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CHNG I GII THIU CHUNG V K THUT CHUYN MCH


1.1. Mt s khi nim c s 1.1.1. Khi nim chuyn mch Chuyn mch l mt qu trnh thc hin u ni v chuyn thng tin cho ngi s dng thng qua h tng mng vin thng. Ni cch khc, chuyn mch trong mng vin thng bao gm chc nng nh tuyn cho thng tin v chc nng chuyn tip thng tin. 1.1.2. H thng chuyn mch Qu trnh chuyn mch c thc hin ti cc nt mng, trong mng chuyn mch knh cc nt mng thng c gi l h thng chuyn mch (Tng i), trong mng chuyn mch gi thng c gi l thit b nh tuyn (B nh tuyn). Trong mt s mng c bit, phn t thc hin nhim v chuyn mch c th va ng vai tr thit b u cui va ng vai tr chuyn mch v chuyn tip thng tin. 1.1.3. Phn loi chuyn mch Cc h thng chuyn mch cu thnh mng chuyn mch, ta c hai dng mng chuyn mch c bn: Mng chuyn mch knh v mng chuyn mch gi. Tuy nhin, di gc truyn v x l thng tin, chuyn mch cn c th phn thnh bn kiu: chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch bn tin, chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch t bo. Mng chuyn mch knh thit lp cc mch (knh) ch nh ring cho kt ni trc khi qu trnh truyn thng thc hin. Nh vy, qu trnh chuyn mch c chia thnh 3 giai on phn bit: thit lp, truyn v gii phng. thit lp, gii phng v iu khin kt ni, mng chuyn mch knh s dng cc k thut bo hiu thc hin nh mt thnh phn bt buc. Ngc li vi mng chuyn mch knh l mng chuyn mch gi, da trn nguyn tc phn chia cc lu lng d liu thnh cc gi tin v truyn i trn mng chia s, mi gi tin l mt thc th c lp cha cc thng tin cn thit cho qu trnh x l thng tin trn mng. Cc giai on thit lp, truyn v gii phng s c thc hin ng thi trong mt khong thi gian v quyt nh ng i c xc lp bi thng tin trong tiu gi tin. 1.1.4. K thut lu lng TE K thut lu lng TE (Traffic Engineering) c coi l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht trong khung lm vic ca h tng mng vin thng. Mc ch ca k thut lu lng l ci thin hiu nng v tin cy ca cc hot ng ca mng trong khi ti u cc ngun ti nguyn v lu lng. Ni cch khc, TE l cng c s dng ti u ti nguyn s dng ca mng bng phng php k thut nh hng cc lung lu lng ph hp vi cc tham s rng buc tnh hoc ng. 1 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Mc tiu c bn ca k thut lu lng l cn bng v ti u cc iu khin ca ti v ti nguyn mng thng qua cc thut ton v gii php k thut. 1.1.5. Bo hiu trong mng vin thng Bo hiu s dng cc tn hiu iu khin truyn thng, trong mng vin thng bo hiu l s trao i thng tin lin quan ti iu khin, thit lp cc kt ni v thc hin qun l mng. Cc h thng bo hiu c th phn loi theo c tnh v nguyn tc hot ng gm: Bo hiu trong bng v bo hiu ngoi bng, bo hiu ng v bo hiu thanh ghi, bo hiu knh lin kt v bo hiu knh chung, bo hiu bt buc, v..v. Cc thng tin bo hiu c truyn di dng tn hiu in hoc bn tin. Cc h thng bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch in thoi cng cng PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) c nh s t No1-No7. 1.1.6. Mng tch hp dch v s bng rng B-ISDN Mng tch hp dch v s bng rng c nhim v cung cp cc cuc ni thng qua chuyn mch, cc cuc ni c nh hoc bn c nh, cc cuc ni t im ti im hoc t im ti a im v cung cp cc dch v yu cu, cc dch v dnh trc hoc cc dch v yu cu c nh. Cuc ni trong B-ISDN phc v cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh, chuyn mch gi theo kiu a phng tin, n phng tin, theo kiu hng lin kt hoc phi lin kt v theo cu hnh n hng hoc a hng. 1.2. Cc t chc tiu chun Cc tiu chun cho php cc nh cung cp thit b pht trin cc sn phm theo mt tp cc c tnh chung v ngi s dng cng nh cc nh cung cp dch v c th la chn c cc thit b t nhiu nh cung cp. H thng tiu chun c chia thnh hai loi: Tiu chun thc t v tiu chun php l. Tiu chun thc t c pht trin bi mt nh cung cp thit b hoc mt nhm cc nh cung cp c chp thun bi cc t chc tiu chun. Tiu chun php l c lp bi tha thun chung gia cc t chc tiu chun Quc gia hoc y ban tiu chun Quc t. Cc tiu chun lin quan ti lnh vc chuyn mch thuc v c hai loi tiu chun trn, nhng tp trung ch yu trong h thng tiu chun php l. Di y l mt s t chc tiu chun v din n chnh. 1.2.1. Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU (International Telecommunication Union) l mt t chc lin chnh ph gm c cc Quc gia thnh vin v Thnh vin lnh vc. Lin minh vin thng Quc t ITU gm 3 lnh vc chnh: Lnh vc thng tin v tuyn ITU-R (Radiocommunication); Lnh vc tiu chun ha vin thng ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization); Lnh vc pht trin vin thng ITU-D (Development). ITU-T c t chc bi 15 nhm nghin cu k thut v a ra cc tiu chun di dng khuyn ngh. Cc khuyn ngh ca ITU-T trong series Q lin quan ti bo 2 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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hiu v chuyn mch. V d, Q.2931 m t th tc bo hiu s dng thit lp knh o im-im qua giao din ngi s dng-mng trong mi trng ATM. 1.2.2. T chc tiu chun Quc t ISO T chc tiu chun Quc t ISO (International Organization for Standardization) gm cc y ban tiu chun ca cc Quc gia. Nhim v ca t chc tiu chun Quc t ISO l xc tin vic tiu chun ha v cc hot ng lin quan trn ton cu nhm to iu kin thun tin trong trao i hng ha v dch v, pht trin s hp tc trn nhiu lnh vc. Tiu chun ISO a ra cc tiu chun ha bao trm tt c cc lnh vc k thut, trong lnh vc vin thng m hnh h thng kt ni h thng m OSI l mt tiu chun ph bin ca ISO. ISO hp tc vi y ban in t Quc t IEC (International Electronical Commission) pht trin cc tiu chun trong mng my tnh v lp ra y ban lin kt k thut JCT1 pht trin cc tiu chun trong lnh vc cng ngh thng tin. 1.2.3. Vin k thut in v in t IEEE IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering) l cng ng chuyn gia k thut ln nht trn th gii pht trin cc tiu chun trong lnh vc in-in t v my tnh thng qua hip hi tiu chun IEEE-SA (Standards Association). 1.2.4. T chc c trch k thut Internet IETF IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) l mt cng ng m Quc t ca cc nh thit k mng, iu hnh mng, cc nh cung cp thit b v cc nh nghin cu lin quan ti s pht trin ca kin trc Internet. Mt s vng chc nng c bn ca IETF nh: ng dng, Internet, qun l mng, cc yu cu iu hnh, nh tuyn, bo mt, truyn ti v dch v ngi s dng. 1.2.5. Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u ETSI ETSI (European Telecommunications Standards Institute) l t chc tiu chun ha vin thng, phi li nhun v c lp ca chu u cng nh ca th gii. Mc tiu ca ETSI nhm h tr qu trnh tiu chun ha trong lnh vc vin thng, cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng ton cu thng qua cc din n, to iu kin cho cc thnh vin ch cht ng gp kin xy dng cc tiu chun. 1.2.6. Din n chuyn mch a phng tin MSF MSF (The Multimedia Switching Forum) cung cp cc tiu chun cho chuyn mch a dch v da trn nn tng ATM, h tr cc kiu dch v gm cc dch v IP v dch v ATM cng nh l cc dch v khc. 1.2.7. Din n IP/MPLS Din n IP/MPLS l mt t chc Quc t phi li nhun ca cc nh cung cp dch v, cc nh cung cp thit b, cc trung tm o kim v ngi dng x nghip. Mc tiu ca din n tp trung vo cc gii php pht trin v ng dng trn h tng cng ngh IP/MPLS. 3 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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1.3. Qu trnh pht trin ca k thut chuyn mch Vo khong thp nin 60 ca th k 20, xut hin sn phm tng i in t s l s kt hp gia cng ngh in t vi k thut my tnh. Tng i in t s cng cng u tin ra i c iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn SPC (Stored Program Control). Trong nhng nm 70 hng lot cc tng i thng mi in t s ra i. Mt trong nhng tng i l tng i E10 ca CIT-Alcatel c s dng ti Php. Nm 1976 Bell gii thiu tng i in t s cng cng 4ESS. Nm 1980 tng i DMS100 ca Northem Telecom dng ton b k thut s u tin trn th gii. H thng 5ESS ca hng AT&T a vo nm 1982 ci tin rt nhiu t h thng chuyn mch 4ESS v c cc chc nng tng thch vi cc dch v mng s tch hp dch v ISDN (Integrated Service Digital Network). Khong nm 1996 khi mng Internet tr thnh bng n trong th gii cng ngh thng tin, n tc ng mnh m n cng nghip vin thng v xu hng hi t cc mng my tnh, truyn thng, iu khin. H tng mng vin thng tr thnh tm im quan tm trong vai tr h tng x hi. Mt mng c th truyn bng rng vi cc loi hnh dch v thoi v phi thoi, tc cao v m bo c cht lng dch v QoS (Quality Of Service) tr thnh cp thit trn nn tng ca mt k thut mi: K thut truyn ti khng ng b ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode). Cc h thng chuyn mch in t s cng phi dn thay i theo hng ny cng vi cc ch tiu k thut, giao thc mi. Mt v d in hnh l cc h thng chuyn mch knh khi cung cp cc dch v Internet s c tin cy khc so vi cc cuc gi thng thng vi thi gian chim dng cuc gi ln hn rt nhiu. S thay i ca h tng mng chuyn i sang mng th h sau NGN v ang tc ng rt ln ti cc h thng chuyn mch, sau y trnh by mt s vn lin quan ti mng NGN v cc c im ca qu trnh hi t mng ca h tng mng cng cng. Mng chuyn mch knh cng cng PSTN v IP (Internet Protocol) ang dn hi t ti cng mt mc tiu nhm hng ti mt h tng mng tc cao c kh nng tng thch vi cc ng dng a phng tin tng tc v m bo cht lng dch v. Hnh 1.1. ch ra xu hng hi t trong h tng mng cng cng:

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Hnh 1.1. Xu hng hi t cng ngh mng cng cng T nhng nm 1980, PSTN chuyn hng tip cn sang phng thc truyn ti bt ng b ATM h tr a phng tin v QoS, sau chuyn hng sang cng ngh kt hp vi IP chuyn mch nhn a giao thc hin nay. Trong khi Internet a ra mt tip cn hi khc vi PSTN qua gii php trin khai kin trc phn lp dch v CoS (Class Of Service) v hng ti m bo cht lng dch v QoS thng qua m hnh tch hp dch v IntServ v phn bit dch v DiffServ, cc chin lc ca Internet theo hng tng thch vi IP, mng quang v hng ti mng chuyn mch nhn a giao thc tng qut GMPLS (Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switch). Cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS ra i vo nm 2001 l s n lc kt hp hai phng thc chuyn mch hng kt ni (ATM, FR) vi cng ngh chuyn mch phi kt ni (IP). Trong mi trng mng hin nay, s phn cp h thng thit b bin (ni ht), thit b qu giang v thit b li trong mng cung cp cc dch v PSTN vn ang tn ti. Cc mng bao trm nh FR, ATM v Internet ang c trin khai song song v to ra nhu cu kt ni lin mng. Cc truy nhp cng thm gm cp ng, cp quang v truy nhp khng dy ang c trin khai lm a dng v tng mt truy nhp t pha mng truy nhp. S tng trng ca cc dch v truy nhp to nn sc p v t ra 3 vn chnh i vi h thng chuyn mch bng rng a dch v: Truy nhp bng thng rng, s thng minh ca thit b bin v truyn dn tc cao ti mng li. Vi mi trng mng PSTN trc y, cc thit b li mng chu trch nhim chnh trong iu hnh v qun l v iu ny c thay i chc nng cho cc thit b g mng trong mi trng NGN. Cc h thng chuyn mch phi c mm do ln nhm tng thch v p ng cc yu cu tng trng lu lng t pha khch hng. V vy, c ch iu 5 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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khin cc h thng chuyn mch c pht trin theo hng phn lp v module ha nhm nng cao hiu nng chuyn mch v m bo QoS t u cui ti u cui. Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS (Call Server) v hng trin khai phn h a dch v IP (IMS) c trnh by di y ch ra nhng s thay i ln trong lch s pht trin h thng chuyn mch. 1.3.1. Chuyn mch mm v hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS Hng tip cn my ch cuc gi CS c hnh thnh trong qu trnh chuyn i cc h tng mng chuyn mch knh sang chuyn mch gi trong mng PSTN. thc hin qu trnh chuyn i v truyn thoi trn nn IP, mt gii php c th thc thi l to ra mt thit b lai c th chuyn mch thoi c dng knh v gi vi s tch hp ca phn mm x l cuc gi. Thit b b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller) c coi l thnh phn mu cht trong gii php k thut chuyn mch mm Softswitch. Thc cht ca khi nim chuyn mch mm chnh l phn mm thc hin chc nng x l cuc gi trong h thng chuyn mch c kh nng chuyn ti nhiu loi thng tin vi cc giao thc khc nhau. Theo thut ng chuyn mch mm th chc nng chuyn mch vt l c thc hin bi cng a phng tin MG (Media Gateway), cn x l cuc gi l chc nng ca b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC. Chuyn mch mm thc hin cc chc nng tng t chuyn mch knh truyn thng nhng vi nng lc mm do v tnh nng u vit hn. Cc u im ca chuyn mch mm mang li l do vic chuyn mch bng phn mm da trn cu trc phn tn v cc giao din lp trnh ng dng m. Trong chuyn mch truyn thng, phn cng chuyn mch lun i km vi phn mm iu khin ca cng mt nh cung cp. iu ny lm tng tnh c quyn trong vic cung cp cc h thng chuyn mch, khng cung cp mt mi trng kin to dch v mi, lm gii hn kh nng pht trin cc dch v mi ca cc nh qun tr mng. Khc phc iu ny, chuyn mch mm a ra giao din lp trnh ng dng m API (Application Programable Interface), cho php tng thch phn mm iu khin v phn cng ca cc nh cung cp khc nhau. Chuyn mch mm c xy dng trn c s mng IP, x l thng tin mt cch trong sut, cho php p ng nhiu loi lu lng khc nhau. c xy dng theo cu hnh phn tn, tch cc chc nng khc khi chc nng chuyn mch cng lm cho nhim v chuyn mch tr nn n gin hn v do nng lc x l mnh m hn. Cng ngh chuyn mch mm lm gim tnh c quyn ca cc nh cung cp, gp phn tng tnh cnh tranh v do gim gi thnh ca h thng chuyn mch mm. 1.3.2. Hng tip cn phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) thc hin hi t gia mng di ng vi mng c nh theo hng IP ha hon ton, mng th h k tip NGN ng dng ti mng 3G trong nhiu cch. Vo 6 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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nm 2000, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) thit lp cc c tnh ca WCDMA R4 (Wireless Code Division Multiple Access Release 4), l ln u tin a ra khi nim chuyn mch mm vo trong h thng mng li di ng. S thay i ny nh hng ti kin trc mng, cc giao din mng, s pht trin ca cc dch v trong h thng thng tin di ng hng s pht trin ca 3G ti NGN. NGN v 3G a ra rt nhiu giao thc. 3G v NGN khng ch cung cp cc dch v nh thoi m cn l cc dch v a phng tin thng qua cc giao din dch v m. 1.4. Vai tr v v tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng 1.4.1. Cc thnh phn ca mng vin thng (Telecommunications network) L mt tp hp bao gm cc nt mng v cc ng truyn dn kt ni gia hai hay nhiu im xc nh thc hin cc cuc trao i thng tin gia chng. Mng vin thng cung cp a dng cc loi hnh dch v vin thng cho khch hng, t nhng dch v truyn thng nh in thoi, Fax, truyn s liu cho n cc dch v mi nh Internet, VOD, thng mi in t, 1.4.1.1. Thit b u cui Thit b u cui l cc trang thit b ca ngi s dng giao tip vi mng cung cp dch v. Hin nay c nhiu chng loi thit b u cui ca nhiu hng khc nhau ty thuc vo tng dch v (v d nh my in thoi, my fax, ). Thit b u cui thc hin chc nng chuyn i thng tin cn trao i thnh cc tn hiu in v ngc li.

Hnh 1.2. Cc thnh phn ca mng vin thng 1.4.1.2. H thng chuyn mch H thng chuyn mch l thnh phn ct li ca mng vin thng c chc nng thit lp ng truyn gia cc thu bao (u cui).

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Ty theo v tr ca h thng chuyn mch trn mng, ngi ta chia thnh tng i chuyn tip quc t, tng i chuyn tip lin tnh v tng i ni ht hoc router bin, router li. 1.4.1.3. Thit b truyn dn Thit b truyn dn c s dng ni cc thit b u cui hay gia cc tng i vi nhau v truyn cc tn hiu mt cch nhanh chng v chnh xc. Thit b truyn dn c phn loi thnh thit b truyn dn thu bao, ni thit b u cui vi mt tng i ni ht, v thit b truyn dn chuyn tip, ni gia cc tng i. Da vo mi trng truyn dn, thit b truyn dn c th c phn loi gm thit b truyn dn hu tuyn s dng cp kim loi, cp si quang v thit b truyn dn v tuyn s dng khng gian lm mi trng truyn dn. 1.4.2. Vai tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng H thng chuyn mch (tng i, Node chuyn mch) c chc nng chnh l thit lp u ni gia thit b u cui pht vi thit b u cui thu da vo a ch mng (s thu bao). H thng chuyn mch c t cc v tr nt mng. N bao gm tp hp cc phng tin k thut thc hin vic thu, x l v phn phi cc thng tin chuyn ti t cc knh thng tin kt ni vi h thng chuyn mch. Cc chc nng c thc hin bi mt h thng chuyn mch, hay mt phn h ca n cung cp cc tnh nng dch v cho khch hng. Khi h tng mng thay i, vic thit k cc h thng chuyn mch cng tr nn phc tp hn c th cung cp cc phng tin b sung cho php cc mng c kh nng cung cp nhiu dch v phong ph v cht lng ti khch hng v gip cho vic vn hnh cng nh bo dng tr nn d dng hn. Mc d cc h thng chuyn mch hin i c phc tp nhng n vn thc hin y cc chc nng c bn ca mt h thng chuyn mch. H thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng tr thnh mt thnh phn phc tp nht, tp trung cao nht hm lng cng ngh hin i, hm lng cht xm v hm lng cc chc nng x l thng tin. 1.4.3. V tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng vin thng 1.4.3.1. V tr ca h thng chuyn mch trong mng PSTN

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Hnh 1.3. V tr ca tng i trong mng PSTN GW TE HLE REL Sub : Gateway Tng i quc t : Transit Exchange Tng i chuyn tip quc gia : Host Local Exchange Tng i ni ht : Remote Local Exchange Tng i xa (Tng i v tinh : Subcriber Thu bao

Mng PSTN l mng vin thng cng cng c chun ha do ITU, cng ngh nn tng l cng ngh chuyn mch knh. H thng chuyn mch c t ti cc node mng v c gi l tng i. Ty theo v tr, chc nng ca tng i m trong mng phn chia thnh cc loi: Tng i cng quc t Tng i chuyn tip vng Toll Tng i chuyn tip ni ht Tandem Tng i ni ht Local 1.4.3.2. V tr ca cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng GSM Chc nng chuyn mch chnh trong mng thng tin di ng ton cu GSM c thc hin bi h thng con chuyn mch (SS). N bao gm mt s cc khi chc nng: Tng i chuyn mch trung tm MSC: Thc hin cc cng vic lin quan n thit lp/gii phng cuc gi, qun l thu bao, u ni vi cc mng khc thc hin cc cuc gi lin mng. MSC qun l cc BTS v c trang b cc c s d liu cho php nhanh chng cp nht cc thng tin v thu bao, v tr thu bao c cc p ng ph hp (HLR, VLR). Tng i chuyn mch ca ng GMSC: Kt ni vi cc mng khc nh mng in thoi c nh hay mng Internet. GMSC thc hin iu khin cc cuc gi t mng di ng vo mng in thoi c nh v ngc li.

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Hnh 1.4. V tr ca tng i trong mng GSM 1.4.3.3. V tr ca cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng NGN

Hnh 1.5. Cu trc mng NGN Cng ngh nn tng ca NGN l chuyn mch gi, v vy cc h thng chuyn mch trong mng NGN l cc thit b nh tuyn Router. Cc khi trong tng i hin nay c phn chia thnh cc lp mng ring l, cc lp ny lin kt vi nhau qua cc giao din m tiu chun. S thng minh ca x l cuc gi c bn trong chuyn mch PSTN c tch ra t phn cng ca ma trn chuyn mch. S thng minh nm trong mt thit b tch ri gi l chuyn mch mm hay b iu khin cng phng tin MGC 10 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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(Media Gateway Controller) hay tc nhn cuc gi (Call Agent), ng vai tr phn t iu khin trong kin trc mng mi.

CHNG II TNG QUAN V MNG TH H SAU


2.1. Khi nim

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Mng vin thng th h sau (NGN Next Generation Network) ang l xu hng nhiu nc trn th gii do cc tnh cht tin tin ca n nh hi t cc loi tn hiu, mng ng nht v bng thng rng. Ti Vit Nam, lnh vc vin thng ang pht trin mnh v nhu cu ngi dng v cc loi hnh dch v mi ngy cng cao, v vy vic nghin cu tin ln NGN cng l vn cp bch. NGN l mng hi t c thoi, video v d liu trn cng mt c s h tng da trn n tng IP, lm vic trn c phng tin truyn thng v tuyn v hu tuyn. NGN l s tch hp cu trc mng hin ti vi cu trc mng a dch v da trn c s h tng mng c sn, vi s hp nht cc h thng qun l v iu khin. Cc ng dng c bn bao gm thoi, hi ngh truyn hnh v nhn tin hp nht nh voice mail, email v fax mail, cng nhiu dch v tim nng khc. Cho ti hin nay, mc d cc t chc vin thng quc t v cc nh cung cp thit b vin thng trn th gii u rt quan tm v nghin cu v chin lc pht trin NGN. Song vn cha c mt nh ngha c th no chnh xc cho mng NGN. Do , nh ngha mng NGN nu ra y khng th bao hm ht ngha ca mng th h mi nhng l khi nim chung nht khi cp n NGN. Bt ngun t s pht trin ca cng ngh thng tin, cng ngh chuyn mch gi v cng ngh truyn dn bng rng, mng NGN ra i l mng c c s h tng thng tin duy nht da trn cng ngh chuyn mch gi, trin khai dch v mt cch a dng v nhanh chng, p ng s hi t gia thoi v s liu, c nh v di ng. Nh vy, c th xem NGN l s tch hp mng PSTN da trn k thut TDM v mng chuyn mch gi da trn k thut IP/ATM. N c th truyn ti tt c cc dch v vn c ca PSTN ng thi c th cung cp cho mng IP mt lng lu lng d liu ln, nh gim ti cho mng PSTN. Tuy nhin, NGN khng ch n thun l s hi t gia thoi v d liu m cn l s hi t gia truyn dn quang v cng ngh gi, gia mng c nh v di ng. Vn ct li y l lm sao c th tn dng ht li th em n t qu trnh hi t ny. Mt vn quan trng khc l s bng n nhu cu ca ngi s dng cho mt khi lng ln dch v v ng dng phc tp bao gm c a phng tin, phn ln trong s khng c d tnh khi xy dng cc h thng mng hin nay. 2.2. ng c xut hin mng th h sau Yu t hng u l tc pht trin theo hm s m ca nhu cu truyn dn d liu v cc dch v d liu l kt qu ca tng trng Internet mnh m. Cc h thng mng cng cng hin nay ch yu c xy dng nhm truyn dn lu lng thoi, truyn d liu thng tin v video c vn chuyn trn cc mng chng ln, tch ri c trin khai p ng nhng yu cu ca chng. Do vy, mt s chuyn i sang h thng mng chuyn mch gi tp trung l khng th trnh khi khi m d liu thay th v tr ca thoi v tr thnh ngun to ra li nhun chnh. Cng vi s bng n Internet trn ton cu, rt nhiu kh nng mng th h mi s da trn giao thc IP. Tuy nhin, thoi vn l mt dch v quan trng v do , nhng thay i ny dn ti yu cu truyn thoi cht lng cao qua IP. 12 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Nhng l do chnh dn ti s xut hin ca mng th h sau: Ci thin chi ph u t. Xu th i mi vin thng. Cc ngun doanh thu mi. 2.3. c im ca NGN S dng cng ngh chuyn mch mm (Softswitch) thay th cc thit b chuyn mch phn cng (Hardware) cng knh. Cc mng ca tng dch v ring r c kt ni vi nhau thng qua s iu khin ca mt thit b tng i duy nht, thit b tng i ny da trn cng ngh Softswitch c v nh tri tim ca NGN. Mng hi t thoi v d liu, c nh v di ng. Cc loi tn hiu c truyn ti theo k thut chuyn mch gi, xu hng sp ti ang tin ln s dng mng IP vi k thut QoS nh MPLS. Mng bng thng rng cung cp a dch v: mng truyn dn quang vi cng ngh WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) hay DWDM (Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing). 2.4. Cu trc NGN

Hnh 2.1. Cu trc lp mng ca NGN Cu trc NGN bao gm 5 lp chc nng: Lp truy nhp dch v (service access layer). Lp truyn ti dch v (service transport/core layer). Lp iu khin (control layer). Lp ng dng/dch v (application/service layer). 13 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Lp truy nhp dch v: Bao gm cc thit b truy nhp cung cp cc kt ni vi cc thit b u cui thu bao qua h thng mng ngoi vi cp ng, hoc cp quang, hoc thng qua mi trng v tuyn (thng tin di ng, v tinh, truy nhp v tuyn c nh ). Lp truyn ti dch v: Bao gm cc nt chuyn mch (AMT+IP) v cc h thng truyn dn (SDH, WDM) thc hin chc nng chuyn mch, nh tuyn cuc gi gia cc thu bao ca lp truy nhp di s iu khin ca thit b iu khin cuc gi thuc lp iu khin. Lp iu khin: Bao gm cc h thng iu khin ni cuc gi gia cc thu bao qua vic iu khin cc thit b chuyn mch (AMT+IP) ca lp truyn ti v cc thit b truy nhp ca lp truy nhp. Lp iu khin c chc nng kt ni cuc gi thu bao vi lp ng dng/dch v. Cc chc nng nh qun l, chm sc khch hng, tnh cc cng c tch hp trong lp iu khin. Lp ng dng/dch v: Cung cp cc ng dng v dch v nh dch v mng thng minh IN (Intelligent Network), tr tin trc, dch v gi tr gia tng Internet cho khch hng thng qua lp iu khin Trong mi trng pht trin cnh tranh s c rt nhiu thnh phn tham gia kinh doanh trong lp ny. Lp qun l: y l lp c bit xuyn sut cc lp trn. Cc chc nng qun l c ch trng l: qun l mng, qun l dch v, qun l kinh doanh. 2.5. Cc thnh phn ca NGN Mi tng quan gia cu trc phn lp chc nng v cc thnh phn chnh ca NGN c m t trong hnh 2.2.

Hnh 2.2. Cu trc phn lp v cc thnh phn chnh trong NGN Theo hnh 2.2. ta nhn thy, cc thit b u cui kt ni n mng truy nhp (Access Network), sau kt ni n cc cng truyn thng (Media Gateway) nm bin ca mng trc. Thit b quan trng nht ca NGN l Softswitch nm tm 14 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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ca mng trc (hay cn gi l mng li). Softswitch iu khin cc chc nng chuyn mch v nh tuyn qua cc giao thc. Hnh 2.3. lit k chi tit cc thnh phn NGN cng vi cc c im kt ni ca n n mng cng cng (PSTN).

Hnh 2.3. Cc thnh phn chnh trong NGN Thit b Softswitch: L thit b u no trong mng NGN. N lm nhim v iu khin cuc gi, bo hiu v cc tnh nng to mt cuc gi trong mng NGN hoc xuyn qua nhiu mng khc (PSTN, ISDN). Softswitch cn c gi l Call Agent (v chc nng iu khin cuc gi ca n) hoc Media Gateway Controller MGC (v chc nng iu khin cng truyn thng Media Gateway). Thit b Softswitch c kh nng tng tc vi mng PSTN thng qua cc cng bo hiu (Signalling Gateway) v cng truyn thng (Media Gateway). Softswitch iu khin cuc gi thng qua cc bo hiu, c hai loi chnh: Ngang hng (peer-to-peer): Giao thc gia Softswitch v Softswitch, giao thc s dng l BICC hay SIP. iu khin truyn thng: giao tip gia Softswitch v Gateway, giao thc s dng l MGCP hay Megaco/H.248. Cng truyn thng: Nhim v ca cng truyn thng (MG-Media Gateway) l chuyn i vic truyn thng t mt nh dng truyn dn ny sang mt nh dng khc, thng thng l t dng mch (circuit) sang dng gi (packet), hoc t dng mch analog/ISDN sang dng gi. Vic chuyn i ny c iu khin bng Softswitch. MG thc hin vic m ha, gii m v nn d liu. MG cung cp phng tin truyn thng truyn ti thoi, d liu, fax v hnh nh gia mng truyn thng PSTN v mng IP. Cng truy nhp: Cng truy nhp (AG Access Gateway) l mt dng ca MG. N c kh nng giao tip vi my PC, thu bao ca mng PSTN, xDSL v giao tip 15 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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vi mng gi IP qua giao tip STM. Trong NGN, cng truy nhp c iu khin t Softswitch qua giao thc MGCP hay Megaco/H.248. Lc ny, lu lng thoi t thu bao s c ng gi v kt ni vo mng trc IP. Cng bo hiu: Cng bo hiu (Signalling Gateway SG) ng vai tr nh cng giao tip gia mng bo hiu s 7 (SS7 Signalling System 7, giao thc c dng trong PSTN) v cc im c qun l bi thit b Softswitch trong mng IP. Lu rng SG ch iu khin SS7, cn MG iu khin cc mch thoi thit lp bi c ch SS7. Mng trc IP: Mng trc c th hin l mng IP kt hp cng ngh ATM hoc MPLS. Vn s dng ATM hay MPLS cn ang tch thnh hai xu hng. Cc dch v v ng dng trn NGN c qun l v cung cp bi cc my ch dch v (server). Cc my ch ny hot ng trong mng thng minh (IN Intelligent Network) v giao tip vi mng PSTN thng qua SS7. 2.6. Phn h a phng tin IP Mt trong cc xu hng hi t mng l xu hng hi t mng di ng v mng c nh trn nn IP c thc hin qua phn h IMS. Kin trc iu khin chuyn mch mm c thc hin trong phn h a phng tin IP da trn mt s giao thc bo hiu k tha t h thng mng di ng v mng Internet. Trong mc ny trnh by khi qut kin trc phn h IMS v giao thc bo hiu c ng dng trong IMS iu khin cc cuc gi v gia cc phn t mng trong hng tip cn ny. tng chnh ca IMS l cung cp dch v Internet mi ni, ti mi thi im bng cch s dng cng ngh di ng t ong. Pht trin phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) gm 3 ng lc c bn: y mnh cht lng dch v; Chnh sch cc ph vi cc dch v IP; Cung cp dch v tch hp v h tr nh pht trin th 3 cung cp dch v. Phn h a phng tin IP (IMS) l phn mng c xy dng b sung cho cc mng hin ti nhm thc hin nhim v hi t mng c nh v di ng cung cp dch v a phng tin cho khch hng u cui. IMS l mt phn ca kin trc mng th h sau c cu thnh v pht trin bi t chc 3GPP v 3GPP2 h tr truyn thng a phng tin hi t gia thoi, video, audio vi d liu v hi t truy nhp gia 2G, 3G v 4G vi mng khng dy. IMS c thit k da trn SIP cho php truyn a phng tin trn cc phng tin truyn thng qua h tng mng bt k. 2.7. Cc dch v mng th h sau Mng vin thng ang c xu hng chuyn dn sang mng th h sau, mt lot cc vn c t ra nh kin trc ca cc mng, mng truyn ti, chuyn mch,

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cho mng th h mi. Cc dch v th h mi l mt trong nhng vn quan trng nht c t ra i vi cc nh cung cp v khai thc dch v vin thng. NGN c kh nng cung cp phm vi rng cc loi dch v, bao gm: Cc dch v ti nguyn chuyn dng (nh cung cp v qun l cc b chuyn, cc cu ni hi ngh a phng tin a im, cc th vin nhn dng ting ni ). Cc dch v lu tr v x l (cung cp v qun l cc n v lu tr thng tin v thng bo, file server, terminal servers, ). Cc dch v trung gian middleware (nh mi gii, bo mt, bn quyn, ). Cc dch v ng dng c th (nh cc ng dng thng mi, cc ng dng thng mi in t, ). Di y l mt s dch v m chng ta tin tng rng n s chim mt v tr quan trng trong NGN Dch v thoi (voice telephony): NGN vn cung cp cc loi dch v thoi ang tn ti. Dch v d liu (data service): Thit lp kt ni thi gian thc gia cc u cui. Cc dch v a phng tin (Multimedia services): Cho php nhiu ngi dng c th tng tc vi nhau qua thoi, video, n cho php va ni chuyn va hin th thng tin. Mng ring o (Virtual Private Networks VPNs): Bn tin hp nht (Unified Messaging): H tr cung cp cc dch v voicemail, email, fax mail, pages qua cc giao din chung. Thng qua cc giao din nh vy, ngi s dng s truy nhp, cng nh l c thng bo, cc loi bn tin khc nhau, c lp vi phng tin truy nhp. Mi gii thng tin (Information Brokering): Bao gm tm kim v qung co v cung cp thng tin n cc khch hng tng ng vi nh cung cp. Thng mi in t (E commerce): Cho php khch hng mua hng ha, dch v c x l bng in t trn mng. Cc dch v chuyn cuc gi (Call Center Service): Mt thu bao c th chuyn mt cuc gi thng thng n trung tm phn phi cuc gi bng cch kch chut trn mt trang web. Cuc gi c th c nh ng n mt tc nhn thch hp. Tr chi tng tc trn mng (Interactive Gaming): Cung cp cho khch hng mt phng thc gp nhau trc tuyn v to ra cc tr chi trc tng tc.

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Qun l ti gia (Home manager): Vi s ra i ca cc thit b thng minh, cc dch v ny c th gim st v iu khin cc h thng bo v ti nh. 2.8. Xu hng pht trin NGN tin ti mng NGN mc tiu, l trnh chuyn i tuqf h tng mng c sang mng NGN rt khc nhau i vi tng quc gia, tng nh khai thc mng. Nhng nhng giai on chuyn dch c ch ra di y c coi l nhng giai on c bn ca xu hng pht trin NGN. Giai on 1: Gii php chuyn mch mm. Mc tiu ca giai on ny l lm gim gi thnh ca qu trnh pht trin v khai thc mng, h thng chuyn mch mm c coi l tm im ca NGN v cho php tch chc nng ng dng, iu khin cuc gi v kt ni, cng nh ti s dng li cc h thng thit b trong mng vin thng TDM truyn thng, c bit l mng truy nhp. Giai on 2: Gii php IMS. Giai on chuyn dch tip theo giai on s dng chuyn mch mm l a thm phn h bo hiu da trn IP, khng ch to ra cc dch v a phng tin mi m cn l phng tin hi t mng di ng v mng c nh. Giai on 3: Hi t trn nn IMS. Giai on ny l giai on thay th cc thit b u cui truy nhp, cc cng truy nhp hon ton tng thch vi mi trng NGN. Cc cng truy nhp cung cp cc dch v thoi qua mng IP v c iu khin bi cc giao thc iu khin knh mang.

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CHNG III K THUT CHUYN MCH MM


3.1. Khi nim chuyn mch mm Chuyn mch mm l mt khi nim rng, theo Hip hi chuyn mch mm quc t ISC (International Softswitch Consortium) a ra nh ngha v chuyn mch mm (softswitch) nh sau: Chuyn mch mm l mt thc th da trn phn mm cung cp chc nng iu khin cuc gi. N mang li hai c tnh then cht: thc th phn mm khng ph thuc vo phn cng v chc nng ca n l iu khin cuc gi. Mt s nh pht trin h thng a ra cc nh ngha ring v chuyn mch mm gm c Nortel, MobileIN, Alcatel, CopperCOM. Mi nh pht trin nhn nhn chuyn mch mm di cc gc khc nhau, cc nh cung cp nh thng tp trung vo vai tr ca Chuyn mch mm trong vic thay th tng i ni ht. Mc d chuyn mch mm th hin rt r u im ca mnh trong ng dng lm tng i ni ht, nhng cc nh cung cp thit b ln nh (Siemens, Nortel, Alcatel, Cisco ) a ra cc gii php chuyn mch mm hon chnh cho c tng i ni ht v tng i chuyn tip. Chuyn mch mm (Softswitch) tr thnh mt tn gi chung cho thc th c chc nng thc hin cc logic ca cc phin giao dch trong mng Vin thng th h mi (NGN) v cn c cc tn khc nh: Media Gateway Controller (MGC) hay Call Agent, hay c th hiu nh l mt din mo mi ca h thng chuyn mch iu khin theo chng trnh ghi sn SPC (Stored Program Control) trong mng NGN. Li ch ca Softswitch i vi cc nh khai thc v ngi s dng: Nhng c hi mi v doanh thu. Thi gian trin khai ngn. Kh nng thu ht khch hng. Gim chi ph xy dng mng. Gim chi ph iu hnh mng v chi ph hot ng trung bnh. S dng bng thng mt cch hiu qu. Qun l mng hiu qu hn. Ci thin dch v. Tit kim khng gian lp t thit b. Mi trng to lp dch v mm do. 20 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Mc d c rt nhiu nh ngha khc nhau, nhng tng mu cht ca kin trc chuyn mch mm l tch bit phn iu khin vi cc chc nng phng tin ca cc thit b chuyn mch truyn thng (th hin trn hnh 3.1.). Kin trc ny tch hoc phn tn cc ng dng, iu khin cuc gi v cc chc nng truyn ti cu cc h thng chuyn mch truyn thng. V vy, phn cng chuyn mch s tch khi cc chc nng iu khin, dch v v ng dng. Hnh 3.1. ch ra, cc thnh phn kin trc ca chuyn mch mm gm c: Softswitch, cng a phng tin MG, cng bo hiu v cc my ch c tnh/ng dng. S thng minh ca chuyn mch mm c to ra bi s phi hp cc bo hiu nh: bo hiu iu khin cuc gi, bo hiu qun l v iu hnh v bo hiu knh mang.

Hnh 3.1. Dch chuyn t chuyn mch truyn thng sang chuyn mch mm

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Hnh 3.2. Cc thnh phn kin trc chuyn mch mm 3.3. Cu trc chc nng ca chuyn mch mm nhn thc r v cc chc nng ca h thng chuyn mch mm, ta xem xt m hnh cc im tham chiu cc thc th chc nng c bn trong mng NGN nh th hin trn hnh 3.3. gm: 3.3.1. Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin (MGC-F) c thc hin bi thit b iu khin cng phng tin MGC (Media Gateway Controller). y l mt thit b rt quan trng c bit n nh cc tn Call Agent, Call controller hay ph bin nht l chuyn mch mm. Chc nng MGC-F to logic dch v v bo hiu iu khin cuc gi cho MG. Chc nng Call-Agent (CA-F) v Internetworking (IW-F) l cc chc nng thuc MGC-F. CA-F th hin khi MGC x l iu khin cuc gi hay qun l trng thi cuc gi. IW-F c th hin khi MGC thc hin chc nng bo hiu gia cc mng bo hiu khc nhau.

Hnh 3.3. M hnh tham chiu cc thc th chc nng Chuyn mch mm trong NGN Chc nng iu khin cng phng tin (MGC-F); Chc nng nh tuyn cuc gi v tnh cc (R-F, A-F); Chc nng cng bo hiu v chc nng bo hiu cng truy nhp; Chc nng Server ng dng; 22 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

Trng C CNTT Hu Ngh Vit-Hn Chc nng cng phng tin (MG-F); Chc nng Server phng tin.

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3.3.2. Chc nng nh tuyn cuc gi v tnh cc (R-F, A-F) A-F thc hin nhim v thu nhp cc thng tin phc v cho tnh cc cn R-F cung cp thng tin nh tuyn cuc gi cho MGC-F. Hai chc nng ny c cc c im sau: Hai chc nng ny thng c tch hp trong chc nng MGC-F; Cung cp chc nng nh tuyn cho cc cuc gi cn nh tuyn qua lin mng; Cung cp kh nng qun l phin v di ng; Tng tc vi AS-F cung cp cc dch v hay ng dng cho khch hng; Cp nht cc thng tin nh tuyn t bn ngoi. 3.3.3. Chc nng cng bo hiu (SG-F) & bo hiu cng truy nhp (AGS-F) AGS-F to cng phng tin cho vic bo hiu gia mng IP v mng truy nhp da trn chuyn mch knh. Chc nng chnh ca AGS-F l ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu V5 hay ISDN, BSSAP, RANAP qua mng IP. SG-F cung cp cng phng tin cho vic bo hiu gia mng Ipvaf PLMN, PSTN (thng l bo hiu CCS7). Chc nng chnh ca SG-F l ng gi v truyn i cc bn tin bo hiu s 7 ca PSTN (l ISUP hay INAP) hay PLMN (MAP hay CAP) qua mng IP. Cc c im ca SG-F: ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu ca mng PSTN (SS7) (s dng giao thc SIGTRAN) ti cc MGC-F hay mt SG-F khc. Mt SG-F c th thc hin vic phc v cho nhiu MGC-F. Khi SG-F v MGC-F khng ci t chung th SG-F thc hin chc nng giao din giao thc (nh SIGTRAN). Cc giao thc ng dng ca chc nng ny gm: SIGTRAN, TUA, SUA hay M3UA trn SCTP. Cc c im ca AGS-F: ng gi v truyn cc bn tin bo hiu V5 hoc ISDN ti MGC-F. Mt MGC-F c th phc v cho nhiu AGS-F. Khi AGS-F v MGC-F khng c ci t chung, AGS-F thc hin chc nng giao thc giao din (nh SIGTRAN). Cc giao thc ng dng ca chc nng ny gm: SIGTRAN, IUA, V5UA hay M3UA trn SCTP. 3.3.4. Chc nng Server ng dng (AS) 23 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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AS c chc nng chnh l cung cp cc logic dch v ng dng. Cc c im ca AS-F bao gm: C th thay i cc m t v lu lng thng qua giao thc m t phin SDF; iu khin MS-F khi thc hin chc nng x l lu lng; C cc giao din web v c th kt ni ti cc ng dng Web; C giao din lp trnh ng dng to cc dch v mi; Giao tip vi MGC-F hay MS-F; C th s dng cc dch v ca MGC-F iu khin cc ngun ti nguyn bn ngoi; Cc giao thc ng dng bao gm: SIP, MGCP, H248, HTTP, XML; Cc giao din lp trnh ng dng bao gm: JAIN v Parlay. S kt hp gia AS-F v MGC-F to ra cc nng lc iu khin cc dch v tng cng nh: in thoi hi ngh, ch cuc gi. Cc nh khai thc thay v s dng mt giao din gia AS v MGC s dng mt giao din lp trnh ng dng. Khi AS c mt tn gi khc l my ch tnh nng. Khi AS-F thc hin iu khin logic dch v s c chc nng iu khin dch v. 3.3.5. Chc nng cng phng tin (MG-F) MG giao tip vi mng IP thng qua cc ng im truy nhp hay trung k mng, hay MG-F hot ng nh mt cng giao tip gia mng IP v mng ngoi (mng ngoi c th l mng PSTN hay PLMN). MG-F c th cung cp cc cng giao tip gia mng IP v mng chuyn mch knh hay gia mng chuyn mch gi vi nhau (IP v 3G v ATM). Cc chc nng c bn ca n nh l: chuyn lu lng t mt dng khung truyn dn ny sang mt dng khung truyn dn khc, thng thng l gia chuyn mch knh sang chuyn mch gi hay gia gi IP v gi ATM, c im ca MG-F: Duy tr mi quan h ch/t vi MGC-F thng qua giao thc MGCP hay MEGACO/H248; C th thc hin chc nng x l lu lng nh chuyn m, loi b ting vng, ng gi cc thng tin thoi qua IP; C th thc hin chn lu lng nh to m bo tin trnh cuc gi, to DTMF; Gim st v pht hin s thay i trng thi ca cc u cui; T phn b ti nguyn thc hin cc chc nng nu trn; Phn tch cc con s nhn c t u cui da trn da trn k hoch nh s v quay s do MGC gi ti; Cung cp c ch thay i trng thi v nng lc ca cc im kt cui; 24 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Cc giao thc ng dng gm: RTP/RTCP, TDM, H248, MGCP. 3.3.6. Chc nng my ch a phng tin p ng cc yu cu ca AS-F v MGC-F v x l lu lng trn cc dng lu lng ng gi. Thnh phn chnh ca chuyn mch mm l b iu khin cng thit b Media Gateway Controller (MGC), ngoi ra cn c cc thnh phn khc h tr hot ng nh: Cng bo hiu SG, cng a phng tin MG, my ch a phng tin MS v cc my ch ng dng nh trnh by trn. Trong cng a phng tin MG l thnh phn nm trn lp phng tin, cng bo hiu SG l thnh phn trn cng lp vi MGC, MS v AS nm trn lp ng dng. Cc chc nng chnh ca MGC c th hin hnh 3.4.

Hnh 3.4. Chc nng ca b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC CA-F v IW-F l hai chc nng con ca MGC-F. CA-F c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin iu khin cuc gi. IW-F c kch hot khi MGC-F thc hin cc bo hiu gia cc mng bo hiu khc nhau. Thc th chc nng qun l lin iu hnh c nhim v lin lc, trao i thng tin gia cc MGC vi nhau. Cc chc nng chnh ca MGC gm: iu khin cuc gi, duy tr trng thi mi cuc gi trn mt MG; iu khin v h tr hot ng ca cng a phng tin, cng bo hiu; Trao i cc bn tin c bn gia hai MG-F; X l bn tin SS7 (khi s dng SIGTRAN); 25 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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nh tuyn: gm bn tin nh tuyn, phn tch s v dch s; Tng tc vi AS-F cung cp dch v hay c tnh cho ngi dng; C th qun l cc ti nguyn mng (cng, bng tn). Cc giao thc ca MGC thng c s dng phn theo chc nng gm: Thit lp cuc gi: H.323, SIP; iu khin phng tin: MGCP, MEGACO/H248; Truyn thng tin: RTP, RTCP; Truyn ti bo hiu: SIGTRAN (SS7). 3.4. Qu trnh x l cuc gi trong chuyn mch mm Bc 1: Khi c mt thu bao nhc my (thuc PSTN) v chun b thc hin cuc gi th tng i ni ht qun l thu bao s nhn bit trng thi nhc my ca thu bao. SG ni vi tng i ny thng qua mng SS7 cng nhn bit c trng thi mi ca thu bao. Bc 2: SG s bo cho MGC trc tip qun l mnh thng qua CA-F, ng thi cung cp tn hiu mi quay s cho thu bao. Ta gi MGC ny l MGC ch gi. Bc 3: MGC ch gi gi yu cu to kt ni n MG ni vi tng i ni ht ban u nh MGC-F. Bc 4: Cc con s quay s ca thu bao s c SG thu v chuyn ti MGC ch gi. Bc 5: MGC ch gi s dng nhng s ny quyt nh cng vic tip theo s thc hin. C th: cc s ny s c chuyn ti chc nng R-F, R-F s dng thng tin lu tr ca cc my ch c th nh tuyn cuc gi. Trng hp u cui ch cng loi vi u cui gi i (tc u l thu bao PSTN): Nu thu bao b gi cng thuc MGC ch gi, tin trnh theo bc 7. Nu thu bao ny thuc s qun l ca mt MGC khc, tin trnh theo bc 6. Bc 6: MGC ch gi s gi yu cu thit lp cuc gi n mt MGC khc. Nu cha n ng MGC ca thu bao b gi (ta gi l MGC trung gian) th MGC ny s tip tc chuyn yu cu thit lp cuc gi n MGC khc cho n khi n ng MGC b gi. Trong qu trnh ny, cc MGC trung gian lun phi phn hi li MGC gi yu cu n n. Cc cng vic ny c thc hin bi CA-F. Bc 7: MGC b gi gi yu cu to kt ni vi MG ni vi tng i ni ht ca thu bao b gi (MG trung gian).

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Bc 8: ng thi MGC b gi gi thng tin n SG trung gian, thng qua mng SS7 xc nh trng thi ca thu bao b gi. Bc 9: Khi SG trung gian nhn c bn tin thng bo trng thi cu thu bao b gi (gi s l ri) th n s gi ngc thng tin ny tr v MGC b gi. Bc 10: MGC b gi s gi phn hi v MGC ch gi thng bo tin trnh cuc gi. Bc 11: MGC bi gi gi thng tin cung cp tn hiu hi m chung cho MGC ch gi, qua SG ch gi n thu bao ch gi. Bc 12: Khi thu bao b gi nhc my th qu trnh thng bo tng t nh cc bc trn: qua nt bo hiu s 7, qua SG trung gian n MGC b gi, ri n MGC ch gi, qua SG ch gi ri n thu bao thc hin cuc gi. Bc 13: Kt ni gia thu bao ch gi v thu bao b gi c hnh thnh thng qua MG ch gi v MG trung gian. Bc 14: Khi kt thc cuc gi th qu tnh s din ra tng t nh thit lp cuc gi. 3.5. Bo hiu iu khin trong chuyn mch mm

Hnh 3.5. Quan h bo hiu iu khin cuc gi v bo hiu knh mang Mc 3.2. trnh by v cu trc chc nng ca chuyn mch mm, cc chc nng phng tin thng tr trong MG v cc chc nng iu khin trong Softswitch. Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi s dng gia cc thit b chuyn mch mm thit lp cuc gi, sa i v gii phng cc phin a phng tin. Bo hiu iu khin knh mang s dng to, sa i v xa cc lung a phng tin. Thc t, bo hiu knh mang c s dng gia chuyn mch mm v cc cng a phng tin MG. Hnh 3.5. ch ra quan h gia bo hiu iu khin cuc gi v bo hiu knh mang. 3.5.1. Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi Hai giao thc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi c s dng trong chuyn mch mm l b giao thc H.323 v giao thc khi to phin cuc gi SIP. H.323 khng ch l giao thc bo hiu cuc gi m cn l b giao thc v kin trc khung lm 27 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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vic cho truyn thng a phng tin. Trong khi , giao thc khi to phin SIP n thun ch l giao thc bo hiu cuc gi. * B giao thc H.323 H.323 m t cc thnh phn logic ch yu ca truyn thng a phng tin v m t cch thc cc thnh phn truyn thng vi nhau. Kin trc logic ca b giao thc H.323 c ng dng cho mng vin thng gm mt s vng. Mt vng gm t nht mt b iu khin cng Gatekeeper v t nht mt thit b u cui hoc c th cha cng phng tin hoc cc n v iu khin a im MCU (Multipoint Control Unit). Mt vng c qun l v iu khin bi Gatekeeper, Gatekeeper thc hin cc nhim v sau: Bin dch a ch: Tt c cc thit b trong H.323 u c a ch mng nhn dng. Thng thng, trong mi trng IP, a ch mng l a ch IP v c biu din di dng URL. Tuy nhin, H.323 cng c kh nng s dng a ch nh s theo E.164. Gatekeeper bin dch cc a ch nh URL hay E.164 sang a ch IP. iu khin qun tr: Trong mt mng H.323, ti mt im cui (u cui hoc cng phng tin) phi yu cu truy nhp mng trc khi x l cuc gi, yu cu ny thng l bng thng c s dng bi im cui. Gatekeeper c th chp thun hoc t chi yu cu da trn yu cu v trng thi hin thi ca mng. Qun l bng thng: Mc d bng thng c khi to qua iu khin qun tr, cc yu cu bng thng c th thay i trong khi cuc gi ang tin hnh. Gatekeeper cng chu trch nhim thay i bng thng ngay c khi cuc gi ang tin hnh. Ngoi ra, Gatekeeper c th cung cp bo hiu iu khin cuc gi thng qua thnh phn chu trch nhim nh tuyn cc bn tin cuc gi gia H.323 v im cui. Gatekeeper c th x l cc thng tin duy tr v qun l cuc gi ang hot ng qun l bng thng hoc ti nh tuyn cuc gi ti im cui khc nhm cn bng ti. Gatekeeper c th l mt thit b ng c lp hoc l mt phn ca MCU hoc cng phng tin trong mng. Ni cch khc, Gatekeeper c coi l thnh phn chuyn mch mm trong H.323. Cc u cui v cng a phng tin trong kin trc H.323 thng c coi l im cui khi chng l cc im u cui ca cc kt ni bo hiu. Cc thit b u cui trong H.323 c yu cu h tr cc giao thc sau: Giao thc bo hiu cuc gi H.225 thit lp v gii phng cuc gi, qun l trng thi cuc gi. Giao thc bo hiu iu khin H.245 trao i kh nng u cui v to cc knh phng tin.

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Giao thc truyn ti thi gian thc RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) v giao thc iu khin thi gian thc RTCP (Real-time Transport Control Protocol) iu khin v truyn ti lung phng tin. Cc thit b u cui H.323 cng h tr cc b m ha v gii m audio/video, cc giao thc truyn d liu v kh nng MCU. Mt cng phng tin MG c s dng kt ni gia cc mng khc nhau, thng l PSTN v H.323. N cung cp chc nng bin dch cc giao thc iu khin cuc gi nh H.225/H.245 v bo hiu s 7. Cng phng tin MG c th cng tn ti vi Gatekeeper v/hoc MCU trong mt thit b v phng din vt l. MCU cung cp chc nng hi ngh cho cc im cui, cc im cui tham gia phin hi ngh phi thit lp kt ni ti MCU, MCU qun l ti nguyn hi ngh v tha thun gia cc im cui v phng php m ha s dng trong phin. MCU c th ng c lp hoc nm trong mt u cui, cng phng tin hoc Gatekeeper. Ba kiu bo hiu c m t trong chng giao thc H.323 gm c: Bo hiu RAS, bo hiu cuc gi v bo hiu iu khin. H.255 chu trch nhim bo hiu RAS v bo hiu cuc gi, H.245 chu trch nhim bo hiu iu khin. Bo hiu RAS, bo hiu cuc gi v bo hiu iu khin c chuyn trn cc knh bo hiu tch bit vi tuyn d liu. Bo hiu RAS cung cp chc nng iu khin trc khi x l cuc gi, knh RAS c thit lp gia im cui v Gatekeeper ti thi im khi to cuc gi, bo hiu RAS c truyn trn UDP v gm 6 bc sau: Pht hin Gatekeeper: Pht hin Gatekeeper c s dng bi im cui H.323 xc nh Gatekeeper ca im cui s phi ng k. Bc ny c th th thc hin theo kiu tnh hoc ng ty thuc vo im cui c bit r a ch ca Gatekeeper hay khng. ng k: ng k l mt bc cho php cc im cui v MCU tham gia vo mt vng, thng tin ti Gatekeeper cc a ch mng ca chng. Bc ng k tip ngay sau tin trnh pht hin Gatekeeper. nh v im cui: nh v im cui l mt tin trnh trong Gatekeeper bin dch a ch URL hoc E.164 sang a ch IP. Bc ny c bt u khi mt im cui mun truyn thng vi mt im cui c th khc. Qun tr: Gatekeeper trao quyn truy nhp cho cc im cui ti mng H.323 thng qua cc tc v chp thun hoc t chi yu cu. Gim st trng thi: Mt Gatekeeper c th s dng RAS duy tr thng tin trng thi t im cui. Qun l bng thng: Bo hiu RAS thc hin iu khin v qun l bng thng trong qu trnh x l cuc gi khi im cui yu cu tng hoc gim bng thng.

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Bo hiu H.255 l kiu bo hiu tng thch vi bo hiu Q.931 ca SS7 v bo hiu Q.932 thng qua mt knh tin cy da trn giao thc TCP. Phn bo hiu Q.931 ca H.255 gm cc th tc v bn tin kt ni, duy tr v ngt cuc gi. Q.932 c s dng cung cp cc dch v b sung. Cc bn tin H.255 c trao i trc tip gia cc im cui hoc sau khi c Gatekeeper nh tuyn ti im cui. Bo hiu H.245 x l bo hiu iu khin gia cc im cui ca H.323. H.245 to ra cc knh logic cho truyn dn a phng tin theo kiu n hng. H.245 h tr qu trnh x l trao i kh nng ca cc im cui v iu khin lung gia cc im cui. * Giao thc khi to phin SIP SIP c xy dng bi IETF, l mt giao thc bo hiu iu khin thuc lp ng dng dng thit lp, iu chnh v kt thc phin lm vic ca mt hay nhiu ngi tham gia. SIP l mt giao thc n gin. SIP chy trn mt giao thc lp truyn ti bt k. V d TCP, UDP v giao thc truyn ti iu khin lung SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol). SIP l giao thc kiu ch t da trn m ha text. SIP c cc chc nng chnh sau: Xc nh v tr ca ngi s dng (User location): Hay cn gi l chc nng dch tn (name translation) v xc nh ngi c gi. m bo cuc gi n c ngi nhn d h u. Xc nh kh nng ca ngi s dng: Cn gi l chc nng thng lng c tnh cuc gi (Feature negotiation). Dng xc nh loi thng tin v cc loi thng s lin quan n thng s s c s dng. Xc nh s sn sng ca ngi s dng: Dng xc nh ngi gi c mun tham gia kt ni khng. Thit lp cuc gi: Chc nng ny thc hin vic rung chung, thit lp cc thng s cuc gi ca cc bn tham gia kt ni. X l cuc gi: Bao gm chuyn v kt thc cuc gi, qun l nhng ngi tham gia cuc gi. Cc thnh phn ca SIP: c 3 thnh phn SIP terminal, SIP servers v SIP Gateway.

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Hnh 3.6. Cc thnh phn ca h thng SIP SIP terminal: Giao tip ngi s dng vi h thng SIP, c th l cc SIP phone, phn mm SIP. SIP servers: Thc hin cc chc nng ca h thng SIP trong mng nh iu khin, qun l cuc gi, trng thi ngi dng SIP gateway: Cc gateway thc hin chc nng Interworking gia h thng SIP vi cc mng khc. 3.5.2. Bo hiu iu khin knh mang Bo hiu iu khin knh mang c thit lp gia cc chuyn mch mm v cng a phng tin MG. Chuyn mch mm ng vai tr b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC v iu khin ti cc MG gn vi n. Bo hiu knh mang cn c gi l bo hiu iu khin cng phng tin. Giao thc bo hiu iu khin cng phng tin in hnh c s dng trong mng chuyn mch mm l bo hiu MEGACO/H.248. MEGACO/H.248 l giao thc iu khin kiu ch/t. Cc chuyn mch mm/MGC ng vai tr ch v cc cng phng tin ng vai tr t. Giao thc MEGACO/H.248 khng gn cht vi bt k mt giao thc bo hiu iu khin cuc gi no v v vy n c th lin iu hnh c vi c H.323 v SIP. MEGACO/H.248 s dng m hnh kt ni logic iu khin ti nguyn ca mt MG gn vi chuyn mch mm. Hai thnh phn c bn ca m hnh ny l kt cui v cc context. Kt cui (Termination) l ngun hoc ti ca cc lung a phng tin, biu din cho lung d liu i vo hoc i ra MG. Kt cui c nh danh duy nht c MG gn trong phin v gm c hai loi: Loi tm thi v loi vnh vin. Loi tm thi l loi ch c to ra khi c nhu cu v ch tn ti trong phin. Loi vnh vin c to ra khi MG khi to v thng l cc cng trn MG.

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Context l m hnh m t kt ni gia cc kt cui. Context c s dng vi mc ch chia s phng tin v/hoc gn thng tin iu khin gia cc kt cui. Mt context c to ra khi kt cui c khi to cuc gi gn vo lung d liu v c kt cui ch loi b, mt kt cui lun ph thuc duy nht mt context trong mt phin kt ni.

CHNG IV CC NG DNG CA CHUYN MCH MM


4.1. ng dng lm cng bo hiu SG ng dng ny nhm vo cc nh khai thc dch v thoi cnh tranh, nhng doanh nghip ang tm kim mt gii php gi thnh thp thay cho chuyn mch knh truyn thng cung cp giao din tc c s cho cc nh cung cp dch v Internet (ISP) phc v cc ng truy nhp dial-up. S bng n truy nhp Internet (qua ng dial-up) v khuynh hng ca cc ISP mun kt ni cc Modem Server ca h vi cc lung trung k tc c s (PRI) lm cho cc nh cung cp dch v nhanh chng cn ht cng PRI hin c. Bn cnh vic lm cn kit cc knh PRI, lu lng truy cp Internet qua ng dial-up lm qu ti v tc nghn cho mng chuyn mch knh. Bi v chuyn mch knh vn c thit k phc v cc cuc gi c di trung bnh khong 3 pht, nn khong thi gian trung bnh tng thm do truy cp Internet ln hn rt nhiu nn c xu hng lm suy kit ti nguyn tng i, tng s lng cuc gi khng thnh cng. V duy tr cht lng thoi cho cc khch hng s dng dch v in thoi thc, cc nh khai thc phi chn mt trong hai phng n: mua thm tng i, hoc cung cp cho cc ISP cc knh PRI c lu lng ti thp; c hai phng n ny u tng ng nhau v mt u t.

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Hnh 4.1. ng dng lm cng bo hiu SS7 ca chuyn mch mm Hnh 4.1. minh ha m hnh mng hin nay ca cc nh khai thc tng i ni ht, n cho thy cc knh PRI phc v thng tin thng thng v phc v cc ISP l nh nhau. V bi v phn ln thu bao Internet nm pha thit b ca nh khai thc cp cao hn nn phn ln lu lng s liu t modem s i qua cc knh kt ni gia thit b ca nh khai thc cp cao v nh khai thc cnh tranh, hn na khng c s phn bit gia lu lng thoi v lu lng s liu Internet, iu dn n tnh trng chuyn mch ca nh khai thc cnh tranh tr thnh mt nt c chai trn mng. Modem vn s l phng tin thng dng kt ni Internet trong mt thi gian na, thc t i hi cc nh khai thc tm ra mt gii php kinh t cung cp knh PRI cho cc ISP v chuyn cc knh PRI h ang dng cho cc khch hng in thoi truyn thng. ng dng chuyn mch mm lm SG l mt trong nhng gii php trong tnh hung ny. Nh phn bn phi ca hnh trn cho thy, MGC v MG c t trung k lin tng i gia nh khai thc cp cao v nh khai thc cnh tranh. Chuyn mch knh kt ni vi MG bng giao din TDM chun cn lin lc vi MGC thng qua bo hiu s 7. Cc modem Servers ca ISP v th s c chuyn sang kt ni vi MG, gii phng cc lung PRI cho chuyn mch knh TDM truyn thng. Khi cuc gi Internet (dial-up) hng ti ISP t pha tng i cp cao, n s i qua trung k ti MG ri c nh hng ti ISP t pha tng i cp cao, n s i qua trung k ti MG ri c nh hng trc tip ti modem servers m khng qua chuyn mch knh nh trc. Cc cuc gi thoi vn din ra nh bnh thng. Bn cnh vic cung cp cc knh PRI gi thnh thp, chu c cc cuc gi thi gian trung bnh lauu hn so vi trc y, ng dng SS7 PRI Gateway cn c kh nng cung cp cc dch v mi VoIP. 4.2. ng dng cho tng i Tandem 4.2.1. Gim ti cc tng i chuyn tip ng dng Tandem hng vo cc nh cung cp dch v thoi truyn thng vi mong mun gim vn u t v chi ph iu hnh cc tng i qu giang chuyn mch knh hin nay, ngoi ra cn cung cp cc dch v mi v s liu. Gii php chuyn mch TDM hin nay ang bc l dn nhc im trc nhu cu ngy cng 33 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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tng nhng rt tht thng ca lu lng thng tin thoi ni ht (pht sinh do truy nhp Internet), v tuyn v ng di.

Hnh 4.2. ng dng lm tng i Tandem Hnh 4.2. cho thy mt mng tng i TDM cp thp nht (lp 5, tng i ni ht, MSC ca mng di ng ) c ni vi nhau v ni ti tng i chuyn tip cp cap hn (lp 3, 4) bng mt mng li trung k im im kh phc tp. Khi mt cuc gi din ra gia hai tng i cp thp, thng tin s i trn trung k ni trc tip gia hai tng i, nu ng ni trc tip s dng ht, cuc gi c th c nh tuyn thng qua tng i chuyn tip. Mt s cuc gi (V d nh truy nhp hp thoi hay quay s bng ging ni) li c nh tuyn trc tip ti tng i chuyn tip s dng cc ti nguyn tp trung phc v cho cc dch v cao cp. Kin trc ny c s dng nhiu nm nay, v cng c ci tin rt nhiu nhm phc v cc ng dng thoi, tuy nhin vn c mt s gii hn nh sau: Chi ph iu hnh v bo dng cao, mt thi gian; vic nh li cu hnh v nng cp mng li phi thit lp mng ln hn nhu cu thc t cho cc tng i chuyn tip. V d, khi mt tng i ni ht c thm vo mng li, phi xy dng cc nhm trung k t tng i ti tng i chuyn tip v ti mt s tng i ni ht khc. Cc trung k im im hot ng vi hiu sut khng cao v chng c thit k hot ng c tong cc vng ca mng (v d khu doanh nghip l ban ngy cn khu dn c li l ban m). Nu c nhiu tng i chuyn tip trong mng, mi tng i li ni vi mt nhm cc tng i ni ht, cuc gi c th chuyn qua nhiu tng i chuyn tip n c ni lu gi ti nguyn mng (nh trong trng hp dch v hp th thoi). Tt nhin l s c gii php cho vn ny. Softswitch l mt trong nhng gii php nh vy. Trong hnh 4.2. pha bn phi cho thy softswitch cng vi cc MG thay th chc nng ca cc tng i chuyn tip chuyn mch knh trc y, cc 34 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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tng i ni ht kt ni ti cc cng a phng tin bng giao din chun TDM thng thng v vi softswitch bng bo hiu s 7. M hnh ny mng c mt s li ch so vi m hnh mng chuyn mch knh: Loi b li trung k hot ng hiu sut khng cao, thay th chng bng cc ng dn tc cao trong mng IP/ATM phc v cho cc cuc gi cn chuyn tip, gim ti cho cc tng i chuyn tip truyn thng hoc loi b chng hon ton. Gim c chi ph vn hnh v gim c s tng i chuyn tip, s trung k t hn (so vi mng li trc y), v trnh khng phi thit k cc mch TDM phc tp. Gim c mt s lng cc cng chuyn mch dng cho cc trung k gia cc tng i ni ht vi nhau. Truy nhp cc ti nguyn tp trung mt cch hiu qu hn. Hp nht thng tin thoi v s liu vo mt mng duy nht, qua gim vn u t v chi ph so vi cc mng ring bit hin nay cho thoi v s liu. 4.2.2. Dch v ng di Dch v ny hng ti cc nh cung cp dch v in thoi ng di ang mong mun c mt gii php gi thnh thp hn so vi phng php chuyn mch knh truyn thng cung cp cc dch v gi ng di trong nc v quc t. Gii php s dng softswitch cng vi MG c th cung cp dch v thoi ng di mt cch hiu qu. Cc nh khai thc ni tng i ca h vi MG thng qua giao din TDM chun, cn ni vi softswitch qua giao din bo hiu s 7. Cc tng i PBX cng c ni ti MG thng qua giao din ISDN PRI. Ty thuc yu cu cu nh khai thc, softswitch c th cung cp nhiu loi dch v thoi ng di khc nhau, v d nh: bn li dch v (resale), dch v gi quc t t tng i PBX, dch v thoi gia cc thu bao trong cc tng i PBX vi nhau, hay dch v ng di cung cp cho cc nh khai thc cp thp hn. 4.3. ng dng trong cng ngh VoIP Trong l trnh tin ti NGN, tip cn hi t cc dch v trn nn mng IP c coi l chin lc cho mng hi t. Cng ngh truyn thoi qua IP c nh gi l cng ngh c kh nhiu im li th khi h tng mng vin thng cha chuyn i hon ton sang mng gi. VoIP l cng ngh c xy dng trn m hnh H.323 l m hnh h tr truyn thng a phng tin trn nn mng gi, m hnh ny bao gm c cc phn t thuc tiu chun H.323 quy nh v cc mng khc nh PSTN, ISDN v mng di ng nh ch ra trong hnh 4.3.

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Hnh 4.3. Kt ni cc phn t trong mng VoIP Chuyn mch mm c ng dng trong cng ngh VoIP th hin qua cc thnh phn chc nng sau: Gateway GW v Gatekeeper. Gateway (GW) GW mt im cui trong mng thc hin cc chc nng chuyn i v bo hiu v d liu, cho php cc mng hot ng da trn cc giao thc khc nhau c th phi hp vi nhau. Trong mng VoIP, Gateway H.323 cho php kt ni mng VoIP vi cc mng khc. N cung cp cc kh nng truyn thng thi gian thc v song hng gia cc u cui H.323 trong mng gi vi cc u cui trong mng khc hay vi cc Gateway khc. Trong khuyn ngh H.323, Gateway H.323 l mt phn t ty chn v c s dng nh l mt cu ni gia cc u cui H.323 vi cc u cui H.310 (cho B-ISDN), H.320 (ISDN), H.321 (ATM), H.324M (Mobile). Cc chc nng chnh ca Gateway gm: Cung cp phin dch gia cc thc th trong mng chuyn gi (mng IP) vi mng chuyn mch knh (PSTN). Cc Gateway cng c th phin dch khun dng truyn dn, phin dch cc tin trnh truyn thng, phin dch gia cc b m ha/ gii m hoc phin dch gia cc u cui theo chun H.323 v cc u cui khng theo chun ny. Ngoi ra, n cn tham gia vo vic thit lp v hy b cuc gi. Cc thnh phn cu mt Gateway gm Cng a phng tin MG, b iu khin MG v cng bo hiu SG c m t trong hnh 4.4. Cng a phng tin MG cung cp phng tin thc hin chc nng chuyn i m ha. N chuyn i gia cc m truyn trong mng IP (truyn trn RTP/UDP/IP) vi m ha truyn trong mng chuyn mch knh (PCM, GSM).

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Hnh 4.4. Chc nng c bn ca Gateway H.323 MGW bao gm cc chc nng sau: Chc nng chuyn i a ch knh thng tin: cung cp a ch IP cho cc knh thng tin truyn v nhn. Chc nng chuyn i lung: chuyn i gia cc lung thng tin gia mng IP v mng chuyn mch knh bao gm vic chuyn i m ha v trit ting vng. Chc nng dch m ha: nh tuyn cc lung thng tin gia mng IP v mng SCN. Bo mt thng tin: m bo tnh ring t ca knh thng tin kt ni vi GW. m bo tnh ring t ca knh thng tin kt ni vi GW. Kt cui chuyn mch knh: bao gm tt c cc phn cng v giao din cn thit kt cui cuc gi chuyn mch knh, n phi bao gm cc b m ha v gii m PCM. Kt cui chuyn mch gi: cha tt c cc giao thc lin quan n vic kt ni knh thng tin trong mng chuyn mch gi bao gm cc b m ha/ gii m c th s dng c. Theo chun H.323 th n bao gm RTP/RTCP v cc b m ha gii m nh G.711, G.723.1, G.729 Giao din vi mng chuyn mch knh: Kt cui cc knh mang t mng chuyn mch knh v chuyn n sang trng thi c th iu khin bi chc nng x l knh thng tin. Chc nng chuyn i knh thng tin gia IP v mng chuyn mch knh: chuyn i gia knh mang thng tin thoi, fax, d liu ca mng chuyn mch knh v cc gi d liu trong mng chuyn mch gi. N cng thc hin chc nng x l tn hiu thch hp v d nh: nn tn hiu thoi, trit ting vng, trit khong lng, m ha, chuyn i tn hiu fax v iu tit tc modem tng t. Thm vo , n cng thc hin chuyn i gia tn 37 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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hiu DTMF trong mng chuyn mch knh v cc tn hiu thch hp trong mng chuyn mch gi khi m cc b m ha tn hiu thoi khng m ha tn hiu DTMF. Chc nng chuyn i knh thng tin gia IP v mng chuyn mch knh cng c th thu thp thng tin v lu lng gi v cht lng knh i vi mi cuc gi s dng trong vic bo co chi tit v iu khin cuc gi. OA&M: Vn hnh, qun l v bo dng, thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h thng. Chc nng qun l: Giao din vi h thng qun l mng. Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: Kt cui mng chuyn mch gi. B iu khin cng a phng tin MGC Mi GW c phn iu khin c gi l b iu khin cng a phng tin MGC ng vai tr phn t kt ni MGW, SGW v GK. N cung cp cc chc nng x l cuc gi cho GW, iu khin MGW, nhn thng tin bo hiu mng chuyn mch knh t SGW v thng tin bo hiu t IP t GK. B iu khin cng a phng tin c th bao gm cc khi chc nng sau: Chc nng GW H.255.0: Truyn v nhn cc bn tin H.255.0. Chc nng GW H.245: Truyn v nhn cc bn tin H.245. Chc nng xc nhn: Thit lp c im nhn dng ca ngi s dng thit b hoc phn t mng. Chc nng iu khin GW chp nhn lung d liu: Cho php hoc khng cho php mt lung d liu. Bo hiu chuyn mch gi: Bao gm tt c cc loi bo hiu cuc gi c th thc hin bi cc u cui trong mng. V d nh theo chun H.323 th bao gm: H.225.0, Q.931, H.225.0 RAS v H.245. i vi mt u cui H.323 ch nhn th n bao gm H.225.0 RAS m khng bao gm H.245. Giao din bo hiu chuyn mch gi: Kt cui giao thc bo hiu chuyn mch gi (v d nh H.323, UNI, PNNI). N ch lu li va cc thng tin trng thi qun l giao din. V thc cht, giao din bo hiu chuyn mch gi trong MGWC khng kt ni tc tip vi MGW nh l cc thng tin truyn t MGWC ti MGW thng qua chc nng iu khin cuc gi. iu khin GW: Bao gm cc chc nng iu khin kt ni logic, qun l ti nguyn, chuyn i giao din (v d nh t SS7 sang H.225.0). Gim st ti nguyn t xa: Bao gm gim st kh dng ca cc knh trung k ca MGW, gii thng v kh dng ca mng IP, t l nh tuyn thnh cng cuc gi. 38 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Qun l ti nguyn MGW: Cp pht ti nguyn cho MGW. Chc nng bo hiu: Chuyn i gia bo hiu mng IP v bo hiu mng SCN trong phi hp hot ng vi SGW. Chc nng ghi cc bn tin s dng: Xc nh v ghi cc bn tin bo hiu v cc bn thng tin truyn v nhn. Chc nng bo co cc bn tin s dng: Bo co cc bn tin s dng ra thit b ngoi vi. OA&M: Vn hnh, qun l v bo dng thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h thng. Chc nng qun l: Giao din vi h thng qun l mng. Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: Kt cui mng chuyn mch gi. MG v MGC khc nhau cc phn t ti nguyn mc thp v mc cao. MGC chu trch nhim qun l cc ti nguyn mc cao, n c th hiu c tnh sn sng ca cc ti nguyn v quyt nh s dng chng mt cch hp l (v d nh cc b trit ting vng c t trong GW VoIP chu s qun l ca MGC). MG chu trch nhim qun l cc ti nguyn mc thp nh l cc thit b phn cng chuyn mch v x l lung thng tin trong mt GW. Cng bo hiu SG SG cung cp knh bo hiu gia mng IP v mng chuyn mch knh. N c th h tr chc nng knh bo hiu gia mng IP (v d nh H.323) hoc bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch knh (v d nh R2, CCS7). SG c th bao gm cc khi chc nng sau: Kt ni cc giao thc iu khin cuc gi trong chuyn mch knh. Kt ni bo hiu t mng chuyn mch knh: Phi hp hot ng vi cc chc nng bo hiu ca MGWC. Chc nng bo hiu: Chuyn i gia bo hiu mng IP vi bo hiu mng chuyn mch knh khi phi hp hot ng vi MGC. Bo mt knh bo hiu: Bo m tnh bo mt ca knh bo hiu t GW. Chc nng thng bo: Ghi cc bn tin s dng, xc nh v ghi cc bn tin thng bo ra thit b ngoi vi. OA&M: Vn hnh, qun l v bo dng thng qua cc giao din logic cung cp cc thng tin khng trc tip phc v cho iu khin cuc gi ti cc phn t qun l h thng. Chc nng qun l: Giao din vi h thng qun l mng. Giao din mng chuyn mch gi: Kt ni mng chuyn mch gi. 39 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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SG s lm nhim v phn tch v chuyn cc bn tin bo hiu trong mng PSTN vo mng H.323. Cc bn tin bo hiu nh ISUP, SCCP, TSUP c chuyn i thnh dng hp l ti GW bo hiu v chuyn vo mng IP. Gatekeeper Gatekeeper l mt thc th ty chn trong mng H.323 cung cp cc chc nng bin dch a ch v iu khin truy nhp mng cho cc thit b u cui H.323, cc Gatekeeper v cc MCU. Ngoi ra, Gatekeeper cng c th cung cp cc dch v khc cho cc phn t mng trn nh qun l bng thng hay nh v cc Gateway. V mt logic, Gatekeeper l mt thit b c lp nhng trong thc t n thng c tch hp vi cc phn t mng khc trong cng mt thit b vt l. Mi GK qun l mt vng mng, nu trong mng c mt GK th cc im cui phi ng k v s dng cc dch v do n cung cp. Mt vng mng H.323 c hiu nh mt tp hp cc node nh u cui, Gateway hay MCU. Mt vng c qun l bi mt GK v cc im cui trong mng phi ng k vi GK ny. Khi s dng Gatekeeper s ch c duy nht mt Gatekeeper trong mt vng H.323 ti bt k thi im no cho d c nhiu thit b c th cung cp chc nng ny trong vng . Nhiu thit b cung cp chc nng boa hiu RAS cho Gatekeeper c cp n nh l cc Gatekeeper d phng. Gatekeeper cung cp cc dch v c bn sau y: Bin dch a ch: GK c th bin dch t a ch nh danh sang a ch truyn ti. iu c thc hin bng mt bng bin dch. Bng ny thng xuyn c cp nht bng cc bn tin ng k ca cc im cui trong vng qun l ca Gatekeeper. iu khin ng nhp: GK qun l qu trnh truy nhp mng ca cc im cui bng cc bn tin H.225.0. iu khin bng thng: GK qun l bng thng ca mng bng cc bn tin H.225.0. Qun l vng: GK s cung cp cc chc nng trn cho cc u cui c ng k vi n. Ngoi ra, Gatekeeper cn cung cp mt s dch v ty chn khc: Bo hiu iu khin cuc gi: GK quyt nh c tham gia vo qu trnh bo hiu cho cuc gi hay khng. Cp php cho cuc gi: GK quyt nh c cho php cuc gi c tin hnh hay khng. Qun l bng tn. Qun l cuc gi. Sa i a ch nh danh. 40 n K Thut Chuyn Mch

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Bin dch s c quay: GK s chuyn cc s c quay sang s E.164 hay s mng ring. Qun l cu trc d liu. KT LUN Cng vi s pht trin ca cc cng ngh vin thng, h thng chuyn mch mm ra i vi cc tnh nng u vit c th khc phc c phn ln cc hn ch ca h thng chuyn mch knh truyn thng. V vy h thng chuyn mch mm tr thnh mt thnh t quan trng bc nht trong mng th h sau NGN, vic ng dng cng ngh chuyn mch mm l iu tt yu nhm tha mn s gia tng nhu cu ca khch hng, a dng ha v gim gi thnh dch v. Tiu lun trnh by tng quan v mt kha cnh khc ca k thut chuyn mch, c nhn nhn di gc iu khin cc h thng chuyn mch. Chuyn mch mm tp trung vo hng xy dng v thit k cc giao thc iu khin kt ni v lin kt thit b mng trong mi trng a dch v da trn nn IP. Chc nng ca cc nt iu khin mng chuyn mch v cc giao thc bo hiu v iu khin l nhng vn cn nm bt. Trong phn cui ca tiu lun ch ra mt s ng dng thc tin ca chuyn mch mm.

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