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MC LC
MC LC............................................................................................1 DANH MC THUT NG V T VIT TT...............................3 DANH MC HNH V.......................................................................4 LI M U......................................................................................5 Chng 1: Gii thiu v chuyn mch burst quang..........................10
1.1 Chuyn mch knh quang.....................................................................................10 1.2 Chuyn mch gi quang........................................................................................11 1.3 Chuyn mch burst quang.....................................................................................12 1.4 So snh cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang..........................................................13

Chng 2 : Cc kha cnh c bn ca chuyn mch burst quang.....14


2.1 Kin trc mng OBS.............................................................................................14 2.1.1 Cu to nt bin...............................................................................................16 2.1.2 Cu to nt li .................................................................................................17 2.2 T hp burst..........................................................................................................18 2.2.1 T hp burst da trn b nh thi..................................................................18 2.2.2 T hp burst da trn mc ngng.................................................................19 2.3 Cc c ch bo hiu..............................................................................................21 2.3.1 C ch bo hiu Just Enough Time (JET).................................................21 2.3.2 C ch bo hiu Just In Time (JIT)...........................................................24 2.3.3 C ch bo hiu Tell And Go (TAG)........................................................25 2.3.4 C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait (TAW).....................................................26 2.4 Cc thut ton sp xp knh..................................................................................27 2.4.1 Knh ri ph hp u tin (FFUC)..................................................................28 2.4.2 Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht (LAUC)............................................................29 2.4.3 Knh ri ph hp u tin thc hin lp khong trng (FFUC-VF)............29 2.4.4 Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht - thc hin lp khong trng (LAUC-VF) .....30 2.5 Phn gii tranh chp..............................................................................................30 2.5.1 B m quang..................................................................................................30 2.5.2 Chuyn i bc sng.....................................................................................32 2.5.3 nh tuyn chuyn hng................................................................................33 2.5.3.1 Gii thiu .....................................................................................................33
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2.5.3.2 Phng php nh tuyn chuyn hng.......................................................34 2.5.4 Phn on burst................................................................................................35

KT LUN........................................................................................38 TI LIU THAM KHO..................................................................40

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DANH MC THUT NG V T VIT TT


Vit tt ACK BA ATM BHP FDL FFUC FFUC-VF FIFO IP JET JIT LAUC LAUC- VF MEMS Min EV NAK OBS OCS OPS Ting Anh Acknowledgement packet Burst Assembler Asynchronous Transfer Mode Burst Header Packet Fiber Delay Line First Fit Unscheduled Channel Ting Vit Gi tin bo nhn B t hp burst Ch truyn ti khng ng b Gi tiu burst ng dy tr quang Knh ri ph hp u tin

First Fit Unscheduled Channel-Void Knh ri ph hp u tin-thc hin Filling lp khong trng First In First Out Internet Protocol Just Enough Time Just In Time Latest Available Unscheduled Channel Latest Available Unscheduled Channel Void Filling Microelectromechanical System Minimum End Void Negative Acknowledgment Optical Burst Switching Optical Circuit Switching Optical Packet Switching B m vo trc ra trc Giao thc Internet (Tn giao thc) (Tn giao thc) Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht-thc hin lp khong trng H thng vi c in Khong trng kt thc ti thiu Bn tin bo nhn ph nh Chuyn mch burst quang Chuyn mch knh quang Chuyn mch gi quang

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OXC REL RM RWA S SCU SONET TAG TAW WDM

Optical Cross Connect Release packet Routing Module Routing and Wavelength Assignment Scheduler Switching Control Unit Synchronous Optical Network Tell And Go Tell And Wait Wavelength Division Multiplexing

Thit b ni cho quang Gi tin gii phng knh B nh tuyn nh tuyn v gn bc sng B lp lch n v iu khin chuyn mch Mng quang ng b (Tn giao thc) (Tn giao thc) Ghp knh phn chia bc sng

DANH MC HNH V
Hnh 1.1: Mng nh tuyn bc sng..............................................11 Hnh 1.2: Mng chuyn mch gi quang OBS..................................11 Hnh 1.3: Nt chuyn mch trong mng chuyn mch gi quang.....12
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Hnh 1.4: S dng thi gian offset trong OBS..................................13 Hnh 2.1: Kin trc mng OBS..........................................................15 Hnh 2.2: S khi chc nng ca mng OBS...............................16 Hnh 2.3: Cu to nt bin.................................................................17 Hnh 2.4: Cu to nt li....................................................................18 Hnh 2.5: T hp burst da trn b nh thi....................................19 Hnh 2.6: T hp burst da trn mc ngng...................................19 Hnh 2.7: C ch bo hiu Just Enough Time.............................22 Hnh 2.8: Li ch ca DR...................................................................23 Hnh 2.9: C ch bo hiu Just In Time......................................24 Hnh 2.10: So snh c ch bo hiu JET (trn) v JIT (di)...........25 Hnh 2.11: C ch bo hiu Tell-And-Go..........................................26 Hnh 2.12: C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait.................................27 Hnh 2.13: Thut ton FFUC v LAUC.............................................29 Hnh 2.14: Thut ton FFUC-VF v LAUC-VF................................30 Hnh 2.15: M t gii quyt xung t bng b m..........................31 Hnh 2.16: Dy tr FDL cng vi b khuch i v chuyn mch to thnh mt vng lp tr........................................................................32 Hnh 2.17: Gii quyt tranh chp bng b chuyn i bc sng....33 Hnh 2.18: Cu trc ca mng OBS vi k thut lm lch hng i34 Hnh 2.19: Phng php nh tuyn chuyn hng..........................35 Hnh 2.20: M t gii quyt xung t bng phn on burst............37 Hnh 2.21: Cu trc ca burst c ng kiu phn on................38 Hnh 2.22: Xung t lm chng ln cc on ln nhau.....................38

LI M U
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Nhng nm gn y din ra s bng n lu lng thng tin trn ton cu. Yu cu v bng thng i vi cc dch v vin thng ngy cng gia tng. Mt trong nhng xu hng pht trin ca mng vin thng hin nay l quang ha t mng li cho n tn mng truy nhp ca khch hng. Cng ngh ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM v ang c trin khai trong cc h thng thng tin quang hin ti cho php tc truyn dn cc ln v kh nng h tr cc lu lng khc nhau nh IP, Ethernet, SONET/SDH. Mt vn t ra cho mng quang WDM l la chn c cng ngh chuyn mch thch hp c th s dng mt cch ti u bng thng ca si quang v gim thiu tr x l ti cc thit b chuyn mch. Ba cng ngh chuyn mch quang c nghin cu s dng trong mng WDM l: chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch burst quang. Trong ba cng ngh ny, chuyn mch burst quang ra i nhm p ng s bng n d liu, gii quyt c nhc im ca chuyn mch knh quang v l bc trung gian trc khi tin ti chuyn mch gi quang trong khi cng ngh cha cho php c mng truyn ti ton quang. Xut pht t thc t trn nhm chng em chn hng nghin cu v chuyn mch burst quang. Chuyn Chuyn mch burst quang trnh by nhng vn c bn nht v chuyn mch burst quang. Ni dung chuyn bao gm: Chng 1: Gii thiu v chuyn mch burst quang. Chng ny s gii thiu v cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang chnh l chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch burst quang v chuyn mch gi quang. Chng 2: Cc kha cnh c bn ca chuyn mch burst quang. Ni dung chng 2 gm c: +Kin trc mng OBS +T hp burst: theo ngng v da trn b nh thi +Cc c ch bo hiu: JET,JIT,TAG,TAW +Cc thut ton sp xp knh: vi thut ton hng ngang (Hoziron) v lp khong trng (Void Filling) +Cc gii php gii quyt tranh chp: b m quang, chuyn i bc sng , nh tuyn chuyn hng, phn on burst. Do gii hn v mt thi gian v kin thc nn chuyn khng trnh khi thiu st. Rt mong nhn c nhng ng gp t thy c v cc bn chuyn ca nhm c hon thin hn.

I. GII THIU V VIN KHOA HC K THUT BU IN


A. Lch s hnh thnh, pht trin ca Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in
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1. V lch s hnh thnh Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in ra i trong s nghip xy dng Ch ngha x hi vo nm 1966 trong thi k phc v khng chin chng M cu nc. Ngy 17 thng 09 nm 1966, Hi ng Chnh ph ra quyt nh s 180/CP v vic iu chnh t chc b my ca Tng cc Bu in v Truyn thanh, trong c vic thnh lp Vin nghin cu Khoa hc k thut Bu in v Truyn thanh. Vin c chc nng, nhim v: Nghin cu nhng vn c bn v Khoa hc k thut Bu in v truyn thanh. Nghin cu th nghim nhm ch to v ci tin my mc, thit b, vt liu v ci tin my mc, thit b, vt liu v Bu in v truyn thanh cho thch hp vi tnh hnh ti nguyn v c im kh hu nc ta. V tnh hnh c th v t chc b my ca Vin Nghin cu Khoa hc k thut Bu in v Truyn thanh, Hi ng chnh ph giao cho Tng cc trng Tng cc Bu in Truyn thanh quy nh. Thc hin Quyt nh ca Hi ng Chnh ph, thit lp Vin Nghin cu Khoa hc k thut Bu in v Truyn thanh, Tng cc thnh lp Phng K thut trc thuc Tng cc Bu in v truyn thanh. Phng k thut c nhim v tip nhn ti sn thuc phn qun l k thut, tp san, xut bn, sng kin ci tin k thut, xy dng tiu chun, qui trnh qui phm do Phng Nghin cu k thut trc y m nhim. 2.V qu trnh pht trin Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in Ngy 04 thng 03 nm 1977, Tng cc trng Tng cc Bu in ra Quyt nh s 304/Q qui nh v chc nng, nhim v v b my t chc ca Vin. Vi quyt nh 304/Q chc nng, nhim v ca Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in c c th ha mt cch chi tit, ph hp vi tnh hnh mi. Quyt nh ny gii quyt cc mi quan h trong lnh vc nghin cu m Vin cn khng t mu thun cha c x l. y l c s quan trng cng tc nghin cu ca Vin pht trin m rng v cn i gia cc lnh vc nghin cu, p ng tt hn na yu cu Khoa hc k thut ca ngnh v t nc. u nm 1981, trn c s tng kt nh gi qu trnh qun l cng tc nghin cu khoa hc k thut ca Vin trong 15 nm t khi thnh lp v trong k hoch 05 nm (1976-1980), lnh o Vin nh gi nghim tc v nhng thnh tu cng nh nhng mt cn hn ch ca Vin, ng thi xy dng n Cng c v xy dng Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in trong giai on 1981-1985. n a ra mt s bin php nghin cu qun l cng tc nghin cu khoa hc k thut, phng n cng c t chc Vin, chng trnh nghin cu khoa hc k thut 05 nm 1981-1985, chng trnh xy dng c s vt cht v tim lc khoa hc k thut ca Vin. n l c s nh hng cc ti nghin cu, m ch yu l chuyn hng t nghin cu thit b sang nghin cu khoa hc mng li.

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Bc vo thi k i mi nm 1986, Vin cng c nhng nhim v thc hin chin lc s ha mng li nhm tng bc hin i ha mng li vin thng. Ngy 14 thng 06 nm 1986, Tng cc Bu in ra Quyt nh 558/Q-TCCB sa i b sung nhim v ca Vin Khoa hc k thut Bu in, chuyn hng cc ti nghin cu ca Vin sang phc v qu trnh s mng li ha. Nhng nm t 1996 n 2006 l giai on Vin c nhng chuyn bin quan trng trn tt c cc mt: m hnh t chc, c ch qun l, qui m v hnh thc hot ng. Nm 2008 l giai on Vin ch ng t chc li m hnh v cc c ch hot ng. V c bn, c cu t chc ca Vin Khoa hc k thut bu in hin nay c 03 phng chc nng (Phng Tng hp; Phng K hoch; Phng Ti chnh K ton) v 03 n v tc nghip chuyn mn (Trung tm Nghin cu v pht trin cng ngh; Trung tm o kim v th nghim cng ngh; Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao cng ngh), v C s 2 ca Vin ti thnh ph H Ch Minh. Sang nm 2012 Vin t chc c cu li, m hnh mi ca Vin bao gm nh sau:
CC PH VIN TRNG PH TRCH CHUYN MN B PHN CHUYN GIA T VN CAO CP

VIN TRNG

Phng Tng hp

Phng K hoch Ti chnh

C s 2 (TP H Ch Minh)

Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao cng ngh

Trung tm o lng v ng dng cng ngh

Trung tm Ng.cu pht trin cng ngh bng rng c nh

Trung tm Nghin cu k thut thng tin v tuyn

CC B PHN TC NGHIP CHUYN MN

Hin nay, Vin ang dn i vo n nh c cu t chc, c ch qun l phc v cho hot ng nghin cu khoa hc, o to gn lin vi sn xut kinh doanh theo ch trng Hc vin ra. 3) C cu t chc ca Vin KHKT Bu in. Hin nay Vin KHKT Bu in trc thuc Hc Vin cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng - Tng cng ty Bu chnh Vin thng Vit Nam, bao gm nhng nhim v sau: + Xy dng cc d bo v chin lc pht trin khoa hc cng ngh Bu chnh vin thng; nghin cu, i mi v hin i ha cng ngh sn xut; sn xut th nghim cc sn phm do kt qu nghin cu mang li.

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+ Phi hp vi cc n v trong ngnh la chn cng ngh, th nghim cc loi hnh dch v v trang thit b mi. nh gi kt qu th nghim, xut gii php. + Trin khai cc hot ng t vn trong lnh vc u t v xy dng Bu chnh vin thng. + Bin son cc tiu chun k thut, quy trnh quy phm v phng php o theo k hoch ca tng cng ty giao. + o lng, kim nh cht lng cc thit b, h thng Bu chnh, vin thng, tin hc. + C cn b tham gia ging dy cc cp bc o to do Hc vin cng ngh Bu chnh vin thng m nhn, gn cng tc nghin cu vi cng tc o to theo ch trng ca nh nc v Tng cng ty. C cu t chc ca Vin KHKT Bu in: Vin KHKT hin c khong hn 160 cn b CNV, a s l cc cn b nghin cu c o to ch yu trn cc lnh vc in t-Tin hc-Vin thng, cu trc thnh 10 n v nghin cu trin khai (trong c c s II ti thnh ph H Ch Minh). + Lnh o Vin: Hin ti c Vin trng v Vin ph. + Cc Phng chc nng: - Phng Tng hp; - Phng K hoch Ti chnh. + Cc n v nghin cu, trin khai: - Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao cng ngh; - Trung tm o lng v ng dng cng ngh; - Trung tm nghin cu pht trin cng ngh bng rng c nh; - Trung tm nghin cu k thut thng tin v tuyn. B. Thng tin chung Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao Cng ngh 1. V chc nng ca Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao Cng ngh Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao Cng ngh c chc nng t vn u t, sn xut, tip nhn, chuyn giao cng ngh trong cc lnh vc Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng. 2. V lnh vc hot ng ca Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao Cng ngh T vn u t xy dng; t vn u thu; t vn qun l d n; t vn gim st; t vn thm tra d n, thit k, d ton xy dng cng trnh trong cc lnh vc Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng. Thit k xy dng cc cng trnh Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng. Tip nhn v chuyn giao cng ngh t cc kt qu nghin cu, ch th ca cc n v trong v ngoi Vin Khoa hc K thut Bu in thuc cc lnh vc Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng.

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Sn xut, cung cp trang thit b, trin khai thi cng xy dng, lp t cc cng trnh Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng. Cc nhim v khc: T vn Khoa hc Cng ngh. Nghin cu cc ti, thc hin cc nhim v ng dng cng ngh mi, dch v mi phc v cho cng tc t vn u t v chuyn giao cng ngh. Tham gia cc cng tc o to, bi dng kin thc khoa hc, cng ngh trong cc c s o to ca Hc vin v x hi thc hin gn kt gia nghin cu, o to v sn xut kinh doanh. Hp tc trong v ngoi nc v t vn, u t, chuyn giao cng ngh thuc lnh vc Bu chnh, Vin thng, Cng ngh thng tin v Truyn thng. Thc hin cc nhim v khc do Vin trng giao. 3. Cc cng vic Trung tm T vn u t Chuyn giao Cng ngh ang thc hin Thc hin ti ti khoa hc cng ngh cp Tp on, cp b v cp nh nc; Nhim v t vn thit k cng trnh Vin thng, Cng ngh Thng tin, t vn gim st, t vn u thu, t vn ti u t, lp d ton mua sm thit b Nhim v ch th h thng iu khin v gim st trm vin thng v cng ngh thng tin; Vit cc bi bo, tp san cho tp ch bu chnh; Nhim v o to: Tham gia hng dn sinh vin thc tp, sinh vin tt nghip ca Hc Vin CNBC Vin thng (h cao ng, i hc lin thng v i hc chnh quy), i hc Giao thng Vn ti.

Chng 1: Gii thiu v chuyn mch burst quang


Ni dung chnh ca chng s cp n ba loi chuyn mch quang chnh l : chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch burst quang.

1.1 Chuyn mch knh quang


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Mng WDM nh tuyn bc sng bao gm cc thit b ni cho quang OXC (Optical Cross Connect) c kt ni vi nhau bng cc lin kt WDM trong mt tp mng hnh li ty . Phng php chuyn mch trong mng nh tuyn bc sng l chuyn mch knh quang. Chuyn mch knh quang l chuyn mch hng kt ni (connection oriented). Kt ni t mt nt ngun gi thng tin n mt nt ch nhn thng tin phi c thit lp trc khi thng tin c truyn i. Trong mng nh tuyn bc sng th kt ni t ngun ti ch ny c gi l ng quang (lightpath). ng quang tng ng vi mt tuyn v bc sng c gn cho tuyn . S thit lp cc ng quang bao gm mt s bc thc hin. Nhng bc ny bao gm tm ra ti nguyn v tp mng, nh tuyn, gn bc sng, bo hiu v d tr ti nguyn.

Hnh 1.1: Mng nh tuyn bc sng

1.2 Chuyn mch gi quang

Hnh 1.2: Mng chuyn mch gi quang OBS Mng chuyn mch gi quang OPS bao gm cc OXC c ni vi nhau bng cc lin kt WDM trong mt cu hnh mesh ty . Mng chuyn mch gi quang bao gm phn li c kh nng truyn ti tc cao v phn bin giao din vi phn t ca cc mng IP, SONET/SDH, Ethernet.

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Cc gi tin truyn trong mng chuyn mch gi quang c phn tiu v phn ti tin. Tiu c cha thng tin nh tuyn cng nh thng tin iu khin v c truyn trong bng cng vi ti tin. Khi gi tin truyn ti OXC, tiu s c tch ra v c x l trong min in (sau khi bin i quang in quang) cn ti tin s c chuyn mch trong min quang. V phn tiu cn mt thi gian x l nn phn ti tin c lm tr i bng cch lu m bi ng dy tr quang. V nguyn l, chuyn mch gi quang mong mun truyn thng tin v x l thng tin iu khin hon ton trong min quang. Nhng do hn ch v mt cng ngh hin nay nn phn thng tin iu khin ch c th x l trong min in m thi. Trong chuyn mch gi quang, tiu c so snh vi mt bng nh tuyn, ti tin s c chuyn ra cng u ra tng ng trn mt si quang v mt bc sng mi. Nu khng c bc sng mi no kh dng, gi tin s b hy hoc phi b tr i ch bc sng kh dng mi. Thnh phn chnh ca nt OXC l c cu chuyn mch quang v khi iu khin chuyn mch. Khi iu khin chuyn mch duy tr thng tin v t p mng, duy tr bng nh tuyn, x l tiu gi tin, iu khin vic lu m, lp lch v chuyn tip cc gi tin, iu khin c cu chuyn mch chuyn mch gi tin ng thi gian nh, pht hin tranh chp v phn gii khi tranh chp xy ra gia cc gi tin. C cu chuyn mch thc hin to kt ni t cng u vo n cng u ra tng ng theo yu cu ca khi iu khin chuyn mch.

Hnh 1.3: Nt chuyn mch trong mng chuyn mch gi quang

1.3 Chuyn mch burst quang


Chuyn mch burst quang ra i nhm t c s cn bng gia chuyn mch knh quang v chuyn mch gi quang. Cc gi tin lp trn s c tp hp li thnh cc burst truyn ti trong mng OBS . Cc burst c di khng c nh gm c hai phn: gi tin iu khin (control packet) hay cn c gi l gi tiu burst Burst Header Packet (BHP) v phn thng tin d liu cn c gi l data burst. OBS thc hin vic truyn c lp gi tin iu khin v burst d liu trn cc knh bc sng khc nhau. Thng tin trong gi tin iu khin gm c chiu di burst,
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thi im pht burst, cc thng tin nh tuyn. Gi tin iu khin c truyn i trc burst d liu mt khong thi gian c gi l offset time cu hnh cc chuyn mch trong sut ng i t ngun ti ch. Thi gian offset time ny bng tr x l tng cng ca gi tin iu khin ti tt c cc nt trung gian.

Hnh 1.4: S dng thi gian offset trong OBS y l mt trong nhng khc bit c bn gia chuyn mch burst quang so vi chuyn mch gi quang. Khong thi gian ny cho php thng tin iu khin c x l ti mi nt chuyn mch v cc nt sp xp ti nguyn knh bc sng cho vic truyn burst d liu da trn thng tin trong gi tin iu khin. Vi OBS khng yu cu phi x l gi tin iu khin trong min quang. OBS s dng cc m hnh d tr knh v bo hiu d tr ti nguyn knh bc sng.

1.4 So snh cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang


Nh nu trn, ta c th thy chuyn mch knh quang ch chuyn mch cho mt bc sng trn mt ng quang nn khng cn thch hp cho mng WDM hin nay. Nhng n cng c nhng u im ring ca n, ni bt nht l tin cy. Bn cnh nhc im chnh l tr ln v lng ph bng thng. Chuyn mch gi quang l loi chuyn mch hng ti trong mng ton quang vi tc x l nhanh nht trong cc loi nu. Nhng gii hn ca n l ch s hn ch v cng ngh hin ti khng p ng c cc yu cu cho mt mng ton quang. Trong khi lu lng cng ngy cng bng n. Ta c th thy chuyn mch burst quang p ng c s bng n nh th no. Vi vic t hp cc gi cng ch n dng chung mt gi iu khin lm gim thiu ti a vic x l thng tin iu khin. Cc burst d liu hon ton truyn i trn min quang. V tc v kh nng s dng bng tn hn hn chuyn mch knh quang. Trong thi im hin ti vi cng ngh nh hin nay th chuyn mch tng gi mt vi vic x l tng y tiu trong chuyn mch gi quang s khng th p ng c lu lng nh chuyn mch burst quang. Tuy nhin, ci g cng c hai mt ca n, chuyn mch burst quang p ng c yu cu v bng n lu lng nhng n vn cha phi l
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chuyn mch ton quang, tr t hp burst, vic thay th thit b hay ch l cn thay th module. l vn trade off trong vin thng. Cng ngh chuyn mch quang Chuyn mch knh quang Chuyn mch gi quang Chuyn mch burst quang Hiu qu s dng bng thng Thp Cao Cao Thi gian chuyn mch yu cu Chm Nhanh Trung bnh X l header Kh nng thch ng lu lng Thp Cao Cao

Thp Cao Thp

Bng 1.1 So snh cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang khc nhau

Chng 2 : Cc kha cnh c bn ca chuyn mch burst quang


2.1 Kin trc mng OBS
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Nh cp chng 1, tng ca chuyn mch burst quang l phn chia mt bng d liu v mt bng iu khin v thc hin bo hiu ngoi bng cho php truyn ti d liu trong min quang mt cch hiu qu hn. n v d liu truyn ti trong mng OBS l cc burst gm c gi tin iu khin v burst d liu. Mng OBS thc hin vic bo hiu ngoi bng: gi tin iu khin c truyn trn mt knh bc sng khc vi burst d liu cu hnh cc chuyn mch t ngun ti ch. Gi tin iu khin mang thng tin v chiu di burst, thi im burst truyn cng nh cc thng tin nh tuyn khc. Mt khi ti nguyn c d tr cc burst s c pht i. lm c iu ngi ta xut xy dng mt mng OBS vi kin trc nh hnh 2.1

Hnh 2.1: Kin trc mng OBS Mng OBS v bn cht l mt mng WDM trn n thc hin cng ngh chuyn mch OBS. Mng OBS bao gm cc nt bin (edge node) v cc nt li (core node) c kt ni vi nhau bng cc lin kt WDM. Nt bin mng OBS thc hin giao din vi mng khc nh mng IP, SONET/SDH hay Ethernet. Nt bin v th c kh nng giao tip c trong min in v min quang v c kh nng bin i in quang cng nh chuyn i bc sng tng thch vi tn hiu truyn trn cc lin kt quang WDM. Nt bin trn c s truyn ti burst c th phn thnh nt bin u vo v nt bin u ra. Nt u vo pha pht vo thc hin t hp cc gi tin t cc u cui thnh cc burst v to cc gi tin iu khin, nh tuyn v sp xp bc sng truyn cc burst d liu vo mng li OBS. Nt u ra pha thu thc hin gii t hp cc burst thnh cc gi tin v gi ti cc mng ch. Nu mt nt bin thc hin thng tin hai chiu th n s ng vai tr va l nt u vo va l nt u ra.

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Nt li c nhim v c bn l chuyn tip burst t cc cng u vo ti cc cng u ra tng ng, d tr cc knh bc sng cho cc burst d liu da trn thng tin trong cc gi tin iu khin v gii quyt tranh chp. Hnh 2.2 m t cc thnh phn ca mng OBS vi cc chc nng khc nhau.
L u l n v o g L u l n ra g

h tu n y n

B oh u i G i th p i B rst u

T h p B rst u

L p lch

L p lc v sp h x pb s g c n

G iq y i u t tra h c p n h

C u ti h yn p gi

N tb v o in u

N d l oe i

N d b u ra o e in

Hnh 2.2: S khi chc nng ca mng OBS

2.1.1 Cu to nt bin
Cc nt bin l cc router bin c kh nng giao din in v quang, thc hin chc nng phn loi gi tin, lu m cc gi tin, t hp cc gi tin thnh cc burst v gii t hp burst thnh cc gi tin cu thnh. Cc phng php t hp burst khc nhau nh da trn thi gian ca b nh thi hoc da trn kch thc cc gi tin c th c s dng t hp cc gi tin d liu thnh cc burst v gi vo trong mng li OBS. Cu to ca mt router bin bao gm mt b nh tuyn RM (Routing Module), cc b t hp burst BA (Burst Assembler) v cc b lp lch knh S (Scheduler).

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Class 0 Class m

Lp lch knh T hp burst 1 Lu lng ra ti node li Lp lch knh T hp burst N

Lu lng vo

B nh tuyn

n node bin1

Class 0

Class m

n node bin N

Hnh 2.3: Cu to nt bin B nh tuyn kim tra thng tin nh tuyn ca tng gi tin, chn la cc cng ra thch hp cho tng gi tin v gi n n b t hp burst thch hp. Mi b t hp burst to ra cc burst cha cc gi d liu n cng mt ch ti (cng mt router bin u ra). Trong mi b t hp burst cn c hng i khc nhau cho cc loi gi tin ng vi cc dch v khc nhau. B lp lch knh d tr knh bc sng cho cc burst d liu v chuyn cc burst d liu ti cc cng u ra tng ng. nt bin u ra, b gii t hp burst s tin hnh tch cc gi tin t cc burst ny v chuyn tip ln cc lp trn.

2.1.2 Cu to nt li
Nt li gm c OXC v mt n v iu khin chuyn mch SCU (Switching Control Unit), cc b chuyn i quang in quang, cc b ghp knh, phn knh. Ta xt hai phn t chnh l OXC v SCU. SCU to v duy tr mt bng chuyn tip v chu trch nhim cu hnh cho OXC. Khi gi tin iu khin ti nt li n s c bin i t min quang vo min in v i n SCU. SCU c thng tin trong gi xc nh ch n ca gi ny v burst d liu theo sau, k tra cu thng tin trong bng chuyn tip a n quyt nh chuyn tip d liu n cng ra no ca OXC. ng thi SCU cng chu trch nhim d tr knh bc sng cho burst d liu u ra. Gi tin iu khin sau s c cp nht thm thng tin iu khin nu nh nt hin ti cha phi l ch cui cng ca n v c bin i in quang v truyn ra knh bc sng u ra tng ng. Trc khi burst d liu i n router li, SCU s iu khin OXC thit lp kt ni t cng u vo n u ra tng ng cho burst d liu . Ti nt li c nhiu kch bn c th xy ra. Nu gi tin iu khin khng thnh cng trong vic d tr ti nguyn cho burst d liu th c gi tin iu khin v burst d liu s b hy b. Hoc khi cc burst d liu ti cc u vo cng mun n mt cng u ra ca OXC, khi tranh chp s xy ra v SCU s c
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nhim v pht hin v gii quyt tranh chp ny theo cc chnh sch gii quyt tranh chp m mng s dng. C hai phng php gii quyt tranh chp m phn 2.5 ca chuyn cp n l s dng cc ng dy tr quang v chuyn i bc sng. thc hin c cc phng php ny i hi nt li mng OBS phi trang b thm ng dy tr quang v cc b chuyn i bc sng.

Hnh 2.4: Cu to nt li Ta c th thy cc gi tin khi i vo cc node bin s c nh tuyn chuyn ri mi chuyn n cc b t hp v sau c lp lch v sp xp trn bc sng u ra tng ng. Ti cc node li s ch c trch nhim chuyn tip gi tin i nh x l cc thng tin bo hiu v lp lch. Ti node bin u ra s burst s c gii t hp v phn phi n a ch.Trong mng OBS x dng cc giao thc nh tuyn OSPF v GMPLS. C th thy tuyn c la chn ti node bin, cc node ch ch vic chuyn tip. Nu i thm v cc giao thc trn th chuyn s qu di v khng tp trung vo c im ring chnh ca OBS nn nhm s khng trnh by c th v cc giao thc nh tuyn trn. Mc tip theo s cp n qu trnh t hp burst l mt trong nhng c im ni bt ca OBS.

2.2 T hp burst
T hp burst l tin trnh tp hp v ng cc gi router nt bin u vo t cc lp cao hn thnh cc burst truyn ti vo mng OBS. Khi cc gi tin i n t lp cao hn, chng c lu m trong cc b nh m in v c phn loi theo a ch v loi dch v. Vic t hp burst s quyt nh khi no to ra mt burst v gi burst vo mng OBS. Hai phng php t hp burst ph bin nht l t hp burst da trn b nh thi v t hp burst da trn mc ngng.

2.2.1 T hp burst da trn b nh thi


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Nh trnh by trong phn 2.1.1, cc router bin c cu to gm c b nh tuyn, cc b t hp burst v cc b lp lch knh. Khi cc gi tin n router bin, b nh tuyn s cn c vo a ch ch ca cc gi tin chuyn cc gi tin ny n b t hp burst thch hp. Cc gi tin ny s c lu m tm thi trong cc hng i khc nhau nm trong b t hp burst. Trong phng php t hp burst da trn b nh thi, mi b t hp burt s tham chiu thi gian ca mt b nh thi cc b nm trn mt hng i quyt nh vic t hp cc gi tin thnh cc burst. Thi im b nh thi bt u m thi gian c th l ngay sau khi mt burst trc c lp lch truyn i hoc ngay sau khi gi tin u tin n hng i sau khi hng i trng. Sau mt khong thi gian T c cu hnh t trc, cc gi tin trong hng i s c t hp thnh mt burst v lp lch truyn i. Phng php t hp burst ny s to ra cc burst c chiu di ngu nhin. Lu lng vo mng thay i phn ln s quyt nh chiu di ca burst. Lu lng vo mng ln, burst s c kch thc ln, lu lng vo mng nh, burst s c kch thc nh. Tuy nhin, thi gian ca b nh thi cng l mt nhn t quyt nh kch thc cc burst.
L1 L2 L3

Thi gian

Hnh 2.5: T hp burst da trn b nh thi

2.2.2 T hp burst da trn mc ngng


Trong phng php t hp burst da trn mc ngng, s lng cc burst b gii hn hay chiu di ca cc burst l bng nhau. C th l khi khi kch thc ca cc gi tin trong hng i t n mt gi tr ngng L, cc gi tin c t hp thnh burst v lp lch truyn i. Phng php t hp burst ny khng m bo v thi gian tr t hp burst.
L L L

X1

X2

X3

Thi gian

Hnh 2.6: T hp burst da trn mc ngng Mt vn t ra cho vic t hp burst l lm sao tm ra gi tr ca b nh thi v kch thc ngng ti thiu ha xc sut mt gi trong mng OBS. Nu nh mc ngng qu thp dn n kch thc burst nh, s lng burst truyn trong
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mng s nhiu dn n xc sut xy ra xung t cc router li cao, nhng s lng gi trung bnh b mt do xung t li nh. Tuy nhin, s lng burst nhiu s lm tng p lc ln mt bng iu khin do phi x l nhiu cc gi tin iu khin ca mi burst d liu. Nu thi gian cu hnh cho mi nt chuyn mch khng c b qua, cc burst ngn s khin cho vic s dng ti nguyn mt cch km hiu qu do phi mt nhiu thi gian chuyn mch. Ngc li, khi mc ngng ln dn n kch thc burt ln, s lng burst vo mng s nh, do xc sut xy ra xung t s nh nhng s lng gi trung bnh b mt do xung t s ln. V th, cn c mt s cn bng gia s lng xung t v s lng gi mt trung bnh ti mi ln xung t. Do , hot ng ca mng OBS s c ci thin khi cc gi n c t hp thnh burst vi mt kch thc ti u. Tng t, phng php t hp burst da trn b nh thi cng cn gi tr ti u v mt thi gian. Vic la chn phng php t hp burst ty thuc vo loi lu lng c truyn i. Phng php t hp burst da trn b nh thi thch hp vi cc lu lng b gii hn v mt thi gian nh cc dch v thi gian thc nh thoi, truyn ti video v thi gian tr t hp burst b gii hn. Nu khng c gii hn v tr, phng php t hp burst da trn mc ngng ph hp cho cc dch v khng yu cu thi gian thc nh truyn s liu, v cho php iu khin c s lng gi b mt trong mi ln xung t. Vic s dng c hai loi phng php da trn b nh thi v da trn mc ngng l la chn tt nht v vic t hp burst s linh hot hn l ch dng mt trong hai phng php k trn. Bng cch tnh ton gi tr mc ngng ti u v s dng gi tr ca b nh thi da trn tr gi cho php, ta c th chc rng s lng mt gi l nh nht trong khi vn m bo tr cho php. Sau khi mt burst c to ra s dng cc phng php c ni trn, burt c lu m trong hng i trong mt khong thi gian trc khi truyn i sao cho gi tin iu khin ca burst c thi gian d tr ti nguyn. Trong thi gian ny, cc gi tin khc c th tip tc n router nt bin. Vic thm cc gi tin ny vo burst l khng chp nhn c v ti nguyn cho burst lc u c d tr cn c vo chiu di ca burst c trong gi tin iu khin. cc gi tin ny cho cc burst ng sau c kh nng tng tr trung bnh trong trng hp lu lng ln. Trong [4], theo Yang Chen, Chunming Quiao v Xiang Yu, mt cch gim thiu tr l thc hin d on chiu di burst: Gi tin iu khin s mang thng tin v chiu di burst l L + f(t) thay v l L vi L l chiu di chnh xc ca burst khi gi tin iu khin c gi i, f(t) l chiu di d on ca cc gi tin i n trong khong thi gian offset v c tnh ton da trn tc trung bnh ca lu lng ti. Gi s chiu di thc s ca cc gi tin i n l l(t). Nu f(t) > l(t), chiu di ca burst khi truyn

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vo nt li l L + l(t), ti nguyn d tr cho burst s b lng ph. Nu f(t) < l(t), chiu di ca burst khi truyn vo nt li l L + f(t). Mt phn gi tin c chiu di l(t) f(t) s c ghp vo truyn trn cc burst pha sau. Nu f(t) = l(t) l trng hp l tng nht khi vic d tr ti nguyn cho burst s l ti u v khng tng tr.

2.3 Cc c ch bo hiu
Khi burst c truyn vo mng li OBS, mt c ch bo hiu phi c thc hin nhm mc ch phn b ti nguyn v cu hnh trng chuyn mch cho tng burst ti mi nt thng qua cc gi tin tiu burst BHP hay gi tin iu khin. OBS s dng bo hiu ngoi bng: Gi tin BHP c truyn trn mt bc sng khc vi burst d liu. Tuy nhin, BHP c truyn trn cng mt ng i t ngun ti ch nh burst d liu thng bo cho cc nt chuyn mch d tr ti nguyn v cu hnh trng chuyn mch cho burst d liu tng ng. Di y ta xt bn c ch bo hiu c bn trong OBS l Just Enough Time, Just In Time, Tell And Go v Tell And Wait. Trong ba c ch bo hiu u l ba c ch bo hiu mt chiu: Nt ngun gi gi tin iu khin d tr ti nguyn v thc hin truyn burst d liu m khng cn i nt ch thng bo vic d tr ti nguyn t ngun ti ch c thnh cng hay khng. C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait l c ch bo hiu hai chiu: nt ngun s ch truyn burst d liu khi c xc nhn knh truyn c thit lp hon ton t ngun ti ch.

2.3.1 C ch bo hiu Just Enough Time (JET)


Trong phng thc JET, c mt tr gia vic truyn dn gi tiu burst v burst d liu. tr ny ln hn tng thi gian x l gi iu khin dc theo tuyn. Mc ch l sao cho khi burst n mi nt chuyn mch trung gian th gi tiu burst c x l xong v mt knh trn cng u ra c ch nh. Do khng cn ng dy tr quang lm tr burst d liu mi nt. y l mt c tnh quan trng ca JET v ng dy tr quang tn km v c nhiu hn ch (v d nh ch cho tr c nh, chiu di ln). C ch bo hiu Just-In-Time c m t trn hnh 2.7, node ngun u tin gi mt gi tiu bust (Burst Header Packet BHP) trn mt knh iu khin ti node ch. BHP c x l ti mi node tip theo vi yu cu thit lp ng d liu ton quang cho burst d liu tng ng. Nu qu trnh d tr ti nguyn thnh cng, chuyn mch s c cu hnh cho burst d liu i qua. Trong lc , burst s i ti ngun trong min in. Sau mt khong thi gian offsetime xc nh trc, burst c gi trong min quang trn bc sng c chn.

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S ource B P H Intermediate nodes

CHUYN MCH BURST QUANG


D estination

SETUP & CO NFIRM PH ASE

B urst

ST TRANSM ISSIO N & RELEASE PH ASE

Time

Hnh 2.7: C ch bo hiu Just Enough Time Offset time c tnh ton c bn da trn s nt chuyn mch trung gian t ngun ti ch v thi gian chuyn mch ca node ch. Offset time c tnh l [1]: OT = h. + ST y: h l s nt chuyn mch trung gian gia ngun v ch. l thi gian x l tiu burst trn mt nt trung gian. ST l thi gian cu hnh li chuyn mch nt ch. Gi tiu burst cha thng tin v offset time v chiu di burst. V khi qua mt nt trung gian th gi tr offset time s phi c cp nht li v gi tr offset time s gim i mt lng ng bng thi gian x l gi tin tiu burst. Khi qu trnh d tr ti nguyn thnh cng, knh bc sng ti mt nt s ch c n nh hon ton cho burst khi bit u tin ca burst d liu truyn ti nt. Tc l trong khong thi gian offset time, knh khng b chim hay ri cho d ng k ti nguyn thnh cng. Knh c th gn cho burst d liu khc min sao cho vic truyn cc burst d liu khng b chng ln nhau. Kiu d tr ti nguyn ca JET gi l d tr ti nguyn tr (Delayed Reservation). Sau khi truyn xong burst d liu knh bc sng s t ng c gii phng m khng cn phi c bn tin gii phng knh c gi t ngun ti ch. V th mt c im khc ca JET l gii phng ti nguyn khng r rng (Implicit Release). Nu ti nt trung gian no , qu trnh d tr khng thnh cng, burst s b loi b. Mt vn ny sinh trong vic tnh ton gi tr offset cho JET l phi xc nh

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c s nt chuyn mch trung gian gia ngun v ch. Trong mng OBS, thng tin v s lng cc nt chuyn mch trung gian trn mt ng i t ngun ti ch thng thng l khng sn c. Thm ch khi nhng thng tin ny bng cch no c bit th do nh hng ca l trnh thay i, n cng khng m bo tnh hp l khi s dng. Nh vy, cn mt gi tr offset time m khng ph thuc vo ng truyn s dng v khng yu cu trao i thng tin gia cc node mng vi nhau. Hin nay vi nhng tin b trong ch to phn cng cho cc giao thc truyn thng, tr x l ti cc node trung gian l rt ngn trong hu ht cc chc nng chung ca giao thc bo hiu. Trong trng hp ny, cc dy tr quang c th c s dng mt cch hp l ti cc node trung gian lm tr mi burst u vo mt lng thi gian cn bng vi tr x l tiu . Ta c th b qua cc tr ny trong tnh ton. S mi ny c gi l giao thc ch c tr ch (Only Destination Delay ODD) v gi tr trong biu thc l [5]: OT = + ST : ,ST l cc gi tr tr ti ch. *D tr tr (DR) trong vic s dng hiu qu bng thng: D tr tr s em li hiu qu cao trong vic s dng bng thng. Hnh 2.8 minh ho ti sao d tr tr to nn s dng hiu qu bng thng. Gi s xt ti node X, mt gi iu khin ti v thc hin dnh trc ti nguyn ti thi im t1' v thi im bt u tin ca burst th nht n l t1, vi t1> t1' .Ta c khong thi gian offset time ca burst th nht l: offset time = t1 - t1'. Cng gi s c mt gi iu khin khc (gi iu khin th 2) n node ang xt thi im t2', tng t t2 l thi im bt u tin ca burst th 2 n. Ta c thi gian tr ca burst ny l: offset = t2 - t2'.
T n h p r g
T m h i i g i uk i th i h n n t ht i t1'

1
t2'

Br t t hi us h a
t2 t2 + l2

Br t t n us h ht
t1 t1+l1

T m h i i g i uk i th i h n h i t a i

T n h p r g
T m h i i g i uk i th i h n n t ht i t1'

2
t2' t1 T m h i i g i uk i th i h n h i t a i

Br t t us h

1
t1+l1 t2

Br t t us h

2
t2 + l2

Hnh 2.8: Li ch ca DR xc nh thi im n ca Burst th nht (t1) , khi thi gian x l gi iu khin c th thay i t node ny n node khc, trong gi iu khin s cho bit gi tr thi gian tr c s dng ti node k tip. Gi tr ny c th c cp nht da trn thi gian x l gi iu khin ti node hin ti.
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Trong chuyn mch burst quang da trn giao thc JET , vic xc nh thi im n ca burst t1 l rt quan trng. Trong giao thc JET rng bng c ng k ti thi im t1 +l1, l1 l khong thi gian tn ti ca burst th 1 , thay v n v hn. iu ny s lm tng hiu qu s dng bng thng v gim xc sut loi b burst . Nh hnh trn, trong c hai trng hp, chng ta s dng giao thc JET v d tr tr th burst th 2 n vn c phc v nu t1' < t2' < t2+l2 < t1 (trng hp 1) hay t1' < t2' < t1+l1 < t2 (trng hp 2). DR lun s dng thi gian tr. tng hiu qu s dng thi gian tr trong JET v gim tr khi phi truyn li burst, gi iu khin s c truyn i ti thi im sm nht c th c bng cch c lng di burst. Nu di burst ln hn di c lng th mt gi iu khin khc s c gi i xo rng bng ng k. Nu di burst nh hn di c lng th phn d liu cn li c gi i nh mt hay nhiu burst b sung.

2.3.2 C ch bo hiu Just In Time (JIT)


C ch bo hiu Just-In-Time (JIT) tng t nh c ch bo hiu JET, nhng c ch ny s dng phng thc d tr ti nguyn tc thi (Immediate Reservation) v gii phng ti nguyn r rng (Explicit Release). Gia burst d liu v gi tiu burst c khong thi gian offset time do JIT khng yu cu phi s dng ng dy tr quang ti cc nt chuyn mch trung gian.
Source B P H Interm ediate nodes D estination

SE P & TU C NF M O IR PH SE A

B urst

ST TR N ISSIO A SM N & R L SE PH SE E EA A

T e im

Hnh 2.9: C ch bo hiu Just In Time Khi gi tiu burst c gi i d tr ti nguyn, ti mt nt chuyn mch trung gian, mt bc sng kh dng s c n nh cho burst d liu ngay sau khi gi tiu burst c x l. Bc sng ny s dnh ring cho burst d liu cho n khi c mt bn tin gii phng c gi i t node ngun gii phng kt ni. Gi
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tiu burst khng cn phi mang thng tin v thi im n ca burst d liu v di ca burst [3]. Nu qu trnh d tr ti nguyn tht bi, burst d liu s b loi b.
OT 2 2 2 0 OT 0 1 OT 1 1 Hae edr 0 Cn l o tro Cae hnl D ta a ch n l ae

REL 0 2

H ae edr 2 1 0

H ae edr 1

H ae edr 0

Hnh 2.10: So snh c ch bo hiu JET (trn) v JIT (di) Hnh 2.10, so snh c ch bo hiu JET v JIT. Trong c ch bo hiu JET s dng phng thc d tr ti nguyn tr (Delayed Reservation), ngha l bc sng kh dng ch c n nh khi burst d liu 0 ti c nt nn trong khong thi gian offset time c th truyn burst d liu 1 trn cng mt bc sng m khng xy ra tranh chp. Khi burst d liu 0 kt thc truyn, knh truyn s c gii phng ngay v vy burst d liu 2 c th c gi vo mng OBS ngay khi burst 0 kt thc. Trong c ch bo hiu JIT, do s dng phng thc d tr ti nguyn tc th nn trong khong thi gian offset time, burst d liu 1 khng th truyn qua mng OBS trn cng bc sng vi burst d liu 0. V khi burst d liu 0 truyn kt thc th bn tin gii phng s c gi i t node ngun gii phng knh, trong thi gian gii phng knh th burst d liu 2 khng th truyn qua mng OBS c. Nh vy c ch bo hiu Just In Time s dng bng thng khng hiu qu nh Just Enough Time. Trong [4], Jing Teng v George N. Roukas tin hnh m phng v kt qu cho thy c ch bo hiu JIT cho t l mt burst cao hn c ch bo hiu JET.

2.3.3 C ch bo hiu Tell And Go (TAG)


y l c ch bo hiu d tr ti nguyn tc th v gii phng ti nguyn r rng. Trong TAG, gi iu khin c truyn dn trn mt knh iu khin c theo sau bi mt burst, trn mt knh d liu vi lch bng khng hoc khng ng k. Burst c m bng cch s dng ng dy tr quang (Fiber Delay Line FDL) trong khi gi tin iu khin c x l ti mi node trung gian. c im ny ca Tell And Go ging vi chuyn mch gi quang. Nu vic chim dng bc sng thnh cng th burst c truyn dn dc theo knh chim tri li burst s b loi b v mt bn tin ph nh bo nhn (NAK Negative Acknowledgment) c gi

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tr li ngun. Node ngun s gi mt gi iu khin sau khi truyn dn burst gii phng ti nguyn b chim dc theo tuyn [2]. Nhc im c bn ca phng php ny l gii hn v mt cng ngh ca ng dy tr quang FDL. FDL c th lm tr burst trong mt khong thi gian c nh v khng th thch nghi vi kch thc burst d liu thay i. Cng nh c ch bo hiu Just In Time, TAG khng tn dng ti nguyn hiu qu do s dng d tr tc th v gii phng ti nguyn r rng. Khi cha c bn tin Release, knh s khng c gii phng v trong khong thi gian gii phng knh, knh s khng c gn cho bt c burst no khc.
Source B P H Interm ediate nodes D estination

G tin i N K A B urst

T e im

G tin i RL AE EE S

Hnh 2.11: C ch bo hiu Tell-And-Go

2.3.4 C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait (TAW)


C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait c m t trn hnh 2.12. Trong phng thc TAW, node ngun s gi mt gi iu khin d tr ti nguyn cho burst d liu dc theo tuyn. Sau nt ngun s i mt bn tin xc nhn ACK t node ch thng bo vic d tr ti nguyn thnh cng. Burst d liu s c gi i t node ngun trn tuyn ng chn. V sau khi burst c truyn n ch s c mt bn tin gii phng kt ni c gi i gii phng ti nguyn t ngun ti ch. Nu qu trnh d tr ti nguyn l khng thnh cng ti mt nt OBS trung gian no n nt ch th ngay lp tc s c mt bn tin thng bo khng thnh cng c gi v t nt gii phng ti nguyn c thit lp trn tuyn t nt ngun n nt v burst s khng c pht i. Nt ngun s phi gi li gi iu khin d tr ti nguyn t ngun ti ch mt ln na.
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Nu chng ta so snh TAW v cc c ch bo hiu mt chiu th nhc im ca TAW l thi gian cn thit cho thit lp knh; tuy nhin u im ca TAW l t l mt d liu l rt thp. Do , TAW ph hp cho lu lng yu cu tin cy v t l mt burst v cc burst c kch thc tng i ln so vi thi gian thit lp knh truyn t ngun ti ch.

Hnh 2.12: C ch bo hiu Tell And Wait

2.4 Cc thut ton sp xp knh


Khi mt gi tin tiu burst ti nt li, khi iu khin chuyn mch SCU x l gi tin ny v mt thut ton sp xp knh hay lp lch knh c thc hin gn burst d liu cho mt knh bc sng thch hp u ra. Khi lp lch knh ly thi im burst n v chiu di burst t gi tin iu khin. Thut ton c th cn phi duy tr thi im knh truyn ri gn nht LAUT (Latest Available Unscheduled Time) hay cn gi l horizon, cc tham s void v gap trn mi knh d liu u ra. Theo l thuyt, LAUT ca mt knh d liu l thi im gn nht mt knh d liu c th s dng cho mt burst d liu cha c lp lch hay c th hiu l thi im kt thc ca mt burst c lp lch trong mt s trng hp. Gap l khong thi gian c tnh gia thi im n ca mt burst cha c lp lch v thi im kt thc ca mt burst c lp lch trc . Void l khong thi gian gia hai burst d liu c lp lch trn mt knh d liu m trong thi gian khng c burst d liu no khc c lp lch. Nhng thng tin sau c s dng bi khi lp lch cho hu ht cc thut ton lp lch knh:

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Lb l chiu di burst. t l thi im n ca burst cha c lp lch W l s lng knh d liu ti a ng ra. Nb l s lng ti a cc burst d liu c lp lch. Di knh d liu th i ng ra.

LAUTi l LAUT ca knh d liu th i, i = 0,2, W-1, cho cc thut ton khng lp khong trng. Si,j v Ei,j l cc thi im bt u v kt thc ca burst d liu c lp lch th j trn knh d liu th i, cho cc thut ton lp khong trng. Gapi: Nu knh truyn c th s dng, khong trng gap l s sai khc v thi gian gia t v LAUTi i vi cc thut ton khng lp khong trng v l s sai khc v thi gian gia t v Ei,j ca burst c lp lch trc vi cc thut ton khng lp khong trng. Nu knh truyn bn, th Gapi = 0. Thng tin v khong trng gap l hu ch la chn mt knh bc sng thch hp trong trng hp c nhiu hn mt knh ri. Nhng thut ton lp lch knh ni chung c th phn thnh hai loi: cc thut ton khng thc hin lp khong trng v thc hin lp khong trng. Cc thut ton v c bn khc nhau da trn loi v s lng thng tin trng thi ti mt nt v cc knh truyn. i vi cc thut ton khng lp khong trng, tham s LAUTi trn tt c cc knh truyn Di c duy tr bi b lp lch knh. i vi cc thut ton lp y khong trng, thi gian bt u v kt thc ca mi mt burst d liu c duy tr ti mi nt trn tt c cc knh. Trong phn di y, chng ta xem xt cc thut ton khng lp khong trng FFUC, LAUC v lp khong trng FFUC-VF, LAUC-VF, Min-EV.

2.4.1 Knh ri ph hp u tin (FFUC)


Thut ton FFUC lu tr gi tr ca LAUT (hay cn gi l horizon) trn tt c cc knh d liu. Khi burst d liu i n, thut ton FFUC s tm kim trn tt c knh truyn theo mt th t c nh v sp xp mt knh thch hp tm thy u tin cho burst ang n ny. Mt knh truyn c xem l thch hp i vi thut ton FFUC khi gi tr LAUT ca n nm trc thi im burst cha c lp lch i n. Gii thut FFUC c th c gii thch nh trn hnh 2.13. C th m t nh sau: FFUC thc hin da trn cc gi tr LAUT0, LAUT1, LAUT2, LAUT3 ca knh d liu D0, D1, D2, D3. Thi im t l thi im burst n. Ta thy c LAUT1 v LAUT2 u tha mn cn LAUT0 v LAUT3 khng tha mn. Nu cc knh d liu c sp t da trn ch s ca knh (D0, D1, D2, D3), burst d liu i n s c sp xp trn knh
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D1 v theo th t knh D1 nm trc knh D2. u im ca thut ton ny l n gin v tc nhanh. Nhc im ca thut ton ny l t l mt burst cao v tn dng ti nguyn khng hiu qu.

Hnh 2.13: Thut ton FFUC v LAUC

2.4.2 Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht (LAUC)


Thut ton LAUC v c bn thc hin tng t nh thut ton FFUC, n cng duy tr gi tr ca LAUT trn tt c cc knh d liu nhng trong qu trnh tm kim knh d liu thch hp thay v sp xp burst d liu trn knh thch hp u tin tm c, gii thut ny la chn knh c LAUT gn vi thi im n ca burst d liu nht. Gii thut LAUC cng c m t trn hnh 2.13. Cc knh d liu D1 v D2 l thch hp v v thi im burst i n nm sau cc LAUT ca hai knh ny. Nu nh thut ton FFUC c s dng th knh D1 c la chn. Tuy nhin, vi thut ton LAUC cn quan tm n khong thi gian gia t v LAUT ca mi knh, n s chn knh no c khong thi gian ny nh nht; iu ny lm tng hiu qu s dng knh truyn so vi FFUC. Chng ta thy rng Gap1 > Gap2 do burst s c sp xp trn knh D2.

2.4.3 Knh ri ph hp u tin thc hin lp khong trng (FFUCVF)


im khc bit ca cc thut ton lp khong trng ni chung l khng lu tr gi tr LAUT m lu thi im bt u S v kt thc E ca mi burst c lp lch trn mi knh d liu. u im ca thut ton ny l tn dng khong trng gia hai burst d liu c sp xp lm tng hiu sut s dng knh truyn. FFUC-VF cng
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ging nh FFUC, n la chn knh truyn theo th t. Knh truyn u tin vi mt khong cch void thch hp c la chn.

Hnh 2.14: Thut ton FFUC-VF v LAUC-VF Thut ton FFUC-VF c m t trn hnh 2.14. Da trn Si,j v Ei,j, tt c cc knh d liu D0, D1, D2, D3 c kh nng p ng cho burst d liu n cha c lp lch. Nu cc knh ny c sp t theo ch s ca tng knh, burst d liu mi n s c lp lch ng ra D0 v n tha mn cc iu kin sau: l knh c s th t u tin c E0,0 nm trc E0,a, khong trng void ca knh ny ln hn chiu di ca burst mi n cha c lp lch.

2.4.4 Knh ri vi LAUT gn nht - thc hin lp khong trng (LAUCVF)


Gii thut LAUC-VF cng lu nhng thi im bt u S v kt thc E cho mi burst d liu c lp lch trn tt c cc knh d liu. u im ca gii thut ny l tn dng c khong trng gia hai burst d liu c sp xp. Knh truyn vi khong trng m khong cch nh nht s c chn. thit lp LAUC VF, khi iu khin chuyn mch phi lu li thng tin s dng ca tt c cc knh d liu. iu ny lm cho LAUC VF phc tp hn so vi FFUC v LAUC. Nhng tn dng ti nguyn hiu qu hn 2 loi trn.

2.5 Phn gii tranh chp


2.5.1 B m quang

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Cn s dng b m khi c nhiu hn mt gi vo mun chuyn ti cng mt u ra. Mt trong nhng c trng c bn ca chuyn mch OBS l khng cn b m quang: nt trung gian trong mng quang khng yu cu phi c b m quang. Cc burst i xuyn qua cc nt trung gian m khng c bt k s tr no. Vic gii quyt xung t mng chuyn mch gi min in truyn thng s dng cc b nh RAM lu gi tm thi cc gi tin khi xung t xy ra; tuy nhin mt b m ging nh RAM trong min quang hin nay vn cha c hu hiu. Trong mng quang, ngi ta xut dng dy tr FDL (Fiber Delay Line) lu gi cc gi tin trong min quang mt khong thi gian c nh. Yu cu tr thay i trong trng hp nhiu gi cn lm tr v cn x l ti cng mt thi im. Ghp theo bc sng v theo thi gian u c s dng trnh tranh chp. m quang c thc hin khi s dng ng dy tr si quang (FDL). Chiu di ca FDL c th tnh ton c. Chng hn m mt gi IP c 512 byte truyn vi tc 10 Gbit/s cn s dng 82 m si quang. FDL khng th a tn hiu ra ti thi im bt k; nhng n l mt h thng vo trc ra trc (FIFO) nn cc gi i qua ton b chiu di ca FDL l c m. Bng cch kt ni cc dy tr FDL theo tng hay kt ni song song, b m c xut ny c th gi cc gi tin trong min quang hay burst d liu trong cc thi gian khc nhau.

Hnh 2.15: M t gii quyt xung t bng b m Cch ny c th gim mt d liu nhng li khng m bo gi n ng th t. Trong mt s kin trc ca b m quang, kch thc ca nhng b m th b gii hn khng ch xt n yu t v mt tn hiu m c yu t v kch thc vt l. lm tr mt burst khong 1 ms th cn phi c mt on cp di hn 200 km. Bi v nhng hn ch ca b m quang nn mt node mng c th khng th p ng c
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lu lng ti ln v trong iu kin ti t bin. Nhng b m quang da trn nh tuyn bc sng v iu khin bc sng trong mt vng khp kn cng l mt gii php cho b m quang

Hnh 2.16: Dy tr FDL cng vi b khuch i v chuyn mch to thnh mt vng lp tr

2.5.2 Chuyn i bc sng


m kt hp vi chuyn i bc sng gii quyt tranh chp cc gi trong min thi gian. Tranh chp trong min khng gian phi s dng nh tuyn chch hng. Tuy nhin gii php ny khng th s dng trong mng chuyn mch ton quang do tnh phc tp ca nh tuyn ng. Cn m khi hai gi quang c nh tuyn ng thi ti cng mt cng ra. Nu c hai gi c cng bc sng th chng khng th i ti u ra Trong WDM, nhiu bc sng c ghp cng lc trn mt lin kt kt ni hai chuyn mch quang. Nhiu bc sng c th gim ti thiu s lng xung t. Gi s rng c hai burst u i n mt ch v ra cng ng ra ti cng thi im. C hai burst c th vn cn truyn i tip nu trn hai bc sng khc nhau. Cch thc ny rt c kh nng trong vic gim thiu xung t, c bit trong lc s lng bc sng c th ghp trn si quang ngy cng tng ln. Ngi ta c on trong tng lai c th ghp t 160 n 320 bc sng trn mt si quang. Chuyn i bc sng l tin trnh chuyn i mt bc sng ng vo thnh mt bc sng khc ng ra. B chuyn i bc sng l nhng thit b chuyn i bc sng ng vo thnh mt bc sng khc ng ra, do vy tng kh nng s dng li bc sng, ngha l cng mt bc sng c th c s dng li mang nhiu kt ni trn nhng lin kt khc nhau trong mng. Do nhng b chuyn i bc sng cung cp kh nng nng cao hiu sut s dng bc sng

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Hnh 2.17: Gii quyt tranh chp bng b chuyn i bc sng Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, s lng xung t c th gim xung bng cch s dng thm kh nng s dng li bc sng cho php nhiu bc sng cng hot ng trn mt lin kt t node ng vo n node ng ra. Mt burst n xung t (contenting burst) c th c chuyn ti bt k bc sng no ng ra ang ri. Hin nay cc b chuyn i bc sng ch c a ra v s dng trong cc phng th nghim, cng ngh ny cng cha hon thin v khong bc sng c kh nng chuyn i cn hn ch. Sau y l mt s loi chuyn i bc sng: - Chuyn i ton b (Full conversion): Mt bc sng mi n c th chuyn n bt k bc sng no ng ra; do vy khng c mt bc sng no xut hin lin tc trn mt kt ni t u cui n u cui. - Chuyn i c gii hn (Limited conversion): Vic chuyn i bc sng b gii hn khng phi tt c cc knh ng vo u c th kt ni n tt c cc knh ng ra. Vic gii hn ny s lm gim chi ph ca chuyn mch trong khi chp nhn mt s lng xung t. - Chuyn i c nh (Fixed conversion): y cng l mt dng ca limited conversion, trong mi knh ng vo c kt ni vi mt hay nhiu knh ng ra c ch nh trc. - Chuyn i mt phn (Sparse wavelength conversion): Trong mng c th bao gm cc node c chuyn i ton b, c gii hn, c nh v khng c b chuyn i bc sng.

2.5.3 nh tuyn chuyn hng


2.5.3.1 Gii thiu

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Lm lch hng i l mt phng php gii quyt nghn bng vic nh tuyn mt burst tranh chp n mt ng ra khc so vi ng ra theo d kin. Tuy nhin burst lch hng c th n ch theo mt tuyn di hn. V vy c th xy ra tr u cui u cui ca mt burst. Lm lch hng i khng c kh thi trong mng chuyn mch in v kh nng lp v phn tn burst. Trong khi x l gi iu khin truyn i burst trn tuyn chnh, nu burst cm thy nghn th mt gi iu khin khc c bt u t nt nghn trung gian v burst c truyn qua mt tuyn la chn t nt trung gian .C nhiu yu t quyt nh nh tuyn, trc ht n xc nh c la chn tuyn cho mt burst c hay khng hay loi b v thc hin gi li t nt ngun. Trong nh tuyn chuyn hng, xung t c gii quyt bng cch nh tuyn burst d liu n mt ng ra khc thay v l ng ra nh ban u; tc l k t node i theo con ng khc n ch ch khng cn i theo con ng ngn nht ban u.

Hnh 2.18: Cu trc ca mng OBS vi k thut lm lch hng i nh tuyn chuyn hng khng c quan tm i vi mng chuyn mch gi trong min in; tuy nhin, n li thc s cn thit i vi mng ton quang trong khi cc b m quang cn hn ch.

2.5.3.2 Phng php nh tuyn chuyn hng


Phng php nh tuyn lch hng i trong OBS bao gm cc bc c miu t nh trong hnh 2.19 Bc 1: Nt ngun truyn i mt gi iu khin. Bc 2: Nt trung gian x l gi iu khin v c gng dnh trc mt knh hot ng cho burst. Bc 3: Nt ngun truyn i burst sau mt khong offset.

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Bc 4: Nu ti mt nt khng c knh ng ra no hiu lc cho burst, trc ht n kim tra c phi nt hin ti l ngun hay khng. Nu nt hin ti l nt ngun th nh tuyn chuyn hng khng thc hin. Thay v , sau khi i mt khong thi gian, ngun truyn li gi iu khin ri sau burst c truyn i. Nu nt hin ti l nt trung gian th chuyn sang bc 5. Bc 5: Nt hin ti c xem nh l mt nt trung gian. V vy nt hin ti tnh ton thng s th hin v thc hin kim tra da trn nhng thng s . Do vy n quyt nh c lm lch hng hay l loi b v thng bo cho ngun thc hin truyn li. Nu quyt nh l lm lch hng i, th tuyn chn la c chn trong DRT. Tuy nhin, nu khng c tuyn no c hiu lc trong DRT th nt hin ti loi b burst v gi bn tin NACK n ngun truyn li t ngun.

Hnh 2.19: Phng php nh tuyn chuyn hng Thut ton a ra gii php iu khin nghn khc phc nhng s c xy ra i vi mng, t hiu qu cao v chi ph mng tng i thp. Chng ta cng a ra c mt s kt qu quan trng biu th bn cht ca node bin cng nh node trung gian. Cc kt qu ny rt c ch trong vic nghin cu s bin thin ca xc sut burst suy hao khi cc thng s h thng v lu lng thay i.

2.5.4 Phn on burst

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Trong cc nghin cu v mng chuyn mch burst quang, khi xung t xy ra gia hai burst m khng th gii quyt bng cc phng php trn th mt trong hai burst b rt ton b, cho d cc phn chng ln ca cc burst ln nhau l rt nh. Trong cc ng dng yu cu nghim ngt v tr nhng khng quan tm lm n mt gi th ngi ta mong mun l rt cc gi chng ln hn l rt ton b burst. ng V. M. Vokkarane a ra phng php cho vic gii quyt xung t bng cch phn on burst (Burst Segment), lm cho s lng gi mt i gim xung bng cch ch cho rt phn chng ln ln nhau ca mt trong hai burst. u im ca phng php ny l c th xem xt n cc mc u tin ca tng burst t c th a ra quyt nh rt b mt phn ca burst n xung t (contenting burst) hay burst b xung t (contented burst) (nh hnh 2.20) Trong phn on burst, mt burst bao gm nhiu n v truyn ti nh hn gi l on (segment). Mi on gm bao gm mt header v phn payload ca on. Header ca on bao gm cc trng cho bit ng b, thng tin sa li, thng tin v ngun v ch n v chiu di ca on trong trng hp cc on c chiu di khc nhau. Phn payload ca on c th mang nhiu loi d liu, nh gi IP, t bo ATM hay cc frame Ethernet (Hnh 2.21). Khi hai burst xung t vi nhau trong mng chuyn mch burst quang, ch c mt s on ca mt burst chng ln ln burst kia mi b rt, nh hnh 2.22. Nu thi gian chuyn mch khng c b qua th c thm mt s on c th b rt khi chuyn mch c cu hnh tr li. Trong cc m t sau y, ta gi burst n trc hay burst b xung t gi l contented burst v burst n sau hay burst n xung gi l contending burst. t c tnh trong sut th lp quang khng cn phi nhn ra ranh gii thc s ca cc on v khng cn bit nh dng phn payload ca mi on. Trong trng hp ny, lp quang ch nhn ra thng tin nh cc node ngun v ch ca burst, thi gian offset, thi gian ca burst v c th l u tin ca burst. Tnh trong sut ny c th dn n vic quyt nh ti u nht cho vic gim thiu mt gi nhng cng c th mt on c th b chia thnh hai phn tch bit do vy c th mt mt gi s tng ln trong trng hp on ny n ch khng c nhn ra; tuy nhin, bng cch bo m tnh trong sut, lp li quang tr nn n gin v khng cn thit phi tnh ton li cc gi tr trong gi iu khin cc node li.

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Hnh 2.20: M t gii quyt xung t bng phn on burst Nu nh ranh gii ca cc on hon ton trong sut trong mng li ton quang th cc node bin phi chu trch nhim nh ngha v x l cc on trong min in. Hn na, node nhn phi c kh nng nhn ra im bt u ca mi on v xc nh xem th on c cn nguyn vn hay khng; do , mt s header dng nhn ra li v sa li phi cha trong mi on. Thm vo thng tin v tn hiu ng h c th cng cn phi c trong mi header ca mi on node nhn ng ra c th xc nh v phc hi d liu trn mi on. Mt on c th mt frame Ethernet. Nu mi on bao gm mt frame Ethernet, vic ng b v nhn ra frame c thc hin bi trng preamble trong header ca frame Ethernet, trong khi li v cc frame khng cn nguyn vn c th c nhn ra bng cch s dng trng CRC trong frame Ethernet; do , khng cn thit phi c phn iu khin cho mi on v mi th c sn trong mt frame Ethernet. Nu cc on khng c nh ngha nh nhng frame Ethernet, vic chn la chiu di ca mi on tr thnh mt thng s chnh ca h thng. Mt on c th c chiu di c nh hay thay i. Khi cc on c chiu di khng i th vic ng b my thu tr nn d dng; tuy nhin, nhng on c chiu di thay i li c kh nng cha c nhng gi c chiu di khc nhau. Kch thc ca mi on cn phi cn nhc gia mt mt trong mt ln xung t v s lng header trong mt burst. on di s dn n mt nhiu d liu cho mi ln xung t; tuy nhin, nhng on di cng dn n t overhead v t s gia chiu di header so vi chiu di payload s nh theo. Trong chng ny, chng ta gi s rng mi on l mt frame Ethernet c chiu di c nh v khng cn phi tm kch thc ti u ca mi on.

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Hnh 2.21: Cu trc ca burst c ng kiu phn on Mt s vn khc trong phn on burst l quyt nh xem on no b rt khi xung t xy ra gia hai burst. Chng ta t tn cho burst b xung t l contented burst cn burst xung t l contenting burst. Ch rng chm c xem l contented hay contenting burst ph thuc vo th t ca n n chuyn mch ch khng phi th t ca gi iu khin n trc hay n sau. C hai cch xc nh xem nhng on no nn rt, c gi l tail-dropping (rt phn ui) v head-dropping (rt phn u).

Hnh 2.22: Xung t lm chng ln cc on ln nhau Trong cch rt phn ui tail-dropping th cc on chng ln ca contented burst s b rt cn trong cch rt phn head-dropping u th cc on ca contenting burst chng ln s b rt. u im ca vic tail-dropping hn head-dropping trong vic thay i cc gi sai th t node ch vi gi thuyt rng cc gi b rt c truyn li sau . Vic head-dropping lm cho cc gi n ch sai th t; tuy nhin, u im ca head-dropping l n chc chn rng mt khi burst n mt node khng bt gp mt xung t no v sau cc burst ny tip tc i n ch m khng ph thuc vo cc burst i sau n c mc u tin no i chng na.

KT LUN
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Sau mt thi gian su tp, tm hiu ti liu v thc hin chuyn "Chuyn mch burst quang" gip nhm hiu c mt cch tng quan v nguyn l v cc vn c bn ca chuyn mch burst quang. Chuyn trnh by nhng ni dung: - Gii thiu v so snh v cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang, nu bt c ngha quan trng ca vic s dng chuyn mch burst quang trong giai on pht trin hin ti ca mng truyn ti quang. - Nhm i su phn tch kin trc mng OBS v hot ng ca mng OBS theo s khi chc nng ca mng: v cc phng php t hp burst, cc c ch bo hiu ch yu nh JET, JIT, TAG, TAW, cc thut ton sp xp knh, cc phng php gii quyt tranh chp. Qua cc ni dung trnh by nh trn, ta thy rng: - Chuyn mch OBS c kh nng tn dng ti nguyn hiu qu, ph hp vi cc cng ngh v phn cng v thit b trong mng WDM hin ti, v kh nng h tr cho nhiu loi giao thc khc nhau. - Cc c ch v phng php t hp burst bo hiu, sp xp knh v gii quyt tranh chp ca OBS a dng v linh hot c th h tr cc lu lng loi dch v yu cu QoS khc nhau. - Tuy nhin, OBS l mt cng ngh cha c chun ha v cha c h thng thng mi thc t no c a vo trin khai. Nhng vn c bn ca chuyn mch OBS c trnh by trong chuyn ch yu da trn cc cng trnh nghin cu, cc bi bo khoa hc v cc lun vn ca cc nh nghin cu v cc k s nc ngoi. - Vn nghin cu v OBS hin ti v tng lai l tm ra c cc giao thc ti u cho hot ng ca mng v t c th thit k v ch to cc thit b mng ph hp. Do y l mt lnh vc cn kh mi, nn vic tm hiu v chuyn Chuyn mch burst quang mi ch dng li mc l thuyt tng qut, cha i su vo phn tch, nh gi c th ht cc vn ( nh vn nh tuyn, QoS..). Nhm rt mong nhn c s nh gi, ng gp kin ca thy gio v cc bn chuyn c hon thin hn na, ng thi c th lm tin tip tc nghin cu, pht trin cc cng ngh mi hn sau ny.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


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