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Towards an Efficient Economy

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

1. Evolution of Cities

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Travel time budget

1 HR

1 HR

1 HR

8 KM

30 KM

50 KM
Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Waves of innovation

1ST WAVE 1785


WATER POWER MECHANISM

2ND WAVE 1845


STEAM POWER RAILROAD

3RD WAVE 1900


ELECTRICTY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

4TH WAVE 1950


PETROL CHEMICALS ELECTRONICS

WALKING CITY

TRANSIT CITY

AUTOMOBILE CITY

3.2 KM
Wednesday, 5 September 12

10 KM

30 KM

Economic Research

Waves of innovation

3RD WAVE 1900


ELECTRICTY INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE

4TH WAVE 1950


PETROL CHEMICALS ELECTRONICS

5TH WAVE 1990


DIGITAL NETWORKS SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY

6TH WAVE PRESENT


SUSTAINABILITY RENEWABLE ENERGY

AUTOMOBILE CITY

FUTURE CITY ?

KM
Wednesday, 5 September 12

30 KM

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Introduction of 12 electric trams in NZ, Electricity used as source of transport energy, replacing horse, steam power

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1905
Wednesday, 5 September 12

1908 1911 1914 1917

1920 1923

1926 1929 1932

1935

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Introduction of 12 electric trams in NZ, Electricity used as source of transport energy, replacing horse, steam power

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1905
Wednesday, 5 September 12

1908 1911 1914 1917

1920 1923

1926 1929 1932

1935

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Tram advancement stops

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1905
Wednesday, 5 September 12

1908 1911 1914 1917

1920 1923

1926 1929 1932

1935

1938

1941

19

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

After 1st World War, many soldiers set up their own small bus companies.

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1905

1908 1911 1914 1917

1920 1923

1926 1929 1932

1935

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

The Great Depression reduced economic activity

905

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1908 1911 1914 1917

1920 1923

1926 1929 1932

1935

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

1956

195

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Second World War: restrictions on car use and petrol rationing, boosting patronage (Tramway Patronage Peak)

920 1923

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1926 1929 1932

1935

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

1956

1959

1962 1965

1968 1971

19

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Constraints on car uptake disappears Great wealth of New Zealand. Private car ownership and use increased rapidly

23

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1926 1929 1932

1935

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

1956

1959

1962 1965

1968 1971

1974

1977

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Tram systems replaced by motor-based bus systems. Expansion of Cites: Entering the Automobile City

6 1929 1932

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1935

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

1956

1959

1962 1965

1968 1971

1974

1977

1980

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Cars per household: Auckland: 0.85 Christchurch: 0.95 Goal nearly made: a car for every household

1935

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1938

1941

1944 1947

1950 1953

1956

1959

1962 1965

1968 1971

1974

1977

1980 1983

1986 19

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Auckland Public Transport Patronage Auckland Population NZ Population NZ Vehicle Fleet

Tram Passenger Carried

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

Petrol price rose steadily (600%) Bus fare also rose, contribution to decline of patronage

950 1953

Annual Passenger Trips (m)

1956

1959

1962 1965

1968 1971

1974

1977

1980 1983

1986 1989 1992 1995

1998 2001

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

Taipei, Asia

Christchurch

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

Passenger Cars per 1000 People (year 2007)


1. Monaco 2. Iceland 3. Brunel 4. New Zealand 5. Puerto Rico 6. Italy 7. Germany 8. Australia 0 200 400
545 566 615 614 600 667 649 748

600

800

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

Vehicle Ownership per person

Wednesday, 5 September 12

CONGESTION
Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport


Preference for Personal Vehicle Ownership

OTHERS 20%

CHRISTCHURCH EXPENDITURE ON LAND TRANSPORT


Poor Public Transport Service

$
CE

$
Demand for Road Widening

80

RO

A DIN G M AINT

A EN

Public Transport Patronage drops

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

TARGET PROBLEM Is not the NUMBER of vehicles we own


NUMBER OF OCCUPANTS
that matters. It is the

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

79%
Wednesday, 5 September 12

Work journey are by

PERSONAL VEHICLES

Economic Research

Rise and Decline of New Zealand Public Transport

95%
Wednesday, 5 September 12

Car trips to work have

SINGLE OCCUPANTs

Urban Strategy

2. the next wave

Wednesday, 5 September 12

Urban Strategy

The next wave

DONT OWN, BUT SHARE

Wednesday, 5 September 12