiii)", eri f<cwictc( ,'/~ilc.,t/~ I)cvi.c.ho, vol. 24, No3, 1!)!47. (10

''I)cI j>ositivisrrioc.it~iitfic.o 1;1 co(lilicaci6ri a1 tlci.c~.lio y pr-csc.ii~c", C I I /i'(,71;.\//1 1 (;10tt/,i/1.\S o / , i ( ~ l ( ~ . 1. , (lc* ( :l~ilc, ( ~ I\ (ViI~);i~tso) , 1 !17(i.

I % 1 1 , 1 , 0 ,Aiitli.is, "Atltiiiiiisti.;icitiiitlc*.Jiis(i<.i;~",~ / / i i . \ r ~ t l o . ~ ~ / r r ~ - (Ol>r.;is cri N/i~~o.c (:oiiipI(.t;is),S;iiiii;igo, 1885, v o l . IX.

I'IL':RI'L':I,SI<NKI~.I'K'I"I'O,Kaiil, "F:l i.e<.iiiso tlc 1)rotcc.c.i611 t.1 c l ( ~ i . c . c . l i o ;I y vivit. t.11 i i i i iiic<iio; r r i i l ~ i t ~ r i i < . li11i.c (1c <~oritaiiiiii;ic.itiii. 1.:x;iiii(.ii tl(. (;Ilil/~t//L, l),t/,~/l/l, /// 101. (]liilicc ;iios tic ~lll~is~>rll~lciici;i", (.ti 1~/,717~\//L 25 NN" , 19!)8. 1 151N, M;ii.io, "Prcc<~cl<~ii iicli/i;ri.io, rnlio do/~id~ttdi te gi c ol)ilcr d i / . / ~ ~ ~ t t se11c111c: ~ e i i i ( ~ i~tcrii;i di d i f ~ ~ i r i a ~ i o i icri , 1&1i.\ta 'l?i~r~i,,\/rci/(~ ii e c" di l)iri//o o I'roc./~duroI'roc.c<s.\t~ccl/~ (;inilr, 1<)<)8, 1 . N" KKAI1M (;AK(;IA, Eririqiic, "1,os corriieii~os e la prirricr-a i.evista,jiir-dica d chilena: I,a (iacita d e los Tribitnales eritr-c 1841 y I86O", Vilp;ir.aso, I</~vi,st/~ d~ Mstu(lio.\ Hi,strirorJIArf/lico,s, vol. XVI, 1991 . " ~ , J i i r i s ~ ) r u c i c ~creativa? (1,a <:ort<, Siipreiii;i dc ,Jtisticia 1841ici~r 1 86O)", cri li/>71i.\/n (;lriGt~n/ P Hi.tlarin tlpl I)cr~.ho, ( S;iiiti:rgo, Ec1itori;il ~]iii~(tic~i (le (:liilc, N' 16, 1900-9 l . BKAVO I.IKA, f3ii-iiai-(lirio, "/2rhiir~io,jii(li(.i;il I(~g;ilisiiio. y Jiicz y ( I ( ~ i - ( . < . I i o (.ti P:iirop;i <.oiit i i r i i t ; i l y cii Il>(~i.o;iiiiCi.i<.;i i ;iritcs y (1c.spiii.s (le I;i (.o(lifi(,:i(i(ri", vil I < ~ I ~ J ~ .///,/ l)/,r1,/./1,0, / ~ i ~ . \ / > ~ . ~ i / / 1 !)<)(),, iN",3 . \/ L y /,t~/ /~

(:OliliAI. 'l'iZI.(:IAN1, 1 I<,i-ii;iii, "1,;is iiot;is ;i I;illos,jiitlic i;il(.s <.tilos ~ > i i i i i < . 1-0s vciiiic ;ios (le 1;i l<cvist;i d c I)(.i.(.(.lio y ~ l r i i . i s l ) i - i i < l ( ~ i ~((I!)O:'>~i;~ l!)23)", cri I</,~II,\//I ('It,i//~t1(1> /)/>r,c./~o, 2714, 2000. /// vol. (;OK\IAlAN MP:I,KNl)I.:%;,Jor.gc; (lAS'l'ii .I.O FI.:KNANI)K%,Vicrritc, l k w(.l~o llwc.~,\/r/ t ~ / l i ~ tSaiitiago, E<litorial,Jiir-dica (:liilc, 19.5l . I ~o, tlc

(lO1JR7: Fcr~iaritlo "Norrit)fiirriicriios,jiitlic~iales", Ii'c?~i.c/a G., eii Ei~rc..rr.\c (;/tilmn, ao X , N", 1895. "La respori\nl~ilidndriioral", eri Rr-cirr/u I;own\r (:h?lrno,aiio XI, N ' 5 y 6, 1897. (:IJETO RUA, Jiilio (:Psar, RI (;ornrr~on Ln-ici, Biierio\ Air e\, Al~cledo-Pei oi, r r c i d . 1997.

(:Al'1'/\I.I.1, liic.li;ii.tl, "1'1-occ.tliiiiic.iito(.vil <.oiiip;ir;ielo: L':si;i(los lliii(los, (:liil<, y Siitl;iiiii.i-ic.;~", I?oiii/n (,'liik~~r(l ~ cii t l I)rrr~c.l~o, l!), N" 2 , vol. 1992. (~I\SI'I~~I,I,ON VP:NK(;AS, 111igo Agiisiii, " ~ k . ( . i ( > i i l>opiiI;ii-y r c ~ ~ i i . s o ~>i'o~cccitiii", ;/~c.~l/r,/rrirli.(r 'LI>'L. cii No
( l ( h

(:P:SI'P:I)ES l'l<OrI'0, Ko<lrigo,"1.;1 liicr./;i viiiciil;iri~c~ I;i,jiii.isl>i-iitlciici:~ tlc ;i<liiiiriistfiitiv;i", I?riii.s/n(;l~iGt~ri I)/.li,c.hn,vol. 28 No 1 . .11 /IP (:I 1IAt'l'lNI, .Jiilio O., "1.;~ Es<.ticl;i d e 1;i Exrgesis cri siis pcrtilcs Iiis~<ri(.os", i i i Rf'iij.\//rde (;icwc.ia.\Sc.inl(,,s,I J . tlc Uilp:ii-;iso, N-24, 1!)84. (:HIAKI,ONI, Sci gio, "Riiolo dcll~igiiir i\pr iielrri/.i e ,ittivit,i c rcativt- rli (ll P tiiiovo ciiritto", eii Rz7irctn ihrt~c~>trcclr 1)~tztto I'ro(rduv l'ro(e)\(~(~lr ( : / 7 1 1 1 < ~ , 2002, N'' 1 . (:HIASSONI, Pier-liiigi, 1,n @zlrkpr.ucl~nzn c.i.oile,Milri, Giiiffrb, 1999; "Eflicacia del preccdcrite giiidiziario e tipologia del coriir-asti di giiiristrcrlv prucieiiza". cii liiilitln 'limr~,~ di Dirllln /> t'7rtrrdir~i.I'roc.c<s.\rralr (:i.i~il: 1 <)S<), l. N"

10'1 //P IJtiiv<*r\i(:oi~i(~iii~ii I ' i \ciiicric 1'1 [le la (:S , t.11 I?/~t/\/n l)/v/,/l~o, No (Ind (Ir (:oii( t>pc1611, 209, 200 1 .

I)OMIN(;UE% BhNAVENTE, Rniii(iri; DOMIN(;UEZ. lIIT)AI.C;O, (:,irrrieri, "1.o qiie In jirri\pr iidt.iici,i se Ilcv>",i i i R(vzctcz dr I)r~rcho,Uiii\lir\idatl d e C;oiicepciri, No 189, 190 1. DOMINCUEZ I-IIDAI,(;O, C~iriiicri, d / ~ o 1:'l rnornl, Santiago, Editoi-id .JIIrdica tle (:liile, 2000. l)rr/~/ho (;17id l'a~lrgrr~rrf~l, Sniittago, Eclitol i'rl J I I L)IJ(X:I (:I,/\RO, (L~rlo\, i di( ,i (Ic (:liilc, 1 ' ed., 1<)80.

(:OIN( ;, FIcliiiiit, "1 listori;~ l)t.rc<.lio y l ) o g r i i t i ( ~ ; i , J ~ ~ ~ ~ ierii (K K~ j J,, elt.1 tl ~; t" V;ill>;u;iiso, I':(li(.ioii<.sI!riivc.i.si~;iri;is Uill>ai.;iso,I . VI, I!)HI. <le

P:SSEI<, ,joscp, I'rYvcc,i/iio y no7.mcr cn In ~1ohor.crc.icia jur7.c/ir1~cl~~trc~ilrl tlpl (//.rrc.lto / I ~ ? ~ I /11..(1t.l I;iI(~r~iii L//~ , K(Iii;ir(lo V;ilcriti F., k%;~i.(.t~loii;i, l5os(.li, l!Ni l.

lCl'(;l 11~~1%k~l<l<Y ()., All'r.(~lo, / (11,r(~cI1o I J I I (1I ~ 1 L /~ ~ 10 .Jiirtli(.iide (:liilc, 2" cd., r-c>iiiip., 2002.

; I J ~ ~ . \ / ) I . I I ( / I J ~ I ( , ~ ~ II ? ) I (

llli

i;tl

"1 Iis~oi,i;i ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ( ~ I ;II ~l ~ ~ , q i s I~; ~ ~ lIo ~ , ~ I ~ \ /1~~,\/111lio\\ / I ; I . I (l(*l ~ I I I ~ ~ Ic.11 I < I ~ " (11, ( I I ~ //~ (.r~/ctr.N/ic.oc, C<ill>;ii.;iiso, b:tlic.ioii<*s~ i i i v < ~ i - ~ i i ; i<I<.i V;ill);i~;iso, ~ i~ ;ix I!)X2.
, l t t ( l r ~ ~~ o l l oI ~ ~ ( / ~ / ~ I ( L I / o ) ; /\ Siiri~iiigo, [Jiiiv(~r.si(l;i(I ~ (:liil(%, l!)82. (1 . /,(I /11(1(.ibr1(kL ~ I , ~ ( ~ I\Ti~ll);~~.its( ~ / I I ~ , ), b:(liciori(,s Ll I I iv(~rsitii~i;is, 1 !)77.

Fl~l<NAN1)1;,% I%AKKEIKO, i\l<:j;iti<li-iiio. iiio<l<~lo 'lz.1 r.oiri;iiio <I(. (I<.i.<.(.Iio tlc V;ill);ii-;tiso, b:tli<Ic,jiii-isiiis", K l ~ i i . \ / ( r ISc/trclio.\ Ili.c/rYco;/ur~lico.~, cii <.ioiicsUriivcrsitirri;is (1c. V'ilp;~i.;iiso,1!)7(i. F1':IINANI)EZ (;ON%Al.E%, Migii(.l Arigcl, I'r.inci/)io c . o r r t / i / ~ ~ c ~ i o r ~ /n~I - / < I I / dr (:oiioSirr, 2001. ( l ~ ~ rd t l ~ a Icy, S;cri~iago, c t l FlJEYO IANEKI, Fcrriaritlo, "1:a tloctriria tle los accos propios", cii lrlsti,o o, /uciont.s (ir D p t ~ ( ; i ~(i71iL M o d ~ ~ ' n Editorial Jiirdica de (:liile, 1090.
1i';lirrtorzo (IP ~ o c y \,gvro~ (,'(jdrgo (:17111(h711vt0, S,triti<~go, ~ 11~1 Kcvi\t,i (ic

"Mo<lilici~cioiics titiilo prcliiiiiiiiii. (Ir1 (:ti(ligo (:ivil" (tV. IZA.), 211 (11 S;iritiiicii I':tlmcIio.c .sobrr t~/?)rtncr.c (,'ri(ltgo ( h i i l y (,'digo do (,'o~~t,rrrio, t go, Etlitoi~ial.liirclic;i l i (lliilc, 1099. (;U%MAN I'AEZ, Kodrigo, Iiitlici de 1ii revisca "C;acrra dc los Tr-ibiiri;ilcs", i i i I(~71i.rfn 1 k ' , \ l ' l ~ d iHi.s/~~rico~J~r~T%(Iico~~, ( ~ ~~ Wllparaiso, Ediciories LJriivcr.sitari:is <leK~lparaso, 1993. flANIS(:I 1 F,SPINI)OI,A,Iliigo, "(X~iitril)riritiri estii<lio(1t.l priricipio tics ;LI I;I j>rA(.ii<.:i li l ' i ~ i i t l : i ~ ~ ~ e i(letlas ~ ~ i h ~ i e11(lliilc ( I I I K ~ I I ~ I C . <le ~ i ~ s<~ritc~iciiis el sigl() XI X", t L i i /i'r7ii.\fn (11, I',:\lur/io.\ / l i . ~ / t i r 7 r ~ o r / r r r i ~ / i ~ ~ o . ~ , V;~Ip;ii.aso, d(. 1!)X2. F,<li(.ioii<~s l~iiivcrsii;ii.iiis \~;il~);ri.;iiso, 1'I'~~l<l<A1,1)1~, Sl3M11, \'i(.tor.i;~,1,'l /)~I,I,I,I/(,IILI,I I ~ O ~ I I ~ I I O I I M;i(Ii.i(l, ( I i VI l(17t1, vicils, l!)!)5. J\( ~ I' 1,111 ;[ 1 N/\, I ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ I I < ~ , , / I I ~ ; \ / ~ I ~ I I ( / ( ~yI I/ /I~~ V (I II/ I , , \ 111,l(IPI~,I./III, ~ I I I I ~ ) ~ ~ I I~;\ II .,; I I I ( 2 1

1)ci e( Iio Pri\,i(lo, 1!)53, t. 111. (:,\K(:ES V., Ar.istid<.s,1,cr c.tr.\crcic;tifJtl (,'l~iL,, Siiritiiigo, liii~~i~ciitii IJiiivci~si~;il.iiL, l!)03.

/,il(li,

l!)(i!l.

) N 1 II ~ l C l ' ~ \ l )), i\v(.Iiiio, "\';iloi- (I<. I ; i , j i i i ~ i s ~ ~ i - i ~ ~ l ~ ~ .iiii <I<~,-cii.\/cr 1 Ikt( < -i;i". ( ~ t(,~IlO /llt;.\/)l l l l / l ~ t l l ~ i (/ .l , 1 ,\'l, 1 !)5!). y

(;ON%/\l,F.'.%, Atilio ( :;ii.los,"1~i Icgitiiii;i~.icii los ttAi.(.t.i.os el pr-o<.c.so (le (%ii c.vil", rri /,o k~yilitttncicn(AA.W.), I\iit.iios Aires, At>clcdo-l'cr.i.o(,I!)!)(i.
r <;Ol<I,/\,C;irio, "Dovc.re profi.ssioriilc di coiioscerr la giiirisl~r-iit1eiix;i rricx~i irif)i.rii;~~ioiie", M ~ > / o d o l o @YI,P/LO t1i cri ( ~ ,sLi~(lio (11~11(~ g+tti.sj)r/r(It~r~za r.i-oi11~ cortt~~wicrlc, Milii, (;ir iffi6, 1999.
(l

\, ,Jiii-isl)r.ii<l<~ii1.IISb:I)INSliY '1'S( :I IOKNI':, Miir.<-os, "I<<~vist;i l)(*i.<.<-Iio ci;i", ( . i i /<ITI~.\/(I ; l / / o , q ( ~ ~ /N" 25,,jiilio 2002. 111'1 o, 1.0l1b:% SAN'I>\ MAl<liZ,,lor~g~~, i < ~ i . < ~ s < ~ s "li~ tI<~\,<.rig;itlos - iri<l<~rrriii/;i<~i<iti 1)or c.oiiii.;i(.tii;iltic p<'~:jiric.ios. I)o(.iriii;i(le los ;i<.ios~)io[>iosc / o / ) / ) r l ' : o <.ii KI?], vol. l.XXXI1, N" 2 (111;iyo-;igosc(>, I!)XT>). Mk:Nl)li.%b:(;l~l(;llliF,N, Al(~j;iii<li.o, "Sol,i'c 1;i i i i i ( ~ i ~ ~ ~ i ~ ctl(.t ; i c i ~ ~ i ~ I;is I(.yc.sn, (.II / < I , ~ I ~ . \f/i()Ir ~ ~ t t ( \f('~ ~ i l ~ No~l (O, , 1886. . l ~t ~ Ititlo, "1 ,ii r~(~Iitci)~i,j~i~~is~~r-~~~lcrit~~-~~r (.fol.c.111i1 gCii<.MklKb:l ,l,O AKlX ; ( : O , sis dc.1 (Icr.<~.lio 1-orri;\iio clAsicom, Sptn(~ritr.\ ( ~ s l ~ r ~ / ?r)~tt(~ito\, cii IIP io.\ KilV4)l. 1, 1077. ~>;ir-;iiso, E<Ii<-iorics lJriiversit;ii.i;is,

MF:REI,l,O AKE:(:(:O, Italo, "I.;i ley rri;iri:iiia (le tiiri<l;iiiieiitacii>~i siritic eri rriater-i;i pcrial", i r 1 l;r riiistc-ricias frcritc i i la clt~~ricilci~~~jiidici;il rria r-cvista, 1983.

(;ROSSI, I'iolo, M orzlcln jlrr.ltlico rn~~lic.-i~rrl, Matlrirl, M . Poiis, tr. Fi~iiiicisco '1i)riiAs y V1ilic.riti y (:lar-a Alvar-cz, 1996.
( ;lJ'1'1

F,l<l<E'.% )l)Rl( ;l JEZ, M;ir~cos, ; I I I . ~ . \ / ) ~ I I ( ~ I , I I (c ~ (tIt t o , / ~ r ~ ~1101 1111r(>1<( /,II ,o )//o 1!)82. cho, S;iri,lori. ((le (1ost;i l i i c . ; ~ ) ,I t l i i o i ~ i i i l ~ J i i r i c c . i i ~ i ~ o ,
~,

(;l i%MAN 15121'1'0, iZlc:j;iii(lr-o,"1 .;i sc~giii.itl;itl (.c.i.tc/;i,jiir.itli<.;is 1)c.i.sy (.ri ~ < Y . I ~ v ; J~isihi.i(.;t",~ I III'I,~)~,\//I I ( (/(, /C\/II//~O.\l ~ r , ~ / ~ j r . j ~ ~ oV ;/I~ ~ ~ I tI l- i; I ~ -o ~ ~~) ~ ~~ so, b:(lic.ioii(.s~liiiv<~r~sit;ir.i;is (Ic V;ilp;ii.;iso, 1!)!):$.

MOKAI. SOKIANO, T.roiior, l<L ~ I , v ~ ~ ( E I ~ Y L ~ I ~ , ) I I ( ~ ~Madritl. Marcial Poris, ~~(I/, 2001 . MIINI'TA tlKKKL~:l<A, Rol)ei.to, I~;,\/mt/io(.r.i/ic.o sohw (4 wc.~rr.so( 1 ~ I I o ; ( I , Silri(~ ti;igo, Etlitori;il,Jiir.<li<~;r ( :liil<., I!)(iX. <le NAV'tIKKO I<I<I :I'IZAN, I':iii-icliic., "El i.c.ciii-so tl<, iii;i~~liciil)ilitl;icl (K(.visitiri clc* 20 iiiios cl(%, ~ I I ~ ~ s ~ ~ I ~ I I ~ ~1!~8l-20Ol)", ~ * I I ( ~ ~ ; I , c.11 ( ; ( I ( I , / / I , / I I ~ ~ ~ I / ~ ~ ( I N" 2fi7, 2002.

'1 trrl~i/~i jrrdicicrl, 12;ii.c<~loii;r, Ar-ir1 l>ci.<.<.lio, 2000.

OI.l,F,KOTASSAKA, Aiitli.Cs, 2 'i'on1~ rnirirt (4 tlct~c.ko?, M;itlritl, (:oiigi.c.so(le, los l>i~>iitaclos, 1906.
I~ucrldotl

l. y ihioiic,s ,jiii-isS,\l ,,lS VI\'i\I , I ) I , Iiilio, "1':I i-c.(.iiiso(Ic. ~)ioi<xx.itiii I;is (le.< ~)i.u(lc~<.iiilch. (:e~iii(~iit;iiioI;i ,jiii.isl>i~~i(l<~iic.i;i", 1\>(~71i\lo 1)1>t(,;i c.11 IIP c.110,I ~ i i i v c ~ i . h i < l ; i (clc. (:e)iic.c~~>citiii, 187, [!)!)O. l No Si\l.\'1ll)OI<1'~S l'OY,\N, kliiiiii(4, " I , ; I , J I I I ~ I s ~ ~ I y I II I~~ I~ ~)I ~ I ~ ~ ~ ; I i~oiii;~ii;i ; , I I ~ ~ s ~ I I I ~ ~1c~iici;i iiio<lci.iia",c S i i Kcvist;~ I;i F;iciiltacl <Ir 1)ci-cclio LJiii\.c~i-sitlc iliitl (;oiiil>liitciisc,M;r(li.icl, 1981. SM,\'47' MC>N(;LrII.I,O'T, Mariiirl, "L,os 1)roiitiiai-ios,ji~i.clicc,s cliilcrios cri 121 pr-iiiie~-;~i i t i iclcl siglo XIX", ctl l<twI',\/(~ (;i~t/ci/r,> ~~ (I (11, So(it~/t,.\, 1.11iivci.si<la<l Krlp;ii.;lso, N" 30, 1994. (le

l<[ ll\l( ) 1 ,l,( )l<l1:N'1'b',."1 .;I Ig11;11(l;i(l 1'1 j i i i I ~ I ) II I ( I ( . I I ( I , I (1c.l 1'1 ~ I ) I I I I ~ I(I :( c.11 tiiii(.ioii;il",(.ti I\>(,.oi\/(r Ii\/t/rt;01/1(11, / ) ( ~ I ~ ( / I o o ~ t \ l i / ~ i ( i o N t '/ ::l./ , l!)!) : ~' ~

ln Matlr-id,(:ciiti.o /a cr/)lic.nc.irn ilt~ lq y /,lpcf,(l~n/p,jirdic.i(~l, de Estiidios <:oristitiicioii;iIcs, 1!)X9.

ORTUZAK LJITAPIAT, h'aldo, "El reciir-so de protecci<iri y las resoliicio<:ii nrs,i~idicialcs", Rolotirr (:ol<qn dr Ahogt~do.r,10<14. y c OTERO kX":SNO%A, Fi-arikliii, (;onc.or/inr~cin.s j v ~ i . ~ p r u d ~ n d ri ln (;rdigo Ci7 1 c.hil/,no, Sariti;igo, (:asa %ariior.;iiio (:;rr~ci-,iii, 11 ' y 192fj.
O ' ~ E i 7 0 ,AT1iKOP, M igiirl, I)/Y~Y!I~J. \(,'i?liI. M t / l i / f ~ / ~ ~ . i o r ~ t ~ , \19881 l'ro~~ t~l l(;q(~lt~.\ 2000, S;iiiti;igo, l':ditori;il.Jiirdica de (:liil<-, 0 0 0 . 2 l'~A11,11.1.0 AKE\/AI,O, 1>111ic-l, ~ i ~ ~ i i ~ ~ i e ~ < ~ i c.itcis:t. i l'r~iii(.i~)io "E siti t r ~ i c i ~ o y liiciitc (le ohlig;ic.ioii<.s", R1?1, t. X( :111, I!)!)(i. <.ii
12tfioxior1(,.c co1)w 10 c.trcocitr, tlr\/)rr/;c I)IEl)KAISLlli.NAKI(:II\Kl), (;iiill<~i.iiio, (it~ ttrt//li/ic/~t~iort/,,\ /(1 1,ty PJ1' 19. 374, S;iiiti;igo, F;illos (1t.I Mes, ///,S tlt, 1 !K)(i.

l)tll(; l%Kl J'I'\I~,~~osC,r r r i . ~ / ) r r r t l ( ~ tt~otrro/rrt,t~/, ~lr,tr,c.Ito,l<os(~li.~ I I /,ti j ~~.it~ tlt4 I


<.<~Ioii;i, I!)r>O.

"1,;i (loc.ti-iii;i los ;ictos pix)l)ios", cii li\/rrdioc dr I)rrr,t.ho (:om/~/rrtrtic* do, l2;ir-<.c~loii;i, Ai-ic.1, 195 1 . QtlI]tiNO I;KKNJ~N~)~:Z, Alv;ii.o, I,(I//rt.~.\/)t.~r(It~r/ct(r //( (;t/tr\/i/~rci/jtr.~ ~ 1 (rr//(, 1 / ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ S;iiiti:igo,t l~,(Iitoi-i;il ~ ~ i ~ X,I siti ;iio (le c(Ii(.icii. ~ ~ ? ~ / ~ ~ r ~ ~ lAlloi~sor , i
" sol>r-c. jiii.is1)r-ri<lciic.i;i 1;i KKINOSO, I;<.i.iiari(lo, 1 i i i . i ~A<.toi.cs(Kcllc*xioiic~s i.orir;iii;i y cl,jiir.isti;ictii;il", cii !:itudio.t / / / > I)/,rrv.l,o /iotclrto tln /to>/or ti?AL71/1rtjl)'O):\,I'~~iii~)lo~i;r, l!l87, t. 11. Kiiiis~i,

RIVA(:ORA Y KIVA( :ORA, Maiiiicl, Di~i.siin y,/lrorr/t)c ( l r l t l t r ~ c h o /)o.\i/ii!o, Valparaso, Edrval, l9fiS.

KIVAS GUZMAN, Kariiri, "I,a doctriii;i de los actos propios y el r-cgltriicrito iriterrio d r la einprcsa", eri (:otztmto.c, VV.AA. (coor-diriacicriE .
Barros B.), Editorial Jiiridic-a dr Chile, 1991. RODRI(:UEZ, Agiistii, "Estiidio sol,r-r el r-eriir-socle casaci6rin (Meirior-ia d pi-rnii;id;i por- la Fa<-iiltacl r L,eycs y (:iericias Polticas (Ir la IJ. de Cl-lile) rri I h i i . s l n Forc.rr.sr ( ; / ~ i / t ~ n;irio XII, N"' I y 2, ~ J I .5-42, y N"' 3 , tr, y 4, [)p. 12<)-19:<, 1898. KOI)KI(;IJE% (;Kb:%, I';il)lo, 7i~orrrt l ln i r i / c r ~ ~ r i . / ~ r c ~ i ~ n S;iii t i;igo, ~ jirrtiica, E(Ii~iij~r-cs, l!l!N).
-

''1 ,;i ( ;oi.tc ili (.;~ss;i~ioiic lcge", cii /{i7!i.\/c~ c I;i 'kittt(~,s/tu/t~f ) i r i / / o c (1; I'ti)t./~//rc~i~ I'~.o.t~.c.\ rrnkt, ('i-oil(~, !)!)O. 1

"L,a Iisioiioi~ii;~ ~Ivl1;i st>rltcriLaiii ltillii~", I I < i ? ~ i , \ t7i.irr~t<\/~(rl/, ~ I t~ 11; 1);'~l?~' l l ~ t7/iO /> / ' ~ O / ' ( ~ f /'T(I('/J,s,\( ~ / f(d'17!;/0, 1 <186. "l>iiiicrisioiii(le1 pi-ccrtlcritr giiidi~i;ii-ion, Ii'iiis/ci ' l i i t t r c ~ ~ / r n I t 1); cii tli ~ i~t-o (:iz~il/,,1994. t.i//oP I ' t i ~ / ~ / ~ t lI'Y(I~~~~,\,\II///(J "l'i.cc(.(lr.iitc.( Y I csciiipio ii<,II;i (Ic~(.isioiic giiicli/.i;ii.i;i", I : i ~ l i c / r r 7;;cii I'~oc~~\crctiIt~ I!)!)/I. f,'i-ci~lc~, r t o ~ , ~ / t t il li t1)ir.illo I , I',oc.rtl/~t~, ~

'l'ilVOl.,ZKI OL.I\'l<KOS,K,iiil, "Kcllc~xic~ii<~s ;ic.tii;ilc.~ sol~i-c i i i i l i t l ; i < l 1 ) i o I;i (.(.s;il",c.11 /\>/,71i.\1/1 llot(,/to ~ , / I I ~ I . \ [ ~ I ~ I I S;ii~[i;igo, ~ , t/t' ~ / ( ~ ~ I I ~ ~l:(Ii~oi~i:il ~ ,111l~(li(~:l ( ~ l l i l c ~. , X( ; l , l!)!) l . (le, t

l ~ ( ~ ( (10 ~ ~ ~ : ~ o~.L ~I ~ / I , ~ (,/I.\(I(~(PII / / kttiti;igo, i~oiioSiii.,l<lWi.

'IiZI1 AN%OAI'Ei;IJI, Vc.toi., "1.0s origc.ii<.s (1<. I ; i , j i i r . i s ~ ) r ~ i i i l ~ ~l (~x ~105i ;t i it (~ l)iiii;il(.s cii 1;i Ai.gciitiri;i". cri 1<~71i.sirr l tli.\or.icr t l p l I)/,IP(./IO, t ~ Ihi(.iios Air-es, 1!)78, N" 6.
i,()i~c;Jiir PZ ~PIPCILO ~ ~ tR~it-iios es, A l > i ~ l r ( l I'<.I-I-OI, 2" <*(l., ir~di ~ o ? , Ait o

1082.
rri 'I'OMASY VAI,IENrI'E, Fraricisco, "El perisairiierito,j11rc1ico", 0br-lr.t ,'iitnPGtrc.,, M a d r i d , i:eiitro d e Estiidios Polticos y i:oristitiiciori;ilcs,

1997.
TUIMARCHI, Pieti.o, I < t i ( ~ r z i o n i i l l i - i l l o P~iucclo, d (;iiiffri, Editoi-e, Milano, 1 1" cd., 1996. T R O N ( : O S O MAI<TINI(:, I'cclro, (,'c~,s~~c.i(jn plJi)n(/o (.i71iIy (./LJIC(.~YI (!/CC~(I/, S;ir~ti;igo, Ecli~ori;il,Ji~rclic;t i:Iiil(~,1992. cit. LIUQUl]O, Mai.iliiz, "1;i ;re<-itiri i1c. seiitt.ii(.i;lr :i t ~ i v i . s(Ic. los ;il>iiiitt.s <1(. 1%(*11i1o la Mal ;i 1,iii;trcs", cii I?ITI~.S//L~ (]t. ( 1 lfI.\/e~~Y/r I ) / ~ V ( Y ~ / I ~ J , ///>/ 151ieiios Air.c.s, Iiistitiito t1c Iiivcstig;i(.ioiic's I l i s t t i r i c ; ~ ~ , 1!)7(i. VAI,I.:N%lll;,l,A SOMAKIZIVA, Eiig(~iiio,"1 .;il)oi-,jiii-istlircio~~;~l (:oi.t<* ti(, I;i Si 11)i.<'r~ii", l'r71j)o\i(.iot1/~.\ ('11 ;fiorn In lto/i~r-ttl(c ,J~rrlic.itrl, VV.AA., S;iii t i;ig o , l!l!)l. VAS(lIJL':% SO'l'li,l,O, ,losi. I.iiis, "El rriotl<,lo <.sp;iol tl<. (.;is;ic.itiii (t.oiiliy cii (10 gu";i<~itiri Iiisitiric.;~ c.voliic.itiii I<~gisl;itiwi)", S(.ri//iitl o t ~ o w I','lio Mil311, (;iiil'I'r.C, l!)!K$. /(rzz/rl/~ri, VIANl':I.I.O, Ii.lis;il>ctt;r, "1,;i r c l a ~ i v i t i dcll;i rc.gol:i .t/nw /lc,c.iti.\ ii<.Il;i ~>r;tc.tic-ii (le1 ~ > r ~ c ~ ~ c <giiitli~i;ii I < ~ r i t e ion, c.11 Kiiii.\/n Iilrn/<s(rnb~ I)irY//o r I'rocli c,r/lurr I'vncc~.c,~ucrG7 ~ i k ,1 !)!)'L. :i V I i : l N < : I O F,Y%A(;UIKKE, Fclipta, "l'er-hl>rctiv;i hisitr-ic-;i<le I;ts rc~vist;is,jiirt1ic;is cliileri;isn, eii I{mii.\//~ (,'hiLon/~ I)(wc.l~o, d~ vol. 27/,1, 2000. VINIJI':IA TI(?JAS, M;iiiricio, "Accr-ca dc la conipctciici;t d c los,jirt~rcs (-ivilcs p;rra conoccr- dciriaiidas de riiilitlad (Ir d e r r c l i o piil,lico. i:oiisidcrariories en rrlaciori a la atlrriiriistracitiri tdiiaiier;~", rri / ? ~ u i s / a d~ D ~ v c h o ~ i b l i ~Uiliversidad d e i:liile, 2001. P o, V O N KIU(:IIMANN, Jiiliiis Herniaiiri, Idaj ~ ~ m s p r u d ~ n n oaP.$ cienria, Iristici tiito de Estiidios Polticos, M a d r i d , 1981, 3"dic.
1. Aiitt~ccclciitc~s ~)rclirriiii:ii~cs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 121 j~ii.isl>i.iitl<~rici;~ l sistctiia tlc 1;i l<yilicl;id . . . . . . . . . . . . . cSii r i o r siipiicsto i~lipctliiiicrito . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. El t.ft'cto i ~ t ~ l r i ~ cv o ~ i o cl;sico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. 1 ,;is i.;i;/oiic.s p;ii-;i i.c\is;ii. el (logiii;~ . gcii<'ra el cl.cio i-cl;itivo i1c I;i s<.iitc~ii<.i;i. . . . . 3. l'rol>lciii;is i111c (i. 1.0s iii<~c.;iiiisriios I>;LI.;I c\,it;u. I;i ~lisc~i~iiiiiii;ici~~~,j~~~lici;~l .......

1. 2.

I~oi~iri;is iii;iiiil~~~i;ii~sc. I i o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tl(. (.I tI(.i-(v S(.titi<lot l ( . I;i v o l jiii~isl)iiitl<~iic-i;i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 2. l . ( : o i i i o < i. < ~ i l ~ i t l ; i<I<.I~""1s~;'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tl . 2.1. ( : o i i i o ( ' i ( ~ i i ( ' i ; i tl<.l. < l.< ~ i.- < ~ ( . 1 1 0. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3. i : o i i i o c < ~ i l t ~ ~ i i ~ 1 1i' 1 i < ~ i ; l 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (~ ; c.11 ~ :>>.,1I<.;iirc.(.tl(. 1;) (.x~)i.(*si(iil I I I I < , S1.0i i i ( * ( l i o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .................................. l . 1 11I i l l1 :S.?. 1:ii 1;i ( l o c . t i - i i i ; i tl(, los ;iiiioi.<~s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '> '> .>..). 1:ii 1;i i<~oi-i;i< % 1;i.; Iii<~iii<~s t I < ~ i . < ~ ( - I. i .o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . <I . . tlcd 1. I,;i i-c.\'isitiii tl(,l <Iogiii;i 1 1 - ; i t l i c ~ i o i i ; i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ., 5. 1 ; \ ~ ; i I i l ; i < ~ i o ilii i i ; i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ests libro tiene mpropcitofundamentalfwmar conciencia en torno a cuestiones elementales, que permitan examinar el desempeRo de la jurisprudencia en e eisfma de fuentes l del derecho. Ajuicia del autor, Y unidad de la jurisprudencia debe a ser mirada a m o una autdntica garantia, que pgtrmita, de un moda razonable, prever el contenido final de la decisinpara casos anlogos, evitando k arbitrariedad judicial". El enfoque que aqu se hace de las prbblemas que surgen de la jurisprudencia es de wracter estrictamente procesal, Yomando corno base el ordenamiento chileno y la Jurlsprudencia civil de les tribunales superiores de justicia. El tema se plantea considerando los postulados de la doctrina nacional y extranjera mas reciente, destacando el gran valor de lajurisprudencia y la impwtancia de ~onsiderarla como una verdadem fuente del derecha en nuestro ordena-

mj~rrto jurdico.
'.

._