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Cng ha x hi ch ngha Vit Nam c lp-T do-Hnh phc LI CAM OAN Knh tha cc thy c trong hi ng bo v n tt nghip.

. Em tn l: V Th Kim Tuyn L sinh vin lp 03DT2- Khoa in t vin thng Em xin cam oan n tt nghip ny do em thc hin, khng phi l bn sao chp cc n hay cng trnh nghin cu c t trc. Nu c vn g xy ra em xin chu hon ton trch nhim. Nng thng 6/2008 Sinh vin thc hin V Th Kim Tuyn

MC LC
CC CH VIT TT................................................................................................4 M U....................................................................................................................6 Chng 1 TNG QUAN V CHUYN MCH CHM QUANG..........................9 1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.3.1. 1.3.2. 1.3.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.5.1. 1.5.2. 1.6.
2.1 2.2 2.2.1. 2.2.2. 2.2.3. 2.2.4.

Gii thiu chng........................................................................................9 Cc th h mng quang................................................................................9 Cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang.............................................................10 Chuyn mch knh quang OCS...................................................................11 Chuyn mch gi quang OPS......................................................................11 Chuyn mch chm quang OBS..................................................................12 Nguyn tc thit lp burst............................................................................13 Thi gian offset............................................................................................17 Offset c nh..............................................................................................18 Offset khi khng c d tr...........................................................................19 Kt lun chng...........................................................................................19 Gii thiu chng........................................................................................20 Kin trc mng OBS....................................................................................20 Kin trc OBS dng mt li......................................................................21 Kin trc OBS dng vng node...................................................................22 Cu trc v chc nng ca node bin..........................................................24 Cu trc v chc nng ca node li.............................................................27 Kt lun chng...........................................................................................29 Gii thiu chng........................................................................................30 Bo hiu trong mng OBS...........................................................................30 Phn loi cc giao thc bo hiu..................................................................31

Chng 2 KIN TRC MNG CHUYN MCH CHM QUANG OBS...........20

2.3 3.1. 3.2. 3.2.1.

Chng 3 BO HIU V GII QUYT XUNG T TRONG MNG OBS.....30

3.2.1.1. Bo hiu mt chiu, hai chiu hay kt hp..................................................32

3.2.12. Phng thc d tr c khi to node ngun, node ch v node trung gian 3.2.1.4 32 D tr tc thi (Intermediate Reservation) hay d tr c tr hon (Delayed 3.2.1.3. Phng thc bn (Persistent) hay khng bn (Non-Persistent)...................33 Reservation)................................................................................................................34 3.2.1.5. Gii ta tng minh (Explicit Release) hay khng tng minh (Implicit Release) .....................................................................................................................34 3.2.1.6. Bo hiu tp trung hay phn b...................................................................35 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.3 3.3.1. 3.3.2. 3.3.3. 3.3.4. 3.4. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3. 4.3.1. Giao thc bo hiu JET (Just Enough Time)...............................................36 Giao thc bo hiu TAW (Tell And Wait)..................................................38 Bo hiu c khi to ti node trung gian INI (Intermediate Node V d minh ha............................................................................................42 Cc phng php gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS.............................43 Cc ng dy tr quang FDL.....................................................................44 B chuyn i bc sng............................................................................45 nh tuyn chuyn hng............................................................................46 Phn on burst............................................................................................47 Kt lun chng...........................................................................................48 Gii thiu chng........................................................................................49 Cc thng s s dng trong cc thut ton sp xp.....................................49 Cc gii thut xp lch c bn......................................................................50 Khng s dng void filling..........................................................................50

Initiated).....................................................................................................................40

Chng 4 CC GII THUT XP LCH TRONG MNG OBS.........................49

4.3.1.1. Gii thut FFUC...........................................................................................50 4.3.1.2. Gii thut LAUC..........................................................................................51 4.3.2. C s dng void filling................................................................................52 4.3.2.1. Gii thut FFUC_VF...................................................................................53 4.3.2.2. Gii thut LAUC_VF...................................................................................55

4.3.3.

Vn s dng FDL trong cc gii thut xp lch......................................55

4.3.3.1. Thut ton khng s dng FDL...................................................................56 4.3.3.2. Thut ton c s dng FDL.........................................................................59 4.5
5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.3.1. 5.3.2. 5.3.3. 5.3.4. 5.3.5. 5.3.5.1. 5.3.5.2. 5.4. 5.4.1. 5.4.2. 5.4.3. 5.4.4. 5.5

Kt lun chng...........................................................................................60 Gii thiu chng........................................................................................61 Gii thiu phn mm NS2...........................................................................61 M phng cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS.....................................63 Gii thut FFUC...........................................................................................64 Gii thut LAUC..........................................................................................65 Gii thut LAUC_VF...................................................................................65 So snh cc gii thut...................................................................................66 So snh cc thut ton LAUC c v khng s dng FDL...........................67 Thut ton LAUC khng s dng FDL.......................................................67 Thut ton LAUC c s dng FDL.............................................................68 M phng nh hng qu trnh thit lp burst.............................................68 nh hng ca thit lp burst n tr trong mng.................................68 Bi ton m phng qu trnh thit lp burst.................................................69 Lu thut ton.........................................................................................71 Trng hp mt mc ngng c 2 mc u tin..........................................72 Kt lun chng...........................................................................................72

Chng 5 M PHNG V KT QU..................................................................61

KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI....................................................74 TI LIU THAM KHO..........................................................................................75 PHC LC.................................................................................................................76

CC CH VIT TT AC ACK ASR ARP AST BAU BBM BFUC BHC BHP CP DCS DIR DR DTWR EDFA FDL FFUC JIT JET INI LAUC LAUC-VF NS NSFNET NAK NACK OBS Access Control Acknowledged Adjustable Synchronous Reservation Acknowledged reservation period Acknowledged sending Time Burst assembly Unit Buffered Burst Multiplexer Best Fit Unscheduled Channel Burst Header Cell Burst Header Packet Control packet Data Channel Scheduling Destination Initiated Reservation Delay Reservation Dynamic Two Way Reservation Erbium Dopted Fiber Amplifier Fiber Delay line First Fit Unscheduled Channel Just In Time Just Enough Time Intermediate Node Initiated Lastest Available Channel LAUC with void Filling Network Simulation National Science Foundation Network Not Acknowledged Negative Acknowledged Optical Burst Switching

OCS O/E/O OPS QoS OXC RWA SCU SIR SOA SDH SONET SSR TAG TAW VF WADM WC WDM

Optical Circuit Switching Optical/Electronic/Optical Optical Packet Switching Quality of Service Optical Cross Connect Routing Wavelength Assignment Switch Control Unit Source Initiated Reservation Semiconductor optical Amplifier Synchronous Digital Hierarchy Synchronous Optical Network Strict synchronous reservation Tell and Go Tell and Wait Void Filling Wavelength Add-Drop Multiplexer Wavelength Conversion Wavelength Division Multiplexing

M U
Trong giai on hin nay k thut ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng WDM l mt gii php c la chn cung cp mt c s h tng mng nhanh hn nhm p ng s pht trin bng n ca Internet. Tuy nhin, vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca lu lng d liu trn mng, tc x l in t c th khng cn ph hp trong tng lai na, ng thi d liu quang thng b chm li do x l in t ti cc node, do vic tm kim mt phng php chuyn ti cc gi IP trc tip trn lp quang m khng cn qua chuyn i O/E/O cho mng thng tin th h sau (NGN) l mt tt yu. Nhm xy dng mt mng ton quang ti d liu c duy tr trong min quang tt c cc node trung gian, cn phi thit k cc giao thc mi dnh cho cc h thng chuyn mch quang. Mt trong cc vn cn thit l lm th no h tr vic cung cp ti nguyn nhanh chng, truyn dn ng b (ca cc gi kch thc bin i nh cc gi IP) cng nh h tr mc cao vic chia s ti nguyn theo thng k x l hiu qu lu lng c tnh bng n m khng cn c m lp WDM (do cha c cc b nh truy cp ngu nhin RAM). Do cc phng php chuyn ti ton quang cn phi trnh m quang cng nhiu cng tt. Mt vn khc l lm th no h tr cht lng dch v (QoS) trong mng Internet quang th h sau. Mng IP ban u cung cp cc cc dch v best-effort, tuy nhin hin nay cc ng dng thi gian thc (v d in thoi v hi ngh truyn hnh qua Internet) yu cu QoS cao hn cc ng dng khng phi thi gian thc (nh Email hay trnh duyt Web thng thng) v do vy vn t ra i vi lp WDM l lm th no h tr QoS cho Internet quang. Mt s cng ngh khc nhau ang c pht trin, nh nh tuyn bc sng (chuyn mch knh quang OCS), chuyn mch gi quang OPS v chuyn mch chm quang OBS. Cc mng quang nh tuyn bc sng c trin khai v t c mt s hiu qu nht nh tuy nhin cc mng quang nh tuyn bc sng li li s dng chuyn mch knh c th khng phi l cng ngh thch hp nht cho cc ng dng khc nhau s dng Internet quang. K thut chuyn mch gi quang l mt gii php cng ngh khc v c l l

ti u hn cho cc ng dng mi. Tuy nhin trong iu kin mt s cng ngh hin i nh b m quang, logic quang vn cha thc hin c th chuyn mch gi quang vn cha th p dng vo thc t. Chuyn mch chm quang l cng ngh trung gian gia chuyn mch knh quang v chuyn mch gi quang p ng c yu cu vn chuyn mt lng ln d liu qua mng vi tc cao v cung cp cc tnh nng mi trong giai on ti. Cc vn cn nghin cu trong OBS l cc giao thc d tr v gii phng ti nguyn, phng php thit lp burst, cc gii thut xp lch trn cc lin kt u ra ca mng OBS. Ni dung n ny trnh by tng quan v mng OBS trong i su tm hiu v m phng cc gii thut xp lch v qu trnh thit lp burst, mc ch tm ra c thut ton ti u nht cho lng d liu truyn qua mng cao nht v kch thuc burst cho xc sut mt burst nh nht nng cao cht lng ca mng OBS. Ni dung n gm 5 chng: Chng 1: Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang. Chng 2: Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang Chng 3: Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS Chng 4: Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS Chng 5:M phng v kt qu Phng php nghin cu ca n l m phng cc gii thut xp lch trn cc lin kt u ra ca mng OBS, so snh kt qu ca cc gii thut t tm ra gii thut ti u. Ngoi ra n cn nu ln kt qu m phng qu trnh thit lp burst vi 2 trng hp mt mc ngng khng c mc u tin, mt mc ngng v c mt mc u tin t tm ra kch thc burst ti u cho xc sut mt burst nh nht. Trong qu trnh lm n mc c gng nhiu nhng khng th trch khi nhng sai st, mong cc thy c thng cm v hng dn cho em. hon thnh n ny em c s hng dn tn tnh ca thy Nguyn Duy Nht Vin, em xin gi li cm n chn thnh n thy. Em xin cm n cc thy c trong khoa

in t vin thng truyn t cho em kin thc trong nm nm qua, gia nh, bn b em h tr em trong sut qu trnh lm n. Cui cng em xin t lng bit n b m lun ng vin, gip v to iu kin tt em c th hc hnh n ngy hm nay. Nng thng 6/2008 Sinh vin thc hin V Th Kim Tuyn

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

Chng 1

TNG QUAN V CHUYN MCH CHM QUANG


1.1 Gii thiu chng Nhu cu thng tin ca con ngi ngy cng pht trin mnh m vi nhiu loi hnh dch v a dng. iu ny t ra nhng thch thc i vi h thng truyn thng vn c, vn c xy dng ch yu phc v cho nhu cu thoi v truyn thng tin khng i hi tc cao. Mt yu cu t ra l phi xy dng mt h thng c kh nng cung cp bng thng ln, truyn c mt lng ln d liu vi tc cao. Si quang vi nhng tnh cht u vit cng vic ng dng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng (WDM) l mt gii php ha hn cho mng Internet th h mi. Mt mng ton quang l mc tiu hng ti nhng trong tng lai gn chng ta c th xy dng mt mng quang trong sut t nht i vi d liu trong d liu c chuyn hon ton trong min quang cn gi tin iu khin c chuyn trong min in. Cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang c xut nh chuyn mch knh quang, chuyn mch gi quang v chuyn mch chm quang, mi cng ngh c cc u v nhc im ring trong chuyn mch chm quang dung ha c nhng u v nhc im ca hai loi chuyn mch kia v l cng ngh ha hn trong tng lai. Ni dung trong chng ny l nhng nt chnh v chuyn mch chm quang, u im ca n so vi cc cng ngh chuyn mch khc, cc phng php thit lp burst trong mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS. 1.2 Cc th h mng quang Th h u tin l kin trc mng point to point WDM (WDM im- im). Mt mng nh vy gm nhiu lin kt im im, tt c cc lu lng i vo mt node t mt si quang c chuyn i t quang sang in v tt c cc lu lng i ra mt node c chuyn i t in sang quang trc khi a vo si quang. Vic tch ghp lung quang bng cch chuyn i quang in ti mi node c th lm tng tr v tng chi ph mng, do , gim c tr v gim i chi

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

ph mng ta nn xy dng mt mng ton quang ngha l vic chuyn tip gi hon ton trong min quang. Kin trc mng quang th hai da trn cc b xen rt ghp knh theo bc sng Wavelength Add-Drop Multiplexer (WADM), trong vic tch ghp lu lng c thc hin ti ni c WADM . WADM c th tch ra mt bc sng c chn v cho php cc bc sng i qua. Ni chung, lu lng i qua mt node th nhiu hn lu lng cn r ti mt node. Do bng vic s dng WADM chng ta c th gim c chi ph ton mng bng cch ch tch nhng bc sng m ch n ca n l ti node ny cn tt c cc bc sng khc i n node tip theo. Kin trc mng quang th h th ba da trn vic kt ni cc thit b ton quang. Nhng thit b ny thng c phn loi thnh passive star, passive router v active switch. Tn hiu c a vo mt bc sng ti ng vo sao cng sut tn hiu ny s c chia u cho tt c cc ng ra (s dng cng bc sng). Mt passive router c th nh tuyn mt cch ring r mt trong s nhiu bc sng si quang ng vo n mt bc sng ging nh vy ng ra. Active switch cho php s dng li bc sng v c th h tr nhng kt ni lin tc qua n. Passive star c s dng xy dng mt mng WDM ni b. Trong khi active switch dng xy dng mng din rng nh tuyn bc sng, Passive router dng nh l mt thit b mux v demux. 1.3 Cc cng ngh chuyn mch quang Hin ti c 3 cng ngh chuyn mch quang l chuyn mch knh quang Optical Circuit Switching (OCS), chuyn mch gi quang Optical Packet Switching (OPS) v chuyn mch chm quang Optical Burst Switching (OBS). Mi loi c c im ring v OBS c cho l cng ngh trung gian gia 2 loi kia v n dung ha c u v nhc im ca c hai v tr thnh cng ngh y hp dn v ha hn trong tng lai.

1.3.1 Chuyn mch knh quang OCS

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Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

Chuyn mch knh quang hay cn gi l giao thc nh tuyn bc sng quang Wavelength Routed Networking (WRN) trong mt ng dn quang c thit lp gia ch v ngun trc khi truyn d liu. Trong khi truyn d liu khng cn node trung gian thc hin nhng cng vic phc tp nh x l header hay m ti trng. Mt ng dn quang (light path) c s dng cung cp mt kt ni trong mng WDM nh tuyn bc sng v c th tri di trn nhiu lin kt si quang. Cc b chuyn i bc sng to ra cc bc sng khc nhau trn cc lin kt quang. Trong mng WRN bng thng c cp pht tnh hay c nh nn khng th thch ng vi lu lng dn dp v thay i cao ca Internet mt cch hiu qu. Vi mt s bc sng gii hn cho trc ch mt s lng ng dn quang hn ch c thit lp ti cng mt thi im. Nu lu lng thay i ng, lu long truyn qua cc ng dn tnh s lm cho s tn dng bng thng km hiu qu. c th p ng c yu cu v bng thng ln trong mng th v mng din rng, nhng phng thc truyn ti phi h tr vic d tr ti nguyn v c kh nng truyn c lu lng t bin. Nhng nu ta c gng thit lp cc ng dn quang mt cch thc ng, thng tin trng thi ca mng s thay i lin tc gy kh khn trong vic cp nht trng thi ca mng. Hn na, d tr trong WRN l d tr hai chiu trong khi c nhu cu ngun gi yu cu thit lp ng dn quang v nhn v mt xc nhn t ch tng ng l kt ni c thit lp cho d kt ni ny c dung lng bao nhiu, do vy vic s dng bng thng khng hiu qu v mt kinh t. 1.3.2 Chuyn mch gi quang OPS Chuyn mch gi quang c th cung cp bng thng ng nn thch hp vi lu lng thay i ca internet v n cho php chia s thng k cc bc sng thuc v cc ch v ngun khc nhau. Trong mng chuyn mch gi OPS phn header ca mi gi c tch ra v x l trong min in cn d liu phi m trong min quang ch header c x l xong mi c truyn i. V vy yu cu phi c b m quang nhng y l cng ngh vn cha thc hin c. Hn na vic x l header trong min quang khng th thc hin c trong tng lai gn do cha c

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Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

logic quang hon ton nn mc d OPS l mt cng ngh c nhiu tnh nng vt tri nh tc chuyn mch cao, thch hp vi bn cht ca lu lng internet nhng khng thc t trong tng lai gn.

Chuyn mch burst quang 1.3.3 Chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Chuyn mch gi quang

Hnh 1.1 Cu trc ca OPS v OBS Chuyn mch chm quang cng da trn tng tch gi tin iu khin nh OPS nhng gia gi tin iu khin (BHP) v burst d liu c s gn kt cht ch v thi gian hn trong OPS. Cc gi tin c tch hp thnh cc burst c chiu di khc nhau v c gi i sau gi tin iu khin mt thi gian offset. Thi gian offset c tnh ton sao cho gi tin iu khin c x l xong v hon thnh vic d tr ti nguyn ti cc node trung gian. V vy cng ngh b m quang khng bt buc. Vic x l mt BHP cho nhiu gi tin cng mt lc lm gim thi gian x l header cho tng gi trong OPS. Khc vi OCS, OBS s dng phng thc d tr ti nguyn mt chiu truyn dn tc thi, ngha l burst d liu theo sau mt gi tin iu khin m khng cn ch chp thun ca node k tip trn ng i n ch nn chim dng ti nguyn hiu qu hn OCS. N cng t ra thch hp vi lu lng thay i t bin ca internet v theo cc kt qu nghin cu cho thy lu lng ca internet nht l cc trang web c bn cht burst[ 4].

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Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

Do c s thay i v di burst m mng OBS c coi l gia mng OPS v WRN. Khi cc burst c chiu di rt nh, gn vi cc gi thng tin quang th mng OBS c coi l mng OPS nhng khi cc burst c chiu di kh ln th n c th coi l mng WRN. Hn na chuyn mch chm quang c thit k khc phc cc nhc im ca OCS v OPS. Nu OCS ch thch hp vi cc dch v tc c nh nh thoi hay truyn hnh v chim dng ti nguyn ln, OPS th tc cao nhng i hi cc cng ngh cha thc hin c nh b m quang hay logic quang th OBS li p ng c yu cu tc thay i ca cc dch v truyn s liu v do burst d liu c truyn i sau cc gi tin iu khin mt thi gian offset nn khng bt buc c b m quang. V vy OBS c xem nh cng ngh chuyn mch quang ha hn nht trong tng lai cho mt lng ln d liu vi tc cao. Chuyn mch quang OCS S dng bng thng Thp cao tr Tc chuyn mch ng b Kh nng p ng lu lng Thp Vn chnh Khng linh ng Cn b m quang Va OBS Cao Thp (c Cao th ms hay Thp

overhead

Chm (ms) Thp

OPS

Cao

Thp

Nhanh (ns) Cao

Cao

s) Bng 1.1: So snh cc cng ngh chuyn mch 1.4. Nguyn tc thit lp burst Thit lp burst l qu trnh tp hp v ng gi ng vo t lp cao hn thnh burst ti node bin ng vo ca mng OBS. C nhiu k thut c xut trong hai k thut c quan tm nht l thit lp da vo b nh thi (timerbased) v da trn mc ngng ( threshold based). Trong phng php thit lp da trn b nh thi, mt burst c to ra trong mng theo chu k thi gian, tc l ng thi gian c nh sn trong b

13

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

nh thi th s to ra mt burst khng quan tm n kch thc burst di hay ngn. Do , chiu di ca burst bin i khi ti vo mng bin i. Trong phng php da trn mc ngng, s lng gi trong mi burst b gii hn hay ni cch khc l chiu di cc burst bng nhau. Phng php ng gi da trn mc ngng s khng pht cc burst theo mt chu k thi gian no c. Phng php ng gi da trn b nh thi v da trn mc ngng tng t nhau, bi v ti tc c nh cho trc th v gi tr thi gian hay gi tr kch thc c th thay i qua li (mapping). Mt vn t ra cho thit lp burst l lm sao tm ra gi tr ca b nh thi v kch thc ngng ti thiu xc sut mt gi trong mng OBS. Vic la chn mt con s ti u cho mc ngng (hay gi tr ca b nh thi) l mt vn cn nghin cu. Nu nh gi tr ngng qu nh, burst s ngn, s lng burst trong mng s nhiu. Nhiu burst trong mng dn n nhiu xung t xy ra, nhng s lng mt gi trung bnh trong mi ln li nh. Nhng vi s lng burst nhiu nh vy s tng p lc ln mt phng iu khin x l cc gi iu khin ca mi burst d liu. Nu nh thi gian chuyn mch khng c b qua, burst ngn s dn n vic s dng li ti nguyn tr nn km i do phi cn nhiu thi gian cho chuyn mch. Mt khc nu mc ngng qu ln, burst s di, s lng burst vo mng s nh nhng s lng trung bnh cc gi b mt trong mt xung t li ln hn nhiu. Do vy cn mt s cn nhc gia s lng xung t v s gi mt trong mi ln xung t. Ta cn tnh ton cc burst c thit lp vi mt kch thc ti u hn ch n mc thp nht s mt burst. Tng t i vi k thut da trn b nh thi ta phi chn ra thi gian tt nht kt thc vic thit lp burst. Trong trng hp cc gi chu s hn ch v QoS, nh s bt buc c tr, gii php r rng l thit lp burst theo thi gian. Gi tr nh thi c la chn da trn yu cu tr end to end ca cc gi. Cn trong trng hp khng bt buc c tr, s thit lp burst theo chiu di t ra hp l hn v cc burst c kch thc c nh khng thay i trong mng s gip gim bt kh nng mt burst do xung t (S thay i chiu di burst l 0). Bng cch tnh ton gi tr chiu di burst ngn nht, gi tr

14

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

thi gian nh thi da trn kh nng chu tr ca gi ta c th t c xc sut mt burst nh nht m vn tha yu cu tr. Do lu lng trong mng c th thay i nn hin nay phng php thit lp burst tt nht l va thit lp theo thi gian, va theo di burst. Trong cch ny, burst s c thit lp trong mt khong thi gian nht nh, sau thi gian ny cc burst s c gi i m khng xt n di ca burst do cc burst s c di khc nhau nhng khng nh hn di qui nh, nu di burst nh hn di qui nh th mt phn b sung s c thm vo phn burst c di qui nh nh nht. Nu cha ht thi gian ny m di burst c gi tr bng di ln nht th burst s c gi i trc khi kt thc thi gian thit lp burst.

15

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

Hnh 1.2 Cc phng php thit lp burst theo chiu di burst v theo thi gian Trong [3], k thut thit lp burst da trn d on c c gii thiu, trong gi tr ngng ca burst hay gn tr nh thi ca burst k tip c d on da trn tc trung bnh ca lu lng ti. Bng cch s dng chiu di burst d on, gi BHP c th c gi i vo mng li trc khi mt burst thc s c to ra v c th d tr ti nguyn trc , do c th lm gim tr do thit lp burst. Gi tr d on c th c s dng cho vic thit lp cc gi tr mc ngng hay b nh thi cho burst k tip da trn tnh tng quan ca lu lng. u im ca phng php thit lp burst da trn d on l bo hiu v thit lp burst c th thc hin song song do tit kim c thi gian thit lp burst. Trong lc thit lp burst, gi n lp cao hn c cha trong hng i da trn ch n v lp QoS ca chng. Sau khi tiu chun thit lp burst c tha mn (mc ngng kch thch burst hay gi tr ca b nh thi t c), burst s c to ra v gi vo mng. Do , chng ta c th thy c tnh n ca gi v phn phi chiu di gi nh hng nhiu n c tnh n ca burst v phn phi chiu di burst. Trong lc thit lp burst, node bin ng vo sp xp v lp lch cho cc gi n vo trong nhng b m ng vo theo mc QoS v ch n ca n. Nhng gi ny sau c tp hp thnh burst v cha trong cc b m ng ra. Bi v mi hng v mi lp dch v yu cu mt b m ring, nn s lng lp dch v v kch thc mng quyt nh nhiu n kch thc ca b m ti node bin ng vo.

16

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

Mt tnh hung phc tp hn khi gi n c nhiu lp dch v. trong trng hp ny, cc gi n phi c ng thnh burst cng vi mc u tin ca n vo trong mi burst mng li quang c th cung cp cc mc dch v khc nhau. Vic la chon mt c cu thit lp burst cho tt c cc lp dch v c th l khng thch hp. Mt phng php thit lp burst da trn mc ngng hay b nh thi vi gi tr b nh thi ln c th dn n nhng tr khng chp nhn c cho cc lp dch v yu cu nghim ngt v tr, trong khi chiu di burst khng ti u c th lm tng mt gi i vi cc lp dch v yu cu nghim ngt v mt mt d liu. Trong [3] nu ln cch thit lp burst kt hp khc phc nhng vn ny. Trong phng php thit lp burst kiu kt hp, gi t cc lp dch v khc nhau vi nhng yu cu v QoS khc nhau c th thit lp trn cng mt burst. Phn m phng qu trnh thit lp burst chng 5 s dng k thut thit lp burst kiu vi phn h tr nhiu lp dch v khc nhau. Trong phng php ny, loi burst c nh ngha da trn yu cu v QoS. Mi loi burst sau c thit lp s dng mt c cu thit lp thch hp chc chn rng p ng c yu cu v QoS. Gi tr ca b nh thi da trn yu cu nghim ngt ca tr end-to-end v gi tr ca mc ngng c thit lp bng gi tr ti u ca di burst vi lu lng ti vo mng nm trong mt di cho trc. 1.5 Thi gian offset Trong mng OBS c s lin kt cht ch v thi gian gia gi tin iu khin v burst d liu. Burst c gi i ngay sau gi tin iu khin mt thi gian offset d tr ti nguyn cho burst ti cc node trung gian. Thi gian offset ny t nht phi bng thi gian x l cc node ca gi tin iu khin. Toffset = . H + Txl + Tch vi H l s lng node chuyn mch trung gian trn ng truyn v l thi gian cn thit x l mi node. Txl v Tch l thi gian x l v chuyn mch burst node ch. Mt yu cu t ra l phi tnh ton sao cho thi gian offset khng di qu hay ngn. Nu thi gian offset qu ngn gy ra tnh trng burst c gi i khi cha hon thnh d tr ti nguyn cc node trung gian, burst s b mt. Ngc li nu

17

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

thi gian offset qu di lm chm tr qu trnh truyn burst trong mng. Mt cch xc nh ng thi gian offset l bit c s node m burst phi truyn qua trn ng truyn. Tuy nhin, s lng node trung gian gia node ngun v node ch trong mng OBS thng khng bit trc c v nu c th bit c th do l trnh c th thay i, s thay i ny c th do nh tuyn lm lch khi c xung t cc node trung gian, nn n cng khng thch hp khi s dng. Do vn tnh thi gian offset cng l mt vn cn thit trong mng OBS. Yu cu a ra l phi c mt gi tr offset khng ph thuc ng truyn v khng yu cu s trao i thng tin gia cc node. Trn c s ln ca thi gian offset, c th chia thi gian offset thnh cc loi. 1.5.1 Offset c nh Offset ny c dng ch yu trong giao thc JET, trong n c tnh bng tng thi gian x l gi tin iu khin cc node trung gian v node ch cng nh thi gian cu hnh chuyn mch node ch. Vi cc chuyn mch tc cao th c th gi thit thi gian x l gi tin iu khin cc node trung gian l kh nh nn thi gian offset c tnh l thi gian x l gi tin iu khin v cu hnh chuyn mch node ch. Ta c th ly gi tr ln nht trong cc thi gian offset tnh cc node ch lm thi gian offset chung cho ton mng. Thi gian offset khng ph thuc ng truyn lm n gin ha vic tnh ton v thc thi cc giao thc bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch burst quang. 1.5.2 Offset khi khng c s d tr Trong kiu offset ny burst c gi i ngay sau gi tin iu khin. Thi gian offset ny c tnh bng thi gian truyn ca gi tin iu khin. Thi gian offset ny ch c p dng trong mng c thi gian thit lp chuyn mch cng nh x l chuyn mch l rt ngn. 1.6 Kt lun chng Qua nhng ni dung trnh by trong chng ny gip ta c c ci nhn tng quan v cng ngh chuyn mch chm quang OBS, cc tnh nng vt tri ca

18

Chng 1:Tng quan v chuyn mch chm quang

cng nh kh nng ng dng trong thc t ca OBS so vi cc cng ngh khc nh chuyn mch knh quang hay chuyn mch gi quang. Cc phng php thit lp burst da trn mc ngng v di burst hay b nh thi cng c gii thiu t xut phng php thit lp burst nhm mc ch gim thiu s mt burst. Mc d cha c bit n nhiu nh chuyn mch knh quang v chuyn mch gi quang nhng chuyn mch chm quang OBS vi nhng tnh nng u vit ha hn s tr thnh cng ngh chuyn mch cho tng lai, l gii php hiu qu cho mng ng trc th h mi.

19

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Chng 2

KIN TRC MNG CHUYN MCH CHM QUANG OBS


2.1. Gii thiu chng Cu trc phn cng l mt phn quan trng trong OBS, n lm cho OBS c cc chc nng ring cng nh c nhng u im hn so vi cc chuyn mch khc. Chng ny gii thiu v cu trc ca chuyn mch OBS gm cc ni dung chnh nh gii thiu mng OBS dng mt li hay dng vng node,cu trc ca node bin, node li. Trong mng OBS, cc gi IP khc nhau c tp hp thnh cc burst node bin u vo sau c truyn i, cc gi IP c kt hp ny c tch ri tr li node bin u ra. Chc nng to burst bi s kt hp v gii kt hp c thc hin khc nhau nh c th s dng mt ngng hoc khong thi gian quy nh kt hp cc gi d liu to ra mt burst quang v gi burst vo mng. Cc node li s c cc b thu WDM, cc b pht WDM, cc b ghp knh WDM, cc b gii ghp knh WDM cc b khuych i node, cc n v iu khin chuyn mch, cc b bin i bc sng, cc ng to tr, cc b chuyn mch phn chia khng gian. Nh vy node bin v node li phi c cu trc ph hp thc hin cc chc nng ca n c trnh by cc phn sau. 2.2. Kin trc ca mng OBS Hnh 2.1 M t thnh phn ca mng OBS vi cc chc nng khc nhau

Hnh 2.1. S cc chc nng ca mng OBS

20

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Trong mng OBS, mi node c th h tr hai loi lu lng c in ln quang. Do , mi node bao gm mt node li v mt node bin, ta gi node ny l node kt hp.
2.2.1

Kin trc mng OBS dng mt li Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang cc burst d liu bao gm t hp

nhiu gi c chuyn qua mi node mng dng ton quang. Mt thng bo iu khin c truyn trc burst d liu vi mc ch thit lp cc chuyn mch dc theo ng i ca burst. Burst d liu c truyn theo sau gi iu khin m khng i bo nhn thit lp kt ni. Hnh 2.2 th hin mt mng OBS dng mt li bao gm cc node bin v cc node li. Mng OBS bao gm cc chuyn mch burst quang c ni vi cc tuyn WDM. OBS pht mt burst t cng u vo ti cng u ra, da trn thit k chuyn mch n c th c hoc khng c trang b b m quang. Cc tuyn WDM mang t hp nhiu bc sng v mi bc sng coi nh mt knh truyn. Gi iu khin kt hp vi mt burst cng c th truyn trn bng tn qua cng mt knh nh l d liu, hoc trn mt knh iu khin ring bit. Burst c th c c nh mang mt hoc nhiu gi IP.

Hnh 2.2. M hnh mng OBS dng mt li

21

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Mt node chuyn mch c trng bao gm nhng thnh phn sau:

Giao din u vo: Tip nhn gi iu khin v burst d liu, chuyn i gi n v iu khin chuyn mch: Phin dch gi iu khin, t lch trnh v

iu khin thnh tn hiu in.

gii quyt xung t, nh tuyn, iu khin ma trn chuyn mch, to li gi mo u v iu khin bin i bc sng.

Cc b bin i bc sng v cc ng tr quang (ODL): ng tr quang n v chuyn mch quang: Cc chuyn mch khng gian lm nhim v 2.2.2. Kin trc mng OBS dng Vng v Node Chng ta xem xt mng gm N node OBS c t chc trong mt vng Ring n hng, nh trn hnh 2.3

s dng nh mt b m cha burst trong mt khong thi gian tr nht nh.

chuyn burst d liu.

Hnh 2.3. M hnh mng OBS dng vng RING Mi si kt ni gia hai node OBS lin tip trong vng ring c th h tr N+1 bc sng. Trong N bc sng c s dng truyn burst, bc sng th N+1 c s dng nh mt knh iu khin. Mi node OBS c gn vi mt hoc nhiu mng truy nhp. Theo chiu t mng truy nhp n vng Ring, cc node OBS hot ng nh mt b tp trung. D

22

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

liu t ngi s dng cn chuyn qua mng Ring c tp hp, lu tr (m) dng in t ri sau c nhm li cng nhau v c truyn trong burst ti node OBS ch. Mi burst c th c kch thc bt k gia gi tr cc i v cc tiu. Cc burst c truyn i dng tn hiu quang dc theo vng Ring m khng tri qua bt k s chuyn i in-quang no nhng node trung gian. Theo hng t vng Ring n cc mng truy nhp, node OBS ngt cc burst quang c nh sn ti chnh n, chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in t, x l in t d liu cha ng trong burst v chuyn giao chng ti nhng ngi dng trong cc mng truy nhp gn lin vi n. Kin trc ca mt node OBS c cho thy trong hnh 2.4, mi node c trang b mt b tch ghp knh quang (OADM), v hai cp thu pht quang. Cp u tin gm c mt my thu v my pht c nh c iu hng bi bc sng iu khin, v l b phn ca module iu khin. Bc sng iu khin c tch bi OADM mi node, v c ghp tr li sau khi module iu khin c thng tin iu khin v c th chn thng tin mi vo. Cp th hai ca b phn thu v pht gm c mt my pht c c nh iu hng ti bc sng ch ca node, v mt my thu nhanh c th nhn cc burst t tt c N bc sng truyn ti. Mi node OBS c mt bc sng ch chuyn dng truyn cc burst ca chnh n. B OADM mi node loi b tn hiu quang t bc sng ch ca node bng cch tch bc sng tng ng. B OADM cng tch tn hiu quang trn nhng bc sng khc nhau, mi khi cc bc sng cha ng cc burst cho node ny.

23

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Hnh 2.4. Kin trc node chuyn mch quang

Trong trng hp khi c nhiu burst n, mi burst trn mt bc sng khc nhau, mt node OBS, module thu trong hnh 2.4 s dng chin lc gii quyt xung t xc nh burst no s c chp nhn. D liu truyn i c t chc thnh nhng hng i truyn da theo ch ca chng. B m d liu mi node OBS c chia s thnh N-1 hng i. Mi hng i tng ng vi mt trong s N-1 node ch. Cc hng i phc v theo th t xc nh bi module lch trnh nh trong hnh 2.4. 2.2.3. Cu trc v chc nng ca node bin Node bin OBS gm hai loi, node bin u vo v node bin u ra, y l giao din gia mng IP v mng OBS. Trong mng OBS, cc gi IP khc nhau c tp hp thnh cc burst ti node bin u vo sau n c truyn i, v cc IP c kt hp li ny s c tch ri tr li ti node bin u ra, qu trnh ny c th hin nh sau:

24

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Hnh 2.5. Kt hp v tch ri burst trong mng OBS Tng ng vi mi burst gi tin iu khin c to ra. Gi tin iu khin mang thng tin nh chiu di burst, thi gian n ca burst, thng tin v node ch v c gi trn knh iu khin c bc sng dnh ring cn burst c gi i trn cc knh d liu. S phn chia x l ny lm cho knh iu khin c th hot ng tc bit thp hn so vi knh d liu nn c th s dng cc phng php iu ch khc nhau. V mt gi iu khin nh hn nhiu so vi mt burst d liu nn mt knh iu khin thng mang hng trm gi iu khin, tng ng vi hng trm burst d liu. Cu trc c bn ca node bin u vo nh hnh:

Hnh 2.6 Cu trc ca node bin u vo node bin u vo, burst c thit lp t cc gi tin sau c a n b sp xp chn ng ra cho burst v truyn trn ng truyn. Gi tin iu khin

25

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

cng c truyn i trn knh bc sng ring. node bin u ra, cc knh d liu DCG (data channel group) c a n b nhn burst. Cc knh iu khin CCG (control channel group) c a n b nhn gi tin iu khin (BHP receiver). Cu trc c bn ca node bin u ra nh hnh:

Hnh 2.7. Cu trc ca node bin u ra Ti node bin u ra burst c a n b tch burst tch thnh cc gi tin ban u, sau c a n chuyn mch chuyn mch n cng ra theo yu cu. Trong node bin u vo, khi chc nng chnh l b pht vi bc sng iu chnh c cn node bin u ra l b nhn burst. B pht vi bc sng iu chnh c (Fast Tunable Laser) y l thnh phn chnh trong OBS node bin u vo, n cho php iu chnh bc sng trong mt bng thng bc sng cho trc truyn burst trn cc bc sng khc nhau. Cc b pht bc sng c th s dng kt hp vi b chuyn i bc sng gip cho vic gii quyt hiu qu xung t trong mng OBS. B nhn burst (Burst receiver) B nhn burst c nhim v ly li thng tin v chiu di burst v b li nhng suy hao trn ng truyn. B nhn burst phi c kh nng x l cc thng s sau: Cu trc burst khc nhau: do c nhiu phng php iu ch khc nhau nn c th c cc cu trc burst khc nhau. Cc h thng truyn dn hin c da trn phng php iu ch NRZ (non-return to zero) v s pht hin trc tip tn hiu d liu. Nu

26

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

s dng phng php iu ch DPSK (differential PSK) th nhy cao hn v thch hp vi nhiu loi kin trc vt l hn. Trong mng OBS u c th s dng cc phng php iu ch ny nn burst receiver phi c kh nng x l cc cu trc ring ca mi phng php. S thay i di burst: cc burst trong OBS c th c di khc nhau nn b thu cn phi ng b vi mi burst n. S thay i ca khong h gia cc burst: B thu phi c kh nng nhn c burst n sau mt khong h gia cc burst. Nu b thu c th hot ng trong ch truyn lin tc th khng cn quan tm n khong h gia cc burst khi v ch khi cc burst n b thu t mt b pht. Nu burst gi i t cc b pht khc nhau th s ng b khong h gia cc burst l cn thit. Cng sut burst thay i: cc burst khc nhau c khuch i v suy hao khc nhau trn ng truyn do b thu phi c kh nng p ng i vi cc mc cng sut khc nhau ca cc burst khc nhau. 2.2.4. Cu trc v chc nng ca node li Node li: c bn bao gm mt b kt ni cho quang OXC v mt n v iu khin chuyn mch SUC. SUC to v bo tr mt bng chuyn tip v chu trch nhim cu hnh cho OXC. Khi SUC nhn mt gi BHP, n c thng tin trong gi xc nh ch ca gi ny v burst d liu theo sau, tra cu thng tin trong bng chuyn tip a ra quyt nh nn m ng ra no ca khi kt ni cho quang OXC. Nu ng ra c th s dng khi c khi burst d liu n, SCU s cu hnh cho php burst d liu chuyn thng sang hon ton quang. Nu ng ra mong mun khng th s dng tc ang c s dng bi mt burst khc, vic cu hnh cho OXC ph thuc vo nguyn tc gii quyt xung t c a vo mng. Ni chung, SUC chu trch nhim c cc gi iu khin, lp lch, nhn bit xung t v gii quyt xung t, tra cu bng chuyn tip, iu khin ma trn chuyn mch (hay OXC), to li gi iu khin pht tip nu node ny cha phi l ch ca n v iu khin vic chuyn i bc sng. Trng hp mt burst d liu vo OXC trc gi iu khin ca n th burst ny s b rt.

27

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Cu trc chung ca OBS core node gm cc khi chnh: n v iu khin chuyn mch O/E/O, c cu chuyn mch v b chuyn i bc sng.

Hnh 2.8. Cu to ca node li trong mng OBS n v iu khin chuyn mch vi b chuyn i O/E/O n v iu khin chuyn mch c chc nng x l gi tin iu khin, ly ra cc thng tin nh tuyn v bc sng, iu khin c cu chuyn mch v b chuyn i bc sng chuyn burst n cng ra mong mun trn knh bc sng mong mun. Trong OBS, gi tin iu khin c x l trong min in nn b chuyn i in quang l cn thit. C cu chuyn mch quang C cu chuyn mch quang thng s dng chuyn mch khng gian quang. Do node c N u vo v M bc sng trn mi cp quang nn phi s dng chuyn mch khng gian NM x MN. Trong OBS, c cu chuyn mch quang phi c kch thc ln, thi gian chuyn mch nhanh, c tin cy cao v chi ph thp gim chi ph trong mng do trong OBS phi s dng b chuyn i O/E/O, b chuyn i bc sng v c th s dng cc ng dy tr nn rt tn km. Khi chuyn i bc sng Khi chuyn i bc sng c th t u vo hay u ra ca c cu chuyn mch. Nu b chuyn i bc sng t u ra th cc bc sng u ra ca b chuyn i khng i, nu t u vo th bc sng u ra c th thay i.

28

Chng 2:Kin trc mng chuyn mch chm quang OBS

Trong hai trng hp trn th vn c th c c s chuyn i bc sng y nu s dng b chuyn i bc sng hon ton. gim s phc tp v tn km ca chuyn mch, cc node OBS c th chia s cc b chuyn i bc sng. Tuy nhin, nu dng chung n ch c th chuyn i mt s hn ch cc bc sng v vic thc hin cng ngh ny phi c tnh ton k. Nu mun chuyn i ton b bc sng vi chuyn mch ny th cu trc chuyn mch cng phc tp hn. Chuyn i bc sng ton b l cn thit gii quyt xung t trong OBS nn y ch cp n chuyn mch vi b chuyn i bc sng ton b. Tm li node bin u vo c chc nng thit lp burst,nh tuyn,gn bc sng v sp xp burst ti bin u vo.Cc node li c chc nng bo hiu, sp xp burst ti cc lin kt trong li v gii quyt xung t. Cc node bin u ra chu trch nhim tch burst thnh cc gi ring r ri truyn n lp mng cao hn. 2.3 Kt lun chng Nh vy chng ny trnh by c c bn cu trc phn cng v s chc nng ca mng OBS th hin c u im ni tri ca n so vi cc chuyn mch khc. c bit ch trng vo cu trc ca node bin u vo, node bin u ra v node li thc hin cc chc nng kt hp burst u vo v gii kt hp burst u ra, vic x l burst, cp pht bc sng, khuch i bc sng, ca node li. Ngoi ra mng OBS bao gm cc chuyn mch burst quang c ni bi cc tuyn WDM, cc tuyn WDM ny mang t hp cc bc sng v mi bc sng coi nh mt knh truyn. Gi knh iu khin kt hp vi mt burst c truyn trn knh iu khin ring bit hoc trn cng knh nh l knh d liu. Hiu c cu trc phn cng thy c cc u im ca chuyn mch OBS v khai thc cc u im trong vic p ng nhu cu truyn d liu l mt vic ht sc quan trng.

29

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Chng 3

BO HIU V GII QUYT XUNG T TRONG MNG OBS


3.1 Gii thiu chng Khi mt burst c gi ti node li, tin trnh bo hiu c tin hnh d tr ti nguyn v cu hnh cho b chuyn mch quang ti mi node. Tin trnh bo hiu trong mng chuyn mch burst quang thc hin trn cc gi header v cc gi ny c truyn c lp vi cc burst d liu. Bn cnh tng hiu qu truyn d liu, gim kh nng mt burst trong mng OBS ta phi c cc phng php gii quyt xung t thch hp. Trong chng ny, em s trnh by cc thng s v cc tnh cht khc nhau ca cc giao thc bo hiu trong mng OBS cng nh c im ring ca tng phng thc gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS. 3.2. Bo hiu trong mng OBS Trong mng OBS gi tin header c truyn trn mt bc sng khc vi bc sng ca burst d liu tng ng vi n. Header i cng ng v ti cc node trc burst d liu, ti cc node ny header cung cp thng tin cho cc node cu hnh b kt ni cho quang sao cho ph hp vi thi gian ti tng ng ca burst d liu. 3.2.1. Phn loi cc giao thc bo hiu C nhiu loi giao thc bo hiu dng cho chuyn mch burst quang, ty vo cch thc v thi im m ti nguyn dc theo tuyn truyn c d tr cho mt burst. C th, phng php bo hiu c th c phn loi bi cc tnh cht sau:

D tr 1 chiu (one-way reservastion), d tr hai chiu (two-way reservation), hay kt hp.

Khi to ti node ngun (source-initiated), node ch (destination-

initiated), hay node trung gian (intermediate-node-initiated reservation). D tr lin tc hay khng lin tc. D tr tc thi hay c tr hon. Gii phng ti nguyn tng minh khng tng minh. Bo hiu tp trung hay phn b

30

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

3.2.1.1 Phng thc d tr mt chiu, hai chiu hay kt hp Da vo cch hot ng ca phng php bo hiu, ta phn lm 3 loi: d tr mt chiu (one-way reservation), d tr hai chiu (two-way reservation), v d tr kt hp (hybrid reservation). bo hiu dng cc d tr mt chiu, node ngun gi ra mt gi iu khin yu cu mi node dc trn tuyn ng cp pht ti nguyn cn thit cho burst d liu v cu hnh kt ni cho cc node cho ph hp. Tip theo node ngun gi ra burst d liu m khng ch bn tin ACK t cc node trung gian hay node ch, mc cho vic d tr ti nguyn cc node l thnh cng hay tht bi. V vic d tr khng c xc nhn (mt chiu), nn burst d liu c th b drop. Tuy nhin, v khng phi ch bn tin ACK bo v nn burst d liu c gi ra sm hn, gim c tr khi truyn d liu t u cui ti u cui. Phng php bo hiu d tr hai chiu da vo bn tin ACK. Khi header c gi ra t node ngun ti node ch d tr ti nguyn cho mt burst d liu th c mt bn tin ACK c gi ngc tr li, xc nhn rng ti nguyn yu cu c cp pht thnh cng. Burst d liu ch c truyn sau khi nhn c bn tin ACK. Nu bt k mt node trung gian no dc trn ng truyn khng th tip nhn c burst d liu th chnh ti node gy ra gin on s gi bn tin NACK (Negative Acknowledgement) v node ngun, bo rng vic d tr tht bi. Node ny cng s thc hin nhng hot ng thch hp gii phng tt c cc d tr (nu c) trn cc link pha trc ca ng truyn. Pha ngun c th chn cch thc hin yu cu d tr li bng cch gi i mt header mi, hay cho drop lun yu cu . Phng php bo hiu c xc nhn (hai chiu) vic d tr c th gim thiu kh nng mt burst d liu trong mng li OBS nhng n li gy ra tr ln hn cho mi burst khi truyn t u cui ti u cui. Phng php bo hiu kt hp a ra gii php cn bng gia d tr mt chiu v hai chiu, y l phng php c mt phn xc nhn vic d tr. Trong phng php bo hiu kt hp, vic d tr t node ngun ti cc node trung gian trn tuyn ng c xc nhn bng bn tin ACK, trong khi vic d tr t node trung

31

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

gian ti ch th khng c xc nhn. V tr ca node c ch lm node trung gian s xc nh kh nng mt hay tr ca burst d liu. Nu node trung gian gn vi ngun th hot ng ca mng s ging nh vic d tr khng c xc nhn (mt chiu), v nu node trung gian gn v pha ch th hot ng ging nh vic d tr c xc nhn (hai chiu). 3.2.1.2 Phng thc d tr c khi to node ngun, node ch v node trung gian Mt giao thc bo hiu c th khi to yu cu d tr ti nguyn ti ngun, ch hay ti mt bc trung gian no . Trong phng php d tr c khi to ti node ngun (source initiated reservation SIR), ti nguyn cho burst d liu c d tr theo ng xui theo header khi header i t ngun ti ch. Nu vic cp pht ti nguyn theo hng xui nh th thnh cng v mt giao thc d tr trc tng ng c dng th mt bn tin ACK ch ra cc bc sng c ginh trc s c gi ngc tr v pha ngun. Ti ngun, khi nhn c cc thng tin v ti nguyn, n pht burst d liu vo mng li vo thi im c nh trc. Trong phng php d tr c khi to node ch (Destination Initiated Reservation DIR ), node ngun pht ra mt yu cu v ti nguyn v pha node ch, yu cu ny thu thp thng tin v cc bc sng ang sn sng trn mi link dc theo tuyn ng. Da trn thng tin thu thp c, node ch s chn ra mt bc sng ang sn sng (nu tn ti) v ph hp vi thi im ti, tip n gi mt yu cu d tr trc ngc v node ngun. Yu cu d tr ny s i qua cc node trung gian, thc hin vic d tr cc bc sng c chn trong khong thi gian thch hp. Nguyn nhn chnh dn ti nghn (hay mt d liu) trong SIR l do thiu ti nguyn ri, trong khi trong DIR, mt mt l do thng tin cung cp li thi, khng cn ng na. Trong phng php d tr c khi to node trung gian (intermediate node initiated reservation - INI), c bn n ging nh phng php d tr ti nguyn DIR trong on t ngun ti mt node trung gian no , v ging vi phng php SIR trong on t node trung gian ti node ch.

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Nhn chung, gim mt mt ti cc node trn hng xui, phng php SIR c th d tr nhiu hn 1 bc sng (hay tt c nu sn sng) khi ti ch, v gii ta cc d tr khng cn thit trn hng ngc li. Dng phng php ny c th dn ti mng hot ng chm do nghn trn hng xui v thiu ti nguyn. Trong khi , phng php DIR ch thu thp thng tin v trng thi hin thi ca cc node trung gian ri mi da trn thng tin chn ra bc sng. V vy thng tin nhn c v trng thi ring ca tng node khng c cp nht, iu ny s dn ti vic bc sng c chn c th b ly i bi mt yu cu khc trong khong thi gian t khi trng thi ca node c thu thp cho ti khi bn tin d tr n c node , khong thi gian gi l khong thi gian d b xm nhp vulnerable period. Qua ta thy rng, phng php DIR chu mt mt l do thng tin li thi trong sut khong thi gian vulnerable. 3.2.1.3 Phng thc bn (Persistent) hay khng bn (Non-persistent) Mt quyt nh m phng php bo hiu no cng phi thc hin l hoc ch i ti nguyn b nghn (cho ti khi ri) hoc l ch ngay ra rng c nghn v khi to mt phng php gii quyt ph hp trnh cho kt ni tht bi nh pht li, chn ng khc hay m li. Phng php persistent dng cch ch ngun ti nguyn b nghn (cho ti khi ht nghn), vi cc b m thch hp c t ti cc node (node bin v node li) lu tr li cc burst n. Phng php non-persistent mong mun mt gii hn v tr (ti thiu khong thi gian tr do round trip), v vy mt node tuyn b rng yu cu tht bi nu ti nguyn khng sn sng ngay tc thi v s thc hin cc giao thc gii quyt nghn ph hp. 3.2.1.4 D tr tc thi (Intermediate Reservation) hay d tr c tr hon (Delayed Reservation) Da vo khong thi gian m knh b d tr, cc phng php bo hiu c phn thnh loi d tr tc thi hay d tr c tr hon.

33

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Trong phng php d tr tc thi, knh truyn c d tr ngay khi bn tin thit lp (header) n c node. Trong khi , phng php d tr c tr hon th knh truyn c d tr lc burst d liu tht s ti node (hay link). thc hin vic d tr c tr hon, header phi mang thng tin ca offset time gia header ny vi burst d liu tng ng vi n. V d nh trong phng php bo hiu just-intime (JIT), dng cch d tr tc thi, cn phng php bo hiu just-enough-time (JET) dng cch d tr c tr hon. Nhn chung, d tr tc thi n gin v thit thc khi thc hin, nhng kh nng gy nghn cao hn v cp pht bng thng khng hiu qu. Trong khi , thc hin d tr c tr hon li phi lin quan ti nhiu th hn nhng tn dng bng thng knh truyn tt hn. Phng php d tr c tr hon cn lm pht sinh khong trng khng lm g gia cc burst c sp xp trn knh d liu. Cc gii thut sp xp c s dng trong qu trnh d tr s lu tr thm thng tin v khong trng. Da vo thng tin , b scheduler s cp pht mt bc sng cho yu cu d tr. 3.2.1.5 Gii ta tng minh (Explicit Release) hay khng tng minh (Implicit Release) Mt d tr c th c gii ta bng hai cch, tng minh hoc khng tng minh. Trong phng php gii ta tng minh, mt bn tin iu khin ring s c gi theo burst d liu t ngun ti ch gii ta hay hy mt d tr ang tn ti. Trong khi , trong phng php gii ta khng tng minh, header phi mang thm thng tin chng hn nh thng tin v chiu di burst v offset time. Ta c th thy phng php gii ta khng tng minh cho kt qu tt hn trong hot ng trnh mt d liu v khng c tr gia thi im kt thc tht s ca burst d liu v thi im n ca bn tin iu khin gii ta ti mi node. Trong khi , phng php gii ta tng minh cho kt qu tn dng bng thng thp hn v gia tng phc tp ca bn tin. Da trn giao thc d tr v gii ta ti nguyn, cc phng php bo hiu c th c chia ra thnh 4 loi: D tr tc thi vi gii ta tng minh, d tr tc

34

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

thi vi gii ta khng tng minh, d tr c tr hon vi gii ta tng minh, d tr c tr hon vi gii ta khng tng minh.

Hnh 3.1: Cc phng php d tr v gii ta trong mng OBS. D tr tc thi v gii ta tng minh i hi c mt bn tin iu khin r rng c gi i thc thi chc nng nh trc, v d nh d tr knh truyn hay gii ta mt kt ni. Trong phng php d tr c tr hon, header out-of-band cn mang thng tin v offset time, v nu l gii ta khng tng minh th mang thm thng tin v chiu di ca burst d liu. Ta c th d dng thy c phng php dng cch d tr c tr hon v gii ta khng tng minh cho kt qu tn dng hiu qu bng thng cao hn, trong khi phng php d tr tc thi v gii ta tng minh tuy thc hin n gin nhng hiu qu tn dng bng thng thp hn. 3.2.1.6 Bo hiu tp trung hay phn b Trong giao thc bo hiu tp trung, mt server c ginh ring tp trung gii quyt cc yu cu d tr, n thc hin nhim v thit lp tuyn ng v cp pht bc sng trn mi tuyn cho mi burst d liu i vi tt c cc i node ngun-ch trong mng. Giao thc tp trung ny c th thc thi c hiu qu trong mng nh v lu lng khng t bin. Mt khc, trong giao thc bo hiu phn tn, mi node u c mt b scheduler burst ring, thc hin nhim v cp pht knh xut cho mi header n theo kiu phn phi. Phng php phn phi thch hp vi mng quang ln v lu lng d liu t bin. Hai phng php bo hiu ni bt trong mng khng dng b m OBS l Tell-and-Wait (TAW) v Just-enough-Time (JET). c hai phng php ny, mt header c gi ra trc burst d liu cu hnh cho b chuyn mch dc trn

35

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

tuyn ng ca burst d liu. Sau y, chng ta tm hiu v hai phng php bo hiu ny. 3.2.2 Giao thc bo hiu JET (Just Enough Time) Hnh 3.2 minh ha cho giao thc bo hiu JET. Nh ta thy, u tin node ngun gi ra mt gi header ca burst (Burst header packet - BHP) trn knh iu khin v pha node ch. Gi BHP c x l ti mi node pha sau thit lp mt ng truyn d liu ton quang cho burst d liu tng ng. Nu vic d tr thnh cng, b chuyn mch s c cu hnh trc khi burst d liu ti. Trong lc burst d liu i ti node ngun trong min in. Sau mt khong thi gian nh trc offset time, burst d liu c gi ton quang trn bc sng chn. Khong thi gian offset time c tnh ton da trn s hop t node ngun ti node ch v thi gian chuyn mch ti mi node li. Offset time c tnh bng cng thc: OT = h. + ST, vi h l s hop gia node ngun v node ch, l thi gian x l header ca burst ti mi hop, v ST l thi gian cu hnh cho b chuyn mch. Nu ti bt k node trung gian no vic d tr khng thnh cng th burst s b hy. im khc bit ca JET khi so snh vi cc phng php bo hiu mt chiu khc l d tr c tr hon v gii ta khng tng minh.

36

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Hnh 3.2: Giao thc bo hiu JET Thng tin v thi im bt u v kt thc ca tt c cc burst c sp xp vo knh truyn cn phi c duy tr cho mi knh mi cng xut ca tng b chuyn mch cho JET, iu ny lm cho h thng tr nn phc tp hn. Mt khc, JET c th d tm c v tr m khng c xut hin xung t khi truyn burst, mt d khi im ca mt burst mi n c th s sm hn thi im kt thc ca mt burst c chp nhn trc n, c ngha l mt burst c th s c truyn i gia hai burst d tr knh truyn ri (nu chiu di burst mi ny thch hp). V vy burst c xc sut c chp nhn cao hn trong giao thc JET. C nhiu kiu bo hiu c lin quan mt thit vi kiu bo hiu mt chiu nh Tell-And-Go (TAG) v Just-In-Time (JIT). Trong phng php TAG, burst d liu phi c lm tr li ti mi node cho php c thi gian x l header ca burst gip cu hnh cho b chuyn mch thay v ch nh trc khong thi gian ny ti node ngun v thi gian hon ny c t trong offset time. lm tr cc burst d liu li nh th, i hi dng n si quang lm tr fiber delay lines (FDL), cu to gm nhiu vng si quang. Khong thi gian b tr khi d liu truyn i bn trong FDL chnh l lng thi gian m d liu c lm tr. Hot ng ca JIT ging nh JET nhng khc ch JIT dng cch d tr tc thi v gii ta tng minh thay v dng d tr c tr hon v gii ta khng tng minh. Hnh 3.4 (a) v (b) so snh gia hai phng php JIT v JET vi cng mt kch bn bo hiu. (a)

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

(b)

Hnh 3.3: So snh bo hiu JET (a) v JIT (b). Li ch chnh ca cch dng giao thc bo hiu mt chiu l gim thiu thi gian tr khi truyn d liu t u cui ti u cui trn mng trc (backbone) gip gim kh nng mt gi do xung t burst v tranh ginh ngun ti nguyn trong mng li khng dng b m. 3.2.3 Giao thc bo hiu TAW (Tell and Wait) Hnh 3.4 minh ha phng php bo hiu TAW. Vi TAW, bn tin BHP thit lp c gi i dc theo tuyn ng m burst d liu i thu thp thng tin v knh ang sn sng ti mi node. Ti ch, mt gii thut cp pht knh c thc thi, v thi im d tr mi link s c xc nh da trn thi im sm nht m mt knh mi node trung gian sn sng. Mt bn tin BHP xc nhn c gi ngc tr v pha ngun d tr knh truyn cho khong thi gian cn thit ti mi node. Ti bt k node no trn ng truyn, nu knh cn dng b d tr ri th mt bn tin BHP gii ta c gi v ch gii ta ht cc ti nguyn trc c d tr thnh cng. Cn nu bn tin xc nhn ti c ngun th burst d liu s c gi i vo mng li.

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Hnh 3.4: Giao thc bo hiu TAW Cng ni thm, TAW ging vi mng nh tuyn theo bc sng, knh truyn c th c d tr theo hng xui nh phng php d tr c to node ngun (SIR) hay d tr theo hng ngc li t pha ch tr v ngun nh phng php d tr c to node ch (DIR). TAW trong OBS khc vi mng nh tuyn theo bc sng WDM ch l ti nguyn ca cc node ch c d tr trong khong chiu di ca burst. V nu chiu di ca burst c bit trc trong qu trnh d tr th phng php gii ta khng tng minh s c dng km theo nhm tn dng ti a hiu qu bng thng. Tt c cc giao thc m ta cp n trn u l cc giao thc bo hiu mt chiu ngoi tr TAW l giao thc bo hiu hai chiu. Nu ta so snh gia TAW v JET, nhc im ca TAW l tr nhiu do thi gian thit lp round-trip, chnh l thi gian m ta dng thit lp cc knh; tuy nhin, TAW vic mt burst xy ra rt thp. V vy m TAW rt ph hp cho lu lng d mt: loss-sensitive traffic. Cn JET, thi gian tr t hn v ch l tng ca thi gian lan truyn theo mt chiu v mt offset time. Khng c giao thc bo hiu no cho ta tnh mm do gia gi tr mt mt v thi gian tr. 3.2.4 Bo hiu c khi to ti node trung gian INI (Intermediate Node Initiated)

39

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Nhiu giao thc bo hiu c a ra p dng cho vic truyn d liu trong mng ton quang OBS. p ng cho yu cu d tr ti nguyn ng cho vic truyn cc burst d liu, u tin phng php bo hiu phi tm ra tuyn ng thch hp t ngun ti ch, sau mi sp xp d liu vo mt knh bc sng ring no ti mi node trung gian. Giao thc bo hiu phn b ph bin nht c nghin cu l Tell-And-Wait (TAW) v just-enough-time (JET). TAW l bo hiu hai chiu da trn thng tin hi p, dng cc bn tin iu khin thit lp v gii ta tng minh. JET l giao thc bo hiu mt chiu khng cn thng tin hi p, dng cc gi header ca burst BHP (burst header packet) c tnh c lng gii ta v thit lp. khi phi chuyn i quang in trong li, cc phng php bo hiu c mt offset time gia BHP v d liu tng ng ca n. Trong BHP c cha thng tin v chiu di ca burst, kt hp vi thng tin v offset time, bo cho node bit c thi im node ny cn cu hnh b chuyn mch cho burst d liu sp ti. Khong thi gian offset time cho php BHP c x l ti node trung gian trc khi burst d liu ti node trung gian . Nu ta em so snh gia TAW v JET, nhc im ca TAW l tr do round-trip time, nhng b li rt t mt d liu, v vy TAW ph hp cho loss-sensitive traffic. V pha JET, mt d liu d xy ra, nhng tr khi truyn d liu t u cui ny ti u cui khc t hn TAW. Trong TAW phi mt 3 ln tr lan truyn t ngun ti ch th burst mi ti c ch, trong khi JET ch cn ln tr lan truyn mt chiu v mt khong offset time. Nh ta ni, cha c phng php bo hiu ring bit no cho php kt hp uyn chuyn gia tr v vic mt d liu. Trong mng IP over OBS, ngi ta mong mun cung cp h tr cht lng dch v cho cc ng dng i hi nhiu yu cu v cht lng dch v khc nhau, chng hn nh voice-over-IP, video-on-demand, hay video conferencing. Nhiu gii php c a ra h tr cht lng dch v trong mng li OBS. Tuy nhin, khng c phng php n l (khng c s kt hp gia cc giao thc li) no cho php h tr mt cch mm do c hai yu cu v tr v mt d liu trong mng OBS. C mt s phng php ci thin QoS, v d nh JET kt hp vi offset time dnh cho cc lp lu lng khc nhau, chu c xc sut nghn cao. Trong

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

phng php ny, node ngun phi c lng trc offset time c th h tr cho cc yu cu khc nhau ca cc lp gi d liu. khc phc cc hn ch ca hai phng php TAW v JET, phng php bo hiu c khi to node trung gian INI c a ra. Trong phng php INI, mt node gia node ngun v node ch nm trn ng truyn c chn lm node khi to (initiating node). Ti node khi to ny, mt thut ton d tr knh s c thc hin nhm xc nh thi gian sm nht m burst c th c gi i node ngun v thi gian sm nht tng ng m ti cc node gia node ngun vi node khi to c th c sp xp nhn burst d liu ti. Vic d tr tht s cc knh node khi to bt u theo c hai hng: t node khi to ti node ngun ln t node khi to v node ch. Vic la chn node khi to c ch ra trong giao thc bo hiu INI. Hnh 3.5s minh ha phng php bo hiu INI. Khi mt burst d liu c hnh thnh ti node bin, mt bn tin BHP thit lp (setup BHP) c gi ti node. BHP s thu thp thng tin chi tit v cc knh ti mi node n i qua cho ti khi n node khi to (initiating node). Ti node khi to, thut ton cp pht knh c thc thi xc nh khong thi gian m knh cn c d tr ti mi hop trung gian nm gia node ngun v node khi to. K , mt gi xc nhn (confirm packet) c gi ngc v node ngun, gi ny tin hnh d tr cc knh dc theo ng i ca n t node khi to ti node ngun. Nu c knh bn bt k node no, gi gii ta (release packet) s c gi tr v node khi to gii ta ht cho cc ti nguyn trc d tr thnh cng. Nu gi xc nhn ti c ngun thnh cng th burst d liu s c gi i ti thi im c sp xp trc. Cng vi lc gi i gi xc nhn v node ngun, node khi to cng gi i mt bn tin BHP thit lp khng cn tr li (unacknowledged setup BHP) v pha node ch nhm d tr trc cc knh truyn gia node khi to v node ch. Nu ti bt k node no gia node khi to v node ch m bn tin BHP khng d tr c knh truyn th burst d liu s b drop node .

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Hnh 3.5: Bo hiu c khi to node trung gian INI. Trong giao thc TAW, bn tin ACK c gi t pha ch trc khi burst d liu c gi i t ngun, cn trong JET, khng c ack. INI, c ack xut pht t node khi to, v vy gim c xc sut nghn so vi JET. Khng nhng th, v khong thi gian m burst d liu phi i ti ngun t hn khong thi gian tr do lan truyn t ngun ti ch nn INI gim c tr truyn t u cui n u cui khi so snh vi TAW. Trong giao thc bo hiu INI, nu node khi to l node ngun th n tr thnh bo hiu JET, nu node khi to l node ch th tr thnh bo hiu TAW. Trong INI, ta c th dng c hai phng php d tr thng thng hay d tr c tr hon u c. Vi cc d tr c tr hon th hot ng ca giao thc bo hiu c ci thin hn. 3.2.5 V d minh ha: Xem ng i 2-4-5-7 trong hnh 3.6 c node 2 l node ngun, node 7 l node ch. Ta c 4 node c th lm node khi to, bao gm lun c node ngun v node ch. Nu ta chn node ngun (chnh l node 2) lm node khi to th bo hiu INI tr thnh bo hiu JET. Nu chn node ch lm node khi to (node 7) th tr thnh bo hiu TAW. Cc node c kh nng lm node khi to khc l node 4 v node 5. Ta xt node 5 l node khi to. Hot ng ca INI nh sau: node 2 gi bn

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

tin BHP cho hop k tip l node 4, c km theo thng tin v knh sn sng trn link 2-4. Ti node 4 thm vo thng tin v knh sn sng trn link 4-5 sau gi i bn tin BHP ti node k l node 5. Khi node 5 l node khi to nhn c bn tin BHP, n thc hin mt thut ton d tr knh xc nh thi gian sm nht m lc burst yu cu c th c phc v bi cc node trung gian nm gia node ngun vi node khi to, bao gm c node ngun v node khi to. Mt gi tr li, s d tr knh truyn ti cc node trung gian ny vo thi im c nh trc, c gi ngc v t node khi to ti node ngun. Ngay khi gi tr li ti c node ngun 2 th burst d liu s c gi i. C mt bn tin BHP c gi t node khi to (node 5) n node ch (node 7) v cu hnh cho node 7 chun b nhn burst d liu ti vo thi im thch hp. Node 7 khng gi bn tin ack v cho node khi to. Bn tin BHP c gi i t node khi to ch c nhim v d tr knh truyn sn sng v tip tc i theo hng t node khi to v pha ch.

Hnh 3.6: Cu hnh mng 14 node. 3.3. Cc phng php gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS Trong mng OBS cc burst c truyn t node ngun n node ch sau khi c chuyn mch qua ht cc node trung gian m khng cn b m quang nn kh nng xy ra xung t gia cc burst l rt ln. Xung t c th xy ra khi nhiu burst mun ri node li trn cng mt tuyn WDM hay burst cc ng vo khc nhau mun n mt ng ra ti cng mt thi im. Cc phng php gii quyt xung t c xut nh sau

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

3.3.1. Cc ng dy tr quang FDL (Fiber Delay Line) Nu nh trong min in t c cc b nh truy cp ngu nhin nh RAM th trong min quang tng b m quang vn cha thc hin c. V vy m burst d liu trong mt khong thi gian ngi ta ch c th dng n cc ng dy tr quang FDL. Cc burst d liu c lu gi trong min quang mt khong thi gian c nh. Bng cch kt ni cc dy tr FDL theo tng hay kt ni song song, b m c xut ny c th gi cc burst d liu trong cc thi gian khc nhau. Vi phng php ny, burst ang tham gia tranh chp s c lm tr li cho ti khi nghn c gii quyt. Phng php ny da trn tng l: khi mt bc sng c yu cu li cha sn sng th burst d liu s c lm tr li trong mt FDL cho ti khi knh bc sng tr v trng thi sn sng.
Bc sng ng ra Burst mi n

1 (Delay period using FDL) time

Hnh 3.7: Gii quyt xung t bng phng php s dng ng dy tr FDL hnh trn knh bc sng mong mun ca burst d liu l 1 nhng knh ny b chim ti thi im ti ca burst. Trong trng hp ny, burst d liu s c m li trong khong thi gian , khi knh ny tr v trng thi sn sng ti thi im ti ca burst d liu sau khi c m. Do FDL da trn tr truyn ca cp quang v s truy cp lin tc nn n c nhiu hn ch so vi RAM. Nu dung lng b m ln th s lng v chiu di ca FDL cng tng nn d gy tn hao v vic s dng b m cng khng th hon ton gim kh nng mt burst 3.3.2. B chuyn i bc sng

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

S dng b chuyn i bc sng wavelength converter chuyn i knh ng ra khc cho burst d liu nu nh knh n mong mun b chim gi ti thi im burst ti node. Trong WDM, nhiu bc sng c ghp cng mt lc trn mt lin kt ni hai chuyn mch chm quang. Nhiu bc sng c th gim ti a s lng xung t. Gi s c hai burst cng i n mt ch v ra cng ng ra ti mt thi im. C hai burst vn c th truyn i tip nu trn hai bc sng khc nhau. Chuyn i bc sng l qu trnh chuyn i mt bc sng ng vo thnh mt bc sng khc ng ra, do vy lm tng kh nng s dng li bc sng ngha l tt c cc knh bc sng trn cng mt cp quang c th c dng chung bi tt c cc burst. C cc kiu chuyn i sau: Chuyn i ton b (Full conversion): Mt bc sng c th chuyn thnh bt k bc sng no u ra, do vy khng c mt bc sng no xut hin lin tc trn mt kt ni t u cui n u cui. Chuyn i c gii hn (Limitted conversion): Vic chuyn i bc sng b gii hn khng phi tt c cc knh ng vo u c th kt ni n knh ng ra. Vic gii hn ny s lm gim chi ph ca chuyn mch trong khi chp nhn mt s lng xung t Chuyn i c nh (Fixed conversion): y cng l mt dng ca chuyn i c gii hn, trong mt knh ng vo c kt ni vi mt hay nhiu knh ng ra c ch nh trc Chuyn i mt phn (Sparse conversion): Trong mng c th bao gm cc node c chuyn i ton b c gii hn, c nh v khng c b chuyn i bc sng

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Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

Bc sng ng ra

Burst mi ti

2 1

CH 2 CH 1

Hnh 3.8: Gii quyt xung t bng phng php chuyn i bc sng. 3.3.3. nh tuyn chuyn hng Trong nh tuyn chuyn hng, xung t c gii quyt bng cch nh tuyn burst d liu n mt ng ra khc thay v ng ra ban u, tc l k t node i theo con ng khc n ch ch khng cn i theo con ng ngn nht ban u. nh tuyn chuyn hng khng c quan tm i vi mng chuyn mch gi trong min in, tuy nhin n li thc s cn thit trong mng ton quang khi cha c b m quang. Trong nh tuyn chuyn hng, gi hay burst d liu b chuyn hng c th i trn con ng di hn n ch lm tng tr v gim cht lng tn hiu. Hn na, c th mt gi s b vng lp (loop) trong mng do khng tm c ng n ch hay b chuyn hng qu nhiu v thm tc nghn trong mng. Mt s vn khc trong nh tuyn chuyn hng l bo tr thi gian offset gia gi iu khin v gi d liu ca mt burst b chuyn hng. Bi v burst bi chuyn hng phi i trn ng c s node trung gian nhiu hn khi n khng b chuyn hng, do thi gian offset trc y l khng cc chuyn mch k tip x l cc gi iu khin trc khi burst d liu n. khc phc vn ny, nhiu x l c thm vo tnh ton li thi gian offset. Mt cch n gin hn l ch cn loi b nhng burst c thi gian offset khng hp l. bit c s node trung gian m burst phi i qua ta c th dng cc b m.

46

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

3.3.4. Phn on burst Trong phng php ny burst c phn thnh cc on khi c xung t th ch c mt phn burst b mt, phn cn li vn c truyn qua mng. Phn burst b mt c th l phn trc hay phn sau. Nu burst b hy b phn u th phn burst cn li cn thng tin ca offset gia gi tin iu khin ca burst v im u ca phn burst cn li. Nu burst b hy b phn ui th cn phi thm gi tin iu khin ca burst cho phn ui b hy b. Nu nh ranh gii gia cc on hon ton trong sut trong mng li ton quang th cc node bin phi chu trch nhim nh ngha v x l cc on trong min

Hnh 3.9: Gii quyt xung t bng phng php phn on burst in. Hn na, node nhn phi c kh nng nhn ra im bt u ca mi on v xc nh xem th on cn nguyn vn hay khng, do mt s header dng nhn ra li v sa li cha trong mt on. Thm vo thng tin v tn hiu ng h c th cng cn phi c trong mi header ca mi on node nhn ng ra c th xc nh v phc hi d liu trn mi on. Khi cc on c chiu di khng i th vic ng b my thu tr nn d dng, tuy nhin nhng on c chiu di thay i li c kh nng cha c nhng gi c chiu di khc nhau. Kch thc ca mi on cn phi cn nhc gia mt mt trong mt ln xung t v s lng header trong mt burst. on di s dn n mt nhiu d liu cho mi ln xung t, tuy nhin nhng on di cng dn n overhead v t s gia chiu di header sovi chiu di payload s nh theo. Mt s vn khc trong phn on burst l quyt

47

Chng 3:Bo hiu v gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS

nh xem on no b rt khi xung t xy ra gia hai burst. Gi s gi burst b xung t l contented burst cn burst xung t l contenting burst. Ch rng burst c xem l contented hay contenting burst ph thuc vo th t ca n n chuyn mch ch khng phi th t ca gi iu khin n trc hay n sau. C hai cch xc nh xem nhng on no nn rt, c gi l tail-dropping (rt phn ui) v headdropping (rt phn u). Trong cch rt phn ui tail-dropping th cc on chng ln ca contented burst s b rt cn trong cch rt phn u heading-dropping th cc on ca contenting burst chng ln s b rt. u im ca vic tail-dropping so vi taildropping trong vic thay i cc gi sai th t node ch vi gi thuyt rng cc gi rt c truyn li sau . Vic head-dropping lm cho cc gi n ch sai th t, tuy nhin, u im ca head-dropping l n chc chn rng mt khi burst n mt node khng bt gp mt xung t no v sao cc burst ny tip tc i n ch m khng ph thuc vo cc burst i sau n c mc u tin no i chng na. 3.4 Kt lun chng Vy l trong chng ny em trnh by cc giao thc bo hiu cng nh cc phng php gii quyt xung t trong mng OBS. C nhiu cc k thut d tr v gii phng ti nguyn nhng k thut bo hiu mt chiu JET vi d tr c tr hon v gii ta khng tng minh cho xc sut burst c chp nhn cao hn cc k thut khc c ngh s dng trong mng OBS. Vic la chon gia cc bin php gii quyt xung t cng l mt vn quan trong nhm gim t l mt burst n mc thp nht c th. Ty theo yu cu c th ca tng mng v iu kin cho php m ta chn ra phng php thch hp hay tn dng cc u im ca mi phng php ta c th s dng kt hp chng s cho hiu qu gim t l mt burst cao hn nhiu so vi vic dng ring l tng phng php.

48

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

Chng 4

CC GII THUT XP LCH TRONG MNG OBS


4.1 Gii thiu chng Khi mt burst ti mt node, n cn c cp cho mt knh bc sng ng ra, v vy tt c cc node trong h thng mng u phi c b wavelength converter. Ngoi ra, nhm lm gim thiu khong thi gian trng gia 2 burst truyn i trn cng mt knh bc sng, ngi ta dng thm b sp xp cc burst ti tt c cc node tham gia trong mng, b c gi l b xp lch (channel scheduling). Khi header ca burst d liu ti c nt li, cc thng s v burst d liu s c nhn bit nt li nh chiu di burst (burst duration), thi gian burst ti nt (arrival time) Da vo nhng thng s ny, nt li s xc nh c knh bc sng thch hp nht dnh cho burst d liu nh thut ton sp xp ca b channel scheduling. Thut ton sp xp knh bc sng cho cc knh d liu c chia lm hai phn chnh nh sau: c hoc khng c s dng void filling (lp y khong trng). Trong phn ny, em s trnh by v 2 loi xp lch ny da trn hai gii thut c bn l FFUC (First Fit Unscheduled Channel) v LAUC (Latest Available Unscheduled Channel). 4.2 Cc thng s s dng trong cc thut ton sp xp Cc thng s c s dng cho hu ht cc loi thut ton sp xp l:

Lb : Chiu di burst cha c sp xp.


tub : Thi gian ti ca burst cha c sp xp.
W: S knh d liu ng ra.

Nb : S burst ti a dng trn mt knh ng ra.

Di : Knh ng ra th i.
LAUTi : Thi gian ri sm nht ca knh th i, dng cho b xp lch ko s dng
void filling.

49

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

S(i , j ), E(i , j ): Thi im bt u v kt thc ca mi burst th j c sp xp trn


knh th i.

G ap: Nu knh ri, gap l s chnh lch gia thi gian n ca burst v cc thng s i
LAUTi i vi trng hp khng s dng void filling, v thng s E(i , j ) i vi
trng hp c void filling. Thng s Gap l c s thut ton quyt nh nn s dng knh no khi c hn 1 knh ri. Trong trng hp knh khng ri, h s gap bng 0. 4.3 4.3.1 Cc gii thut xp lch c bn Cc thut ton khng s dng void-filling Gii thut FFUC (First Fit Unschedule Channel) khng s dng void filling c th c trnh by c bn nh sau: Khi mt burst d liu n mt nt. Nt s so snh thng s

4.3.1.1 Thut ton FFUC

G ap = tub - LAUTi , nu thng s ny ln hn 0 th knh s i

thch hp cp cho burst . Trong trng hp c nhiu hn 1 knh thch hp, thut ton s chn knh c h s i thp nht.

Hnh 4.1: M hnh gii thut FFUC khng s dng void filling. Trong v d trn, ta thy khi burst d liu n nt li th c 2 knh khng tha mn yu cu ca thut ton l knh 0 v knh 3 do h s LAUT ln, trong khi knh 1 v knh 2 l 2 knh tha iu kin ca thut ton. Trong trng hp ny, thut ton s chn la knh 1 (1<2) l knh ng ra cho burst d liu.

50

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

begin

i =ncc

i i n Y
scheTi me > TH

Y fdl max N Lm tr

Channel =i Sp xp burst Drop burst

N i++

update

end

Hnh 4.2: Lu gii thut FFUC 4.3.1.2 Gii thut LAUC Gii thut LAUC (Latest Available Unschedule Channel) khng s dng void filling c th c trnh by c bn nh sau: Khi mt burst d liu n mt nt. Nt s so snh thng s

G ap = tub - LAUTi , nu thng s ny ln hn 0 th i

knh s thch hp cp cho burst . Trong trng hp c nhiu hn 1 knh thch hp, thut ton s chn knh c h s gap nh nht.

51

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

LAUT 0

Hnh 4.3: M hnh gii thut LAUC khng s dng void filling. Trong trng hp trn, cng ch c 2 knh tha mn yu cu ca thut ton, nhng thut ton s chn knh th 2 do c h s gap nh hn knh th 1.
begin

i = ncc

i i n Y Y Tm channel

C chann el Y Sp xp burst update

fdl max N N Drop burst

Y Lm tr

i ++

end

Hnh 4.4: Lu gii thut LAUC 4.3.2 Gii thut c s dng void filling Gii thut FFUC v LAUC c mc s dng ti nguyn thp do n khng quan tm n cc khong trng do ngi ta a ra mt thut ton khc sa i t gii thut FFUC v LAUC ban u gi l FFUC c s dng void filling (FFUC-VF) v gii

52

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

thut LAUC c s dng void filling (LAUC-VF). Trong cc thut ton c s dng void filling, khong trng gia cc burst v khong trng tnh t thi im s dng sau cng ca knh d liu hay thi gian kt thc cui cng ca burst cui cng c sp xp trn knh d liu n v cng c tn dng sp xp cc burst. 4.3.2.1 Gii thut FFUC_VF Cc gii thut s dng void filling th b channel scheduling s phi ghi nhn thng s bt u v kt thc ca tng burst d liu trn knh truyn. Khi mt burst d liu n, nu thi im bt u burst d liu ln hn thi im kt thc ca burst trc v thi im kt thc ca burst d liu nh hn thi im bt u ca burst lin sau n (nu sau n khng cn burst no khc th thi gian bt u xem nh l ) th knh truyn c chn lm ng ra cho burst d liu. Tng t nh trn, FFUC s chn knh c h s i nh nht lm knh ng ra.

Hnh 4.5 M hnh gii thut FFUC c s dng void filling. Trong trng hp trn th c 4 knh u tha mn iu kin ca thut ton, nhng thut ton FFUC s chn knh u tin (knh 0) lm knh ng ra cho burst d liu. 4.3.2.2 Thut ton LAUC_VF Cng tng t nh thut ton FFUC_VF, thut ton LAUC c s dng void filling cng thc hin vic xc nh knh ng ra cho burst d liu da vo cc thng s l thi im bt u v kt thc ca tng burst d liu c truyn trn knh truyn. Nhng ch khc ch nu c nhiu hn 1 knh iu kin, th LAUC s chn knh ri gn nht thay v l knh ri u tin.

53

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

Hnh 4.6 : M hnh thut ton LAUC c s dng void filling. Trong trng hp ny c 4 knh u iu kin nhng LAUC s chn knh s 3 do c thi gian ri gn vi burst d liu nht.

54

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

begi n i = ncc N i<=n i Y Y


scheTi me start

result = Channel N

end

Y Y

(end scheTime) ScheDur

N N

Y Y

N
scheTi me TH

scheTime start < diff

Y N N Y

(scheTim e TH) < diff

N N

Channel = i diff = scheTime-start

Channel = i diff = scheTime- TH

i++

Hnh 4.7: Lu gii thut LAUC_VF Tm li: Thut ton FFUC l mt thut ton kh n gin, d thc hin, nhng b li Thut ton LAUC hay cn gi l horizon phc tp hn, nhng n li cho hiu kh nng mt burst d liu ca thut ton ny kh cao. qu cao hn so vi FFUC.

55

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

Vic s dng void filling s lm tng hiu qu knh truyn d liu hn, ng Cht lng h thng s ci thin rt nhiu nu s dng chung vi FDL (Fiber

thi n cng lm gim t l mt burst ng k cho h thng. Delay Line). 4.3.3 Vn s dng cc ng dy tr quang FDL trong cc gii thut xp lch gim t l mt burst ta c th s dng cc ng dy tr quang FDL. Cc tnh cht cng nh hot ng ca FDL c trnh by trong phn cc phng php gii quyt xung t chng 2 4.3.3.1 Thut ton khng s dng FDL
Start Initialize parameters Find an available channel

No

Channel found ?

Yes

Report scheduling failure

Report the successful channel

End

Hnh 4.8 : Lu thut ton khng s dng FDL Totalchannel: S knh s dng trong mng. Ncc: S knh dnh cho burst header Time gap: Tham s xem xt xem coi c sp xp c burst d liu vo knh truyn hay khng . startTime: thi im ti ca burst d liu. horizon_[i]: Thi im ri ca knh th i.

56

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

Thut ton FirstFit: unsigned int ndc = totalchannel_ - ncc_; // s knh d liu

int ch = UNAVAILABLE; for( int i = 0; i < ndc; i++ ) { double time_gap = startTime - horizon_[i];// horrizon_[i]: if ( time_gap >= 0.0 ) { ch = i; break; } // end of >= 0.0 } // end of for if ( ch != UNAVAILABLE ) { result.Fflag() = FOUND; result.LambdaID() = ch; result.StartTime() = startTime; } else { result.Fflag() = NOT_FOUND; } return (result); } Thut ton Horizon (LAUC): unsigned int ndc = totalchannel_ - ncc_; int ch = UNAVAILABLE; double min_time_gap; for( int i = 0; i < ndc; i++ ) { double time_gap_ = startTime - horizon_[i]; if ( time_gap_ >= 0.0 ) { if ( ch == UNAVAILABLE ) { // the first time for updating min_time_gap

57

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

min_time_gap = time_gap_; ch = i; } else { if ( min_time_gap > time_gap_ ) { min_time_gap = time_gap_; ch = i; } } // end of UNAVAILABLE } // end of >= 0.0 } // end of for // evaluate the search process to report searching result if ( ch != UNAVAILABLE ) { result.Fflag() = FOUND; result.LambdaID() = ch; result.StartTime() = startTime; } else { result.Fflag() = NOT_FOUND; } return (result); }

58

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

4.3.3.2 Thut ton c s dng FDL


Start Initialize parameters

Update parameters

FirstFit/Horizo n

Find an available channel

Probe an FDL No All FDLs probed ? Yes Report scheduling failure No channel found ? Yes Report the successful channel

End

Hnh 4.9 : lu thut ton c s dng FDL on code dng cho cc loi thut ton c s dng b m FDL ging nh khng s dng b m, ch khc ch, trc khi cho drop mt burst th bin s starttime s c cng thm mt lng l unitdelay, sau s l mt vng loop tm kim knh ri li. on code cn thm vo nh sau: for( int j = 0; i < N; j++ ) { startTime = starTime + unitdelay.

}
else { result.Fflag() = NOT_FOUND; } return (result); }

59

Chng 4:Cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS

4.5 Kt lun chng Trong chng ny trnh by cc gii thut lp lch trong mng OBS. Cc gii thut c bn l FFUC v LAUC vi cc trng hp c hay khng s dng void filling, trng hp c hay khng s dng cc ng to tr FDL. Yu cu t ra l ta phi chn c gii thut tt nht p ng yu cu ti u s lng burst ti u vo c sp xp trn cc knh d liu m bo cc burst c di chuyn nhanh nht, y nht n u ra. Trong phn m phng ca n s trnh by c th v vn m phng cc thut ton xp lch trong mng OBS, qua ta s thy c tnh cht, u nhc im ca tng gii thut chon c gii thut tt nht p ng nhu cu vn chuyn mt lng d liu ln qua mng vi tc cao. Vic kt hp cc gii thut c bn vi s dng void filling hay FDL cng c cp n trong phn m phng.

60

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

Chng 5

M PHNG V KT QU
5.1 Gii thiu chng Trong chng 3 trnh by cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS. Mun sp xp c cng nhiu burst trn cc knh d liu yu cu ta phi chn c thut ton tt nht gim thiu kh nng mt burst. y l mt vn rt quan trng i vi cht lng ca mng OBS. ng thi gim kh nng mt burst n mc thp nht c th ta phi chn c kch thc burst ti u trong qu trnh thit lp burst t cc gi tin ring r u vo.Chng ny a ra kt qu m phng ng vi tng thut ton c xem xt chn c thut ton no tt nht cho qu trnh sp xp burst vo cc knh d liu trong mng OBS. Bn cnh cc kt qu m phng cho qu trnh thit lp burst cng c nu ln nh gi v chn ra di kch thc burst trong xc sut mt burst l nh nht i vi m hnh mng c th trong bi ton m phng. ng thi chng ny cn gii thiu s lc phn mm m phng NS2 phc v cho m phng cc thut xp lch trn. 5.2. Gii thiu phn mm NS2 Phn mm NS2(network simulation version 2) l chng trnh m phng m ngun m dnh cho mc ch nghin cu, thc hin mng s liu da trn chuyn mch gi. Khng ch l cng c m phng, NS-2 cn l chng trnh c nhiu module h tr v mt th vin rt tin ch cho vic m phng cc s kin ring l. NS2 l chng m phng hng i tng c vit bng hai ngn ng lp trnh C+ + v OTcl, chng h tr cht ch cho nhau. Kin trc phn mm NS2

61

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

ns-allinone2.28 Tcl8.4.5 TK8.4.5 OT cl t c l e x Cc v d te st Cc kim tra li b tcl cl . . . ns-2.28 M C++ mca st M OTcl . . . nam-1.19

Hnh 5.1. Kin trc th mc ci t ca NS2 v NAM trong mi trng Linux Trong s cc th mc con ca ns-allinone-2.28 th ns-2 l ni cha cc file phc v cho m phng (c vit bng C++ ln OTcl). Trong th mc ny, tt c OTcl code v nhng kch bn v d u cha trong th mc gi l tcl v hu ht c vit bng C. Th mc tcl c nhng th mc con, trong s c th mc lib cha m ngun OTcl cho nhng thnh phn c bn nht v quan trng nht (agent, node, link, packet, address, routing,). Ns-lib. Tcl: Lp m phng v a s cc nh ngha chc nng thnh phn ca n ngoi tr LAN, Web, v Multicast c cha trong file ny. Ns-default. Tcl: Nhng gi tr mc nh cho cc thong s cu hnh cho cc thnh phn mng c cha y. Bi v nhiu thnh phn mng c b sung bng C++, nn nhng thng s l nhng bin C++ to ra cc gi tr cho OTcl qua chc nng lin kt OTcl. Ns-packet. Tcl: Thnh phn khi to nhng nh dng header ca gi c cha trong file ny. Khi to ra mt gi header th phi ng k header trong file ny to ra nhng x l khi to. mc ngi s dng: Vic m phng bt u bng vic nm r cc cu lnh to i tng m phng t xy dng cc kch bn m phng Tcl. Sau khi to mt kch bn m phng Tcl, vic chy chng trnh ch bng lnh trong terminal trong Linux.

62

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

mc ngi va pht trin va s dng: Vic pht trin phn mm bt u t vic nm r cu trc th mc chnh trong NS2 cng vi mt s file quan trng lin quan trng lin quan n i tng mi cn them vo. Khi ngi s dng to ra mt chng trnh m phng chy trn nn NS2 cho ring mnh th cng c th to i tng ring cho mnh, cng l mt u im ca phn mm NS2 m ngun m. Kin trc lin kt ca NS2: Mt b phn chnh khc trong NS-2 l link. Phn t kt hp ny gm ba phn chnh: hng i, delay v drophead-object. Hng i qun l thng lng cc gi pht trn link. Phn t delay gi lp tr khi gi truyn trong link. V dropheadobject qun l cc gi b rt t hng i ca link. Cu trc ca link trong NS-2 c m t nh hnh 5.2
head_ queue_ link_ ttl_

drophead_ LINK

Hnh 5.2. Kin trc lin kt ca NS2 5.3. M phng cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS Trong phn m phng s dng m hnh mng gm 10 node li v 10 node bin ni vng ring nh hnh. Giao thc c s dng l JET vi thi gian offset l 0.000001s. Mi lin kt c 6 knh bc sng gm 2 knh iu khin v 4 knh d liu. Bng thng mi knh l 20Gb/s. Phng php thit lp burst c s dng l thit lp burst va theo di va theo thi gian vi kch thc ti a ca mi burst l 60000 byte, thi gian thit lp l 0.0003s.

63

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

Hnh 5.3 M hnh mng OBS ni vng ring Kt qu cho ra mi thut ton l lng d liu truyn c qua mng ng vi lu lng ca mng thay i t 1.0000 n 1.1000 Erlang 5.3.1 Thut ton FFUC

Hnh 5.4. Lng d liu truyn c qua mng khi s dng thut ton FFUC

64

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

5.3.2 Thut ton LAUC

Hnh 5.5 Lng d liu truyn c qua mng khi s dng thut ton LAUC 5.3.3 Thut ton LAUC_VF

Hnh 5.6 Lng d liu truyn c qua mng khi s dng thut ton LAUC-VF

65

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

5.3.4. So snh kt qu cc thut ton trn d dng so snh hiu qu cc thut ton trn em ly s liu kt qu ca c 3 v v trn cng mt th

Hnh 5.7 So snh lng d liu truyn qua mng i vi 3 thut ton Da vo th trn ta c th thy lng d liu truyn qua mng ca 2 thut ton FFUC v LAUC gn nh bng nhau nn 2 ng biu din ca chng trn th trng nhau. Trong thc t th thut ton LAUC tuy c s dng ti nguyn tt hn FFUC do to khong trng gia thi gian n ca burst v thi gian s dng cui cng ca knh d nhng cc khong trng ny kh nh khng th sp xp burst khc c nn hiu qu ca thut ton FFUC v LAUC l nh nhau. Cn thut ton LAUC_VF do c xt n khong trng trn cc knh d liu sp xp burst nn hiu qu cao hn, lng d liu truyn c qua mng cao hn hn 2 thut ton kia.

66

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

Bng: lng d liu truyn qua mng cho cc thut ton

5.3.5

So snh cc thut ton c v khng c s dng FDL

5.3.5.1 Thut ton LAUC khng s dng FDL

Hnh 5.8 Lng d liu truyn qua mng i vi thut ton LAUC khng s dng FDL

67

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

5.3.5.2 Thut ton LAUC c s dng FDL

Hnh 5.9 Lng d liu truyn qua mng i vi thut ton LAUC c s dng FDL Qua 2 th biu din kt qu lng d liu truyn qua mng khi s dng thut ton LAUC c v khng c s dng b m FDL ta thy vic s dng b m lm gim kh nng mt burst ng k, gip ci thin kh nng truyn d liu qua mng rt ln. D gy ra s tn km nht nh nhng vic s dng b m rt hiu qu trong mng OBS v gip gim kh nng mt burst rt cao. 5.4. M phng nh hng ca qu trnh thit lp burst trong mng OBS (Burst Asembly) 5.4.1. nh hng ca thit lp burst n tr trong mng OBS Trong mng OBS cc thng s mng cn chn mt cch hp l v cc giao thc mng cn chn mt cch hp l sao cho tt nht v mt mt mt v tr.

68

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

Hnh 5.10 tr end-to-end trung bnh so vi kch thc burst Nh hnh 5.10 ta thy kch thc burst tng ln th tr end-to end cng tng ln theo. iu ny l do kch thc burst tng ln th cn thi gian ch cho s lng gi n to thnh mt burst. tr end-to-end nh hng rt ln n cc dch yu cu thi gian thc. Vi mt yu cu v tr trung bnh th ta c c gii hn trn ca kch thc burst. Khi c cc yu cu v dch v v cc thng s mng cho trc ta c th tm ra kch thc ti u ca burst d liu. 5.4.2. Bi ton m phng qu trnh thit lp burst Vic m phng nhm tm c mt gi tr hay mt di gi tr v kch thc burst cho xc sut mt gi nh nht trong mt mng OBS vi mt topo v cc thng s mng lin quan c gii hn trc. Cc thng s gii hn trong bi ton m phng: M phng mng NSFNET 14 node, khong cch ghi trn hnh tnh bng km. Cc node mng u l cc node kt hp Lin kt l song hng, mi hng c hai knh iu khin v hai knh d liu. Cc gi n c kch thc c nh l 1250 bytes Tc truyn dn trn mi knh truyn l 10Gb/s Thi gian chuyn mch l 10 us

69

Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

Thi gian x l gi iu khin l 2.5 us Lu lng c phn b ng nht gia tt c cc cp node ng vo nh tuyn da vo ng i ngn nht gia cc cp node Thit lp burst da vo gii hn ti a v kch thc burst Kch thc gi iu khin l c nh v bng 64 bytes Gii thut lp lch knh truyn l LAUCVF Trong m phng so snh cc xc sut mt gi vi cc mc ngng khc nhau trong khi mng c v khng c phn on burst trong gii quyt xung t. M phng bt u vi vic xem xt trong mng ch c mt lp dch v (mc u tin) v sau l hai lp dch v.Ta m phng trng hp: Mt mc ngng v c hai u tin.

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Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

5.4.3. S thut ton


Start

Burstsize=50 Seed = 12345

excute

Seed< =1023 45

ng

Seed=Seed+1000 0

Sai
n g burstsize<= 1200 burstsize=burstsize + 50 Seed = 12345

Process and excute

Return

Hnh 5.11. Lu thut ton m phng Gii thch lu thut ton: Burstsize l kch thc burst c tnh bng s lng gi tin trong mt burst d liu. Seed c s dng to ra mt con s ngu nhin cho vic to lu lng Poisson. Vi mi s Seed vic pht lu lng Poisson s khc nhau. u tin chng trnh s gn cc thng s ban u: burstsize = 50, seed = 12345. Ta s c kt qu v xc sut mt gi ng vi kch thc burst v seed

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Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

. Sau seed s c tng ln 10000 v chy ln th hai, chng trnh c tip tc nh vy cho n khi seed t gi tr 102345. Sau ta ly gi tr trung bnh ca xc sut mt burst tc l ta c mt im trn trn th ng vi kch thc burst l 50. Ta ln lt tng kch thc burst ln 50 cho n khi t 1200 gi tin/burst. Nh vy ta c th m t v xc sut mt burst ng vi kch thc burst t 50 n 1200 gi tin/ burst. 5.4.4. Trng hp mt mc ngng c hai mc u tin

Hnh 5.12 Xc sut mt gi ca tng mc dch v i vi cc kch thc burst khc nhau. Ta c hai mc u tin l mc u tin s 1 cao hn v mc u tin s 0 l mc u tin nh hn. Theo hnh ta c i vi lp dch v cao hn th kch thc burst ti u l t 200 n 700 cn i vi mc u tin thp hn th kich thc burst ti u l 550 n 700. Lp dch v c mc u tin cao hn s cho xc sut mt gi thp hn. 5.5 Kt lun chng Nh vy l trong chng ny em tin hnh m phng c cc thut ton lp lch v nu kt qu ti u qu trnh thit lp burst. i vi vic m phng cc thut ton lp lch em ly kt qu v trn cng mt th lng d liu truyn qua mng ca cc thut ton sp xp knh d liu

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Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

trong mng OBS gm FFUC, LAUC, LAUC_VF thy c u im ca thut ton LAUC_VF so vi 2 thut ton kia. Phn kt qu i vi thut ton c s dng v khng s dng FDL cng c trnh by. Qua ta thy c vic s dng FDL lm gim lng burst mt i ng k, t lm tng lng d liu c truyn i. Vy thut ton ti u l thut ton LAUCVF kt hp vi cc ng tr quang FDL s cho kt qu tt nht. T kt qu m phng ca bi ton ti u trong qu trnh thit lp burst cho thy tn ti mt kch thc burst cho xc sut mt burst l nh nht. Cn kch thc burst l bao nhiu th ty thuc vo topo mng v cc thng km theo. Trong n em ch xt trng hp cc gi n c kch thc c nh nn kch thc burst cng c tnh bng s lng gi ca n.

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Chng 5:M phng v kt qu

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KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


Trong hon cnh cc dch v mng ang pht trin mnh m vi nhiu loi hnh phong ph, a dng khng ch dng li cc dch v tc c nh nh thoi hay truyn hnh m cn phc v nhiu cho truyn d liu vi tc thay i. V vy t ra yu cu phi c mt cng ngh p ng c tnh cht t bin ca lu lng trong mng. V chuyn mch chm quang OBS l s la chn u vit nht khi cc cng ngh hin i p ng cho chuyn mch gi quang OPS nh b m quang hay logic quang vn cha thc hin c. D khng c nhiu u im ni bt nh OPS nhng OBS cng c th truyn c mt lng d liu vi tc cao v l mt cng ngh ha hn ca mng ng trc th h sau. Mc ch ca n l gii thiu tng qut v chuyn mch chm quang, trong tm hiu su hn v tin hnh m phng cc gii thut xp lch trong mng OBS cng nh tm ra kch thc burst ti u gim thiu t l mt burst. Qua kt qu m phng 2 vn trn c th kt lun rng thut ton ti u cho vic sp xp knh d liu l LAUC_VF kt hp vi vic s dng b m FDL v cho lng d liu truyn qua mng cao nht so vi cc thut ton cn li. ng thi ta thy c i vi topo mng trong phn m phng trn th kch thc burst nm trong khong 350-750 gi cho xc sut mt burst nh nht i vi trng hp mt mc ngng v khng c mc u tin. Cn trng hp mt mc ngng v c 2 mc u tin th s gi 550-750 i vi mc u tin s 0 v s gi 200-700 i vi mc u tin s 1 trong mt burst l ti u. Nh vy i vi mi m hnh mng c th lun tn ti mt di kch thc burst xc nh cho xc sut mt burst nh nht. Hng pht trin ca ti l xy dng mt m hnh mng phc tp hn vi vic tng s lng node, s lng cc b scheduler. T tin hnh m phng vi nhiu thut ton khc, kt hp 2 phng thc sp xp burst da trn mc ngng (chiu di burst) v b nh thi (thi gian sp xp) nng cao cht lng cho mng OBS.

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TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Banks, J., Carson, J., Nelson, B., Nicol, D., (2001) Discrete-Event System Simulation, Third Edition, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall [2] Battestilli, T., and Perros, H., (2003), An Introduction to optical burst switching IEEE Communications Magazine, vol .41, no .8, pp .S10-S15 [3] Biao Chen, Vinod M. Vokkarane, Jason P.Ju, Absolute QoS Differentiation in Optical Burst Switched Network, IEEE, 2004 [4] Chen, Y.,Qiao, c and Yu ,X., (2004), Optical burst switching: a new area in optical networking research, IEEE Network, vol .18, pp.16-23 [5] Chunming Qiao, Optical Burst Switching OBS A new paradigm for a Optical Internet, IEEE [6] Fall K and Varadhan K., (2005), The ns Manual, UC Berkeley, LBNL, USC/ISI, and Xerox PARC, Jan., <URL: http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/nsdocumentation.html> [7] Gauger, C.M. (2003), Trends in Optical Burrst Switching, Proceedings of SPIE ITCOM 2003, Orlando [8] Hai Le Vu and Moshe, Blocking Probability for Priority Classes in Optical Burst Switching Network, IEEE [9] Jinhui Xu, Qiao, Jikai Li and Guang Xu, Efficient Channel Scheduling Algorithms in Optical Burst Switched Network, IEEE, 2003
[10] Martin Nord, Optical switching technology for optical burst and packet

switch, 2002 [11] M. Klinkowski ,Performance Analysis of Isolated Adaptice Routing in OBS network, Advanced Broadband communication Center, 2005.

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PH LC
M ngun cc gii thut xp lch #Cc thng s ban u #10CNs in ring; 10 attached ENs #20 Gbit/s channels StatCollector set debug_ 0 Classifier/BaseClassifier/EdgeClassifier set type_ 0 Classifier/BaseClassifier/CoreClassifier set type_ 1 #Thi gian x l gi tin iu khin ti mt node l 1us source ../lib/ns-obs-lib.tcl source ../lib/ns-obs-defaults.tcl source ../lib/ns-optic-link.tcl set ns [new Simulator] set nf [open basic01.nam w] set sc [new StatCollector] set tf [open trace01.tr w] set ndf [open ndtrace01.tr w] set old_data 0 # dump all the traces out to the nam file $ns namtrace-all $nf $ns trace-all $tf $ns nodetrace-all $ndf #============================================================ ========# # cc thng s bt bin trong mng BurstManager offsettime 0.00001 #kch thc burst ti a BurstManager maxburstsize 60000

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#thi gian thit lp burst BurstManager bursttimeout 0.0003 Classifier/BaseClassifier/CoreClassifier set bhpProcTime 0.000001 Classifier/BaseClassifier/EdgeClassifier set bhpProcTime 0.0000015 #gi s c 1 FDL trn mi knh bc sng u ra Classifier/BaseClassifier set nfdl 10 Classifier/BaseClassifier set fdldelay 0.0001 Classifier/BaseClassifier set option 0 Classifier/BaseClassifier set maxfdls 8 Classifier/BaseClassifier set ebufoption 1 #this is a fixed delay line present at the ingress of every node OBSFiberDelayLink set FDLdelay 0.0001 # total number of edge nodes set edge_count 10 # total number of core routers set core_count 10 # total bandwidth/channel (1mb = 1000000) set bwpc 20000000000 #set bwpc # delay in milliseconds set delay 0.02ms # tng s knh bc sng trn 1 lin kt set maxch 4 # s knh iu khin set ncc 1 # s knh d liu set ndc 3

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#============================================================ ========# # cc qu trnh h tr # finish procedure proc finish {} { global ns nf sc tf ndf old_data $ns flush-trace $ns flush-nodetrace close $nf close $tf close $ndf $sc display-sim-list #Execute NAM on the trace file #exec nam basic01.nam & exec awk { { if ( $1=="r") { old_data = old_data + $5 } print $2, old_data*1.0 } } ndtrace01.tr > ffuc.data exec xgraph ffuc.data & puts "Simulation complete"; exit 0 } #print $2, old_data*8.0/$2/10000000000 #to ra topo node bin-node li-node bin Simulator instproc create_topology { } { $self instvar Node_

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global E C global edge_count core_count global bwpc maxch ncc ndc delay set i 0 # thit lp node bin while { $i < $edge_count } { set E($i) [$self create-edge-node $edge_count] set nid [$E($i) id] set string1 "E($i) node id: puts $string1 incr i } set i 0 # thit lp node li while { $i < $core_count } { set C($i) [$self create-core-node $core_count] set nid [$C($i) id] set string1 "C($i) node id: puts $string1 incr i } $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(0) $C(0) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(1) $C(1) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(2) $C(2) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(3) $C(3) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(4) $C(4) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(5) $C(5) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(6) $C(6) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(7) $C(7) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $nid" $nid"

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$self createDuplexFiberLink $E(8) $C(8) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $E(9) $C(9) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch

$self createDuplexFiberLink $C(0) $C(1) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(1) $C(2) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(2) $C(3) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(3) $C(4) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(4) $C(5) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(5) $C(6) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(6) $C(0) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(7) $C(0) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(8) $C(0) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self createDuplexFiberLink $C(9) $C(0) $bwpc $delay $ncc $ndc $maxch $self build-routing-table } #create a self-similar traffic-stream over a UDP agent Simulator instproc stop0 } { upvar 1 $udp udpr upvar 1 $selfsim selfsimr upvar 1 $null nullr upvar 1 $src srcr upvar 1 $dest destr set udpr [ new Agent/UDP] $self attach-agent $srcr $udpr set selfsimr [ new Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar ] $selfsimr set starttime $start0 $selfsimr set stoptime $stop0 create_selfsim_connection { selfsim udp null src dest start0

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$selfsimr attach-agent $udpr set nullr [ new Agent/Null ] $self attach-agent $destr $nullr $self connect $udpr $nullr $self at $start0 "$selfsimr start" $self at $stop0 "$selfsimr stop" puts "traffic stream between $src = $srcr and $dest = $destr created" } $ns create_topology Agent/UDP set packetSize_ 1500 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set batchsize 4500 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set sb 0 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set Hb -0.5 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set rate 5000.0 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set std_dev_inter_batch_time 1.0e-5 Application/Traffic/SelfSimilar set Ht 0.5 #add traffic stream between every pair of edge nodes in both directions set i 0 while {$i < $edge_count} { set j 0 while {$j < $edge_count} { if {$i != $j} { $ns create_selfsim_connection selfsim($i:$j) udp($i:$j) null($i:$j) E($i) E($j) 1.0 1.1 } incr j } incr i

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} $ns at 5.1 "finish" $ns run M ngun thit lp burst set number [lindex $argv 0] set opt(seed) [lindex $argv 1] # source for simulation source /home/ext/ns-allinone-2.28/ns-2.28/obs4ns-3.4/tcl/lib/ns-obs-lib.tcl source /home/ext/ns-allinone-2.28/ns-2.28/obs4ns-3.4/tcl/lib/ns-obs-node.tcl source /home/ext/ns-allinone-2.28/ns-2.28/obs4ns-3.4/tcl/lib/ns-obs-link.tcl source /home/ext/ns-allinone-2.28/ns-2.28/obs4ns-3.4/tcl/lib/ns-obs-stats.tcl source /home/ext/ns-allinone-2.28/ns-2.28/obs4ns-3.4/tcl/lib/ns-obs-defaults.tcl set ns [new Simulator] global defaultRNG $defaultRNG seed $opt(seed) Connector/ObsLink dc_bandwidth 10Gb Connector/ObsLink cc_bandwidth 10Gb Agent/Burstifier set max_db_size_ Agent/Burstifier set bhp_size_ Agent/Burstifier set timeout_ Agent/OXC switch_time 10us 2.5us 2000 10 Agent/SCU max_bhp_proc_time Agent/Burstifier set max_packets_ Agent/Burstifier set max_segmentations_ 64 2000ms [expr 1250*$number]

[Agent/SCU set bhp_proc_time_] set max_ [Agent/SCU max_bhp_proc_time]

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Agent/Burstifier set min_segmentable_size_ 1250 Agent/Burstifier set segmentation_ Agent/SCU max_segmentations 10 Agent/SCU min_segmentable_size 1250 Agent/SCU set segmentation_ 10 Agent/SCU set deflection_ 0 set edge_count 14 set core_count 14 set ndc 1 set ncc 1 set n_app 364 set n_links 21 set stype LAUCVF set load 0.5 # # set up the hybrid nodes set i 1 while { $i <= $core_count } { set c($i) [$ns ObsHybridNode $ncc $ndc ChannelScheduler/$stype 2] incr i } #creat NSFNET in real distances $ns duplex-obs-link $c(1) $c(2) $ncc $ndc 1100 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(1) $c(3) $ncc $ndc 1600 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(1) $c(8) $ncc $ndc 2800 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(2) $c(3) $ncc $ndc 600 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(2) $c(4) $ncc $ndc 1000 ChannelScheduler/$stype true

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$ns duplex-obs-link $c(3) $c(6) $ncc $ndc 2000 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(4) $c(5) $ncc $ndc 600 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(4) $c(11) $ncc $ndc 2400 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(5) $c(6) $ncc $ndc 1100 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(5) $c(7) $ncc $ndc 800 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(6) $c(10) $ncc $ndc 1200 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(6) $c(13) $ncc $ndc 2000 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(7) $c(8) $ncc $ndc 700 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(8) $c(9) $ncc $ndc 700 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(9) $c(10) $ncc $ndc 900 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(9) $c(12) $ncc $ndc 500 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(9) $c(14) $ncc $ndc 500 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(11) $c(12) $ncc $ndc 800 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(11) $c(14) $ncc $ndc 800 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(12) $c(13) $ncc $ndc 300 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns duplex-obs-link $c(13) $c(14) $ncc $ndc 300 ChannelScheduler/$stype $ns compile-obs

set rate [expr $load*$ndc*[Connector/ObsLink dc_bandwidth]/$n_app] #k refer to class of service set k 0 while {$k < 2} { set i 1 while {$i <= $edge_count} { set j 1 while {$j <= $edge_count} { if {$i != $j} { #the rate of one class is a half

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set Poi($i$j$k) [new Application/Traffic/Poisson] $Poi($i$j$k) set rate_ $rate $Poi($i$j$k) set packetSize_ 1250 #creat udp to attach traffic set udp($i$j$k) [$c($i) set burstifier_([$c($j) id]:$k)] $Poi($i$j$k) attach-agent $udp($i$j$k) $udp($i$j$k) set-traffic-generator $Poi($i$j$k) $ns at 0.0 "$udp($i$j$k) start" } incr j } incr i } incr k }

proc stop {} { global ns udp edge_count for { set k 0 } { $k <2} { set k [expr $k + 1]} { for { set i 1 } { $i <= $edge_count} { set i [expr $i + 1]} { for { set j 1 } { $j <= $edge_count} { set j [expr $j + 1]} { if { $i != $j } { $ns at-now "$udp($i$j$k) stop" } } }

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} set now [$ns now] $ns at [expr $now + 0.2] "finish" } # finish procedure proc finish {} { global ns sc0 sc1 defaultRNG number set ip_snd0 [expr [$sc0 get-counter-value DATA_SND]] set ip_rcv0 [expr [$sc0 get-counter-value DATA_RCV]] set ip_drop0 [expr $ip_snd0 - $ip_rcv0] set ip_p0 [expr 1.0*$ip_drop0/$ip_snd0] set file0 [open "results-0.txt" "a"] puts $file0 "$ip_p0"

set ip_snd1 [expr [$sc1 get-counter-value DATA_SND]] set ip_rcv1 [expr [$sc1 get-counter-value DATA_RCV]] set ip_drop1 [expr $ip_snd1 - $ip_rcv1] set ip_p1 [expr 1.0*$ip_drop1/$ip_snd1] set file1 [open "results-1.txt" "a"] puts $file1 "$ip_p1" exit 0 } set sc0 [$ns get-global-stats-collector 0] $sc0 set-counter-convergence DATA_SND 1250000 Stats stop-command "stop"

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set sc1 [$ns get-global-stats-collector 1] $sc1 set-counter-convergence DATA_SND 1250000 Stats stop-command "stop" # enable stats collector $ns at [RouteLogic/ObsRoute transit_time] "$ns enable-stats" $ns run

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