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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN H THNG THNG TIN DI NG V CNG NGH 4G Gii thiu
Trong hn mt thp k qua, th gii chng kin s thnh cng to ln ca mng thng tin di ng th h th hai 2G. Mng 2G c th phn ra 2 loi: GSM v CDMA. S thnh cng ca mng 2G l do dch v v tin ch m n mng li cho ngi dng, tiu biu l cht lng thoi v kh nng di ng. Tip ni th h th 2, mng thng tin di ng th h th ba 3G v ang c trin khai nhiu ni trn th gii. Ci tin ni bt nht ca mng 3G so vi mng 2G l kh nng cung ng truyn thng gi tc cao nhm trin khai cc dch v truyn thng a phng tin. Mng 3G bao gm mng UMTS s dng k thut WCDMA, mng CDMA2000 s dng k thut CDMA v mng TD-SCDMA c pht trin bi Trung Quc. Tuy nhin, cu chuyn thnh cng ca mng 2G rt kh lp li vi mng 3G. Mt trong nhng l do chnh l dch v m 3G mang li khng c mt bc nhy r rt so vi mng 2G. Mi gn y ngi ta mi quan tm ti vic tch hp MBMS (Multimedia broadcast and multicast service) v IMS (IP multimedia subsystem) cung ng cc dch v a phng tin. 4G l mt gii php vt ln nhng gii hn v nhng im yu ca mng 3G. Thc t, vo gia nm 2002, 4G l mt khung nhn thc tho lun nhng yu cu ca mt mng bng rng tc siu cao trong tng lai m cho php hi t vi mng hu tuyn c nh. Tc d liu cao hn ca nhng mng di ng trong tng lai s t c bng cch ci thin hiu qu ph. 4G s dng k thut OFDMA cho ng xung v SC-FDMA cho ng ln ,cc k thut ny c c

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

im ni tri nh s dng ph tn hiu qu, kh nng chng li nhiu ISI v multipath , truyn tc cao s l 1 gii php cho vic ci thin nhng vn ny trong thng tin di ng.

1.1. 1.1.1.

TNG QUAN CC H THNG THNG TIN DI: Lch s pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng: Th h 1G (First Generation)

1.1.1.1.

y l h thng thng tin di ng tng t s dng phng thc a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s FDMA v iu ch tn s FM vi cc c im: Phng thc truy nhp: FDMA. Dch v n thun l thoi. Cht lng thp. Bo mt km. Mt s h thng in hnh: NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone): s dng bng tn 450Mhz trin khai ti cc nc Bc u vo nm 1981. TACS (Total Access Communication System): trin khai Anh vo nm 1985. AMPS (Advance Mobile Phone System): trin khai ti Bc M vo nm 1978 ti bng tn 800Mhz. 1.1.1.2. Th h 2G (Second Generation) H thng mng 2G c c trng bi cng ngh chuyn mch k thut s (digital circuit-switched). K thut ny chim u th hn 1G vi cc c im sau: Dung lng tng. Cht lng thoi tt hn H tr cc dch v s liu Phng thc truy nhp : TDMA, CDMA bng hp. Mt s h thng in hnh:

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

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GSM (Global System for Mobile Phone) s dng phng thc truy cp TDMA c trin khai ti chu u. D-AMPS (IS-136-Digital Advance Mobile Phone System) s dng phng thc truy cp TDMA c trin khai ti M. IS-95 (CDMA One) s dng phng thc truy cp CDMA c trin khai ti M v Hn Quc. PDC (Personal Digital Cellular) s dng phng thc truy cp TDMA c trin khai ti Nht Bn. 1.1.1.3. Th h 3G (Third Generation) y l th h th ba ca chun cng ngh in thoi di ng, cho php truyn c d liu thoi v ngoi thoi (ti d liu, gi email, tin nhn nhanh, hnh nh). 3G cung cp c hai h thng l chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh. H thng 3G yu cu mt mng truy cp radio hon ton khc so vi h thng 2G hin nay. im mnh ca cng ngh ny so vi 2G l cho php truyn, nhn cc d liu, m thanh, hnh nh cht lng cao cho c thu bao c nh v thu bao ang di chuyn cc tc khc nhau. Mng 3G c trng bi tc d liu cao, capacity ca h thng ln, tng hiu qu s dng ph tn v nhiu ci tin khc. C mt lot cc chun cng ngh di ng 3G, tt c u da trn CDMA, bao gm: UMTS (dng c FDD ln TDD), CDMA2000 v TD-SCDMA: UMTS (i khi cn c gi l 3GSM) s dng k thut a truy cpWCDMA. UMTS c chun ho bi 3GPP. UMTS l cng ngh 3G c la chn bi hu ht cc nh cung cp dch v GSM/GPRS i ln 3G. Tc d liu ti a l 1920Kbps (gn 2Mbps). Nhng trong thc t tc ny ch tm 384Kbps. ci tin tc d liu ca 3G, hai k thut HSDPA v HSUPA c ngh. Khi c 2 k thut ny c trin khai, ngi ta gi chung l HSPA. HSPA thng c bit n nh l cng ngh 3,5G. HSDPA: Tng tc downlink (ng xung, t NodeB v ngi dng di ng). Tc ti a l thuyt l 14,4Mbps, nhng trong thc t n ch t tm

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

1,8Mbps (hoc tt lm l 3,6Mbps). Theo mt bo co ca GSA thng 7 nm 2008, 207 mng HSDPA v ang bt u trin khai, trong thng mi ho 89 nc trn th gii. HSUPA: tng tc uplink (ng ln) v ci tin QoS. K thut ny cho php ngi dng upload thng tin vi tc ln n 5,8Mbps (l thuyt). Cng trong cng bo co trn ca GSA, 51 nh cung cp dch v thng tin di ng trin khai mng HSUPA 35 nc v 17 nh cung cp mng ln k hoch trin khai mng HSUPA. CDMA2000: bao gm CDMA2000 1xRTT (Radio Transmission

Technology), CDMA2000 (Evolution -Data Optimized) v CDMA2000 EVDV(Evolution -Data and Voice). CDMA2000 c chun ho bi 3GPP2. CDMA2000 l cng ngh 3G c la chn bi cc nh cung cp mng CdmaOne. CDMA2000 1xRTT: chnh thc c cng nhn nh l mt cng ngh 3G, tuy nhin nhiu ngi xem n nh l mt cng ngh 2,75G ng hn l 3G. Tc ca 1xRTT c th t n 307Kbps, song hu ht cc mng trin khai ch gii hn tc peak 144Kbps. CDMA2000 EV-DO: s dng mt knh d liu 1,25MHz chuyn bit v c th cho tc d liu n 2,4Mbps cho ng xung v 153Kbps cho ng ln. 1xEV-DO Rev A h tr truyn thng gi IP, tng tc ng xung n 3,1Mbps v c bit c th y tc ng ln n 1,2Mbps. Bn cnh , 1xEV-DO Rev B cho php nh cung cp mng gp n 15 knh 1,25MHz li truyn d liu vi tc 73,5Mbps. CDMA2000 EV-DV: tch hp thoi v d liu trn cng mt knh 1,25MHz. CDMA2000 EV-DV cung cp tc peak n 4,8Mbps cho ng xung v n 307Kbps cho ng ln. Tuy nhin t nm 2005, Qualcomm dng v thi hn vic pht trin ca 1xEV-DV v a phn cc nh cung cp mng CDMA nh Verizon Wireless v Sprint chn EV-DO. TD-SCDMA l chun di ng c ngh bi "China Communications Standards Association" v c ITU duyt vo nm 1999. y l chun 3G ca

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Trung Quc. TD-SCDMA dng song cng TDD. TD-SCDMA c th hot ng trn mt di tn hp 1,6MHz (cho tc 2Mbps) hay 5MHz (cho tc 6Mbps). Ngy xut hnh ca TD-SCDMA b y li nhiu ln. Nhiu th nghim v cng ngh ny din ra t u nm 2004 cng nh trong th vn hi Olympic gn y. 1.2. H THNG 4G LTE: 1.2.1. Tng quan: 1.2.1.1. Gii thiu v cng ngh LTE: LTE l th h th t tng lai ca chun UMTS do 3GPP pht trin. UMTS th h th ba da trn WCDMA c trin khai trn ton th gii. m bo tnh cnh tranh cho h thng ny trong tng lai, thng 11/2004 3GPP bt u d n nhm xc nh bc pht trin v lu di cho cng ngh di ng UMTS vi tn gi Long Term Evolution (LTE). 3GPP t ra yu cu cao cho LTE, bao gm gim chi ph cho mi bit thng tin, cung cp dch v tt hn, s dng linh hot cc bng tn hin c v bng tn mi, n gin ha kin trc mng vi cc giao tip m v gim ng k nng lng tiu th thit b u cui. Cc mc tiu ca cng ngh ny l: Tc nh tc thi vi bng thng 20Mhz. Ti ln: 50 Mbps. Ti xung: 100 Mbps. Dung lng d liu truyn ti trung bnh ca mt ngi dng trn 1Mhz so vi mng HSDPA Rel.6. Ti ln: gp 2 n 3 ln. Ti xung: gp 3 n 4 ln. Hot ng ti u vi tc di chuyn ca thu bao l 0-15 km/h. Vn hot ng tt vi tc t 15-120 km/h. Vn duy tr c hot ng khi thu bao di chuyn vi tc t 120-350 km/h (thm ch 500 km/h ty bng tn). Cc ch tiu trn phi m bo trong bn knh vng ph sng 5km, gim cht t trong phm vi n 30km. T 30-100km th khng hn ch.

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

di bng thng linh hot: c th hot ng vi cc bng tn 1.25Mhz, 1.6 Mhz, 10Mhz, 15Mhz v 20Mhz c chiu ln v chiu xung. H tr c hai trng hp di bng ln v bng xung bng nhau hoc khng. t c mc tiu ny, s c rt nhiu k thut mi c p dng, trong ni bt l k thut v tuyn OFDMA (a truy cp phn chia theo tn s trc giao), k thut anten MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output). Ngoi ra h thng ny s chy hon ton trn nn IP (all-IP Network), v h tr c hai ch FDD v TDD. 1.2.1.2. So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax v nhng trin vng ca LTE: 1.2.1.2.1. So snh cng ngh LTE vi cng ngh Wimax V cng ngh, LTE v Wimax c mt s khc bit nhng cng c nhiu im tng ng. C hai cng ngh u da trn nn tng gi IP. C hai u dng k thut MIMO ci thin cht lng truyn/nhn tn hiu, ng xung t trm thu pht n thit b u cui u c tng tc bng k thut OFDM h tr truyn ti d liu a phng tin v video. Theo l thuyt, chun Wimax hin ti (802.16e) cho tc ti xung ti a l 70Mbps, cn LTE d kin c th cho tc n 300Mbps. Tuy nhin, khi LTE c trin khai ra th trng c th Wimax cng s c nng cp ln chun 802.16m (cn c gi l Wimax 2.0) c tc tng ng hoc cao hn.

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 1.1 L trnh pht trin ca LTE v cc cng ngh khc ng ln t thit b u cui n trm thu pht c s khc nhau gia 2 cng ngh. WiMax dng OFDMA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access mt bin th ca OFDM), cn LTE dng k thut SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access). V l thuyt, SC-FDMA c thit k lm vic hiu qu hn v cc thit b u cui tiu th nng lng thp hn OFDMA. LTE cn c u th hn WiMax v c thit k tng thch vi c phng thc TDD (Time Division Duplex) v FDD (Frequency Division Duplex). Ngc li, WiMax hin ch tng thch vi TDD (theo mt bo co c cng b u nm nay, WiMax Forum ang lm vic vi mt phin bn Mobile WiMax tch hp FDD). TDD truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 1 knh tn s (dng phng thc phn chia thi gian), cn FDD cho php truyn d liu ln v xung thng qua 2 knh tn s ring bit. iu ny c ngha LTE c nhiu ph tn s dng hn Wimax. Tuy nhin, s khc bit v cng ngh khng c ngha quyt nh trong cuc chin gia WiMax v LTE.
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Hin ti WiMax c li th i trc LTE: mng WiMax c trin khai v thit b WiMax cng c mt trn th trng, cn LTE th sm nht cng phi n nm 2010 ngi dng mi c tri nghim. Tuy nhin LTE vn c li th quan trng so vi WiMax. LTE c hip hi cc nh khai thc GSM (GSM Association) chp nhn l cng ngh bng rng di ng tng lai ca h di ng hin ang thng tr th trng di ng ton cu vi khong 2,5 t thu bao (theo Informa Telecoms & Media) v trong 3 nm ti c th chim th phn n 89% (theo Gartner). Hn na, LTE cho php tn dng dng h tng GSM c sn (tuy vn cn u t thm thit b) trong khi WiMax phi xy dng t u.

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

CHNG 2: KIN TRC MNG LTE


Chng ny gii thiu v kin trc mng LTE , cc phn t v chc nng ca cc phn t trong mng.Kin trc v mng li v mng truy nhp ca LTE. Cc giao thc ca mt phng iu khin v mt phng ngi s dng. Qua hiu c hot ng ca mng LTE. 2.1. KIN TRC MNG LTE Nh cp, LTE c thit k h tr cho cc dch v chuyn mch gi, i lp vi chuyn mch knh truyn thng. N hng n cung cp cc kt ni IP gia cc UE (User Equipment) v PDN (Packet Data Network), m khng c bt k s ngt qung no i vi nhng ng dng ca ngi dng trong sut qu trnh di chuyn. Trong khi thut ng LTE cp quanh s tin trin vic truy cp v tuyn thng qua E-UTRAN (Evolved-UTRAN), n cn c kt hp cng vi cc phng din ci tin khng v tuyn di thut ng SAE (System Architecture Evolution)_bao gm mng li gi ci tin EPC (Evolved Packet Core). LTE cng vi SAE to thnh h thng gi ci tin EPS (Evolved Packet System).

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.1 S chuyn i cu trc UTRAN sang E-UTRAN

Hnh 2.1 cho thy cc thnh phn chnh ca mt mng li v mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE. So snh vi UMTS, mng v tuyn t phc tp hn. Mc ch chnh ca LTE l ti thiu ha s Node. V vy, ngi ta quyt nh rng cc RNC nn c g b, v chc nng ca chng c chuyn mt phn sang cc trm c s v mt phn sang nt Gateway ca mng li. phn bit vi cc trm c s UMTS, cc trm c s ca LTE c gi l Enhanced NodeB (eNodeB). Bi v khng cn phn t iu khin trung ng trong mng v tuyn na nn gi y cc trm c s thc hin chc nng qun l d liu truyn ti mt cch t lp, v bo m cht lng dch v. Tuy nhin cc RNC vn iu khin cc knh truyn ti dnh cho dch v thoi chuyn knh.

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Hnh 2.2 Kin trc EPS EPS dng khi nim EPS bearers tm dch l thng bo EPS nh tuyn IP t Gateway trong PDN n UE. Mt thng bo l mt gi IP c gi l QoS (Quality of Service) gia Gateway v UE.

Hnh 2.3 Cc thnh phn trong mng EPS

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EPS cung cp cho ngi dng mt kt ni IP n mt PDN truy cp Internet, cng nh l thc thi cc dch v nh VoIP. Mt thng bo EPS in hnh c kt hp vi mt QoS. Nhiu thng bo c th c thit lp cho mt ngi dng cung cp nhiu dng QoS khc nhau hoc kt ni n cc PDN khc nhau. V d nh, ngi dng va thc hin cuc gi VoIP, va duyt Web hoc download FTP (File Transfer Protocol). Mt thng bo VoIP s cung cp QoS cn thit cho cuc gi thoi, trong khi mt thng bo best-effort s thch hp cho duyt Web hoc phin FTP. Hnh 2.3 ch ra mt cu trc mng EPS bao gm nhiu thnh phn mng v cc giao din chun. tng cao, mng gm c Core Network CN (EPC) v mng truy cp E-UTRAN. Trong khi CN bao gm nhng nt vt l th mng truy cp ch c mt nt duy nht, l eNodeB (evolved NodeB), phn t kt ni n cc UE. Mi phn t s kt ni vi cc phn t khc thng qua nhng giao din chun cho php tng kt. 2.1.1 Cc phn t trong mng 4G : 2.1.1.1. Thit b ngi dng UE : UE l thit b m ngi dng u cui s dng lin lc. Thng thng n l nhng thit b cm tay nh in thoi thng minh hoc mt th d liu nh mi ngi vn ang s dng hin ti trong mng 2G v 3G. Hoc n c th c nhng vo, v d mt my tnh xch tay. UE cng c cha cc moun nhn dng thu bao ton cu( USIM). N l mt moun ring bit vi phn cn li ca UE, thng c gi l thit b u cui (TE). USIM l mt ng dng c t vo mt th thng minh c th tho ri c gi l th mch tch hp ton cu (UICC). USIM c s dng nhn dng v xc thc ngi s dng ly kha bo mt nhm bo v vic truyn ti trn giao din v tuyn. Cc chc nng ca UE l nn tng cho cc ng dng truyn thng m c tn hiu vi mng thit lp, duy tr v loi b cc lin kt thng tin ngi dng cn. iu ny bao gm cc chc nng qun l tnh di ng nh chuyn giao, bo co v

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tr ca thit b, v cc UE phi thc hin theo hng dn ca mng. C l quan trng nht l UE cung cp giao din ngi s dng cho ngi dng cui cc ng dng nh VoIP c th c s dng thit lp mt cuc gi thoi. 2.1.1.2. E-UTRAN NodeB (eNodeB) Nt duy nht trn E-UTRAN l E-UTRAN NodeB ( eNodeB). n gin t eNB l mt trm gc v tuyn kim sot tt c cc chc nng v tuyn lin quan trong phn c nh ca h thng. Cc trm gc nh eNB thng phn b trn ton khu vc ph sng ca mng. Mi eNB thng c tr gn cc anten v tuyn hin ti ca chng. Chc nng ca eNB hot ng nh mt cu ni gia 2 lp l UE v EPC, n l im cui ca tt c cc giao thc v tuyn v pha UE, v tip nhn d liu gia cc kt ni v tuyn v cc kt ni IP c bn tng ng v pha EPC. Trong vai tr ny cc EPC thc hin m ha / gii m cc d liu UP, v cng c nn / gii nn tiu IP, trnh vic gi i lp li ging nhau hoc d liu lin tip trong tiu IP. eNB cng chu trch nhim v nhiu cc chc nng ca mt phng iu khin (CP). eNB chu trch nhim v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn (RRM), tc l kim sot vic s dng giao din v tuyn , bao gm : phn b ti nguyn da trn yu cu, u tin v lp lch trnh lu lng theo yu cu QoS, v lin tc gim st tnh hnh s dng ti nguyn. Ngoi ra eNodeB cn c vai tr quan trng trong qun l tnh di ng (MM). iu khin eNB v o c phn tch mc ca tn hiu v tuyn c thc hin bi UE. iu ny bao gm trao i tn hiu chuyn giao gia eNB khc v MME. Khi mt UE mi kch hot theo yu cu ca eNB v kt ni vo mng, eNB cng chu trch nhim v vic nh tuyn, khi ny n s ngh cc MME m trc y phc v cho UE, hoc la chn mt MME mi nu mt tuyn ng n cc MME trc khng c sn hoc thng tin nh tuyn vng mt. Hnh 2.4 cho thy cc kt ni vi eNB n xung quanh cc nt logic, v tm tt cc chc nng chnh trong giao din ny. Trong tt c cc kt ni eNB c th l trong mi quan h mt nhiu hoc nhiu nhiu. Cc eNB c th phc v

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ng thi nhiu UE trong vng ph sng ca n nhng mi UE ch c kt ni ti mt eNB trong cng mt thi im. Cc eNB s cn kt ni ti cc eNB ln cn vi n trong khi chuyn giao c th cn thc hin. C hai MME v S-GW c th c gp li, c ngha l mt tp hp cc nt c phn cng phc v cho mt tp hp cc eNB. T mt vin cnh eNB n ny c ngha l n c th cn phi kt ni ti nhiu MME v S-GW. Tuy nhin mi UE s c phc v bi ch c mt MME v S-GW ti mt thi im v eNB phi duy tr theo di cc lin kt ny. S kt hp ny s khng bao gi thay i t mt im eNodeB duy nht, bi v MME hoc S-GW ch c th thay i khi kt hp vi s chuyn giao lin eNodeB.

Hnh 2.4 eNodeB kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh Thc th qun l tnh di ng (MME)

2.1.1.3.

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Thc th qun l tnh di ng(MME) l thnh phn iu khin chnh trong EPC. Thng thng MME s l mt my ch mt v tr an ton ti cc c s ca nh iu hnh. N ch hot ng trong cc CP, v khng tham gia vo con ng ca UP d liu. Ngoi giao din cui vo MME trong kin trc, MME cn c mt kt ni logic trc tip ti UE, v kt ni ny c s dng nh l knh iu khin chnh gia UE v mng. Sau y l danh sch cc chc nng chnh ca MME trong cu hnh kin trc c bn h thng : Xc thc v bo mt : khi mt UE ng k vo mng ln u tin, MME s khi to s xc thc, bng cch thc hin nhng iu sau: n tm ra danh tnh thng tr ca UE, hoc t cc mng truy nhp trc hoc chnh bn thn UE, yu cu t b phc v thu bao thng tr (HSS) trong mng ch ca UE cc iu khin chng thc c cha cc mnh lnh chng thc tr li cc cp tham s, gi cc th thch vi UE v so snh cc tr li nhn c t UE vo mt trong nhng ci nhn t mng ch. Chc nng ny l cn thit m bo cc yu cu bo v vi UE. Cc MME c th lp li chc nng xc thc khi cn thit hoc theo chu k. Cc chc nng ny dng bo v cc thng tin lin lc khi vic nghe trm v t s thay i ca bn th ba tng ng tri php. bo v s ring t ca UE, MME cng phn b cho mi UE mt m tm thi gi l m nhn dng tm thi duy nht ton cu(GUTI), do cn phi gi m nhn dng thng tr UE m nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t ( IMIS) qua giao din v tuyn c gim thiu. Cc GUTI c th c cp tr li, v d nh k ngn chn theo di UE. Qun l tnh di ng: MME theo di v tr ca tt c cc UE trong khu vc ca mnh, khi mt UE ng k vo mng ln u tin, MME s to ra mt li vo cho UE v tn hiu vi v tr ti HSS trong mng ch ca UE. MME yu cu ti nguyn thch hp c thit lp trong eNodeB, cng nh trong cc S-GW m n la chn cho UE. Cc MME sau tip tc theo di v tr ca UE hoc l da trn mc ca eNB, nu UE vn kt ni, tc l truyn thng ang hot ng hoc mc khu vc theo di (TA). MME iu khin cc thit lp v gii phng ngun

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

ti nguyn da trn nhng thay i ch hot ng ca UE. MME cng tham gia vo vic iu khin tn hiu chuyn giao ca UE trong ch hot ng gia cc eNB, S-GW hoc MME. MME tham gia vo mi thay i ca eNB v khng c phn t iu khin mng v tuyn ring bit nn n n hu ht cc s kin ny. Mt UE trng thi rnh ri n s bo co v tr ca n hoc l nh k, hoc l khi n chuyn ti mt khu vc theo di. Nu d liu nhn c t bn ngoi cho mt UE rnh ri, MME s c thng bo, n s yu cu cc eNB trong TA c lu gi cho UE ti v tr nh ca UE. Qun l h s thu bao v dch v kt ni: vo thi im mt UE ng k vo mng, cc MME s chu trch nhim ly h s ng k ca n t mng ch v. Cc MME s lu tr thng tin ny trong sut thi gian phc v UE. H s ny xc nh nhng g cc kt ni mng d liu gi c phn b ti cc mng tp tin nh km. Cc MME s t ng thit lp mc nh phn t mang, cho php cc UE kt ni IP c bn. iu ny bao gm tn hiu CP vi eNB v S-GW. Ti bt k thi im no sau ny, cc MME c th cn ti c tham gia vo vic thit lp phn t mang dnh ring cho cc dch v c hng li x l cao hn. Cc MME c th nhn c cc yu cu thit lp mt phn t mang dnh ring, hoc t cc S-GW nu yu cu bt ngun t khu vc dch v iu hnh, hoc trc tip t UE, nu UE yu cu kt ni cho mt dch v m khng c bit n bi khu vc dch v iu hnh, v do khng th c bt u t . Hnh 2.5 cho thy cc kt ni MME n quanh cc nt logic, v tm tt cc chc nng chnh trong giao din ny. V nguyn tc MME c th c kt ni vi bt k MME khc trong h thng, nhng thng kt ni c gii hn trong mt nh iu hnh mng duy nht. Cc kt ni t xa gia cc MME c th c s dng khi mt UE i xa, trong khi i ng k vi mt MME mi sau tm kim nhn dng thng tr mi ca UE, sau ly nhn dng thng tr ca UE, m nhn dng thu bao di ng quc t (IMIS), t MME truy cp trc . Cc kt ni gia cc MME vi cc MME ln cn c s dng trong chuyn giao.

16

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.5 MME kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh Kt ni ti mt s HSS cng cn c h tr, cc HSS nm trong mng ch ca ngi dng , v mt tuyn ng c th c tm thy da trn IMIS. Mi MME c cu hnh iu khin mt tp hp cc S-GW v eNodeB. C hai SGW v eNodeB cng c th c kt ni ti cc MME khc. Cc MME c th phc v mt s UE cng mt lc, trong khi mi UE s ch kt ni ti mt MME ti mt thi im. 2.1.1.4. Cng phc v ( S-GW) Trong cu hnh kin trc c bn h thng, chc nng cao cp ca S-GW l qun l ng hm UP v chuyn mch. S-GW l mt phn ca h tng mng n c duy tr cc phng iu hnh trung tm ca mng. Khi giao din S5/S8 da trn GTP, S-GW s c ng hm GTP trn tt c cc giao din UP ca n. nh x gia cc lung dch v IP v ng hm GTP c thc hin trong P-GW, v S-GW khng cn c kt ni vi PCRF. Ton b iu khin c lin quan ti cc ng hm GTP, n t MME hoc P-GW. Khi s

17

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

dng giao din PMIP S5/S8. S-GW s thc hin vic nh x gia cc dng dch v IP trong cc ng hm S5/S8 v ng hm GTP trong giao din S1-U, v s kt ni ti PCRF nhn c thng tin nh x. S-GW c mt vai tr rt nh trong cc chc nng iu khin. N ch chu trch nhim v ngun ti nguyn ca ring n, v n cp pht chng da trn cc yu cu t MME, P-GW hoc PCRF, t m cc hnh ng c thit lp , sa i hoc xa sch cc phn t mang cho UE. Nu cc lnh trn c nhn t P-GW hoc PCRF th S-GW cng s chuyn tip cc lnh ti MME n c th iu khin cc ng hm ti eNodeB. Tng t, khi MME bt u c yu cu th SGW s bo hiu ti mt trong hai P-GW hoc PCRF ty thuc vo S5/S8 c da trn GTP hoc PMIP tng ng. Nu giao din S5/S8 c da trn PMIP th d liu trong giao din s c cc lung gi IP trong mt ng hm GRE truyn ti mi UE. Khi trong giao din S5/S8 da trn GTP mi phn t mang s c ng hm ca ring mnh. Do S-GW h tr PMIP S5/S8 c trch nhim lin kt cc phn t mang, v d : nh x cc lung gi IP trong giao din S5/S8 vo cc phn t mang trong giao din S1. Chc nng ny trong S-GW c gi l chc nng lin kt phn t mang v bo co s kin (BBERF). Bt k ni m tn hiu phn t mang bt u, BBERF lun nhn cc thng tin lin kt phn t mang t PCRF. Trong khi di chuyn gia cc eNodeB, S-GW hot ng nh nt cui di ng a phng. MME s lnh S-GW chuyn sang ng hm t mt eNodeB khc. MME cng c th yu cu S-GW cung cp ti nguyn ng hm cho d liu chuyn tip khi c nhu cu cn chuyn d liu t eNodeB ngun ti eNodeB ch trong thi im UE c chuyn giao v tuyn. Cc tnh hung di chuyn cng bao gm s thay i t mt S-GW ti mt ci khc, v MME s iu khin s thay i ny cho ph hp bng cch loi b cc ng hm trong S-GW c v thit lp chng trong S-GW mi. i vi tt c cc lung d liu thuc v mt UE trong ch kt ni th SGW s chuyn tip d liu gia eNodeB v P-GW. Tuy nhin khi mt UE ch

18

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

nhn ri th cc ngun ti nguyn ny trong eNodeB s c gii phng, cc ng dn d liu c kt thc trong S-GW. Nu S-GW nhn c gi d liu t P-GW th n s lu cc gi vo b m v yu cu MME bt u nhn tin ti UE. Tin nhn s lm cho UE ti ch ti kt ni, v khi cc ng hm c ti kt ni th cc gi tin t b m s c gi v. S-GW s theo di d liu trong cc ng hm v n cng c th thu thp cc d liu cn thit cho vic hch ton v tnh chi ph ca ngi dng. Trong Hnh 2.6 cho thy S-GW c kt ni ti cc nt logic khc v danh sch cc chc nng chnh trong cc giao din ny. Tt c cc giao din c cu hnh theo kiu mt nhiu t S-GW c thy. Mt S-GW c th ch phc v mt khu vc a l nht nh vi mt tp gii hn cc eNodeB, v tng t c th c mt tp gii hn ca cc MME iu khin khu vc . S-GW c th kt ni ti bt k P-GW no trong ton b mng li, bi v P-GW s khng thay i trong khi di chuyn, trong khi S-GW c th c nh v li trong khi UE di chuyn. Vi cc kt ni c lin quan ti mt UE, S-GW s lun bo hiu vi ch mt MME v cc im UP ti mt eNodeB ti mt thi im. Nu mt UE c php kt ni ti nhiu cc PDN thng qua cc P-GW khc nhau , th S-GW cn kt ni ti cc thnh phn ring bit. Nu giao din S5/S8 l da trn PMIP th S-GW s kt ni ti mt PCRF cho mi P-GW ring c UE s dng.

19

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.6. Cc kt ni S-GW ti cc nt logic khc v cc chc nng chnh Trn hnh cng cho thy trng hp chuyn d liu gin tip ni m d liu UP c chuyn tip gia cc eNodeB thng qua cc S-GW. Khng c tn giao din c th lin quan n giao din gia cc S-GW, v nh dng chnh xc ging nh trong giao din S1-U, v c th cho rng cc S-GW lin quan chng truyn thng trc tip vi cng mt eNodeB. y s l trng hp khi chuyn tip d liu gin tip din ra thng qua ch mt S-GW, tc l c hai eNodeB c th c kt ni ti cng mt S-GW. 2.1.1.5. Cng mng d liu gi( P-GW) Cng mng d liu gi (P-GW, cng thng c vit tt l PDN-GW) l tuyn bin gia EPS v cc mng d liu gi bn ngoi. N l nt cui di ng mc cao nht trong h thng, v n thng hot ng nh l im IP ca cc thit b cho UE. N thc hin cc chc nng chn lu lng v lc theo yu cu bi cc dch v c cp. Tng t nh S-GW, cc P-GW c duy tr ti cc phng iu hnh ti mt v tr trung tm. in hnh l P-GW cp pht cc a ch IP cho UE, v UE s dng n giao tip vi cc my ch IP khc trong cc mng bn ngoi. ( v d nh Internet ).

20

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

N cng c th l PDN bn ngoi m UE c kt ni cp pht cc a ch l s dng bi cc UE, cc ng hm P-GW cho tt c lu lng vo mng . a ch IP lun c cp pht khi UE yu cu mt kt ni PDN, n s din ra t nht l khi UE c gn vo mng, v n c th xy ra sau khi c mt kt ni PDN mi. Cc P-GW thc hin chc nng giao thc cu hnh my ch ng (DHCP) khi cn, hoc truy vn mt my ch DHCP bn ngoi, v cung cp a ch cho UE. Ngoi ra t cu hnh ng c h tr bi cc tiu chun. Ch IPv4, ch IPv6 hoc c hai, cc a ch c th c phn b ty theo nhu cu. UE c th bo hiu rng n mun nhn a ch ngay trong tn hiu kt ni hoc nu n mun thc hin cu hnh a ch sau khi lp lin kt c kt ni. P-GW bao gm c PCEF, c ngha l n thc hin cc chc nng chn lu lng v lc theo yu cu bi cc chnh sch c thit lp cho UE v cc dch v ni n, n cng thu thp cc bo co thng tin chi ph lin quan. Lu lng UP gia P-GW v cc mng bn ngoi di dng cc gi tin IP thuc v cc dng dch v IP khc nhau. Nu giao din S5/S8 hng ti S-GW l da trn GTP th P-GW thc hin nh x cc dng d liu IP ti cc ng hm GTP, cc P-GW thit lp cc phn t mang c bn da trn yu cu qua PCRF hoc t S-GW, m chuyn tip cc thng tin t MME. Nu giao din S5/S8 l da trn PMIP, P-GW s nh x tt c cc lung dch v IP t cc mng bn ngoi thuc v mt UE ti mt ng hm GRE duy nht, v tt c cc thng tin iu khin ch c trao i vi PCRF. P-GW cng c chc nng gim st cc lung d liu cho mc ch hoch ton cng nh cho ngn xen theo lut. P-GW l im cui di ng mc cao nht trong h thng. Khi mt UE di chuyn t mt S-GW ti mt ci khc, cc phn t mang phi c chuyn vo PGW. P-GW s nhn c ch dn chuyn cc lung t cc S-GW mi. Hnh 2.7 cho thy cc kt ni P-GW n xung quanh cc nt logic, v danh sch cc chc nng chnh trong giao din ny.

21

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.7 P-GW kt ni ti cc node logic khc v cc chc nng chnh Mi P-GW c th c kt ni ti mt hoc nhiu PCRF, S-GW v mng bn ngoi. i vi mt UE lin kt vi P-GW th ch c duy nht mt S-GW, nhng c cc kt ni ti nhiu cc mng bn ngoi v tng ng c nhiu cc PCRF c th cn phi c h tr, nu c kt ni ti nhiu cc PDN c h tr thng qua mt P-GW. 2.1.1.6. Chc nng chnh sch v tnh cc ti nguyn ( PCRF) Chc nng chnh sch v tnh cc ti nguyn(PCRF) l phn t mng chu trch nhim v chnh sch v iu khin tnh cc ( PCC). N to ra cc quyt nh v cch x l cc dch v v QoS, v cung cp thng tin cho PCEF c t trong P-GW, v nu c p dng cho c BBERF c t trong S-GW, cho vic thit lp cc phn t mang thch hp v vic lp chnh sch. PCRF l mt my ch v thng c t vi cc phn t CN khc ti cc trung tm iu hnh chuyn mch.

22

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Cc thng tin PCRF cung cp cho PCEF c gi l cc quy tc PCC. PCRF s gi cc quy tc PCC bt c khi no mt phn t mang mi c thit lp. Thit lp phn t mang l cn thit, v d khi UE bc u c gn vo mng v phn t mang mc nh s c thit lp, v sau khi c mt hoc nhiu cc phn t mang dnh ring c thit lp. PCRF c kh nng cung cp cc quy tc PCC da trn yu cu, hoc t P-GW v cng nh S-GW trong tng hp PMIP, ging nh trong trng hp kt ni, v cng da trn yu cu t chc nng ng dng(AF) nm trong cc dch v tn min. V d, vi IMS v AF s thc y dch v QoS thng tin ti PCRF, t to ra mt quyt nh PCC v n s y cc quy tc PCC n P-GW, v mang thng tin nh x ti S-GW trong trng hp S5/S8 l PMIP. Cc phn t mang EPC sau s c thit lp da trn nhng iu .

Hnh 2.8 PCRF kt ni ti cc nt logic khc & cc chc nng chnh

23

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Cc kt ni gia PCRF v cc nt khc c th hin nh trong Hnh 2.8, mi PCRF c th c kt ni vi mt hoc nhiu AF, P-GW v S-GW. Ch c mt PCRF lin kt vi mi kt ni PDN l mt UE duy nht c. 2.1.1.7. My ch thu bao thng tr (HSS) My ch thu bao thng tr (HSS) l kho d liu thu bao cho tt c d liu ngi dng thng xuyn. N cng ghi li v tr ca ngi s dng mc ca nt iu khin mng tm tr, chng hn nh MME. N l mt my ch c s d liu v c duy tr ti cc phng trung tm ca nh iu hnh. HSS lu tr bn gc ca h s thu bao, trong cha cc thng tin v cc dch v c p dng i vi ngi s dng, bao gm thng tin v cc kt ni PDN c cho php, v liu c chuyn ti mt mng tm tr ring c hay khng. HSS cng lu nhng nhn dng ca cc P-GW c s dng. Kha thng trc c s dng tnh ton xc thc v c gi ti mng tm tr xc thc ngi dng v cc kha pht sinh tip sau m ha v bo v tnh ton vn l c lu tr ti cc trung tm xc thc(AUC), thng l mt phn ca HSS. Trong tt c cc tn hiu lin quan ti cc chc nng ny th HSS phi tng tc vi MME. Cc HSS s cn phi c kh nng kt ni vi mi MME trong ton b h mng li, ni m cc UE ca n c php di chuyn. i vi mi UE, cc h s HSS s ch ti mt MME phc v ti mt thi im, v ngay sau l bo co v mt MME mi m n phc v cho UE, HSS s hy b v tr ca MME trc. 2.1.2 ng giao tip gia mng li vi mng truy cp v tuyn Nh trong Hnh 2.3, nt Gateway gia mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li c phn ra thnh hai thc th lun l: Serving Gateway (Serving-GW) v Mobility Manager Entity (MME). Kt hp vi nhau, chng thc hin nhng cng vic tng t nh SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node) trong cc mng UMTS. Trong thc t, c hai thnh phn lun l ny c th c thc hin trn cng mt thit b phn cng hoc c th c tch ra c th tng gim kch c c lp vi nhau.

24

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Bi v ng giao tip S1 c dng cho c d liu ngi dng (ni vi Serving_GW) ln d liu bo hiu (ni vi MME), nn kin trc ca cc giao thc tng cao hn c phn ra thnh hai b giao thc khc bit: S1-C v S1-U. Giao thc S1-C (iu khin) c dng trao i cc thng ip iu khin gia mt UE v MME. Nh c trnh by bn di, cc thng ip ny c trao i qua cc knh non-IP c bit trn giao tip v tuyn ri sau c eNodeB t vo trong cc gi IP trc khi chng c gi chuyn tip n MME. Tuy nhin, d liu ngi dng c truyn vi tnh cch cc gi IP qua giao tip v tuyn, v chng c gi chuyn tip qua giao thc S1-U (ngi dng) n Serving-GW. Nu MME v Serving-GW c thc hin ring bit, ng giao tip S11 s c dng lin lc gia hai thc th . Cn c s lin lc gia hai thc th , v d nh to ra cc knh truyn khi ngi dng ni vo mng, hoc sa i mt ng hm khi mt ngi dng no di chuyn t cell ny sang cell khc. Khng ging nh cc mng v tuyn khng dy trc , khi mt Gateway ca mng truy nhp (SGSN) chu trch nhim i vi mt s RNC nht nh v mi RNC n lt n li chu trch nhim i vi mt s trm c s nht nh, ng giao tip S1 hu thun mt kin trc ni kt mc li (mesh). Th c ngha l khng phi ch mt m l vi MME v Serving-GW c th lin lc vi tng eNodeB, v s lng MME v Serving-GW c th khc bit. iu ny lm gim s lng cc cuc chuyn giao lin-MME khi ngi dng di chuyn, v cho php s lng MME pht trin c lp vi s lng Serving-GW, bi v dung lng ca MME l thuc vo ti trng bo hiu, cn dung lng ca Serving-GW l thuc vo ti trng d liu truyn ca ngi dng. Nhng dung lng ny c th pht trin khc nhau qua thi gian. Mt kin trc mt li ca giao tip S1 cng b sung tnh d phng cho mng. Nu mt MME hng, th mt MME th hai c th t ng tip qun nu n c cu hnh phc v nhng cell ging nh MME kia. Tc hi duy nht ca mt c ch khi phc t ng khi gp hng hc nh vy l, nhng ngi dng c phc v bi MME hng phi ng k li vi mng. Nhng kh nng mt li ca

25

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

giao tip S1 c dng trong thc t nh th no l ty thuc vo chnh sch ca cc nh cung cp dch v mng v vo kin trc ca mng vn chuyn bn di. 2.2 ng giao tip vi c s d liu ngi dng Mt ng giao tip quan trng na trong cc mng li LTE l ng giao tip S6 ni gia cc MME v c s d liu lu tr thng tin thu bao. Trong UMTS/GPRS/GSM, c s d liu ny c gi l HLR (Home Location Register). Trong LTE, HLR c s dng li v c i tn thnh HSS (Home Subscriber Server). V c bn, HSS l mt HLR ci tin, v cha thng tin thu bao cho GSM, GPRS, UMTS, LTE. ng giao tip S6 dng giao thc Diameter da trn IP. HSS l mt c s d liu kt hp, v n c s dng ng thi bi cc mng GSM, UMTS v LTE thuc cng mt nh cung cp dch v mng. V th, ngoi ng giao tip S6 dnh cho LTE ra, n tip tc hu thun ng giao tip MAP truyn thng. 2.3 Cu trc chuyn vng Roaming

Hnh 2.9 Cu trc chuyn vng truy cp vi P-GW trong mng nh

26

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Mt mng hot ng trong mt quc gia c gi l mng di ng mt t cng cng PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). Chuyn vng, ni ngi dng c cho php kt ni n cc PLMN khc, l mt im ni bt ca mng di ng, v LTE/SAE cng khng phi l ngoi l. Khi ngi s dng chuyn vng, h s c kt ni n E-UTRAN, MME v S-GW ca mng LTE khch. Tuy nhin, LTE/SAE ch cho php s dng P-GW hoc ca mng khch hoc ca mng nh. S dng P-GW mng nh cho php ngi s dng truy cp cc dch v ca mng nh ngay khi ang trong mng khch. Mt P-GW trong mng khch cho php mt ngt cc b (local breakout) i vi mng gi internet trong mng khch. 2.4 Kt ni vi cc mng khc EPS cng h tr kt ni v chuyn giao vi cc mng dng k thut truy cp v tuyn khc nh GSM, UMTS, CDMA2000 v WIMAX. Kin trc c ch ra trn hnh

Hnh 2.10 Kin trc lin mng vi 3G UMTS S-GW hot ng nh mt trm di ng (mobility anchor) dng kt ni vi cc k thut 3GPP nh GSM v UMTS trong khi P-GW cho php kt ni vi cc mng khng phi ca 3GPP nh CDMA 2000 hay WIMAX.

27

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

2.5

Cc giao din v giao thc trong cu hnh kin trc c bn ca h thng Hnh 2.11 cho thy cc giao thc CP lin quan ti kt ni ca UE ti mt

PDN. Cc giao din t mt MME c th hin bi hai phn, phn trn hng u l cc giao thc hng ti E-UTRAN v UE, v phn di hin th cc giao thc hng ti cc cng. Cc giao thc hin th trong nn trng c pht trin bi 3GPP, trong khi cc giao thc trong nn xm c pht trin trong gi IETF, v i din cho cc cng ngh mng tiu chun c s dng cho truyn ti trong EPS. 3GPP ch xc nh nhng cch c th m cc giao thc ny c s dng. Lp trn cng trong CP l cc lp khng truy cp (NAS), bao gm c hai giao thc ring bit c thc hin truyn ti tn hiu trc tip gia UE m MME. Cc giao thc lp NAS l : Qun l tnh di ng EPS ( EMM ): cc giao thc MME c trch nhim v iu khin tnh di ng ca UE trong h thng. N bao gm cc chc nng kt ni vo v tch ra t mng, v thc hin vic cp nht v tr. iu ny c gi l cp nht khu vc theo di (TAU), v n din ra trong ch nhn ri. Ch rng cc chuyn giao trong ch kt ni c x l bi cc giao thc lp thp hn, nhng cc lp EMM khng bao gm cc chc nng ti kch hot cc UE t ch nhn ri.

28

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.11 Ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin trong EPS Qun l phin EPS ( ESM): Giao thc ny c th c s dng iu khin vic qun l phn t mang gia UE v MME, v n c s dng b sung cho E-UTRAN trong vic qun l phn t mang. Lu rng s khng s dng cc th tc ESM nu tnh trng ca cc phn t mang l c sn trong mng li v quy trnh E-UTRAN c th chy ngay lp tc. iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn (RRC) : Giao thc ny nhm kim sot vic s dng ngun ti nguyn v tuyn. N qun l bo hiu ca UE v cc kt ni d liu, v n cng bao gm cc chc nng chuyn giao. Giao thc hi t d liu gi ( PDCP) : Cc chc nng chnh ca PDCP l nn tiu IP (UP), m ha v bo v s ton vn ( ch vi CP).

29

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC) : Giao thc RLC c trch nhim phn on v ghp ni cc PDCP-PDU truyn cho giao din v tuyn. N cng thc hin vic sa li vi phng php yu cu truyn li t ng (ARQ). iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC) : Lp MAC c trch nhim lp k hoch d liu theo cc u tin v ghp knh d liu ti cc khi truyn ti lp 1. Lp MAC cng cung cp vic sa li vi HARQ. Lp vt l (PHY) : y l lp 1 ca giao din v tuyn LTE-Uu n c cc chc nng ging nh ca DS-CDMA. Trong EPC c hai giao thc khc cho giao din S5/S8. Cc giao thc sau c lin quan khi GTP c s dng trong S5/S8: Mt phng iu khin giao thc ng hm GPRS ( GTP-C) : N qun l cc kt ni UP trong EPC. N bao gm bo hiu QoS v cc thng s khc. Nu GTP c s dng trong giao din S5/S8 th n cn qun l cc ng hm GTP-U. GTP-C cng thc hin cc chc nng qun l di ng trong EPC. Nh vic khi cc ng hm GTP-U ca mt UE cn phi c chuyn t mt nt ti mt nt khc. Truyn ti UDP-IP : giao thc d liu n v ( UDP) v IP c s dng nh l truyn ti IP cn bn v tiu chun. UDP c s dng thay v giao thc iu khin truyn dn (TCP) bi v cc lp cao hn c cung cp s truyn ti tin cy vi c ch khc phc li v truyn li. Cc gi tin IP trong EPC c th c vn chuyn trn mt lot cc cng ngh lp 1 v lp 2. Cc giao thc sau c s dng khi S5/S8 da trn PMIP: IP di ng y nhim (PMIP) : PMIP l giao thc khc cho giao din S5/S8. n gi vic qun l tnh di ng, nhng khng bao gm cc chc nng nh qun l phn t mang. Tt c cc lu lng thuc v mt kt ni ca UE vi mt PDN ring l c x l nh nhau. IP : PMIP chy trc tip trn IP, v n c s dng nh l truyn ti IP tiu chun.

30

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 2.12 minh ha cu trc giao thc UP cho UE kt ni vi P-GW. UP c th hin nh trong hnh 2.12 bao gm cc lp ca ngi dng gi IP cui, tc l cc giao thc thnh hnh thnh nn lp 2 v c s dng vn chuyn cc gi tin IP n ngi s dng cui. Cu trc giao thc l tng t vi CP. iu ny n nh mt thc t l ton b h thng c thit k vn chuyn d liu gi chung, v c hai tn hiu CP v d liu UP cui cng u l d liu gi. Ch c kch thc khc nhau.

Hnh 2.12 ngn xp giao thc mt phng ngi dng trong EPC Hu ht cc giao thc c a ra c nu trn, ngoi tr hai iu sau c la chn trong b giao thc ca giao din S5/S8: Mt phng ngi dng giao thc ng hm GPRS (GTP-U) : GTP-U c s dng khi S5/S8 l da trn GTP. Dng thc ca GTP-U l ng hm GTP-U c dng gi cc gi tin ca ngi dng gi IP cui v mt mang chuyn EPS. N c s dng trong giao din S1-U v s dng trong S5/S8 nu CP s dng GTP-C. ng gi nh tuyn chung ( GRE) : GRE s dng giao din S5/S8 kt hp vi PMIP. Dng thc ca GRE l mt IP trong ng hm IP vn chuyn tt c cc d liu thuc v mt kt ni ca UE ti mt PDN c th. GRE l chy trc tip trn IP v UDP l khng s dng.

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Hnh 2.13 minh ha cu trc giao thc giao din X2, m tng t nh ca giao din S1. Ch c giao thc ng dng CP l khc nhau.

Hnh 2.13 Cc ngn xp giao thc mt phng iu khin v mt phng ngi dng cho giao din X2 Giao din X2 c s dng trong khi di chuyn gia cc eNodeB, v X2AP bao gm cc chc nng cho s chun b chuyn giao v duy tr tan b s lin h gia cc eNodeB ln cn. UP trong giao din X2 c s dng cho chuyn tip d liu tm thi trong qu trnh chuyn giao, khi cc giao din v tuyn c ngt kt ni pha ngun v cha kt ni li pha ch. Chuyn tip d liu l c thc hin cho cc d liu hng xung, khi cc d liu hng ln c th c iu chnh hiu qu bi UE. .

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Bng 2.1 tm tt cc giao thc v giao din trong cu hnh kin trc h thng c bn

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CHNG 3: TRUY CP V TUYN TRONG LTE


i vi vic truyn d liu qua giao tip v tuyn, ngi ta quyt nh dng mt phng thc truyn mi trong LTE, phng thc ny hon ton khc bit vi gii php CDMA ca UMTS. Thay v dng mt knh truyn ti qua mt di tn rng, ngi ta quyt nh dng mt phng thc truyn gi l Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (a Truy cp Phn Tn Trc giao), vit tt l OFDMA. Bi v nhiu bit c vn chuyn song song vi nhau, nn tc truyn trn mi knh truyn ti con c th thp hn nhiu so vi tc truyn d liu tng cng, nhm gim thiu nh hng ca vic suy gim a ng dn (multipath fading) do thi im n ni khc bit i cht ca tn hiu t cc hng khc nhau. L do th hai gii php ny c chn l, tc dng ca suy hao a ng dn v s phn tn tr s tr nn c lp vi lng di tn c dng cho knh. i vi vic truyn d liu hng ln, 3GPP chn mt phng thc iu ch hi khc mt cht. Vic truyn OFDMA phi chu mt PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio _ t l cng sut nh so vi trung bnh) cao, iu ny c th dn n nhng h qu tiu cc i vi vic thit k mt b pht sng nhng trong UE. Do , 3GPP chn phng thc SC-FDMA cho hng ln vi PAPR thp . TRUYN D LIU HNG XUNG: H thng truyn dn ng xung ca LTE da trn cng ngh OFDM. Nh bit th OFDM l mt h thng truyn dn ng xung hp dn vi nhiu l do khc nhau. V thi gian k t OFDM tng i di trong vic kt hp vi mt tin t chu trnh, nn OFDM cung cp mnh chng li s la chn tn s knh (channel frequency selectivity). Mc d trn l thuyt th vic sai lch tn hiu do knh truyn chn lc tn s c th c kim sot bng k thut cn bng ti pha thu, s phc tp ca k thut cn bng bt u tr nn km hp dn trong vic trin

3.1.

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khai i vi nhng thit b u cui di ng ti bng thng trn 5 MHz.V vy m OFDM vi kh nng vn c trong vic chng li fading la chn tn s (Bng cch chia knh thng tin ra thnh nhiu knh con fading phng bng hp, cc h thng OFDM chu ng fading la chn tn s tt hn nhng h thng sng mang n) s tr thnh s la chn hp dn cho ng xung, c bit khi c kt hp vi ghp knh khng gian (spatial multiplexing). 3.1.1. Nguyn tc a truy nhp ng xung OFDMA: 3.1.1.1. OFDM: K hoch truyn dn ng xung cho E-UTRAN ch FDD v TDD l c da trn OFDM truyn thng .OFDM cng c s dng trong WLAN, WIMAX v cc cng ngh truyn qung b nh DVB. OFDM c mt s li ch nh bn ca n vi phaing a ng v kin trc thu nhn hiu qu ca n. Ngoi ra OFDM cn c mt s li ch khc nh: OFDM d dng h tr cho vic phn b bng thng mt cch linh hot, bng cch bin i bng tn c s thnh cc sng mang con truyn i, mi sng mang con c iu chW c lp bi mt dng d liu tc thp. H tr truyn dn broadcast/multicast, khi m nhng thng tin ging nhau c truyn i t nhiu trm gc Mt s c im c bn ca OFDM: S dng mt lng tng i ln cc sng mang con bng hp. Truyn OFDM s dng vi trm sng mang con c truyn trn mt lin kt v tuyn n cng mt my thu. Dng xung n gin nh trong hnh 3.1a . iu ny p ng ph dng sa mi sng mang , nh minh ha trong hnh 3.1 b. Nhng sng mang con c sp xp cht ch trn min tn s vi khong cch gia cc sng mang con f=1/Tu (hnh 3.2), vi Tu l thi gian iu ch symbol trn mi sng mang con. Khong cch sng mang bng tc iu ch trn mi sng mang con.

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Hnh 3.1: Dng xung v ph ca mi sng mang cho truyn OFDM c bn

Hnh 3.2: Khong cch gia cc sng mang con OFDM Trong min thi gian, mt khong bo v c th c thm vo mi k hiu chng li nhiu lin k hiu OFDM do knh lan truyn tr. Trong E-UTRAN, cc khong bo v l mt tin t vng m c chn vo trc mi k hiu OFDM. Trong thc t, tn hiu OFDM c th c to ra bng cch s dng IFFT ( bin i Fourier nhanh nghch o ). IFFT chuyn i s lng N cc k hiu d liu phc c s dng nh cc phu bin i tn hiu min tn s sang tn hiu min thi

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gian. N im IFFT c minh ha nh trong hnh 3.3, ni m c a(mN+n) tham chiu ti k hiu d liu iu ch sng mang con th n, trong khong thi gian mTu < t (m+1)Tu.

Hnh 3.3: To ra k hiu OFDM c s dng gi IFFT Vector Sm c xc nh l k hiu OFDM c ch. N l s chng cht v mt thi gian ca N cc sng mang con c iu ch bng hp. V vy, t mt dng song song ca N ngun d liu, mi ngun c iu ch mt cch c lp, mt dng sng bao gm N cc sng mang con trc giao c hnh thnh. Hnh 3.3 minh ha s nh x t mt lung ni tip cc k hiu QAM n N cc lung song song, s dng nh l phiu min tn s cho IFFT. N im cc khi min thi gian thu c t IFFT sau c xp theo th t to ra mt tn hiu min thi gian. iu ny khng c biu din trong hnh 3.3, n l mt qu trnh chn vo tin t vng.

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Hnh 3.4: S to ra chui tn hiu OFDM Ti nguyn vt l trong truyn OFDM thng c minh ha nh mt li thi gian-tn s nh hnh 3.5 vi mi ct tng ng vi mt symbol OFDM v mi hng tng ng vi mt sng mang con OFDM.

Hnh 3.5: Li thi gian tn s OFDM

3.1.1.2.

OFDMA: Tri ngc vi phng thc truyn OFDM, OFDMA cho php truy nhp

ca nhiu ngi s dng trn bng thng sn c.


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Hnh 3.6: Cp pht sng mang con cho OFDM v OFDMA Mi ngi s dng c n nh mt ti nguyn thi gian-tn s c th. Nh mt nguyn tc c bn ca E-UTRAN, cc knh d liu l cc knh chia s. V d, i vi mi khong thi gian truyn ca 1ms, mt quyt nh lch biu mi c ly v trong ngi s dng c gn vi cc ngun ti nguyn thi gian / tn s trong sut khong thi gian truyn ti. Cc tham s ca OFDMA: Cu trc khung: c 2 loi cu trc khung cu trc loi 1 cho ch FDD, cu trc loi 2 cho ch TDD. i vi kiu cu trc khung loi 1, khung v tuyn 10ms c chia thnh 20 khe c kch thc nh nhau l 0,5ms. Mt khung con bao gm c 2 khe lin tip, nn mt khung v tuyn cha 10 khung con. iu ny c minh ha nh trong hnh 3.7( Ts l th hin ca n v thi gian c bn tng ng vi 30,72MHz).

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Hnh 3.7 : Cu trc khung loi 1 i vi cu trc khung loi 2, khung v tuyn 10ms bao gm hai na-khung vi mi na chiu di 5ms. Mi na-khung c chia thnh 5 khung con vi mi khung con 1ms, nh c th hin trong hnh 3.8. Cc khung con c bit bao gm c ba trng l DwPTS ( khe thi gian dn hng ng xung ), GP (khong bo v) v UpPTS ( khe thi gian dn hng ng ln ). Cc trng ny c bit n t TD-SCDMA v c duy tr trong LTE TDD. DwPTS, GP v UpPTS c chiu di cu hnh ring v chiu di tng cng l 1ms.

Hnh 3.8: Cu trc khung loi 2

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Cu trc li ti nguyn:

Hnh 3.9: Li ti nguyn ng xung Cc sng mang con trong LTE c mt khong cch c nh f = 15kHz trong min tn s, 12 sng mang con hnh thnh mt khi ti nguyn. Kch thc khi ti nguyn l nh nhau vi tt c cc bng thng. S lng cc khi ti nguyn ng vi bng thng c lit k nh trong bng 3.1. Bng thng knh(MHz) S lng cc khi ti nguyn 1,4 3 5 10 15 20

15

25

50

75

100

Bng 3.1: S lng khi ti nguyn cho bng thng LTE khc nhau Tin t vng CP:

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Vi mi k hiu OFDM, mt tin t vng (CP) c ni thm nh l khong thi gian bo v. Mt khe ng xung bao gm 6 hoc 7 k hiu OFDM, iu ny ty thuc vo tin t vng c cu hnh l m rng hay bnh thng. Tin t vng di c th bao ph cc kch thc ln hn vi s lan truyn tr cao hn ca cc knh v tuyn. Cc chiu di tin t vng c ly mu ( n v o bng s ) v c tm tt trong bng 3.2. Cu hnh Tin t vng bnh thng f=15kHz Tin t vng m rng f=15kHz Kch thc cc khi ti nguyn S lng cc k hiu Chiu di tin t Chiu di tin t vng trong cc vng s mu 160 cho k hiu 5,2s cho k u tin hiu u tin 144 cho k hiu 4,7s cho k khc hiu khc 512 16,7s

12

12

Bng 3.2: Tham s cu trc ng xung (FDD&TDD) 3.1.2 Truyn d liu hng xung: D liu c cp pht ti UE theo cc khi ti nguyn, v d , mt UE c th c cp pht cc bi s nguyn ca mt khi ti nguyn trong min tn s. Cc khi ti nguyn khng cn phi lin k vi nhau. Trong min thi gian, quyt nh lp biu c th b bin i trong mi khong thi gian truyn ca 1ms. Quyt nh lp biu c thc hin trong cc trm gc (eNodeB). Cc thut ton lp biu c tnh n tnh trng cht lng lin kt v tuyn ca nhng ngi s dng khc nhau, tnh trng can nhiu tng th, cht lng ca cc dch v yu cu, cc dch v u tin, ..v.v. Hnh 3.10 cho thy mt v d cho vic cp pht d liu ngi dng hng xung cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau ( gi s c 6 UE ). D liu ngi dng c mang trn knh chia s ng xung vt l ( PDSCH).

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Hnh 3.10: Ghp knh thi gian-tn s OFDMA V nguyn tc trong mi h thng OFDMA l s dng bng hp, cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau. Trong LTE khong cch sng mang con l 15kHz bt k bng thng h thng l bao nhiu. Cc sng mang con khc nhau l trc giao vi nhau. My pht ca mt h thng OFDMA s dng khi IFFT to ra tn hiu. D liu ngun c cung cp ti b chuyn i ni tip- song song v sau tip tc vo khi IFFT. Mi u vo ca khi IFFT tng ng l biu din u vo cho mt sng mang con ring (hoc thnh phn tn s c th ca tn hiu min thi gian )v c th c iu ch c lp vi cc sng mang con khc. Tip sau khi IFFT l c thm vo tin t vng m rng, nh th hin trong hnh 3.11.

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Hnh 3.11: Pht v thu OFDMA Mc ch ca vic thm tin t vng m rng l trnh c nhiu lin k t. khi my pht thm vo mt tin t vng m rng di hn so vi p ng xung knh th s nh hng ca k hiu trc y c th c loi b bng cch b qua ( g b ) tin t vng m rng pha thu. Mt s in hnh ca gii php thu l cn bng min tn s, trong v c bn l s tc ng tr li knh vi mi sng mang con. B cn bng min tn s trong OFDMA ch n gin l nhn mi sng mang con( vi php nhn gi tr phc tp ) da trn p ng tn s knh c tnh ( iu chnh bin v pha ca mi sng mang con bit ) ca knh. Cc knh iu khin hng xung Knh iu khin ng xung vt l (PDCCH) : n phc v cho nhiu mc ch. Ch yu n c s dng chuyn cc quyt nh lp lch biu ti cc

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UE ring l, tc l n c nhim v lp lch biu cho hng ln v hng xung. PDCCH c t trong k hiu OFDM u tin ca mt khung con. i vi cu trc khung loi 2, PDCCH cng c th c nh x vo 2 k hiu OFDM u tin ca trng DwPTS. Mt knh ch th dng iu khin vt l (PCFICH) c mang trn cc phn t ti nguyn c trong trong k hiu OFDM u tin ca khung con c s dng ch ra s lng cc k hiu OFDM cho PDCCH ( c th l 1, 2, 3, hoc 4 k hiu ). PCFICH l cn thit bi v ti trn PDCCH c th khc nhau, ty thuc vo s lng ngi s dng trong mt v cc dng tn hiu c truyn trn PDCCH. Thng tin c mang trn PDCCH c gi l thng tin iu khin ng xung ( DCI). Ty thuc vo mc ch ca cc thng ip iu khin, cc dng khc nhau ca DCI s c xc nh. 3.1.3. Truyn broadcast/multicast a cell:

Hnh 3.12: K hoch truyn broadcast Cung cp nhng dch v broadcast/multicast trong h thng thng tin di ng ngha l cng thng tin c cung cp cng lc cho nhiu u cui di ng, thng c phn pht trn mt khu vc rng tng ng vi lng ln cc cell nh trong hnh 3.12. Thng tin broadcast/multicast c th l mt on bn tin TV, thng

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tin v iu kin thi tit a phng, thng tin th trng chng khon, hay l bt k loi thng tin no, m trong mt thi gian ngn l tm im ch ca nhiu ngi. Khi cng thng tin c cung cp cho nhiu u cui di ng trong mt cell, truyn v tuyn broadcast cho tt c nhng u cui di ng trong cell (hnh 3.13a) thng c li hn l cung cp thng tin bng cch truyn ring l cho mi u cui di ng (truyn unicast, hnh 3.13b).

Hnh 3.13: Truyn Broadcast v Unicast Tuy nhin, truyn broadcast nh hnh 3.13a phi nh kch thc bao ph nhng u cui di ng trong tnh trng xu nht, k c nhng u cui di ng vng bin cell, iu ny tng i tn km trong iu kin nh vo cng sut truyn cn thit ca trm gc cung cp mt tc d liu dch v broadcast no . Hoc l a vo bng miu t t s tn hiu trn nhiu b gii hn m c th t c ti cnh cell, tc d liu broadcast c th t c tung i b gii hn, c bit vi cell ln. Mt cch tng tc d liu broadcast l gim kch thc cell, do tng cng sut nhn cnh cell. Tuy nhin, iu ny s tng s cell bao ph mt khu vc no v lm tng chi ph trin khai. Cung cp dch v broadcast/multicast trong mt mng thng tin di ng ngha l thng tin ging nhau c cung cp trn mt lng ln cc cell. Trong trng hp nh th, ti nguyn (cng sut truyn hng xung) cn cung cp mt tc d liu no c th gim ng k nu nhng u cui di ng ti cnh cell

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c th tn dng cng sut nhn c t nhiu cell khi pht hin, gii m d liu broadcast. c bit, c th t c li ln nu u cui di ng c th nhn ng thi truyn broadcast t nhiu cell trc khi gii m. S kt hp mm nh th ca truyn broadcast/multicast t nhiu cell c chp nhn trong WCDMA MBMS.

Hnh 3.14: S tng ng gia truyn ng thi v truyn a tuyn Trong LTE, truyn broadcast/multicast nhn c t nhiu cell s xut hin nh mt qu trnh truyn n l b tc ng rt xu ca truyn a tuyn nh minh ha trn hnh 3.14. Cung cp cc dch v broadcast/multicast, thnh thong c xem nh l hot ng mng n tn SFN (Single-Frequency Network). Nu truyn broadcast da trn OFDM vi CP bao ph khong thi gian phn tn, tc d liu c th t c ch b gii hn bi nhiu, ngha l trong nhng cell nh hn, tc d liu broadcast c th rt cao. Hn na, u thu OFDM khng cn nhn dng r rng cc cell trong kt ni mm. ng hn l tt cc qu trnh truyn n trong phm vi ca CP s t ng c gi li bi u thu. 3.2. TRUYN D LIU HNG LN: Vic truyn OFDMA phi chu mt t l cng sut nh-n-trung bnh (PAPR) cao, iu ny c th dn n nhng h qu tiu cc i vi vic thit k mt b pht sng nhng trong UE. l, khi truyn d liu t UE n mng, cn c mt b khuch i cng sut nng tn hiu n ln mt mc cao mng

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thu c. B khuch i cng sut l mt trong nhng thnh phn tiu th nng lng ln nht trong mt thit b, v v th nn hiu qu cng sut cng cao cng tt lm tng tui th pin ca my. 3GPP tm mt phng n truyn dn khc cho hng ln LTE. SC-FDMA c chn bi v n kt hp cc k thut vi PAPR thp ca cc h thng truyn dn n sng mang, nh GSM v CDMA, vi kh nng chng c a ng v cp pht tn s linh hot ca OFDMA. 3.2.1. SC-FDMA: Hng UL ca ch FDD v TDD s s dng k thut a truy nhp phn chia tn s sng mang n SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access) theo chu k. Cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c tn hiu PARP tt hn OFDMA. y l mt trong nhng l do chnh chn SC-FDMA cho LTE. PARP gip mang li hiu qu cao trong vic thit k cc b khuch i cng sut UE, v vic x l tn hiu ca SC-FDMA vn c mt s im tng ng vi OFDMA, do , tham s hng DL v UL c th cn i vi nhau. Tn hiu SC-FDMA c to ra bng k thut tri ph DFT-OFDM (DFT-s-OFDM).

Hnh 3.15: S khi DFT-s-OFDM

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Vi DFT-S-OFDM, mt DFT kch thc M trc tin c p dng ti mt khi cc k hiu iu ch M. QPSK,16QAM v 64QAM c s dng nh l cc phng n iu ch ng ln E-UTRAN, sau ny c ty chn cho UE. DFT bin i cc k hiu iu ch vo min tn s. Kt qu c nh x vo cc sng mang con c sn. Trong ng ln E-UTRAN, ch c truyn dn tp trung trn cc sng mang con lin tip l c cho php. N im IFFT ni m N->M sau c thc hin nh trong OFDM, tip l thm tin t vng v chuyn i song song thnh ni tip. S x l DFT l s khc bit c bn gia vic to tn hiu SC-FDMA v OFDMA. iu ny c th hin bng thut ng DFT-tri-OFDM. Trong mt tn hiu SC-FDMA, mi sng mang con c s dng cho vic truyn dn thng tin bao gm tt c cc k hiu iu ch c truyn, k t khi dng d liu u vo c lan truyn bi s bin i DFT qua cc sng mang con sn c. Tri ngc vi iu ny, mi sng mang con trong mt tn hiu OFDMA ch mang thng tin lin quan ti cc k hiu iu ch c th. 3.2.2. Cc tham s ca SC-FDMA: Cu trc khung: cng tng t nh ng xung gm c 2 loi khung , khung loi 1 dnh cho FDD, khung loi 2 dnh cho TDD. Mi khe mang 7 k hiu SC-FDMA trong trng hp cu hnh tin t vng thng thng, v 6 k hiu SCFDMA trong trng hp cu hnh tin t vng m rng. K hiu SC-FDMA s 3 ( k hiu th 4 trong mt khe ) mang tn hiu chun cho vic gii iu ch knh. Ti nguyn vt l ng ln: Cc thng s c bn ca truyn dn ng ln LTE c la chn cn chnh, cng nhiu cng tt, vi cc thng s tng ng ca ng xung LTE da trn OFDM. Do , khong cch sng mang con DFT-s-OFDM ng ln tng ng vi f=15 KHz v cc khi ti nguyn bao gm 12 sng mang con c cng c xc nh cho ng ln. Cng v mt kin trc min thi gian c lm chi tit hn, ng ln LTE rt ging vi ng xung, nh c th c nhn thy trong hnh 3.16. Mi khung

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con ng ln 1ms bao gm hai khe c di bng nhau Tslot =0.5 ms. Mi khe sau bao gm mt s lng cc khi DFT km theo c tin t tun hon (Cyclic Prefix - CP). Cng tng t ng xung, hai di tin t tun hon c nh ngha cho ng ln, tin t tun hon thng thng v tin t tun hon m rng.

Hnh 3.16: Khung con ng ln LTE v cu trc khe. Mt khung con bao gm hai khe kch thc bng nhau. Mi khe bao gm 6 hoc 7 khi DFTS-OFDM trong trng hp tng ng vi tin t chu trnh bnh thng v m rng

Hnh 3.17: Cp pht ti nguyn ng ln LTE

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Ngc vi ng xung, cc khi ti nguyn ng ln c n nh n mt u cui di ng phi lun lun c lin tip nhau trong min tn s, nh c minh ho trong hnh 3.17. Ch rng, tng t nh ng xung, khi ti nguyn ng ln c nh ngha nh 12 sng mang con DFT-s-OFDM trong sut mt khe 0.5 ms. Ti cng mt thi im, scheduling ng ln c thc hin trn c s mt khung con 1 ms. Do , tng t nh ng xung, n nh ti nguyn ng ln c thc hin di dng cc cp khi ti nguyn lin tc trong min thi gian. 3.2.3. Truyn dn d liu hng ln: Lp k hoch ngun ti nguyn hng ln c thc hin bi eNodeB. eNodeB s cp cc ti nguyn thi gian/tn s nht nh cho cc UE v cc UE thng bo v cc dng truyn ti m n s dng. Cc quyt nh lp lch biu c th da trn cc thng s QoS, tnh trng b nh m ca UE, cc thng s cht lng knh ng ln, kh nng ca UE, cc o c khong cch ca UE, v.v. Vic pht tn hiu trong min tn s c th hin nh trong hnh 3.18. B sung thm cho OFDMA thuc tnh ca dng sng ph tt hn tri ngc vi vic pht tn hiu trong min thi gian vi mt b iu ch QAM thng thng. Do nhu cu v bng tn bo v gia cc ngi dng khc nhau l c th trnh c, tng t nh nguyn l ng xung ca OFDMA. Nh trong h thng OFDMA, mt tin t vng cng c thm vo theo nh k, nhng khng phi sau mi k hiu nh l tc k hiu l nhanh hn trong min thi gian so vi trong OFDMA, cho vic truyn d liu c th ngn nga c nhiu lin k t v n gin ha vic thit k my thu. My thu vn cn phi i ph vi nhiu lin k t nh l tin t vng by gi s ngn cn nhiu lin k t gia mt khi cc k hiu, do s vn cn nhiu lin k t gia cc tin t vng. Do my thu s chy b cn bng cho mt khi cc k hiu cho n khi t c tin t vng m ngn chn s lan truyn nhiu lin k t sau .

51

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 3.18: Pht v thu hng ln LTE LTE h tr c hai l nhy tn bn trong v lin khung con. N c cu hnh trn mi bi cc lp cao hn cho d nhy c hai bn trong v lin khung con hoc ch nhy lin khung con l c h tr. Knh iu khin hng ln vt l (PUCCH) mang thng tin iu khin hng ln (UCI), tc l thng tin ACK/NACK lin quan ti vic nhn cc gi d liu trong ng xung, bo co ch s cht lng knh (CQI), thng tin ma trn tin m ha (PMI) v ch s bc (RI) cho MIMO, v cc yu cu lp k hoch (SR). PUCCH c truyn trn mt vng tn s dnh ring trong hng ln m n c cu hnh bi cc lp cao hn. Cc khi ti nguyn PUCCH c t vo c hai bin ca bng thng ng ln, v nhy tn lin khe c s dng trn PUCCH. So snh OFDMA& SC-FDMA:

52

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 3.19: So snh OFDMA & SC-FDMA Bn tri hnh 3.19, M cc sng mang con 15kHz lin k c t vo a im mong mun trong bng thng knh v mi sng mang con c iu ch vi chu k k hiu OFDMA l 66,7s bi mt k hiu d liu QPSK. Trong v d ny, bn sng mang con, bn k hiu c a ra song song. y l cc k hiu d liu QPSK do ch c pha ca mi sng mang con l c iu ch v cng sut ca sng mang con vn gi khng i gia cc k hiu. Sau mt chu k k hiu OFDMA tri qua, cc CP c chn vo v bn k hiu tip theo c truyn i song song. cho hnh nh nhn c r rng nn cc CP c hin th nh mt khong trng, tuy nhin, n thc s c lp y vi mt bn sao ca s kt thc ca k hiu tip theo, c ngha l cng sut truyn dn l lin tc nhng c mt s gin on pha bin ca k hiu. to ra tn hiu truyn i, mt IFFT c thc hin trn mi sng mang con to ra M tn hiu min thi gian. Chng ln lut l vec t tng hp to ra dng sng min thi gian cui cng c s dng truyn dn.

53

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

S to thnh tn hiu SC-FDMA c bt u vi mt qui trnh ng trc c bit ri sau n cng tip tc mt cch tng t nh OFDMA. Tuy nhin trc ht ta s xem hnh bn phi ca hnh 3.19. S khc bit r rng nht l OFDMA truyn bn k hiu d liu QPSK song song trn mi sng mang con, trong khi SC-FDMA truyn bn k hiu d liu QPSK trong lot bn ln , vi mi k hiu d liu chim M 15kHz bng thng. Nhn mt cch trc quan, tn hiu OFDMA r rng l a sng mang vi mt k hiu d liu trn mi sng mang con, nhng tn hiu SC-FDMA xut hin nhiu hn mt sng mang n ( v th m c SC trong tn SC-FDMA ) vi mi k hiu d liu c biu din bng mt lot tn hiu. Lu rng chiu di k hiu OFDMA & SC-FDMA l nh nhau vi 66,7s, tuy nhin, k hiu SC-FDMA c cha M cc k hiu con m biu din cho d liu iu ch. l vic truyn ti song song ca nhiu cc k hiu to ra PAPR cao khng mong mun vi OFDMA. Bng cch truyn M cc k hiu d liu trong dy vo M thi im, SC-FDMA chim bng thng cng nh a sng mang OFDMA nhng ch yu l PAPR tng t nh c s dng cho cc k hiu d liu gc. Thm vo cng nhau nhiu dng sng QPSK bng hp trong OFDMA s lun to ra cc nh cao hn c th thy trong bng thng rng hn, dng sng QPSK n sng mang SC-FDMA. 3.3. MIMO: MIMO l mt k thut i mi quan trng ca LTE, c s dng ci thin hiu sut ca h thng. K thut cho php LTE ci thin hn v dung lng v hiu qu s dng ph. Mc d, s dng MIMO lm cho h thng phc tp hn v qu trnh x l tn hiu v yu cu s lng anten, nhng n c th tng tc d liu ln mc cao, cho php hiu qu s dng ph tn. MIMO l mt k thut khng th thiu ca LTE. Chun LTE ch nh hai v bn cuc truyn ring bit trn cng mt bng tn, tc i hi phi c hai hoc bn ng-ten tng ng c my pht ln my thu. H qu l, nhng cuc truyn nh vy c gi l 2x2 MIMO v 4x4 MIMO. Trong thc t, 2x2 MIMO nhiu kh nng s c dng trc, do bi nhng rng

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

buc v kch c ca cc UE v do s kin l cc ng-ten phi c t cch nhau t nht mt na bc sng. Bi v cc knh MIMO phn bit vi nhau, nn 2x2 MIMO c th lm tng tc truyn tng th ln hai ln, cn 4x4 MIMO th tng ln bn ln. Tuy nhin iu ny ch c th t c trong nhng iu kin tn hiu l tng. V vy, MIMO ch c dng cho cc cuc truyn hng xung trong LTE, bi v b pht sng ca trm c s t b rng buc v cng sut hn b pht sng hng ln. Trong nhng iu kin truyn t thun li hn, h thng t ng quay tr li kiu truyn mt dng d liu duy nht v cng gim lun cp iu ch t 64-QAM xung 16- QAM hay thm ch QPSK. 3.3.1. Cc ch truy cp ca MIMO:

Hnh 3.20: Cc ch truy cp ca MIMO 3.3.1.1. n u vo n u ra (SISO) Ch truy nhp knh v tuyn n gin nht l n u vo n u ra (SISO), trong ch c mt ng ten pht v mt ng ten thu c s dng. y l

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

hnh thc truyn thng mc nh k t khi truyn v tuyn bt u v n l c s da vo tt c cc k thut a ng ten c so snh. 3.3.1.2. n u vo a u ra (SIMO) Mt ch th hai th hin trong hnh 3.20 l n u vo a u ra (SIMO), trong s dng mt my pht v hai hoc nhiu hn my thu. SIMO thng c gi l phn tp thu. Ch truy nhp knh v tuyn ny c bit thch hp cho cc iu kin tn hiu-nhiu(SNR) thp. Trong c mt li l thuyt c th t c l 3dB khi hai my thu c s dng, khng c thay i v tc d liu khi ch c mt dng d liu c truyn, nhng vng ph sng bin c ci thin do s gim ca SNR s dng c. 3.3.1.3. a u vo n u ra (MISO) Ch a u vo n u ra (MISO) s dng s my pht l hai hoc nhiu hn v mt my thu( hnh 3.20 cho thy ch c 2 my pht v mt my thu cho n gin ). MISO thng c gi l phn tp pht. Cng mt d liu c gi trn c hai ng ten pht nhng vi ch m ha nh vy m my thu ch c th nhn bit tng my pht. MISO khng lm tng tc d liu, nhng n h tr cc tc d liu tng t nhau bng cch s dng t nng lng hn. Phn tp pht c th c tng cng vi phn hi vng ng t my thu ch ra s truyn cn bng ti u ca pha v cng sut c s dng cho mi ng ten pht. 3.3.1.4. a u vo a u ra (MIMO) Phng thc truyn cui cng c th hin trong hnh 3.20 l truyn y MIMO, n yu cu hai hoc nhiu my pht v hai hoc nhiu my thu. MIMO lm tng cng sut ph bng cch pht nhiu lung d liu cng mt lc trong cng mt tn s v thi gian, tn dng y cc li th ca cc ng dn khc nhau trong knh v tuyn. i vi mt h thng c m t nh MIMO, n phi c t nht l nhiu my thu vi nhiu lung pht. S lng cc lung pht khng c nhm ln vi s lng cc ng ten pht. N lun c th c s my pht nhiu hn s lung d liu.

56

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 3.21: MIMO 2x2 Mt yu t quan trng cho hot ng MIMO l vic truyn t mi ng ten phi c nhn dng duy nht mi my thu c th xc nh c ci g kt hp trong vic truyn m n nhn c. Vic nhn dng ny thng c thc hin vi cc tn hiu ch o, trong s dng cc mu trc giao cho mi ng ten. S phn tp khng gian ca knh v tuyn ngha l MIMO c kh nng lm tng tc d liu. Hnh thc c bn nht ca MIMO l gn mt dng d liu cho mi ng ten v c th hin nh trong hnh 3.21. Trong dng ny, mt lung d liu duy nht c gn cho mt ng ten v c bit n nh nh x trc tip. Knh ny sau c trn ln nh l s truyn c hai vi bn nhn, mi ng ten s nhn thy mt s kt hp ca mi lung. Gii m cc tn hiu nhn c l mt qu trnh kho lo bn nhn, bi vic phn tch cc mu nhn dng duy nht mi my pht xc nh xem kt hp ci g ca mi lung truyn hin ti. Vic p dng mt b lc nghch o v tng hp cc lung nhn c ti to li d liu gc. 3.3.2. K hoch LTE a ng ten:

57

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 3.22 LTE a ngten Cc vn c bn ca k thut ng ten c trnh by trn, by gi xt ti cc quy nh ca LTE, bt u vi mt s thut ng. nh ngha mt s thut ng c s dng nh sau : T m: mt t m biu din d liu ngi dng trc khi n c nh dng truyn. Mt hoc hai t m , CW0 v CW1, c th c s dng ty thuc vo iu kin knh truyn chim u th v trng hp s dng. Trong trng hp ph bin nht l MIMO mt ngi s dng (SU-MIMO), hai t m c gi n mt UE duy nht, nhng trong trng hp t ph bin l ng xung MIMO nhiu ngi dng (MU-MIMO), mi t m c gi cho ch mt UE. Lp: thut ng lp l ng ngha vi lung. i vi ghp knh khng gian, ti thiu l hai lp phi c s dng. c cho php ln ti bn lp. S lng cc lp biu th bng biu tng v. S lng ca lp lun nh hn hoc bng s lng ca ng ten. Tin m ha(Precoding): Tin m ha s chnh sa cc tn hiu lp trc khi truyn. iu ny c th c thc hin vi s phn tp, to chm tia hoc ghp knh khng gian.

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

CHNG 4: LP VT L LTE
Chng ny gii thiu v cc knh truyn ti v s nh x cc knh truyn ti trong LTE , qua c th hiu c nhng thng tin c mang trn cc knh . Ngoi ra cng gii thiu v cc th tc c s dng lp vt l nh th tc lp biu,th tc HARQ, iu khin cng sut..Cc th tc ny gip nng cao cht lng mng gip ngi dng truy cp gi liu mt cch tt nht. 4.1. CC KNH TRUYN TI V NH X CA CHNG TI CC

KNH VT L Bi bn cht ca vic thit k, LTE ch cha cc knh truyn ti chung, knh truyn ti dnh ring ( knh dnh ring : DCH , nh trong WCDMA ) l khng tn ti. Cc knh truyn ti l giao din gia lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MAC) v lp vt l. Mi knh truyn ti c c trng bi s x l ca lp vt l lin quan, c p dng cho cc knh vt l tng ng v s dng mang cc knh truyn ti. Lp vt l cn c kh nng cung cp ngun ti nguyn ng phn phi u cho cc tc d liu khc nhau v vi vic phn chia ti nguyn gia nhng ngi s dng khc nhau. Phn ny trnh by cc knh truyn ti v s nh x ca chng vo cc knh vt l. Knh qung b (BCH): L mt knh pht qung b ng xung c s dng pht qung b cc thng s h thng cn thit cho php cc thit b truy cp vo h thng ( v xc nh nh iu hnh ). Cc thng s ny bao gm, v d , cc thng s lin quan n truy nhp ngu nhin m n thng bo cho thit b v cc thnh phn ti nguyn c dnh ring cho hot ng truy cp ngu nhin. Knh chia s ng xung (DL-SCH) : Mang d liu ngi dng cho cc kt ni im im theo hng ng xung. Tt c cc thng tin ( hoc l d liu ngi s dng hoc l thng tin iu khin lp cao hn ) dnh cho duy nht mt ngi s dng hoc UE c truyn i trn DL-SCH, gi s UE trng thi
59

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

RRC kt ni. Tuy nhin, vai tr ca BCH ch yu l thng bo cho cc thit b v lch trnh thng tin ca h thng, iu khin thng tin cho nhiu thit b c thc hin trn DL-SCH . Trong trng hp d liu trn DL-SCH c dnh cho ch mt UE duy nht, th thch ng lin kt ng v truyn li lp vt l c th c s dng. Knh nhn tin (PCH) : c s dng mang cc thng tin bng tin nhn cho cc thit b theo hng ng xung chuyn cc thit b t trng thi RRC rnh di ti trng thi RRC kt ni. Knh pht a im (MCH) : c s dng truyn ni dung ca cc dch v pht a im ti UE theo hng ng xung. Knh chia s ng ln (uplink-SCH) : Mang d liu ca ngi dng cng nh thng tin iu khin xut pht t thit b theo hng ng ln trng thi RRC kt ni. Tng t nh DL-SCH, thch ng lin kt ng v truyn li l sn c. Knh truy cp ngu nhin (RACH) : c s dng trong ng ln tr li cc thng ip tin nhn hoc bt u chuyn t RRC rnh di ti trng thi RRC kt ni theo nhu cu truyn d liu ca UE. Khng c d liu lp cao hn hoc d liu ngi dng c truyn trn RACH ( iu ny c th c thc hin vi WCDMA), nhng n ch c s dng ni cho php truyn ti uplink-SCH. Trong hng ng ln uplink-SCH c mang bi knh chia s hng ln vt l(PUSCH). Tng ng, RACH c mang bi knh truy cp ngu nhin vt l (PRACH). Tn ti knh vt l b sung nhng n ch c s dng truyn thng tin iu khin lp vt l. Knh truyn ti hng ln nh x ti cc knh vt l c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.1

60

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 4.1 nh x ca cc knh truyn ti hng ln ti cc knh vt l Trong hng ng xung, PCH c nh x ti knh chia s ng xung vt l (PDSCH).

Hnh 4.2 nh x cc knh truyn ti hng xung ti cc knh vt l BCH c nh x ti knh qung b vt l (PBCH). DL-SCH c nh x ti PDSCH v MCH c nh x ti knh pht a im vt l, c th hin nh trong hnh 4.2. 4.2. IU CH: Trong iu ch hng ln l s dng b iu ch truyn thng l iu ch bin cu phng(QAM). Trong cc phng php iu ch sn c ( cho d liu ngi dng ) l kha dch pha vung gc(QPSK), 16QAM v 64QAM. Trong QPSK & 16QAM l sn c trong tt c cc thit b, trong khi vic h tr cho 64QAM theo hng ng ln l mt kh nng ca UE. Cc chm im iu ch khc nhau c th hin nh trong hnh 4.3

61

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 4.3 Cc chm im iu ch trong LTE S dng iu ch QPSK cho php hiu qu cng sut pht tt khi vn hnh ti ch cng sut truyn ti y cng nh iu ch s quyt nh kt qu ca CM ( i vi SC-FDMA) v do n cng yu cu thit b khuych i ch truyn. Cc thit b s s dng cng sut pht ti a thp hn khi vn hnh vi iu ch 16QAM hoc 64QAM. Trong hng ng xung, cc phng php iu ch cho d liu ngi s dng cng tng t nh trong hng ln. Theo l thuyt th h thng OFDM c th s dng cc iu ch khc nhau cho mi sng mang con. c knh thng tin cht lng ( v bo hiu ) vi chi tit nh vy l s khng th kh thi do dn n chi ph qu mc. Nu iu ch ring tng sng mang con s c qu nhiu bt trong hng ng xung dnh cho bo nhn trong cc tham s ca mi sng mang con v trong hng ng ln phn hi ch th cht lng knh ( CQI) s cn phi qu chi tit t c mc chi tit cc sng mang con c th thch ng. Ngoi ra kha dch pha nh phn(BPSK) c xc nh cho cc knh iu khin, trong s dng hoc l BPSK hoc l QPSK cho truyn dn cc thng tin iu khin. 4.3. TRUYN TI D LIU HNG LN:

62

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

D liu ngi s dng trong hng ln l c mang trn PUSCH , trong mt cu trc khung 10ms v c da trn s cp pht ti nguyn min thi gian v min tn s vi 1ms v khong chia 180kHz. Vic phn b ti nguyn i km t mt b lp biu c t ti eNodeB, c minh ha trong hnh 4.4. Do khng c s c nh cc ngun ti nguyn cho cc thit b, v cng khng cn tn hiu trc t eNodeB cc ngun ti nguyn ch cn truy nhp ngu nhin l c th c s dng. i vi mc ch ny cc thit b c nhu cu cn phi cung cp thng tin cho cc b lp lch biu ng ln ca cc yu cu truyn dn ( b m trng thi) n c cng nh da trn cc ngun ti nguyn cng sut truyn ti hin sn c.

Hnh 4.4 Cp pht ti nguyn hng ln c iu khin bi b lp biu eNodeB

Cu trc khung thng qua cu trc khe 0,5ms v s dng 2 khe (1 khung con ) thi gian c cp pht. Chu k cp pht ngn hn 0,5ms ( nh lc u d kin trong 3GPP gim thiu thi gian i ht mt vng) c th c c qua cng tn hiu nht l vi mt s lng ln ngi s dng. Cu trc khung 10ms c minh ha trong hnh 4.5. Cu trc khung v c bn l ph hp cho c hai ch

63

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

FDD v TDD, nhng ch TDD c cc phn b sung cho cc im chuyn tip ng ln / ng xung trong khung.

Hnh 4.5 Cu trc khung LTE FDD Bng thng c th c cp pht gia 0 v 20MHz trong cc bc ca 180kHz. Cp pht l lin tc nh truyn dn ng ln l FDMA c iu ch ch vi mt k hiu c truyn ti mt thi im. Bng thng khe c iu chnh gia cc TTI lin tip c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.6 . Ni m tng gp i tc d liu kt qu l tng gp i bng thng c s dng. Cc k hiu tham chiu lun chim cng mt khng gian trong min thi gian v do tc d liu cao hn kt qu l s tng tng ng vi tc d liu k hiu tham chiu.

Hnh 4.6 Tc d liu gia cc TTI theo hng ng ln

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Tin t vng(Cyclic Prefix) s dng trong ng ln c hai gi tr c th ph thuc vo vic mt tin t vng l ngn hoc di c p dng. Cc thng s khc l khng thay i v do khe 0,5ms c th cha c 6 hoc 7 k hiu nh c ch ra trong hnh 4.7. Cc ti trng d liu b gim bt nu mt tin t vng m rng c s dng. Nhng n khng c s dng thng xuyn thng l c li v hiu sut v c 7 k hiu ln hn nhiu so vi s suy gim c th c t nhiu lin k t do s tr ca knh di hn so vi tin t vng.

Hnh 4.7 Cu trc khe ng ln vi tin t vng ngn v di Khng c a ng ten cho truyn ti hng ln c xc nh trong release 8. Tc d liu tc thi cho mt UE ph thuc vo cc c im ng ln LTE t cc yu t sau : Phng thc iu ch c p dng: vi 2, 4 hoc 6 bits trn k hiu iu ch ty thuc vo trnh t iu ch vi QPSK , 16QAM v 64QAM tng ng. Bng thng c p dng : i vi 1,4MHz c chi ph l ln nht do c cc knh chung v cc tn hiu ng b. Bng thng tm thi ca knh c th bin i gia s cp pht ti thiu l 12 sng mang con ( mt khi ti nguyn l 180kHz) v bng thng ca h thng ln n 1200 sng mang con vi bng thng 20MHz. Tc m ha knh c p dng. Tc d liu trung bnh ph thuc vo thi gian phn b ti nguyn min.

65

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

M ha knh c chn cho d liu ngi dng LTE l m turbo. M ha l m chp ghp song song ( PCCC) b m ha kiu turbo. M turbo an xen ca WCDMA c sa i ph hp hn vi c tnh ca LTE, cu trc khe v cng cho php s linh hot hn thc hin vic s l tn hiu song song vi tc d liu tng ln. LTE cng s dng kt hp vi s pht li lp vt l, thng c gi l yu cu lp li thch ng hn hp (HARQ). Trong khi vn hnh lp vt l HARQ cng nhn lu tr cc gi tin khi vic kim tra CRC tht bi v kt hp gi tin nhn c khi nhn c mt s truyn li. Chui m ha knh cho ng ln c th hin nh trong hnh 4.8, ni m d liu v cc thng tin iu khin c m ha ring v sau c nh x ti cc k hiu ring truyn. Thng tin iu khin c a im ring quanh cc k hiu tham chiu, thng tin iu khin lp vt l c m ha ring bit v c t vo mt tp cc k hiu iu ch c xc nh trc.

Hnh 4.8 Chui m ha knh PUSCH

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

D liu v thng tin iu khin c ghp knh theo thi gian mc thnh phn ti nguyn. D liu c iu ch mt cch c lp vi cc thng tin iu khin, nhng thi gian iu ch trong 1ms TTI l nh nhau.

Hnh 4.9 Ghp knh ca thng tin iu khin v d liu 4.4. TRUYN DN D LIU NGI DNG HNG XUNG: D liu ngi dng hng xung c mang trn knh chia s ng xung vt l ( PDSCH). Tng t vic phn b ti nguyn 1ms cng l hp l trn ng xung. Cc sng mang con c cp pht cc n v ti nguyn ca 12 sng mang con dn n cc n v cp pht l 180kHz ( khi ti nguyn vt l, PRBs). Vi PDSCH, a truy nhp l OFDMA, mi sng mang con c truyn i song song vi 15kHz v do tc d liu ca ngi s dng ph thuc vo s lng cc sng mang con c cp pht ( hoc cc khi ti nguyn trong thc t ) cho mt ngi dng nht nh. eNodeB cp pht khi ti nguyn da trn ch s cht lng

67

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

knh (CQI) t thit b u cui. Tng t nh ng ln, cc khi ti nguyn c cp pht trong min thi gian v min tn s, c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.10

Hnh 4.10 Cp pht ti nguyn ng xung ti eNodeB Knh iu khin ng xung vt l ( PDCCH) thng bo cho thit b cc khi ti nguyn c cp pht cho n, t ng vi chi tit cp pht l 1ms. D liu PDSCH s chim gi t 3 n 6 k hiu trn mi khe 0,5ms ty thuc vo vic cp pht cho PDCCH v n cng ph thuc xem liu mt tin t vng c s dng l ngn hay di. Trong mt khung con 1ms, ch c khe 0,5ms u tin cha PDCCH trong khi khe 0,5ms th 2 l hon ton cho d liu ( cho PDSCH) . i vi mt tin t vng di th 6 k hiu s c gn trong khe 0,5ms. Trong khi vi mt tin t vng ngn th 7 k hiu c th c gn vo nh trong hnh 4.11. V d nh trong hnh 4.11, gi s c 3 k hiu cho PDCCH nhng iu ny c th thay i gia 1 v 3. Vi bng thng nh nht l 1,4MHz s cc k hiu thay i gia 2 v 4 cho php c dung lng truyn tn hiu v cc bit cho php m ha knh tt trong cc trng hp quan trng.

68

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 4.11 Cu trc khe ng xung cho bng thng 1,4MHz

Hnh 4.12 Chui m ha knh DL-SC

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K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Ngoi cc k hiu iu khin cho PDCCH, khng gian d liu ca ngi s dng c b gim bt do cc tn hiu chun, cc tn hiu ng b v d liu qung b. Do c lng knh l c li khi cc tn hiu chun c phn b u trong min thi gian v min tn s. iu ny lm gim bt cc chi ph cn thit, nhng n yu cu mt s quy tc phi c xc nh c hai my thu v my pht hiu c nh x ti nguyn mt cch ging nhau. T tng khng gian cp pht ti nguyn vi mt nhu cu vn chuyn ton b vo ti khon cho cc knh chung nh PBCH, c th tiu tn khng gian ti nguyn ca ring h. Mt v d v PDCCH v vic cp pht ti nguyn PDSCH c th hin trong hnh 4.13

Hnh 4.13 V d v chia s ti nguyn ng xung gia PDCCH & PDSCH M ha knh cho d liu ngi dng theo ng xung l s dng m turbo 1/3 nh trong hng ng ln. Kch thc ti a cho khi m ha turbo c gii hn trong 6144 bit gim bt gnh nng x l, cc cp pht cao hn sau s c phn on n cc khi m ha a. Bn cnh vic m ha turbo, ng

70

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

xung cng c lp vt l HARQ vi cc phng php kt hp tng t nh trong hng ln. Cc loi thit b cng phn nh s lng b nh m c sn kt hp pht li. Chui m ha ng xung c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.13. khng c ghp knh cc ngun ti nguyn lp vt l vi PDCCH khi chng c ngun ti nguyn ring ca mnh trong khung con 1ms. Mt khi d liu c m ha, cc t m c cung cp v sau cho cc chc nng iu ch v xo trn. nh x iu ch c p dng cc iu ch mong mun ( QPSK, 16QAM hoc 64QAM ) v sao cc k hiu c np cho lp nh x trc khi m ha. i vi vic truyn dn a ng ten ( 2 hoc 4 ) th cc d liu ny sau c chia thnh nhiu lung khc nhau v sau c nh x iu chnh cc thnh phn ti nguyn sn c cho PDSCH v sau tn hiu OFDMA thc t c to ra, c th hin trong hnh 4.14 vi v d l truyn dn 2 ng ten. Nu ch c mt ng ten pht l sn c, th r dng l cc chc nng ca lp nh x v trc m ha l khng c vi tr trong truyn dn tn hiu.

Hnh 4.14 S to thnh tn hiu hng xung

71

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hiu qu ca tc d liu hng xung tc thi ph thuc vo : iu ch, vi phng php tng t c th nh hng ng ln. Cp pht s lng cc sng mang con. Lu rng trong ng xung cc khi ti nguyn l khng cn thit phi cp pht lin tc trong min tn s. Phm vi ca vic cp pht bng thng l tng t nh hng ng ln t 12 sng mang con ( 180kHz) ti 1200 sng mang con. Tc m ha knh. S lng ng ten pht ( cc lung c lp ) vi s hot ng ca MIMO. Tc d liu nh tc thi cho ng xung ( gi s tt c cc ti nguyn l cho mt ngi dng duy nht v ch tnh cc ngun ti nguyn vt l c sn) l khong t 0,7Mbps ti 170Mbps. Thm ch c th l 300Mbps hoc c th cao hn nu s dng cu hnh MIMO 4 4 ng ten. Khng c gii hn v tc d liu nh nht, v cn c cc n v cp pht nh nht ( 1 khi ti nguyn) l qu cao th khong m c th c p dng. 4.5. TRUYN DN D LIU HNG LN: ng ln lp 1 / lp 2 ( L1/L2) tn hiu iu khin c chia thnh hai lp trong h thng LTE : Tn hiu iu khin trong trng hp khng c d liu hng ln, din ra PUCCH ( knh iu khin hng ln vt l ). Tn hiu iu khin khi c d liu hng ln, din ra PUSCH ( knh chia s hng ln vt l ). Do nhng gii hn mang n l, m truyn dn ng thi ca PUCCH v PUSCH l khng c php. iu ny c ngha l cc ti nguyn iu khin ring bit c nh ngha cho cc trng hp c v khng c d liu hng ln. La chn thay th c xem xt l truyn song song trong min tn s ( c hi cho pht bin ) hoc phn chia thi gian thun ty ( c hi cho vng ph sng ca knh iu khin ). Phng php s la chn ti a l qu lin kt cho PUCCH v phi lun duy tr thuc tnh truyn ti n l trn tn hiu c truyn i.

72

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

PUCCH l ngun ti nguyn thi gian / tn s c chia s dnh ring cho thit b ngi s dng (UE) ch truyn cc tn hiu iu khin L1/L2. PUCCH c ti u ha cho mt s lng ln cc UE ng thi vi mt s tng i nh ca cc bt bo hiu iu khin trn UE. PUSCH mang cc tn hiu iu khin L1/L2 hng ln khi UE c ln k hoch truyn d liu. PUSCH c kh nng truyn cc tn hiu iu khin vi mt phm vi ln cc kch c bo hiu c h tr. D liu v cc trng iu khin khc nh ACK/NACK v CQI c tch bit bng cch ghp knh phn chia theo thi gian (TDM) bi vic nh x chng vo cc k hiu iu ch ring bit trc khi bin i fourier ri rc ( DFT). Cc tc m ha khc nhau cho iu khin l t c bi vic chim gi iu khin. C hai loi thng tin bo hiu iu khin L1 & L2 cho ng ln : D liu lin quan ti bo hiu ( nh vn chuyn nh dng v thng tin HARQ) , c kt hp vi truyn dn d liu hng ln. D liu khng lin quan ti bo hiu ( ACK/NACK v truyn dn d liu ng xung, CQI ng xung, v yu cu lp lch biu cho truyn dn ng ln ). c quyt nh l khng c bo hiu iu khin lin quan ti d liu trong ng ln LTE. Hn na, ngi ta cho rng eNodeB khng cn phi thc hin vic d tm nh dng truyn ti khng bit. V c bn iu ny c ngha l UE ch cn tun theo s lp lch biu ng ln c cp m khng c quyn t do trong la chn nh dng truyn ti. Hn na, c mt ch s d liu mi ( 1 bt ) cng vi thng tin ngm nh v kiu d phng c trong vic cp cho ng ln. iu ny m bo rng eNodeB lun c nhng hiu bit chnh xc v dnh dng truyn ti ng ln. 4.5.1. Knh iu khin ng ln vt l ( PUCCH) T vin cnh UE duy nht, PUCCH bao gm mt ti nguyn tn s ca mt khi ti nguyn ( 12 sng mang con ) v mt ti nguyn thi gian ca mt khung mt s khc nhau ca cc k hiu cho mi trng

73

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

con. x l cc trng hp vng ph b hn ch , vic truyn cc ACK/NACK m rng ra ton b khung con 1ms. Hn na, nhng s h tr cc trng hp ph sng l cc k b hn ch n c ng rng s lp li ACK/NACK l c h tr trong ng ln LTE. Khe da trn s nhy tn gii hn ca gii bng i xng nhau qua tn s trung tm l lun c s dng trn PUCCH, c th hin nh trong hnh 4.15. Nhy tn cung cp s phn tp tn s cn thit cn c bo hiu iu khin khi s tr nghim trng.

Hnh 4.15 Ti nguyn PUCCH Cc UE khc nhau c tch ring trn PUCCH bng cch ghp knh phn chia theo tn s ( FDM) v ghp knh phn chia theo m ( CDM). FDM c s dng duy nht gia cc khi ti nguyn trong khi CDM l c s dng bn trong cc khi ti nguyn PUCCH. C hai cch thc hin CDM bn trong khi ti nguyn PUCCH l : CDM bng cch dch chuyn theo chu k ca mt chui cc m tng quan zero bin khng i (CAZAC). Knh dopper tri di hu hn trc giao gia cc chui lan truyn khi chn lc (block-wise). 4.5.2. Bo hiu iu khin trn PUSCH

74

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

PUSCH mang cc tn hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln trong s c mt ca d liu ng ln. Bo hiu iu khin l c thc hin bi mt ti nguyn iu khin dnh ring, m n ch c hiu lc trong khung con ng ln khi UE c ln k hoch cho truyn d liu trn PUSCH. Nhng vn chnh lin quan n vic thit k tn hiu iu khin trn PUSCH l : Lm th no b tr vic ghp knh gia d liu ng ln v cc lch vc iu khin khc nhau. Lm th no iu chnh cht lng ca cc tn hiu L1/L2 truyn i trn PUSCH. Hnh 4.16 cho thy cc nguyn tc ca vic iu khin v ghp knh d liu trong cc k hiu SC-FDMA. duy tr cc c tnh ca sng mang n, cc k hiu tn hiu pht d liu v iu khin khc nhau s c ghp knh trc khi ti DFT. Cc trng d liu v iu khin khc nhau ( ACK/NACK, CQI / ch s ma trn tin m ha [PMI], ch th hng [RI] ) c m ha v iu ch ring bit trc khi ghp knh chng thnh khi k hiu SC-FDMA ging nhau. Cp khi ghp knh cng c xem xt, nhng s dn n chi ph iu khin l qu ln. S dng k hoch ghp knh mc k hiu c chn t l gia cc k hiu k hiu d liu v k hiu iu khin c th c iu chnh mt cch chnh xc trong mi khi SC-FDMA

.Hnh 4.16 Nguyn tc iu ch d liu v iu khin Hnh 4.17 cho thy nguyn tc ca vic ghp knh cc trng iu khin khc nhau v d liu hng ln trn PUSCH. S kt hp thc t ca cc tn hiu

75

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

iu khin L1/L2 khc nhau v kch thc ca chng thay i t khung con ti khung con. C UE v eNodeB u c s hiu bit v s lng cc k hiu thuc v phn iu khin. Phn d liu ca PUSCH l phn b chm thng bi s cc k hiu iu khin phn b trong khung con cho.

Hnh 4.17 Cp pht cc trng d liu & iu khin khc nhau trn PUSCH Ghp knh d liu v iu khin c thc hin iu khin l c mt c hai khe ca khung con ny. iu ny m bo rng cc knh iu khin c th c li t nhy tn khi n c p dng. ACK/NACK l c t cui cc k hiu SC-FDMA bn cnh cc tn hiu chun. Ln nht l c hai k hiu SC-FDMA trn mi khe c cp pht bo hiu ACK/NACK. Cng p dng cho RI, trong n c t vo cc k hiu SC-FDMA bn cnh ACK/NACK. Cc k hiu CQI/PMI c t vo u ca cc k hiu SC-FDMA v chng c lan truyn trn tt c cc k hiu SC-FDMA sn c. CQI/PMI c truyn i trn PUSCH s dng s iu ch tng t nh phn d liu. ACK/NACK v RI c truyn cho m ha , xo trn v iu ch
76

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

pht huy ti a khong cch Eclude mc k hiu. iu ny c ngha l mt k hiu iu ch c s dng cho mt sng mang ACK/NACK l 2 bt ti a cho thng tin iu khin c m ha n khng ph thuc vo k hoch iu ch PUSCH. Cc im bn ngoi cng c nng sut truyn ti cao nht c dng bo hiu ACK/NACK v RI cho 16QAM v 64QAM. La chn ny cung cp mt khuych i cng sut nh cho cc k hiu ACK/NACK v RI, hn so vi d liu PUSCH s dng iu ch bc cao hn. Bn phng php m ha knh khc nhau c p dng vi cc tn hiu iu khin c truyn i trn PUSCH l : Ch c m ha lp li : 1-bt ACK/NACK M ha n cng : 2-bt ACK/NACK/RI M ha khi Reed-Muller ( 32-N) : CQI/PMI < 11 bt M chp kp cui(tail-biting) ( 1/3) : CQI/PMI 11 bt Mt vn quan trng lin quan ti iu khin tn hiu trn PUSCH l lm sao gi cho hiu sut ca tn hiu iu khin mc ch. Cn lu rng iu khin cng sut s thit lp mc tiu SIRN ca PUSCH ph hp vi knh d liu. Do , knh iu khin c phi thch nghi vi im hot ng SIRN thit lp cho d liu. C mt cch iu chnh cc ti nguyn c sn c th c p dng cho cc gi tr b p cng sut khc nhau cho d liu v cc phn iu khin khc nhau. Nhng vn ca k hoch b cng sut l tnh cht sng mang n s b ph hy phn no. Do k hoch ny khng c s dng trong h thng ng ln LTE. Nh cp, tham s b p c s dng iu chnh cht lng ca cc tn hiu iu khin cho knh d liu PUSCH. N l mt tham s ring ca UE c cu hnh bi tn hiu lp cao hn. Cc knh iu khin khc nhau cn thit lp cc tham s b p ring ca chng. C mt s vn cn c tnh n khi cu hnh tham s b p l: im hot ng BLER cho knh d liu PUSCH

77

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

im hot ng BLER cho knh iu khin L1/L2 S khc nhau trong li m ha gia cc phn iu khin v d liu, do cc k hoch m ha khc nhau v kch thc khi m ha khc nhau ( khng c li m ha vi 1-bt ACK/NACK ). Hiu sut DTX Cc im vn hnh BLER khc nhau cho d liu v cc phn iu khin l bi v HARQ c s dng cho cc knh d liu trong khi cc knh iu khin khng c hng li t HARQ. S khc bit cao hn l trong im vn hnh BERL gia d liu v cc knh iu khin, ln hn cc thng s b p. ng thi tng t cng lin quan ti kch thc gi tin. Cc gi tr b p cao nht l cn thit vi cc tn hiu ACK/NACK do khng c li m ha. 4.6. CU TRC PRACH (Knh truy nhp ngu nhin vt l) Truyn dn truy cp ngu nhin ch l mt kiu truyn dn khng ng b hng ln LTE. Mc d thit b u cui phi ng b vi tn hiu ng xung nhn c trc khi truyn v RACH, n khng th xc nh c khong cch ca n t trm gc. V vy, s nh thi khng chc chn gy ra bi phn d tr lan truyn hai chiu trn truyn dn RACH. Knh truy nhp ngu nhin vt l (PRACH) c thit k mt cch thch hp, cung cp s cc c hi truy cp ngu nhin, h tr cc khu vc mong mun v mt tn tht ng truyn v nh thi khng chc chn hng ln, n cho php c lng nh thi tng i chnh xc. Ngoi ra, PRACH cn c cu hnh cho hng lot cc tnh hung, c cho ti RACH v mi trng vt l. V d, LTE c yu cu phi h tr phm vi ca cc ln ti 100km, m trong khong dch do tr lan truyn theo hai hng ti 667s, to iu kin thun li cho khong thu tn hiu trc khi nh thi trong lp MAC.

78

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Hnh 4.18 Cc dng phn m u LTE RACH cho FDD

Trong cu trc khung ca LTE loi 1 ( FDD), ch c mt ti nguyn PRACH c th c cu hnh thnh mt khung con. Tnh chu k ca cc ti nguyn PRACH c th c thu nh li theo ti trng RACH d kin, v cc ti nguyn PRACH c th xut hin t mi khung con mt ln trong 20ms. Truyn dn PRACH bao gm mt chui phn m u v mt tin t vng ng trc vi bn nh dng khc nhau nh uc th hin trong hnh 4.18. Nhiu cc nh dng phn m u l cn thit v di rng ca mi trng. V d, cc CP di trong cc nh dng phn m u h tr 1 v 3 vi cc khong ph sng ln xt v mt dung sai bt nh nh thi tng ln trong khi cc chui phn m u lp li trong cc dng 2 v 3 b cho tn tht ng dn tng ln. Khong thi gian bo v l cn thit sau khi mt phn m u khng ng b l khng c quy nh r dng, nhng v tr PRACH trong cu trc khung con cung cp mt khong thi gian bo v y . Xem xt c th l ch cn thit trong cc trng hp rt c bit. i vi mi , 64 chui phn m u l c cu hnh v

79

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

do c 64 c hi truy cp ngu nhin trn mi PRACH ngun. PRACH chim 1,08MHz bng thng, cung cp chnh xc hp l tnh ton nh thi. Cc chui ZadoffChu thuc CAZAC c s dng nh l cc chui phn m u RACH 4.7. TRUYN DN BO HIU LP VT L HNG XUNG Thng tin iu khin theo hng ng xung c mang s dng ba kiu khc nhau ca thng ip iu khin : Ch s nh dng iu khin (CFI), cho bit s lng ti nguyn dnh cho vic iu khin knh s dng. CFI c nh x vo knh ch th nh dng iu khin vt l ( PCFICH). Ch th HARQ ( HI), s thng bo v s thnh cng ca cc gi d liu hng ln nhn c.HI c nh x ln knh ch th HARQ vt l (PHICH). Thng tin iu khin hng xung ( DCI), iu khin vi cc nh dng khc nhau v c bn l tt c cp pht ta nguyn lp vt l trong c hai hng ng ln v ng xung v c nhiu cc nh dng cho cc nhu cu khc nhau. DCI c nh x ln knh iu khin hng xung vt l ( PDCCH). 4.7.1. Knh ch th nh dng iu khin vt l (PCFICH) Mc ch duy nht ca PCFICH l t ng cho bit xem c bao nhiu k hiu OFDMA c dnh ring cho thng tin iu khin. iu ny c th bin i gia 1 v 3 cho mi khung con 1ms. T PCFICH, UE bit c trong c cc k hiu cho vic x l thng tin iu khin. V tr v iu ch ca PCFICH l c nh. Vic s dng kh nng truyn tn hiu ng cho php h thng h tr cho c mt s lng ln ngi s dng d liu tc thp( v d nh VoIP) cng nh n cung cp chi ph truyn tn hiu thp khi tc d d liu cao c s dng bi t ngi s dng ng thi. Khi hot ng 1,4MHz, ngun ti nguyn PDCCH l 2 , 3 hoc 4 k hiu m bo kch thc trng ti v c khong sng cho tt c cc tnh hung truyn tn hiu. Trong cc mng ln quan trng l phi c ch cho knh m ha cng vi truyn tn hiu, c bit l cho hot ng vi RACH.

80

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

4.7.2. Knh iu khin hng xung vt l ( PCDCH) UE s thu c thng tin t PDCCH cho c cc cp pht ti nguyn hng xung v hng ln m UE c th s dng. DCI c nh x vo PDCCH c cc dng khc nhau v ty thuc vo kch thc DCI c truyn i bng cch s dng mt hoc nhiu cc phn t knh iu khin ( CCE). Mt CCE bng 9 nhm phn t ti nguyn. Mi nhm ln lt bao gm 4 phn t ti nguyn. Cc nh dng PDCCH khc nhau c th hin nh trong bng 4.1

Bng 4.1 Cc nh dng knh PDCCH Ta c th thy nh l PDCCH ang c s dng iu ch QPSK, sau mt phn t ti nguyn n l mang 2 bt v c 8 bt trong mt nhm phn t ti nguyn. UE s lng nghe cc tp PDCCH v c gng gii m chng ( kim tra tt c cc nh dng ) trong tt c cc khung con tr nhng ni m DRX c cu hnh. Cc tp PDCCH gim st ln ti 6 knh. Ty thuc vo cc tham s mng, mt s cc PDCCH c gi l PDCCH chung v cng c th cha thng tin iu khin cng sut. DCI c nh x ti PDCCH c bn nh dng khc nhau v cc bin i khc nhau hn na cho mi nh dng. N c th cung cp thng tin iu khin cho cc trng hp sau y : Thng tin cp pht PUSCH ( DCI dng 0 ) Thng tin PDSCH vi mt t m ( DCI dng 1 v cc bin th ca n )

81

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Thng tin PDSCH vi hai t m ( DCI dng 2 v cc bin th ca n ) Thng tin iu khin cng sut hng ln ( DCI dng 3 v cc bin th ca n ) PDCCH c cha thng tin lin quan ti PDSCH v thng c gi l s phn cng ng xung. Cc thng tin di y c mang trn phn cng ng xung khi cung cp thng tin cp pht ti nguyn ng xung lin quan ti PDSCH : Thng tin cp pht khi ti nguyn. N ch ra v tr ca cc ti nguyn c cp pht cho ngi s dng trong vn min ti nguyn khi. Phng thc iu ch v m ha c s dng cho d liu ngi dng hng xung. 5 bt bo hiu ch ra bc iu ch v kch thc khi truyn ti ( TBZ). S tin trnh HARQ cn c bo hiu, nh l truyn li HARQ t eNodeB quan im l khng ng b v ngay lp tc truyn dn chnh xc ti chc nng lp lch biu ca eNodeB. Mt ch s d liu mi cho bit vic truyn dn i vi tin trnh c th l c truyn li hay khng. Phng n d phng l mt tham s HARQ c th c s dng vi d gia tng cho phng n truyn li c s dng. Cc lnh iu khin cng sut cho PUCCH cng c a vo PDCCH. Cc lnh iu khin cng sut c 2 bt v c th c 2 s dng l iu chnh tng v gim cng sut. 4.7.3. Knh ch th HARQ vt l ( PHICH) Nhim v i vi knh ch th HARQ vt l (PHICH) ch n gin l ch ra theo hng ng xung xem mt gi tin ng ln c nhn chnh xc hay khng. Cng c ny s gii m cc PHICH da trn thng tin cp pht hng ln nhn c trn PDCCH. 4.7.4. Knh qung b vt l ( PBCH)

82

K Thut LTE V Cc ng Dng

GVHD. ThS Nguyn Thi Hng

Knh qung b vt l (PBCH) mang cc thng tin h thng cn thit cho vic truy nhp h thng, nh l cc thng s RACH. Knh ny lun c cung cp vi bng thng 1,08MHz, nh trong hnh 4.19.

Hnh 4.19 V tr PBCH ti cc tn s trung tm V vy cu trc PBCH l c lp vi bng thng thc t ca h thng c s dng , tng t nh cc knh khc / cc tn hiu cn phi truy nhp h thng bc u. Thng tin qung b l mt phn c mang trn PBCH, ni m khi thng tin chnh(MIB) c truyn i trong khi cc khi thng tin h thng thc (SIB) sau c truyn trn PDSCH. Trong 600 sng mang con nh trn hnh 4.20 ch cn 9MHz ( 50 khi ti nguyn ) trong min ti nguyn nhng bng thng h thng cn c cho s suy gim i vi cc nh khai thc lin k v vy lm tng tng bng thng cn thit n 10MHz. Vi mt h thng bng thng 1,4MHz

83

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khng c cc khi ti nguyn hai bn ca PBCH trong min tn s c s dng, do ch c 6 khi ti nguyn c th c s dng cho p ng cc yu cu mt n ph. 4.8. CC TH TC LP VT L Cc th tc lp vt l quan trng trong LTE l iu khin cng sut, HARQ, ng trc nh thi v truy cp ngu nhin. ng trc nh thi l da trn truyn tn hiu trong lp iu khin truy nhp bt buc (MAC) , nhng v n lin quan trc tip ti lp vt l, ng trc nh thi chi tit c cp trong chng ny. 4.8.1. Th tc HARQ HARQ trong LTE l da trn vic s dng th tc HARQ dng v ch. Mt khi gi tin c truyn i t eNodeB, UE s gii m n v cung cp thng tin phn hi trong PUCCH. i vi s bo nhn ph nh (NACK) th eNodeB s truyn li. UE s kt hp bn truyn li vi bn gc v n s khi ng vic gii m turbo tr li. Sau khi gii m thnh cng( da trn vic kim tra CRC) UE s gi bo nhn tch cc(ACK) cho eNodeB. Sau eNodeB s gi mt gi tin mi qu trnh HARQ. Do vic vn hnh c ch dng- v ch, vy phi cn c nhiu tin trnh HARQ cho php mt lung d liu lin tc. Trong LTE th s cc tin trnh l c nh ti 8 tin trinh trong c 2 hng ln v xung. V d c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.21. Vi nhiu ngi s dng, n s ph thuc vo lp lch biu eNodeB khi truyn li s c gi i theo hng ln hoc hng xung,v khi truyn li cng yu cu ngun ti nguyn c cp pht. Cc hot ng HARQ trong LTE h tr c kt hp mm v s dng d phng tng.

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Hnh 4.20 Vn hnh LTE HARQ vi 8 tin trnh i vi d phng tng, vic pht li c th c tc khc nhau ph hp vi cc thng s ging nh truyn ti ban u. tr ti thiu gia hai im cui ca mt gi tin v s bt u truyn li l 7ms. UE s gi ACK/NACK ca mt gi tin trong khung n, trong khung n+4 cho ng ln. iu ny li khong 3ms cho thi gian x l ca UE, ty thuc vo vic nh thi ng xung / ng ln m lch c iu khin bi th tc ng trc nh thi. nh thi ng xung cho mt gi tin ng xung c truyn i duy nht th hin nh trong Hnh 4.21

Hnh 4.21 nh thi LTE HARQ cho mt gi tin ng xung duy nht Khong thi gian truyn li trong ng xung l ty thuc vo vic lp lch biu trong eNodeB v do thi gian th hin nh trong Hnh 4.22 l thi im sm nht khi mt s truyn li sy ra. 4.8.2. ng trc nh thi Th tc iu khin nh thi l cn thit cho s truyn dn hng ln t cc ngi s dng khc nhau ti eNodeB v bn cht l trong phm vi tin t vng.
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Nh vy ng b hng ln l cn thit trnh nhiu gia nhng ngi s dng bng vic lp lch truyn dn hng ln trn cng khung con. eNodeB lin tc c cc bin php nh thi tn hiu hng ln ca UE v iu chnh thi im truyn dn ng ln nh th hin trong hnh 4.23.

Hnh 4.22 iu khin nh thi hng ln Cc lnh ng trc nh thi c gi ch khi vic iu chnh nh thi l thc s cn thit. phn gii ca mt lnh ng trc nh thi l 0,52s, v ng trc nh thi c xc nh mt cch tng i so vi thi im ca khung v tuyn ng xung nhn c trn UE. Gi tr ng trc nh thi c o t khi truyn RACH m UE khng c mt ng trc nh thi hp l, v d, ng ln cho UE l khng ng b. Cc trng hp nh vy c h thng truy cp, khi UE trng thi RRC_IDLE hoc khi UE c mt giai on khng hot ng vt qu thi gian cho php, chuyn giao khng ng b, v sau khi lin lc v tuyn tht bi. Ngoi ra, eNodeB c th gn cho UE mt phn m u dnh ring( tranh chp t do) trn RACH i vi vic o c nh thi hng ln khi eNodeB mun thit lp s ng b hng ln. Tnh hung nh vy phi i mt vi vic chuyn giao hoc khi d liu hng xung ti cho mt UE khng ng b. T khong c xc nh cho ng trc nh thi, kch thc ln ti 100km s c to iu kin, v thm ch cao hn bng cch b mt s ti nguyn cha s dng. 4.8.3. iu khin cng sut i vi LTE, iu khin cng sut l chm i vi hng ng ln. Trong hng ng xung khng c iu khin cng sut. Khi bng thng thay i do s
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thay i tc d liu, cng sut truyn dn tuyt i ca UE cng s thay i. iu khin cng sut hin nay cha thc s l iu khin cng sut tuyt i m l mt ph cng sut ( PSD ), cng sut trn mi Hz, i vi mt thit b ring bit. iu g to iu kin cho vic s dng mt tc chm hn iu khin cng sut l vic s dng cc ngun ti nguyn trc giao trong ng ln LTE, trong n trnh c cc vn gn-xa do yu cu v iu khin cng sut nhanh trong WCDMA. Cc ng lc chnh cho s iu khin cng sut l lm gim mc cng sut tiu th ca thit b u cui v cng trnh di ng qu ln trong eNodeB thu, hn l lm gim s can nhiu. Nguyn l iu khin cng sut hng ln trong LTE c minh ha nh trong hnh 4.24, ni m s thay i tc d liu m PSD s gi khng i nhng kt qu l tng cng sut truyn ti c iu chnh tng i vi s thay i tc d liu.

Hnh 4.23 Cng sut hng ln LTE vi thay i tc d liu Vic iu khin cng sut thc t c da trn s xc nh tn tht ng truyn, c tnh n cc thng s ring ca v sau p dng cc gi tr( tch ly) ca h s iu chnh nhn c t eNodeB. Ty thuc vo cc thng s thit lp lp cao hn, lnh iu khin cng sut hoc l 1dB ln hoc xung hoc sau cc thit lp ca[-1dB, 0, +1dB, +3dB] c s dng. Cc c im k thut cn bao gm iu khin cng sut da trn cc gi tr tuyt i. Tng di ng ca iu khin cng sut l nh hn so vi trong WCDMA, v cc thit b hin nay c mt mc cng sut ti thiu l -41dBm so vi -50dBm vi WCDMA.

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4.8.4. Th tc bo co phn hi knh

Hnh 4.24 Th tc bo co thng tin trng thi knh (CSI) Mc ch ca bo co phn hi trng thi knh l cung cp cho eNodeB thng tin v trng thi knh ng xung nhm gip ti u ha quyt nh lp lch biu gi tin. Nguyn tc ca bo co phn hi trng thi knh c trnh by trong hnh 4.24. Trng thi knh c nh gi bi UE da trn vic truyn dn ng xung ( cc k hiu chun) v bo co ti eNodeB bng cch s dng PUCCH hoc PUSCH. Cc bo co phn hi trng thi knh c cha cc thng tin v cc thng s lin quan n vic lp lch biu v thch ng lin kt ( MCS/TBS v MIMO ) UE c th h tr trong vic tip nhn d liu. Sau eNodeB c th tn dng li ch ca thng tin phn hi trong vic ra quyt nh lp k hoch s dng mt cch ti u cc ngun ti nguyn tn s. Nhn chung bo co phn hi knh bi UE ch l mt li ngh v cc eNodeB khng cn phi tun theo n trong vic lp lch biu ng xung. Trong LTE bo co phn hi knh l lun c iu khin y bi eNodeB v UE khng th gi bt k bo co phn hi trng thi knh no m eNodeB khng bit

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trc. Th tc tng ng cho vic cung cp thng tin v trng thi knh ng ln c gi l s d knh v n c thc hin bng cch s dng tn hiu chun thm d (SRS). S khc bit chnh ca phn hi thng tin trng thi knh trong LTE so vi WCDMA/HSDPA l tnh chn lc tn s ca cc bo co, v d, thng tin lin quan n vic phn phi trng thi knh trong min tn s cng c th uwocj cung cp. iu ny to ra mt kh nng cho vic lp lch biu gi tin trong min tn s (FDPS), y l mt phng php nhm phn chia cc ngun ti nguyn v tuyn trong min tn s cho cc ngi s dng khc nhau nhm ti u ha hiu sut h thng. 4.8.5. Hot ng ch bn song cng Cc thng s k thut ca LTE cng cho php ch hot ng bn song cng, trong v c bn l hot ng trong ch FDD ( v d, tn s thu v pht l ring r ) nhng truyn dn v thu nhn khng din ra ng thi nh trong ch TDD. Cc d nh trong 3GPP c mt la chn cho cc trng hp v s sp xp tn s v kt qu l cc yu cu i vi b lc song cng s l khng hp l, s dn n chi ph cao v cng sut tiu th cao. eNodeB s cn phi hiu c nu mt s thit b c da trn hot ng bn song cng. Tc ng i vi tc d liu c th l ng ln hoc ng xung s khng cn c c lp nhng tc d liu sn c trong mt hng truyn dn s ph thuc vo vic cc ngun ti nguyn c cp pht cho cc hng khc nhau. Tng t vi hot ng TDD, ngi ta s cn ti vic lp lch biu da trn c s thit b ( khng phi da trn c s h thng ging nh trong FDD) khng c xung t gia vic cp pht ng ln v ng xung cho mt UE. Ngoi ra thi gian cng s l cn thit cho UE thay i gia truyn v nhn. 4.8.6. Cc lp kh nng ca UE v cc c im c h tr Trong LTE c nm lp kh nng ca thit b c xc nh. D liu c h tr trong phm vi t 5 ti 75Mbps theo hng ng ln v t 10 ti 300Mbps theo hng ng xung. Tt c cc thit b h tr cho 20MHz bng thng cho vic

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truyn v nhn, gi s rng bng tn a ra c xc nh. l d on trc m i vi hu ht cc trng hp cn vi cc bng tn c quan tm l di 1GHz l vi bng thng nh nht v khi s h tr ln ti 20MHz l khng c ch nh. Vi bng tn trn 1GHz, bng thng di 5MHz l khng cn thit. ch c mt loi 5 thit b s thc hin 64QAM trong ng ln, cc loi khc s dng QPSK v 16QAM. S phn tp thu v MIMO c trong tt c cc chng loi, tr loi 1 l khng h tr MIMO. Cc chng loi UE c th hin nh trong bng 4.2

Bng 4.2 Cc loi thit b LTE Cc bc trong tc d liu ln ti 300Mbps vi loi 5 l t c vi vic truyn dn MIMO vi bn ng ten, trong khng c h tr vi cc loi khc.

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CHNG 5 CHNG TRNH M PHNG


Chng trnh m phng s dng phn mn Matlab7.6, dng m phng h thng OFDMA v SC-FDMA c trnh by trong chng truy cp v tuyn. Cc tham s u vo: - M=16: bc iu ch QAM - fftlength = 128: kch thc ca khi IFFT v FFT , tng ng vi bng thng l BW= 1.25MHz - Nd=512: s lng d liu u vo , l mt chui cc s t nhin. - cp_len = 0.1* fftlength: kch thc ca CP(cycle prefix) - Knh truyn a ng c p ng tn s l hm HPA - Trong qu trnh truyn chu nh hng ca nhiu hn tp v nhiu trng AWGN 5.1 Chng trnh m phng OFDMA:

Hnh 5.1: h thng ng xung OFDMA

TRANSMITTER

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5.1.1 Serial to parallel v Modulator: D liu u vo l mt chui cc s t nhin , c to ra bi hm randsrc(1, Nd, 0:M-1) c miu t nh hnh sau:

Hnh 5.2: D liu u vo V d liu u vo l cc s t nhin, nn khng cn chuyn i t ni tip sang song song m ta a trc tip vo b iu ch 16QAM bng cch s dng hm qammod(data, M) . Sau khi qua b iu ch 16QAM, tn hiu ban u s to thnh mt dy cc s phc. Hnh sau y s biu din tn hiu sau khi iu ch dng biu chm sao.

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Hnh 5.3: Tn hiu sau khi qua iu ch 16QAM 5.1.2 Mapping (sub- carrier mapping v IFFT): S dng hm ifft((data_matrix(:,i)),fftlength) . Vi data_matrix : tn hiu sau khi iu ch QAM v c mapping cho ph hp vi kch thc ca IFFT (ma trn by gi tng ng 128 hng v 4 ct) bng lnh reshape(data_modu, fftlength, num_cols), mi symbol QAM s c gn vo mt sng mang con (tng ng vi mt mu IFFT), nhng mu IFFT khng c s dng s c thit lp bng zero. 5.1.3 Chn CP: Chn cp ta s dng lnh actual_cp(j,i) = ifft_data_matrix(j+cp_start,i). Trong , j l bin chy t 1 n chiu di ca cp tng ng l 13. Ma trn cp tng ng gm 13 hng v 4 ct.

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Sau khi chn cp xong, tn hiu truyn i bao gm tn hiu sau khi iu ch IFFT v tn hiu chn CP ifft_data(:,i) = vertcat(actual_cp(:,i),ifft_data_matrix(:,i));. 5.1.4 Chuyn i t song song ra ni tip: Tn hiu sau khi chn cp ta chuyn i sang ni tip , s dng lnh ofdm_signal = reshape(ifft_data, 1, len_ofdm_data). Tn hiu OFDMA c biu din nh sau:

Hnh 5.4: Tn hiu OFDMA

CHANNEL
Tn hiu OFDMA sau khi c iu ch a vo knh truyn vi p ng knh truyn l HPA. Nhng tn hiu no c bin nm ngoi khong gi tr ca
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avg ca b p ng knh truyn th c cng thm vi nhiu hn tp. Tn hiu sau khi qua knh HPA c biu din nh sau:

Hnh 5.5: Tn hiu OFDMA cng vi nhiu tp To knh truyn a ng s dng lnh channel = randn(1,fftlength) + sqrt(-1)*randn(1,fftlength) To ra nhiu trng AWGN awgn_noise = awgn(zeros(1,length(after_channel)),0);

RECEIVER
Tn hiu thu c bn my thu bao gm tn hiu c pht cng vi nhiu tp v nhiu trng cng recvd_signal = awgn_noise+after_channel;

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Sau khi thu c tn hiu , bn my thu thc hin cc bc ngc li bn pht chuyn i t ni tip ra song song, s dng hm reshape . Loi b CP recvd_signal_matrix(1:cp_len,:)=[]; Bin i FFT fft_data_matrix(:,i) = fft(recvd_signal_matrix(:,i),fftlength); d liu lc ny c biu din nh sau:

Hnh 5.6: Tn hiu sau khi qua bin i FFT Bin i t song song ra ni tip ta cng dng hm reshape .Gii iu ch , ta thu c tn hiu nh sau:

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Hnh 5.7: Tn hiu thu c bn pha thu

5.2 Chng trnh m phng h thng SC-FDMA

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Hnh 5.8: h thng ng ln SC-FDMA Chng trnh m phng h thng SC-FDMA bao gm cc khi tng t nh OFDMA , ch thm vo khi FFT bn thu v IFFT bn pht. Tn hiu ra tng khi c th hin trong tng hnh sau:

Hnh 5.9: D liu u vo

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Hnh 5.10: Tn hiu sau khi iu ch QAM

Hnh 5.11: Tn hiu SC_FDMA

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Hnh 5.12: Tn hiu sau khi qua b p ng knh truyn

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Hnh 5.13: Tn hiu nhn c sau khi bin i IFFT v FFT pha thu

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Hnh 5.14: Tn hiu cui cng thu c pha thu

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CHNG 6 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN


6.1 Kt lun : Cng ngh LTE l mt cng ngh mi, v ang c tip tc nghin cu v trin khai trn ton th gii, vi kh nng truyn ti tc cao kin trc mng n gin , s dng bng tn hiu qu v hon ton tng thch vi cc h thng trc ( GSM & WCDMA ) v da trn mt mng ton IP. LTE c th tr thnh h thng thng tin di ng ton cu trong tng lai. V vy vic tm hiu v cng ngh LTE l cn thit v c ngha thc t. Trong n ny em cp mt cch tng quan v cng ngh LTE, trng tm gm cc phn : Tm hiu qu trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng cho n nay, gii thiu v cng ngh LTE. Tm hiu v kin trc mng LTE, cc thnh phn chnh v cc giao thc s dng. Nm bt c cc cng ngh OFDMA, SC_FDMA v MIMO s dng trong giao din v tuyn ca LTE. Tm hiu v lp vt l LTE Cc th tc truy nhp LTE M phng thnh cng h thng truy nhp ng ln OFDMA v ng xung SC-FDMA. LTE l mt cng ngh pht trin sau so vi WIMAX, nhng vi cc c tnh tuyt vi m n em li, nn hin nay c rt nhiu cc nh mng ln trn th gii ng h v la chn trin khai. Cc nh ch to thit b u cui cng tin hnh tch hp cng ngh LTE vo sn phm ca mnh. Ti vit nam th cc nh mng cng tin hnh th ngim cng ngh LTE v cng t c nhng kt qu kh quan. Do vy, vic nm bt cng ngh LTE l ht sc cn thit

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6.2 Hng pht trin : Ngin cu v thc hin m phng so snh t s cng sut nh trn trung bnh PARP h thng truy nhp ng xung SC-FDMA v h thng truy nhp ng ln OFDMA. Tm hiu v m phng v h thng MCMC-CDMA trong LTE Advance.

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