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How to gain control over mind by practicing pranayam? By : mandar Rating : Not Rated Contents 1. Benefits of pranayam 1.

1.1 According to physiology 1.2 According to psychology 1.3 According to the science of Spirituality 2. Practical suggestions 2.1 Restri ctions 2.2 Place 2.3 Time and period (kal) 2.4 Seat (asan) 2.5 Clothing 2.6 The stomach should be empty 2.7 Procedure 2.8 What should be the frequency of practi ce? 2.9 Thoughts during pranayam 3. Stages of progress 4. The duration of kumbha k occurring automatically in some states from the Ashtangyoga 5. Dangers 6. Comp arison with other paths of Yoga 1. Benefits of pranayam 1.1 According to physiology A. A reduction in the heart rate: Respiration slows down with practice of pranay am. As the respiratory rate decreases, the heart rate too decreases. Those with a low pulse rate have low risk of cardiac illness. If a middle aged and healthy individual has a pulse rate of less than seventy beats per minute then it is ide al. B. Ability to survive without oxygen: While practising pranayam oxygen suppl y to all the cells in the body is reduced. As a result, even when the oxygen sup ply is reduced the cells adapt to it and function marginally or survive. Thus if an individual enters the gaganavashesh or turyaga states of the superconscious state ( samadhi) [refer Science of Spirituality: Vol. 16 - Path of Meditation (Dh yanyoga)] then though there is complete cessation of breathing for sometime, the cells in his body do not die. C. Control over involuntary actions: One can also gain control over involuntary actions of the body with pranayam just as describe d in According to physiology. However in this respect pranayam proves to be 1/12

more beneficial than tratak. The reason for this is that blinking occurs only in the waking state, when the eyes are open. It does not occur during sleep and af ter closing the eyes. Thus tratak can be practised only in the waking hours. On the contrary, since breathing continues for twenty-four hours, in the waking hou rs as well as in sleep, practice of pranayam continues automatically. As a resul t, one can acquire control over the involuntary actions faster. D.Cure of physic al ailments: When an individual is able to control his breathing, he is also abl e to control the vital energy. He can use the vital energy wherever there is a d isease or some anguish. A sattvik (sattva predominant) individual possesses enor mous energy and he can direct it towards diseased organs as follows. By touching the diseased part with his fingers By focussing his gaze on the diseased part B y concentrating the mind on the diseased part If particular types of pranayams a re performed then 20% of patients with physical ailments are cured while another 30% show improvement. Some examples of diseases in which various pranayams prov e beneficial are given below. 1. Repeated attacks of cold: Bhasrika, ujjayi (purak, sahaj kumbhak, rechak) and suryabhedan (rechak, purak ) 2. Bronchial asthma: Anulom-vilom (without kumbhak ) 3. Digestive disorders: Suryabhedan 4. Fever: Shitali, chandrabhyas (with saha j kumbhak) Improvement in health: My health has improved with pranayam. I have pu t on weight and have become strong. My skin has become soft and shiny. My saliva has become sweet. I am now aware of an aura around my head. In Baroda, there we re several mosquitoes but they did not attack me. I went to Bangal in 1906 and s tarted political work. At that time my pranayam became irregular. I also fell se riously ill and was saved from the jaws of death. - Maharshi Arvind (1) 1.2 According to psychology A. Increase in concentration, memory and imaginative power: Once one starts conc entrating on pranayam, the mind gets habituated to concentration and as a result the memory improves. My experience is that with pranayam the brain gets enlighte ned. When I was in Baroda I used to practise pranayam daily for five to six hour s, three hours in the morning and two in the evening. Then my mind used to funct ion with great 2/12

imaginative power and zeal. I used to write poetry then, on an average eight to ten lines per day, that is two hundred lines per month. However after pranayam I could write two hundred lines in just half an hour. Formerly my memory was weak ; but after pranayam whenever I got the inspiration I would remember the lines o f the poem exactly and would write them down at my convenience. - Maharshi Arvind (2) B. Wandering of the mind decreases: Thinking and breathing are interrelated . If the mind does not wander from one topic to another, that is if it is steady then the respiratory rate is reduced. Contrary to this by practising pranayam, as the respiratory rate decreases so does the frequency of thoughts and that its elf helps the mind to become steady. C. Ability to control the mind: With practi ce of pranayam one gets used to concentrating on breathing. In one technique of pranayam, one concentrates on maintaining a steady rhythm of breathing. Since on e gets used to concentrating on breathing, when it becomes rapid one immediately becomes aware of it. This implies that indirectly one becomes aware that either thoughts have increased or emotions are being aroused. Then as one regulates th e breathing so that it returns to normal, one can control thoughts and emotions. The biofeedback technique discovered after 1960 A.D. is based on the principle of awareness of psychological changes due to alterations in body functions. In thi s technique expensive instruments are used to record blood pressure, body temper ature, muscle tension, etc. On the other hand our sages had discovered the simpl e cost free technique of concentrating on breathing, thousands of years ago. Since during pranayam breathing is reduced, the oxygen supply to the brain is less. L ess oxygen supply to the brain slows down its functions. Hence the waking state gradually starts decreasing and it facilitates entering a state of meditation. I n one of the techniques of hypnosis, to reduce the oxygen supply to the brain, t he carotid arteries are compressed for half to one minute. This reduces the oxyg en supply to the brain and hence the wakefulness decreases and a hypnotic trance is induced. Since the above technique of hypnosis induction is dangerous, it is now obsolete. D. Going into meditation: While practising pranayam the concentra tion is on breathing. This is akin to concentrating on a particular object durin g meditation. However when meditating on an object (the object of concentration) is usually fixed whereas in pranayam the mind concentrates on the rhythm of res piration. It is easier to concentrate on a moving than on a fixed object. Hence by concentrating on pranayam the chances of going into meditation are enhanced. E. Cure of mental illnesses: If particular types of pranayams are performed then 3% of patients suffering from minor mental illnesses are cured while another 5% show improvement. Chanting The Lords Name proves more useful than pranayam in me ntal illnesses. 1.3 According to the science of Spirituality A. Effects on the subtle body: Postures (asans) generally have an effect only on the physical body. However pranayam has effects on the subtle (mental) body as well. The organs are under the control of the mind and the mind under that of th e vital energy (pran). Hence once control over vital energy is acquired, the min d and organs are brought under control. Purification of channels (nadishuddhi) t oo occurs with pranayam. B. Spiritual progress: The energy loss occurring during the processof respiration can be avoided by practising pranayam. That energy ca n be utilised to make spiritual progress. [Refer Science of Spirituality: Chapter 38 - Path of Activation of Spiritual Energy (Kundaliniyoga)]. C. Activation of the kundalini (spiritual energy): If one performs various bandhas along with kum bhak then it helps the kundalini to get activated. More information on this is p rovided in Science of Spirituality: Chapter 38 - Path of Activation of Spiritual Energy (Kundaliniyoga). One example of activation of kundalini is 3/12

as follows. The uddiyan bandha changes the downward flow of apan vital energy an d unites it with pran and saman vital energies. As a result, the dormant kundali ni gets activated and the udan energy helps the pran or kundalini to flow upward s through the Sushumna channel. D. A reduction in the raja component: Movement o ccurs because of the raja component. If movements decrease then automatically th e raja component too decreases. For example movements decrease during sleep so t he raja component decreases and the tama component increases. When performing pr anayam, since the movement of all cells decreases, the raja component decreases. However since at that time one is in the waking state the sattva component incr eases. E. Control over the mind: The mind is used to material objects since seve ral births. Hence no matter how much one studies Spirituality due to the firm be lief that happiness lies in material objects it is far too difficult for the min d to digress from them. If one diverts or tries to divert the mind away from obj ects even for a moment, one becomes very restless. Since one is habituated to ke eping the mind steady with such objects, that is since the mind feels at ease ex periencing the pleasure out of such objects, if one tries to withdraw from them, one experiences intense unhappiness, that is feels restless. It is because of t his that Samarth Ramdas Swami has said, When the embodied soul does not get mater ial pleasure it becomes restless and O man, if you wish to acquire happiness (Blis s) then refrain from material objects forever as they induce unhappiness. If you are clever enough then sing devotional songs (do spiritual practice) of my Lord Rama. This will keep you happy (Blissful) forever. Never again will you be aggr ieved. You will become immortal. Now to get out of material pleasure is a very di fficult task. At the same time Samarth says that there is unhappiness in materia l pleasure, then how should one strike a balance? How will one realise that real happiness lies in surrender of such pleasure, without refraining from it even f or a moment? This is because for past several births the mind is used to such pl easure and believes that it is under the control of organs. So it thinks that gi ving up material pleasure is next to impossible. To make this possible pranayam has been recommended. By practising it one slowly realises that one is controlle d by vital energy (pran) and not the organs. Also as the vital energy is gradual ly steadied one begins to experience Bliss and also realises that illusory mater ial pleasure is related to place, time and objects. One also becomes aware that illusory happiness depends on many things and the Bliss one gets from pranayam i s independent of objects.Control over vital energy causes concentration and vice versa. However concentration does not mean the thoughtless state. [Refer Science of Spirituality: Vol. 16 - Path of Meditation (Dhyanyoga).] One might ask, what is the use of pranayam to the one who has decided to make spiritual progress? Th e fact is that such a firm decision to make spiritual progress is very rare. Hen ce, one is led from various acts such as pranayam, etc. towards achieving concen tration. F. Development of the stance of a spectator (sakshibhav): Thoughts acco mpany breathing. However once one gets used to viewing breathing with the stance of a spectator one is also able to look at ones thoughts with the same attitude. Eventually a stage is reached when one observes ones existence with the same att itude. G. Understanding the language of sound (nadabhasha): The language of soun d depends on breathing. Since with pranayam one acquires control over breathing one understands the language of sound as well. Thus one can speak in any languag e,even that of animals and birds. [With tratak one can comprehend the language o f light (prakashbhasha.)] H. Knowledge of the three dimensions of time (trikal): There is a science called Svaroday based on overcoming vital energy (pran). The mi gratory activity of animals is best studied based on it. Besides one can also pe rceive the knowledge of the three dimensions of time, difference between right a nd wrong, auspicious moments (muhurts), dreams, etc. based on this science. Ther e are two notes namely that of the sun ( suryasvar) and the moon (chandrasvar). When breathing occurs through the right nostril it is believed that the sun note or flow is operational while when breathing occurs through the left nostril the moon note or flow is 4/12

said to be active. With subtle study on the sun-moon notes various facts have be en put forward. (3) I. Longevity: The Swami said, The number of breaths of every li ving being in this world, are predetermined. Once they are complete it has to qu it. Those who feel they should not leave should preserve the same number of brea ths for a longer period. That is, with pranayam they should reduce the number of breaths everyday and remain healthy, breathing as minimal as possible. Once one acquires control over the vital energy, respiration continues at a slow pace al most unconsciously. The yogis too attain the superconscious state (samadhi) in t he same way controlling the vital energy and prolonging the predetermined breath s even for several centuries. When one realises that the time of death is approachi ng, one should breathe in through both the nostrils and hold the breath. Later w hen the moment is overcome one should expire with half the speed. In this way Sh rihari Changdev Maharaj lived for 1400 years. (4) Some misconcepts about longevit y obtained through pranayam On an average the rate of breathing is 15-16 breaths per minute. If one reduces i t by practising pranayam or kumbhak, it can become 1-2 breaths per minute. This means that life will be prolonged 8 to 16 times. Pranayam means prolonging the l ifespan by the limited and minimal use of the number of breaths bestowed by Natu re. In other words, accepting this is rather difficult because in the first part of bhasrika pranayam and the act of kapalbhati one needs to breathe rapidly 100 -150 or more times per minute. This means that with this variation the span of l ife is reduced 10-12 times. Thus by preaching these variations the old texts hav e made the same concept controversial.(5) The concept of longevity based on Ghera ndsanhita: The Gherandsanhita when explaining the importance of kumbhak proclaims that only by reducing the duration of inspiration does man acquire longevity. T here is a mention that the human body according to its past actions is 96 times as broad as its finger and its usual breath travels about 12 fingers beyond the body. It is also said that the same breath travels 16 fingers when singing, 16 f ingers when eating, 24 fingers when walking, 30 fingers during sleep, 36 fingers during sexual intercourse and even further during exercise. The less the distan ce of the breath from the body the longer is the lifespan; on the contrary once the distance increases, the lifespan decreases proportionately. Naturally if the breath remains only in kumbhak then death will never ensue. When the breath rem ains within the limitations of the body, it is referred to as keval (automatic) k umbhak in the Gherandsanhita. Thus another reason for longevity or immortality is given in the Gherandsanhita. If that is so then why is one told to practise var ious yogic techniques such as bhramari, bhasrika and other pranayams, uddiyan ba ndha, nouli, shunya (zero) kumbhak [in which the inspired breath (rechak) is reg ulated and prolonged or expired and held that way for quite sometime]? This look s very inconsistent. Hence instead of accepting these concepts as the truth, one should remember that they are the faltering steps of the one trying to glorify them immensely or mere exaggerations made to promote the theory.(6) Reasons for m isconceptions about the facts mentioned above. 1. In a session of pranayam, bhasrika and kapalbhati is practised for a very sho rt while. As a result, its specific benefits are definitely obtained. In additio n, though due to rapid breathing for a short while the 5/12

lifespan is reduced by 0.0001% yet the other pranayams practised along with them for a longer period facilitate the prolongation of life. 2. On account of the b andhas practised in both bhasrika and kapalbhati, specific benefit of the bandha too is obtained along with that of the pranayam. 3. No such false statements ha ve stood the test of time. The fact that these statements have persisted indicat e that they are the truth. The breath of an average person ceases at the time of his death. However as the body and mind is habituated to kumbhak they can survi ve without breathing and thinking. It is only in keval kumbhak that a yogi remai ns in a state of super consciousness. 2. Practical suggestions 2.1 Restrictions One should not perform pranayam in the following circumstances. When one is hungry and/or thirsty or the stomach is full When the nose is blocke d due to cold, one has wheezing or cough When the mind is overwhelmed with anxie ty, depression or excitement When exhausted When feeling sleepy When suffering f rom constipation. 2.2 Place In the beginning, if possible one should practise pranayam during the day in an open space under a tree since the concentration of oxygen there is higher than i n a closed room. If this is not possible then practise pranayam in a well ventil ated room. Initially when reducing the breathing, if the air inhaled in the lung s is pure then one does not experience distress. 6/12

2.3 Time and period (kal) Pranayam may be performed anytime, even at night. If possible, one should do it in the evening because at that time atmospheric pressure is less and this facili tates breathing. One should commence pranayam in the Vasant season (in the month of March or April) or in the Sharad season (in the month of September or Octobe r). 2.4 Seat (asan) One should sit on deerskin, tiger skin or a white folded blanket placed on a sea t of grass (kushasan) or a mat, covered with washed cloth. 2.5 Clothing It should be loose and minimal. 2.6 The stomach should be empty One should practise pranayam on an empty stomach, that is two hours after eating a snack and four to five hours after a meal. After performing pranayam one can eat after a lapse of half to one hour. 2.7 Procedure When performing any kind of pranayam one should sit in sahajasan (the ease postu re), padmasan (the lotus posture), siddhasan (the posture of an ascetic) or svas tikasan (the benevolent posture). One should sit facing either the east or the n orth. The head, neck and body should be in one straight line. Breathing through the nose: Excluding shitali and sitkari in all the other types, one should breat h only through the nose. In the beginning, one should perform kapalbhati thrice so as to overcome obstacles in the respiratory tract. 7/12

Types of pranayam: In the beginning, one should perform purak-rechak-purak slowly. After one or two months one should follow the purak-kumbhak, rechak / purak patt ern. Then after another one or two months one should continue with the purak-kumb hak-rechak-kumbhak-purak pattern. Matching ones temperament: The study of pranayam should always be tailor made, and not readymade because character and personality ar e the decisive factors. Beginners should follow the pattern of purak 6: kumbhak 8 : rechak 5 as advised by Goraksha. According to physiology, this proportion (6:8: 5) is closely linked to the natural pattern of breathing. Hence there are no cha nces of its ill-effects.(7) To make pranayam rhythmic one should not inspire or e xpire completely. While practising pranayam it is absolutely essential to perform some bandhas. When learning pranayam, from the beginning till the end it is nec essary to perform mulbandha (constriction of the anal opening). At the end of pu rak while practising full kumbhak, jalandhar bandha (compressing the chin firmly against the jugular notch, in the neck), jivha bandha (raising the tongue and t ouching it to the throat) and contracting the part of the abdomen near the navel called uddiyanpith should be performed. This is called the uddiyan bandha while p erforming purak. After completion of kumbhak, the jivha and jalandhar bandhas ar e stopped and rechak is performed. At that time only mulbandha persists. At the end of rechak, jalandhar, jivha and uddiyan bandhas are again performed along wi th shunya or bahya kumbhak.(8) The six actions (shatkarmas) and postures (asans): If the six actions and postures are to be performed, they should be done first and finally shavasan (the corpse posture) should be practised. 2.8 What should be the frequency of practice? In the beginning, five rounds of the chosen pranayam should be practised. Later, gradually the number of rounds should be increased to twenty. 2.9 Thoughts during pranayam A. For those believing in God: They should do chanting. Prayog Parijat quotes th e following -

‍ ‍ ‍- ll the three times.(9) B. For atheists 8/12

They should either think about something useful like good qualities are entering me during inspiration and my bad qualities are being expelled during expiration or should concentrate on the rhythm of respiration. Concentration on the breath (pra ndharana): Concentrating on the breath is called prandharana. It is performed by c ounting the number of breaths, by becoming aware of the movement of air during r espiration or by experiencing the cool or warm touch of the breath against the p alate. This is a very easy and natural method of steadying the mind. In the scie nce of pranayam, this concentration is expected. The use of Om: One thinks of the syllabic foot u during inspiration, m during kumbhak and a during expiration. Ajapaj : In twenty-four hours, that is in one day and night every human being breathes 2 1,600 times. The sound so is generated during inspiration and ham during expiration. Every human being thus unknowingly continues to chant the mantra Soham or hamso. Thi s itself is the Gayatri mantra named Ajapa. Being aware of this is itself a kind o f study of Yoga. 3. Stages of progress A. A decrease in the output of urine and stool. B. Pranayam and Path of Activati on of Spiritual Energy (Kundaliniyoga): When the mind achieves concentration ther e is equalization of pran and apan vital energies. This itself is called kumbhak . When keval kumbhak is achieved, breathing stops. The pran vital energy has no function thereafter. So it tries to return to its original site, the Sahasrar. I t has to travel through the Sushumna channel. Since for several births this atte mpt is not made, the difficulty it has to face in the Muladhar is called its atte mpt to straighten the kundalini (spiritual energy) with jolts in flowery yogic la nguage. Hence in the holy text Dattamahatmya H.H. Shri Tembe Swami has said, So l ong as the pran vital energy does not reach the Sushumna channel in proportion t o the efforts of a seeker practising Yoga, those efforts are in vain. Saint Eknat h has also expressed the same point in other words in a devotional song (arti) a s When even the para mode of speech ceases to exist, what is the motive left? It is the end of the cycle of birth and death. Later the real test occurs when the p ran vital energy reaches the Adnya chakra. There, one acquires supernatural powe rs (siddhis) and the capacity to enjoy any type and amount of happiness. However rarely does one not fall prey to such attachment, due to the grace of the Guru and accomplishes ones lifelong efforts. Only after successfully penetrating chakr as serially from the Adnya to the Sahasrar does one really become a Sadguru. Tha t is real liberation when still embodied (jivanmukti). - H.H. Kane Maharaj, Nara yangaon. C. Deciding the duration of purak, kumbhak and rechak by counting numbe rs in the mind gradually: Different texts give different numbers. One can perfor m inferior, moderate and superior types of pranayam depending upon ones progress. Inferior Moderate Superior 9/12

1. The amount (number of times) A. Purak B. Kumbhak C. Rechak 2. Physical signs 12 48 24 Rise in body temperature, sweating 16 64 32 Tremors in the spine or hands, shivering of the body 20 80 40 Frog leaps, floating, finally there is steadiness D. A decrease in the speed of breathing: When breathing occurs only four times a minute one is aware of only the pure ego. E. According to the duration of kumbhak : The duration of kumbhak gradually increases, stepwise. The more the kumbhak th e greater is the period when the tendencies of the subconscious mind are overcom e. The table below gives the stages of progress (states) and their features. Ara mbhavasta 10 minutes Ghatavastha 1 hour Parichayavastha 2 hours Nishpandavastha 8 hours 1. Minimum duration of kumbhak 2. External signs 3. Spiritual experiences A. Hap piness / Bliss B. Sound Waking state Sleep Deep sleep Corpse like state Happiness Bliss Tinkling Deafness C. Others Prespiration, tremors Bliss for a longer period of time Drum beats at the mid-point between the eyebro ws Serenity 4. The duration of kumbhak occurring automatically in some states from the Ashta ngyoga (Eight fold Yoga) The state The average duration of kumbhak 1. Introversion (pratyahar)* 30 second s 2. Concentration (dharana) 2 minutes 3. Meditation (dhyan) 30 minutes 4. Super conscious state 8 hours (nirbij samadhi) 10/12

* Preventing the contact of sense organs with objects. 5. Dangers A. No spiritual practice can cause harm to a seeker. However if pranayam is not done properly then it could lead to problems like cough, headache, earache, eye strain, indigestion, etc. If a seeker in the primary stage does kumbhak (holds h is breath), specially the bahya (external) kumbhak from pranayam, deliberately f or too long then he could lose consciousness due to a decrease in oxygen and inc rease in carbon dioxide and at that time there is a danger of some brain cells s uffering from permanent damage. Hence Gulabrao Maharaj has said In the science of Yoga who is a learned fool? The one who practises postures (asa ns), pranayam, etc. without following the restraints (yam) and regulations (niya m).(10) The same tenet is also applicable to those practising silence of speech a nd silence as of wood. [Yam and niyam are the first two parts from the Ashtangyo ga (Eightfold Yoga) of Patanjali and are related to the mind. [Refer Science of S pirituality: Vol. 16 - Path of Meditation (Dhyanyoga).] A quote from the Hathayog a pradipika 19/265 says,

‍ as if insane. To avoid this from happening, it is better to chant The Lords Name or to concentrate on the breath, during pranayam so as to keep the mind thoughtl ess. 6. Comparison with other paths of Yoga A. In the Path of Transfer of Energy (Shaktipatyoga) mostly one enters the super conscious state (samadhi) after bahya (external) kumbhak while in the Path of De votion (Bhaktiyoga), one enters the superconscious state mostly after antar (int ernal) kumbhak. B. If one does only pranayam as spiritual practice then maximum purification of the physical body and vital energy body (prandeha) that can occu r is 20% and 30% respectively. The same amount of purification can occur with an y other spiritual practice. With pranayam, purification of the mental body, caus al body ( karandeha) and supracausal body (mahakarandeha) can occur upto a maxim um of 10%, 2% and 1% 11/12

respectively. However with the grace of the Guru (Gurukrupa) purification of the physical, vital energy, causal and supracausal bodies can occur upto 20%, 30% a nd 100% respectively. For more information refer Science of Spirituality: Chapter 40 - Comparison of the Various Paths of Yoga. Reference: Path of Deliberate Rigour (Hathayoga), published by Sanatan Sanstha. Santanche Atm acharitra. Second edition, September 1989. Author: K.V. Belsare. Publisher: Trid al Publishers, Near Prarthana Samaj, Mumbai 400 004. [1]. Pg. 211 [2]. Pg. 210 [ 3]. Vol. 10, Pg. 245 First Edition, Bharatiya Sanskrutikosh. Publisher: Pandit M ahadevshastri Joshi, Secretary, Bharatiya Sanskrutikosh Mandal, 410 Shanivarpeth , Pune 411 030. [4]. Atmadnyanacha Onama Shri Sadguru Paramhansa Vedebaba Mahara j. First edition, Tuesday 13, February 1991, Pg.129. Publisher: Mr. Uday Bhaskar Kasrekar, Tilak Road, Bid. Manahasvasthyache Prabhavi Sadhan Pranayam. Second e dition, 1987. Author: Sadashiv P. Nimbalkar. Publisher: Mukund Bedekar, Yogvidya Niketan, Shri Samarth Vyayam Mandir, Kale Guruji Marg, Gokhale Road (North), Da dar (West), Mumbai 400 028. [5]. Pg. 4 [6]. Pg.5 [7]. Pg. 87. [8]. Arogyasathi Y oga. Pg.138. Author: Sadashiv P. Nimbalkar. Publisher: Mukund Bedekar, Yogavidya Niketan, Shri Samarth Vyayam Mandir, Kale Guruji Marg, Gokhale Road (North), Da dar (West), Mumbai 400 028. [9]. Shastra Ase Sangte. First edition, fifth reprin t - October 1994, Pg. 21. Vedvani Publications, Kolhapur 416 010. [10]. Sadhubod h: Shri Gulabrao Maharaj Virachit Prashnottaratmak Sukti Ratnavali Ashtamayashti , Pg. 24. Publisher: Shri Dnyaneshvar Madhuradvait Sampradayik Mandal, Dahisath, Amravati. 12/12