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CONTENTS

Forest Landscape Ecology: Structure, Function, Dynamicthe approach to implement REDD+ Background information: REDD+ in general review in Indonesia, included a bit INFO of the REDD+ in PAPUA Land Use and Land Cover Changes in Papua: Actual and Potential Biomass Agroforestry Forestry Landscape Analysis based: MicroMeso-Macro Scale for Analyzing Biomass from "pekarangan, "kebun campuran, "talun, "perkebunan, "hutan kemasyarakatan.

* Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) ** Ministry of Forestry RI WORKSHOP ON INDESIA REDD+ PREPAREDNESS FOR TROPICAL FOREST MANAGEMENT

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Deforestation Rate in Indonesia 3,8 Million ha/year (1 ha/8)


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Courtesy slide from van Noordwijk Forest

Open field agriculture

Four Basic Concepts in LE


Less trees Farm forestry, agroforests Less Fields,fallow, patchy: Tree cover: forest mosaic Inte- Deforestation, Reforestation grateIntegrate Segregate More trees More patchy: Segregate Fields, Forests & Parks
Structure Landscape Ecology Function

Change

C U L T U R E
Courtesy slide from van Noordwijk

100% forest

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ECOLOGICAL BALANCING PROCESS


Natural ecosystem Basic ecological balancing process

NURTURED LANDSCAPES

Courtesy slide from Ong BL Forest

Yang P P J, Ong B L, 2003, "Applying Ecosystem Concepts to the Planning of Industrial Areas: A Case Study of Singapores Jurong Island", Journal of Cleaner Production, 12, 8-10

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MEGA DIVERSITY COUNTRY DATA


(RANK IN THE OVERALL NUMBER OF SPECIES PER GROUP OF ORGANISM) Continent LAC LAC SEA SEA LAC SSA LAC LAC LAC NA SEA SA OCE SEA SSA SSA SEA Forest Country Brazil Colombia Indonesia China Mexico South Africa Venezuela Ecuador Peru USA Papua New Guinea India Australia Malaysia Madagascar Dem. Rep. Congo Philippines Higher plants 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Mamals 1 4 2 3 5 14 10 13 9 6 15 8 12 11 17 7 16 Birds 3 1 5 8 10 11 6 4 2 12 13 7 14 15 17 9 16 Reptiles 5 3 4 7 2 9 13 8 12 16 10 6 1 14 11 14 17 Amphibia 2 1 6 5 4 15 9 3 7 12 10 8 11 14 13 16 17
Source: www.conservation.org/web/fiedact/megadiv/tables

Land area 1.3% of total world land,- Indonesia has 17% of total species in the world more than 38.000 flora species - in the fifth rank in the world with 55 % endemic MEGA BIODIVERSITY

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Vavilov Centers of Plant Genetic Diversity


Areas of High Crop Diversity and Origins of Food Crops, according to N. Vavilov

PROTECTED FLORA & FAUNA IN INDONESIA


Ministry of Forestry (2007) was declared: Fauna: mammalian (70 species), birds (93 species), reptilian (31 species), fish (9 species), insects (20 species), anthozoa (1 species), dan bivalvia (14 species) Flora : palmae (14 species), rafflessiacea (1 species), orchidaceae (29 species), nephentaceae (1 species), dipterocarpaceae (13 species). Endangered Flora fauna ratified CITES convention and registered 1.053 species flora and 1.384 species fauna into Appendix I and II.

Source: N. Vavilov, 1949, Chronica Botanica Vol 13. Waltham, Massachusetts, adapted by Reid, Walter and Kenton Miller, 1989. Keeping Options Alive: The Scientific Basis for Conserving Biodiversity. World Resources Institute, Washington DC. 1. Ethiopia ... barley, coffee, sorghum 2. Mediterranean ... oats, olives, wheat 3. Asia Minor ... barley, lentil, oats, wheat 4. Central Asia ... apple, chickpeas, lentil 5. Indo-Burma ... eggplant, rice, yam 6. Indo-Malaya ... banana, coconut, sugar cane 7. China ... sorghum, millet, soybean 8. Central America ... bean, corn, tomato 9. Peru-Ecuador-Bolivia ... bean, potato, squash 10. Southern Chile ... potato 11. Brazil-Paraguay ... peanut 12. North America ... sunflower 13. West Africa ... millet, sorghum 14. Northern Europe ... oats, rye

Source: http://www.wri.org/sustag/lba-01b.html; Copyright 1997. World Resources Institute

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GENERAL REVIEW: REDD+


UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) establishes an international mechanism using C market or financial incentives in order to reduce CO2 emissions of GHG gases from deforestation and forest degradation, and also considering conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancing carbon stock REDD+ Developed countries pledge roughly USD 30 billion for 20102012 and commit mobilizing jointly USD 100 billion/year by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries (UNFCCC, 2010).

Indonesia's major emissions are related to deforestation, forest degradation, inappropriate land uses, and land conversion, therefore REDD+ program has become an eminent priority for Indonesia (UN-REDD Programme Indonesia, 2009). Recorded 46 REDD+ projects in Indonesia. Intergovernmental Taskforce stated that REDD+ projects in Indonesia involves intl funding around USD 174.2 million (up to 2012) and USD 15.3 million (post 2012), exclude national funding. International level negotiations are still continuing and not completely ratified, it disputes related to its implementation between stakeholders have occurred.

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THE ROLE OF FOREST IN CLIMATE CHANGE


Emission (Source) and Carbon stock (Sink). As a sink, it is depended on the deviation between Carbon absorption from the atmosphere and Carbon stock throgh vegetation growth, forestation and Carbon sequestration As source, it is depended on the emission from plant respiration, harvesting, deforestation, forest fire and other disturbances which influence to biomass and soil.
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CARBON STOCK
The vegetation and soils in the earth have stocked ~ 7500 Gton CO2, a double amount of CO2 in the atmospher. The existing Carbon in forest ecosystem ~ 4500 Gton CO2

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Pencegahan/Pengurangan Emisi

DEFORESTATION EMISSION ~ GREEN HOUSE GASES/GHGS


Deforestation contributes 18% to global Green House Gases (GHGs) ~ 42 Gton CO2e per annum (WRI, 2000). On the other hands, IPCC (2007) notified 17% of otal GHGs global emission came from deforestation. 75% of deforestation was held in developing countries. Deforestation of 8,22 million ha/year by ten developing countries Brazil and Indonesia contribute 3,10 million ha/year and 1,87 million ha/year.

CLIMATE RISK MAPPING

Pencegahan /pengurangan deforestasi dan degradasi hutan

Type of hazards: Drought Flood Dengue Forest fire

Peningkatan kapasitas penyerapan carbon (enhancing sink)

Peningkatan stok carbon

Restorasi hutan

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CARBON STOCK ESTIMATION


2005

REDD+ EMERGENCE IN INDONESIA


UNFCCC COP 11 in Montreal, Canada (November - December): Introducing RED by PNG and Costa Rica IFCA's brief studies on REDD implementation UNFCCC COP 13 in Bali, Indonesia (December): Introducing REDD Consolidation Report on REDD in Indonesia by IFCA National Council of Climate Change formed by President Regulation No.46/2008 The Minister of Forestry Regulation No. P.68/Menhut-II/2008 on the implementation of REDD demonstation activities (December) UNFCCC COP 14 in Poznan, Poland (December): Introducing REDD+ The Minister of Forestry Regulation No.13/Menhut-II/2009 on the Ministry of Forestry Working Group on Climate Change Establishment The Minister of Forestry Regulation No. P. 30/Menhut-II/2009 on REDD (May) The Minister of Forestry Regulation No. P. 36/Menhut-II/2009 on the permission procedures of projects on carbon sequestration and/or storage in production and protected forests UNFCCC COP 15 in Copenhagen, Denmark (December) Forest

2007

2008

2009

Forest

2010

The REDD+ National Task Force (May 2010 - June 2011) REDD+ National Strategy by UNREDD Programme Indonesia UNFCCC COP 16 in Cancun, Mexico (November - December) Website www.redd-indonesia.org launched in April The Presidential Instruction No. 10/2011 on Moratorium of granting new license and improving natural primary forest and peatland governance (May) The Presidential Decree No. 25/2011 on REDD+ Institutional Preparation Task Force. The Presidential Regulation No. 61/2011 on National Action Plan to Reduce GHG Emissions The Presidential Regulation No. 71/2011 on GHG Inventory and MRV. The New REDD+ Task Force (September) UNFCCC COP 17 in Durban, South Africa (November - December) P.25/Menhut-II/2012 on Technical Guidelines of REDD+ Demonstration Activities for Berau Regency, Kapuas Malinau Regency and Kapuas Hulu Regency. UNFCCC COP 18 in Qatar (November - December) Forest

INDONESIA REDD+ STRATEGY

2011

2012

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REDD+ PROJECTS IN INDONESIA


Leuser Ecosystem REDD Project RCED in the Ulu Masen Ecosystem-A TripleBenefit Project Batang Toru REDD project Kampar Ring REDD and HTI Partnerships for Avoided Emissions Supporting Sustainable Development Kuala Kampar Pilot Project REDD Tesso Nilo Pilot Project REDD Berbak Carbon Value Initiative Sumatra Forest Carbon Partnership Harapan Rainforest Project Merang REDD Pilot Project (MRPP) Siberut Project in West Sumatera Collaborative conservation of critical Kerinci Seblat buffer zone forest Lebong C Conservation Program Gunung Gede Gede-Salak REDD Project Meru Betiri National Park TEBE Project Danau Siawan-Belida Ecological Restoration Concession/Conservation of the Upper Kapuas Lakes System West Kalimantan Community Partnership FORCLIME Kapuas Hulu DA Community C Project for Lamandau Wildlife Reserve Katingan Conservation Area: A Global Peatland Capstone Project Mawas Peatland Conservation Area Project Sebangau National Park The Rimba Raya Biodiversity Reserve Project Agroforestry pro poor emission reduction Rehabilitation of the Sungai Putri peat swamp forest, Ketapang, Kalimantan Kalimantan Forest and Climate Partnership Indonesia Norway REDD+ Partnership Berau, Indonesia Climate Action Project Borneo Project in East Kalimantan Forest Land Use and Climate Change in North Sulawesi (FLUCC) in the Poigar Forest Establishment & Management of Nantu NP FORCLIME-Berau DA Hutan Lestari untuk Orangutan Kutai Barat, HKM: Heart of Borneo FORCLIME-Malinau DA Malinau Avoided Deforestation Project Sumalindo: Heart of Borneo

LAND COVER CHANGING IN PAPUA 2003/2005

20 13 3 1

4 5

UNREDD Programme Indonesia Mamuju Habitat Mamberamo Basin Carbon and Community Conservation Project

1
Avoiding Deforestation and Reforestation to save the Biodiversity and its Habitats

Community REDD+ Readiness in Jayapura Merauke-Mappi-Asmat di Papua Project, Papua REDD project in Papua IUCNs pro-poor REDD+ project

Source: Laporan Updating Landcover Mapping Papua (no year)

Developed from CIFOR (2011), UNREDD Programme Indonesia (2009), Ministry of Forestry (2010), IUCN (2011)

23

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REDD+ PROJECTS IN PAPUA


Projects
The Mamberamo Basin Carbon and Community Conservation Project

Objectives
to estimate potential reductions in carbon emissions and conservation benefits from the improved management of Indonesia's largest logging concession (677,300 hectares).

Partners
Conservation International (CI), AusAID, Indonesia Govt, Papua Prov Govt, Australian Commonwealth Science and Industrial Research Organisation, CIFOR, PT Mamberamo Alasmandiri WWF

OVERVIEW OF REDD+ CLIMATE CHANGE FUNDS

Community REDD+ Readiness in Jayapura District

Community tenure mapping Preliminary assessment of land users Carbon accounting Community livelihoods Develop low carbon development Program plan

etc

Merauke-Mappi-Asmat di Papua Project, Papua REDD project in Papua to deliver high-quality carbon credits to the voluntary market based on the govt decision to rescind the logging and agribusiness development status of the land To provide information on the challenges and opportunities of REDD-plus and possible alternatives to the prevailing industrial models of natural resource use To identify and mapping of customary territories

WWF

New Forests Asset Management PT Emerald Planet

The pro-poor REDD-plus project in Papua Province

IUCN

Source: Forest Carbon Asia, 2012; Forest Climate Center 2012; IUCN, 2011

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LANDSCAPE MANAGEMENT
Landscape structure or pattern can be quantified at three levels:

synonymous

BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT & ASSESSMENT

INCREASING CARBON STOCK


Mitigation for enhancing sink increasing Carbon sequestration Reforestation as national program: Production Forest Social Forest Community Forest Forest Rehabilitation Movement 1 ~ 100 Million Trees Planting Movement

Population level

Genetic diversity

Community level

Species diversity

Landscape level

Habitat diversity
Courtesy slide from Nakagoshi N. Forest Forest

FOREST REHABILITATION AND REFORESTATION MOVEMENT 2006-2008


No Project Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Planting Area (ha) antara 2006-2008 20006 2007 2008 Land Rehabilitation 545.868,00 GERHAN 48.525,00 339.446,00 78.421,00 Social Forest 596,00 Community Forest APSI GPTPP HMPI-BMN Total 248.133,00 843.122,00 52.214,43 8.200.63 399.861,06 3.095,76 60.832,56 142.349,32
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ILLUSTRATION OF CARBON-STOCK IN PEKARANGAN

Source: Ditjen Rehabilitasi Lahan dan Perhutanan Sosial (2009)

Leuwijambe (200 m asl) KALI BEKASI WATERSHED

Landeuh (280 m asl)

Bawah (<300
m)

Tengah (300600 m)

Cimandala (600 m asl)

Atas (>600
m)

N
Sentul City (300 m asl)

Pekarangan Samples in Kali Bekasi Watershed Villages


(Adinugroho , Indrawan, Suprianto, Arifin 2011)
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Pekarangan Structure in Kali Bekasi Watershed


(Adinugroho , Indrawan, Suprianto, Arifin 2011)

300

250

N (individu/Ha)

200

Cimandala Landeuh

Cimandala (600 mdpl) Sentul city (300 mdpl) Landeuh (280 mdpl) Leuwijambe (200 mdpl)

150

Leuwijambe
100

Sentul City

50

0 <5 5-9.9 10-14.9 15-19.9 20-24.9 25-29.9 30-34.9 >35

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Diameter Class at DBH (cm)

Carbon Stock (Ton/Ha)

HORIZONTAL STRUCTURE OF PEKARANGAN VEGETATION IN KALI BEKASI WATERSHED (Adinugroho , Indrawan, Suprianto,
Arifin 2011)
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Pekarangan Carbon Stock in Kali Bekasi Watershed


(Adinugroho , Indrawan, Suprianto, Arifin 2011)
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CORRELATION MATRIX OF PEKARANGAN STRUCTURE AND CARBON STOCK IN KALI BEKASI WATERSHED (Adinugroho , Indrawan,
Suprianto, Arifin 2011)

CORRELATION Pekarangan Area Number of Species Individul Number Basal Area

Number of Individual Species Number

Basal Area

Carbon_ Stock

.425**

-.330* .128

Thank you very much


hsarifin@ipb.ac.id & dedhsa@yahoo.com Blog http://www.hsarifin.staff.ipb.ac.id

-.187 .219 .778**

-.136 .295* .583** .844**

** Signifikan ( = 0.01), *Signifikan ( = 0.05)


Forest Forest