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By E. W. Bullinger, D.D.

“How is it that ye do not understand?…

Then understood they.”

MATT. 16:11 , 12

JEHOVAH has been pleased to give us the revelation of His mind and will in words. It is
therefore absolutely necessary that we should understand not merely the meanings of the
words themselves, but also the laws which govern their usage and combinations.

All language is governed by law; but, in order to increase the power of a word, or the
force of an expression, these laws are designedly departed from, and words and sentences
are thrown into, and used in, new forms, or figures .

The ancient Greeks reduced these new and peculiar forms to science, and gave names
to more than two hundred of them.

The Romans carried forward this science: but with the decline of learning in the
Middle Ages, it practically died out. A few writers have since then occasionally touched
upon it briefly, and have given a few trivial examples: but the knowledge of this ancient
science is so completely forgotten, that its very name to-day is used in a different sense
and with almost an opposite meaning.

These manifold forms which words and sentences assume were called by the Greeks
Schema ( ) and by the Romans, Figura . Both words have the same meaning, viz.,
a shape or figure . When we speak of a person as being “a figure” we mean one who is
dressed in some peculiar style, and out of the ordinary manner. The Greek word Schema
is found in 1 Cor. 7:31 , “ The fashion of this world passeth away”; Phil. 2:8 , “being
found in fashion as a man.” The Latin word Figura is from the verb fingere , to form ,
and has passed into the English language in the words figure, transfigure, configuration,
effigy, feint, feign, etc., etc.

We use the word figure now in various senses. Its primitive meaning applies to any
marks, lines, or outlines, which make a form or shape. Arithmetical figures are certain
marks or forms which represent numbers (1, 2, 3, etc.). All secondary and derived
meanings of the word “figure” retain this primitive meaning.

Applied to words, a figure denotes some form which a word or sentence takes,
different from its ordinary and natural form. This is always for the purpose of giving
additional force, more life, intensified feeling, and greater emphasis. Whereas to-day “
Figurative language ” is ignorantly spoken of as though it made less of the meaning, and
deprived the words of their power and force. A passage of God’s Word is quoted; and it
is met with the cry,” Oh, that is figurative”—implying that its meaning is weakened, or
that it has quite a different meaning, or that it has no meaning at all. But the very opposite
is the case. For an unusual form ( figura ) is never used except to add force to the truth
conveyed, emphasis to the statement of it, and depth to the meaning of it. When we apply
this science then to God’s words and to Divine truths, we see at once that no branch of
Bible study can be more important, or offer greater promise of substantial reward.

It lies at the very root of all translation; and it is the key to true interpretation … As
the course of language moves smoothly along, according to the laws which govern it,
there is nothing by which it can awaken or attract our attention. It is as when we are
travelling by railway. As long as everything proceeds according to the regulations we
notice nothing; we sleep, or we read, or meditate as the case may be. But, let the train
slacken its speed, or make an unexpected stop;—we immediately hear the question asked,
“What is the matter?” “What are we stopping for?” We hear one window go down and
then another: attention is thoroughly aroused, and interest excited. So it is exactly with
our reading. As long as all proceeds smoothly and according to law we notice nothing.
But suddenly there is a departure from some law, a deviation from the even course—an
unlooked for change—our attention is attracted, and we at once give our mind to discover
why the words have been used in a new form, what the particular force of the passage is,
and why we are to put special emphasis on the fact stated or on the truth conveyed. In
fact, it is not too much to say that, in the use of these figures, we have, as it were, the
Holy Spirit’s own markings of our Bibles.

This is the most important point of all. For it is not by fleshly wisdom that the “words
which the Holy Ghost teacheth” are to be understood. The natural man cannot understand
the Word of God. It is foolishness unto him. A man may admire a sun-dial, he may
marvel at its use, and appreciate the cleverness of its design; he may be interested in its
carved-work, or wonder at the mosaics or other beauties which adorn its structure: but, if
he holds a lamp in his hand or any other light emanating from himself or from this world,
he can make it any hour he pleases, and he will never be able to tell the time of day.
Nothing but the light from God’s sun in the Heavens can tell him that. So it is with the
Word of God. The natural man may admire its structure, or be interested in its statements;
he may study its geography, its history, yea, even its prophecy; but none of these things
will reveal to him his relation to time and eternity. Nothing but the light that cometh from
Heaven. Nothing but the Sun of Righteousness can tell him that. It may be said of the
Bible, therefore, as it is of the New Jerusalem—“The Lamb is the light thereof.” The
Holy Spirit’s work in this world is to lead to Christ, to glorify Christ. The Scriptures are
inspired by the Holy Spirit; and the same Spirit that inspired the words in the Book must
inspire its truths in our hearts, for they can and must be “Spiritually discerned” ( 1 Cor.
2:1–16 ).

On this foundation, then, we have prosecuted this work. And on these lines we have
sought to carry it out.

We are dealing with the words “which the Holy Ghost teacheth.” All His works are
perfect. “The words of the Lord are pure words”; human words, indeed, words pertaining
to this world, but purified as silver is refined in a furnace. Therefore we must study every
word, and in so doing we shall soon learn to say with Jeremiah ( 15:16 ), “Thy WORDS
were found, and I did eat them; and Thy WORD was unto me the joy and rejoicing of
mine heart … ”

It is clear, therefore, that no branch of Bible-study can be more important: and yet we
may truly say that there is no branch of it which has been so utterly neglected.

John Vilant Macbeth (Professor of Rhetoric, etc., in the University of West Virginia)
has said:—

“There is no even tolerably good treatise on Figures existing at present in our

language—Is there in any other tongue? There is no consecutive discussion of them of
more than a few pages; the examples brought forward by all others being trivial in the
extreme and threadbare; while the main conception of what constitutes the chief class of
figures is altogether narrow, erroneous, and unphilosophical. Writers generally, even the
ablest, are wholly in the dark as to the precise distinction between a trope and a
metonomy; and very few even of literary men have so much as heard of Hypocatastasis
or Implication, one of the most important of figures, and one, too, that is constantly
shedding its light upon us.” *

Solomon Glassius (1593–1656), a converted Jew, and a distinguished theologian, in

Germany, two centuries and a half ago, published (in 1625) his important work
Philologia Sacra , in which he includes an important treatise on Sacred Rhetoric. This is
by far the fullest account of Biblical Figures ever published. But this work is written in
Latin, and has never been translated into any language.

* The Might and Mirth of Literature , by John Walker Vilant Macbeth, Professor of
Rhetoric, etc., in the University of West Virginia, New York, 1875, page 38. This work
was published simultaneously in London, but the edition had to be sent back to New
York, owing to the fact that there was no demand for it!
Benjamin Keach (1640–1704) published in 1682 his Troposchemalogia: or, a Key to
open the Scripture Metaphors and Types . He does not hesitate to avail himself largely of
Glassius’s work, though he barely acknowledges it, or the extent to which he is indebted
to it. There is much that is good and true and useful, with much that is fanciful, in
Keach’s volumes.

John Albert Bengel (1687–1752) is the only commentator who has ever taken Figures
of Language seriously into account as a key to the interpretation and elucidation of the
Scriptures. It is this fact which gives his commentary on the New Testament (which he
calls a Gnomon ) such great value, and imparts such excellence to it, making it unique
among commentaries.

M. John Alb. Burk has drawn up an explanatory Index of over 100 of these “technical
terms” occuring in Bengel’s Commentary, and a Translation of it, by Canon Fausset, is
added to T. and T. Clark’s English Edition of Bengel, to serve as a key to that work.

Beyond this there is but little. Dr. McGill, in his Lectures on Rhetoric and Criticism ,
Glasgow, 1838, devotes one chapter to the subject of Figurative language, and describes
about sixteen Figures. Alexander Carson in a Treatise on the Figures of Speech, *
classifies and names about forty-three figures.

Archdeacon Farrar in A brief Greek Syntax , London, 1867, has one chapter on
Figures, and describes a few, illustrating them from the classics.

Horne’s Introduction to the Bible devotes one chapter out of his four volumes to
“Figurative Language,” but confines himself to describing only ten Figures.

There are one or two small works of more recent date. The Rhetorical Speaker and
Poetical Class-book , by R. T. Linnington, 1844. He describes some 35 Figures, but uses
them only as a study for rhetorical effect, and illustrates them from general literature for
purposes of recitation.

The S.P.C.K. also published, in 1849, a course of lectures on the Figurative Language
of the Holy Scriptures, delivered in the Parish Church of Nayland in Suffolk in 1786.

Thus we are justified in saying that Bible students can find no complete work on the
subject of Figurative Language in its relation to the Bible.

There are several small works on Rhetoric. But Rhetoric is an adaptation of

Figurative Language for the purposes of elocution; and, treatises on Rhetoric hardly come
within the scope of our present object.

* Bound up in a Vol., with An Examination of the Principles of Biblical Interpretation ,

New York, 1855.
Translators and commentators, as a rule, have entirely ignored the subject; while by
some it has been derided. There is great need, therefore, for a work which shall deal
exhaustively with the great subject of Figurative Language; and, if possible, reduce the
Figures to some kind of system (which has never yet been completely done either by the
Ancients or Moderns), and apply them to the elucidation of the Word of God. The gems
and pearls which will be strung together will be exquisite, because they are Divine; but
the thread, though human, will be of no mean value. The mode of treatment is new and
comprehensive. It is new; for never before has Figurative Language been taken as a
subject of Bible study: it is comphrensive, for it embraces the facts and truths which lie at
the foundation of the Christian faith, and the principles which are the essence of
Protestant truth.

It is moreover a difficult study for the general reader, For, besides the difficulty which
naturally arises from the absence of any standard works upon the subject, there are three
other difficulties of no mean magnitude which have doubtless tended much to deter
students from taking up the subject, even where there may have been a desire to study it.

The first difficulty is their nomenclature . All the names of these figures are either in
Greek or Latin. This difficulty can be, to a great extent, cleared away by a simple
explanation, and by substituting an English equivalent, which we have here attempted.

The second difficulty is their number . We have catalogued over 200 distinct figures,
several of them with from 30 to 40 varieties. Many figures have duplicate names which
brings up the total number of names to more than 500.

John Holmes, in his Rhetoric made easy (1755), gives a list of 250.

J. Vilant Macbeth, (in his work already referred to), deals with 220, which he
illustrates only from English and American literature.

While G. W. Hervey’s System of Christian Rhetoric (1873) defines 256 with 467

The third difficulty is the utter absence of any classification . These figures do not
seem to have ever been arranged in any satisfactory order. If the Greeks did this work, no
record of it seems to have come down to us.

The three great Divisions into which they usually fall are:

I. Figures of ETYMOLOGY : which are departures from the ordinary spelling of words.
These consist of some 18 Figures, such as

Aphæresis, front-cut , ’ghast for aghast, ’fore for before, etc.

Syncope, mid-cut , e’er for ever, o’er for over.

Apocope, end-cut , Lucrece for Lucretia, etc., etc.

II. Figures of SYNTAX or GRAMMAR : which are alterations of the ordinary meaning
of words.

III. Figures of RHETORIC : which are deviations from the ordinary application of

With the first of these, we are not now concerned, as it has nothing to do with our
present work.

It is only with the Figures of Syntax and Rhetoric that we have to deal.

These have been sometimes mixed together, and then divided into two classes:—

I. Figures that affect words .

II. Figures that affect thought .

But this is a very imperfect arrangement; and, as Dr. Blair says, “Is of no great use; as
nothing can be built upon it in practice, neither is it always clear.”

Another arrangement is (1) figures that are the result of feeling , and (2) those that are
the result of imagination . But this also is defective and inadequate.

In the absence of any known authoritative arrangement of the Figures, we have

grouped them in this work under three great natural divisions:—

I. Figures which depend for their peculiarity on any OMISSION : in which something is
omitted in the words themselves or in the sense conveyed by them (Elliptical Figures).

II. Figures which depend on any ADDITION , by REPETITION of words or sense

(Pleonastic Figures): and

III. Figures which depend on CHANGE , or Alteration in the usage, order, or

application of words.

We have fully set out this arrangement in a Summary of Classification, and, in an

Analytical Table of Contents; where, for the first time, will be seen a complete classified
list of Figures, with English equivalents, brief definitions, and alternative names.

A figure is, as we have before said, a departure from the natural and fixed laws of
Grammar or Syntax; but it is a departure not arising from ignorance or accident. Figures
are not mere mistakes of Grammar; on the contrary, they are legitimate departures from
law, for a special purpose. They are permitted variations with a particular object.
Therefore they are limited as to their number, and can be ascertained, named, and

No one is at liberty to exercise any arbitrary power in their use. All that art can do is
to ascertain the laws to which nature has subjected them. There is no room for private
opinion, neither can speculation concerning them have any authority.

It is not open to any one to say of this or that word or sentence, “This is a figure,”
according to his own fancy, or to suit his own purpose. We are dealing with a science
whose laws and their workings are known. If a word or words be a figure, then that figure
can be named, and described. It is used for a definite purpose and with a specific object.
Man may use figures in ignorance, without any particular object. But when the Holy
Spirit takes up human words and uses a figure (or peculiar form), it is for a special
purpose, and that purpose must be observed and have due weight given to it.

Many misunderstood and perverted passages are difficult, only because we have not
known the Lord’s design in the difficulty.

Thomas Boys has well said ( Commentary , 1 Pet. 3 ), “There is much in the Holy
Scriptures, which we find it hard to understand: nay, much that we seem to understand so
fully as to imagine that we have discovered in it some difficulty or inconsistency. Yet the
truth is, that passages of this kind are often the very parts of the Bible in which the
greatest instruction is to be found: and, more than this, the instruction is to be obtained in
the contemplation of the very difficulties by which at first we are startled. This is the
intention of these apparent inconsistencies. The expressions are used, in order that we
may mark them, dwell upon them, and draw instruction out of them. Things are put to us
in a strange way, because, if they were put in a more ordinary way, we should not notice

This is true, not only of mere difficulties as such, but especially of all Figures: i.e. , of
all new and unwonted forms of words and speech: and our design in this work is that we
should learn to notice them and gain the instruction they were intended to give us.

The Word of God may, in one respect, be compared to the earth. All things necessary
to life and sustenance may be obtained by scratching the surface of the earth: but there
are treasures of beauty and wealth to be obtained by digging deeper into it. So it is with
the Bible. “All things necessary to life and godliness” lie upon its surface for the
humblest saint; but, beneath that surface are “great spoils” which are found only by those
who seek after them as for “hid treasure.”



1. To give in its proper order and place each one of two hundred and seventeen
figures of speech, by name.
2. Then to give the proper pronunciation of its name.

3. Then its etymology, showing why the name was given to it, and what is its

4. And, after this, a number of passages of Scripture, in full, where the figure is used,
ranging from two or three instances, to some hundreds under each figure, accompanied
by a full explanation. These special passages amount, in all, to nearly eight thousand.

We repeat, and it must be borne in mind, that all these many forms are employed only
to set forth the truth with greater vigour, and with a far greater meaning: and this, for the
express purpose of indicating to us what is emphatic; and to call and attract our attention,
so that it may be directed to, and fixed upon, the special truth which is to be conveyed to

Not every Figure is of equal importance, nor is every passage of equal interest.

But we advise all students of this great subject to go patiently forward, assuring them
that from time to time they will be amply rewarded; and often when least expected.



This work may be used either for the direct study of this important subject; or it may
be used simply as a constant companion to the Bible, and as a work of reference.

A copious index of Texts and Passages illustrated has been compiled for this purpose;
and will be found, with six other Indexes, and five Appendixes, at the end of the volume.


25 Connaught Street,


November , 1899.


A FIGURE is simply a word or a sentence thrown into a peculiar form , different from its
original or simplest meaning or use. These forms are constantly used by every speaker
and writer. It is impossible to hold the simplest conversation, or to write a few sentences
without, it may be unconsciously, making use of figures. We may say, “the ground needs
rain”: that is a plain, cold, matter-of-fact statement; but if we say “the ground is thirsty,”
we immediately use a figure. It is not true to fact , and therefore it must be a figure. But
how true to feeling it is! how full of warmth and life! Hence, we say, “the crops suffer”;
we speak of “a hard heart,” “a rough man,” “an iron will.” In all these cases we take a
word which has a certain, definite meaning, and apply the name, or the quality, or the act,
to some other thing with which it is associated, by time or place, cause or effect, relation
or resemblance.

Some figures are common to many languages; others are peculiar to some one
language. There are figures used in the English language, which have nothing that
answers to them in Hebrew or Greek; and there are Oriental figures which have no
counterpart in English; while there are some figures in various languages, arising from
human infirmity and folly, which find, of course, no place in the word of God.

It may be asked, “How are we to know, then, when words are to be taken in their
simple, original form ( i.e. , literally), and when they are to be taken in some other and
peculiar form ( i.e. , as a Figure )?” The answer is that, whenever and wherever it is
possible, the words of Scripture are to be understood literally , but when a statement
appears to be contrary to our experience, or to known fact, or revealed truth; or seems to
be at variance with the general teaching of the Scriptures, then we may reasonably expect
that some figure is employed. And as it is employed only to call our attention to some
specially designed emphasis, we are at once bound to diligently examine the figure for
the purpose of discovering and learning the truth that is thus emphasized.

From non-attention to these Figures, translators have made blunders as serious as they
are foolish. Sometimes they have translated the figure literally, totally ignoring its
existence; sometimes they have taken it fully into account, and have translated, not
according to the letter, but according to the spirit; sometimes they have taken literal
words and translated them figuratively. Commentators and interpreters, from inattention
to the figures, have been led astray from the real meaning of many important passages of
God’s Word; while ignorance of them has been the fruitful parent of error and false
doctrine. It may be truly said that most of the gigantic errors of Rome, as well as the
erroneous and conflicting views of the Lord’s People, have their root and source, either in
figuratively explaining away passages which should be taken literally, or in taking
literally what has been thrown into a peculiar form or Figure of language: thus, not only
falling into error, but losing the express teaching, and missing the special emphasis which
the particular Figure was designed to impart to them.

This is an additional reason for using greater exactitude and care when we are dealing
with the words of God. Man’s words are scarcely worthy of such study. Man uses figures,
but often at random and often in ignorance or in error. But “the words of the Lord are
pure words.” All His works are perfect, and when the Holy Spirit takes up and uses
human words, He does so, we may be sure, with unerring accuracy, infinite wisdom, and
perfect beauty.

We may well, therefore, give all our attention to “the words which the Holy Ghost

The corrections from the Errata section of the print edition have been implemented in the
text itself. The one exception is an instruction to delete an entire paragraph from page
241. A footnote there marks that the example was marked for deletion in the errata
section, but the paragraph was left in place.

In addition, the following additional corrections were made to the present edition:

Page 46, Tim 2:3 changed to 1 Tim 2:3

Page 62, he to het in

Page 64, zayn to waw in and iv to yo and k to b in ( l’vikam eylayo )

Page 134, added accent to Mes’-o-zeugma

Page 181, ; , to ;

Page 181, Ps 24:22 to Ps 25:22

Page 197, missing page number set to page 114.

Page 242, Romans 7:31 changed to 8:31

Page 285, to

Page 318, asoeph to asoph, asoph to aseph in ,

Page 371, Matt 9 42 to 9:24

Page 414, 1 Thess 2:23 to 2:13

Page 464, Ps 134:21 to 135:21

Page 544, Nu 25:21 to 21:25

Page 587, Is 49:61 to 49:6

Page 615, Under discussion on Jer 26.9, verse 26 changed to verse 16

Page 619, Luke 24:54 to 24:53

Page 868, 1 Chr 13:19 to 2 Chr. 13:18; 1 Chr 28:18 to 2 Chr 28:18


I. Affecting words

II. Affecting the sense


I. Affecting words

II. Affecting the sense, by way of

1. Repetition

2. Amplification

3. Description

4. Conclusion

5. Interposition

6. Reasoning


I. Affecting the meaning and usage of words

II. Affecting the order and arrangement of words

III. Affecting the application of words, as to

1. Sense

2. Persons

3. Subject-matter

4. Time

5. Feeling

6. Reasoning

A. On the use of Different Types in the English Versions

B. On the usage of the Genitive Case

1. Of Character

2. Of Origin and Efficient Cause

3. Of Possession

4. Of Apposition

5. Of Relation and Object

6. Of Material

7. Of Contents

8. Of Partition

9. Two Genitives

C. On Homœoteleuta in the MSS. and Printed Text of the Hebrew Bible

D. On Hebrew Homonyms
E. On the Eighteen Emendations of the Sopherim

A. Alford and his critical Greek Text.

Acc. The Accusative Case.

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.

G. Griesbach and his critical Greek Text.

Gen. The Genitive Case.

Comp. Compare.

Cf. Compare (for Latin, confer ).

Imp. The Imperative Mood.

Ind. The Indicative Mood.

Inf. The Infinitive Mood.

L. Lachmann and his critical Greek Text.

LXX. The Septuagint Version (325 B.C. ).

Marg. Margin.

Nom. The Nominative Case.

P.B.V. The Prayer Book Version of the Psalms (from Coverdale’s Bible).

Part. Participlc.

Pl. The Plural Number.

Q.v. Which see.

R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.

Sept. The Septuagint Version.

Sing. The Singular Number.

Sqq. Following.

Tr. Tregelles and his critical Greek Text.

T. Tischendorf and his critical Greek Text.

WH. Westcott and Hort, and their critical Greek Text.

(10) A figure in brackets, immediately after a reference, denotes the number of the
verse in the Hebrew or Greek where the versification differs from the A.V.

= Denotes that one thing equals or is the same as the other.






El-lip´-sis , a leaving in ( en ) in , and

( leipein ) to leave .

The figure is so called, because some gap is left in the sentence, which means that a
word or words are left out or omitted . The English name of the figure would therefore be
Omission .

The figure is a peculiar form given to a passage when a word or words are omitted;
words which are necessary for the grammar, but are not necessary for the sense.

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.
The laws of geometry declare that there must be at least three straight lines to enclose
a space. So the laws of syntax declare that there must be at least three words to make
complete sense, or the simplest complete sentence. These three words are variously
named by grammarians. In the sentence “Thy word is truth,” “Thy word” is the subject
spoken of, “truth” is what is said of it (the predicate), and the verb “is” (the copula)
connects it.

But any of these three may be dispensed with; and this law of syntax may be
legitimately broken by Ellipsis.

The omission arises not from want of thought, or lack of care, or from accident, but
from design, in order that we may not stop to think of, or lay stress on, the word omitted,
but may dwell on the other words which are thus emphasised by the omission. For
instance, in Matt. 14:19 , we read that the Lord Jesus “gave the loaves to His disciples,
and the disciples to the multitude.”

There is no sense in the latter sentence, which is incomplete, “the disciples to the
multitude,” because there is no verb. The verb “gave” is omitted by the figure of Ellipsis
for some purpose. If we read the last sentence as it stands, it reads as though Jesus gave
the disciples to the multitude!

This at once serves to arrest our attention; it causes us to note the figure employed;
we observe the emphasis; we learn the intended lesson. What is it? Why, this; we are
asked to dwell on the fact that the disciples gave the bread, but only instrumentally, not
really. The Lord Jesus Himself was the alone Giver of that bread. Our thoughts are thus,
at once, centred on Him and not on the disciples.

These Ellipses are variously dealt with in the English Versions (both Authorized and
Revised). In many cases they are correctly supplied by italics . In some cases the
sentences are very erroneously completed. Sometimes an Ellipsis in the Text is not seen,
and therefore is not taken into account in the Translation. Sometimes an Ellipsis is
imagined and supplied where none really exists in the original.

Where an Ellipsis is wrongly supplied, or not supplied at all, the words of the Text
have to be very freely translated in order to make sense, and their literal meaning is
sometimes widely departed from.

But on the other hand, where we correctly supply the Ellipsis—one word, it may be—
it at once enables us to take all the other words of the passage in their literal signification.
This is in itself an enormous gain, to say nothing of the wonderful light that may be thus
thrown upon the Scripture.

These Ellipses must not be arbitrarily supplied according to our own individual
views; we are not at liberty to insert any words, according to our own fancies: but they
are all scientifically arranged and classified, and each must therefore be filled up,
according to definite principles which are well ascertained, and in obedience to laws
which are carefully laid down.

Ellipsis is of three kinds:—

Absolute Ellipsis,

Relative Ellipsis, and the

Ellipsis of Repetition: —

A. Absolute , where the omitted word or words are to be supplied from the nature
of the subject alone.

B. Relative , where the omitted word or words are to be supplied from, and are
suggested by the context .

C. The Ellipsis of Repetition , where the omitted word or words are to be supplied
by repeating them from a clause which precedes or follows.

These three great divisions may be further set forth as follows:—

A. ABSOLUTE ELLIPSIS , where the omitted word or words are to be supplied from
the nature of the subject.

I. Nouns and Pronouns.

1. The Nominative.

2. The Accusative.

3. Pronouns.

4. Other connected words.

II. Verbs and Participles:—

1. When the verb finite is wanting:

a. especially the verb to say .

2. When the verb infinitive is wanting:

a. after to be able .

b. after the verb to finish .

c. after another verb, personal or impersonal.

3. When the verb substantive is wanting.

4. When the participle is wanting.

III. Certain connected words in the same member of a passage.

IV. A whole clause in a connected passage:—

1. The first clause.

2. The latter clause or Apodosis ( Anantapodoton ).

3. A comparison.


I. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a cognate word in the


1. The noun from the verb.

2. The verb from the noun.

II. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from a contrary word.

III. Where the omitted word is to be supplied from analogous or related words.

IV. Where the omitted word is contained in another word: the one word
comprising the two significations—( Concisa Locutio , Syntheton or
Compositio, Constructio Prægnans ).


I. Simple: where the Ellipsis is to be supplied from a preceding or a succeeding


1. From a preceding clause.

a. Nouns and Pronouns.

b. Verbs.

c. Particles.
i) Negatives.

ii) Interrogatives.

d. Sentences.

2. From a succeeding clause.

II. Complex: where the two clauses are mutually involved, and the Ellipsis in
the former clause is to be supplied from the latter, and at the same time an
Ellipsis in the latter clause is to be supplied from the former. (Called also
Semiduplex Oratio ).

1. Single words.

2. Sentences.

That is, the omission of words or terms which must be supplied only from the nature of
the subject . The omitted word may be a noun, adjective, pronoun, verb, participle,
adverb, preposition.

I. The Omission of Nouns and Pronouns

1. The Omission of the NOMINATIVE

Gen. 14:19 , 20 . —Melchizedek said to Abram, “Blessed be the most high God, which
hath delivered thine enemies into thine hand. And he [ i.e., Abram ] gave him tithes of

From the context, as well as from Heb. 7:4 , it is clear that it was Abram who gave the
tithes to Melchizedek, and not Melchizedek to Abram.

Gen. 39:6 . —“And he left all that he had in Joseph’s hand; and he knew not ought he
had, save the bread Which he did eat. And Joseph was a goodly person , and well-

Here it is not at all clear which it was of the two who “knew not ought he had.” If we
understand Potiphar, it is difficult to see how he only knew the bread he ate: or if Joseph,
it is difficult to understand how he knew not ought he had.

If the Ellipsis , however, is rightly supplied, it makes it all clear.

The verse may be rendered, and the Ellipsis supplied as follows:— “And he [
Potiphar ] left all that he had in Joseph’s hand: and he [ Potiphar ] knew not anything
save the bread which he was eating. And Joseph was beautiful of figure, and beautiful of

All difficulty is removed when we remember that “the Egyptians might not eat bread
with the Hebrews, for that is an abomination unto the Egyptians” ( 43:32 ). Everything,
therefore, was committed by Potiphar to Joseph’s care, except that which pertained to the
matter of food.

2 Sam. 3:7 . —“And Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of
Aiah, and … said to Abner, Wherefore, etc.”

Here it is clear from the Sense of the next verse and 2 Sam. 21:8 that “ Ishbosheth ” is
the word to be supplied, as is done in italics.

2 Sam. 23:20 . —“He slew two lionlike men of Moab.”

The Massorah points out * that the word Ariel occurs three times, in this passage and
Isa. 29:1 . In Isa. the word is twice transliterated as a proper name, while in 2 Sam. 23:20
, margin, it is translated lions of God: the first part of the word ( aree ) a lion , and
the second part ( l ) God . But if we keep it uniformly and consistently as a proper
name we have with the Ellipsis of the accusative ( sons ) the following sense: “He slew
the two sons of Ariel of Moab.”

2 Sam. 24:1 . —“And again the anger of the LORD was kindled against Israel, and he
moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah.”

Here the nominative to the verb “moved” is wanting. Someone moved, and who that
was we learn from 1 Chron. 21:1 , from which it is clear that the word Satan or the
Adversary is to be supplied, as is done in the margin:—“And again the anger of the LORD
was kindled against Israel, and [ the Adversary ] moved David against them to say, Go,
number Israel and Judah.”

1 Chron. 6:28 ( 12 ). —“And the sons of Samuel; the firstborn Vashni ( marg. , called
also Joel , ver. 33 and 1 Sam. 8:2 ) and Abiah.”

Here there is an Ellipsis of the name of the firstborn: while the word , Vashni ,
when otherwise pointed ( ) means “ and the second”! so that the verse reads,

“And the sons of Samuel; the firstborn [ Joel ] and the second Abiah.” This agrees
with the Syriac Version. The R.V. correctly supplies the Ellipsis, and translates vashni
“and the second.”

* Ginsburg’s Edition, Vol. i., p. 106.

marg. Margin.
“Joel” is supplied from ver. 33 (see also 1 Sam. 8:2 , and the note in Ginsburg’s
edition of the Hebrew Bible).

Ps. 34:17 . —“[ They ] cry, and the Lord heareth, and delivereth them out of all their

The immediate subject in ver. 16 is evildoers . But it is not these who cry. It is the
righteous. Hence the A.V. and the R.V. supply the words “ the righteous ” in italics. The
nominative is omitted, in order that our attention may be fixed not on their persons or
their characters, but upon their cry, and the Lord’s gracious answer.

The same design is seen in all similar cases.

Ps. 105:40 . —“[They] asked, and he brought quails,” i.e. , the People asked. The
nominative is supplied in the A.V. But the R.V. translates it literally “They asked.”

Prov. 22:27 . —“If thou hast nothing to pay, why should one [ i.e., the creditor ] take
away thy bed from under thee?”

Isa. 26:1 . —“In that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah; we have a strong
city; salvation will one [ i.e. God ] appoint for walls and bulwarks.”

The A.V. interprets by supplying the nominative. The R.V. translates it literally.

Jer. 51:19 . —“He is the former of all things, and Israel is the rod of his inheritance.”

Here both the A.V. and R.V. supply the Ellipsis from 10:16 . Had it been supplied
from the immediate context, it would have come under the head of Relative Ellipsis , or
that of Repetition.

Ezek. 46:12 . —“Now when the Prince shall prepare a voluntary offering or peace
offerings voluntarily unto the LORD , one shall then open him the gate that looketh toward
the East, &c.,” i.e. , the gate-keeper (supplied from the noun , the gate ),
which follows, shall open the gate.

Zech. 7:2 . —“When they ( Heb. he) had sent unto the house of God, Sherezer and
Regem-melech and their men, to pray before the LORD ” [ i.e. , when the people who had
returned to Judea had sent].

Matt. 16:22 . —“Be it far from Thee, Lord.”

Here the Ellipsis in the Greek is destroyed by the translation. The Greek reads, “
, ” ( hile s soi, kyrie ), which is untranslatable literally, unless we supply
the Ellipsis of the Nominative, thus: “[ God be ] merciful to Thee, Lord!” Thus it is in the

R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.

Septuagint 1 Chron. 11:19 , where it is rendered “God forbid that I should do this thing,”
but it ought to be, “[ God ] be merciful to me [ to keep me from doing ] this thing.”

Acts 13:29 . —“And when they had fulfilled all that was written, of him, they took him
down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre,” i.e. , Joseph of Arimathæa and
Nicodemus took him down. But it is the act which we are to think of here rather than the
persons who did it. Hence the Ellipsis .

1 Cor. 15:25 . —“For he must reign, till he hath put all enemies under his feet,” i.e. , “he
[ the Son ] must reign, until he [ the Son ] shall have put all things under his [ the Son’s ]
feet.” Here the subjection refers to the period of Christ’s personal reign.

This is one of the seven New Testament references to Ps. 110:1 , “Jehovah said unto
Adon—Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.” The English
word “make” occurs 1,111 times in the Old Testament, as the rendering of 49 Hebrew
words. The one so rendered here is ( Sheeth ) and means to put, place, set , or
appoint , and is rendered make only 19 times out of 94. Its proper meaning is put or
appoint . (See Gen. 3:15 ; 4:25 ; 30:40 . Ps. 140:5 . Isa. 26:1 , &c.)

The word in the N. T. is ( titheemi ), and has the same meaning. It is rendered
make only 10 times out of 91, but in these cases it means to set or appoint ( Acts 20:28 .
Rom. 4:17 , &c.). In every case the verb is in the second aorist subjunctive, and should be
rendered “ shall have put .”

Six of the seven references ( Matt. 22:44 . Mark 12:36 . Luke 20:42 . Acts 2:34 . Heb.
1:13 ; 10:13 ) refer to Christ’s session on the Father’s throne (not to His reign upon His
own, Rev. 3:21 ). And this session will continue until such time as the Father shall have
placed Christ’s enemies as a footstool for His feet. When that shall have been done, He
will rise up from His seat and come forth into the air for His people, to receive them to
Himself, and take them up to meet Him in the air so to be ever with the Lord. Then He
will come unto the earth with them, and sit upon the throne of His glory, and reign until
He shall have put all enemies under His feet. The other six passages refer to Christ’s
session . This one refers to His reign upon His own throne (not to His session on His
Father’s throne, Rev. 3:21 ). And this reign will continue until He (Christ) hath put all
His enemies under His feet.

Note, that in the six passages His enemies are placed “as a footstool for His feet,” and
there is not a word about their being under His feet. In the one passage ( 1 Cor. 15:25 )
there is not a word about being placed “as a footstool,” but the word “under” His feet is
used. We must distinguish between placing and making , and Christ’s session and His
reign . Then all these passages teach the Pre-Millennial and Pre-Tribulation coming of
Christ for His people before His coming with them. *

* See Things to Come for October, 1898.

1 Cor. 15:53 . —“For this corruptible [ body ] must put on incorruption, and this mortal [
body ] must put on immortality.”

The noun “body” must also be supplied in the next verse.

Eph. 1:8 . —“Wherein he hath abounded towards us in all wisdom and prudence.”

( hees ) which, i.e. , “[ the knowledge ] or grace , which he

hath made to abound in us in all wisdom and prudence.”

Titus 1:15 . —“Unto the pure all things are pure.”

The noun “meats” ( i.e. , foods) must be supplied as in 1 Cor. 6:12 . “All [ meats ]
indeed are clean to the clean.” The word “clean” being used in its ceremonial or Levitical
sense, for none can be otherwise either “pure” or “clean.”

Heb. 11:1 . —“Then verily the first covenant had also ordinances of divine service.”
Here the word covenant is properly supplied in italics.

2 Pet. 3:1 . —“This second epistle, beloved, I now write unto you; in both which I stir up
your pure minds by way of remembrance,” i.e. , “In both which [ epistles ] I stir up,” etc.

1 John 5:16 . —“If any man see his brother sin a sin which is not unto death, he shall
ask, and he shall give him life, etc.,” i.e. , “[ God ] shall give him life.” See also Matt.
5:11 , 15 ; Luke 6:38 , where men must be the word supplied.

2. The Omission of the OBJECT or ACCUSATIVE , etc., after the verb

2 Sam. 6:6 . —“And when they came to Nachon’s threshing-floor, Uzzah put forth his
hand to the ark of God.”

Here the omission is supplied. The Ellipsis is used, and the accusative is omitted, in
order to call our attention to the act , rather than to the manner of it.

1 Chron. 16:7 . —“Then on that day, David delivered first this psalm to thank the LORD ,

The Ellipsis might also be supplied thus: “David delivered first [ the following words
] to thank the LORD , etc.”

Job. 24:6 . —“They reap everyone his corn in the field.”

This hardly makes sense with the context, which describes the wicked doings of those
who know not God.
The question is whether the word ( beleel ) translated “his corn” is to be taken
as one word, or whether it is to be read as two words ( belee l ) which mean not
their own . In this case there is the Ellipsis of the accusative, which must be supplied. The
whole verse will then read,

“They reap [ their corn ] in a field not their own:

They glean the vintage of the wicked,”

which carries on the thought of the passage without a break in the argument.

If we read it as one word, then we must supply the Ellipsis differently:—“They reap
their corn in a field [ not their own ],” so that it comes, in sense, to the same thing.

Ps. 21:12 ( 13 ). —“When thou shalt make ready thine arrows upon thy strings.”

Ps. 44:10 ( 11 ). —“They which hate us spoil for themselves.”

The word spoil is ( shahsah ), and means to plunder . And it is clear that the
accusative, which is omitted, should be supplied:—“They which hate us plunder [ our
goods ] for themselves.” The emphasis being, of course, on the act and the motive in the
verb “plunder,” and “for themselves,” rather than on the goods which they plunder.

In verse 12 ( 13 ), both the A.V. and R.V. have supplied the accusative, “ thy wealth

Ps. 57:2 ( 3 ). —“I will cry unto God most high; unto God that performeth all things for
me.” Here the object is supplied in the words “ all things .” Other translators suggest “
His mercy , ” “ His promises , ” “ my desires .” Luther has “ my sorrow , ” the Hebrew
being ( gamar ), to bring to an end, complete , etc. The Ellipsis is left for emphasis.
Nothing is particularised, so that we may supply everything. The mention of any one
thing necessarily excludes others.

In Ps. 138:8 we have the same verb (though with a different construction) and the
same Ellipsis: but the former is translated “the LORD will perfect,” and the latter is
supplied “ that which concerneth me”: i.e. , will consummate all consummations for me.

Ps. 94:10 . —“He that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he correct [ you among the
heathen ]?” This is evidently the completion of the sense. The A.V. fills up the Ellipsis in
the next sentence. This is of a different character, and comes under another division: “He
that teacheth man knowledge, shall not he know? ”

Ps. 103:9 . —“Neither will he keep his anger for ever.” So in Nah. 1:2 ; Jer. 3:5 , 12 .

Ps. 137:5 . —“If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning .”
Here both versions thus supply the accusative. But surely more is implied in the
Ellipsis than mere skill of workmanship. Surely it means, “If I forget thee, O Jerusalem,
let my right hand forget me .” Let it forget to work for me, to feed me and to defend me,
if I forget to pray for thee and to defend thee.

Prov. 24:24 . —“He that saith unto the wicked, Thou art righteous; him shall the people
curse, nations shall abhor him;” i.e. , “He that saith to the wicked [ king ].” This is clear
from the context.

Verses 21–25 read literally. “Fear the Lord, O my son, and the king. With men that
make a difference ( , shanah see Est. 1:7 ; 3:8 ), between a king and an ordinary
man thou shalt not mingle thyself. For their calamity (whose? evidently that of two
persons, viz., that of the king and also of the common man ) shall rise suddenly; and who
knoweth the ruin of them both? These matters also belong to the wise.” To make no
difference between man and man belongs to everyone alike, see Deut. 1:17 ; but to make
no difference between a man and a king is a matter that pertains only to the wise. “ It is
not good to have respect of persons in judgment. He that saith to the wicked [ king, as
well as common man ], Thou art righteous; him shall the people curse, nations shall abhor
him; but to them that rebuke him ( i.e., the wicked king ) shall be delight, and a good
blessing shall come upon them.”

Here there is accuracy of translation and consistency of interpretation. There is only

one subject in verses 21–25 . * Here it is the command not to flatter a wicked king; and
this explains the word “both” in verse 22 , and the reference to “people” and “nations” in
verse 24 . Unless the Ellipsis is thus supplied, the meaning is not clear.

That which is a true admonition as to kingcraft, is also a solemn warning as to

priestcraft. The “wise” makes no difference between a so-called priest and another man;
for he knows that all the people of God are made “priests unto God” ( Rev. 1:6 ), and “an

Each “proverb” or paragraph in the book of Proverbs is occupied with only one subject,
even if it consists of several verses. This may sometimes throw light on a passage, e.g. ,
Prov. 26:3–5 , where verses 4 and 5 follow up the subject of verse 3, not changing the
subject but enforcing it; i.e. , “For the horse a whip, for the ass a bridle, and for the fool’s
back a rod.” In other words you cannot reason with a horse or an ass, neither can you
reason with a fool. Then follow two very finely stated facts, not commands . If you
answer him according to his folly, he will think you are a fool like himself, and if you
answer him not according to his folly, he will think that he is wise like yourself! So that
we have a kind of hypothetical command:

Do this, and you will see that;

Do that, and you will see, &c.

holy priest-hood” ( 1 Pet. 2:5 ). Those who make a difference do so to their own loss, and
to the dishonour of Christ.

Isa. 53:12 . —“Therefore will I divide him a portion with the great, and he shall divide
the spoil with the strong”; i.e. , “Therefore will I [Jehovah] divide (or apportion) to him a
great multitude [ for booty ], and the strong ones will he ( i.e. , Messiah) divide as spoil.”

The structure shows that 53:12 corresponds with, and is to be explained by 52:15 .
The passage is concerning:—

Jehovah’s Servant—the Sin Offering.

A 52:13 . His Presentation.

B 14 . His Affliction.

C 15 . His Reward.

A 53:1–3 . His Reception.

B 4–10 . His Affliction.

C 10–12 . His Reward.

Hence the “many nations” of 52:15 , answer to the “great multitudes” of 53:12 ; and
“the kings” of 52:15 answer to “the strong ones” of 53:12 . Thus the two passages explain
each other. The first line of verse 12 is what Jehovah divides to His Servant; and the
second line is what He divides as Victor for Himself and His host. Compare Ps. 110:2–5 ,
Rev. 19:11–16 .

The word ( nazah ) in 52:15 , means to leap, leap out: of liquids, to spurt out as
blood: of people, to leap up from joy or astonishment. So the astonishment of verse 15
answers to that of verse 14 . Moreover the verb is in the Hiphil , and means to cause
astonishment. *

Jer. 16:7 . —“Neither shall men tear themselves for them in mourning.” The word tear is
( paras ) to break, cleave, divide . So that the Ellipsis will be, “Neither shall men
break [ bread ] for them in mourning” (as Ezek. 24:17 , Hos. 9:4 , etc., and A.V. marg.
and R.V. ).

See under Idiom .

Jer. 8:4 . —“Thus saith the LORD , Shall they fall, and not arise? Shall he turn away and
not return?”

* See Things to Come , August, 1898.

This is unintelligible, and the R.V. is no clearer:—“Shall one turn away and not turn

The fact is that the Massorah * calls attention to this passage as one of several
examples where two connected words are wrongly divided. Here, the first letter of the
second of these two words should be the last letter of the preceding word. Then the sense
comes out most beautifully:

“Shall they return [ to the Lord ]

And He not return [ to them ]?”

Agreeing with Mal. 3:7 , and with the context; and bringing out the parallel between
the two lines as well as exhibiting more clearly the figure of Polyptoton ( q.v. )

Matt. 11:18 .—“John came neither eating nor drinking.”

Clearly there must be an Ellipsis here; for John, being human, could not live without
food. The sense is clear in the Hebrew idiom, which requires the Ellipsis to be thus
supplied in the English:—

“John came neither eating [ with others ] nor drinking [ strong drink ].” See Luke
1:15 . Or, observing the force of the Greek negative: “John came [ declining invitations ]
to eat and drink.”

Luke 9:52 .—“And sent messengers before his face; and they went, and entered into a
village of the Samaritans, to make ready . . for him,” i.e. , to prepare reception for him.

John 15:6 .—“If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered;
and men gather them and cast them into the fire, and they are burned.”

Here the accusative “them” is not repeated.

But the meaning of the verse is obscured, or rather a new meaning is read into it by
inconsistency of rendering. W ( ean mee ) translated
“except” twice in verse 4 , and here in verse 6 “if . . not”? It is an expression that occurs
fifty-two times, and more than thirty of these are rendered “except.” † Here it should be
rendered “Except anyone abide in me.” In the preceding verses the Lord had been

* See note on this passage in Ginsburg’s Edition of the Hebrew Bible.

q.v. Which see.
† See Matt. 5:20 ; 12:29 ; 18:3 ; 26:42. Mark 3:27 ; 7:3 , 4 . John 3:2 , 3 , 5 , 27 ; 4:48 ;
6:44 , 53 , 65 ; 12:24 ; 15:4 (twice); 20:25 . Acts 8:31 ; 15:1 ; 27:31 . Rom. 10:15 . 1 Cor.
14:6 , 7 , 9 ; 15:36 . 2 Thess. 2:3 . 2 Tim. 2:5 . Rev. 2:5 , 22 . ( ei mee ), if not , is
also rendered “except” Matt. 19:9 ; 24:22 . Mark 13:20 . John 19:11 . Rom. 7:7 ; 9:29 . 2
Cor. 12:13 .
speaking of His disciples “you” and “ye.” Here in verse 6 He makes a general proposition
concerning anyone. Not, if anyone who is already in Him does not continue in Him, for
He is not speaking of a real branch; but except anyone is abiding in Him he is cast forth
“AS a branch.”

Likewise, in verse 2 , the verb is ( air ) to lift up , * raise up . “Every branch

in me that beareth not fruit he lifteth up,” i.e. , He raises it from the ground where it can
bear no fruit, and tends it, that it may bring forth fruit, “and every branch that beareth
fruit, he pruneth it, that it may bring forth more fruit.”

Thus there are two conditions spoken of—two kinds of branches: one that bears no
fruit, and one that does. The former He raises up that it may bear fruit, and the latter He
prunes that it may bear more.

Acts 9:34 . —“Arise, and make thy bed.”

Here both versions translate the figure. The Greek reads, “Arise, and spread for
thyself,” i.e. , spread [ a bed ] for thyself: in other words, “make thy bed.”

Acts 10:10 . —“But while they made ready, he fell into a trance,” i.e. , while they made
ready [ the food ].

Rom. 15:28 . —“When therefore I have performed this, and have sealed to them this
fruit, I will come by you into Spain”: i.e. , “When, therefore, I have performed this
business .”

1 Cor. 3:1 . —“And I, brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual [ men ], but as
unto carnal [ men ].” (See under 1 Cor. 2:2 ).

1 Cor. 7:17 . —“But as God hath distributed to every man.”

This is literally:—“Only as God hath apportioned [ the gift ] to each.”

1 Cor. 10:24 . —“Let no man seek his own [ advantage only ], but every man that of his
neighbour [ also ].”

“Wealth,” in the A.V. is the old English word for well-being generally. As we pray in
the Litany, “In all time of our wealth”; and in the expression, “Commonwealth,” i.e. ,
common weal. Compare verse 33 , where the word “ profit ” is used. The R.V. supplies “
good .”

2 Cor. 5:16 . —“Wherefore henceforth know we no man after the flesh ( ,

kata sarka , according to flesh, i.e. , according to natural standing): yea, though we have
known Christ after the flesh, yet now, henceforth know we him [ thus ] no more.”

* As in Luke 17:13 . John 11:41 . Acts 4:24 . Rev. 10:5 .

Our standing is now a spiritual one, “in Christ” risen from the dead; a standing on
resurrection ground, as the members of the Mystical or Spiritual Body of Christ.

2 Cor. 5:20 . —“Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech
you by us: we pray you in Christ’s stead, be ye reconciled to God.”

Here the word “ you ” is incorrectly supplied. Paul was not beseeching the saints in
Corinth to be reconciled to God. They were reconciled as verse 18 declares, “Who hath
reconciled us to himself by Jesus Christ.” Then in verse 19 he goes on to speak of “men”;
and in verse 20 he says that he beseeches them , as though God did beseech them by us;
we pray them in Christ’s stead, and say: —“Be ye reconciled to God.” This was the tenor
of his Gospel to the unconverted.

2 Cor. 11:20 . —“If a man take [ your goods ].”

Phil. 3:13 . —“Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended [ the prize (from verse
14 )].”

1 Thess. 3:1 . —“When we could no longer forbear.” Here ( steg ) means to hold
out, to bear, to endure , and must have the accusative supplied:—“Wherefore, when we
could no longer bear [ our anxiety ], etc.” The same Ellipsis occurs in verse 5 , where it
must be similarly supplied.

2 Thess. 2:6 , 7 . —“And now ye know what withholdeth that he might be revealed in his
time. For the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he who now letteth will let ,
until he be taken out of the way.”

Here, there is an Ellipsis . But the A.V. treats it as though it were the verb that is
omitted, and repeats the verb “ will let .” The R.V. avoids this, by translating it thus:—
“only there is one that restraineth now, until, etc.”

Both the A.V. and R.V. fail to see that it is the Ellipsis of the accusative after the verb
in both verses. The verb is ( katech ), which is rendered “withhold” in verse 6
and “ let ” in verse 7 (and in R.V. “ restrain ” in both verses). But this verb, being
transitive, must have an object or accusative case after it; and, as it is omitted by Ellipsis ,
it has therefore to be supplied.

The verb ( katech ) means to have and hold fast . The preposition (
kata ), in composition, does not necessarily preserve its meaning of down , to hold down;
but it may be intensive , and mean to hold firmly, to hold fast, to hold in secure
possession . This is proved by its usage; which clearly shows that restraining or
withholding is no necessary part of its meaning. It occurs nineteen times, and is nowhere
else so rendered. On the other hand there are four or five other words which might have
been better used had “restrain” been the thought in this passage.
Indeed its true meaning is fixed by its use in these epistles. In 1 Thess. 5:21 we read
“hold fast that which is good,” not restrain it or “withhold” that which is good! But the
idea is of keeping and retaining and holding on fast to that which is proved to be good. So
it is in all the passages where the word occurs:—

Matt. 21:38 . Let us seize on his inheritance.

Luke 4:42 . And stayed him, that he should not depart.

Luke 8:15 . Having heard the word, keep it.

Luke 14:9 . Thou begin with shame to take the lowest room.

John 5:4 . Of whatsoever disease he had ( i.e. , was held).

Acts 27:40 . And made toward shore ( i.e. , they held their course, or kept going
for the shore).

Rom. 1:18 . Who hold the truth in unrighteousness.

Rom. 7:6 . Being dead to that wherein we were held (margin and R.V. ).

1 Cor. 7:30 . As though they possessed not.

1 Cor. 11:2 . And keep the ordinances.

1 Cor. 15:2 . If ye keep in memory what I preached.

2 Cor. 6:10 . And yet possessing all things.

1 Thess. 5:21 . Hold fast that which is good.

Philem. 13 . Whom I would have retained with me.

Heb. 3:6 . If we hold fast the confidence.

Heb. 3:14 . If we hold the beginning

Heb. 10:23 . Let us hold fast the profession.

This fixes for us the meaning of the verb . But WHAT is it that thus holds fast
“the man of sin”? and WHO is it that holds fast something which is not mentioned, and
which has therefore to be supplied? For, in verse 6 , that which holds fast is neuter,
( to katechon ( ho katech n ):so
that in verse 6 it is some thing (neuter) which holds the man of sin fast, while in verse 7
some one is holding fast to something.
We submit that in verse 6 , that something is ( to phrear ) the pit ( Rev. 9:1
, 2 and 11:7 ) out of which he ascends, and in which he is now kept in sure possession
until the season arrive when he is to be openly revealed: meanwhile, his secret counsels
and plans are already working, preparing the way for his revelation.

The whole subject of the context is the revelation of two person-ages (not of one),
viz., “the man of sin” (verse 3 ) and “the lawless one” (verse 8 ). These correspond with
the two beasts of Rev. 13

This is clear from the structure of the first twelve verses of this chapter:— *

2 Thess. 2:1–12 .
A 1–3 –. Exhortation not to be believing what the apostle did not say.

B – 3 , 4 . Reason. “For, etc.”

A 5 , 6 . Exhortation to believe what the apostle did say.

B 7–12 . Reason. “For, etc.”

Or more fully, thus:—

A 1–3 –. Exhortation (negative).

B a – 3 –. The Apostasy (open).

b – 3 . The Revelation of the “Man of Sin.” (The Beast from the Sea ,
Rev. 13:1–10 ).

c 4 . The character of his acts. See Rev. 13:6–8 .

A 5–6 . Exhortation (positive).

B a 7 . Lawlessness (secret working).

b 8 . The Revelation of the Lawless one. (The Beast from the Earth ,
Rev. 13:11–18 ).

c 9–12 . The character of his acts. See Rev. 13:13–15 .

Thus the open working Of the apostasy and the secret working of the counsels of the
Lawless one are set in contrast. We must note that the word “mystery” means a secret, a
secret plan or purpose, secret counsel . *

* See The Structure of the Two Epistles to the Thessalonians by the same author and
Thus we have here two subjects: (1) “The Man of Sin” (the beast from the sea, Rev.
13:1–10 ), and the open apostasy which precedes and marks his revelation; (2) “The
Lawless one” (the beast from the earth, Rev. 13:11–18 ), and the working of his secret
counsels which precedes his revelation, and the ejection of the Devil from the heavens
which brings it about.

( ek mesou
geneetai ) be taken out of the way , as meaning, “arise out of the midst.” But this
translates an idiomatic expression literally; which cannot be done without introducing
is an idiom, † for being gone away , or being absent or away .

This is clear from the other places where the idiomatic expression occurs. ‡

Thus the lawless one is, at present, being held fast in the pit (while his secret counsels
are at work); and the Devil is holding On to his position in the heavenlies ( Eph. 2:2 ;
6:12 ). But presently there will be “war in Heaven” ( Rev. 12 ), and Satan will be cast out
into the earth. Then in Rev. 13:1 , we read, “and he (Satan) stood upon the sand of the
sea” ( R.V. ) Then it is that he will call up this lawless one, whom John immediately sees
rising up out of the sea to run his brief career, and be destroyed by the glory of the Lord’s

The complete rendering therefore of these two verses ( 1 Thess. 2:6–7 ), will be as
follows:—“And now ye know what holds him [ the lawless one ] fast, to the end that he

* See The Mystery , by the same author and publisher.

† See below under the figure Idioma .
in Matt. 13:49 , the wicked are severed from among the just” ( i.e. , taken away). In Acts
17:33 , “Paul departed from among them” ( i.e. , went away). In 23:10 , he was taken “by
force from among them” ( i.e. , taken out of the way). 1 Cor. 5:2 is very clear, where he
complains that they had not mourned that “he that hath done this thing might be taken
away from among you.” In 2 Cor. 6:17 , we are commanded, “Wherefore come out from
among them and be ye separate.” In Col. 2:14 we read of the handwriting of ordinances
which was against us; Christ “took it out of the way .” We have the same in the
Septuagint in Isa. 52:11 : “Depart ye.… go ye out of the midst of her,” and Isa. 57:1 : “the
righteous is taken away from the evil to come.”

The same usage is seen in Classical writers—Plutarch ( Timol. p. 288, 3): “He
determined to live by himself, having got himself out of the way,” i.e. , from the public;
Herodotus (3, 83; and 8, 22): The speaker exhorts some to “be on our side; but, if this is
impossible, then sit down out of the way,” i.e. , leave the coast clear as we should say,
keep neutral and stand aside. The same idiom is seen in Latin—Terence ( Phorm. v. 8,
30): “She is dead, she is gone from among us” ( e medio abiit ) . The opposite expression
shows the same thing. In Xenophon ( Cyr. 5, 2, 26), one asks, “What stands in the way of
may be revealed in his own appointed season. For the secret counsel of lawlessness doth
already work; only, there is one [ Satan ] who at present holds fast [ to his possessions in
the heavenlies ], until he be cast out [ into the earth , Rev. 12:9–12 ; and “ stand upon the
sand of the sea , ” Rev. 13:1 , R.V. ], and then shall be revealed that lawless one whom
the Lord Jesus shall slay with the spirit of his mouth, and destroy with the brightness of
his coming” ( Isa. 11:4 ).

Jas. 5:3 . —“Ye have heaped treasure together for the, last days.” The R.V. is tame in
comparison with this, “Ye have laid up your treasure in the last days.” (
theesaurizo ) means simply to treasure up . In Rom. 2:5 , we have the expression
“treasurest up wrath.” So here, there is the Ellipsis of what is treasured up. We may
supply “wrath” here. “Ye have treasured up [ wrath ] for the last days,” or in last (or
final) days, i.e. , days of extremity.

1 Pet. 2:23 . —“But committed himself to him that judgeth righteously.”

Here the omitted accusative is supplied, but it is a question whether it ought to be “

himself ,” or rather as in the margin both of A.V. and R.V. “ his cause .”

3. The omission of the PRONOUN

Where there can be no doubt to whom or to what the noun refers, the pronoun is
frequently omitted in the Greek, and in most cases is supplied in italic type in the A.V.

The omission of the pronoun makes it more emphatic, attention being called more
prominently to it.

Matt. 19:13 . —“That He should put the hands [ of Him ] upon them,” i.e., His hands.

Matt. 21:7 . —“And put on them the clothes [ of them ]” i.e. , their garments, “and he sat
upon them.” This is the reading of the critical editions.

Mark 5:23 . —“Come and lay the hands [ of thee ] upon her” i.e., thy hands. Where the
A.V. does not even put thy in italics. Compare Matt. 9:18 , where the pronoun ( , sou
) thy is used.

Mark 6:5 . —“And he laid the hands [ of him ] upon a few sick folk,” i.e., his hands. So
also 8:25 , 16:18 ; Acts 9:17 .

Luke 24:40 . —“And when He had thus spoken, He showed them the hands and the feet
[ of Him ], i.e. , as in A.V. , “ his hands and his feet.”

John 11:41 . —“And Jesus lifted up the eyes [of Him],” i.e., his eyes.

Acts 13:3 . —“And when they had fasted and prayed, and laid the hands [ of them ] on
them,” i.e., their hands on them.
Acts 19:6 . —“And when Paul had laid the hands [ of him ] upon them,” i.e., his hands.

Eph. 3:17 , 18 . —“That ye, being rooted and grounded in love, may know what is the
breadth [ of it ], and length [ of it ], and the depth [ of it ], and the height [ of it ],” i.e. , of
love. “That ye may know what is [ its ] breadth, and length, and depth, and height, etc.”

Heb. 4:15 . —“But was in all points tempted. according to the likeness [ of us ] apart
from sin,” i.e. , according to [ our ] likeness.

Rom. 6:3 , 4 . —May be perhaps best explained by this figure. “Know ye not that so
many of us as were baptized into Christ Jesus, unto his death we were baptized?
Therefore we were buried together with him by the baptism [ of him ] ( i.e. , by his
baptism) unto death.” For He had “a cup” to drink of (His death ), and “a baptism to be
baptized with” (His burial ), and when He died and was buried, His people died and were
buried with Him, and, as the next verse goes on to say, rose again with Him.

So the passage reads: “Therefore we were buried with him by his baptism-unto-death
[ i.e. , his burial], in order that just as Christ was raised from among the dead by the glory
of the Father, so we also, in newness of life should walk. For if we have become
identified in the likeness of his death, certainly in that of his resurrection also we shall be:
knowing this, that our old man was crucified together with [ him ] in order that the body
of sin may be annulled, that we should no longer be in servitude to sin. For he that hath
died hath been righteously acquitted from the sin [ of him ], i.e., his sin. Now if we died
together with Christ, we believe that we shall live also together with him.”

The whole argument lies in this that we are reckoned as having died with Him, and as
having been buried with Him in His burial (or baptism-unto-death). (See Matt. 20:23 ;
Mark 10:38 , 39 ; Luke 12:50 ). Hence all such are free from the dominion and
condemnation of sin, and stand in the newness of resurrection life. This is “the gospel of
the glory” ( 2 Cor. 4:4 ), for it was by the glory of the Father that Christ was raised, and it
is glorious news indeed which tells us that all who are in Christ are “complete in Him” (
Col. 2:10 ), “accepted in the beloved” ( Eph. 1:6 ), “perfect in Christ Jesus” ( Col. 1:28 ).

With this agrees Col. 2:10–12 . “And ye are complete in him, which is the head of all
en h ) also ye are circumcised with the
circumcision made without hands, in putting off the body of the sins of the flesh by the
circumcision of Christ; buried with him in the baptism [ of him ] i.e. , in his baptism-unto-
rendered above) ye were raised
together also through the faith of the operation of God, who raised him from among the
dead,” etc.

Here, again, the whole argument turns on the fact that the “circumcision” and the
“baptism” spoken of are both “made without hands,” and both are fulfilled in Christ. The
whole context of these two passages must be studied in order to see the one point and the
great truth which is revealed: viz., that in His death we are circumcised and cut off,
“crucified with Him” ( Rom. 6:6 ): in His burial (or baptism-unto-death) we are baptized
( Rom. 6:4 ; Col. 2:12 ): and in His resurrection we now have our true standing before
God. We have all in Christ. Hence, our completeness and perfection in Him is such that
nothing can be added to it. All who are baptized by Him with the Holy Spirit are
identified with Him in His death, burial, and resurrection. Hence, those who are being
baptized are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not ( 1 Cor. 15:29 , see below), for
they do not rise if Christ be not raised. But, if Christ be raised, then we are raised in Him;
and “Christ being raised from the dead dieth no more … for in that he died, he died unto
sin once for all; but in that he liveth, he liveth unto God. Likewise ye also reckon
yourselves dead indeed unto sin, but alive unto God, IN CHRIST JESUS ” ( Rom. 6:8–11

Rom. 2:18 . —Thou “makest thy boast of God, and knowest the will [ of him ],” i.e., his
will: the will of God.

1 Tim. 6:1 . —“That the name of God and his doctrine be not blasphemed.” The R.V.
reads “that the name of God and the doctrine be not blasphemed,” but it is better “the
doctrine [ of him ],” i.e. , his doctrine, as in the A.V.


1 Kings 3:22 . —“Thus they spake before the king.” It is not to be supposed that two
women under these exciting circum-stances would confine themselves to the few concise
words of verse 22 ! Moreover, there is no “thus” in the Hebrew. Literally it reads—“and
they talked before the king,” i.e. , “they talked [ very much ] or kept talking before the

2 Kings 6:25 . —“An ass’s head was sold for fourscore pieces of silver, and the fourth
part of a cab of dove’s dung for five pieces of silver.” Here it is more correct to supply
(with the R.V. margin) “ shekels ” instead of “ pieces , ” and translate “was at eighty
shekels of silver.”

2 Kings 25:3 . —“And on the ninth day of the fourth month the famine prevailed.”

The Hebrew reads, “and on the ninth month.” But the Ellipsis is correctly supplied
from Jer. 52:6 .

Ps. 119:56 . —“This I had, because I kept thy precepts;” i.e. , this [ consolation ] I had.
Luther supplies the word “ treasure .”

Jer. 51:31 . —“One post shall run to meet another, and one messenger to meet another,
to show the king of Babylon that his city is taken at one end.”

The R.V. translates “ on every quarter”! Another version renders it “ to its utmost end
.” Another “ at the extremity .” Thus it is clear that there is an Ellipsis , and much
confusion in supplying it.
The Hebrew is “from the end”: or with the Ellipsis supplied “from [ each ] end.” So
in chap. 50:26 ( A.V. and R.V. ), “come against her from the utmost border.” (Margin:
“Hebrew, from the end ”), i.e. , as we have suggested, “from [ each ] end.”

And so the prophecy was exactly fulfilled. The Babylonians, after their first
discomfiture by Cyrus in the field, retired to the city … and, as Herodotus says,
“remained in their holds.” *

The forces of Cyrus, having turned the waters of the Euphrates, entered the city by
the bed of the river at each end; and the messengers who entered at the end where the
waters quitted the city ran to meet those who had come in where the waters entered the
city; so that they met one another. Herodotus expressly describes this in his history (book
i. §191). Those who were at the extremities were at once slain, while those in the centre
were feasting in utter ignorance of what was going on. See Daniel 5:3 , 4 , 23 , 30 . Thus
the correct supply of the Ellipsis is furnished and established by the exact fulfilment of
the prophecy, proving the wonderful accuracy of the Divine Word.

Ezek. 13:18 . —“Woe to the women that sew pillows to all armholes.”

This may be translated literally, “Woe to those who sew together coverings upon all
joints of [ the people of ] my hands,” i.e., my people . The context supplies the Ellipsis ,
for the subject is the deception of God’s people by the false prophets; and the covering
and veiling of verse 18 corresponds to the daubing and coating of verse 14 , etc., i.e. , the
making things easy for the people so that they should not attend to God’s word.

The R.V. reads, “that sew pillows upon all elbows,” margin, “Heb. joints of the hands
.” A.V. margin, “elbows.”

Matt. 19:17 . —“Keep the commandments,” i.e., of God .

Mark 6:14–16 . —The parenthesis in verse 14 must be extended to the end of verse 15 .
What Herod said is stated in verse 16 . The rumour of what others said is stated in the
parenthesis:—“And king Herod heard [ of these mighty works ]; (for his name was spread
abroad, and [ one ] † said that John the Baptist was risen from the dead, and therefore
mighty works do show forth themselves in him. Others said, It is Elias; and others said, It
is a prophet, or as one of the prophets). But when Herod heard * thereof , † he said, It is
John whom I beheaded: he is risen from the dead.”

* . HEROD. Hist.
lib. i. §190. See also XENOPHON , Cyrop. lib. vii. Compare Jer. 51:30 , “The mighty men
of Babylon have forborne to fight, they have remained in their holds.”
( elegen ), one said . The reading put by Tr. and R.V. in the
margin, and by Lachmann, and Westco ( elegon ) some
said .
* Repeated from verse 14 .
Luke 14:18 . —“They all with one consent began to make excuse.”

( apo mias ) with one [ mind ], or with one [ declining ]: i.e. , they all alike
began to decline the invitation.

John 3:13 . —“No man hath ascended up to heaven, but he that came down from heaven,
even the Son of Man which is in heaven.” ( ho
n ) the article, and the present participle of the verb “to be”—literally, the one being: i.e.
, who was being, or simply who was ) in the
bosom of the Father.” John 9:25 , “Whereas I was blind” ( ). John 19:38 ,
“being a disciple,” i.e. , who was a disciple. Luke 24:44 , “I spake whilst I was yet with
, eti n ). 2 Cor. 8:9 , “Though he was rich” ( , plousios n ).

Hence our verse reads, “Even the Son of Man who was in heaven.” This agrees with
John 6:62 , where we have the words, “What and if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend
up where he was before?”

The fact taught us by this is, that the human body of the Lord Jesus cannot be in more
than one place at the same time. This fact cuts at the roots of all errors that are based on
any presence of Christ on earth during this present dispensation. The presence of the
Holy Spirit is the witness to the absence of Christ. There can be no presence of Christ
now except by the Holy Spirit. He will be present again bodily only at His personal return
from Heaven. Now He is seated at the right hand of God, “henceforth expecting,” until
the moment arrives for God to place His enemies as a footstool for His feet, when He
shall rise up to receive His people to Himself and come with and reign until He shall have
put all enemies under His feet. (See above, page 7 ).

Any presence, therefore, of Christ in the Lord’s Supper, other than by His Spirit in
our hearts, ‡ is a denial of His real human nature, and of His return from Heaven: and this
is an error which affects both the first and second Advents. The Lord’s Supper, therefore,
is the witness of His real absence; for it is instituted only “till He come.” And not until
that glorious day will there be any “real presence” on earth. And then it will be a bodily
presence, for it is “on the Mount of Olives,” that His feet will rest, and “on Mount Zion”
that He shall reign.

Acts 10:36 . —“The word which God sent unto the children of Israel preaching peace by
Jesus Christ.”

The Ellipsis here is caused by a Hebraism, as in Hag. 2:5 . “ According to the word
that I covenanted with you,” etc. So this will read, “[ According to ] the word which God
sent, etc.”

† Or when Herod heard these various opinions .

‡ See the Rubrick at the end of the Communion Service of the Church of England.
Or it may be taken as parallel to Ps. 107:20 . “He sent his word, and healed them.” So
Isa. 9:8 . God “sent” when His Son came, through whom God proclaimed the Gospel of
peace. Hence “[ This is ] the word which God sent.”

Acts 18:22 . —“And when he had landed at Cæsarea, and gone up … and saluted the
Church, he went down to Antioch,” i.e. , “Gone up [ to Jerusalem ].” As is clear from
verse 21 , as well as from the circumstances of the case.

Rom. 2:27 . —“And shall not uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfil the law,
judge thee, who by the letter and circumcision dost trangress the law?”

Here we have, first, to note the figure of Hendiadys ( q.v. ) “letter and circumcision”
and translate it literal circumcision . And next we have to preserve the emphasis marked
by the order of the words, which we can well do if we correctly supply the Ellipsis: —

“And shall not uncircumcision which by nature fulfilleth the law, condemn thee [
though thou art a Jew ], who, through the literal circumcision, art a trangressor of the

Rom. 11:11 . —“I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall [ for ever ]? God
forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke
them to jealousy.” The fall mentioned here must be interpreted by verse 1 “cast away,”
and verse 25 “until,” and by the condition of verse 23 . Is their fall the object or end of
their stumbling? See John 11:4 .

Rom. 12:19 . —“Dearly beloved, avenge not yourselves, but rather give place unto
wrath.” This does not mean “yield to the wrath of your enemy,” but “give place to the
wrath * [ of God ], for (the reason is given) it is written, Vengeance is mine; I will repay,
saith the Lord.”

Rom. 14:2 . —“For one believeth that he may eat all things; another, who is weak [ in the
faith ], eateth herbs [ only ].”

Rom. 14:5 . —“One man esteemeth one day above another,” i.e. , “one man indeed (
), esteemeth one day [ more holy ] than another; but (
alike ].”

Rom. 14:20 . —“All things indeed are pure,” i.e. , “all [ meats ] indeed [ are ] clean; but [
it is ] evil to the man who eateth with offence [ to his weak brother ].” “Clean” here
means ceremonially clean, and hence, allowed to be eaten.

Rom. 14:23 . —“And he that doubteth is damned (or condemned) if he eat,” i.e. , “and he
that holdeth a difference [ between meats ] is condemned if he eat, because [ he eateth ]
) faith; for whatsoever is not of faith is sin.”

* tee orgee ).
1 Cor. 7:6 . —“But I speak this [ which I have said ] by permission and not

1 Cor. 9:9 , 10 . —“Doth God take care for oxen [ only ]? Or saith he it altogether for our

1 Cor. 12:6 . —The expression “all in all” is elliptical: and the sense must be completed
according to the nature of the subject and the context, both here, and in the other passages
where it occurs.

Here, “it is the same God, which worketh all [ these gifts ] in all [ the members of
Christ’s body ]:” what these gifts are, and who these members are, is fully explained in
the immediate context. See verses 4–31 .

1 Cor. 15:28 . —“Then shall the Son also himself be subject unto him that put all things
under him, that God may be all in all.” The word occurs six times in the 27th and
28th verses and is in each case translated correctly “all things” except in this last
occurrence. We have no liberty to change the translation here. It must be “all things,” and
to complete the sense we must render it “that God may be [ over ] all things, in all [
places ]; i.e. , over all beings in all parts of the universe.

Eph. 1:23 . —“The church, which is His body, the fulness * of him that filleth all in all.”
Here, we must supply:—“that filleth all [ the members of His body ] with all [ spiritual
gifts and graces ].” Compare chap. 4:10–13 .

Col. 3:11 . —“Christ is all, and in all.” Here the Greek is slightly different from the other
occurrences, but it is still elliptical; and the sense must be completed thus:—In the new
creation “there is neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor uncircumcision, Barbarian,
Scythian, bond nor free: but Christ is [ created in ] all [ who believe ] and in all [ places
of the world ],” i.e. , no man is excluded on account of earthly considerations of condition
or location from the blessings and benefits of the new creation. See Gal. 3:28 , where the
same truth is expressed in different words.

1 Cor. 14:27 . —“If any man speak in an unknown tongue, let it be by two, or at the most
three [ sentences , or perhaps, persons ] and that by course ( i.e., separately ); and let one

2 Cor. 1:6 . —“And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation and salvation,
which is effectual [ in you ] in the enduring of the same sufferings which we also suffer,

* The termination of the word denotes the result or product of the verb to fill,
i.e. , of the act of the verb. Hence this fulness means a filling up in exchange for
emptiness. His members fill up the Body of Christ, and He fills up the members with all
spiritual gifts and graces.
2 Cor. 5:5 . —“Now he that hath wrought us for the self same [ desire ], is God.”

Gal. 5:10 . —“I have confidence in you through the Lord, that ye will be none otherwise

The Greek reads “that you will think nothing differently [ from me ].”

Phil. 1:18 . —“What then [ does it matter ]? at any rate, in every way, whether in
pretence or in truth, Christ is preached; and I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice.”

1 Thess. 3:7 . —“Therefore, brethren, we were comforted over you in all our affliction
and distress by your faith,” i.e. , “by [ the news received of ] your faith.”

1 Thess. 4:1 . —“As ye have received of us how ye ought to walk and to please God, so
ye would abound more and more [ therein ].” See also verse 10 .

Heb. 13:25 . —“Grace be with you all,” i.e. , “The grace [ of God be ] with you all.”

1 John 5:15 . —“And if we know that he hear us [ concerning ] whatsoever we ask, we

know that we have the petitions that we desired of him.”

1 John 5:19 . —“The whole world lieth in wickedness:” R.V. , “in the wicked one.” But
this is not English. The Ellipsis must be supplied thus:—“The whole World lieth in [ the
power of ] the wicked one.”

II. The Omission of Verbs and Participles

A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do , or to suffer , and expresses the action, the
suffering, or the being, or the doing.

When therefore the verb is omitted, it throws the emphasis on the thing that is done
rather than on the doing of it.

On the other hand, when the noun is omitted, our thought is directed to the action of
the verb, and is centred on that rather than on the object or the subject.

Bearing this in mind, we proceed to consider a few examples:—

1. When the VERB FINITE is wanting

Gen. 25:28 . —“And Isaac loved Esau, because he did eat of his venison.” Or it may be
that there is no Ellipsis , and it may mean “because hunting was in his [ Esau’s ] mouth,”
i.e. , on his tongue.
The A.V. has given a very free translation. But here again, the correct supply of the
words omitted enables us to retain a literal rendering of the words that are given:
“because the food taken by him in hunting [ was sweet , or was pleasant ] in his mouth.”

Num. 16:28 . —“And Moses said, ‘Hereby ye shall know that the LORD hath sent me to
do all these works; for not of my own mind.’ ”

Here we may render it, “for not of mine own heart [ have I said these things ]. See
verse 24 .

1 Sam. 19:3 . —“I will commune with my father of thee; and what I see, that I will tell

The R.V. translates “and if I see aught.” But the Hebrew with the Ellipsis supplied, is:
“and will see what [ he replies ], and will tell thee.”

2 Sam. 4:10 . —“When one told me, saying, behold, Saul is dead, thinking to have
brought good tidings, I took hold of him, and slew him in Ziklag, who thought that I
would have given him a reward for his tidings.”

Here the A.V. has supplied the verb “ thought ,” but perhaps the verb “ had come ” is
better, i.e. , “who [ had come ] that I should give him a reward for his tidings.”

The R.V. translates, “which was the reward I gave him for his tidings.”

2 Sam. 18:12 . —“Beware that none touch the young man Absalom.”

2 Sam. 23:17 . —This is a case in which the Ellipsis is wrongly supplied in the A.V.
“And he said, Be it far from me, O LORD , that I should do this: is not this the blood of
the men that went in jeopardy of their lives?”

The R.V. rightly supplies from 1 Chron. 11:19 , “Be it far from me, O LORD , that I
should do this: shall I drink the blood of the men, etc.”

1 Kings 11:25 . —“And he was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon, beside the
mischief that Hadad did , ” i.e. , that Hadad wrought or brought upon him .

1 Kings 14:6 . —“I am sent to thee with heavy tidings .” The Hebrew is, “I am sent to
thee hard.”

The Ellipsis may thus be supplied: “I am sent to thee [ to tell thee, or to bring thee , or
to prophesy to thee ] hard [ things ]. See verse 5 .

1 Kings 22:36 . —“And there went a proclamation throughout the host about the going
down of the sun, saying, “Every man to his city, and every man to his own country.”
Here the verb return is to be supplied. “ Let every man return to his city, etc.,” or “[
Return ] every man to his city, etc.”

2 Kings 25:24 . —The word “ fled ” is not in the Hebrew. The Ellipsis is thus supplied in
the A.V. and R.V. correctly in italics.

Ezra 10:14 . —“Let now our rulers of all the congregation stand, and let all them which
have taken strange wives in our cities come at appointed times, and with them the elders
of every city, and the judges thereof, until the fierce wrath of our God for this matter be
turned away.”

The Hebrew of the last clause reads, “Until ( ) the fierce wrath of our God be
turned back from us, until ( ) this matter [ be carried out ].”

This filling up of the Ellipsis enables us to take the other words in the verse literally.
The non-observance of the figure leads the A.V. to give two different meanings (viz.,
“until” and “for”) to the word until , which is used twice in the same passage.

The R.V. reads, “Until the fierce wrath of our God be turned from us, until this matter
be dispatched,” and gives an alternative in the margin for the last clause “ as touching
this matter .”

Ezra 10:19 . —“And being guilty, they offered a ram of the flock for their trespass.”

Here the Ellipsis of the verb is properly supplied.

Job. 3:21 . —“Which long for death, but it cometh not; and dig for it more than for hid
treasures [ but find it not ].”

The A.V. supplies the first verb, but not the second.

Job 4:6 . —“ Is not this thy fear, thy confidence, thy hope, and the uprightness of thy

The R.V. renders it:—“Is not thy fear of God thy confidence, and thy hope the
integrity of thy ways?”

These two lines are arranged as an introversion in the Hebrew:—

Is not thy fear

thy confidence?

And thy hope

the integrity of thy ways?

Or by transposing the words they may be exhibited as an alternation:

Is not thy fear thy confidence?

And the integrity of thy ways, thy hope?

It should be noted that the A.V. of 1611 originally read, “ Is not this thy feare thy
confidence; the uprightness of thy wayes and thy hope?” The change first appears in the
Cambridge edition of 1638. But by whom this and many similar unauthorised changes
have been made in the text of the A.V. of 1611, is not known, and can only be
conjectured! *

Job 39:13 seems to have caused much trouble to the translators. The A.V. reads, “
Gavest thou the goodly wings unto the peacocks? or wings and feathers unto the ostrich?”
The R.V. and other versions which ignore the Ellipsis (which the A.V. correctly supplies)
have to give a very unnatural translation, and miss the challenge which is connected with
all the other wonders of God’s works in these chapters.

The scanty featherless wing of the ostrich ( renana , not peacock) is contrasted
with the warm full-feathered wing of the stork ( chaseedah , not ostrich), and man
is challenged, “ Didst thou give either the one or the other?”

Ps. 4:2 . —“O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame?”

Ps. 22:16 . —“They pierced my hands and my feet.” Through not seeing the Ellipsis of
the verb in this verse, the word in the Hebrew text ( k ree ), as a lion , has been
translated as though it were a verb ( k roo ) they pierced . † But we have no
authority thus to ignore the printed text. On the contrary, verse 16 corresponds exactly
with verse 12 . In verse 12 we have two animals, “bulls” and “a lion” (the first plural, and
the second singular). So also we have in verse 16 , two animals, “dogs” and “a lion.” If,
however, we take k ree as a noun, there is an Ellipsis of the verb, which we may well
supply from Isa. 38:13 , and then we may translate the rest literally: “As a lion [ they will
break up ] my hands and my feet.” *

The structure of the passage proves that this is the case. Verses 12–17 form the Centre
of this part of the Psalm:—

* See Appendix A .
† In the first case the Kaph is rendered “as” and is prefixed to ( aree ) a lion ; in
the latter case it forms part of the verb ( ).
* See Ginsburg’s Introduction to the Massoretico-Critical Hebrew Bible , p. 969.
A 12–13 . They. Beasts surrounding: “bulls” ( pl. ), and “a lion” ( sing. ).

B 14–15 . I. The consequence. “I am poured out like water.”

A 16 . They. Beasts surrounding: “dogs” ( pl. ), and “a lion” ( sing. ).

B 17 . I. The consequence. “I may tell all my bones.”

Ps. 25:15 . —“Mine eyes are ever towards the Lord,” i.e. , “mine eyes are ever lifted up
or looking toward the Lord.” See Ps. 121:1 . The verb is omitted, that We may not think
of the act of looking, but at the object to which we look.

Ps. 120:7 . —“I am for peace; but when I speak, they are for war.” There are no verbs in
the Hebrew, which is:—“I peace; but when I speak, they for war.” The verbs to be
supplied are doubtless, “I [ love ] peace; but when I speak they [ cry out ] for war,” or
“they break forth into war.”

Ecc. 8:2 . —“I counsel thee keep the king’s commandment.”

Isa. 60:7 . —“For your shame ye shall have double.” Here the Ellipsis is properly
supplied. (See this passage under other Figures).

Isa. 66:6 . —“A voice of noise (tumult, R.V. ) from the city, a voice from the temple, a
voice of the LORD that rendereth recompense to his enemies”: i.e. , a voice of tumult is
heard from the city, a voice sounds forth from the temple, etc.

Jer. 18:14 . —“Will a man leave the snow of Lebanon which cometh from the rock of the

There is no sense whatever in this rendering, and the R.V. is but tittle better: “Shall
the snow of Lebanon fail from the rock of the field?”

The Ellipsis is not to be supplied by the verb “cometh.” But it should be:

“Will a man leave the snow of Lebanon for the rock of the field?

Or shall the cold flowing waters be forsaken for strange waters?”

Jer. 19:1 . —“Go and get ( R.V. buy) a potter’s earthen vessel and take of the elders of
the people, &c.”

Hos. 8:1 . —“ He shall come as an eagle against the house of the LORD :” i.e. , as an
eagle shall the enemy come against the house of the LORD .

pl. The Plural Number.

sing. The Singular Number.
Amos 3:11 . —“Thus saith the Lord GOD (Adonai Jehovah): an adversary there shall be ,
etc.” So the R.V. But “an adversary shall come , ” would be better.”

Matt. 26:5 . —“But they said, not on the feast day , ” i.e., Let us not do it on the feast day
(so also Mark 14:2 ).

Acts 15:25 . —“Certain which went out from us have troubled you with words,
subverting your souls, saying, ye must be circumcised, and keep the law,” i.e. , saying, ye
ought to be circumcised, and to keep the law.

Rom. 2:7–10 . —There are several ellipses in these verses which may be thus supplied.

“To them who by patient continuance in well doing seek for glory and honour and
immortality [ he will give ] eternal life. But unto them that are contentious and do not
obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, [ shall come ] indignation and wrath, tribulation
and anguish upon every soul of man that doeth evil, of the Jew first and also of the
Gentile * ; but glory, honour, and peace [ shall be rendered ] to every man that worketh
good, to the dew first and also to the Gentile.”

Rom. 4:9 . —“ Cometh this blessedness then on the circumcision only , or upon the
uncircumcision also?”

I.e. , “This blessedness, then, [ cometh it only ] on the circumcision?”

Rom. 6:19 . —“For as ye have yielded your members servants to uncleanness and to
iniquity unto iniquity; even so now yield your members servants to righteousness unto

I.e. , “To [ work ] iniquity”: and “to [ work ] holiness.”

Rom. 11:18 . —“Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the
root, but the root thee,” i.e. , but if thou boast, I tell thee (or know thou ) thou bearest not
the root, but the root beareth thee.

In Deut. 28:53 , this is applied to the Jew ( cf. Sept. ). “In thy anguish and tribulation
wherewith thine enemy shall afflict thee.” ( A.V. , “In the siege and in the straitness
wherewith thine enemies shall distress thee”). Cf. Isa. 8:22 .

While in Isa. 13:9 , this is applied to the Gentile .

Thus these words are applied even in the Old Testament: “to the Jew first, and also to
the Gentile.”
Rom. 13:11 . —“And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of
sleep, etc.”

The Greek is ( kai touto ), “and this [ I add or I exhort ] knowing the
reason, that [ it is ] already the hour [ for us ] to awake out of sleep.”

1 Cor. 2:12 . —“Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit which
is of God.”

There is no verb in this latter clause, and the verb “is” which is supplied in the A.V.
should be in italics. But “which [ cometh ] from God,” is better; or “ is received ,”
repeated from the previous sentence.

1 Cor. 4:20 . —“For the kingdom of God is not in word but in power.” There is no verb
in the whole of this verse; consequently one must be supplied:—“For the kingdom of God
[ is established or governed ] not by word (or speech as in verse 19 ) but by power.”

1 Cor. 14:33 . —“For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches
of the saints.” There is no verb in the latter clause, therefore one must be supplied. The
word “God” may also be repeated as in the R.V. :—

“For God is not [ a God ] of confusion, but of peace, as [ He is ] in all churches of the
saints.” Or, “as in all the churches of the saints [ is well known ].”

2 Cor. 9:14 . —“And by their prayer for you, which long after you for the exceeding
, and requires
the verb to be supplied, “for the exceeding grace of God [ bestowed ] upon you.”

2 Cor. 12:18 . —“I desired Titus [ to go to you ], etc.”

Gal. 5:13 . —“Only use not liberty for an occasion to the flesh.”

Here the A.V. supplies “ use .” But it might well be “ misuse or abuse .”

Eph. 4:9 . —“Now that he ascended.” The Greek reads as in R.V. , “Now this, He
ascended.” But the Ellipsis must be supplied: “Now, this [ fact ]” or “Now, this [
expression ], He ascended, what is it unless that he also descended first into the lower
parts of the earth?”

Eph. 5:9 . —“For the fruit of the Spirit is in all goodness and righteousness and truth:”
i.e. , [ consists ] in these things.

All the ancient MSS. and critical texts, and the R.V. agree in reading ( ph tos )
of the light , instead of ( pneumatos ) of the Spirit ; and thus “the fruits of the
light” are contrasted with “the unfruitful works of darkness.”
Phil. 3:15 . —“Let us therefore, as many as be perfect, be thus minded:” i.e. , [ desire to
be ] perfect. There is no verb, and the word “be” ought to have been put in italics.

1 Tim. 2:6 . —“Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.” Here
there is no verb in the latter clause. The Greek reads, “the testimony in due times “or in
its own seasons. Hence the A.V. has boldly substituted a Verb for the noun “to be
testified”; while the R.V. has rendered it: “the testimony to be borne in its own times.”
We may supply the Ellipsis more fully thus: “the testimony [ of which, was to be borne
by us ] in his own appointed season.”

The word “all” must be taken here in the sense of “all” without distinction , because
before Christ’s death the ransom was only for one nation—Israel. It cannot be “all”
without exception , for in that case all would and must be saved. See under Synecdoche .

Philem. 6 . —“[ I pray ] that the communication of thy faith may become effectual, etc.”

1 Pet. 4:11 . —“If any man speak, let him speak , as the oracles of God [ require ].

2 Pet. 2:3 . —“Whose judgment now of a long time lingereth not.” There is no “now” in
the Greek. “Whose judgment [ threatened ] of old, lingereth not. See Jude 4 .

1 John 3:20 . —“For if our heart condemn us, God is greater than our heart, and knoweth
all things.”

( hoti ) , that , occurs twice, and the construction is

“for,” and ignoring the second
occurrence altogether. The R.V. ev
), which, beyond the Alexandrian Codex, has scarcely any MS. support, and only
that of one Textual critic (Lachmann). The R.V. connects verse 20 with verse 10 , and
translates “and shall assure our heart before him, whereinsoever our heart condemn us,
because God is greater, &c.” But this English is as difficult as the Greek.

, and translating
it “that,” as it is rendered 613 times in the N.T.:—

“For if our heart condemn us [ we know ] that God is greater than our heart.”

( a ) The Verb “ to say ”

This is frequently omitted in the original, but is generally supplied in italics in the A.V.

Where it is omitted the emphasis is to be placed on what is said rather than on the act
of saying it.

Gen. 26:7 . —“Lest, said he , the men of the place should kill me.”
1 Kings 20:34 . —“Then said Ahab.”

Ps. 2:2 . —“Why do … the rulers take counsel together against the Lord, and against his
anointed, saying .”

Ps. 109:5 . —The structure of this Psalm shows that the verb saying must be supplied at
the end of verse 5 .
A 1–5 . David’s prayer for himself: and complaint.

B 6–20 . David’s enemies’ words against him: (ending “that speak evil against
my soul.”)

A 21–28 –. David’s prayer for himself: and complaint.

B – 28–31 . David’s enemies’ acts against him: (ending “that condemn his

Here in B and B we have David’s enemies. In B ( 6–20 ) their words and in B (– 28–
31 ) their acts. So that verses 6–20 are not David’s words at all, but the words of David’s
enemies, the evil which they speak against his soul. The evil which they speak is
contrasted with the “good” which he prays for himself in the next verse ( 21 ). “Let them
curse,” he says in verse 28 , “but bless Thou!” Let them say “let Satan stand at his right
hand” (verse 6 ); but he is assured (verse 31 ) that not Satan but Jehovah shall “stand at
the right hand of the poor to save him from them that condemn his soul.”

Hence in verse 20 David prays, “Let this be the wages * of mine enemies from the
Lord, and of them that speak evil against my soul.”

So that verse 5 will now read:—

“And they have rewarded me evil for good,

And hatred for my good will [ saying ].”

Then the Psalm goes on (verses 6–19 ) to describe the “hatred.”

Having said in verses 2 and 3 that

“The mouth of the wicked and the mouth of the deceitful are opened upon me.

They have spoken against me with a lying tongue.

They compassed me about also with words of hatred,”

* ( peullah ), wages , as in Lev. 19:13 . Isa. 40:10 ; 49:4 ; 59:8 ; 52:11 . Jer. 22:13 .
it is only natural to supply the verb saying at the end of verse 5 .

Ps. 144:12 is similar. The structure shows that verses 12 to 15 contain the words of the
“strange Children,” and not the words of David.
A1 1–7 . David’s words (Thanksgiving and Prayer).

B1 8 . The words of the strange children (vanity and falsehood).

A2 9–11 –. David’s words (Thanksgiving and Prayer).

B2 – 11–15 –. The words of the strange children (vanity and falsehood).

A3 – 15 . David’s words. The true conclusion as opposed to the “vanity.”

The word say should be put in italics after the word “that” in verse 12 , and then all
the many italics inserted in verses 11–15 can be dispensed with. It is clearly suggested in
verses 8 and 11 . So clearly that there is hardly any necessity to use it or repeat it in verse
12 . The pronoun ( asher ), who , is clearer than “that.” Lit. , “who [ say ].” Then
the Psalm (B. 11–15 –) goes on to give the vanity and the falsehood as to what constitutes
the true happiness of any people:—Who say

“Our sons are as plants grown up in their youth;

Our daughters are as corner-stones, polished after the similitude of a palace;

Our garners are full, affording all manner of store;

Our sheep bring forth thousands and ten thousands in our streets;

Our oxen are strong to labour.

There is no breaking in nor going out.

There is no complaining in our streets.

Happy people that are in such a case!”

Then comes, in contrast, David’s true estimate:

“ NO ! Happy is that people whose God is Jehovah.”

This is the truth as to real happiness, as is so beautifully declared in Ps. 4:6 , 7 :—

“There be many that say, Who will show us good?

LORD , lift Thou up the light of Thy countenance upon us.

Thou hast put gladness in my heart,

More than in the time that their corn and their wine increased.”

Yes, this is the only real “good.” This is the only source of abiding happiness and
gladness for any People. It is not the increase of corn and wine, but the light of God’s
countenance; it is not the store which men put in their garners, but it is the “gladness”
which God puts in our hearts. The structure of the whole Psalm agrees with this, and
indeed necessitates this interpretation.

So, in Ps. 146:6 , happiness is declared to consist in having the God of Jacob for our
help, and our hope and help in the LORD our God: for there is “no help” in man (verse 3

Isa. 5:9 . —“In mine ears said the LORD of hosts.”

Isa. 14:8 . —“Yea, the fir trees rejoice at thee, and the cedars of Lebanon, saying .”

Isa. 18:2 . —“That sendeth ambassadors by the sea, even in vessels of bulrushes upon the
waters, saying .”

Isa. 22:13 . —“And behold joy and gladness, slaying oxen, and killing sheep, eating
flesh, and drinking wine: [ saying ] Let us eat and drink; for to-morrow we shall die.”

Isa. 24:14 , 15 . —“They shall cry aloud from the sea, [ saying ], Wherefore,” etc.

Isa. 28:9 . —“Whom shall he teach knowledge?” etc.

That is, “Whom [ say they ] shall he teach knowledge?” This verse and the following
are the scornful words of “the scornful men” mentioned in verse 14 . They ridicule the
words of the prophet, saying, “for it is tsav upon tsav, tsav upon tsav, &c.,” * not “ must
be ” but “ it is .”

Then, in verse 11 , the prophet answers “For,” or “Yea, verily, with stammerings of
lip and another (or foreign) tongue will he speak to this people,” and he tells them why
“the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept;” viz. (verse 13 ), that they
might fall and be broken.

Jer. 9:19 . —“For a voice of wailing is heard out of Zion, [ saying ], How are we

Jer. 11:19 . —“I knew not that they had devised devices against me, saying .”

Jer. 50:5 . —“They shall ask the way to Zion with their faces thitherward, saying .”

* See under Paronomasia .

Lam. 3:41 . —“Let us lift up our heart with our hands unto God in the heavens, [ saying

Hos. 14:8 . —“Ephraim shall say , ” etc.

Acts 9:6 . —“And the Lord said unto him,” etc.

Acts 10:15 . —“And the voice spake unto him again the second time.”

Acts 14:22 .—“Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in
the faith, and saying that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of

2 Cor. 12:16 . —“But be it so, I did not burden you: nevertheless [ you say that ] being
crafty, I caught you with guile.”

2. When the INFINITIVE of the verb is wanting:

( a ) After the Hebrew yahk l ) able

Ps. 21:11 . —“They imagined a mischievous device, which they are not able to perform

Ps. 101:5 . —“Him that hath an high look and a proud heart will not I suffer,” i.e. , I am
not able to bear .

Isa. 1:13 . —“The new moons and sabbaths, the calling of assemblies, I cannot away
with,” i.e. , I am not able to endure . See Jer. 44:22 .

Ps. 139:6 . —“ Such knowledge is too wonderful for me; it is high, I cannot attain unto
it.” Here the Ellipsis is properly supplied: i.e. , I am not able to attain unto it.

Hos. 8:5 . —“How long will it be ere they attain to innocency?” i.e. , how long ere they
are able to practise innocency?

1 Cor. 3:2 . —“I have fed you with milk, and not with meat: for hitherto ye were not able
to bear it,” i.e. , to eat , or partake of it , or, to digest it .

( b ) After the verb to finish

1 Sam. 16:11 . —“Are here all thy children?” Here the Ellipsis is avoided by a free and
idiomatic translation. The Heb. reads, “Have the young men finished?” i.e. , “ Are the
young men finished passing by? ” or done passing before me?
Matt. 10:23 . —“Ye shall not have gone over the cities of Israel till the Son of Man be
come.” Lit. “Ye will not have finished going over the cities,” etc., referring to verses 6
and 7 .

Matt. 13:53 . —“When Jesus had finished these parables,” i.e. , when Jesus had finished
speaking these parables.

( c ) When the INFINITIVE is wanting after another verb, personal or impersonal

Gen. 9:20 . —“And Noah began to be an husbandman,” or, “And Noah the husbandman
began and planted, etc.”

1 Kings 7:47 . —“And Solomon left all the vessels unweighed because they were
exceeding many,” i.e. , and Solomon omitted to weigh , etc.

Prov. 21:5 . —“The thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness: but of every one
that is hasty only to want.”

Here plenteousness is ( m thar ) that which is over and above, excess , (from
( yahthar ) to be superfluous ).

“The thoughts of the diligent tend only to excess, and [ the thoughts ] of every one
that hasteth [ to get riches tend ] only to want.”

The R.V. supplies the Ellipses thus. “But every one that is hasty hasteth only to
want”; “ hasting to want” is very obscure, but the “hasting to get riches” tending to want
is clear.

Mark 15:8 . —“And the multitude crying aloud began to desire him to do as he had ever
done unto them,” i.e., that he should do .

Luke 13:33 . —“Nevertheless I must walk to-day, and to-morrow, and the day
following,” etc.

The R.V. has “Howbeit I must go on my way.” But the Greek is “Howbeit it behoves
me to-day, and to-morrow, and the day following, to go on [ to work ],” i.e. , to continue

Rom. 4:25 . —“Who was delivered [ to die ] for our offences.”

3. When the VERB SUBSTANTIVE is omitted

The Hebrew having no verb substantive, this is generally expressed in italics in the A.V.
But inasmuch as it is absolutely necessary for the sense in English, the R.V. has printed it
in roman type. (See preface to R.V. );
Gen. 1:2 . —“Darkness was upon the face of the deep.”

Gen. 2:10 . —Lit. “And there was a river going out of Eden.”

Gen. 3:6 . —“And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was
pleasant to the eyes,” etc.

Gen 4:13 . —“My punishment is greater than I can bear.”

Gen. 5:1 . —“This is the book of the generations of Adam.”

Num. 14:9 . —“Only rebel not ye against the LORD , neither fear ye the people of the
land; for they are bread for us: their defence is departed from them, and the LORD is with
us; fear them not.”

These are the words of Joshua and Caleb to the people to encourage them to go up in
spite of the false report of the other spies.

Note first the marginal rendering of the word “defence.” It is given “Heb. shadow ,”
i.e. , “Their shadow is departed.” So in the R.V. the word “shadow” is treated as though it
were a figure ( Metonymy ). The literal meaning of the word is departed from, as well as
the literal rendering of the preceding sentence. This is ( kee lachmenoo ) “for
they are our bread.”

The A.V. correctly supplies the Ellipsis, i.e. , our bread aptly represents their

What was their “bread”? It was manna. What was the manna like? It was most
marvellous bread, for it was so hard that it had to be ground in mills, or beaten in a
mortar ( Num. 11:8 ); and yet its consistency was so peculiar that it melted in the sun! (
Ex. 16:21 ). If it were not gathered every morning before the sun arose and the shadows
departed, “when the sun waxed hot, it melted”! *

The wicked spies had just said ( Num. 13:31 ) that Israel could not go up against the
people of the land, for they are “stronger than we”: they were strong and hard. No, replies
Joshua, it may be they are strong, but so is our bread the manna—so strong that it needs
grinding and crushing, and yet, when the shadow goes from off it, it melts away. Even so
is it with them, as the words of Rahab testify ( Josh. 2:11 ). The two spies whom Joshua
afterwards sent heard the very same truth from the lips of Rahab, which he, one of the
two faithful spies whom Moses had sent, forty years before declared. She tells them:—
“As soon as we had heard these things , our hearts did melt, neither did there remain any
more courage in any man, because of you.”

* Marvellous bread indeed! A standing miracle, both as to the manner in which it was
given, and also as to its consistency. Bread indeed, hard, and yet melting like ice in the
Thus, while the literal signification of the words gives no sense, they point to the true
figure; and then, in turn, the figure explains the literal signification of the words, and the
true meaning of the passage. So that we may render it thus:—“Only rebel not ye against
Jehovah, neither fear ye the people of the land; for they [ are like ] our bread; their
shadow hath turned aside from off them, and Jehovah is with us; fear them not,” i.e. , as
when the shadow turns aside from off our bread, it melts away and disappears, so these
enemies, hard and strong as they might be, would surely melt away before the Lord God,
the Sun and the Shield of His people. In no sense could Jehovah be the shadow or
defence of the people of the land against whom Israel was about to fight.

1 Sam. 19:11 . —“To-morrow thou shalt be slain.”

2 Kings 6:33 . —“Behold, this evil is of the LORD .”

2 Chron. 3:9 . —“And the weight of the nails was fifty shekels of gold.”

The verb is omitted to show that the emphasis is on the “nails” and their “weight.”
And what a wonderful emphasis it is! For in all the requirements for “the house of God,”
the fir-trees, the fine gold, the precious stones, the beams, the posts, the walls, etc., are
mentioned; yet, the “nails” that held all together are not omitted. Though they were small,
yet God used them: though out of sight, they were necessary.

Ps. 33:4 . —“For the word of the LORD is right.”

Ps. 99:9 . —“For the LORD our God is holy.”

It is worthy of note that there are three Psalms which begin with the words: “The
LORD reigneth,” viz., xciii., xcvii., and xcix. They each end with a reference to holiness .

Ps. 93 “Holiness becometh Thine house, O LORD , for ever.”

Ps. 97 “Give thanks at the remembrance of His holiness.”

Ps. 99 The third Psalm, three times:

Verse 3 . “It is holy.”

Verse 5 . “He is holy.”

Verse 9 . “The LORD our God is holy.”

To those who have ears to hear, this plainly declares that when the Lord shall reign,
all will be holy; that when His kingdom comes, His name will be hallowed on earth as it
is in heaven. “In that day shall there be upon the bells (or bridles) of the horses,
HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD ; and the pots in the LORD’S house shall be like the
bowls before the altar. Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and Judah shall be HOLINESS unto
the LORD of hosts” ( Zech. 14:20 , 21 ). “Her merchandise and her hire shall be holiness
to the Lord” ( Isa. 23:18 ).

The cry of the living creatures ( Rev. 4:8 , etc.) is “Holy, holy, holy,” and their call is
for the judgments which will issue in the Lord’s reign, which is celebrated in these three
Psalms. Those who teach that the Cherubim (or the Cherubs) are the Church fail to see
that their chief function is to call for judgment!

Ps. 119:89 . —“For ever, O LORD .” The verb must here be supplied. The verb in the
parallel line answers to the verb here:—

“For ever [ art Thou ] O LORD ;

Thy word is settled in heaven.

Thy faithfulness is unto all generations;

Thou hast established the earth, and it abideth.”

In the first and third lines, we have Jehovah. In the second and fourth lines, we have
what He has settled and established.

Ecc. 7:12 . —“Wisdom is a defence.”

Isa. 43:25 . —“I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake,
and will not remember thy sins.”

We may take this in connection with Ps. 103:14 . “For he knoweth our frame; he
remembereth that we are dust.”

Here the verbs are omitted to throw the emphasis on the persons, rather than on the
acts. This points us to Jehovah in the former passage, and ourselves in the latter—His
Deity, and our vanity—and to contrast His thoughts with our thoughts, His ways with our
ways. God remembers our infirmities; but this is the very thing that man will not
remember! Man will make no allowance for our infirmities. On the other hand, man will
remember our sins. Let any one of us fall into sin, and many will remember it after many
years: but this is what God says He will not remember! “Their sins and their iniquities
will I remember no more.” He is Jehovah, we are dust! Hence our sins, which man
remembers, God will forget; but our infirmities, which man forgets, God will remember.
Blessed be God!

Isa. 44:6 . —“I am the first and I am the last, and beside me there is no God.”

Ezek. 34:17 . —“And as for you.”

The Ellipses of this passage may be thus supplied: “And ye, O my flock, thus saith
the Lord GOD (Adonai Jehovah): Behold, I judge between cattle and cattle, between the
rams and the he goats. [ Is it ] a small thing to you [ goats ] to have eaten up the good
pasture, but ye must tread down with your feet the residue of your pastures? and to have
drunk of the deep waters, but ye must foul the residue with your feet? And [ is it a small
thing that ] my flock [ i.e., my sheep ] eat [or must eat ] that which ye [ goats ] have
trodden with your feet; and drink that which ye have fouled with your feet?”

The contrast is between the sheep and the goats. Sheep never become goats, and goats
never become sheep, either in nature or in grace. The Chief Shepherd knows His sheep
here; He separates them now, and will eternally separate them from the goats in the
coming day, when He shall “save his flock, and judge between cattle and cattle” (verses
20 , 22 , 23 ).

The characteristic of the goat alluded to here, is graphically set forth in a paper read
before the Victoria Institute, Feb. 1, 1892, by J.W. Slater, Esq., F.C.S., F.E.S. He says,
“The native flora and fauna of St. Helena have been practically extirpated by the goat.
These young seedlings were browsed down as fast as they sprung up, and when the old
giants of the forest decayed there were no successors to take their place. As a necessary
consequence, the insects and birds disappeared in turn. The same horned wretch’—fit
type of evil—which, as Sir Joseph Hooker shows, has ravaged the earth to a greater
extent than man has done by war, is now in the very same manner laying waste South
Africa. To such an extent has the mischief already been carried, that a troop of the
Colonial Cavalry on the march actually gave three cheers on meeting a tree!”

Have we not here a fit illustration of Ezek. 34 ? And may we not see in ecclesiastical
affairs around us (through the unfaithfulness of the shepherds) the ravages of the “goats”
in treading down and laying waste, and fouling the pastures of the flock of God? The
goats have turned our churches and chapels into places of amusement and of musical
entertainment, where they may have “pleasant afternoons,” and “make provision for the
flesh”; so much so that the. Lord’s sheep are “pushed” and “scattered,” and scarcely
know where to find the “green pastures” and the “living waters” of the pure Word of God
and the Gospel of His grace! Thank God, the Chief Shepherd is coming: and, when He
comes, though He will scarcely “find faith on the earth” ( Luke 18:8 ), He will “save His
flock” and separate them from the goats for ever, and be their One True Shepherd.

Luke 2:14 . —“Glory to God in the highest,” i.e. , Glory be to God in the highest.

Luke 22:21 . —“The hand of him that betrayeth me is with me on the table.”

John 4:24 . —“God is a Spirit.”

See under Hendiadys and Hyperbaton .

Acts 2:29 . —“Men and brethren, let me freely speak unto you of the patriarch David.”
Here the verb “speak” is the infinitive: lit. , “to speak,” and “let me” is the present
, exon ), * permitted or allowed . So that we must supply the verb
, esto ), let me be: —“[ let me be ] permitted to speak freely unto you,
or I am , or may be , permitted, etc.”

1 Cor. 6:13 . —“Meats [ are ] for the belly, and the belly [ is ] for meats.”

1 Cor. 15:29 . —“Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise
not at all?”

This passage has been supposed to refer to a practice which obtained even in those
apostolic days of persons being baptized on behalf of and for the spiritual benefit of those
who were already dead. As this practice thus receives a tacit approval, and yet is destitute
of any historical evidence as to its existence, apart from this passage, various methods
have been proposed of meeting the difficulty which is thus raised. Some have erroneously
suggested that “the dead” refers to Christ: but they have done so in ignorance of the fact
that the word is plural, as is clearly shown by the verb “rise.” Others (with Macknight)
suggest the supply of the words “ resurrection of ”—“What shall they do which are
baptized for the [ resurrection of ] the dead?” But this implies the omission of the very
word which is most essential to the argument; and would be a form of Ellipsis seldom, if
ever, found. There are a multitude of other explanations; but the true solution of the
difficulty is (we submit) to be sought in punctuation, and in the correct supply of the
Ellipsis .

We must bear in mind that there is no punctuation in the ancient manuscripts, beyond
the greater pauses. All interpunctuation is purely human in its origin, and we may be
thankful that it is so seldom necessary to question its accuracy. We have also to note the
structure of the whole context, for this, like all other texts, must be interpreted in
harmony with the scope of the whole passage, and with the design of the whole

The following is the structure of 1 Cor. 15:12–58 . *

( exon ) occurs only three times, of these the first ( Matt. 12:4 ) has ( een ),
was , after it; while in the other two places (here, and 2 Cor. 12:4 ) it stands alone. In 2
( estin ), is; and so probably we
should do here.
The first eleven verses are constructed as follows:—
D 1 –. The apostle’s declaration.

E – 1 , 2 . The Gospel he preached.

D 3 –. The apostle’s declaration.

A 12 . The difficulty stated (as to the fact ). “How?”

B 13–32 . The difficulty met.

C 33 , 34 . Practical application.

A 35 . The difficulty stated (as to the manner ). “How?”

B 36–57 . The difficulty met.

C 58 . Practical application.

The structure of “B” (verses 13–32 ). The difficulty met .

B a 13–18 . Negative hypothesis and its consequences.

b 19 . Conclusion ( positive ) as to Christ’s in this life.

a 20–28 . Positive assertion and its consequences.

b 29–32 . Conclusion ( negative ) as to Christ’s in this life.

The structure of “a” (verses 13–18 ). Negative hypothesis .

a c 13 . If no resurrection: Consequence—then Christ is not risen.

d 14 , 15 . If Christ not risen.

Our preaching vain.

Your faith vain.

We false witnesses.

c 16 . If no resurrection: Consequence—then Christ is not risen.

d 17 , 18 . If Christ not risen.

Your faith vain.

Ye yet in sins.

E 3–11 . The Gospel he received.

The dead perished.

The structure of “ A ” and “ B ” (verses 35–57 ). The difficulty stated .

A e 35 . Question: How are the dead raised up?

f 35 . Question: With what body do they come?

B f 36–49 . Answer to “f.”

e 50–57 . Answer to “e.”

The structure therefore of this chapter shows that verses 20–28 (“ a ”) are placed,
practically, in a parenthesis, so that this 29th verse reads on from the 19th verse, and
continues the argument thus:—“ 17 . If Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet
in your sins. 18 . Then they also which are fallen asleep in Christ are perished. 19 . If in
this life only we have hope in Christ, we are of all men most miserable. 29 . Else what
shall they do which are being baptized?” *

But here comes in the matter of punctuation. In. Rom. 8:34 we have a very similar
construction, which, if we treat it as 1 Cor. 15:29 is treated in the A.V. and R.V. , would
read thus, “Who is he that condemneth Christ that died?” But the question is made to end
at the word “condemneth,” and the Ellipsis of the verb substantive is supplied thus:—
“Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died” (or better, “ Is it Christ who died?”
See below). Now if we treat 1 Cor. 15:29 in the same manner, it will read, “What shall
they do which are being baptized? It is on behalf of the dead if the dead rise not at all!”

From Rom. 6 we learn that our circumcision is in Christ’s death, our baptism is in
Christ’s burial. “Buried with Him by the baptism of Him, ( i.e. , by His baptism-unto-
death)”; and if He is not raised, we cannot be raised, Rom. 6:4 . (See above, pages 18 , 19
). “Buried with Him in the baptism of him , ” i.e. , His baptism ( Col. 2:11 , 12 ).

Therefore if Christ be not raised, we are not raised in Him, and our baptism is for the

Whenever we have the word ( nekros ), dead , with the article (as it is here in
1 Cor. 15:29 ), it always denotes dead bodies, corpses . (See Gen. 23:3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 8 , 13 ,
15 . Deut. 28:26 . Jer. 12:33 . Ezek. 37:19 . Luke 24:5 .) On the contrary, when it is
without the article it denotes the persons who are dead, dead people . (See Deut. 14:1 .
Matt. 22:33 . Mark 9:10 . Luke 16:30 , 31 ; 24:46 . John 20:9 . Acts 10:41 ; 26:23 . Rom.
6:13 ; 10:7 ; 11:15 . Heb. 11:19 ; 13:20 ).

* Alford (who arrives at a very different conclusion) points out that ( hoi
baptizomenoi ) is the present participle and not the past, i.e., those who are being
baptized . He observes: “The distinction is important as affecting the interpretation.”
So that this is an additional argument why, if Christ be not raised, and we are buried
with Him, then baptism is in the interest of those who are to remain dead corpses, and not
of risen ones, raised with Christ.

( hyper ). Like the English “for,” it denotes the

object of interest , not merely the subject, and ranges from mere reference to actual
substitution, e.g. , 2 Cor. 8:23 , “Whether any enquire about Titus”; Matt. 5:44 , “Pray for
those who persecute you”; Mark 9:40 , “He who is not against us is for us”; 2 Cor. 1:6 ,
“Whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation”; Philem. 13 , “That he might
minister to me instead of thee.” *

If Christ be not raised, well may those who are being baptized into Christ’s burial be
asked, “What shall they do?” Truly, “ It is for the dead.” For they will remain dead, as
corpses. In this life they “die daily” (verse 31 ); in death they perish (verse 18 ); and are
thus “of all men most miserable” (verse 19 ).

“What shall they do who are being baptized? It is for the dead if the dead rise not at
all!” It is to remain dead, as corpses, without hope of resurrection.

Thus, the expression, “baptized for the dead,” vanishes from the Scripture, and is
banished from theology; for the assumed practice is gathered only from this passage, and
is unknown to history apart from it.

1 Cor. 15:48 . —“As is the earthy [ man, Adam ] such [ shall be ] also they that are
earthy; and as is the heavenly [ man, the Lord ] such [ shall be ] they also that are

This is clear from the verse that follows:—“And as we have borne the image of the
earthy [ man, Adam ] we shall also bear the image of the heavenly [ man, the Lord ].” See
Phil. 3:21 .

2 Cor. 11:22 . —“Are they Hebrews? So am I,” etc.

Eph. 3:1 . —“For this cause I Paul, the prisoner of Jesus Christ for you Gentiles,” i.e. , “I
Paul [ am ] the prisoner,” etc.

Phil. 4:16 . —“For even [ when I was ] in Thessalonica ye sent once and again unto my

2 Tim. 3:16 . —“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable.” †

* See also Rom. 9:27 . 2 Cor. 1:11 ; 8:23 , 24 . 2 Thess. 2:1 . Col. 1:7 .
† See this passage also under the figures of Asyndeton and Paregmenon .
With this we may take eight other passages, where we have the same construction:
viz., Rom. 7:12 . 1 Cor. 11:30 . 2 Cor. 10:10 . 1 Tim. 1:15 ; 2:3 ; 4:4 ; 4:9 . and Heb. 4:13

These nine passages may be taken together, and considered in their bearing on the
translation of 2 Tim. 3:16 in the Revised Version, which is as follows:—

“Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable,” etc.

In each of these passages we have the very same Greek construction , and four of
them are in the Epistles to Timothy. The A.V. translates all these nine passages in
precisely the same way, and on the same principles. But the R.V. translates eight of them
in one way ( i.e. , like the A.V. ), while it renders one on quite a different principle.

Here are the passages, and the rendering as in the Authorized Version:—

ROM. 7:12 .

The is holy and just.


1 COR. 11:30 .

many are weak and sickly.

2 COR. 10:10 .

his letters are weighty and powerful.

1 TIM. 1:15 and 4:9 .

faithful is the saying and worthy of all acceptation.

1 TIM. 2:3 .

this is good and acceptable.

1 TIM. 4:4 .

is good and nothing to be refused.

Every creature
of God

2 TIM. 3:16 .

All Scripture is given by inspiration and is profitable.

of God
HEB. 4:13 .

All things are naked and opened.

Now the case stands thus. The Revisers have translated eight of these passages, which
we have cited, on the same principles as the A.V. , i.e. , supplying in italics the verb
substantive “ is ” and “ are ” respectively, and taking the copulative
joining together the two predicates. But when the Revisers come to the ninth passage ( 2
Tim. 3:16 ), they separate the two conjoined predicates, making the first a part of the
subject, and then are obliged to translate the
nothing antecedent to it. Thus:—

“Every scripture inspired of God is also profitable.”

Now, if the Revisers had translated the other eight passages in the same way, the
renderings would have been consistent , whatever else they might not have been.

Rom. 7:12 would have been—

“The holy commandment is also just.”

1 Cor. 11:30 would have been—

“Many weak ones are also sickly.”

2 Cor. 10:10 would have been—

“His weighty letters are also powerful.”

1 Tim. 1:15 and 4:9 would have been—

“The faithful saying is also worthy of all acceptation.”

1 Tim. 2:3 would have been—

“This good thing is also acceptable.”

1 Tim. 4:4 would have been—

“Every good creature of God is also nothing to be refused.”

Heb. 4:13 would have been—

“All naked things are also opened,” etc.

But the Revisers do not translate them thus! And the fact that they render the whole of
these eight passages as in the A.V. , and single out 2 Tim. 3:16 for different treatment,
forbids us to accept the inconsistent rendering, and deprives it of all authority. Without
inquiring as to what the motives of the Revisers may have been, we are justified in
regretting that this should be the passage singled out for this inconsistent and exceptional
treatment, reducing it to a mere platitude. It is only fair to add that the correct rendering
of the A.V. is given in the margin.

Philem. 11 . —“Which in time past was to thee unprofitable, but now [ is ] profitable to
thee and to me.”

4. When the PARTICIPLE is wanting

Num. 24:19 . —” Out of Jacob shall come he that shall have dominion.”

The R.V. is more literal:—“And out of Jacob shall one have dominion.”

The Heb. is simply:—“And one shall rule (or have dominion) out of Jacob.”

The Ellipsis of the participle being supplied, it reads:—“And one shall rule [ being
born ] out of Jacob.”

1 Sam. 15:7 . —“And Saul smote the Amalekites [ dwelling ] from Havilah unto Shur.”

This refers to the region occupied by the Amalekites, and not to the people smitten, as
is clear from chap. 30 .

Isa. 57:8 . —“Thou hast discovered thyself to another than me,” i.e. , “thou hast
discovered thyself, departing from me,” ( meïttee ).

Ezek. 11:11 . —“This city shall not be your caldron, neither shall ye be the flesh in the
midst thereof; but I will judge you [ scattered ] in the border of Israel.”

Mark 7:4 . —“And [ on coming ] from the market, they eat not except they wash.”

Mark 7:17 . —“And when he was entered into the house [ getting away ] from the

Acts 13:20 . —“And after that he gave unto them judges about the space of 450 years.”
Lit., “After these things [ were done ],” i.e. , after the division of the land by Joshua. *

2 Thess. 1:9 . —“Who shall be punished with everlasting destruction [ driven out ] from
the presence of the Lord.”

* For the question as to the Chronology involved in this difficulty, see Number in
Scripture , by the same author and publisher, page 5.
Heb. 2:3 . —“Which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto
us by them that heard him , ” i.e. , “which at the first began to be spoken by the Lord,
and, [ being brought ] unto us by them that heard him, was confirmed,” etc.

III. When Certain Connected Words are omitted in the same Member of a Passage

This particular form of Ellipsis has a distinct name, BRACHYLOGIA ( from

, brachus , short , and , logos , discourse ), English, Bra-chyl´-o-gy . Or
eans brevity of speech or writing, and is
used of an Ellipsis , in which words are omitted chiefly for the sake of brevity; which
words may easily be supplied from the nature of the subject.

Gen. 25:32 . —“And Esau said, Behold, I am at the point to die; and what profit shall this
birthright do to me?” There must be supplied, the thought , if not the words: —“ I will
sell it .” So with the next verse. “And Jacob said, Swear to me this day [ that thou wilt
sell it me ]; and he sware unto him: and he sold his birthright unto Jacob.”

Gen. 45:12 . —“And behold, your eyes see, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it
is my mouth that speaketh unto you.” Lit., it is, “because my mouth ( , kee phee ) is
speaking unto you.” If we supply the Ellipsis , we may retain this literal rendering.

Joseph had been speaking of his glory (verse 8 ): but, on the principle of Prov. 27:2 :
“Let another man praise thee, and not thine own mouth,” he breaks off and says, “Now,
behold, your eyes are seeing, and the eyes of my brother Benjamin; because my own
mouth is speaking unto you [ I cannot speak of all my glory ], but ye shall declare to my
father all my glory in Egypt, and all that ye have seen,” i.e. , THEY were to describe what
HE could not well say of himself.

2 Kings 19:9 . —“And when he had heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia, Behold, he
is come out to fight against thee: [ he turned his army against him; and, having
conquered him, he returned to Jerusalem, and ] he sent messengers again unto

2 Kings 22:18 . —“Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, As touching the words which thou
hast heard.”

So the R.V. but without italics. But surely the sense is:—“Thus saith the LORD God
of Israel: The words which thou (Josiah) hast heard [ shall surely come to pass, but ]
because thine heart was tender, and thou hast humbled thyself,” etc. … “thou shalt be
gathered into thy grave in peace; and thine eyes shall not see all the evil which I will
bring upon this place.”

1 Chron. 18:10 . —“He sent Hadoram his son to king David, to enquire of his welfare,
and to congratulate him, because he had fought against Hadarezer, and smitten him; (for
Hadarezer had war with Tou;) and with him all manner of vessels of gold and silver and
The R.V. supplies “and he had with him .” But the Ellipsis is to be supplied from 2
Sam. 8:10 , thus, “And all manner of vessels of gold and silver and brass were in his hand
”( ).

Ezek. 47:13 . —“Joseph shall have two portions,” i.e. , shall inherit .

Matt. 21:22 . —“All things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall
receive,” i.e. , add “ if it be His will .” Compare Matt. 26:39–44 ; Jos. 5:14 , 15 ; 1 John
5:14 , 15 . This is the one abiding condition of all real prayer, and the Ellipsis must be
thus supplied wherever it is found.

In Mark 5 we have by way of illustration three prayers—

1. In verses 12 , 13 . “The devils besought him,” and “Jesus gave them leave.”

2. In verse 17 . The Gadarenes “began to pray him to depart out of their coasts.”
And Jesus left them.

3. In verses 18 , 19 . “He that had been possessed with the devil prayed him that he
might be with him. Howbeit Jesus suffered him not.”

“No!” is an answer to prayer l and often, very often, a most gracious and loving
answer too. No greater calamity could come upon us than for God to answer “Yes” to all
our ignorant requests. Better to have our prayers refused with this man who had been the
subject of His grace and love and power, than to have them answered with Devils and

Matt. 25:9 . —“But the wise answered, saying, Not so; lest there be not enough for us
and you;” i.e. , “But the wise answered, By no means, for look , there will not be enough,
&c., or we cannot give to you , lest, &c.”

Mark 14:49 . —“But the Scriptures must be fulfilled.” The Greek is, “But that the
Scriptures may be fulfilled.” The R.V. correctly supplies the Ellipsis , “But this is done
that the Scriptures should be fulfilled.” (Compare Matt. 26:56 .)

Luke 7:43 . —“Simon answered and said, I suppose that he to whom he forgave most [
will love him most ].”

John 2:18 . —“What sign showest thou unto us [ that thou art the Messiah ], seeing that
thou doest these things?” As in Judges 6:17 , Gideon says, “Show me a sign that thou [
art Jehovah that ] talkest with me.”

John 7:38 . —“He that believeth on me, as the Scripture hath said, out of his belly shall
flow rivers of living water.”
The difficulties of this verse are great, as may be seen by a reference to the
commentators. It will be noted that a comparison is suggested by the word ( kath s
), like as , and that there is an Ellipsis which must be supplied. Bengel suggests “as the
Scripture hath said so it shall be , ” or “ so shall it be .” But something more is evidently
required. Is there not a reference to the Haphtarah , i.e. , the portion selected (from the
Prophets) as the lesson to be read on the first day of the Feast of Tabernacles, which was
Zech. 14:1–21 ? * The Lord was not present then, for it was not until “the midst of the
feast” that He went up (verse 14 ). But in “the last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus
stood and cried,” with evident reference to the Scripture which had been read, “He that
believeth on me (as the Scripture hath said [ concerning Jerusalem: so shall it be ]) out of
his heart rivers of living water shall flow.” What the Scripture had said concerning
Jerusalem in Zech. 14:8 was this:—“And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go
out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the
hinder sea,” &c. To this agree the words of the prophecy in Ezek. 47:1–11 . These
prophecies shall yet be literally fulfilled with regard to Jerusalem: and what will then
actually take place illustrates what takes place now in the experience of every one who
believes in Jesus. Even as those rivers will flow forth from Jerusalem in that day, so now
the Holy Spirit, in all His wondrous powers, and gifts, and graces, flows forth from the
inward parts—the new nature of the believer.

John 13:18 . —“I speak not of you all: I know whom I have chosen: but [ I have done
this ] that the Scripture may be fulfilled, He that eateth bread with me hath lifted up his
heel against me.” Compare verses 26–30 .

John 15:25 . —“But this cometh to pass , that the word might be fulfilled that is written
in their law, They hated me without a cause.” The abbreviated expression emphasizes the
statement to which we are thus hastened on. And our attention is called to the fact that
( d rean ) here rendered “without a cause” is in Rom. 3:24 rendered “freely.”—
“Being justified freely by his grace”: i.e. , there was no more cause why we should be
“justified” than there was why Jesus should be “hated”!

John 15:27 . —“Ye have been with me from the beginning [ and are still with me ].”
Compare 16:4 , and see 1 John 3:8 below.

Rom. 9:16 .—Here the reference is to Esau and Jacob, spoken of in verses 10–13 , and to
the history as recorded in Gen. 27:3 , 4 .

“So then [ election is ] not of him who willeth [as Isaac wished to bless Esau
according to “the will of the flesh” * ], nor of him that runneth [ as Esau ran for venison
that his father might eat, and bless him ], but of God who showeth mercy.”

* The portion from the Law ( Acts 13:15 ) read in conjunction with this was Lev. 22:26–
23:44 ; with Num. 29:12–16 .
* As Jacob was asked to bless Ephraim and Manasseh according to “the will of man”
(Joseph) ( Gen. 48:15–14 ). Both cases are instanced in Heb. 11:20 , 21 as acts of
1 Cor. 9:4 . —“Have we not power to eat and to drink [ at the expense of our converts or
of the Church ]?” Without this there is no sequence in the apostle’s argument. Or we may
supply [ without working with our own hands ], see verses 6 and 7 .

2 Cor. 5:3 . —“If so be that being clothed we shall not be found naked.”

Here the blessed hope of Resurrection is described as being clothed upon with the
heavenly body. This is the subject which commences at 2 Cor. 4:14 . In chap. 5:3 the
is ignored in both A.V. and R.V. The Greek is, “If indeed BEING CLOTHED also, we
shall not be found naked [ as some among you say ].” There were some among the
Corinthians who said “there is no resurrection of the dead” ( 1 Cor. 15:12 , 35 ), and here
those assertions are thus referred to.

Gal. 2:9 . —“They gave to me and Barnabas the right hands of fellowship; that we unto
the heathen, and they unto the circumcision, [ should carry the apostolic message and
decrees ].”

Eph. 4:29 . —Here the word ei ) if is omitted in the translation both in the A.V. and
R.V. Not observing the Ellipsis , the word “if” was omitted to make sense.

With the “if” retained, the Ellipsis is properly supplied thus:—

“Let no corrupt communication proceed out of your mouth, but, if any [ speech be ]
good to the use of edifying, [ let it be spoken ] that it may minister grace unto the

Phil. 4:11 . —“I have learned in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content.”

The R.V. reads “therein to be content,” without italics. But what is he to be content
with? Surely not content with the circumstances, but with the will of God . So that the
verse will read, “I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, to be content with [ the will of
God ].”

1 John 3:8 . —“The devil sinneth from the beginning [and still sinneth ].”

IV. When a Whole Clause is omitted in a Connected Passage

1. When the FIRST MEMBER of a clause is omitted

Matt. 16:7 . —“And they reasoned among themselves, saying, It is because we have
taken no bread.”

“Faith,” i.e., faith’s exercise of gifts contrary to “the will of the flesh,” as in the case of
Isaac; and contrary to “the will of man” in the case of Jacob.
Here the first member of the latter clause is wanting. It is supplied in the A.V. by the
words “ It is .” The R.V. , not seeing this Ellipsis, has boldly omitted the ( hoti )
because , and translated:—“And they reasoned among themselves, saying, We took no
bread” (giving the A.V. in the margin).

The Ellipsis of the first member is properly filled up thus:—“And they reasoned
among themselves, saying [ Jesus spoke thus , verse 6 ], because we have taken no

See further under Hypocatastasis .

Mark 3:30 . —“Because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.” Here the first clause is
omitted:—“[ Jesus said this unto them ], because they said, He hath an unclean spirit.”

Luke 9:13 . —“He said unto them, Give ye them to eat. And they said, We have no more
but five loaves and two fishes; except we should go and buy meat for all this people.”

There is something wanting here, which may be thus supplied:—“We have no more
than five loaves and two fishes; [ therefore we are not able to give to them to eat ] except
we should go and buy meat for all this people.”

John 5:7 . —“The impotent man answered him, Sir, [ I am indeed willing, but ], I have
no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool,” etc.

2 Thess. 2:3 . —“Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come ,
except there come a falling away first.” (Lit., the apostasy.) The R.V. fills up the Ellipsis
of the prior member, by the words“ it will not be , ” which is weak and tame compared
with the A.V.

What is referred to is the day of the Lord, * mentioned in the preceding verse. “Let no
man deceive you by any means: for [ the day of the Lord shall not come ] except there
come the falling away first:” i.e. , the great apostasy, which is the subject of many
prophecies, must precede the day of the Lord . But it does not precede the day of Christ .
Hence the saints in Thessalonica might well be troubled if the day of the Lord had set in,
and they had not been previously gathered together to meet the Lord in the air in the day
of Christ, as had been promised ( 1 Thess. 4:16 , 17 ; 2 Thess. 2:1 ). †

This is not the popular teaching, but it is the truth of God. Popular theology is very
different. It says, “That day cannot come until the world’s conversion comes.” The
Scripture says it cannot come until the apostasy shall have come. Popular theology says
the world is not good enough yet for Christ to come. The Scripture teaches that the world
is not yet bad enough! The Thessalonian saints believed their teachers, and are an

* Not “the day of Christ,” as in A.V. The R.V. and the Ancient MSS. and Critical Texts
read correctly “the day of the Lord.”
† See Four Prophetic Periods , by the same author and publisher.
example for all time for holiness of walk and for missionary zeal. People to-day believe
their teachers, and all men see their works!
2. The Ellipsis of a LATTER CLAUSE , called Anantapodoton , i.e. , without apodosis

It is a hypothetical proposition without the consequent clause.

Gen. 30:27 . —“And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine
eyes [ remain with me: for ] I have learned by experience that the LORD hath blessed me
for thy sake.”

2 Sam. 2:27 . —“And Joab said [ to Abner ], As God liveth, unless thou hadst spoken [
the words which gave the provocation (see verse 14 )], surely then in the morning the
people had gone up ( marg. gone away ) every one from following his brother.”

2 Sam. 5:6–8 . —The Ellipsis here involves a retranslation of this difficult passage:—
“And the king and his men went to Jerusalem, unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the
land: Which spake unto David, saying, † Thou shalt not come in hither, for (or but ,
, kee eem , see Ps. 1:3 , 4 ; ‘for,’ Prov. 23:18 ; Lam. 5:22 ) the blind and lame shall
drive thee away (so Coverdale) by saying ( , laim r , saying , margin), David
shall not come in hither. Nevertheless, David took the stronghold of Zion; the same is the
city of David. And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up by the Tsinnor, ‡ and
smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, who hate David’s soul ( R.V. margin);
he shall be chief or captain , because they (the blind and the lame) had said, He shall not
come into the house ( A.V. margin),” or citadel.

The Ellipsis is supplied from 1 Chron. 11:6 ; and thus, with one or two simple
emendations, the whole passage is made clear.

It would seem that the citadel was so strong that the Jebusites put their blind and lame
there, who defended it by merely crying out, “David shall not come in hither.”

Matt. 6:25 . —“Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? [and if God
vouchsafes the greater, how much more that which is less ].”

Matt. 8:9 . —“For I am a man under authority, having soldiers under me: and I say to
this man, Go, and he goeth; and to another, Come, and he cometh; and to my servant, Do

* Apodosis , a giving back again: hence, it is the consequent clause.

The former clause is called the Protasis ( , to stretch before ).
† Both the A.V. and the R.V. transpose the following two sentences.
‡ ( batsinnor ) in , or by the Tsinnor , which was an underground watercourse,
recently discovered by Sir Charles Warren. See his Recovery of Jerusalem , pp. 107, 109,
this, and he doeth it [ how much more art Thou, who art God, able to command, or to
speak the word only that my servant may recover ].”

Mark 11:32 . —“But if we shall say, Of men: [ what will happen to us? ] for, they feared
the people.” Or we may supply, “ it will not be wise .”

Luke 2:21 . —“And when eight days were accomplished for the circumcising of the
child [ then they circumcised him, and ] his name was called JESUS .”

John 3:2 . —“Rabbi, we know that thou art a teacher come from God: for no man can do
these miracles which thou doest, except God be with him: [ therefore am I come to thee,
that thou mayest teach me the way of salvation ].”

John 6:62 . —“ What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where he was

Here the Apodosis is entirely wanting. The Greek reads simply “If then ye should see
the Son of man ascending up where he was before?” The thought is the same as in John
3:12 : “If I have told you earthly things and ye believe not, how shall ye believe if I tell
you of heavenly things?” So that the apodosis may be supplied thus, “ will ye believe
then? ” or, “ ye will not be offended then,” i.e. , ye will marvel then not at My doctrine
but at your own unbelief of it. Compare 8:28 and 3:13 . (But see further under the figure
of Aposiopesis ).

Rom. 9:22–24 . —Here we have a remarkable anantapodoton . The conclusion of the

argument is omitted. It begins with “if” (verse 22 ), and the apodosis must be supplied at
the end of verse 24 from verse 20 , i.e. , if God chooses to do this or that “ who art thou
that repliest against God? ” What have you to say?

Or, indeed, we may treat it as the Ellipsis of a prior member, in which case verse 22
would commence “[ what reply hast thou to make ], if God, willing to show his wrath,”

Jas. 2:13 . —“For he shall have judgment without mercy, that hath showed no mercy;
and mercy rejoiceth against judgment [ to him that hath showed mercy ].”

2 Pet. 2:4 . —The apodosis is wanting here, but it is difficult to supply it without
breaking the argument; which is, “If God spared not the angels that sinned,” neither will
he spare the false prophets and teachers , mentioned in verse 1 .

It is deferred till verse 12 , where we have it:—they “shall utterly perish in their own

3. When the COMPARISON is wanting. This is a kind of anantapodoton

Rom. 7:3 . —In verses 2 and 3 the hypothesis is given in which the husband dies, while
in verse 4 the fact to be illustrated is the case in which the wife dies. Death ending the
power of the marriage-law in each case.

At the end of verse 3 , therefore, the other hypothesis must be supplied (mentally if
not actually):—

“If her husband be dead, she is free from that law; so that she is no adulteress, though
she be married to another man [ and I need not say that if she be dead, she is, of course,
free from that law ]. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also have died to the law through the
body of Christ; that ye should be joined to another, even to him who is raised from the
dead,” i.e. , God’s people have died in Christ; and, on the other side of death, have risen
with Christ, and are united to Him. Thus being dead with Christ, the Law has no longer
any dominion over them, and they are free to be united to another, “being dead to that
wherein we were held” (verse 6 , margin, and, R.V. ). Compare the following Scriptures
on this important doctrine:— Rom. 8:2 ; 6:1–11 ; Gal. 2:19 ; 5:18 ; 6:14 ; Col. 2:14 ; 3:3 ;
1 Pet. 2:24 . This figure comes under the head of Rhetoric, and is then called Enthymema
( q.v. ).

1 Tim. 1:3 , 4 . —“As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus, when I went into
Macedonia, that thou mightest charge some that they teach no other doctrine, Neither
give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly
edifying which is in faith [ so I repeat my charge, that thou remain at Ephesus, etc. ]”

2 Tim. 2:20 . —“In a great house there are not only vessels of gold and of silver, but also
of wood and of earth, and, some to honour; and some to dishonour: [ so in the great
house of the church there are not only the elect saints, which are the vessels of honour,
but there are the impious and reprobate, who are the vessels of dishonour ].” Therefore
the admonition follows, in verse 21 , to purge ourselves from these; i.e. , not from the
vessels of gold and silver, or wood and earth, but from persons . Still less does it say we
are to purge the persons or the assembly! Each one is to “purge himself,” not the others.

We now come to the second great division.


Where the omitted word must be supplied from the words actually related to it and
employed in the context itself.

I. Where the omitted Word is supplied from a COGNATE Word occurring in the
Immediate Context

1. Where the NOUN is suggested by the VERB

Lev. 4:2 . —“If a soul shall sin through ignorance against any of the commandments of
the LORD concerning things which ought not to be done.”
Here the verb “shall sin” supplies the noun “sins,” i.e. , “ concerning sins which
ought not to be done.”

The R.V. evades the difficulty by a freer translation. But the correct supply of the
Ellipsis enables us to retain the literal translation.

Num. 11:14 . —“I am not able to bear all this people alone, because it is too heavy for

Here the noun is latent in the verb, and is naturally supplied by it thus:—“I am not
able to bear the burden of all this people alone, because it is too heavy for me.” The word
“it” does not refer to the People, but to the burden of them.

In verse 17 it is translated fully.

2 Kings 17:14 . —“Notwithstanding they would not hear, but hardened their necks, like
to the neck of their fathers,” i.e. , like to the hardness of the necks of their fathers.

Ps. 13:3 ( 4 ). —“Lighten mine eyes, lest I sleep the death,” i.e. , the sleep of death.

Ps. 76:11 . —“ Vow, and pay unto the LORD your God,” i.e. , pay your vows .

Ps. 107:41 . —“And maketh him families like a flock.”

Lit., maketh like a flock the families.

The two parallel lines are thus completed by supplying the Ellipsis: —

“Yet setteth he the poor on high from (or, after) affliction,

And maketh like a flock the families [ of the afflicted ].”

Hos. 9:4 . —“They shall not offer wine to the LORD , ” i.e. , wine offerings . As in A.V.

Gal. 4:24 . —“Which things are an allegory: for these [ two women ] are the two
covenants; the one, indeed, from the mount Sinai, which bringeth forth [ children ] into
bondage, which is Hagar.” The apodosis or conclusion is suspended till verse 26 . “But
Jerusalem which is above is the free [ woman ], who is the mother of us all.” In verse 25 ,
it must be noted that the word “this” is the article , which is neuter, while “Hagar” is
feminine. , therefore, must agree with some neuter word, which must be supplied,
( onoma ) name:—“For this [ name ] Hagar is (or, denotes) Mount Sinai
in Arabia.” It is a fact that in Arabia the word Hagar (which means a stone ) is the name
for Mount Sinai.

2. Where the VERB is to be supplied from the NOUN

1 Sam. 13:8 . —“And he tarried seven days, according to the time that Samuel [ had
appointed ].”

1 Chron. 17:18 . —“What can David speak more to thee for the honour of thy servant?”
i.e. , the honour put upon thy servant.

Ps. 94:10 . —“He that chastiseth the heathen, shall not he correct? he that teacheth man
knowledge, shall not he know? ”

Compare verse 9 , where we have similar questions.

Hos. 1:2 . —“Go, take thee a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms.”

The sense, as we see from verses 3 , 6 , and 8 , must be “and [ beget ] children,” etc.

Micah 7:3 . —“The prince asketh, and the judge asketh for a reward.”

Here the A.V. supplies the Ellipsis by repeating the previous verb. The R.V. supplies
it with the verb “ is ready ,” i.e. , “the judge is ready for a reward.”

But the verb is latent in the noun (“judge”) and is to be supplied from it, thus:—

“The prince asketh, and the judge judgeth for a reward.”

The subject of the former sentence must be supplied from the latter, and then the two
lines will read thus:—

“The prince asketh for [ a reward ],

And the judge [ judgeth ] for a reward.”

Rom. 12:6–8 . —“Having then gifts differing according to the grace given to us, whether
prophecy, let us prophesy according to the proportion of the faith [ given or dealt to us ,
verse 3 ].” The verbs must also be supplied in the following, exhortations:—“Or ministry,
[ let us be diligent ] in the ministry: or he that teacheth, [ let him be faithful ] in teaching;
or he who exhorteth, [ let him employ himself ] in exhortation: he Who distributeth, [ let
him distribute ] with simplicity; he who presideth, [ let him preside ] with care; he that
showeth mercy, [ let him show it ] with cheerfulness.”

In the A.V. and R.V. , some are supplied and some are not.

Rom. 13:7 . —“Render therefore to all their dues; tribute to whom tribute is due , etc.”

Here the verb to be due is latent in the noun dues .

1 Cor. 1:26 . —“For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after the
flesh, not many mighty, not many noble, are called .”
Here the thought or subject is the “calling”— the act of calling, i.e. , not the persons
who are called, but the persons who call. The following verses go on to explain the
manner in which God calls: viz., by choosing the weak and the base to confound the wise
and the mighty. So in like manner He had chosen weak instruments like Paul, Apollos
and Cephas to call the saints in Corinth, and to produce such wondrous results, in order
“that no flesh should glory in His presence.”

The Ellipsis would in this case be better supplied thus:—“Not many wise men after
the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble call you .”

2 Cor. 5:17 . —“Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature.”

Here the verb substantive is supplied twice, but the verb created must be supplied
from the noun “creature”:—“If any man be in Christ, [ he is created ] a new creature.”

Or else there is only one Ellipsis, and the sentence reads on, thus: “If any man be in
Christ a new creation, old things have passed away; behold, all things are become new.”

Eph. 3:16 .—“[ Praying ] that he would grant you,” from “bowing my knees” in verse 14

II. Where the omitted Word is to be supplied from a CONTRARY Word

Gen. 33:10 . —“And Jacob [ refused and ] said, etc.”

This word is latent in the contrary words which follow.

Gen. 33:15 . —“And Esau said, Let me now leave with thee some of the folk that are
with me. And he [ Jacob ] said, What needeth it? [ Thou shalt not leave any ],” etc.

Gen. 49:4 . —“Unstable as water, thou shalt not excel.”

R.V. marg. , “Bubbling over as water, thou shalt not have the excellency.”

The word rendered “unstable” is ( pachaz ), to bubble up and overflow, to flow

down like water. (So Sam. and Syr.). The Ellipsis is supplied from the contrary words,
“Flowing down like water [ it shall pass away ], thou shalt not have the excellency.”

This follows on verse 3 . “Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my might, and the beginning
of my strength, the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power, with rapidity, like
water, [ all this shall pass away ], thou shalt not have the excellency!”

And so it came to pass. See 1 Chron. 5:1 .

Judges 5:6 . —Here, because the Ellipsis has not been observed, liberties have been
taken in the translation. The Heb. is literally “In the days of Jael the high-ways ceased”
(as in verse 7 ).

The A.V. and R.V. both render, “The high-ways were unoccupied.” The R.V. tries to
preserve the correctness of translation by giving in the margin “ the caravans ceased .”

But the Ellipsis when supplied by the contrary words which follow makes all clear:—
“In the days of Jael, the highways ceased [ to be safe ], and the travellers walked through

Ps. 7:11 . —“God judgeth the righteous, and God is angry with the wicked every day.”

Ps. 65:8 . —“Thou makest the outgoings of the morning and of the evening to rejoice.”

This does not mean the outgoings of the evening as well as the morning. The contrary
word must be supplied, viz., “[ the incomings or return ] of the evening.”

Ps. 66:20 . —“Blessed be God, which hath not turned away my prayer, nor his mercy
from me.” This is not “my prayer from me,” but “my prayer [ from himself ].”

Ps. 84:10 . —“For a day in thy courts is better than a thousand [ elsewhere , or in any
other place ].”

Prov. 19:1 . —“Better is the poor that walketh in his integrity, than [ the rich, that is ]
perverse in his lips, and is a fool.”

Here the A.V. has supplied “ he that is .” It is necessary merely to define the person
as rich to complete the contrast which is clearly implied.

Prov. 24:17 , 18 . —“Rejoice not when thine enemy falleth, and let not thine heart be
glad when he stumbleth: lest the LORD see it , and it displease him, and he turn away his
wrath from him [ to thee ].”

Without the supply of this Ellipsis “ to thee ,” there is no sense in the words.

Prov. 28:16 . —“The prince that lacketh understanding [ and ] also a great oppressor [
shall cut off his days ], but he that hateth covetousness, shall prolong his days.”

Jer. 18:15 . —“My people hath forgotten me, they have burned incense to vanity, and
they have caused them to stumble in their ways [ so that they forsake ] the ancient paths,”

Dan. 3:15 . —Here the Ellipsis is so patent that it is supplied. “Now if ye be ready that at
what time ye hear the sound of the cornet, flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery, and dulcimer,
and all kinds of music, ye fall down and worship the image which I have made; [ well
and good ].” Compare Luke 13:9 .

Luke 13:9 . —“And if it bear fruit, well; and if not, then , after that thou shalt cut it

Here the omitted verb is suggested by the contrary verb that is given. Thus: “If it bear
fruit [ thou shalt leave it to stand , or shalt not cut it down ], and if not, after that, thou
shalt cut it down.”

See further under the figure of Aposiopesis .

Rom. 6:17 . —“But God be thanked, that ye were the servants of sin, but ye have
obeyed,” etc.

Here the word ( de ), but , in the latter clause implies and points us to the word
( men ) which is omitted in the former clause. The two go together in a sentence of this
character, and the employment of the one reveals the omission of the other. It should be
rendered:—“But God be thanked that [ although ] ye were the servants of sin, yet ye have
obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine which was delivered unto you.”

This is clearly the sense, for we are not to thank God that we were the servants of sin,
but that, though we were, we are so no longer. *

1 Cor. 7:19 . —“Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision is nothing, but the keeping
of the commandments of God [ is everything ],” i.e. , alone avails.

For the importance of this word ( men ), although , compare 1 Pet. 4:6 , where both
the A.V. and R.V. ignore it, though it is there in the Greek, thus translating the words:—
“For this cause was the gospel preached to them that are dead also, that they might be
judged according to men in the flesh, but live according to God in the spirit.” Surely, it
cannot be that the gospel was preached in order that men might be judged! And it is
unaccountable why the A.V. and R.V. should both altogether ignore the important word
( men ), although , and leave it untranslated!

They have both created an Ellipsis in the EngliSh, though there is none in the Greek,
( hina krith si men ), “in order that, though they might be
condemned according to the will of men a as to the flesh, yet they might live (
z si de ) according to the will of God, as to the spirit.” That is to say, the gospel was
preached to those who had since died, not “that they might be judged” thus, but “that
THOUGH they might be judged.” (See a pamphlet on The Spirits in Prison , by the same
author and publisher.)
2 Cor. 8:14 . —“But by an equality, that now at this time your abundance may be a
supply for their want, that [ at another time ] their abundance also may be a supply for
your want, that there may be equality.”

1 Tim. 4:3 . —“Forbidding to marry [ and commanding ] to abstain from meats.” (See
under Zeugma .)

III. Where the omitted Word is to be supplied from ANALOGOUS , or RELATED


Gen. 50:23 . —“The children also of Machir the son of Manasseh were brought up upon
Joseph’s knees.” Margin, borne . R.V. , born .

But the Ellipsis of relation is:—“[ and educated ] at Joseph’s knees.”

Exod. 13:15 . —“Therefore I sacrifice to the LORD all [ beasts ],” etc.

Lev. 21:4 . —“But he being a chief man [ a priest ] among his people, shall not defile
himself [ for his wife ] to profane himself.”

See verse 14 ; and Ezek. 24:16 , 17 .

Deut. 15:12 . —“And if thy brother, [ or thy sister ], an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew
woman, be sold unto thee,” etc.

Ps. 142:4 . —“I looked on my right hand, and beheld [ on my left hand ].”

Isa. 30:17 . —“One thousand shall flee at the rebuke of one; at the rebuke of five shall ye
[ all ] flee.”

Isa. 38:12 . —“I have cut off as a weaver my life,” i.e. , I have cut off my life as a weaver
[ his thread ].

Matt. 3:4 . —“And a leathern girdle [ was bound ] about his loins.” In John 7:39 , the
verb given is rightly supplied in the A.V. : “For the Holy Spirit was not yet given .”

Rom. 14:21 . —“ It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor any thing whereby
thy brother stumbleth,” i.e. , nor to do any thing whereby, etc.

The point is not merely abstaining from the use of anything that other people abuse,
but from that which is a cause of stumbling to the weak conscience of the brother in
Christ, who thought it wrong to eat or drink that which has been offered to an idol.

Rom. 16:16 . —“Salute one another with an holy kiss.”

( alleelous ) is masculine, and the undoubted and
overwhelming testimony of the Primitive Church, necessitate an Ellipsis ; which must
certainly be understood, if not actually supplied. It was, and is, contrary to all Eastern
usage for women (who were always covered, 1 Cor. 11:5 ) and men to kiss each other
indiscriminately. The Ellipsis understood is:—“Salute one another [ men and women
respectively ] with a holy kiss.”

The Apostolical Constitutions (Cent. III.) say:—“Let the men salute one another
(masc.), and the women one another (fem.), with a kiss.”

In this sense are to be understood also 1 Cor. 16:20 ; 2 Cor. 13:12 ; 1 Thess. 5:26 ; 1
Pet. 5:14 . *

IV. Where the omitted Word is contained in another Word, the One combining the two

This has been called METALEPSIS : but this is hardly correct; for Metalepsis ( q.v. ) is a
compound Metonomy , and a Metonomy has to do only with nouns . It has also been
called SYNTHETON , or SYNTHESIS (Latin, COMPOSITIO ), which signifies the placing of
two things together. (See under the Figure of Metonymy ). It has also a Latin name: “
CONCISA LOCUTIO ,” i.e. , a concise form of speech, or abbreviated expression.

It is also called CONSTRUCTIO PRÆGNANS , when the verb thus derives an additional

Gen. 12:15 . —“And the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house.”

Here the figure is translated, for ( laqach ) signifies to catch , or capture . ( Gen.
14:12 . Num. 21:25 . Deut. 3:14 ; 29:7 . 1 Sam. 19:14 , 20 . Isa. 52:5 . Jer. 48:46 ). And
here the two senses are combined (take, in the sense of catch , and take, in the sense of
lead ), to take possession of , and lead into, i.e. , “The woman was taken [ and brought ]
into Pharaoh’s house.”

See for a similar use, seized , or caught and led , or taken and brought , etc., Gen.
15:9 , 10 . Ex. 18:2 ; 25:2 ; 27:20 . Num. 19:2 . Est. 2:16 .

Gen. 43:33 . —“And the men marvelled one at another.” They did not marvel one at
another, but, marvelling at what Joseph did, they looked one at another. The two senses
are contained in the one verb, thus:—“And the men marvelled [ and looked ] one at

* For an exhaustive treatment of the whole subject, see a work, entitled Salute One
Another , by the Rev. Jas. Neil, M.A. Lond.: Simpkin and Marshall.
In verse 34 , the two senses are translated both in A.V. and R.V. , “and he took and
sent messes unto them from before him.” For this use of the verb ( nahsah ) to take ,
see also Ex. 18:12 ; 25:2 ; 28:20 , etc.

Ex. 23:18 , and 34:25 . —Here the Hebrew ( zavach ) to sacrifice , or slay , is not
literally translated, but the two senses, slay and pour out (the blood) are combined in the
one word “offer.”

The Heb. ( al ) is also in consequence translated with , instead of upon . The result
is that there is no sense in the translation. The filling up of the Ellipsis preserves the
literal signification of the other words as well as the sense of the verse, thus:—“Thou
shalt not slay [ and pour out ] the blood of my sacrifice upon leavened bread.”

Lev. 17:3 . —“What man soever there be of the house of Israel that killeth an ox, or
lamb, or goat, in the camp, or that killeth it out of the camp, and bringeth it not unto the
door of the tabernacle of the congregation . . blood shall be imputed unto that man . . that
man shall be cut off from among his people.”

This appears to be quite at variance with Deut. 12:15 , 21 , which expressly declares,
“Thou mayest kill and eat flesh in all thy gates, whatsoever thy soul lusteth after.”

The difficulty is at once removed by supplying the second sense which is included in
the same word, “that killeth [ in sacrifice ].”

Num. 25:1 . —Here, through not seeing the Ellipsis , ( el ) which means to , is
translated with .

“And the people began to commit whoredom with the daughters of Moab,” i.e. , they
“began to commit whoredom [ and to join themselves ] to the daughters of Moab.”

Josh. 8:29 . —“Joshua commanded that they should raise thereon a great heap of stones
that remaineth unto this day.”

Here, as well as in 10:27 , the Ellipsis is supplied.

2 Chron. 32:1 . —“And thought to win them for himself.”—

Here ( l’vikam eylayo ) means (as given in the margin) to break them up
, but this being “for himself,” conveyed no sense; so the translation of the verb, which
means “ break up ,” was modified to “ win ,” in order to agree with the preposition “ for
.” But the correct supply of the Ellipsis makes the meaning clear, and enables us to retain
the literal sense of the verb:—He “encamped against the fenced cities, and thought to
break them up [ and annex them ] to himself,” or “thought to rend them [ from the
kingdom of Judah, and annex them ] to himself.”
Ezra 2:62 . —Here the figure is translated. The Heb., as given in the margin, reads
literally, “Therefore they were polluted from the priesthood.” This is translated,
“Therefore were they, as polluted, put from the priesthood.” But a more correct
translation of the figure would be: “Therefore they were polluted [ and put ] from the

Ps. 21:12 . —We have already noted the Ellipsis of the accusative in this verse, “ thine
arrows .” Now we have the Ellipsis , in the same verse, of the second signification of the
verb:—“When thou shalt make ready thine arrows upon thy bowstrings [ and shoot them
] against their face.”

Ps. 22:21 . —“Thou hast heard me [ and delivered me ], from the horns of the unicorns.”

So Ps. 118:5 , where the Ellipsis is correctly supplied. See also Heb. verse 7 , below.

Ps. 55:18 . —“He hath delivered my soul in peace.” R.V. : “He hath redeemed my soul in

The sense is obtained by supplying the Ellipsis —“He hath redeemed my soul [ and
set it ] in peace.”

Ps. 63:8 . —“My soul followeth hard after thee.”

Here to get the sense, the Heb. ( dahvqah ), which means to cleave, to stick
(see Gen. 2:24 . Deut. 28:60 . Ps. 119:31 . Lam. 4:4 ), is translated followeth hard , in
order to combine it with ( achareyach ) after thee . “My soul followeth hard after
thee.” The supply of the Ellipsis makes the sense clear and retains the literal meaning of
the words, thus:—“My soul cleaveth to [ and followeth ] after thee.”

Ps. 66:14 . —The Heb. is:—“Which my lips have opened.” See margin. The A.V.
translates freely, “Which my lips have uttered.” But the sense is:—“Which ( vows ) my
lips have opened [ and vowed ].”

Ps. 68:18 . —“Thou hast received gifts for men.” The Heb. is:—“Thou hast received gifts
among men,” i.e. , “Thou hast received [ and given ] gifts among men”; compare Eph.
4:8 .

Ps. 73:27 . —“Thou hast destroyed all them that go a whoring from thee.”

To make sense we must read:—“Thou hast destroyed all them that go a whoring, [
departing ] from thee,” i.e. , “Thou hast destroyed all them that practise idolatry,
departing from thee.”

Ps. 89:39 . —Here the Ellipsis is supplied. “Thou hast profaned his crown [ by Casting it
] to the ground.”
Ps. 104:22 . —“The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, and lay them down in
their dens.” The Heb. is:—“And unto their dens ( ) they lie down,” i.e. ,
“The sun ariseth, they gather themselves together, [ depart, and ] lay themselves down in
their dens.”

Prov. 25:22 . —The Heb. reads:—“For coals of fire thou shalt receive upon his head,”
i.e. , “for coals of fire thou Shalt receive [ and place ] upon his head.”

The verb ( chathah ) means to take hold of, to seize , spoken once of a person,
Isa. 52:5 ( 7 ), and elsewhere always of taking up fire or burning coals. See Isa. 30:14 .
Prov. 6:27 . I.e. , the coals of fire which thine enemy casts at thee, thou shalt take them
and put them upon his head: he will thus get what he intended for thee.

The “burning coals” are put by Metonymy ( q.v. ) for cruel words and hard speeches
(see Prov. 16:27 ; 26:23 ).

Ps. 140:9 , 10 . But if thou doest good to him who uses cruel words of you, that will
burn him as coals of fire.

Matt. 4:5 . —“Then the Devil taketh him up into the holy city.” (
paralamban ) means to take and bring with one’s self, to join one’s self . There is no
equivalent for “up.” The double sense of the verse must be supplied in the Ellipsis: —
“Then the Devil taketh him with himself [ and leadeth ] him,” etc. So verse 8 and 27:27 .
The sense is sometimes completed by a second verb, Matt. 2:13 , 20 . John 19:16 . Acts
23:18 .

Matt. 5:23 . —“Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and there rememberest that
thy brother hath ought against thee”; i.e. , “if thou bring thy gift [ even thy sacrifice ] to
the altar.” An offering was the only gift that could be brought to an altar. In Lev. 2:1 , 2 ,
the Septuagint translates, “If a soul bring a gift, a sacrifice, to the LORD , his gift shall
be,” etc., and thus supplies the explanatory words. To apply these words to the placing
money on the Lord’s Table is a perverse use of language.

Luke 4:1 , 2 . —“And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was
led by the Spirit into the wilderness, being forty days tempted of the devil.”

The A.V. connects the forty days with the temptation: but we learn from Matt. 4:3
that it was not till after the forty days that the tempter came to Him, when He was hungry.
The words are elliptical, and are a concisa locutio , i.e. , an abbreviated expression, in
order that our thought may dwell on the fact of the leading , rather than on the fact of His
being there.

The Greek is:—“He was being led by the Spirit into the wilderness, [ and was in the
wilderness ] forty days.”
Luke 4:38 . —“And he arose out of the synagogue,” i.e. , “And rising up [ he departed ]
out * of the synagogue, and entered into the house of Simon.” By this figure our attention
is directed to the fact which is important, viz., His rising up, and thus preventing any
comment on the miracle; rather than to the mere act of going out of the synagogue.

Luke 18:14 . —“I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the

The Greek reads, “This man went down to his house justified than the other,” but the
A.V. correctly supplies the disjunction ee ), when
following a positive assertion. The thought lies in the Heb. use of the word ( min ), Ps.
118:8 , 9 : “ It is better to trust in the LORD than [ i.e., and not ] to put confidence in man.
It is better to trust in the LORD than [ i.e., and not ] to put confidence in princes.” So
Jonah 4:3 . “Now, O Lord, take, I beseech thee, my life from me; for it is better for me to
die than [ i.e., and not ] to live.”

So in the N.T., Heb. 11:25 : “Choosing rather to suffer affliction with the People of
God, than [ i.e., and not ] to enjoy the pleasures of sin for a season.”

So here the doctrine is that the Publican was justified and not the Pharisee. Not that
the Pharisee was justified a little, and the Publican was justified a little more! The parable
is wholly concerning justification (verse 9 ), and not a parable about the nature of prayer.
The manner of the prayer is merely the vehicle for the illustration of the truth. *

Luke 19:44 . ( edaphizein )

signifies both to level to the ground , and to dash to the ground . In this last sense it
occurs in Ps. 137:9 . Hos. 10:14 ; LXX.

Luke 20:9 . —“A certain man planted a vineyard, and let it forth to husbandmen, and
went into a far country for a long time,” i.e. , “he went into a far country, [ and remained
there ] a long time”; or, we may supply, “ and was absent for a long time.”

Luke 21:38 . —“And all the people came early in the morning to him in the temple, for
to hear him.”

from , supported by the Critical Texts of Tischendorf,

Tregelles, Alford, and Westcott and Hort. It was altered later by some copyist who did
not see the force of the figure, so as to make it agree better with the single verb
* Ignorance of the doctrine of justification, it may have been, or oversight as to the point
of the parable, that gave rise to the difficulties presented by the Text, which was altered
and glossed in various ways in order to
, the MSS , with T.Tr. marg. ( i.e. , “This man
went down to his house justified … or was it then the other, &c.”). The MSS. BL have
, with L.Tr.WH.Alf. ( i.e. , passing over the other).
LXX. The Septuagint Version (325 B.C. ).
( orthriz ) does not mean to come early, but to rise up early , and the
sense is:—“And all the people rising early in the morning, [ came ] to him in the temple.”

John 1:23 . —“He said, I am the voice of one crying in the wilderness,” etc.: i.e. , “I [ am
he of whom it is written ] the voice of one crying in the wilderness.”

John 6:21 . —“Then they willingly received him into the ship.” Here the figure is hidden
by a free translation. The Greek is:—“They were willing, then, to receive him into the
ship, [ and they did receive him ].”

Acts 7:9 . —“And the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph into Egypt,” i.e. , “And
the patriarchs, moved with envy, sold Joseph [ and sent him away ] into Egypt.

( apodid mi ) does not mean merely to sell , but to put away by giving
over , whether for money or for any other return.

Acts 20:30 . —“Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to
draw away disciples after them,” i.e. , “speaking perverse things [ and seeking ] to draw

Acts 23:24 . —“And provide them beasts, that they may set Paul on, and bring him safe
unto Felix the governor.” The Greek is, lit.,:—“ ( dias z ) to save through , ”
i.e. , “and keep him in safety [ and bring him ] unto Felix.”

Here, by the omission of the verb to bring , which is required by the preposition, our
attention is called to the fact which is of greater importance, viz. , the preservation of Paul
from his enemies.

Gal. 5:4 . —“Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by
the law; ye are fallen from grace.”

The Greek is:— kateergeetheete apo tou Christou

); and the R.V. translates it:—“Ye are severed from Christ,” and puts in the margin,
Greek “ brought to nought .” But we may take the Greek literally, if we put the margin in
the Text and supply the Ellipsis correctly:—

“Ye are made void [ and cut off ] from Christ.”

Eph. 4:8 . —“When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive and, [ receiving ]
gifts, gave them to men.” See Ps. 68:18 above.

2 Tim. 1:10 . —“And hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel.”

Here, following the order of the Greek, we may read:—“And brought to light, [ and
procured for us ] life and immortality through the gospel.” By the Figure of Hendiadys (
q.v. ), that which is procured is immortal life, showing us that the emphasis is on the
word “ immortal .”

2 Tim. 2:26 . —“And that they may recover themselves out of the snare of the devil, who
are taken captive by him at his will.”

Here both the figure and the sense are lost by defective translation. The margin tells
us that the words “ recover themselves ” are used to render the Greek “ awake ,” i.e. ,
“lest they may awake [ and be delivered ] out of the snare of the devil.”

The structure of this Scripture makes the whole passage clear:—

Subversion .
A 14 . The aim of the enemy “Subversion” (

B ).

C 16 . Exhortation. “Shun.”

D 17 , 18 –. Illustration. “Canker.”

E – 18 . Effect on others. “Overthrown.”

E 19 . Effect on Foundation. “Standeth sure.”

D 20 , 21 . Illustration. “Vessels.”

C 22 , 23 . Exhortation. “Flee . . Avoid.”

B 24 , 25 –. The Servant ( ).

A ).

Then by expanding this last member A , we see the meaning of verses – 25 , 26 :—

A. The aim of the enemy .

A a – 25 –. “Lest God should give them repentance”

b – 25 . “Unto ( ) the knowledge of the truth,”

a 26 –. “And lest, being taken alive by him, [ by God , as in “a”] they may
awake [ and be delivered ] from the devil’s snare”

b – 26 . “Unto ( ) his [ God’s ] will ( i.e. , to do the will of God ).”

Here in “a” and “ a ” we have the action of God in delivering, while in “b” and “ b ”
we have the object for which the captive is delivered.

2 Tim. 4:18 . —“And the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work, and will preserve
me unto his heavenly kingdom:” i.e. , “preserve me , [ and bring me ].” Thus fixing our
thought rather on the wondrous preservation than on the act of bringing .

Heb. 5:3 . —“And by reason hereof he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to
offer [ sacrifices ] for sins.”

Heb. 5:7 . —“And was heard [ and delivered ( apo

tees eulabeias ). (Only here and Heb. 12:28 ). See Ps. 22:21 , above.

Heb. 9:16 , 17 . —“For where a testament is , there must also of necessity be the death of
the testator. For a testament is of force after men are dead: otherwise it is of no strength at
all whilst the testator liveth.”

It is clear that it is a “covenant” to which these words refer, and not a testamentary
document. The reference to the “first” covenant at Sinai mentioned in the verses which
immediately follow, decides this for us. See Ex. 24:5–8 .

And the mention also of the sprinkling of the blood shows that sacrifices are referred

The word translated “testator” is the participle:— ( diathemenos ), and

means appointed . * Its use shows that the sacrifice by which the covenant was made is
really contained in the word.

And the word ( diatheekee ) everywhere means covenant .

So that, in accordance with these Scriptures and facts, we may translate verses 16–18
, as follows:—

“For where a covenant is , there must also of necessity be the death of him (or that)
which makes [ the sacrifice ]. For a covenant is of force over * dead [ victims or
sacrifices ]; otherwise it is never held to be of force while he who is the appointed [

* Participle of ( diatitheemi ), to appoint (see Luke 22:29 ). “And I appoint

unto you a kingdom, as my Father hath appointed unto me.” Acts 3:25 : “The covenant
which God made with our fathers.” Heb. 8:10 : “This is the covenant which I will make
with the house of Israel after those days, saith the Lord.” So also Heb. 10:16 . These are
the only places where the verb occurs, except this passage.
means over , as marking the ground or foundation of the action. See Matt. 24:47 .
Luke 12:44 ; 15:7 ( 7 ), 10 ; 19:41 ; 23:38 . Acts 8:2 . 1 Thess. 3:7 . Rev. 11:10 ; 18:11 . It
is translated, “upon” and “on,” etc., many times; but “after” only here and Luke 1:59 .
sacrifice ] is alive. Where-upon neither the first [ covenant ] was dedicated without
blood,” etc.

Heb. 10:23 . —“Having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience,” i.e. , “Having our
hearts sprinkled [ and so being delivered ] from an evil conscience.”

1 Pet. 3:20 . —“Were saved by water,” i.e. , “Were preserved [ and delivered ] by

Rev. 13:3 . —“And all the world wonde ( opis ) is an adverb

of place or time, and means back, behind, after (see Rev. 1:10 ; 12:15 ). It cannot,
therefore, be taken in connection simply With wondered. But the following is the

“And all the world wondered [ and followed ] after the beast.”

Rev. 20:2 . —“And bound him a thousand years,” i.e. , “And bound him [ and kept him
bound ] a thousand years.”


Where the omitted word or words is, or are to be supplied out of the preceding or
following clause, in order to complete the sense.

This Ellipsis is either simple or complex.

Simple , when anything is to be repeated separately, either out of what precedes or


Complex , when two things are to be repeated; one out of a preceding clause into the
following clause; and at the same time another out of the following into the preceding

I. Simple

1. Where the Omission is to be supplied by REPEATING a word or words out of the



Ex. 12:4 . —“Let him and his neighbour next unto his house take it,” i.e., the lamb from
verse 3 .

1 Kings 1:6 . —“And [ Haggith ] bare him after Absalom.”

2 Kings 3:25 . —“Only in Kir-haraseth left they the stones thereof.”

The Heb. reads (see margin):—“Until he left the stones thereof in Kir-haraseth.”

The Ellipsis is to be supplied from verse 24 . “Until in Kir-haraseth [ only ] they left
the stones thereof [ to the Moabites ].”

Ps. 12:6 , ( 7 ). —“The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of
earth, purified seven times.”

Here there is an important Ellipsis . It has been a great difficulty with many to think
that the LORD’S words should require purifying, especially after the declaration in the
first part of the verse, that they are “pure.” What increases the difficulty is the fact that
the word for earth is ( eretz ), the earth: i.e. , the dry land or the world as created, as
in Gen. 1:1 : “In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth” ( , eretz ). It is
generally taken as though it were used of a crucible made of earth or clay; but in this case
it would be ( adamah ), ground, soil, clay; and not eretz , the whole earth;
Moreover, the Lamed prefixed ( ) means to or pertaining to . It is the sign of the dative
case and not of the genitive. The Revisers note this and render it:—“As silver tried in a
furnace on the earth,” as though it was important for us to note that it is not in or under
the earth! But this does not touch the real difficulty. This is removed only by correctly
supplying the Ellipsis , and repeating the noun “words” from the beginning of the verse.

Then, all is clear, and we not only may, but must then take the rest of the words in
their literal sense. Thus:—“The words of the LORD are pure words, as silver tried in a
furnace; [ words ] of the earth: (or pertaining to the earth), purified seven times.”

That is to say the words in which Jehovah has been pleased to make His revelation,
are not the words of angels ( 1 Cor. 13:1 ), nor the “unspeakable words of Paradise” ( 2
Cor. 12:4 ), but they were words pertaining to man in this world—human words—but
refined and purified as Silver. Hence, in taking human language, there are many words
which the Holy Spirit has not chosen, and which cannot be found in the Scriptures:

Some are exalted to an altogether higher meaning as

( aretee ), as man had used it, meant merrily excellence of any kind,
manhood, nobility, valour, prowess . But, in the Scriptures, it is used in the
higher sense of glory ( Hab. 3:3 ), praise ( Isa. 42:8 , 12 ; 43:21 ; 53:7 ). And
so in the New Testament, Phil. 4:8 ; 1 Pet. 2:9 ; 2 Pet. 1:3 , 5 .

( eethos ) was only the haunt of an animal, but it became custom, morals,
character .

Some are used in a totally different sense from that in which they had ever been used
( choreeg ) was simply to furnish or lead a chorus , but it was changed
to furnish or supply . 1 Pet. 4:11 : “My God shall supply all your need.”

( euangelion ) was merely the dispatch containing the news, but it was
used in the new sense of the gospel of God.

( ekkleesia ) was used by the Greeks of any assembly , but especially of

citizens, or as we should say of a selection from them, “burgesses.” The word
means an assembly of those called out, an elect assembly .

Hence it is used in the Septuagint of Israel as called out from and as being an
election from the nations.

Then, it was used of the congregation worshipping at the Tabernacle as

distinguished from the rest of the people.

In this sense it is used in the Old Testament, the Gospels, and partly in the
Acts. But in the Pauline Epistles the Holy Spirit uses the word and exalts it to a
far higher meaning; viz. , of the special election from both Jews and Gentiles,
forming them as members of Christ’s Mystical Body into a new ecclesia or
assembly. This is a sense in which it had never before been used. *

( s teeria ) was merely preservation or deliverance from danger, but in

the Scriptures it is “the salvation of God.”

( paracleetos ) was merely the legal assistant or helper . In the New

Testament there is one Paracleetos within us that we may not Sin ( John 14:16
, 26 ; 15:26 ; 16:7 ); and another Paracleetos with the Father if we do sin ( 1
John 2:1 ).

( skandalon ) was used only of the trigger of a trap to catch animals;

but in the New Testament it is used in a new and moral sense, of that which
causes any one to be caught or made to trip.

Other words were coined by the Holy Spirit Himself, and cannot be found in any
human writings.

( skandaliz ) is a new word altogether. It is never used in Classical

Greek, it means to cause to stumble or fall, to give cause of offence .

( epiousios ) is a word used only by our Lord ( Matt. 6:11 and Luke
11:3 ) in the Lord’s Prayer, where it is rendered “daily.”

* See The Mystery , by the same author and publisher.

Hence the difficulty in interpreting it, as there is no usage to help us. It is a
question, therefore, of etym epi ), upon ,
prefixed to the participle of a verb. But what verb? It cannot be the participle of
the verb ( eimi ), to be , for its participle is ( ousa ), and the
combination of . It must be ( eimi ), to
go or come ( iousa
, as used by our Lord. The word means, therefore,
coming upon or going upon , and would refer either to bread for our going or
journeying upon , or to the bread coming or descending upon us from heaven, as
the manna descended and came down upon Israel ( John 6:32 , 33 ).

Hence it combines the two ideas of heavenly and daily , inasmuch as the
manna not only came down from heaven, but did so every day, and on the
strength of this they journeyed. It is a word therefore of great fulness of meaning.

That the Ellipsis exists in Psalm 12:6 (which verse we are considering), and may be
thus supplied, is shown further from the structure of the Psalm:—
A 1 . Decrease of good.

B a 2 . Man’s words (Falsehood).

b 3 , 4 . Their end: “cut off.”

C 5 –. Oppression.

D – 5 –. Sighing.

D – 5 –. I will arise (for sighing).

C – 5 . I will deliver (from oppression).

B a 6 . Jehovah’s words (Truth).

b 7 . Their end: (preserved).

A 8 . Increase of bad.

Here in B , Jehovah’s words are placed in contrast with man’s words in B: in a and a ,
their character respectively: and in b and b their end .

Finally, we may expand a (verse 6 ) as follows:—

a c The words of Jehovah are pure words.

d As silver tried in a furnace:

c [ Words ] pertaining to the earth.

d Purified seven times.

Here in c and c we have “words,” and in d and d we have the purifying of the silver.

Ps. 68:18 . —“Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast
received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD God might dwell among
them , ” i.e. , among or with those rebels who have been taken captives.

Ecc. 12:11 . —“The words of the wise are as goads, and as nails fastened by the masters
of assemblies, which are given from one shepherd.”

Here, instead of repeating “the words” from the first clause, the A.V. inserts the word
“ by ,” thus producing incoherence in the passage. The structure shows us at once how the
Ellipsis should be filled up.
a The words of the wise

b are as goads,

b and as tent-pegs well fixed,

a are [ the words ] of the masters of the assemblies.

Here, in a and a , we have “ words ,” and in b and b , what they are compared to.

In “a” we have the words of those which act like goads, inciting to action, or probing
the conscience; while in a we have the words of those who are the leaders of assemblies,
propounding firmly established principles and settled teaching. “ Both of these (not “
which ”) are given by the same shepherd.”

That is, as a chief shepherd gives to one servant a goad for his use, and to another a
stake, or “tent-peg,” to fix firmly in the ground, so the God of all wisdom, by the Chief
Shepherd in glory, gives to His servants “words,” different in their tendency and action,
but conducing to the same end, showing the one source from which the various gifts are
received. He gives to some of His under-shepherds “words” which act as goads; while He
gives to others “words” which “stablish, strengthen and settle.”

Isa. 40:13 . —“Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD , or being his counsellor hath
taught him?”

Here the Ellipsis is arbitrarily supplied by the word “ being ,” which necessitates a
departure from the Heb., which is given in the margin, “ made him understand .”

The Ellipsis is correctly supplied thus:—“Who hath directed the Spirit of the LORD ;
or [ who ] as His counsellor hath made him to understand?”
Amos 3:12 . —“As the shepherd taketh out of the mouth of the lion two legs, or a piece
of an ear; so shall the children of Israel be taken out that dwell in Samaria in the corner of
a bed, and in Damascus in a couch,” i.e. , “and [ in the corner of ] a couch.”

Mal. 2:14 . —“Yet ye say, Wherefore?” i.e. , from verse 13 , wherefore [ does He not
regard our offering , etc.]?

Acts 7:15 , 16 . —“So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he, and our fathers, and
were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought for a sum
of money of the sons of Emmor the father of Sychem.”

Here the article tou ), of the , rendered “ the father ( en ), in ,

according to Tischendorf, Tregelles, Westcott and Hort, and the R.V.

There must have been three purchases altogether, of which two are recorded in
Genesis, and one in Acts 7

(1) According to Acts 7:16 , Abraham bought a sepulchre from the sons of Hamor.

There is no record of this purchase in Genesis. But Stephen, “full of the Holy Ghost,”
supplies the information. It was purchased of Hamor, the son of Shechem, for “a sum of
money.” Shechem was the place where God first appeared to Abraham in Canaan ( Gen.
12:6 ), and where he first built an altar (verse 7 ). Here it was that (according to Acts 7:16
) he bought “a sepulchre.”

The original Shechem must have been an important person to have given his name to
a place; and it was of his son that Abraham bought it.

(2) According to Gen. 23 , Abraham purchased a field with trees in it and round it;
and a cave called Machpelah at the end of it. It was situated at Hebron (Mamre), and was
purchased of Ephron the Hittite, the son of Zohar, for 400 shekels of silver. Here
Abraham buried Sarah, and here he himself was buried. Here also were buried Isaac,
Rebekah and Jacob ( Gen. 49:29–32 ; 50:13 ).

(3) Jacob’s purchase in Gen. 33:19 , was years afterward, of another Hamor, another
descendant of the former Shechem. What Jacob bought was “a parcel of a field,” of
Hamor, a Hivite, perhaps the very field which surrounded the “sepulchre” which
Abraham had before bought of an ancestor of this Hamor. Jacob gave 100 pieces of
money (or lambs , margin) for it. Here Joseph was buried ( Josh. 24:32 ), and here
Jacob’s sons were “carried over,” or transferred , as Joseph was.

Now Acts 7:15 speaks of two parties, as well as of three purchases:—“he” ( i.e. ,
Jacob), and “our fathers.” In verse 16 the verb is plural and must necessarily refer not to
“he” (Jacob), who was buried in Machpelah, but to “our fathers.” They were carried over
and laid in the sepulchre that Abraham bought, not of “Ephron the Hittite” ( Gen. 23 ),
but of Hamor the Hivite.
In the abbreviated rehearsal of facts well known to all to whom Stephen spoke, and
who would gladly have caught at the least slip, if he had made one, Stephen condensed
the history, and presented it elliptically thus:—

“So Jacob went down into Egypt, and died, he and our fathers, and [ our fathers ]
were carried over into Sychem, and laid in the sepulchre:—[ he, i.e., Jacob ] in that
ho * ) Abraham bought for a sum of money, [ and they in that which was
bought ] from the sons of Hamor in Sychem.”

It is probable that the rest of the “fathers” who died in Egypt were gathered to both of
these burial places, for Josephus says ( Ant. lib. 2.4 ) that they were buried at Hebron;
while Jerome ( Ep. ad Pammach .) declares that in his day their sepulchres were at
Shechem, and were visited by strangers.

Rom. 6:5 . —“For if we have been planted together in the likeness of his death, we shall
be also in the likeness of his resurrection.” Here it is, “We shall be raised [ in the likeness
] of his resurrection also.” (See above, pages 18 , 19 ).

Rom. 12:11 . —“Not slothful in business.” Lit., “not slothful in earnest care [ i.e. ,
earnest care for others (from verse 10 ).”

1 Cor. 2:11 . —“For what man knoweth the things of a man?” i.e. , the [ deep ] things (or
depths ), from verse 10 —the secret thoughts and purposes of the spirit of man. “So the [
deep ] things (or depths ) of God, knoweth no man but the Spirit of God.”

1 Cor. 2:13 . —“Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom
teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual:”

Here we have, first, to repeat in the second clause the expression “in the words” from
the first clause:—“Not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but [ in the words ]
which the Holy Ghost teacheth.” This prepares the way for the supply of the important
Ellipses of the last sentence. The two adjectives “spiritual” (one neuter accusative plural
and the other masculine dative plural) must have nouns which they respectively qualify,
and the question is, What are these nouns to be? The A.V. suggests “things” (which ought
to have been in italics). The R.V. suggests, in the margin, two different nouns:—“
interpreting spiritual things to spiritual men.” Much depends on the meaning of the verb
( sunkrin ) which occurs only here, and in 2 Cor. 10:12 , in the New
Testament. Its etymological meaning is clear, being a compound of ( krin ), to
separate or sift (hence, to judge ) and ( sun ), together with , so that it means literally
to separate or take to pieces and then to put together . When we do this with things , we
compare them by judging them, or we judge them by comparing them; hence, (
sunkrino ), is translated “ compare ” in 2 Cor. 10:12 , and is used of the foolishness of
those who “measuring themselves by themselves, and comparing themselves among

* Griesbach, Lachmann, Tischendorf, Tregelles, Alford, Wordsworth, Westcott and Hort,

h ) in that which ho ) which .
themselves, are not wise” (margin, “understand it not”). Here the force of the idea of
judging is clearly seen. So also the verb is used in Wisdom 7:29 , where wisdom “being
compared with the light is found before it.” In Wisdom 15:18 :—“They worshipped those
beasts also that are most hateful: for being compared together, some are worse than

In 1 Macc. 10:71 , the idea of judging is very clear, being translated “ try .”
Apollonius says to Jonathan, “Now therefore, if thou trustest in thine own strength, come
down to us into the plain field, and there let us try the matter together;” i.e. , let us judge
or determine the matter together.

In Gen. 40:8 , 16 , 22 ; 41:12 , 15 , it is used for ( pahthar ), to open , hence, to

interpret; and in Dan. 5:13 , 17 for the Chald. ( p’shar ), to explain, interpret; also
in Num. 15:34 for ( pahrash ), to separate or divide , hence (in Pual), to declare
distinctly . *

“And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to
him” ( i.e. , to the man who had gathered sticks on the Sabbath).

Hence, for these are all the occurrences of the verb ( sunkrin ), the general
meaning of the verb is to communicate distinctly so as to expound or interpret or make
anything clear and plain: i.e., to separate or take anything to pieces and put it together
again so as to make its nature or construction known . This meaning— to make known or
declare —thus seems to combine all the various ideas included in the verb. For we cannot
become known to ourselves by measuring ourselves with others ( 2 Cor. 10:12 ). Hence
the dreams were interpreted or made known ( Gen. 40:8 , etc.), and it was not made
known what was to be done to the Sabbath-breaker ( Num. 15:34 ). This meaning, too,
agrees with 1 Cor. 2:13 , where it is used in connection with persons .

Some propose to supply the Ellipsis with the word “words” from the former part of
the verse. But though it is true, in fact, that the apostle declared spiritual things with
spiritual words, it is not in harmony with what is said in the larger context here.

In verse 1 he explains that when he came to them he could not declare unto them “the
mystery of God.” For so the words must be read, as in the R.V. , and all the critical Greek
Texts. *

He was obliged to confine his teaching to truths connected with “Christ crucified,”
and could not go on to those glorious truths connected with Christ risen (as in Eph. and
Col.) Howbeit (he adds) we do “teach wisdom among them that are initiated” (verse 5 ),
even the mystery (verse 6 ) which had been hidden, but which God had now revealed
(verse 10 ) to him and to the Church through him: viz. , the hitherto profound and

* See also Neh. 8:8 , “distinctly,” and Ezra 4:18 , “plainly.”

* ( musteerion ), mystery , and not ( marturion ), testimony .
absolute secret of the Body of Christ, consisting of Christ the glorious Head in heaven,
and His people the members of that body here upon earth; Jews and Gentiles forming
“one new man” in Christ.

But these Corinthians (when he went to them) were all taken up with their own
“Bodies.” One said, “I am of Paul”; and another, “I am of Apollos.” How, then, could
they be prepared to hear, and be initiated into, the wondrous secret concerning the One

No! These “spiritual things ” could be declared and made known only (verse 13 ) to
“spiritual persons , ” and the apostle says ( 3:1–6 ): “I could not speak unto you as unto
spiritual, but as unto carnal.”

This, then, is evidently the scope of the whole context, and it shows us that to receive
these “spiritual things” we must be “spiritual persons”: members of the One Body of
Christ, rather than of one of the many “bodies” of men. Then we shall be prepared to
learn the “deep things of God,” which Were afterwards taught to these Corinthian saints
by epistle in 1 Cor. 12 †

1 Cor. 4:4 . —“For I know nothing by myself, yet am I not hereby justified.”

I.e. , “For I am not conscious to myself of any [ unfaithful , from verse 2 ] thing, yet I
am not justified by this; but he that judgeth me is the Lord,” and He is able to bring all
such hidden and secret things to light. The R.V. has “against myself.”

2 Cor. 3:16 . —“Nevertheless when [ their heart , from verse 15 ] shall turn to the Lord,
the veil shall be taken away [ from it ]”: i.e. , “is taken away” ( R.V. ), for it is the present
tense, and is very emphatic because it explains why their heart shall turn to the Lord! We
might almost read it “When the veil is taken away from [ their heart ], it shall turn to the
Lord.” See Mal. 4:6 .

2 Cor. 6:16 . —“And what agreement hath the temple of God with [ the temple of ]

2 Cor. 11:14 , 15 . —“And no marvel; for Satan himself transformeth himself into an
angel of light. Therefore it is no great [ marvel ] if his ministers also transform
themselves as ministers of righteousness; whose end shall be according to their works:”
whatever may be their present appearance or “reward.”

This is the most dangerous of all Satan’s “devices.” (1) He goes about as “a roaring
lion” ( 1 Pet. 5:8 ), and we know that we must flee from him. (2) He beguiles through his
subtilty, as “the old serpent” ( 2 Cor. 11:3 ), and there is great fear, lest we be
“corrupted.” But (3), most dangerous of all, he transforms himself into “an angel of

† See further on this subject in a pamphlet on The Mystery , by the same author and
light.” Here it is that God’s servants are deceived and “join affinity” with Ahabs and
Jezebels to “do (so-called) good”!

Eph. 3:17–19 . —“That Christ may dwell in your hearts by faith; that ye being rooted
and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth and
length and depth and height; and to know the love of Christ, which passeth knowledge,
that ye might be filled with all the fulness of God.”

We following the R.V. rendering and supplying the Ellipsis from the preceding

“That Christ may dwell in your hearts ) ye, being

rooted and grounded in love, may be strong to apprehend with all the saints what the
breadth and length and height and depth [ of love is ] even ( ) to know the love of
Christ which passeth knowledge,” etc.

We are to be rooted as a tree, in love; we are to be founded as a building in love; but

we can never know what it is in all its length and breadth and height and depth until we
know Christ’s love for us, for that surpasses all knowledge.

Bengel beautifully explains the four terms: the “length” extending through all ages
from everlasting to everlasting; the “breadth” extending to people from all nations; the
“height” to which no man can reach or attain, and from which no creature can pluck us;
its “depth,” so deep that it cannot be fathomed or exhausted. (see on this verse above,
page 18 .)

1 Tim. 1:16 . —“Howbeit, for this cause I obtained mercy that in me first Jesus Christ
might show forth all long suffering, for a pattern to them which should hereafter believe
on him to life everlasting.”

Here ( pr tos ), translated “first,” is the same word which is translated

“chief” in the preceding verse. If We retain this rendering, we may also supply the
Ellipsis from the same context, thus:—“That in me the chief [ of sinners ], Jesus Christ
might show forth all long suffering.”

The R.V. renders “that in me as chief,” etc.

Heb. 2:11 . —“For both he that sanctifieth and they who are sanctified are all [ sons ] of
one [ father ]: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brethren.”

Heb. 7:4 . —“Now consider how great this man was , unto whom even the patriarch
Abraham gave the tenth of the spoils.”

There is here no word for “man” in the Greek, and we may better supply the word
“priest” from verse 3 . “Now consider how great this [ priest ] was.”
Titus 3:8 . —“ This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm
constantly.” The Greek reads, as in the R.V. , “concerning these.” The A.V. and R.V.
supply “ things .” But we may repeat the word “heirs” from the preceding verse:—“That
being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
This is a faithful saying, and concerning these [ heirs ] I will that thou affirm constantly (
R.V. , confidently), that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain
good works.”

1 John 2:2 . —“He is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the
sins of the whole world.”

The words here are correctly repeated from the preceding clause. The contrast is
between “ours” and “the world.” A very emphatic word is here used for “ours,” not the
( heem n ) “our,” which is used in the first
clause, but a special possessive ( heemeteros
), our own . It is used of that which is peculiarly ours as distinct from that which belongs
to others, e.g.: —

Acts 2:11 . We do hear them speak in our tongues.

Acts 24:6 . According to our law.

Acts 26:5 . Sect of our religion.

Rom. 15:4 . Were written for our learning.

2 Tim. 4:15 . He hath greatly withstood our words.

Tit. 3:14 . And let ours also learn.

1 John 1:3 . And truly our fellowship is with the Father and his Son, Jesus Christ.

So that “our sins” refers to the writer and his People, as Jews, as distinct from the rest
of the world. Before this, propitiation was only for the sins of Israel; but now, and
henceforth, Christ’s propitiation was for all without distinction, “out of every kindred,
and tongue, and people, and nation”: not for all without exception , for then all must be
saved, which is not the case.

See further on this verse under Synecdoche .

( b ) Where the omitted VERB is to be REPEATED from a PRECEDING clause

Gen. 1:30 . —The verb “ I have given ” is correctly repeated in the A.V. from verse 29 .

Gen. 4:24 . —“If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold,”
i.e. , “Lamech [ shall be avenged ] seventy and sevenfold.”
This is spoken with reference to what is stated in the preceding verse, which is very
obscure both in the A.V. and R.V. The A.V. renders it “I have slain,” and margin “ I
would slay ,” while the R.V. renders it “I have slain a man for wounding me,” etc., and
margin “ I will slay .” But we must note that these words of Lamech were called forth by
the fact that through his son, who was “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron,”
Lamech was in possession of superior weapons.

This is the earliest form of poetry in the Bible. It is significant that it should be in
praise of that violence which was soon to overspread the earth. It is in praise of the new
weapons of war which Lamech had now obtained; and so proud is he of his newly-
acquired power, that if anyone injured him he declares that he would be so avenged that
he would outdo Jehovah in His punishment of Cain. See further for the poetical form,
under Parallelism .

Deut. 1:4 . —“And Og, the king of Bashan, which dwelt at Astaroth [ he ( i.e., Moses )
slew ] in Edrei.” See Num. 21:33 . Deut. 3:1 .

1 Kings 20:34 . —“Then said Ahab .” The verb must be repeated from the preceding

Ps. 1:5 . —“Therefore the ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, and sinners [ shall not
stand ] in the congregation of the righteous.”

Thus, the blessing of the righteous is, that they do not stand among “sinners” (verse 1
) now; and the punishment of the ungodly will be that they shall not stand among the
righteous in the judgment (verse 5 ).

Ps. 45:3 . —“Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most mighty: [ gird thyself ] with thy
glory and thy majesty.”

Ps. 126:4 . —“Turn again our captivity, O LORD , as the streams in the south.”

There must be a figure employed here, as the grammatical construction is not

complete. There is neither subject nor verb in the second clause, as will be apparent if we
set them forth, thus:—

Subject. Verb. Object.

O LORD turn again our captivity,
as … … the streams of the south.

Consequently, it is clear that a figure is employed, and that this figure is Ellipsis .

The correct supply of the Ellipsis will enable us to give a literal translation of the
other words. The comparison employed shows us that the verb required in the second
sentence must be repeated from the first.
“Turn again our captivity, O LORD , as [ thou turnest ] the streams in the south.” But
this does not yield the whole sense, unless we see the correct and literal meaning of the

The word “streams” is ( apheekeem ). It is from the root ( aphak ) to put

a force, constraint or restraint upon ( Gen. 43:30 ; 45:1 . Est. 5:19 ).

It is the proper name for a narrow and practically inaccessible water-course, either
natural (in a gorge, or underground); or artificial (in an aqueduct), in which the water is
forced, restrained , and turned about by its strong barriers in various directions. It occurs
eighteen times. * Six times with the word “sea” or “waters.” Thus in Ps. 42:1 and Joel

2 Sam. 22:16 . “The channels of the sea appeared.”

Job 6:15 . “As the stream of brooks they pass away.”

Job 12:21 . “He weakeneth the strength of the mighty ” ( i.e., the apheekeem ).

Job 40:18 . “His [Behemoth’s] bones are as strong pieces of brass” ( i.e. , like
apheekeem or aqueducts of brass).

Job 41:15 . “His [Leviathan’s] scales are his pride” ( marg. , strong pieces of
shields ).

Ps. 18:15 . “Then the channels of waters were seen.”

Ps. 42:1 . “As the hart panteth ( marg. , brayeth ) after the water -brooks:” i.e., the
apheekeem . So also Joel 1:20 .

Ps. 126:4 . “Turn our captivity, O Lord, as the streams in the south.”

Song Sol. 5:12 . “His eyes are as the eyes of doves by the rivers of waters” ( i.e. ,
inhabiting the rocky cliffs of the apheekeem ).

Isa. 8:7 . “He [the king of Assyria] shall come up over all his channels ” ( i.e. ,
over the rocky barriers of the apheekeem ).

Ezek. 6:3 . “Thus saith the Lord GOD to the mountains, and to the hills, to the
rivers , and to the valleys” ( i.e. , to the gorges and the valleys, answering to
the mountains and hills of the first line). So also 36:4 , 6 .

Ezek. 31:12 . “His boughs are broken by all the rivers of the land.”

Ezek. 32:6 . “ The rivers shall be full of thee.”

1:20 , the hart is pictured ( al apheekai mayim ), over (not “ for , ” see
Gen. 1:2 , “darkness was upon the face of the deep”; 1:20 , “fowl that may fly above the
earth,” etc.), above the apheekai mayim . The hart hears the rushing of the waters far
below in their rocky bed, and she “crieth out” ( ( arag ) to cry, to long for , only here
and Joel 1:20 ) for the waters she cannot reach.

Then as to the word rendered “south” ( , Negeb ). This is the proper name of a
certain district in Canaan. It was “south” relatively to Canaan, but not absolutely. This is
clear from Gen. 12:9 , where we read, “Abram journeyed [ from Bethel ] going on still
toward the south” ( , the Negeb ). Afterwards we read ( 13:1 ): “And Abram went
up (north) out of Egypt … into the south” ( , the Negeb ). †

The Negeb is intersected by deep and rocky gorges, or wadis, called “ apheekeem .”
Springs and wells are almost unknown in that region.

We Can now take the literal signification of these words, and supply the Ellipsis by
repeating the verb of the first clause, in the second, and thus learn the meaning of the
passage:—“Turn again our captivity, O LORD , as [ thou turnest ] the apheekeem in the
Negeb,” i.e. , as those rushing waters are turned hither and thither by their mighty, rocky
barriers, so Thou canst put forth Thy might, and restrain the violence of our enemies, and
turn us again (as the rocky cliffs and walls turn about the apheekeem ) into our own land.

Prov. 10:23 . —“ It is as sport to a fool to do mischief: but a man of understanding, hath

wisdom,” i.e. , “ It is as sport to a fool to do mischief, but [ to exercise ] wisdom [ is as
sport ] to a man of understanding.”

Ezek. 34:13 . “And feed them upon the mountains of Israel by the rivers.”

Ezek. 35:8 . “And in all thy rivers , shall they fall that are slain with the [sword.”

Joel 3:18 . “All the rivers of Judah shall flow with waters.”
It is still more clear from Deut. 1:7 , where we have four distinct topographical names:—
“in the plain ( i.e. , in ARABAH , the Jordan Valley), in the hills ( i.e. , the HILL
COUNTRY of Judah), and in the vale ( i.e. , in SHEPHELAH , the plain of Philistia), in
the south” ( i.e. , in the NEGEB , the region south of the hill country of Judah).

For other passages, see Num. 13:17 , 29 ; 21:1 . Deut. 34:3 . Josh. 10:40 : 12:8 ; 15:21
. Judges 1 : 1 Sam. 30:1 . Jer. 17:6 .

Noting these words, several passages are greatly elucidated, such as Jer. 32:44 : 33:13
. Zech. 7:7 . Gen. 13:1 , etc.
Prov. 17:21 . —“He that begetteth a fool doeth it to his sorrow,” i.e., begetteth him to his

1 Kings 14:14 . —“The LORD shall raise him up a king over Israel who shall cut off the
house of Jeroboam that day: but what? even now,” i.e. , “but what [ do I say ]? even now
[ has he raised him up ]:” for Baasha, who was to cut off the house of Jeroboam, had
even then been born. Chap. 15:27 , etc. See under Aposiopesis .

2 Kings 9:27 . —“And Jehu … said, Smite him also in the chariot, and they did so , ” i.e.
, “And [ they smote him ] at the going up to Gur.”

1 Chron. 2:23 . —“All these belonged to the sons of Machir, the father of Gilead.”

Here the Ellipsis is arbitrarily supplied in the A.V. by introducing a new word into the
text. The verb “ took ” must be repeated from the preceding clause, and not the verb
“belonged” brought in from nowhere:—“And he took Geshur, and Aram, with the towns
of Jair, from them, with Kenath, and the towns thereof, even threescore cities. All these [
took ] the sons of Machir the father of Gilead.”

Neh. 5:4 . —“There were also that said, We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute,
and that upon our lands and vineyards.”

Here the words “ we have mortgaged ” must be repeated from verse 3 . Thus:—
“There were also some that said, We have borrowed money for the king’s tribute, [ we
have mortgaged ] our lands and vineyards.”

Ecc. 10:1 . —Here the Ellipsis is supplied by the words “ so doth .” But it is better to
repeat the verb, thus:—“As dead flies cause the ointment of the apothecary to send forth a
stinking savour: so a little folly [ causeth ] him that is in reputation for wisdom and
honour [ to send forth an offensive odour ].”

Isa. 8:19 , 20 . —“And when they shall say unto you, Seek unto them that have familiar
spirits, and unto wizards that peep, and that mutter: should not a people seek unto their
God? for [ should ] the living [ seek unto ] to the dead? To the Law and to the Testimony:
if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.”

Amos 6:12 . —“Shall horses run upon a rock? will one plow there with oxen?” i.e. ,
“Shall horses run upon a rock? will a husbandman plow [ a rock ] with oxen?”

Mark 12:5 . —“And again he sent another; and him they killed, and many others [ whom
he sent, and they used them shamefully , from verse 4 ], beating some, and killing some.”

Mark 14:29 . —“Although all shall be offended, yet will not I [ be offended ].”
Luke 22:37 . —“For I say unto you, that this that is written must yet be accomplished in
me, And he was reckoned amongst the transgressors: for the things [ written ] concerning
me have an end.”

This was the last prophecy written of Him which was to be fulfilled before His
betrayal, so He now abrogated a precept, necessary at the presentation of Himself, but no
longer necessary now that He had been rejected, and was about to die. Now, therefore,
they might not only carry a sword, but buy one. So that He was only “reckoned” by man
among the transgressors.

John 15:4 . —“No more can ye, except ye abide in me,” i.e. , “No more can ye [ bear
fruit ] except ye abide in me” (see above, pages 12 , 13 ).

Rom. 1:12 . —“That is, that I may be comforted together with you.” The verse begins in
the Greek, ( touto de esti ), but this is . The verse reads, “But this [
imparting to you some spiritual gift ] is (or means) our being jointly comforted by our
mutual faith.” He refers to his desire to see these saints in Rome, and the verb is repeated
from verse 11 , “For I long to see you.”

Rom. 7:24 , 25 . —“O wretched man that I am! who shall deliver me from the body of
this death? I thank God through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The sense in this last clause is manifestly incomplete as an answer to the previous
question. Following the most approved reading, instead of “I thank God,” we take the
more ancient words, “Thanks be to God,” * and repeat the words from verse 24 , thus:—
“Who shall deliver me from the body of this death? Thanks be to God, [ He will deliver
me ] through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

The deliverance here desired is from the conflict between the old nature and the new,
the flesh and the spirit. †

* Through not noticing the Ellipsis , attempts have been made from the earliest times to
get sense by altering the text. The T.R. has
and A K L P . But ndorf, Tregelles, Alford,
Westcott and Hort, and R.V. Also the Vatican MS. Others read, “But thanks be to God,”
and others, “It is the grace of God” (DE), and others, “It is the grace of the Lord” (FG).
† It is to be noted that “spirit” with a small “s” is one of the names given to the new
nature which is implanted in every believer who is born again of the Holy Spirit; and this
term “spirit” is to be distinguished from the Person of the Holy Spirit, from the context as
well as from the absence of the article. Even in Rom. 8:1–15 , the Person of the Holy
Spirit is not mentioned. Not until verse 16 , “spirit of God” in 8:9 and 14 is divine spirit,
i.e. , “divine nature” ( 2 Pet. 1:4 ), “spirit of Christ” ( 8:9 ) is Pueuma-Christou , Christ-
Spirit , another term for the new nature. So, “spirit of adoption” (verse 15 ) is “ sonship-
spirit , ” and “the spirit of Him” (verse 11 ) is “the new nature [ given by ] Him who
raised up,” &c.
But as the flesh is bound up with this “body of death,” i.e. , this dying body, this
mortal body, there is no deliverance except either through death and resurrection, or
through that “change” which shall take place at the coming of Christ.

The old heart is not changed or taken away, but a new heart is given, and these two
are contrary the one to the other. They remain together, and must remain until God shall
“deliver” us from the burden of this sinful flesh—this mortal body—by a glorious
resurrection like unto Christ’s. This deliverance is further described in 8:11 and 23 ; and
it is “through Jesus” that our mortal bodies shall be raised again. See 1 Thess. 4:14 ,
dia Ieesou ), “by means of Jesus,” and 1 Thess. 5:9 : “God hath not appointed
us to wrath, but to obtain salvation ( i.e. , full deliverance from this body of sin and death)
by ( i.e. , by means of, or through) our Lord Jesus Christ.”

See this passage under the Figures of Metonymy , Hypallage , Ecphonesis , and
Erotesis .

Rom. 8:19–21 may be explained thus:—

A 19 . For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of
the sons of God.

The Reason.
B 20 –. For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by
reason of him who hath subjected the same:

A – 20 . [ Waiteth, I say (from verse 19 )] in hope,

The Reason.
B 21 . Because the creature itself shall be delivered from the bondage of
corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.

Here, A, corresponding with A , shows us that we are to repeat in the latter member, A
, the verb used in the former, A; the subject of each member being the same.

Rom. 8:33 . —“Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that
justifieth. Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died.”

We have to remember that, while only the greater pauses are indicated in the ancient
manuscripts, there is no authority for the minor interpunctuation. This can generally be
accurately gathered by the devout student of the context. Here it is probable that the
questions ought to be repeated:—“Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect? [
Shall ] God who justifieth [ them ]? Who is he that condemneth [ them ]? [ Is it ] Christ
who died [ for them ]? Yea, rather; that is risen again, etc.”
1 Cor. 4:15 . —“For though ye have ten thousand instructors in Christ, yet have ye not
many fathers.”

Here the verb “ye have” is correctly repeated in the A.V.

1 Cor. 15:23 . —“But every man [ shall be made alive (from verse 22 )] in his own
order: Christ the firstfruits; afterward they that are Christ’s at his coming. Then the end,”
i.e. , not “then cometh the end,” for ( to telos ) is used of the last company of a
body of soldiers. * ( to telos ) is the end: but of what, or what end, can be
determined only by the context. Here the subject is the various bodies ( tagmata
) ranks, i.e. , every man in his own proper band. Of these bands or ranks Christ is first;
then they that are Christ’s at His coming; then the last of these bands at the end of the
thousand years ( Rev. 20:5 ), when Christ shall deliver up the kingdom.

The second of these is not the resurrection foretold in 1 Thess. 4:16 , as the privilege
of those who are “in Christ,” but the “first” of the two resurrections referred to in the Old
Testament, the Gospels, and the Apocalypse.

2 Cor. 1:6 . —“And whether we be afflicted, it is for your consolation.”

Here the A.V. supplies the verb substantive. It is better to repeat the verb “[ we are
afflicted ] for your consolation.”

2 Cor. 3:11 . —“For if that which is done away was glorious, much more that which
remaineth is glorious.”

Here the two words ( dia doxees ), by means of glory en

doxee ), in glory , are both translated by the same word, “glorious,” while the verb
substantive (“ was ” and “ is ”) is thus necessarily, though incorrectly, supplied. The R.V.
renders the verse, “For if that which passeth away (margin, is being done away ) was with
glory, much more that which remaineth is in glory.”

But, if we repeat the verbs already used by the Holy Spirit, we can take the Greek
literally:—“For if that which is done away [ is done away ] by glory (see verse 10 ),
much more that which remaineth, [ remaineth ] in glory.”

2 Cor. 12:2 . —“Such an one [ I knew ] caught up, etc.”

( harpaz ) does not necessarily mean that the catching is “up,” but
rather “ away .” In Matt. 11:12 . John 6:15 . Acts 23:10 it is rendered take by force . In
Matt. 13:19 . Acts 8:39 it is catch away . In John 10:12 it is rendered “catch”; in John
10:28 , 29 , it is “pluck”; while in Jude 23 it is pull .

* Hom. Il. 7, 380; 10, 470, etc.

See also Ezek. 8:3 . Rev. 1:10 . “Such an one [ I knew ] caught away:” and this either
with reference to place or time, i.e. , caught away to some present place ( Acts 8:39 , 40 ),
or to a vision of some future time (as in Ezek. 8:3 . Rev. 1:10 ; 4:2 , etc.).

Gal. 2:7 . —“The gospel of the uncircumcision was committed unto me, as the gospel of
the circumcision was [ committed ] unto Peter.”

Gal. 5:17 . —“For the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the flesh: and
these are contrary the one to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would.”

( epithume ) is connected with ( kata ), against, i.e.,

to desire that which is against , or contrary to . The same verb is used both of the flesh
and of the spirit ( i.e. , the new nature), and the Ellipsis of the verb with reference to the
latter enables it to be used in its bad sense with regard to the flesh and in a good sense
with regard to the spirit:—“For the flesh desires that which is against the spirit, and the
spirit desires that which is against the flesh; and these desires are contrary to one another,
so that ye cannot do the things that ye would,” i.e. , so that your new nature is hindered
ofttimes in doing those good things that ye would, and, thank God, your old nature is also
hindered from doing the things which it lusts after.

Eph. 1:13 . —“In whom ye also trusted .” Here the verb is repeated from verse 12 : but it
seems rather that another verb should be repeated, from verse 11 : “In whom ye also were
allotted as God’s own inheritance , ” for it is the inheritance which is the subject of the
context and not the matter of trusting.

The R.V. neither sees, nor supplies the Ellipsis , treating it as an Anacoluthon ( q.v. ).

Eph. 4:22 . —We must repeat from verse 17 , “[ I say also ] that ye put off concerning
the former conversation the old man, which is corrupt according to the deceitful lusts.”

1 Thess. 2:11 . —“Ye know how we exhorted and comforted and charged every one of
you, as a father doth his children.”

Here all three verbs are to be understood, i.e. , “as a father [ exhorteth , and
comforteth , and chargeth ] his children.” (See under Polysyndeton ).

The R.V. better preserves the order of the Greek, supplying and treating the Ellipsis
as absolute. “As ye know how we dealt with each one of you, as a father with his own
children, exhorting you, and encouraging you , and testifying, etc.”

1 Thess. 4:14 . —“For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them also
which sleep in Jesus will God bring with him.”

R.V. :—“Even so them also that are fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with him.”
The two clauses of this verse, as they are thus translated, are so inconsequent that the
passage has been a source of difficulty to many, and is practically unintelligible. When
this is the case we must ask whether there is a figure employed, and, if so, what it is. Here
it can be only the figure Ellipsis . But what are the omitted words, which if supplied will
cause the passage to yield sense as to teaching, and completeness as to structure?

Before we can answer this question we must institute an enquiry into the usage of the
word translated “even:” as this is the key that will open this lock, besides explaining and
throwing light on many other passages. The word “even” here is ( kai ), and ( kai
) is the ordinary conjunction, and , which has two distinct senses, (1) and , (2) also or
even . It is the latter of these with which we are now concerned. It is a matter of great
importance that we should always know what is the word which it emphasizes. In the
Greek, this is never in doubt. * But in English literature, including both the A.V. and the
R.V. , its usage is very inconsistent and defective. In the Greek, , when it means also ,
is always placed immediately BEFORE the word which it emphasizes; while in English
usage it may be placed either before or after the word. When we add to this that both in
the A.V. and R.V. it is often dissociated altogether from this word, the confusion and
ambiguity can be imagined.

The word is used in the sense of also some 636 times in the New Testament. †

In 258 of these it is placed (in the A.V. ) after the word.

In 275 it is placed before the word, or in connection with another word to which it
does not belong.

In 60 places it is not translated at all.

In 43 places it is rendered even , and placed before the word.

Sometimes the A.V. and R.V. agree in this, and sometimes they differ.

Now, remembering that the English word “also” must immediately follow the word
which it emphasizes, we ask what is that word here ( 1 Thess. 4:14 )? As the Greek
stands, it reads, “If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so them which sleep in
Jesus, GOD also will bring with him.” But this yields no intelligible meaning. The hope
that is mentioned in the second clause cannot be conditioned on our belief of the fact
stated in the former clause.

But notice, before we proceed, that the preposition ( dia ), when it governs the
genitive case, as it does here, denotes agency, and is rendered “by” 235 times, “through”

* Nor is it in the Hebrew, as the is always joined to and forms part of the word with
which it is connected.
† See a pamphlet on the usage of the word “Also” in the New Testament, by the same
author and publisher.
87 times, etc.; but “in” only 8 times. See its use in the very next chapter ( 1 Thess. 5:9 ),
“We are appointed to obtain salvation by our Lord Jesus Christ” (

saved from wrath through him” (

ile translating it here “in Jesus,” says in
the margin, “Greek, through , ” and adds the alternative rendering, “ Will God through
Jesus bring .”

The one thought and subject is Resurrection, as the great and blessed hope of the
Lord’s people. The three clauses are perfectly balanced, as will be seen in the following
structure of verse 14 :—
a If we believe (Belief)

b that Jesus died (Death)

c and rose again, (Resurrection)

a In like manner [ we believe ] also (Belief)

b That them which are asleep (Death)

c will God (by Jesus) bring with Him [ from the dead ]. (Resurrection).

Here in a and a we have the statement of our belief , in b and b we have death (in b
the death of Jesus, and in b the death of His saints), while in c and c we have resurrection
(in c the resurrection of Jesus by God, and in c the resurrection of His people by God),
but in an explanatory parenthesis it is explained that the Lord Jesus will be the agent, as
the context goes on to show (see John 5:21 : 11:25 , 43 ). It was God who brought Jesus
from the dead ( Heb. 13:20 ). In like manner will He—by Jesus—bring His people from
the dead.

Hence, we must repeat the verb “ we believe ” from the first clause: “If we believe
that Jesus died and rose again, in like manner [ we believe ] also that God will, through
Jesus, bring, with Him, them that are fallen asleep.”

This is the scope of the passage, which immediately goes on to explain how this will
be accomplished. We have the same hope presented in the same manner in Rom. 6:5 ;
8:11 . 2 Cor. 4:14 , viz. , that Resurrection and Advent are the only hope of mourning

Heb. 3:15 . —“While it is said, To-day, etc. ,

, ” “in (or by) its being said, To-day.”

The simplest solution of this confessedly difficult passage is to repeat the exhortation
from verse 13 : “[ As ye are exhorted ] by the saying, To-day, etc.”
Heb. 4:7 . —“Again [ seeing ] he limiteth,” from verse 6 .

Heb. 4:10 . —“For he that hath entered into his rest, he himself also hath rested from his
works, as God [ rested ] from his.”

Heb. 7:8 . —“And here men that die receive tithes; but there he receiveth them , of whom
it is witnessed that he liveth.”

The reference is clearly to Melchisedec, and it is not testified of him that he now
liveth. In Ps. 110:4 it is testified of Christ, “Thou art a priest for ever after the order of
Melchisedec.” That which marked “the order of Melchisedec” as being different from
“the order of Aaron” was the fact that the days of Aaron’s order of priesthood began at 30
years of age, and ended at the age of 50 years, whereas the days of Melchisedec’s had
neither such a beginning nor such a limitation: his priesthood had “neither beginning of
days nor end of life,” but he remained a priest continually, i.e. , all his life ( 7:3 ).
( eis to dieenekes ) means for a continuance , the duration being determined by
the nature of the context.

In chap. 7:1 it must mean that Melchisedec remained a priest all his life; in chap. 10:1
it must mean that the sacrifices were continually offered until the end of the Mosaic
dispensation; in 10:12 it means that the one sacrifice of Christ is efficacious in perpetuity
(or, with Macknight, that Christ offered only one sacrifice during His whole life); while
in chap. 10:14 it means that the perfection arising from this sacrifice is limited only by
the life of those who are sanctified.

Hence, here in 7:8 the Ellipsis may be thus supplied:—“And here men that die
receive tithes; but there [ a man received them ] of whom it is testified that he lived [ a
priest all his life .]” *

As Melchisedec was a priest all the days of his life, and his was a mortal life; so
Christ was a Priest after the same order; and therefore, as His life is eternal, and has no
limit, His priesthood (unlike that of Aaron’s) must also be without limit, and He is “a
priest for ever.”

Heb. 12:25 . —“See that ye refuse not him that speaketh. For if they escaped not who
refused him that spake on earth, much more shall not we escape , if we turn away from
him that speaketh from heaven.” Here the words are correctly repeated from what

* The present tense is here (as is often the case) put (by the figure of Enallage ( q.v. ), or
“Exchange”) for the preterite as in Acts 9:26 ), not believing that he is a disciple ( i.e. ,
was); Heb. 7:3 , he remaineth ( i.e. , remained); Mark 5:15 , they come and see ( i.e. ,
came and saw); John 1:29 , John seeth ( i.e. , saw), John 1:46 , Philip findeth and saith (
i.e. , found and said); John 9:13 , they bring him ( i.e. , they brought), etc., etc. In all such
cases the figure of Enallage marks the action which is thus emphasized.
2 Pet. 1:19 . —“We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that
ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day
star arise; [ taking heed, I say ] in your hearts.”

It cannot be that we are to take heed until we are illuminated by God’s Spirit, or until
we are converted! but that we are to take heed to the word of prophecy in our hearts; for
it is like a light shining in a dark place. A light is for our eyes to see, and for our feet to
use, but the prophetic word is for our hearts to be exercised with. This is contrary to
popular theology. This word declares that the world is the “dark place,” and prophecy is
the only light we have in it, to which we do well that we take heed. Popular theology says
that prophecy is the “dark place,” and we “do well” to avoid it!

1 John 3:10 . —“Whosoever doeth not righteousness is not [ born ] of God,” from verse
9 . So also verse 12 , “Not as Cain, who was [ born ] of that wicked one.” Also verse 19 ,
“We know that we are [ born ] of the truth.”

2 John 2 . —“[ Loving you ] for the truth’s sake,” from verse 1 .

2 John 12 . —“Having many things to write unto you, I would not write with paper and

Rev. 19:10 . —“And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it
not,” i.e. , “See [ thou worship me ] not.”

( c ) Where an omitted PARTICLE is to be repeated from the preceding clause

(i.) Negatives

The negative is frequently omitted; and is generally supplied in the A.V. and R.V.

Deut. 33:6 . —“Let Reuben live, and not die; and let not his men be few.”

1 Sam. 2:3 . —“Talk no more so exceeding proudly; let not arrogancy come out of your

1 Kings 2:9 . —“Now therefore hold him not guiltless: for thou art a wise man, and
knowest what thou oughtest to do unto him; but his hoar head bring thou down to the
grave with blood.”

This has been a favourite text with “those that oppose themselves” ( 2 Tim. 2:25 ).
Misunderstanding the phrase, where David is called “a man after God’s own heart” (as
though it referred to David’s character , instead of to David’s calling , being chosen by
God and not, as Saul was, by man ), infidels have pointed to 1 Kings 2:9 to show David’s
faithless and bloodthirsty character! But if, as in so many other cases, we repeat the
negative from the preceding clause, there is no such difficulty: “but his hoar head bring
thou [ not ] down to the grave with blood.”
True, Solomon did put Shimei to death, but this was for quite another reason, and as
Solomon said, Shimei’s blood was upon his own head (verse 37 ).

Thus the passage is brought into agreement with David’s oath to Shimei, which is
repeated in immediate connection with this verse (verse 8 from 2 Sam. 19:23 ).

Ps. 9:18 . —“For the needy shall not alway be forgotten: the expectation of the poor shall
not perish for ever.”

Here the negative is supplied by the A.V. in italics.

Ps. 38:1 . —“O LORD , rebuke me not in thy wrath: and chasten me [ not ] in thy hot

Ps. 75:5 . —“Lift not up your horn on high: speak not with a stiff neck.”

Here the negative is supplied, as it is in many passages.

Prov. 25:27 . —“ It is not good to eat much honey: so for men to search their own glory
is not glory.”

Isa. 38:18 . —“For the grave cannot praise thee, death can not celebrate thee.”

It is open to question whether

Gen. 2:6 is one of these cases. The three verses 4–6 describe the condition of the earth
before the creation of man (verse 7 ), and before the plants and herbs of the field grew.
(Compare verses 4 and 9 ). Then three negative reasons are given why these did not
grow:—(1) “For ( ) the LORD God had not ( ) caused it to rain upon the earth, (2)
and ( ) there was a man nowhere ( ) to till the ground, (3) and ( ) [ no ] mist went
up to water the whole face of the ground.”

(ii.) Interrogatives

( lammah ). Why?

Ps. 2:1 , 2 . —“Why do the heathen rage, and [ why do ] the people imagine a vain thing?
[ Why do ] the kings of the earth set themselves, and [ why do ] the rulers take counsel

Ps. 10:1 . —Here the A.V. repeats it: “Why ( ) standest thou afar off, O LORD ? why
hidest thou thyself in times of trouble?”

( kammah ). How oft?

Job 21:17 . —“How oft is the candle of the wicked put out! and how oft cometh their
destruction upon them!” Here the words “ how oft ” are correctly repeated in the A.V. But
why not repeat them also in the following sentences, instead of supplying the word “ God
, ” and translate thus: “[ How oft ] He distributeth sorrows in His anger! [ How oft ] are
they as stubble before the wind, and as chaff that the storm carrieth away! [ How oft ]
God layeth up calamity for his ( i.e. , the wicked man’s) children. * He recompenseth him
and he shall know it; his eyes shall see his destruction, and he shall drink the wrath of the

( eykh ). How?

Ps. 73:19 . —“How are they brought into desolation, as in a moment! they are utterly
consumed with terrors.” But it is better to repeat the word “how”:—“ How are they
utterly consumed with terror!”

( eykah ). How!

An exclamation of pain and grief “How!” This gives its title to the book of
Lamentations in the Hebrew Canon † “ Eykah .”

Three prophets use this word of Israel:—Moses uses it of Israel in his glory and pride
( Deut. 1:12 ): Isaiah, of Jerusalem in her dissipation ( Isa. 1:21 ): and Jeremiah, of
Jerusalem in her desolation ( Lam. 1:1 , etc.).

Hence, the word very frequently occurs in the book of Lamentations; and its Ellipsis
or omission is frequently to be supplied by repetition. In many cases this is done in the
A.V. Note, for example:—

Lam. 1:1 , 2 . —“How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she
become as a widow! she that was great among the nations, and princess among the
provinces, how is she become tributary! 2 . [ How ] she weepeth sore in the night,” etc. 3 .
[ How ] is Judah gone into captivity … 4 . [ How ] the ways of Zion do mourn.”

See also 2:1 , 2 , etc.; 4:1 , 4 , 8 , 10 .

( mah ). How!

Joel 1:18 . —“How ( ) do the beasts groan! [ How ] are the herds of cattle

* The R.V. , missing the proper Ellipsis , arbitrarily introduces the words “ Ye say , God
layeth up iniquity for his children,” taking the words as the words of the wicked man
instead of the children!
† The title in the English Version is from the Latin Vulgate. See The Names and Order of
the Books of the Old Testament , by the same author and publisher.
( ad-meh ). How long?

Ps. 4:3 . —“O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will
ye love vanity?”

Here the interrogative is repeated, but why not repeat it again instead of supplying the
word “ and ” ? Thus:—“[ How long ] will ye seek after leasing?”

Ps. 89:46 . —“How long, LORD ? wilt thou hide thyself for ever? [ How long, Lord ] shall
thy wrath burn like fire?”

( ad-mahthai ). How long?

Ps. 94:3 , 4 . —“Lord, how long shall the wicked, how long shall the wicked triumph?
How long shall they utter and speak hard things? [ How long ] shall all the workers of
iniquity boast themselves?”

( d ) Where the omission of CONNECTED WORDS is to be supplied by repeating them out

of a preceding clause

This form of Ellipsis, though it is very clear, is not always supplied in the A.V.

Num. 26:3 , 4 . —“And Moses . . spake . . saying, Take the sum of the people , from
twenty years old and upward,” which words are correctly repeated from verse 2 .

Josh. 24:19 . —“And Joshua said unto the people, Ye cannot serve the LORD : for he is
an holy God,” etc.

The words must be supplied from verses 14–16 : see also verses 20 , 23 . Thus:—“Ye
cannot serve the LORD [ unless ye put away your idols ], for he is a holy God,” etc.

Ps. 84:3 . —“Yea, the sparrow hath found an house, and the swallow a nest for herself,
where she may lay her young, even thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God.”

There is evidently a figure here: for in what way could birds build nests and lay
young in the altars of God? The one was covered over with brazen plates, with fires
perpetually burning and sacrifices continually being offered upon it; the other was
overlaid with gold, and was within the Holy Place! The question therefore is, What is the
kind of figure here? It is the figure of Ellipsis , which the A.V. and R.V. have made
worse by inserting the word “ even ” (the A.V. in italic type, the R.V. in Roman). It must
be correctly supplied by repeating the words from the preceding clause: “ so hath my soul
found thy altars, O LORD of hosts,” i.e. , as the birds find, and love, and use their house,
so I find and love Thy house, my King and my God.
If we observe the structure of the passage, * we see how this supply of the Ellipsis is
a 1 . How amiable are thy tabernacles, O LORD of hosts!

b 2 . My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for the courts of the LORD : my heart
and my flesh crieth out for the living God.

c 3 . Yea, the sparrow hath found an house,

c and the swallow a nest for herself, where she may lay her young,

b even thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God.

a 4 . Blessed are they that dwell in thy house: they will be still praising thee.

This structure at once puts c and c practically in a parenthesis, and b and b may be
read on literally and connectedly without a break, and without any apparent Ellipsis;
b 2 . My soul longeth, yea, even fainteth for the courts of the LORD : my heart
and my flesh crieth out for the living God,

b even thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God.

But b read after c must have the Ellipsis supplied:—“The sparrow hath found an
house, and the swallow a nest for herself … [ so have I found ] thine altars, O LORD of

Prov. 21:1 . —“The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD , as the rivers of water: he
turneth it whithersoever he will.”

Here the second sentence is manifestly incomplete. There is a subject, but there is no
verb, and no object, as will be seen if we present it in this way:—

Subject . Verb . Object .

The King’s heart is in the hand of the LORD .
as the rivers of water .. ……

It is clear from this that we have to supply both the verb and the predicate in the latter
sentence. What they are to be will be seen more clearly when we translate the other
words more correctly.

* See Key to the Psalms , p. 79. Edited by the same author.

The expression “rivers of water” is in the Hebrew ( palgey mayim ).
Palgey means divisions of , and is the plural construct of ( palag ), to divide . † The
name of the Patriarch Peleg ( i.e., division ) was so called “because in his days was the
earth divided” ( Gen. 10:25 ). The term palgey mayim * is the technical term for the little
channels, or gullies, of water which divide the Eastern garden into small squares of about
12 feet each, for purposes of irrigation. Hence the word is used for any little channel by
which the water is distributed or divided , especially the channels which divide-up a
garden. It is used also of the trickling of tears. In Ps. 1:3 , the man who meditates in the
law of God is like a tree planted by the palgey mayim , i.e. , in a garden, where it will
have a sure supply of water and the constant care of the gardener! Not left out in the plain
to shift for itself; to thrive if it gets water, and to die if it does not!

These little channels were filled by the gardener with water from the spring, or well,
or fountain, which every Eastern garden must possess; and then the water was sent first
into one channel, then into another, by the simple movement of his foot: “the land
whither thou goest in to possess it, is not as the land of Egypt from whence ye came out,
where thou sowedst thy seed, and wateredst it with thy foot, as a garden of herbs” ( Deut.
11:10 ). The gardener did not deign to use a tool, or to stoop down and use his hands. By

† ( palag ), to divide , occurs only in Gen. 10:25 . 1 Chron. 1:19 . “In his days was
the earth divided.” Job 38:25 , “Who hath divided a watercourse,” and Ps. 55:9 . “Destroy
their tongues and divide them.”
The word is used of any very small artificial channel. The following are all the

Job 29:6 . The rock poured me out rivers of oil.

Ps. 1:3 . Like a tree planted by the rivers of water .

Ps. 46:4 . A river the streams whereof shall make glad.

Ps. 65:9 . Enrichest it with the river of God.

Ps. 119:136 . Rivers of waters run down mine eyes.

Prov. 5:16 . (And) rivers of waters in the streets.

Isa. 30:25 . Rivers and streams of waters.

Isa. 32:2 . As rivers of water in a dry place.

Lam. 3:48 . Mine eye runneth down with rivers of water.

simply moving the foot he dammed up one little stream, or by a similar movement he
released the water in another.

Now we are able to supply the Ellipsis correctly in this verse:—

“The king’s heart is in the hand of the LORD as the palgey mayim [ are in the hand of
the gardener ]: He turneth it whithersoever He will.”

To an Eastern mind this would be perfectly clear without the supply of the Ellipsis.
Just as in England the expression, “A coach and four” is perfectly clear, and the supply of
the Ellipsis “horses” is wholly unnecessary. But an Esquimaux or a South Sea Islander, or
an Arab, would ask, “A coach and four what?” It would be unintelligible to him, while
with us it needs no explanation.

So when we learn and understand the customs and peculiarities of the East we can
often supply the Ellipsis from such knowledge, as Easterns would supply it naturally.

The teaching of the passage then is that just as the little channels of water in a garden
are turned about by the gardener by the simple movement of his foot, so the king’s heart
is as easily turned about by the LORD , “whithersoever He wills.”

Oh how full of comfort for ourselves, for our friends, for our children, to know this,
and to be assured of it! “On that night could not the king sleep” ( Est. 6:1 ). A sleepless
night! The king’s heart turned—the law of the Medes and Persians reversed—and Israel
delivered. Oh how simple! Let us never again limit His almighty power—for it is
almighty power that is required to turn the heart of man. We know how difficult it is to
convince even a friend on the simplest matter of fact. But let us remember that the heart
of even an Eastern despot is as easily turned by the LORD ’s mighty hand as the palgai
mayim are turned by the simple movement of a gardener’s foot.

Job 3:23 . —“ Why is light given to a man whose way is hid, and whom God hath hedged

Here the words, “ why is light given , ” are correctly repeated from verse 20 . This
expression about giving light is similar to that of “seeing the sun” ( 6:5 , and 7:5 ). Both
are idioms ( q.v. ) for living or being alive, as is clear from verses 20 , 21 . “Wherefore is
light given,” i.e. , why is life prolonged, in the case of those who are in misery and long
for death?

The latter part of the verse may be cleared by noting that the word “hid,” as applied to
“a way,” differs from that in Ps. 2:12 . In Ps. 2:12 ( avad ) is to lose a way which is
already known. Here, it is ( sathar ) which implies that the way is not known at all.
It hides itself. In this case God has hidden it and it cannot be found.
What good is life, Job complains, to a man if God has completely covered up the
way? The word ( sakak ), rendered “hedged in,” refers to the way, not to the man,
and means, not “hedged in,” but covered up (see 38:8 ). It is not the same word as 1:10
(which is ( sook ), to hedge in ), nor as 19:8 , as indicated in the margin (which is
( gadar ) to fence up ).

Ecc. 7:11 , 12 has evidently given some trouble, as is clear from the italics in Text and
margin both of A.V. and R.V.

“Wisdom is good with an inheritance: and by it there is profit to them that see the
sun.” Margin, “ as good as an inheritance, yea, better too .”

The R.V. reads:—“Wisdom is as good as an inheritance: yea, more excellent is it for

them that see the sun.” Margin, “ is good together with an inheritance: and profitable
unto them ,” etc.

We must take ( im ), with , in its idea of accompaniment, in common with, i.e.,

like or as (see Gen. 18:23 , 25 . Job 3:14 , 15 ; 9:26 ; 21:8 ; 40:15 . Ps. 73:5 , 25 ; 143:7 .
Ecc. 2:16 ), and translate:—

“Wisdom is good, as an inheritance is good , and more excellent to them that see the
sun” ( i.e. , for living men, see above under Job 3:23 ). For to be in ( , b , which is
ignored by A.V. and R.V. ) the shelter ( , tzel , Gen. 19:8 ; Num. 14:9 ; Ps. 17:9 ) of
wisdom [ is more excellent than to be ] under the shelter ( ) of money; and the
advantage of wisdom is that wisdom preserveth the life of them that possess it.”

That is to say, briefly, wisdom is good: and money is good, but wisdom has this
advantage over money; it can preserve life, while an inheritance or money cannot.

Zech. 14:18 . —The verse reads in the Hebrew (see margin):—“And if the family of
Egypt go not up, and come not, not upon them there shall be the plague wherewith the
LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.”

Here, there is evidently a figure: because, read with verse 17 , there is not only no
sense, but quite an opposite sense to that which is clearly intended. Our duty is to ask,
What is the figure? For we are not at liberty to suggest an alteration of the Text, or to
make even a free translation of it. The R.V. resorts to the easy method of suggesting in
the margin: “The text is probably corrupt.” This is a very common practice of
commentators! It never seems to enter their heads that the difficulty lies with themselves.
It would have been more becoming to have said, “Our understandings are probably at
fault”! The R.V. arbitrarily inserts words, as does the A.V. , and even then both Versions
fail to make sense.

The A.V. says: “That have no rain ” ( marg. , “ upon whom there is not ”).
The R.V. : “Neither shall it be upon them” ( marg. , “ shall there not be upon them
the plague? ” etc.).

The Ellipsis is Correctly and simply supplied by repeating “there shall be no rain”
from the preceding clause: which, describing millennial days, says:—

“Whoso will not come up of all the families of the earth unto Jerusalem to worship
the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain. And if the family of Egypt
go not up, and come not, not upon them [ shall there be no rain ]; * there shall be the
plague, [ aforesaid , verse 12 ] wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not
up to the feast of tabernacles.”

Matt. 2:10 . —“When they saw the star, they rejoiced with exceeding great joy:” i.e. ,
“When they saw the star [ standing over where the young child was ], they rejoiced.” The
words are to be repeated from verse 9 .

Matt. 13:32 . —“Which indeed is the least of all seeds [ which a man takes and sows in a
field ];” from verse 31 ; i.e. , not the least, absolutely, but relatively, as to those seeds
which are usually sown in the field.

Mark 5:23 . —“And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of
death: I pray thee , come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed.”

Here the A.V. adds: “ I pray thee ,” but it is better to repeat the verb from the
beginning of the verse, and then we may take the other words literally:—“ I beseech thee
earnestly that having come thou wouldest lay on her thy hands,” etc.

John 1:18 . —“No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the
bosom of the Father, he hath declared him .” Here the sense is to be completed by
repeating the words from the preceding clause, thus: “No man hath seen God at any time;
the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath [ seen God, and ]
declared [ the Father ].”

John 9:3 . —Here the Ellipsis is to be supplied from verse 2 . “Neither hath this man
sinned, nor his parents [ that he should be born blind ]: but that the works of God should
be made manifest in him.” See below ( page 107 ).

Rom. 4:12 . —“And the father of circumcision to them who are not of the circumcision,”

Here the words are to be repeated from the preceding clause:—“And the father of the
circumcision [ that righteousness might be imputed ] to them who are not of the
circumcision only, but also walk in the steps of that faith of our father Abraham, which
he had being yet uncircumcised.”

* Because Egypt has no rain, as it is, and is therefore thus excepted here.
Rom. 5:3 . —“And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also,” i.e. , “And not only do
we [ rejoice in hope of the glory of God ], but we glory also in tribulations.” *

Rom. 5:11 . —“And not only so :” i.e. , “And not only [ are we saved from wrath
through him ], but we also † joy in God [ as our God ] through our Lord Jesus Christ, by
whom we have now received the reconciliation.”

It is at this point that the great doctrinal portion of Romans divides into two portions.
It runs from 1:16 to 8:39 . Up to 5:11 the subject is “sins”: from verse 12 it is “sin.” Up to
this point the subject is the products of the old nature: from this point it is the old nature
itself. Up to 5:11 it is the fruits of the old tree: from 5:12 it is the old tree itself. Up to this
point we are considered as “in the flesh”: from this point we are considered as “not in the
flesh,” but the flesh is in us. ‡

Rom. 7:7 . —“What shall we say then? [ that ] the law [ is ] sin? God forbid! Nay, I had
not known sin but by (or through) the law; for I had not known lust [ to be sin ] except
the law had said, Thou shalt not covet. But [ I say that ] (from verse 7 ) sin taking
occasion by the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupiscence ( or desire ).
For without the law sin [ is ] dead.”

Rom. 8:23 . —“And not only they , ” i.e. , “And not only [ every creature groaneth ], but
ourselves also,” etc.

Rom. 9:10 . —“And not only this , ” i.e. , “And not only [ was there that limitation of the
promise to this son ], but when Rebecca also had conceived [ twins ] by one, even by our
father Isaac …. it was said unto her, The elder shall serve the younger.”

Rom. 10:8 . —“But what saith it? The word is nigh thee, even in thy mouth and in thy
heart: that is, the word of faith, which we preach [ is nigh thee ].”

1 Cor. 15:42 . —“So also is the resurrection of the dead.” Here instead of using the verb
substantive we must repeat the words from verses 37 and 41 , and then we can preserve
the proper emphasis shown by the position of “also”:—“So the RESURRECTION
also of the dead [ is with a different body ].” This preserves the harmony of the whole

* In the Greek the emphasis is on the verb “glory.” “We GLORY also in tribulations,” i.e.
, we not only have them like all other people, but by grace we are able to glory in them.
For the usage of the word “also” see page 90 .
† In the Greek the emphasis is on the word “joy.” “We JOY also in God.” See a pamphlet
on the biblical usage of the word Also , by the same author and publisher.
‡ See further, on this, a series of articles in Things to Come commencing September,
2 Cor. 8:19 . —“And not that only,” i.e. , “And not only [ is his praise throughout all the
churches ], but he was chosen * also of the churches to travel with us with this grace (or
gift),” etc.

Col. 3:4 . —“When Christ, who is our life, shall appear.” It is a question whether this
Ellipsis should be supplied (as in A.V. and R.V. ) by the verb substantive, or whether the
words should be repeated from the preceding verse, “When Christ, [ with whom ] our life
[ is hid ], shall appear, then shall ye also appear with him in glory.” Many ancient MSS.,
with Lachmann (margin), Tischendorf, Tregelles, R.V. margin, read “your life.”

2 Tim. 1:7 . —“For God hath not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love,
and of a sound mind.”

Here, by way of contrast, the words are to be repeated in the second clause: “but [
God hath given to us the spirit ] of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.”

More properly it should be “a” spirit, not “the spirit,” and the fact that a noun is used
(by the figure of Enallage , q.v. ) instead of an adjective, shows us that the emphasis is to
be placed on the adjective. “a COWARDLY spirit,” ( pneuma deilias );
( deilias ), means timidity, fearfulness, cowardice , and always in a bad sense (see
the verb ( deilia ), John 14:27 . The adjective, Matt. 8:26 . Mark 4:40 . Rev.
21:8 ).

1 John 2:19 . —Here the Ellipsis is correctly supplied in the A.V. , “ they went out .”

1 John 5:15 . —“And if we know that he hear us, whatsoever we ask [ according to his
will ], we know that we have the petitions that we desired of him.”

Here the words, “ according to His will ,” are to be supplied from the preceding

2. Where the omitted word is to be supplied out of a SUCCEEDING Clause

Josh. 3:3 . —“When ye see the ark of the covenant of the LORD your God, and the priests
the Levites bearing it [ going before ], then ye shall remove from your place, and go after

Here the words “ going before ” are necessitated, and are to be supplied from the
words that follow—“ go after .”

Judges 16:13 , 14 . —“If thou weavest the seven locks of my head with the web, [ and
fastenest them with a pin in the beam (from verse 14 ), then shall I be weak and be as
another man (from verses 7 and 11 )]: and she fastened it with the pin, etc.” The Arabic
and Vulgate Versions supply these words to complete the sense. See Appendix C .

* In the Greek the emphasis is on the word “chosen”:—“ CHOSEN also.”

Homœoteleuton , where it is shown that this is not really an Ellipsis , but an ancient
omission on the part of some scribe.

1 Sam. 16:7 . —“The LORD said unto Samuel, Look not on his countenance, or on the
height of his stature; because I have refused him: for the LORD seeth not as man seeth;
for man looketh on the outward appearance (Heb. on the eyes ), but the LORD looketh on
the heart.”

Here the verb “ seeth ” is correctly repeated from the succeeding clause. It is not
necessary to repeat “the LORD ,” though it is true, and greatly beautifies the English. It
may be simply “for it is not as man seeth,” or, “for I see not as man seeth,” which comes
to the same thing.

1 Kings 3:12 . —“Lo, I have given thee a wise and understanding heart; so that there was
none like thee before thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee,” i.e., among
the kings , which words follow in verse 13 . See also 10:23 .

1 Kings 14:15 . —“For the LORD shall smite Israel, [ shaking him ] as a reed is shaken in
the water.”

1 Chron. 4:7 . —“And the sons of Helah were , Zereth, and Jezoar, and Ethnan, [ and
Coz ]”: supply from verse 8 .

So, at the end of verse 13 supply “ Meonothai ” from verse 14 .

Also, in chap. vi., at end of verse 27 , supply “ Samuel his son “ from verse 28 . *

In chap. vii. at end of verse 18 supply “ and Shemidah ” from verse 19 .

In chap. viii. at end of verse 7 add “ and Shaharaim ” from verse 8 .

In chap. xxv. at end of verse 3 add “ and Shimei ” from verse 17 , where he is named.
In verse 3 only five out of the six are named. In the A.V. and R.V. Shimei’s name is
supplied in the margin.

Neh. 5:2 . —“For there were that said, We, our sons, and our daughters, [ being ] many, [
are mortgaged ],” supply from verses 3 , 4 , 5 .

Job 20:17 . —Here the word “floods” means, as in the margin and R.V. , streaming or
flowing, and belongs to the word “brooks.” But it must be repeated also before the word

* In this verse there is a strange confusion. Samuel’s or Shemuel’s firstborn was Joel, see
verse 33 . Vashni ( ) is not a proper name, but means “the second.” And the verse
reads, “And the sons of Samuel, the firstborn [ Joel , verse 33 ], the second Abiah.” See 1
Sam. 8:2 , and see also above, page 5 .
rivers, thus:—“He shall not see the flowing rivers, the flowing brooks of honey and

Job 38:19 . —The Ellipsis is to be supplied thus:—“Where is the way [ to the place
where ] light dwelleth? and as for darkness, where is the place thereof?”

Ps. 35:16 . —“With hypocritical mockers in feasts,” i.e. , repeating the latter words of the
former sentence.

“With hypocrites [ at feasts ], mocking at the feast,” i.e. , like parasites who, for the
sake of their belly, flatter others.

Prov. 13:1 . —“A wise son heareth his father’s instruction: but a scorner heareth not
rebuke.” Here the Ellipsis is plain, and is correctly supplied in the A.V.

Isa. 19:11 . —“How say ye unto [ the wise ] Pharaoh, I am the son of the wise?” etc.

Isa. 31:5 . —“As birds flying, so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem.”

Here the word “birds” is feminine. It refers therefore to female birds, and to maternal
love: “As mother-birds fluttering (see Deut. 32:11 ), or as fluttering birds [ defend their
young (from the next clause)] so will the LORD of hosts defend Jerusalem.”

One of the words for defend is , ( pahs k ), from ( pasak ), Passover .

( pasak ) means primarily to halt (see Isa. 35:6 . Lev. 21:18 . 2 Sam. 4:4 ). So 1
Kings 18:21 , “How long halt ye ( ) between two opinions?” Heb., as birds hop
backwards and forwards on two boughs . Hence in Ex. 12:13 , it is not “when I see the
blood, I will pass over you;” but, it is , “I will halt or stop at you, and the
plague shall not be upon you,” i.e. , Jehovah will stop or halt at ( ) the door and not
suffer the destroyer to enter. So the precious blood of Christ stops the hand of justice, and
is a perfect defence to the sinner who is sheltered by it.

Hab. 2:3 . —“For the vision [ is deferred ] for an appointed time,” which word is clearly
implied in the following sentence. See also Mal. 1:10 .

Luke 1:17 . —“And [ the hearts of the ] disobedient to the wisdom of the just.”

Luke 22:36 . —The Greek reads, “He that hath not, let him sell his garment and buy a
sword.” Here the A.V. boldly, correctly, and idiomatically supplies the Ellipsis in the first
member from the following sentence:—“He that hath no sword, let him sell his garment
and buy one” (see on Luke 22:37 above).

John 6:32 . —“Moses gave you not that bread from heaven,” i.e. , “that [ true ] bread,”
from the succeeding clause: “But my Father giveth you the true bread from heaven.”
John 6:35 . —“I am the bread of life: he that cometh to me shall never hunger; and he
that believeth on me shall never thirst.” The exquisite English of this can never be
improved. As an idiomatic version it is perfect. The R.V. in attempting a more literal
translation is very lame: “not hunger” and “never thirst.” If we are to be literal, we must
supply the Ellipsis by repeating the word ( p pote ), at any time , from the end of
the verse. Both Versions practically ignore it by including it in the word “never.”

“He that cometh to me shall in no wise hunger [ at any time ]; and he that believeth
on me shall in no wise thirst at any time,” i.e. , “never,” as expressed thus in both
sentences in the A.V.

It is very instructive to note that the negative here is most emphatic, a doubled
negative, which signifies, by no means, in no wise, in no case; and it is very solemn to
notice that whenever it was used by man, man was never able to make good his
asseveration, e.g., Peter , in Matt. 16:22 , said, “This shall not be unto thee,” but it was.
Again in 26:35 he said, “Yet will I not deny thee,” and in Mark 14:31 , “I will not deny
thee in any wise,” but Peter did deny the Lord Jesus! His enemies , in John 11:56 ,
declared, “He will not come to the feast,” but He did! Peter , in John 13:8 , declared,
“Thou shalt never wash my feet,” but Jesus did! Thomas , in John 20:25 , declared, “I
will not believe,” but he did, and that without fulfilling his condition! * On the other
hand, how sure, how true, how certain are the declarations of the Lord Jesus when made
with this same positiveness. Among others note:—

Matt. 5:18 . “One jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law till all be

Matt. 5:20 . “Except your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the scribes
and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.”

Luke 22:34 . “The cock shall not crow this day.” John 13:38 .

John 6:37 . “Him that cometh unto me, I will in no wise cast out,” i.e. , no never,
no never cast out.

Heb. 8:12 . “Their sins and their iniquities will I remember no more,” i.e. , in no
wise will I remember any more.

Heb. 13:5 . “I will never leave thee nor forsake thee.”

1 Pet. 2:6 . “He that believeth on him shall not be confounded.” *

* In all this we have a solemn warning to let our yea be yea, and our nay nay ( Matt. 5:37
John 9:2 . —“And his disciples asked him, saying, Master, who did sin, this man [ that
he is blind ], or his parents, that he was born blind?” (See above, page 101 ).

John 12:25 . —“He that loveth his life shall lose it; and he that hateth his life in this
world shall keep it unto life eternal.”

Here two expressions are to be repeated from the latter clause, in the former:—“He
that loveth his life [ in this world ] shall lose it [ unto eternity ].”

Acts 2:3 . —“And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon
each of them,” i.e., the Holy Spirit , as is clear from the next verse.

The verse may be rendered:—“And there appeared unto them, distributed, tongues
like as of fire; and he [ the Holy Ghost ] sat (or dwelt) upon each of them.” The tongues
were not divided into two parts, as suggested by the popular term “cloven tongues,” but
they were divided, or distributed, among the Twelve.

Acts 7:59 . —“And they stoned Stephen, calling upon God , and saying, Lord Jesus,
receive my spirit.”

The Greek reads, “calling upon and saying.” There is evidently an Ellipsis after the
verb “calling upon,” which the A.V. supplies with the word “ God .” The R.V. supplies
the word “ Lord .”

The meaning is clear, that Stephen being full of the Holy Ghost addressed his prayer
to Christ, and his words were “Lord Jesus, receive my spirit.” Both words must therefore
be repeated thus:—“calling upon the Lord Jesus and saying [ Lord Jesus ] receive my
spirit.” By this Ellipsis the emphasis is thrown on the act of invocation and shows that
this act of prayer was addressed to the Lord Jesus, i.e. , Lord, who art Jesus: or, Jesus
who art the Lord.

Where two substantives are placed together in the same gender, number and case, the
latter is in apposition to, and is explanatory of the former; or, there is an Ellipsis of the
words of explanation, “that is to say,” or “that is.” Sometimes this is supplied by the A.V.
and sometimes it is not. See Deut. 22:8 , “a damsel that is a virgin.” Judges 11:1 , margin,
“ a woman an harlot .” Gen. 13:8 , margin, “ men brethren .” Num. 32:14 , “an increase
of sinful men,” the Hebrew reads:—“an increase of men who are sinners.” Matt. 18:23 ,
“a certain King”; Greek, “a man that is a King,” as in 20:1 , where the Ellipsis is

For other examples see John 4:14 ; 8:12 ; 10:28 . Rom. 4:8 . 1 Thess. 4:15 ; 5:3 . Heb.
10:17 . 2 Pet. 1:10 . Rev. 3:12 , etc.

All these are the immutable promises and purposes of the living God, and though we
are to “cease from man, whose breath is in his nostrils,” the word of the Lord endureth
for ever. See further under the figure called Repeated Negation , below.
supplied, “a man that is an householder.” Luke 2:15 , margin, 24:19 , “a prophet”; Greek,
“a man that is a prophet.” Acts 2:29 , “men and brethren”; Greek, “Men who are
brethren,” and verse 22 , “men of Israel”; Greek, “men who are Israelites.” So here, Acts
7:59 , “Lord, who art Jesus”—compare Rev. 22:20 .

Rom. 2:12 . —“For as many as have sinned without law, shall perish also without [ being
judged by ] law: and as many as have sinned in the law (or under law) shall be judged by
the law.”

Rom. 2:28 , 29 is an elliptical passage in the Greek, which the A.V. covers by a free

Adhering to the order and literal meaning of the words in the original, we must
translate and supply as follows:—

“For not he that [ is a Jew ] outwardly, is a Jew, neither that which [ is circumcision ]
outwardly in the flesh, is circumcision; but he that [ is a Jew ] inwardly, is a dew, and
circumcision of heart in the spirit and not in the letter [ is circumcision ].”

Rom. 4:13 . —This verse is translated very freely in the A.V. Following the R.V. , we
may supply the Ellipsis from the end of the verse, which it has missed:—“For not through
[ righteousness of ] law was the promise [ made ] to Abraham, or to his seed, that he
should be the heir of the world, but through righteousness of faith.”

Rom. 5:16 . —“Also not as [ the judgment or sentence came ] through one that sinned [ is
] the free gift: for the judgment ( ) [ was ] after one [ transgression ] unto
condemnation ( ); but the free gift is after many offences unto ( i.e. ,
a righteous acquittal).” (See below, page 111 ).

N.B.—It is not ( dikaiosunee ) which is the attribute of righteousness; nor

is it ( dikaiösis ) which is the act of the Judge in justifying; but it is (
dikai ma ) which is the outcome of the act, the just thing done.

1 Cor. 1:26 , 27 . —“For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not many wise men after
the flesh, not many mighty, not many noble are called , but God hath chosen the foolish
things of the world to confound the wise,” etc.

Here the words “ are called ” are repeated from the preceding clause, but “ are
chosen,” i.e., to confound , etc., might be supplied from the succeeding clause. (See
above page 58 ).

1 Cor. 5:4 , 5 . —we must supply in verse 4 the verb “to deliver” from verse 5 :—

“[ To deliver ] in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ (ye, and my spirit, being gathered
together, with the power of our Lord Jesus Christ), to deliver [ I say ] such an one unto
Satan for the destruction of the flesh, that the spirit may be saved in the day of the Lord

1 Cor. 6:12 . —“All [ meats (from verse 13 )] are lawful unto me [ to eat ], but all are not
profitable; (see 10:33 ) all [ meats ] are lawful for me [ to eat ], but I will not be brought
under the power of any [ meat ]. Compare 10:23 .

1 Cor. 14:22 . —“But prophesying [ is for a sign (from previous sentence)] not for them
that believe not, but for them which believe.”

1 Cor. 15:47 . —“The first man is of the earth, earthy: the second man, the Lord from
heaven, [ is heavenly (from verse 48 ).” See above on Acts 7:59 , as to these two nouns,
“the second man [ who is ] the Lord.”

2 Cor. 5:10 . —“That every one may receive the things done in his body, according to
that he hath done, whether good or bad.”

Here the verb “ done ” is correctly supplied from the succeeding clause.

Eph. 2:1 . —There is evidently an Ellipsis in this verse; which has been variously
supplied by translators; the usual mode being to Supply the words from a succeeding
clause (verse 5 ) as in the A.V. So in the R.V. , “did he quicken.” But it is worth
consideration whether it may not be supplied from 1:19 , 20 , “the exceeding greatness of
his power to us-ward, who believe, according to the working of his mighty power, which
he wrought in Christ when he raised him from the dead …. and you [ when you were
raised in Him, and quickened with Him ] were dead in trespasses and sins,” etc.

It may also be supplied by repeating the verb from 1:23 , “Which is his body, the
fulness of him which filleth all [ his saints ] with all [ spiritual gifts ]. And you [ hath he
thus filled ] who were dead in trespasses and sins “(chap. 2:1 ): , “and
you when ye were,” must be compared with verse 5 , , “and we when
we were.” This points to the use of the verb “quickened” in each case.

Phil. 3:13 . —“Brethren, I count not myself to have apprehended [ the prize (from verse
14 )]: but this one thing I do , forgetting those things which are behind [ me ], and
reaching forth unto those things which are before [ me ], etc.”

2 Tim. 1:5 . —“When I call to remembrance the unfeigned faith that is in thee.”

There is no verb in the Greek, and the words that is should have been placed in italics
. The Greek reads, “Taking remembrance of the unfeigned faith [ dwelling in thee (from
the succeeding clause)], which dwelt first in thy grandmother Lois, and thy mother
Eunice, and I am persuaded that [ it dwelleth ] in thee also.” Here it is repeated from the
preceding clause.
Tit. 2:2 . —“That the aged men be sober, grave, etc.” Supply the verb “ exhort ” from
verse 6 here, and also in verses 4 and 9 :—“[ Exhort ] that the aged men be sober, etc.”

Heb. 8:1 . —“We have such an high priest, who is set on the right hand of the throne of
the Majesty in the heavens,” i.e. , “such a high priest [ as became us ]” (from 7:26 ).

II. Complex: Where both Clauses are Involved

An abbreviated form of expression, in which an Ellipsis in the first of two members has
to be supplied from the second, and at the same time an Ellipsis in the second member
has to be supplied from the first.

Simple Ellipsis puts one member, and leaves the other to be inferred.

Complex Ellipsis puts two members, and implies two others, and these two are
interchanged. Hence this figure has been called “ Semiduplex Oratio ,” i.e. , semi-double

1. Where SINGLE WORDS are involved

Prov. 10:1 . —“A wise son maketh a glad father: but a foolish son is the heaviness of his

Here the word “father” in the former clause is to be understood in the latter; and the
word “mother” in the latter clause is to be understood in the former. For a wise son is a
joy to a mother as well as to a father, and a foolish son is a heaviness to a father as well
as to a mother.

See also chaps. 15:20 ; 17:25 ; 23:24 ; 30:17 .

Matt. 23:29 . —“Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! because ye build the
tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous.”

Here the word “build” refers also to the “sepulchres” of the latter clause; and the
word “garnish” refers also to the word “tombs” of the former clause.

I.e. , ye not only build the tombs of the prophets, but ye garnish them: ye not only
garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, but ye build them.

Rom. 5:16 . —“And not as it was by one that sinned so is the gift: for the judgment was
by one to condemnation, but the free gift is of many offences unto justification.”

There is evidently an Ellipsis here, as is shown by the italics employed in the A.V.
and the R.V. But the question is, Is the omission correctly supplied? We submit the
following, treating the first clause as a complex Ellipsis:—
“And not, as [ the judgment came ] by one that sinned, [ does ] the free gift [ come by
one who was righteous ]: for the judgment [ was death ] after one [ offence ] to
condemnation, but the free gift [ is pardon ] after many offences, unto justification;” i.e. ,
Adam brought the judgment of death by one sin, Christ by bearing that judgment, brought
life and pardon for many sins. (See above, page 108 ).

Rom. 10:10 . —“With the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth
confession is made unto salvation.”

Here “righteousness” is to be understood in the latter clause, as well as “salvation”;

and “salvation” is to be understood in the former clause, as well as “righteousness.”
Moreover “confession” must be made with the heart as well as with the mouth; and
righteousness includes salvation. The full completion of the sense is:—“With the heart
man believeth unto righteousness [ and salvation ] and with [ the heart and ] the mouth
confession is made unto [ righteousness and ] salvation.”

2. Where SENTENCES are involved

Ps. 1:6 . —“For the LORD knoweth the way of the righteous; but the way of the ungodly
shall perish.”

In the former sentence we have the cause , in the latter the effect . But both effect and
cause are latent in each statement: “The LORD knoweth the way of the righteous [ and it
shall not perish ], but [ the LORD knoweth ] the way of the ungodly [ and it ] shall perish.”

Ps. 42:8 . —“The LORD will command his loving kindness in the daytime and in the
night his song shall be with me.”

Here the Ellipsis is insufficiently supplied by the words, “ shall be .” The Ellipsis is
complex, and to be understood thus:—The LORD will command his loving kindness [ and
his song with me ] in the daytime, and in the night also [ he will command his loving
kindness and ] his song.

Isa. 32:3 . —“And the eyes of them that see shall not be dim, [ and they shall see ]: and
the ears of them that hear shall [ not be dull, but ] hearken.”

John 5:21 . —“For like as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them; even so
the Son quickeneth whom he will.”

Here the Ellipsis is treated as being Simple, instead of Complex, and is supplied by
the word “ them .” But the words “raiseth up the dead” in the former clause are latent in
the latter, while the words “whom he will” in the latter clause are latent in the former,

“For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth [ whom he will ]; even so the
Son [ raiseth up the dead, and ] quickeneth whom he will].”
Or according to the Greek, “So THE SON also.”

John 8:28 . —“I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these
things;” i.e. , “Of myself I do nothing [ nor speak ]; but I speak these things as the Father
hath taught me, [ and I do them ].”

See a similar illustration in verse 38 .

John 14:10 . —“The words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father
that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works.”

This complex Ellipsis must be understood as follows:—“The words which I speak

unto you, I speak not of myself, [ but the Father that dwelleth in me, he speaketh them ]:
and [ the works which I do, I do not of myself ], but the Father that dwelleth in me, he
doeth the works.”

John 17:26 . —“And I have declared unto them thy name, and will declare it: that the
love wherewith thou hast loved me may be in them, and I in them,” i.e. , “And I have
declared to them thy name, and will declare [ thy love ]: that the love wherewith thou hast
loved me may be in them, and I [ and my love ] may be in them.”

Rom. 6:4 . —“Therefore we are buried with him by baptism into death: that like as Christ
was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father,” etc.

The complex Ellipsis here may be thus worked out: “Therefore we are buried with
him by His baptism-unto-death [ and raised again from the dead ], that like as Christ was
[ buried and ] raised again from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also
should walk in newness of life.” (See pages 18 , 19 , on the context of this passage).

Heb. 12:20 . —“And if so much as a beast touch the mountain, it shall be stoned, or
thrust through with a dart.” In Ex. 19:13 , the text is, “There shall not a hand touch it, for
he shall surely be stoned or shot through with a dart; whether it be man or beast, he shall
not live.”

Here the man was to be stoned and the beast shot. In the MSS. words have been
gratuitously inserted by transcribers to make sense, in ignorance of the complex Ellipsis.
The sense is made clear thus:—

“And if so much as [ a man or ] a beast touch the mountain—[ if a man touch ] it, he
shall be stoned [ and if a beast touch it, it shall be ] thrust through with a dart.”


THERE are not only many instances where the Ellipses which exist in the original have
been incorrectly supplied in the translation: but there are cases also of italics being
inserted, where there is really no Ellipsis in the original.
In these cases the italics have been necessitated by the faulty translation, and not by
the Text.

We give a few examples, arising from various causes:

Gen 37:12 , 13 . —“And his brethren went to feed their father’s flock in Shechem. And
Israel said unto Joseph, Do not thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem?”

The Massorah gives the words rendered “their father’s flock” as one of the fifteen
dotted words, * i.e. , words which ought to be cancelled in reading, though they have not
been removed from the Text. If these words are removed, then the inference is that they
had gone to feed themselves and make merry, and the words “ the flock ” in verse 13
need not be inserted in italics.

Num. 16:1 . —The last word “ men ” is necessitated by having put the verb “took” out of
its place. There is no Ellipsis. The verse reads that “Korah … and Dathan and Abiram …
and On took the sons of Reuben.” Or that Korah … took Dathan … and Abiram … and
On, the son of Peleth, the son † of Reuben.

Deut. 29:29 . —“The secret things belong unto the Lord our God, but those things which
are revealed belong unto us and to our children for ever, that we may do all the words of
this law.”

The italics thus supplied make excellent sense in English, but this is not the sense of
the Hebrew.

The Massorah gives the words, “to the LORD our God,” as being one of fifteen
examples in which the words are dotted and which are therefore to be cancelled in
reading. ‡ If these words be removed the sense will be, “The secret things and the
revealed things are for us and for our children for ever, that we may do all the words of
this law,” i.e. , the secret things which have not been, but will yet be revealed. Compare
chap. 30:11–14 .

Deut. 32:34 , 35 . —Here, in verse 35 , the word “ belongeth ” is inserted in italic type
through reading the Hebrew ( lee ) as being the preposition and pronoun “ to me .” But
the ( yod ) is really the abbreviation of the word ( y m ) day , * as is clear from the
Targum of Onkelos, the Samaritan Pentateuch, and the Septuagint translation Taking,
then, ( lee ) as being an abbreviation of ( l’yom ) for the day , the four lines form

* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , pp. 320, 325. Also The Massorah , by the same author
and publisher.
† According to the Samaritan Pentateuch and the Septuagint Version and a few MSS.
‡ See Ginsburg’s Introduction , pp. 370, 572.
* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , Part II., chap. v., pp. 165–170.
an alternate correspondence: the first line reading on consecutively with the third, and the
second with the fourth, thus:—
a Is not this laid up in store with me,

b Sealed up in my treasuries

a For the day of vengeance and recompense,

b For the time when their foot shall slip?

Here, b is in a parenthesis with respect to a and a , while a is in a parenthesis with

respect to b and b ; and the passage really reads thus as regards the actual sense; “Is not
this laid up in store with me for the day of vengeance and recompense:

“Sealed up in my treasuries for the time when their foot shall slide?”

The word ( l’y m ), for the day , corresponds with ( l’ath ), for the time .

The R.V. renders the last two lines, “Vengeance is mine and recompense, at the time
when their foot shall slide.”

Josh. 24:17 . —“For the LORD our God, He it is that brought us up and our fathers out of
the land of Egypt.” Here the two words “ it is ” are supplied in italics, because it is not
observed that there is an Homœoteleuton § ( q.v. ) in the Hebrew Text; i.e. , the Scribe
having written the word “He” omitted the next word “ is God,” his eye going back to a
second “He” which follows it. This is clear from the fact that the words “ is God” are
preserved in the Septuagint translation.

The passage therefore reads, “For the LORD our God, He is God, He brought us up,
etc.,” thus emphasizing the pronoun “He” by Repetition ( q.v. ).

1 Sam. 24:9 , 10 . —“David said to Saul … some bade me kill thee, but mine eye spared
thee.” The Hebrew Text as it now stands is ( vattachas ) but she spared thee . This
yields no sense, so the A.V. and R.V. have followed the Vulgate and inserted “ mine eye
” in italics. But Dr. Ginsburg points out * that in all probability in the transcription of the
Text from the ancient Phœnician characters into the square characters, (which is ) was
mistaken for (which is ) and so , she spared , was written instead of ,I
spared . There can be no question that this was the primitive reading as it is preserved in
the LXX. Chaldee, and Syriac.

§ See Ginsburg’s Introduction , Part II. chap. vi. pp. 171–182.

* Introduction , pp. 291, 292.
2 Sam. 1:18 . —“He bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it
is written in the book of dasher.”

Here the words supplied are manifestly incorrect. It should be, “He commanded them
to teach the children of Judah ‘The Bow,’ or [ this Song of ] ‘The Bow,’ behold, it is
written in the book of Jashar,” i.e., the upright , a book of national songs, probably, but of
which nothing is known. It is clear that this song of David’s had not already been written
in that book, but he gave directions that it should be there written. See also Josh. 10:13 .

2 Sam. 1:21 . —“For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of Saul,
as though he had not been anointed with oil.”

The italics are wrongly supplied through not knowing that ( b’lee ) not should be
( k’lee ) weapons .

With this emendation the verse reads:—

“For there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away,

The shield of Saul, the weapons anointed with oil,”

or, “The weapons of him anointed with oil.”

1 Kings 20:33 . —“Now the men did diligently observe whether anything would come
from him, and did hastily catch it.”

The A.V. is a loose paraphrase. The R.V. indicates the difficulty. In the Eastern
Recension the words are divided differently from the Textus Receptus , ‡ and should be

“Now the men divined and hasted [ i.e. , by Hendiadys ( q.v. ) quickly divined ( his
drift )] and they pressed whether it was from him, and they said, etc.”

Neh. 4:12 . —“They said unto us ten times, from all places whence ye shall return unto
us, [ they will be upon you ],” margin, “ that from all places ye must return to us .”

This is the reading of the first Edition of the Hebrew Bible, Soncino, 1488; also of the
Syriac and Arabic Versions, and the Chaldee paraphrase. The mistake of for could be
easily made.

See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 144.

‡ See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 438.

The R.V. puts the margin of A.V. in the Text, and the Text in the margin.

It appears that it is not a case in which the apodosis is to be supplied, but it may be
taken literally. “They said unto us ten times, From all places ye shall return unto us.”

Ps. 1:4 . —“The ungodly are not so.” Lit., “Not so the ungodly.”

The structure of the Psalm shows that

Verse 1 corresponds with verse 5 .

Verse 2 corresponds with verse 4 –.

Verse 3 corresponds with verse – 4 .

Verses 1–3 concerning the godly.

Verses 4 and 5 the ungodly.


A 1–3 . The godly

B 4 , 5 . The ungodly

A 6 –. The godly

B – 6 . The ungodly

The first two may be expanded thus:—

The godly.
A a 1 . Their blessing (not standing with the ungodly now)

Their way.
b 2 . Their character

c 3 . Comparison

The ungodly.
Their way.
B b 4 –. Their character

c – 4 . Comparison
a 5 . Their punishment (not standing with the godly in the judgment)

Therefore verse 4 corresponds with verse 2 ; and verse 2 must be understood , if not
supplied, thus:—“Not so the ungodly: their delight is not in the law of the LORD , neither
do they meditate in His law, etc.”

For the Ellipsis in verse 5 see page 82 .

Ps. 2:12 . —“And ye perish from the way.” R.V. “and ye perish in the way.”

There is no “ in ” or “ from ” in the Hebrew: it is literally, “and ye lose the way.” To

lose the way is a Hebrew idiom for perishing , or being lost . It ought either to be
translated literally, “and ye lose the way,” or idiomatically, “ and ye be lost , ” or, “ and
ye perish .” Psalm 1 ends with the perishing of “ the way , ” and Psalm 2 ends with the
perishing of those who refuse to walk in it , by submitting themselves to the Son. “ Kiss ,
” Ps. 2:12 , is the same as “ be ruled by ” in Gen. 41:40 , margin.

Ps. 10:3 . —“For the wicked boasteth of his heart’s desire, and blesseth the covetous
whom the LORD abhorreth.” Margin, “and the covetous blesseth himself, he abhorreth the
Lord .”

The struggles of the Revisers to make sense of the present Hebrew Text may be seen
in their rendering:

“For the wicked boasteth of his heart’s desire, and the covetous renounceth, yea ,
contemneth the LORD .” Margin, “and blesseth the covetous, but revileth the LORD .”

The simple fact is that this is one of the passages altered by the Sopherim through a
mistaken reverence, in order to avoid the uttering of the words involving a curse on
Jehovah. But in this case, having altered “he blasphemeth” into “he blesseth,” the word
“blesseth” they did not remove it from the text. Hence both words now stand in the
printed text, which is as follows:

“For the wicked boasteth of his heart’s desire; and the robber blesseth, blasphemeth
the LORD .” *

If we simply remove the word “blesseth,” we have the primitive text without more
ado, and have no need to supply any Ellipsis .

Ps. 19:3 . —“ There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.”

Here the word “ where ” seems to be unnecessarily supplied. The R.V. omits it. The
sense appears to be, as expressed in the margin, “ without these their voice is heard.” That
is to say, with regard to the heavens “[ they have ] no speech nor language; their voice is

* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 365.

not heard,” and yet they do utter speech, they do declare knowledge; and their words go
forth through all the earth. †

Ps. 27:13 . —“ I had fainted unless I had believed to see the goodness of the LORD in the
land of the living.”

The words, “ I had fainted ,” both in the A.V. and R.V. , are an arbitrary addition in
order to make sense.

The difficulty arises from disregarding the fact that the word “unless” is dotted in the
printed text, and should be cancelled in reading. It is cancelled in the LXX. Syriac and
Vulgate, and the clause should be rendered:

“I believe that I shall see the goodness of the LORD in the land of the living.” *

Ps. 68:16 . —“Why leap ye, ye high hills? This is the hill which God desireth to dwell

Here, by taking ( ratzad ) as meaning to leap , the sense has been obscured, and
then the attempt is made to clear it by the use of the italics.

occurs only here, and is an Arabic word, which means to look askance at , or to
envy , and the verse reads naturally: “Why do ye envy, O ye high hills, the hill God
desired for His seat?” i.e. , Sinai, see verse 17 . The R.V. agrees with this.

Ps. 69:4 . —“They that would destroy me, being mine enemies wrongfully.”

The Syriac supplies a letter ( ), thus giving the reading, “ more than my bones ,”
instead of “they that would destroy me being ,” etc. So that the verse reads:

“They that hate me without a cause are more than the hairs of my head;

“They that are mine enemies falsely are more than my bones.”

Ps. 69:20 ( 21 ). —“I looked for some to take pity, but there was none; and for
comforters, but I found none.”

Translated more closely with the Chaldee, Septuagint, Syriac, and Vulgate, we may
dispense with the italics:—

“I looked for a sympathizer, but there was none. And for comforters, but I found

† See The Witness of the Stars (by the same author and publisher), pp. 4–6.
* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 333.
Ps. 75:5 ( 6 ). —“Lift not up your horn on high: speak not with a stiff neck.”

Here, owing to the fact that quiescent letters are sometimes inserted and sometimes
omitted in the Heb. text, the ( aleph ) is inserted in the word ( b’tzur ) rock ,
making it ( b’tzavvahr ) neck . The LXX. evidently read it as rock , without the
aleph , and the passage ought to read without the italics:—

“Do not exalt your horn toward heaven, nor speak arrogantly of the Rock.”

Ps. 118:5 . —“I called upon JAH in distress: Jehovah answered me, and set me in a large
place.” According to the Western Recension of the Heb. text (which the Textus Receptus
follows) ( Bammerchavyah ) is one word, and means in a large place , and
hence, with freedom or with deliverance (compare Hos. 4:16 , Ps. 31:8 ). But according to
the Eastern Recension the reading is presented in two words , * and the verse
should be rendered:

“I called upon JAH in my distress. He answered me with the deliverance of JAH .”

It will be noted that both the A.V. and R.V. ignore the Textus Receptus , and not only
divide the word into two, but remove it from the end to the beginning of the line.
Consequently they have to supply the sense with the italics, “ and set me .”

Ps. 126:3 . —“ Whereof we are glad.” Here the word “ whereof ” is unnecessary.

The structure gives:—

a 2 –. Our gladness.

b – 2 . The LORD’S great things.

b 3 –. The LORD’S great things.

a – 3 . Our gladness.

Or fully thus:—
a 2 –. Then was our mouth filled with laughter and our tongue with singing.

b – 2 . Then said they among the heathen, The LORD hath done great things for

b 3 –. The LORD hath done great things for us:

a – 3 . We are glad.

* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , pp. 385, 386.

It will be seen how a answers to a, and b to b.

Ps. 127:2 . —“ It is vain for you to rise up early, to sit up late, to eat the bread of sorrows;
for so he giveth his beloved sleep.”

Here the word “ for ” is unnecessarily introduced, creating a confusion of thought and
hiding the meaning. Translated correctly, the sense is perfect without any human
addition. The word “so,” is thus, in this manner . It refers to what follows, viz. , to the
Lord’s way of giving in contrast to man’s way of “works.” God’s spiritual blessings are
not obtained by incessant labour—rising early and sitting up late, nor by painful and
sorrowful effort. “Thus He giveth”—this is the way He giveth to His beloved—How?
“sleeping” or while they sleep. ( sheynah ) is an adverbial accusative, meaning “ in
sleep .”

It was in this way He gave His wondrous gifts to Solomon. His name was ( )“
Yedidiah , ” i.e., beloved of Jehovah ( 2 Sam. 12:25 ). The word here is also Yedeed,
i.e., beloved . And this Psalm relates to Solomon, as we learn from the Title. Solomon
knew by a blessed experience how God gave to him His richest blessings while he was
“sleeping” ( 1 Kings 3:3–15 ). Even so He gave to Adam a Bride ( Gen. 2:21 , 22 ); to
Abram, the everlasting Covenant ( Gen. 15:12–16 ), and to Jedidiah “His beloved,”
wisdom, riches and honour. “Thus He giveth to His beloved while they sleep” when they
are helpless and are unable to put forth any effort of works, by which to earn the blessing,
and in which the flesh might glory before God. ( 1 Cor. 1:29 .)

How wondrously He gives! E’en while we sleep—

When we from all our “works” have ceased, and rest;

And He our life doth mercifully keep,

Then, without works, are His beloved blest. *

Yes! “His beloved”! lovèd not because

Of any work which we have ever done; †

But loved in perfect grace, “without a cause”: ‡

* Rom. 11:6 .
† Tit. 3:5 .
‡ Rom. 3:24 . “Being justified freely by His grace.” The word “freely” here is the same
word ( ) d rean as in John 15:25 , where it is rendered “without a cause.” (“They
hated me without a cause”). There was absolutely no cause why our blessed Lord Jesus
This is the source whence all our blessings come.

He gives in sleep! In vain we toil and strive—

And rise up early and so late take rest:

But, while our powers in sweetest sleep revive,

And we abandon all our anxious quest—

Then He bestows His gifts of grace on us,

And where we’ve never sown, He makes us reap

A harvest, full of richest blessing. “Thus

He gives to His belovèd while they sleep.”

Song Sol. 8:6 . —“For love is strong as death: jealousy is cruel as the grave: the coals
thereof are coals of fire, which hath a most vehement flame.” This last sentence is the
rendering of one word in the Textus Receptus ( Shalhebethyah ), but,
according to the Eastern Recension, and several early editions, it is divided into two
words, “ the flames of Jah .” Hence the sense is:

“Love is strong as death.

Affection is inexorable as Hades.

Its flames are flames of fire.

The flames of Jah.” §

The second and fourth lines are the intensification of the first and third.

The R.V. renders the last line, “A very flame of the LORD .”

Ezek. 22:20 . —“As they gather silver, and brass, and iron, and lead, and tin, into the
midst of the furnace, to blow the fire upon it, to melt it: so will I gather you in mine anger
and in my fury, and I will leave you there and melt you.”

It will be noticed that this last sentence is a non sequitur , both as to rhythm and
parallelism. The R.V. is no clearer: “And I will lay you there.”

was “hated.” Even so it is with regard to our justification:—“Being justified without a

cause by His grace.”
§ See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 386.
The fact is that the letter ( Pe ) in ( v’hippachtee ), in the ancient and
primitive text was mistaken for ( nun ), (owing to the similarity of the Phœnician
characters, when transcribed into the more modern square characters); and thus I will
blow became I will leave , and then the two words, “ you there ,” had to be supplied in
order to make sense. * The parallelism is thus beautifully perfect:
a As they gather …

b to blow …

c to melt it:

a So will I gather …

b and I will blow

c and melt you.

It will be seen how the words, “I will leave,” mar this structure.

Hos. 4:7 . —“As they were increased, so they sinned against me: therefore will I change
their glory into shame.”

The word “therefore” is inserted by the translators; who did not know that this is one
of the eighteen emendations of the Sopherim † by which the primitive text, “my glory,”
by the change of one letter ( for ) became “their glory,” and the first person became
the third. The original text stood:—

“As they increased, so they sinned against me:

They have changed my glory into shame;

They eat up,” etc.

A like alteration was made in Jer. 2:11 , and very anciently; for it is followed by the
LXX. , the ancient versions, and A.V. and R.V. It should be “my glory,” not “their

Jonah 3:9 . —“Who can tell if God will turn and repent, and turn away from his fierce
anger, that we perish not?”

Here it is not necessary to put the word “ if ” in italics. The Hebrew idiom, in the
formula or expression ( mee y deah ) means who knoweth? in the sense of no

* See Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 294.

† See Appendix E : and Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 357.
one knows whether, or no one knows but that (see Ps. 90:11 . Ecc. 2:19 ; 3:21 ; 6:12 ; 8:1
. Joel 2:14 ). The R.V. translates Jonah 3:9 as the A.V. renders Ecc. 2:19 , “who knoweth
whether” (without italics).

Ralph Venning * beautifully expresses the theology of this and similar passages † in
the following lines:—

“But stay! Is God like one of us? Can He,

When He hath said it, alter His decree?

Denouncèd judgment God doth oft prevent,

But neither changeth counsel nor intent;

The voice of heaven doth seldom threat perdition,

But with express or an implied condition:

So that, if Nineveh return from ill,

God turns His hand: He doth not turn His will.”

Mal. 3:9 . —“Ye are cursed with a curse: for ye have robbed me, even this whole
nation.” This must be added to the eighteen emendations of the Sopherim. ‡

The primitive text was, “Ye have cursed me with a curse.” The active was changed
into the passive by putting for .

Matt. 20:23 . —“To sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give, but it shall
be given to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.”

This supply of the Ellipsis has caused much confusion. The R.V. also unnecessarily
inserts “but it is for them for whom it is prepared of my Father.”

The passage reads:—“To sit on my right hand, and on my left, is not mine to give but
[ it is already given ] to them for whom it is prepared of my Father.”

Mark 11:13 . —“And seeing a fig-tree afar off having leaves, he came, if haply he might
find anything thereon: and when he came to it, he found nothing but leaves; for the time
of figs was not yet .”

* Orthodox Paradoxes , 1650–1660 A.D.

† Such as 2 Chron. 34:19–21 . Isa. 39:5 , 8 .
‡ See Appendix E : and Ginsburg’s Introduction , p. 363.
Here, want of accuracy in the translation has created a difficulty, and the word “ yet ”
has been added, in order to meet it. Want of attention to the full meaning of the Greek has
led to alterations of the Text itself by various copyists: for man is always ready to assume
anything to be at fault, except his own understanding.

The last clause, by the figure of HYPERBATON ( q.v. ), is put out of its grammatical
order; for the purpose of calling attention to it, and to complete the structure (see below).
Naturally, it would follow the word “thereon.” The word “for” introduces the explanation
of “if haply.” It does not give the reason why He found nothing, but the reason why it
was doubtful.

The R.V. translates literally, “for it was not-the season of figs:” but still leaves the
difficulty of Jesus going to find figs when it was not the fig-season.

There are two or three points to be noted:

The word ( kairos ) means not “time,” which is ( chronos ), but a

limited portion of time , and always with the idea of suitability; hence, the right time,
proper season, stated season , when the thing referred to comes to a head, or crisis.
Hence, applied to a tree, it denotes the ordinary and regular fruit-season of that tree. *
The Passover did not occur at the proper fig-season; but figs remained on the trees (dried)
right through the winter. These, which could generally be found, were called ( pag ).
The name is preserved in the word Bethphage ( , for , house of figs ).
At the time of the Passover, such figs might well have been looked for.

The Lord went to see “if consequently ( ) he might find anything thereon.” It
was “if consequently,” because “it was not the proper season of figs” ( , suka : not
, olunthoi , as the others were called, and for which He sought).

We must also remember that in the East all fruit trees were enclosed in gardens, and
had an owner. This tree, though, by the roadside ( Matt. 21:19 ) must have been enclosed,
and as it grew over the wall, passers by might partake of the fruit. But the owner had
probably shaken the fruit off, or gathered it himself, and hence deserved the judgment
which came upon him (see Lev. 19:9 , 10 ; 23:22 . Deut. 24:19–21 ). This is one of the
two miracles of destruction wrought by Jesus: and we know that in the other case the
owners of the swine were justly punished.

The miracle has its prophetic teaching for us. In the preceding verse we read how
Jesus went into the temple, and “looked round about upon all things,” and went out to
Bethany. In the morning He destroyed this tree on His way to the cleansing of the
Temple; after which (verse 17 ) He taught them, saying, “Is it not written, My house shall
be called a house of prayer for all the nations? but ye have made it a den of robbers” (

* It is interesting to note that in modern Greek, the word ( kairos ), season , has
come to mean “ weather ”; while ( chronos ) time , is now used not merely of
time, but “ year .”
R.V. ). The fruit of such a tree was for all who passed by ( Deut. 23:24 ): but it did not
answer its end, and it was destroyed. In like manner that House, which through the greed
of man had failed to fulfil its purpose, Would be destroyed as that fig-tree had been.

The verse then reads thus: “And seeing a fig-tree afar off, having leaves, he went if
consequently anything [ i.e. ( olunthoi ), dried figs ] he should find on it:
for it was not the time of figs ( , suka ): and oncoming up to it, nothing found he
save leaves.” The explanatory clause (though it belongs to the former clause, as here
rendered) is put last to complete the structure which is as follows:—

Structure of the passage ( Mark 11:13 ).

A And seeing a fig-tree afar off

B having leaves,

C a he came,

b if haply he might find anything thereon:

C a and when he came to it,

b he found nothing

B but leaves only,

A for it was not the proper season of figs.

The subjects correspond thus:—

A Fig-tree.

B Leaves.

C a Coming.

b Finding.

C a Coming.

b Finding.

B Leaves.

A Figs.
John 8:6 . —Here the A.V. has given an addition which pertains rather to the expositor
than to the Translator:

“But Jesus stooped down, and with his finger wrote on the ground as though he heard
them not .”

It is impossible to know all the motives of the Lord Jesus in this act; but, judging
from Eastern habits of to-day, there was a silent contempt and an impressive rebuke
implied in this inattention to their insincere charge.

Rom. 1:7 and 1 Cor. 1:2 —“Called to be saints,”.

Rom. 1:1 , and 1 Cor. 1:1 . —“Called to be an apostle.”

It is a question whether there is any ellipsis here, or whether it is correctly supplied.

The Greek is ( kleetois hagiois ). But we have these same words in the
Septuagint translation of Lev. 23:2 , which throws light upon the expression. “Speak unto
the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD , which ye
shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.” The LXX. translates
the words “holy convocations,” ( kleetas hagias ), i.e. , assemblies by
special calling as holy to the Lord. Hence, in the New Testament expressions the
meaning is the same, i.e., saints by the calling of God, or by Divine calling: viz. , those
who have been Divinely selected and appointed as saints. So also of an apostle it denotes
one who has by a special calling of God been made an apostle. In other words, “by
Divine calling, saints;” or “by Divine calling, an apostle.”

Rom. 12:3 . —“For I say, through the grace given unto me, to every man that is among
you, not to think of himself more highly than he ought to think.”

It is a question here, whether the thinking ought to be limited by the insertion of the
words “ of himself (
hyperphrone ) occurs only in this passage, and it means to think more than one ought ,
not merely of one’s self, but of anything. It denotes especially a highmindedness about
any subject , which makes one proud, arrogant, boastful or insolent. Indeed, there is in
this verse another figure, or peculiar form of words, called PAREGMENON ( q.v. ), where
several words of a common origin are used in the same sentence. This figure is used for
the purpose of calling our attention to the statement so as to emphasize it. The words can
be only inadequately expressed in translation: “For I say, through the grace given unto
me, to every man that is among you,
hyperphronein ) than he ought to THINK ( phronein ), but to THINK (
, phronein ) so as to THINK -soberly ( s phronein ), according as
to each one [ of you ] God hath distributed [ his ] measure of faith.”

The verses which follow show that God has dealt out spiritual gifts in different
measures (verse 6 ), and that he who has a larger measure than another is not on that
account to be proud, or to think on any subject beyond his own measure of faith.
2 Cor. 6:1 . —“We then, as workers together with him , beseech you also, &c.”

The insertion of the words, “ with him ,” here, and in the R.V. also, gives a totally
false view of our position as workers. The sense is quite complete without any addition
whatever. We are not fellow-workers with God, but with our brethren; with you , not with
him , should be the words supplied, if any. The verse reads: “But working together (or as
fellow-workers with you ), we exhort also that ye receive not the grace of God in vain.”

Gal. 3:24 . —“The law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ.”

Here there is no need to introduce the words, “to bring us , ” the sense being complete
without them: ( eis ), unto , is used in its well-known sense of up to , or until . See
Phil. 1:10 , “That ye may be sincere and without offence till the day of Christ.” Eph. 1:14
, “Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased

That is to say, until Christ came and brought justification by free, pure, and true
grace, the Law, like a tutor, kept them under restraint; and is here in entire contrast to that
liberty wherewith Christ hath made His people free (see chap. 5:1 , and John 8:36 . Rom.
8:2 ).

Gal. 3:20 . —“Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God is one.”

Here the A.V. and R.V. both repeat the noun mediator, which only introduces
confusion. The sense is clear without it.

“Now a mediator is not of one [ party ]:” i.e. , there must be two parties where there is
a mediator; for he is a person who stands between the two others. Now when God gave
the promise to Abram ( Gen. 15:9–21 ), there was only one party; for God caused Abram
to fall into a deep sleep, and He Himself “was one”—the One who, alone, was thus the
one party to this glorious covenant; which is therefore unconditional, and must stand for

Heb. 2:16 . —“For verily he took not on him the nature of angels.”

The Greek is, “For verily he taketh not hold of angels, but of the seed of Abraham he
taketh hold,” i.e. , to redeem them, hence he had to partake of the nature of Abraham’s
seed; but this is in verse 17 , not 16 .

Heb. 4:15 . —“But was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin,” i.e. , “but
was tried according to all things, according to our likeness, apart from sin.”

Heb. 12:2 . —“Looking unto Jesus, the author and finisher of our faith.” There is no
Ellipsis here, but both the A.V. and R.V. have supplied the word “our,” which introduces
quite a different thought into the passage.
It is evident that it is not our faith, but faith itself.

In the preceding chapter we have many examples of faith. Each one exhibits some
particular aspect of faith in its perfection. For example; in Abel, we have the most perfect
example of faith in connection with worship: in Enoch the most perfect example of
faith’s walk: while in Noah, we have the most perfect example of faith’s witness , and so
on through the chapter; the historical order corresponding with the theological and
experimental order. Each is like a portrait in which some particular feature is perfect:
while the chapter concludes with two groups of portraits; the one illustrating faith’s
power to conquer (verses 32–35 ), and the other illustrating faith’s power to suffer (verses
36–38 ). Then chap. xii. continues, “Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with
so great a cloud of witnesses * let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so
easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, looking ( i.e. ,
, aphor ntes , looking away from ) unto.”

Unlike these examples, which each had only one aspect of faith in perfection, Jesus
had every aspect perfect. His was a portrait in which every feature was perfect, for He is
the Beginner and Ender of faith. He leads the van and brings up the rear; He is the Sum
and the Substance of faith. It is not “ our ” faith of which Jesus is here the Author and
Finisher, but faith itself. The Greek goes on to say, “looking off unto the author and
finisher of faith—Jesus.”

Looking off from all these human examples, each of which after all exhibited only
one feature of faith, unto Him who is the perfect Prince † and Leader of all faithful ones
and the Author of faith itself—even Jesus, “who for the joy that was set before him
endured the cross, despising the shame, and is set down at the right hand of the throne of

1 John 3:16 .—“Hereby perceive we the love of God , because he laid down his life
for us: and we ought to lay down our lives for the brethren.”

This passage read without the italics is perfectly clear and beautiful:—“Hereby
perceive we love,” i.e., what love really is! or “Hereby have we got to know love”
(perfect tense). For it was never known what love was, until HE —Jesus—laid down His
life for us. The only Ellipsis here is in the definition of (

* I.e. , those who gave testimony or evidence by their words, their life or death. There is
no idea of eye-witnesses in this word, as though they were beholding or looking upon us.
The witnesses referred to are the examples of faith cited in chap. 11 .
( archeegos ) really an adjective, leading,
furnishing the first cause; then it means a leader , but it is more a chief leader; hence it is
sometimes rendered Prince. Originator, beginner, and author are all parts of its meaning.
It occurs only in Acts 3:15 , “killed the Prince of life,” i.e. , the author and giver of life;
Acts 5:31 , “exalted to be a Prince and a Saviour”; Heb. 2:10 , “to make the Captain of
their salvation perfect,” i.e. the author of their salvation. Hence, princely-leader is a
meaning which embraces all the others.
ekeinos ), that one , that blessed One, the Lord Jesus. All the more emphatic from its
being presupposed that He is so wonderful that there can be no possible doubt as to His
identity. Just as in 2 Tim. 1:12 : “For I know whom (he does not say, in whom) I have
believed, and I am persuaded that he is able to keep that (he does not say what) which He
has committed unto me against that day” ( R.V. margin), (he does not say what day)!
That which God had committed unto Paul was “that goodly deposit”—the revelation of
the mystery concerning the Body of Christ. The word ( paratheeke ) occurs
only here (verse 14 ) and 1 Tim. 6:20 (according to the best texts). It was committed to
Timothy also, and he was to guard it by the Holy Spirit dwelling within him. And though
all might turn away from him and his teaching concerning it (verse 15 ), yet God would
guard it and care for it, and preserve it against that day.

2 Pet. 1:20 , 21 . —“Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any
private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time ( marg. , at any time ) by the
will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”

Here, there is no Ellipsis. The words “ as they were moved” merely represent the
participle “being moved,” as in the R.V.

The confessed difficulty of this passage arises partly from the peculiar words
, epilusis ) occurs nowhere
else in the whole Bible, and only once or twice in secular Greek writings. Even the verb (
, epilu ) occurs only twice, viz. , Mark 4:34 , “He expounded all things to his
disciples,” and Acts 19:39 , “It shall be determined in a lawful assembly,” i.e., made
known in such an assembly. The verb means to untie, unloose , and hence to unfold or
disclose . This is its meaning in the only place where it occurs in the LXX. , Gen. 41:12 ,
of Joseph interpreting the dreams of Pharaoh’s servants. Here it is used as the translation
of the Heb. ( pathar ), to open, unfold , or disclose . Hence, the noun can mean only
an unfolding , or disclosure: just as when one Unties a parcel or bundle, and discloses
what is contained within it.

( idios ), which occurs 113

times. It is never translated “private,” except here. Seventy-seven times it is rendered “his
own” ( e.g. , “his own servants,” Matt. 25:14 ; “his own country,” John 4:44 ; “his own
name,” John 5:43 ; “his own sheep,” John 10:3 , 4 , etc.).

Then the verb “is” is not the equivalent for the verb “ to be ,” but it is quite a different
verb—( , ginomai ), which means to begin to be, come into existence, to
originate, arise, become, come to pass , etc.

Now, putting these facts together and observing the order of the words in the original,
we read the passage thus:—

“Knowing this first, that all prophecy of Scripture came (or originated) not of his or
its own [ i.e., the prophet’s own ] unfolding (or Sending forth); for not by the will of man
was prophecy at any time brought in, but borne along by the Holy Spirit spake the holy
men of God.”

Or keeping to the A.V. as far as possible:—“Knowing this first, that no prophecy of

the Scripture came of [ the prophet’s , or of its own ] unfolding; for prophecy came not in
old time by the will of man; but the holy men of God spake as they were moved by the
Holy Ghost.”

Or taking the last clause as in the R.V. , “But holy men spake from God, [ not from
themselves ], moved by the Holy Ghost.”

The whole scope of this passage is, not the interpretation of Scripture, but its origin: it
does not speak of what the Scripture means , but of whence it comes.


Zeugma: or, Unequal Yoke

Zeug´-ma . Greek , a yoke; from ( zeugnumi ), to join or yoke together .

This name is given to the figure, because one verb is yoked on to two subjects while
grammatically it strictly refers only to one of them: The two subjects properly require two
different verbs. This figure, therefore, differs from one of the ordinary forms of Ellipsis,
where one of the two verbs is omitted which belongs to only one clause. (See under
Relative Ellipsis, page 62 .)

The second verb is omitted, and the grammatical law is broken, in order that our
attention may be attracted to the passage, and that we may thus discover that the
emphasis is to be placed on the verb that is used, and not be distracted from it by the verb
that is omitted. Though the law of grammar is violated, it is not “bad grammar”; for it is
broken with design, legitimately broken, under the special form, usage, or figure, called

So perfectly was this figure studied and used by the Greeks, that they gave different
names to its various forms, according to the position of the verb or yoke in the sentence.
There are four forms of Zeugma: —

1. PROTOZEUGMA , ante-yoke . Latin, INJUNCTUM , joined together .

2. MESOZEUGMA , middle-yoke . Latin, CONJUNCTUM , joined with .

3. HYPOZEUGMA , end-yoke; or subjoined .

4. SYNEZEUGMENON , connected-yoke . Latin, ADJUNCTUM , joined

together .

Pro´-to-zeug´-ma , from ( pr ), the first , or the beginning , and Zeugma:

meaning yoked at the beginning; because the verb, which is thus unequally yoked, is
placed at the beginning of the sentence. Hence, it was called also ANTEZEUGMENON ,
i.e. , yoked before (from the Latin, ante , before ), or ante-yoked . Another name was
PROEPIZEUXIS ( -is ), yoked upon before (from ( pro ), before ,
( epi ), upon ).

The Latins called it INJUNCTUM , i.e., joined , or yoked to , from in , and jugum , a
yoke (from jungo , to join ).

Gen. 4:20 . —“And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents and

Here the verb “dwell” is placed before “tents” and “cattle,” with both of which it is
yoked, though it is accurately appropriate only to “tents,” and not to “cattle.” The verb
“possess” would be more suitable for cattle. And this is why the figure is a kind of
Ellipsis , for the verse if completed would read, “he was the father of such as dwell in
tents [ and possess ] cattle.” But how stilted and tame compared with the figure which
bids us throw the emphasis on the fact that he was a nomade ( , a wanderer or
nomade ), and cared more for wandering about than for the shepherd part of his life!

The A.V. has supplied the verb in italics:—“[ such as have ] cattle,” as though it were
a case of ordinary Ellipsis. The R.V. supplies the second verb “ have .”

It may be, however, that the sense is better completed by taking the words
( vahaley michneh ), tents of cattle , as in 2 Chron. 14:14 , i.e., cattle-tents, i.e.,
herdsmen . Or, as in Gen. 46:32 , 34 , by supplying the Ellipsis:—“Such as dwell in tents
and [ men of ] cattle,” i.e., herdsmen . So that the sense would be much the same.

Ex. 3 16 . —“I have surely visited you, and that which is done to you in Egypt.” We are
thus reminded that it was not merely that Jehovah had seen that which they had suffered,
but rather had visited because of His covenant with their fathers.

The A.V. and R.V. both supply the second verb: “[ seen ] that which is done to you,

It may be that the verb ( pachad ), though used only once , should be repeated
(by implication) in another sense, which it has, viz.: “I have surely visited ( i.e., looked
after or cared for ) you, and [ visited ] ( i.e., punished for ) that which is done to you in
Egypt).” The two senses being to go to with the view of helping; and to go for or against
with the view of punishing, which would be the figure of Syllepsis ( q.v. ).
Deut. 4 12 . —“And the LORD spake unto you out of the midst of the fire: ye heard the
voice of words, but saw no similitude, only a voice.”

The A.V. and R.V. supply the second verb “[ heard ] only a voice .” The figure shows
us that all the emphasis is to be placed on the fact that no similitude was seen; thus
idolatry was specially condemned.

The word “idol” means, literally, something that is seen, and thus all worship that
involves the use of sight, and indeed, of any of the senses (hence called sensuous worship
), rather than the heart , partakes of the nature of idolatry , and is abomination in the sight
of God.

2 Kings 11:12 . —“And he brought forth the king’s son, and put the crown upon him,
and the testimony.” ( 2 Chron. 23:11 ).

Here the A.V. and R.V. supply the second verb, “ gave him the testimony.” If it were
a simple Ellipsis , we might instead supply in his hand after the word “testimony.” But it
is rather the figure of Zeugma , by which our attention is called to the importance of the
“testimony” under such circumstances (see Deut. 17:19 ) rather than to the mere act of
the giving it.

Isa. 2:3 . —“Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD , to the house of the
God of Jacob,” i.e. , [ and let us enter into ] the house of the God of Jacob.

Luke 24:27 . —“And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them
in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.”

Here the verb “beginning” suits, of course, only “Moses”; and some such verb as
going through would be more appropriate; as he could not begin at all the “prophets.”

This figure tells us that it is not the act which we are to think of, but the books and the
Scripture that we are to emphasize as being the subject of the Risen Lord’s exposition.

1 Cor. 3:2 . —“I have fed you with milk, and not with meat.”

Here the verb is , to give drink , and it suits the subject, “milk,” but not
“meat.” Hence the emphasis is not so much on the feeding as on the food, and on the
contrast between the “milk” and the “meat.” The A.V. avoids the figure by giving the
verb a neutral meaning. See how tame the passage would have been had it read: “I have
given you milk to drink and not meat to eat”! All the fire and force and emphasis would
have been lost, and we might have mistakenly put the emphasis on the verbs instead of on
the subjects: while the figure would have been a Pleonasm ( q.v. ) instead of a Zeugma .

1 Cor. 7:10 . — “And unto the married I command, yet not I, but the Lord.”
Here the one verb is connected with the two objects: but we are, by this figure, shown
that it is connected affirmatively with the Lord, and only negatively with the apostle.

1 Cor. 14:34 . —“For it is not permitted them to speak; but to be under authority.”

This has been treated as a simple Ellipsis: but the unequal yoke ( Zeugma ) is seen,
the one verb being used for the two opposite things; thus emphasizing the fact that it is
not so much the permitting , or the commanding , which is important, but the act of
speaking , and the condition of being under authority .

1 Tim. 4:3 . —“Forbidding to marry and to abstain from meats.”

This has been classed already under Ellipsis; but the Zeugma is also seen;
emphasizing the fact that it is celibacy and abstinence which are to be noted as the marks
of the latter times rather than the mere acts of “forbidding” or commanding. The latter
verb, which is omitted, is supplied by Paronomasia ( q.v. ), “forbidding ( ,
k luont n ), to marry, and [ commanding ( , keleuont n )], etc.”


Mes´-o-zeug-ma, i.e., middle-yoke , from ( mesos ), middle . The Zeugma is so-

called when the verb or adjective occurs in the middle of the sentence.

The Latins called it CONJUNCTUM , joined-together-with .

Mark 13:26 . —“Then shall they see the Son of Man coming in the clouds with great
power and glory.”

Here in the Greek the adjective is put between the two nouns, thus: “Power, great, and
glory,” and it applies to both in a peculiar manner. This Zeugma calls our attention to the
fact that the power will be great and the glory will be great: and this more effectually
emphasizes the greatness of both, than if it had been stated in so many words.

So also 5:40 , “The father of the child and the mother”; (verse 42 ) “ Arose the
damsel and walked.”

Luke 1:64 . —“And his mouth was opened immediately and his tongue, and he spake
and praised God.”

Here it is not the act of the opening and loosing that we are to think of, but the fact
that through this predicted miracle he praised God with his mouth and his tongue in spite
of all the months of his enforced silence.


Hy´-po-zeug´ma, i.e., end-yoke ( hupo or hypo ), underneath . Hence
( hypozeugnumi ), to yoke under . The figure of Zeugma is so called when
the verb is at the end of the sentence, and so underneath, the two objects.

Acts 4:27 , 28 . —“They were gathered together, to do whatsoever thy hand and thy
counsel determined before to be done.”

Here the verb “determined” relates only to “counsel” and not to “hand”: and shows us
that we are to place the emphasis on the fact that, though the power of God’s hand was
felt sooner than His counsel (as Bengel puts it), yet even this was only in consequence of
His own determinate counsel and foreknowledge. Compare chap. 2:23 , and 3:18 .


Syn´-e-zeug´-men-on, i.e., yoked together with , or yoked connectedly , from ( sun or

syn ), together with , and , to yoke .

This name is given to the Zeugma when the verb is joined to more than two clauses,
each of which would require its own proper verb in order to complete the sense. * By the
Latins it was called ADJUNCTUM , i.e., joined together .

Ex. 20:18 . —“And all the people saw the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the noise
of the trumpet, and the mountain smoking.” How tame this would be if the proper verbs
had been expressed in each case! The verb “saw” is appropriate to the “lightnings” and
“mountain.” And by the omission of the second verb “heard” we are informed that the
people were impressed by what they saw, rather than by what they heard.

Ps. 15 —Here the whole of the objects in verses 2–5 are connected with one verb which
occurs in the last verse (repeated from first verse). All the sentences in verses 2–5 are
incomplete. There is the Ellipsis of the verb, e.g. , verse 2 : “He that walketh uprightly [
shall abide in thy tabernacle and shall never be moved ], he that worketh righteousness [
shall never be moved ],” etc.

This gives rise to, or is the consequence of the structure of the Psalm:—
A 1 . Who shall abide? (stability).

B a 2 . Positive

* On the other hand, when in a succession of clauses each subject has its own proper
verb, expressed instead of being understood, then it is called HYPOZEUXIS ( Hy´-po-
zeux´-is ), i.e., sub-connection with . See Ps. 145:5–7 . 1 Cor. 13:8 . Where several
members, which at first form one sentence, are unyoked and separated into two or more
clauses, the figure is called DIEZEUGMENON , Di´-e-zeug´-men-on, i.e., yoked-through
, from ( dia ), through. This was called by the Latins DISJUNCTIO . See under
Prosapodosis .
b 3 . Negative

B a 4 – Positive

b – 4–5 – Negative

A – 5 . Who shall abide? (stability).

Eph. 4:31 . —“Let all bitterness, and wrath, and anger, and clamour, and evil speaking,
be put away from you.”

Here the one verb “put away,” ( air ), is used of all these various subjects,
though it does not apply equally to each: e.g. , “bitterness,” ( pikria ), the opposite
of “kindness,” verse 32 ; “wrath,” ( thumos ), harshness, the opposite of “tender-
( orgee ), the opposite of “forgiving,” verse 32 ;
“clamour,” ( kraugee ), “evil-speaking,” ( blasphemia ), “malice,”
( kakia ), wickedness .

It is the thing we are not to be, that is important, rather than the act of giving it up.
(See the same passage under Polysyndeton ).

Phil. 3:10 . —“That I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the
fellowship of his sufferings, being made conformable unto his death.”

Here the one verb “know” properly refers to “Him.” The verbs suited to the other
subjects are not expressed, in order that we may not be diverted by other action from the
one great fact of our knowledge of Him. “That I may know Him (is the one great object,
but to know Him I must experience) the power of His resurrection, and (to feel this I must
first share) the fellowship of His sufferings (How? by) being made like Him in His
death,” i.e. , by reckoning myself as having died with Christ ( Rom. 6:11 ), and been
planted together in the likeness of His death (verse 5 ). So only can I know the power of
that new resurrection life which I have as “risen with Christ,” enabling me to “walk in
newness of life,” and thus to “know Him.”

The order of thought is introverted in verses 10 and 11 .





And resurrection, though mentioned first, cannot be known until fellowship with His
sufferings and conformity to His death have been experienced by faith. Then the power
of His resurrection which it exercises on the new life can be known; and we can know
Him only in what God has made Christ to be to His people, and what He has made His
people to be in Christ.


Asyndeton; or, No-Ands

THIS figure should not be studied apart from the opposite figure POLYSYNDETON (
q.v. ), as they form a pair, and mutually throw light upon and illustrate each other.

It is pronounced a-syn´-de-ton , and means simply without conjunctions; or it may be

Englished by the term NO-ANDS .

It is from the Greek , negative, and ( sundeton ), bound together with

(from , dein , to bind).

Hence, in grammar, asyndeton means without any conjunctions .

It is called also ASYNTHETON , from ( titheemi ), to put or place . Hence,

Asyntheton means no placings or puttings ( i.e. , of the conjunction “and”).

Other names for this figure are:—

DIALYSIS ( Di-al´-y-sis ), from ( dia ), through , and ( luein ), to

loosen; a loosening through .

DIALYTON ( Di-al´-y-ton ), a separation of the parts .

SOLUTUM ( So-lu-tum ), from the Latin solvo , to dissolve .

DISSOLUTIO ( Dis-so-lu´-ti-o ), a dissolving .

EPITROCHASMOS ( Ep´-i-tro-chas´-mos ( epi ), upon , and

( trochaios ), a running along, tripping along . This name is given
also to a certain kind of Parenthesis ( q.v. ).

PERCURSIO ( Per-cur´-si-o ), a running through .

All these names are given, because, without any “ ands ” the items are soon run over.

Bullinger, E. W. (1898). Figures of speech used in the Bible (Page iii). London; New
York: Eyre & Spottiswoode; E. & J. B. Young & Co.
q.v. Which see.
When the figure Asyndeton is used, we are not detained over the separate statements,
and asked to consider each in detail, but we are hurried on over the various matters that
are mentioned, as though they were of no account, in comparison with the great climax to
which they lead up, and which alone we are thus asked by this figure to emphasize.

The beauties of Asyndeton cannot be fully seen or appreciated without comparing

with it the figure of Polysyndeton . They should be studied together, in order to bring out,
by the wonderful contrast, the object and importance of both.

Asyndeta have been divided into four classes:—

Conjunctive or copulative , when the words or propositions are to be joined


Disjunctive , when they are to be separated from each other.

Explanatory , when they explain each other.

Causal , when a reason is subjoined.

For the sake of more easy reference, the following examples have not been thus
classified, but are given in the order in which they occur in the Bible:

Ex. 15:9 , 10 . —“The enemy said,

—I will pursue,
—I will overtake,
—I will divide the spoil;
—My lust shall be satisfied upon them;
—I will draw my sword,
—My hand shall destroy them.
— Thou didst blow with thy wind,
— The sea covered them:
They sank as lead in the mighty waters. ”

Here we are hurried over what “the enemy said,” because it was not of the least
importance what he said or what he did. The great fact is recorded in the climax: on
which all the emphasis is to be placed both in thought and in public reading.

Judges 5:27 . —“At her feet he bowed,

—he fell,
—he lay down;
—at her feet he bowed,
—he fell:
—where he bowed,
there he fell down dead. ”
1 Sam. 15:6 . —“And Saul said unto the Kenites,
—get you down from among the Amalekites,
— lest I destroy you with them. ”

Isa. 33:7–12 . —Here the figure is used to hasten us on through the details which
describe the judgment on Assyria, in order that we may dwell on the important fact that
the hour of Judah’s deliverance has come:—

“Behold, their valiant ones shall cry without;

—the ambassadors of peace shall weep bitterly:
—the highways lie waste,
—the wayfaring man ceaseth:
—he hath broken the covenant,
—he hath despised the cities,
—he regardeth no man:
—the earth mourneth (the “and” here (in A.V. ) is incorrectly inserted),
—Lebanon is ashamed,
—hewn down (here again the “and” is introduced and mars the figure).
—Sharon is like a wilderness;
—And Bashan and Carmel shake [ their leaves ] (or, are all astir).

“Now will I arise, saith the Lord:

—now will I be exalted;
—now will I lift up myself.

“Ye shall conceive chaff ( , dried grass , or tinder ).

—Ye shall bring forth stubble;
—your breath as fire shall devour you.
— And the people shall be as the burnings of lime ;
— As thorns cut up shall they be burned in the fire .”

Ezek. 33:15 , 16 . —“If the wicked restore the pledge,

—give again that he had robbed,
—walk in the statutes of life, without committing iniquity;
— he shall surely live
— he shall not die. ” *
—“None of his sins that he hath committed shall be mentioned unto him:
—he hath done that which is lawful and right;
— he shall surely live. ”

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.
* Here, in the climax, we have the figure of Pleonasm ( q.v. ).
Mark 2:27 , 28 . —In the Textus Receptus the “and” is omitted, but it is inserted both in
the A.V. and R.V. with T. Tr. A. , WH.

It reads, in spite of this, as though the “and” were an addition to the text. Without it
there is an Asyndeton , and a forcible conclusion flowing from it.

“The Sabbath was made for man,

—not man for the Sabbath;
therefore the Son of Man is Lord of the Sabbath also. ” *

Mark 7:21–23 . —“For from within, out of the heart of men, proceed
evil thoughts,
—an evil eye,
— all these evil things come from within, and defile the man. ”

This weighty truth, thus emphasized, writes folly on all modern attempts to improve
human nature; because they all proceed on the false assumption that it is what goes into
the man that defiles him, and ignore the solemn fact that in the natural heart there is “no
good thing” ( Rom. 7:18 ). Until, therefore, a new heart has been given by God, all
attempts to make black white will be labour in vain. Compare Matt. 15:18–20 .

Luke 17:27–30 . —“They did eat,

—they drank,
—they married wives,
—they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark,
and the Flood came, and destroyed them all.

R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.

T. Tischendorf and his critical Greek Text.
Tr. Tregelles and his critical Greek Text.
A. Alford and his critical Greek Text.
WH. Westcott and Hort, and their critical Greek Text.
* A.V. , wrongly, “Lord also.” R.V. , “even of the Sabbath.” See “ Also ,” a Bible Study
on the Use of the Word by the same author and publisher.
“Likewise also as it was in the days of Lot; they did eat,
—they drank,
—they bought,
—they sold,
—they planted,
—they builded; but the same day that Lot went out of Sodom
it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all. Even thus shall it
be in the day when the Son of Man is revealed. ”

Rom. 1:29–31 . —A long list is given of the marks of the “reprobate mind,” and We are
taken through the awful catalogue, and hastened on to the climax in verse 32 , that the
righteous sentence of God has been passed, and only judgment now awaits them that
“not only do the same, but have pleasure” in them that do them.

1 Cor. 3:12 , 13 . —“Now if any man build upon this foundation gold,
—precious stones,
every man’s work shall be made manifest; for the day shall declare it,” etc.

Here it is the consequence which is emphasized by the climax thus led up to. The
builder here is the minister, and the work is ministerial .

Those who have been reformed or apparently converted by human persuasion or other
influences working and acting on the flesh, are like “ wood, hay, stubble; ” and will be
burnt up in that day; for, as the Lord Jesus declared (using the work of a husbandman as
the illustration, instead of, as here, the work of the builder), “every plant which my
heavenly Father hath not planted shall be rooted up” ( Matt. 15:13 ).

But those who have been converted by God (and not merely as the popular phrase
goes “to God”) shall be as “gold, silver, precious stones,” for whom the fire shall have
“no hurt.”

1 Cor. 12:28–31 . —“And God hath set some in the church,

—first apostles,
—secondarily prophets,
—thirdly teachers,
—after that miracles,
—then gifts of healings,
—diversities of tongues.
Are all apostles?
— are all prophets?
— are all teachers?
— are all workers of miracles?
—Have all the gifts of healing?
—Do all speak with tongues?
—Do all interpret?
But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet show I unto you a more excellent way.”

Here we have part of the revelation concerning the Mystical body of Christ.

It commences at verse 1 :—
A 12:1–11 . Nine gifts which God has given to His Church.

B 12–17 . The unity of the Body. Nine enumerations.

B 18–27 . What God hath set in the Body. Eight enumerations.

A 28–31 . What God hath set in the Church. Eight gifts.

Thus in A and A we have the Church. And in B and B we have the Body. In A and A
we have seventeen * enumerations, and in B and B we have seventeen also. These
arrangements bind all four together in a remarkable way to show that “the Body is one.”

1 Cor. 13:13 . —“And now abideth faith,

these three,” etc.

2 Cor. 7:5 , 6 . —“For, when we were come into Macedonia, our flesh had no rest, but
—we were troubled on every side;
—without were fightings,
—within were fears.
Nevertheless God, that comforteth those that are cast down, comforted us by the
coming of Titus. ”

Gal. 5:19–21 . —“Now the works of the flesh are manifest, which are these ,

* For the significance of this number, see Number in Scripture , by the same author and
publisher. Also The Mystery .
—revellings, and such like: of the which I tell you before, as I have also told you in time
that they which do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God. ”

See also under Merismus and Synonymia .

Gal. 5:22 . —“But the fruit of the Spirit is love,

against such there is no law.”

Contrast this with the Polysyndeton in 2 Pet. 1:5–7 .

Eph. 4:32 . —Contrast this with the Polysyndeton in verse 31 .

“And be ye kind one to another,

—forgiving one another,
even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you.” (Lit. “like as GOD also”).

Phil. 3:5–7 . —“Though I might also have confidence in the flesh (Greek:—‘Though I
might have confidence IN THE FLESH also’). If any other man thinketh that he hath
whereof he might boast in the flesh, I more:

“Circumcised the eighth day,

—of the stock of Israel,
— of the tribe of Benjamin,
—an Hebrew of the Hebrews;
—as touching the Law, a Pharisee;
—concerning zeal, persecuting the Church;
—touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless.
But what things were gain to me, those I counted loss for Christ.”
Paul is speaking not of his sins, but of his gains. As to his standing in the flesh we
hear his words, “I more,” so we need not strive to gain it. As to his guilt as a sinner we
hear his words, “I am chief,” so we need not despair. For God has set him forth as a
pattern showing how all sinners must be converted ( 1 Tim. 1:16 ).

1 Thess. 5:14–18 . —“Now we exhort you, brethren, warn them that are unruly,
—comfort the feeble minded,
—support the weak,
—be patient toward all men .
—See that none render evil for evil unto any man; but
—ever follow that which is good both among yourselves and to all men .
—Rejoice evermore.
—Pray without ceasing.
—In every thing give thanks:
for this is the will of God in Christ Jesus concerning you. ”

1 Tim. 1:17 . —“Now unto the King

—the only wise God,
be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. ”

1 Tim. 4:13–16 . —“Till I come,

give attendance to reading,

—to exhortation,
—to doctrine.

—Neglect not the gift that is in thee, which was given thee by prophecy, with the laying
on of the hands of the presbytery.
—Meditate upon these things;
—give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all.
—Take heed unto thyself, and unto the doctrine;
—continue in them:
for in doing this thou shalt save both thyself, and them that hear thee. ”

2 Tim. 3:1–5 . —“This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come.For men
shall be lovers of their own selves,
—disobedient to parents,
—without natural affection,
—false accusers,
—despisers of those that are good,
—lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God;
from such turn away.”

2 Tim. 3:10 , 11 . —“But thou hast fully known my doctrine,

—manner of life,
—afflictions, which came unto me at Antioch,

—at Iconium,
—at Lystra: what persecutions I endured;
but out of them all the Lord delivered me.”

As much as to say, “It does not matter what my troubles may have been: the great and
blessed fact is that out of them all the Lord hath delivered me.”

2 Tim. 3:16 , 17 . —“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God, † and is profitable

—for doctrine,
—for reproof,
—for correction,
—for instruction in righteousness:
that the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.”

Here we are hurried on, and not asked to stop and consider each of the four things for
which all Scripture is profitable: but we are asked especially to dwell on the object of it:
viz. , thoroughly to furnish the man of God for all the circumstances in which he may be

* Compare and contrast with this the Polysyndeton of 2 Tim. 4:17 , 18 .

† See under the figure of Ellipsis , page 44.
The words “perfect” and “throughly furnished” are cognate in the Greek, and should
be similarly rendered. ‡ ( artios ) is rendered “perfect,” the latter
( exeertismenos ) should be “perfected” (as in the margin). If the former is
translated fitted , the latter should be fitted out-and-out. If the latter is rendered “furnished
completely,” then the former should be furnished. Perhaps the best rendering would be
“fitted” … “fitted out,” i.e. , “that the man of God may be fitted, fitted out unto all good

( artios ) is from the Ancient Aryan root AR, which means to fit
. In the Greek it implies perfect adaptation and suitability . The Greeks used it of time , as
denoting the exact or right moment; and of numbers as denoting a perfect or even number
as opposed to an odd number.

( exartizo ) means to fit out; and is used of furnishing a house,

making full preparation for war, or especially of fitting out a vessel for sea, in doing
which every emergency must be provided for—heat and cold, calm and storm, peace and
war, fire and accident. Hence, he who studies God’s word, will be a “man of God,” fitted
out and provided for all the circumstances and emergencies of life. But he who neglects
this, and studies man’s books, will become at best a man of men; he will be only what
man’s wisdom can make him, a prey for every enemy, exposed to every danger. *

only here, and in Acts

21:5 . The importance of this passage is shown by the perfection of its structure:—
A a All Scripture is given by inspiration of God;

b and is profitable

B for doctrine,

C for reproof,

C for correction,

B for instruction in righteousness:

A a that the man of God may be perfect;

b throughly furnished unto all good works.

Here in A and A we have that which is connected with “ God ” ; while in B, C and B,
C , we have that which is connected with His “ Word .” Thus:—
A a God’s divinely inspired word.

‡ See under the figure of Paregmenon .

* See The Man of God , a pamphlet by the same author and publisher.
b Its profit to God’s man.

B Positive: Teaching what is true.

C Negative: Convicting of what is wrong in practice.

C Negative: Correcting what is wrong in doctrine.

B Positive: Instructing in what is right.

A a God’s divinely-fitted man.

b His profit in God’s word.

There is a further reference to this verse ( 2 Tim. 3:16 ) in verses 2 and 3 of the next
chapter, which may be compared thus:—

The God-breathed Word is profitable

2 Tim. 3:16 . 2 Tim. 4:2 , 3 .
for doctrine: therefore Preach the word; be instant in season, out of
for reproof: therefore reprove,
for correction: therefore rebuke,
for instruction in therefore exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.

Thus we have the same figure in both of these corresponding members:

2 Tim. 4:2 , 3 . —“Preach the word;

—be instant in season, out of season;
—exhort with all longsuffering and doctrine.
For the time will come when they will not endure sound doctrine. ”

This important conclusion is pressed upon us and thus emphasized in order to show
us that, when men “will not endure sound doctrine,” we are not to search for something to
preach that they will endure, but all the more earnestly and persistently we are to “preach
the word!” Nothing else is given us to preach, whether men will hear or whether they will

Jas. 1:19 , 20 . ,
anthr pos ) be
swift to hear,
—slow to speak,
—slow to wrath:
for the wrath of man , andros ) worketh not the righteousness of God.”

Jas. 5:6 . —Here the translators have inserted “ and ” twice in italics, utterly destroying
the figure and hiding the conclusion.

“Ye have condemned,

—ye have killed the just [ One ];
—He doth not resist you.
Be patient therefore, brethren, unto the coming of the Lord.”

Rev. 3:7 , 8 . —“These things saith

He that is holy,
—he that is true,
—he that hath the key of David,
—he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth, and no man openeth;
I know thy works.”

Contrast the Polysyndeton in verses 8 , 12 , 17 , 18 .

Among other examples may be noted:—

Isa. 21:11 . Mark 16:6 , 17 , 18 . Luke 1:17 . Rom. 2:19–23 . 1 Cor. 4:8 ; 13:4–7 ;
15:41–44 . 2 Cor. 7:2–4 . Heb. 11:32–38 . Rev. 7:5–8 ; 21:18–20 .


Aphæresis: or, Front-Cut

pronounced Aph-ær´-e-sis , and means a taking away from

( aphairein ), to take away , from ( apo ), away , ( hairein
), to take . It is a figure of etymology which relates to the spelling of words, and is used
of the cutting off of a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word. We may, therefore,
give it the English name of FRONT-CUT . We see it in such words as ’neath for beneath;
mazed for amazed. In the Scripture we have an example in Coniah for Jeconiah . He is
called Jeconiah in his genealogy ( 1 Chron. 3:16 ); but, in Jer. 22:24 , where Jehovah
declares that He will cut him off, his name corresponds with the act, for the front part is
cut off , and he is called “Coniah.” *

Jeconiah means Let Jehovah establish . Cutting off the first syllable may intimate the
disappointment (for the time) of the hope.

Josiah, who justified the hope expressed in his name ( Let Jehovah heal ) that Jehovah
would establish the kingdom, gave his son the name of Eliakim, afterwards called

* Only here, and in 37:1 .

Jehoiakim, which means God will establish (as does his grandson’s, Jehoiachin—this
Jeconiah). But his hopes were vain. Josiah’s family is remarkable for the manner in
which the names are broken up and their kingdom overtaken by disaster.

See Jer. 22:24 . “ As I live, saith the LORD , though CONIAH , the son of Jehoiakim
king of Judah were the signet upon my right hand, yet would I pluck thee thence”; and
read on to the end of the chapter.

In verse 30 , “Write ye this man childless” is explained to mean that not one of his
seven sons ( 1 Chron. 3:17 , 18 ) sat upon his throne, but Zerubbabel, his grandson,
became governor after Coniah had died in Babylon ( 2 Kings 25:29 , 30 ).


Apocope; or, End-Cut

A-p c´-o-pe , a cutting off ( apokoptein

( apo ), away from , and ( koptein ), to cut . It is a
figure of etymology which relates to the spelling of words, and is used of cutting off a
letter or syllable from the end of a word. We may give it the name of END-CUT . We
have examples in such words as yon for yonder, after for afterward.

In the Scripture we have an example in the name of Jude for Judas.

There is no Apocope in the Greek; and therefore there is no teaching in the use of the
figure; which exists only in the translation.




Aposiopesis; or, Sudden-Silence

THIS is a rhetorical figure, and not a figure of grammar, but it may be placed under the
figures depending on omission , because in it something is omitted.

Apo-si-o-pee´-sis ( a becoming silent ), from

( aposi pa ), to be silent after speaking, to keep silence, observe a
deliberate silence .
The name of this figure may be represented in English by SUDDEN-SILENCE . The
Latins named it RETICENTIA , which means the same thing. It is the sudden breaking
off of what is being said (or written), so that the mind may be the more impressed by
what is too wonderful, or solemn, or awful for words: or when a thing may be, as we
sometimes say, “better imagined than described.”

Its use is to call our attention to what is being said, for the purpose of impressing us
with its importance.

It has been divided under four heads, according to the character of the subject:—

1. Promise.

2. Anger and Threatening.

3. Grief and Complaint.

4. Enquiry and Deprecation.

1. PROMISE: where some great thing is promised, too great to be conveyed in words

Ex. 32:31 , 32 . —“And Moses returned unto the LORD , and said, Oh, this people have
sinned a great sin, and have made them gods of gold. Yet now, if thou wilt forgive their
sin——; and if not, blot me, I pray thee, out of thy book which thou hast written.”

Here it seems that Moses was about to promise something on behalf of the people;
but neither knew what promise he could make for them, nor how far he could answer for
its fulfilment by them. His sudden silence is solemnly eloquent.

2 Sam. 5:8 . —“And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter——.”

We learn from 1 Chron. 11:6 that the promise was fulfilled in Joab, who was made
chief or captain. Hence these words have been supplied in the A.V. , as we have
explained above, under the figure of Absolute Ellipsis , page 53 .

1 Chron. 4:10 . —“And Jabez called on the God of Israel, saying, Oh that thou wouldest
bless me indeed, and enlarge my coast, and that thine hand might be with me, and that
thou wouldest keep me from evil, that it may not grieve me——”

Then there is a sudden silence, as though it were impossible for Jabez to express the
manner in which he would give God thanks and declare his praise for His great mercies.
But the words that immediately follow seem to show that God was so much more ready
to hear than Jabez was to pray, that without waiting for him to finish his prayer it is
added, “And God granted him that which he requested.”
Dan. 3:15 . —“Now if ye be ready that at what time ye hear the sound of the cornet,
flute, harp, sackbut, psaltery and dulcimer, and all kinds of music, ye fall down and
worship the image which I have made —— but if ye worship not,” etc.

Here Nebuchadnezzar was ready with his threat of the punishment, but he was careful
not to commit himself to any promise.

Luke 13:9 has already been treated under the figure of Ellipsis: but beside the
grammatical ellipsis, there is also the rhetorical: “And if it bear fruit——,” as though the
vine-dresser would say, “I cannot say what I will not do for it: not only will I not cut it
down, but I will continue to care for it and tend it!” The A.V. has supplied the word, “
well! ”


Gen. 3:22 . —“And now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and
eat, and live for ever——Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of
Eden,” etc.

Here the exact consequences of eating of the tree of life in his fallen condition are left
unrevealed, as though they were too awful to be contemplated: and the sudden silence
leaves us in the darkness in which the Fall involved us. But we may at least understand
that whatever might be involved in this unspoken threatening, it included this fact:— I
will drive him away from the tree of life!

Gen. 20:3 . —“Behold, thou art but a dead man—— for the woman which thou hast
taken; for she is a man’s wife.”

Here, we must supply if thou dost not restore her; or, her husband will slay thee .
This is clear from verse 7 .

Jas. 3:1 . —“My brethren, be not many masters, knowing that we shall receive the
greater condemnation——.”

He does not stop to specify what the many things are, in which those who occupy
such positions may give cause of condemnation. This is also to be understood as if it
continued “unless we give a right judgment,” etc. ( Matt. 7:2 ).


Gen. 25:22 . —“If it be so, why am I thus——?”

Rebekah’s words of grief and complaint are not completed. She could not understand
why, if Jehovah was intreated and answered Isaac’s prayer, she should so suffer that the
answer was almost as hard to be borne as her former condition.
Judges 5:29 , 30 . —There is a wonderful Aposiopesis here, where the mother of Sisera
looks out of her lattice and wonders where Sisera is, and why he does not return. Her
wise ladies answered her, “But she repeated her words to herself.” Her soliloquy ends in
a sudden silence. Everything is left to the imagination as to how she bears it. All is lost in
the sudden outburst Of the song “So perish all thy foes, O Jehovah”! See under
Homœopropheron .

Ps. 6:3 . —“My soul is also sore vexed; but thou, O LORD , how long——?”

The words are drowned in grief: “How long shall I be sore vexed? How long [ before
thou wilt arise? ]” Thus his prayer is submitted to the will of God.

Luke 15:21 . —“Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in thy sight, and am no more
worthy to be called thy son——.”

It is as though, broken down by the grief which the utterance of these words brought
into his heart, he could not continue, and say the rest of what, we are told, he had
resolved to say in verse 19 .

Or it is also to show us as well, that the father’s joy to receive is so great that he
would not wait for the son to finish, but anticipated him with his seven-fold blessing.

See under Polysyndeton .

Luke 19:42 . —“If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which
belong unto thy peace——! but now they are hid from thine eyes.”

The blessedness involved in this knowledge is overwhelmed by the tribulation which

is to come upon the nation.

The continuation of the sense would probably be “How happy thou wouldest have
been! How blessed! How safe! How secure! but now they are hid from thine eyes.”


Hos. 9:14 . —“Give them, O LORD : what wilt thou give——?” As though unable to
conceive the punishment deserved, the Prophet breaks off and goes back to the thought of
verse 11 .

John 6:62 . —“And if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend up where he was before——?”

This has already been referred to under Ellipsis (see p. 54 ). But something more is
implied; more than can be supplied by any specific words, such as, “Will ye believe
then?” For He did afterwards ascend up, but they still refused to believe!
Acts 23:9 . —According to some ancient MSS. all the critical Greek texts read the verse,
“We find no evil in this man: but, if a spirit or an angel hath spoken to him——.”

Either the Pharisees were afraid to express their thoughts, or their words were
drowned in the “great dissension” (verse 10 ) which immediately “arose.” For there is a
sudden silence, which some copyists have attempted to fill up by adding the words
( mee theomach men ), “ let us not fight against God .”


Meiosis: or, A Be-Littleing

(A be-littleing of one thing to magnify another)

Mei- ´-sis . Greek , a lessening , or diminution: from ( mei-o- ), to make

smaller .

It is known also by the name LITOTES , li´-to-tees: Greek , plainness,

simplicity .

The Latins called it DIMINUTIO ( Di-mi-nu´-ti-o ) and EXTENUATIO ( Ex-ten´-u-

a´-ti-o ).

By this figure one thing is diminished in order to increase another thing. It thus
differs from Tapeinosis ( q.v. ), in which a thing is lessened in order to emphasize its own
greatness or importance.

In Meiosis there is an omission therefore, not of words, but of sense. One thing is
lowered in order to magnify and intensify something else by way of contrast.

It is used for the purpose of emphasis; to call our attention, not to the smallness of the
thing thus lessened, but to the importance of that which is put in contrast with it.

Gen. 18:27 . —“And Abraham answered and said, Behold now, I have taken upon me to
speak unto the Lord, which am but dust and ashes.”

Here Abraham humbles himself; and, alluding to the creation of man out of the dust
of the ground ( Gen. 2:7 ), he implies much more than he expresses. In calling himself
“dust and ashes,” he contrasts himself with the high and holy God whom he is
addressing, and takes the place of a man most vile and a creature most abject. So Jehovah
uses the same figure in 1 Kings 16:2 . Ps. 113:7 , &c. See under Synecdoche .

Num. 13:33 . —“And we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their
sight.” This is the Meiosis of unbelief. To gain credence for their words they exaggerated
the size of the Anakim by lessening their own stature. On the other hand, the language of
faith used a very different figure. Compare 14:9 , under the Figure of Ellipsis , page 37 .
1 Sam. 24:14 . —“After whom is the king of Israel come out? After whom dost thou
pursue? After a dead dog, after a flea,” i.e. , you do that which is altogether unworthy of a
king, in pursuing one who is as harmless as a dead dog (compare 17:43 ; 2 Sam. 3:8 ; 9:8
; 16:9 ) and as worthless as a flea, which is poor game for a royal hunter ( 1 Sam. 26:20 ).

Ezra 9:8 . —“And now for a little space (Heb. moment ) grace hath been shewed from
the LORD our God.” To magnify the greatness of the grace the Holy Spirit, by Ezra,
speaks of the “little space.” The comparison is not to the greatness of their transgressions,
which are stated in verses 6 and 7 , etc., but to their length and the length of the previous
chastisement, which had been begun by the kings of Assyria. See Neh. 9:32 , and Ezra
6:22 , where Cyrus, “the king of Babylon” ( 5:13 ), is called the king of Assyria, having
absorbed the kingdoms of Media, Persia, and Assyria, and thus the oppressor, by God’s
grace, had become the friend.

Ps. 22:6 . —“I am a worm, and no man.” Here, as elsewhere, this figure is used to denote
a much greater depth of humility and affliction than words can express. So Job 25:6 . Isa.
41:14 . The greater the humiliation, the greater the contrast with His glorification: for He
who is “a worm and no man” in Ps. 22 is “Jehovah my shepherd” of Ps. 23 , and “the
King of glory” of Ps. 24 In these three Psalms we thus have in xxii. “the Good Shepherd”
in death ( John 10:11 ); “the Great Shepherd” in resurrection ( Heb. 13:20 ; and “the
Chief Shepherd” in glory ( 1 Pet. 5:4 ).

Isa. 40:15 . —“Behold, the nations are as a drop of a bucket, and are counted as the small
dust of the balance: behold, he taketh up the isles as a very little thing.”

And even this fails to convey to our minds the wondrous gulf between the finite and
the infinite.

Verse 17 : “All nations before him are as nothing: and they are counted to him less
than nothing and vanity.”

Matt. 15:26 . —“It is not meet to take the children’s bread, and to cast it to dogs.” It is
not only not fair, but it is cruel to one’s children thus to deprive them of their food.

See further under the figure of Hypocatastasis .

Matt. 18:14 . —“Even so it is not the will of your Father which is in heaven, that one of
these little ones should perish.”

No! It is contrary to His wish. His will embraces much more than this, it includes:—

Predestination ( Eph. 1:5 ).

Regeneration ( John 1:13 ; Jas. 1:18 ).

Deliverance from the world ( Gal. 1:4 ).

Sanctification ( 1 Thess. 4:3 ; Heb. 10:10 ).

Final Preservation, Resurrection, and Eternal Life ( John 6:39 , 40 ).

Matt. 22:3 . —“And they would not come.” The Greek is:— ( ouk
eethelon elthein ), they did not wish to come , this is enhancing, by Meiosis , the fact that
they not only absolutely refused, but in doing so they acted only on the wish of their

Luke 17:9 . —“Doth he thank that servant because he did the things that were
commanded him? I trow not.” i.e. , I think not. More is to be understood than is
expressed: i.e. , I know very well he doth not thank him. So far from that, he scarcely
notices the matter.

John 15:20 . —“If they have kept my saying, they will keep yours also,” i.e. , as surely
as they have NOT kept my saying, they will not keep yours. The whole context shows
that this must be the figure of Meiosis .

Rom. 10:19 . —“I will provoke you to jealousy by them that are no people.”
( ouk ethnos ), a non-people . So 1 Pet. 2:10 : “Which in time past were not a people,”
( ou laos ). Owing to the reversive power of the negative our own word “ nothing
” is literally a non-thing, i.e. , a thing which has no existence at all. †

Such were we Gentiles. But through grace, “a people” is now being taken out from
among all nations ( Acts 15:14 . Rev. 5:9 ; 7:9 ), which shall have an existence for ever
and ever.

1 Cor. 9:17 . —“For if I do this thing willingly, I have a reward.” He means gratuitously;
but lessens the wording, so as to increase his meaning. See also under Oxymoron .

1 Cor. 15:9 . —“I am the least of the apostles.” This is said to magnify the grace of God
(verse 10 ). Whereas, when magnifying his claims, he could say to these same
Corinthians, “I suppose I was not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles” ( 2 Cor. 11:5 ,
and 12:11 , 12 ).

Eph. 3:8 . —“Who am less than the least of all saints.” This marks the apostle’s growth
in grace, who a year after could say he was “the chief of sinners” ( 1 Tim. 1:15 ). See also
under Oxymoron .

Philem. 11 . —“Which in time past was to thee unprofitable.” This is a Meiosis , for
Onesimus was guilty of injury.

* This is not the same as Rom. 9:26 , where the pronoun “my” is used.
† In Amos 6:13 , “a thing of naught” is the same, a non-existent-thing
Heb. 9:12 . —“The blood of goats and calves,” ( 13 ) “the blood of bulls and of goats.”
Here the figure lessens the importance of the sacrifices which were offered under the
Law, in order to increase by contrast the great sacrifice to which they all pointed.

Heb. 13:17 . —“For that is unprofitable for you.” It is really much more than that! It is
disastrous and ruinous.

1 John 3:17 . —“But whoso hath this world’s good,” etc.

Here the Greek is ( ton bion tou kosmou ), the life of the world,
i.e. , the means of life or of living which the world gives. Whoso has this, and will not
give it up for his brother, how dwelleth the Love of God in him? The force of the Meiosis
is seen when we compare this with verse 16 , “We ought to lay down our lives for the
brethren.” But here is a man who will not only not lay down his life ( ), psyche , but
will not even part with the means of supporting it. What a contrast to true love! Hereby
know we LOVE , because HE laid down His life for us.


Tapeinosis; or, Demeaning

(A lessening of a thing in order to increase it)

Ta-pei-n ´-sis . Greek , a demeaning or humbling .

This differs from Meiosis in that in Meiosis one thing is diminished in order, by
contrast, to increase the greatness of another , or something else.

Whereas, in Tapeinosis the thing that is lessened is the same thing which is increased
and intensified.

The figure was also called ANTENANTIOSIS . Ant´-en-an-ti-o´-sis ( anti

), over against , or instead of ( enantios ), opposite .

When the figure is used parenthetically, it is called ANÆRESIS . See below under
Parenthesis .

The figure is used in connection with nouns, verbs, and adverbs,

1. Positively.

2. Negatively.

ONE ( ) in the plural (in Heb.) is used for a few or some:—

Gen. 27:44 . —“Tarry with him a few days, until thy brother’s fury turn away.”

We learn from 29:20 that the love which he bore to Rachel is emphasized by speaking
of the seven years in which he served for her as “a few days.”

SOME ( ) in plural (in Greek) is used for the greater number:—

Rom. 3:3 . —“For what if some did not believe?” Our attention is by this at once pointed
to the fact that it was in reality the very opposite. It was only “some” who believed, while
the nation as a whole did not believe.

1 Tim. 4:1 . —“Now the Spirit speaketh expressly, that in the latter times some shall
depart from the faith, giving heed to seducing spirits ( , wandering or
deceiving spirits or angels ), and teachings of demons:” i.e. , a vast number of people will
be deceived by evil angels and demons in these last days.

Acts 5:36 . —“Theudas, boasting himself to be somebody” ( ) i.e. , some great

person; as is explained in Acts 8:9 .

Gal. 2:6 . —“But of these who seemed to be somewhat ( ).” They seemed to be
something, really they were nothing ( 6:3 ).

SICK , for those who were dead in sins:

Rom. 5:6 . , asthen n , sick ).

We were really “dead in sin,” but are spoken of as infirm, because called “ungodly,”
“sinners” (verses 6–8 ), “enemies” (verse 10 ).

REBUKE , for the great punishment of excommunication.

2 Cor. 2:6 . —“Sufficient to such a man is , ),

rebuke . See further under Idiom


When the emphasis is made by the use of the negative in order to express the positive in a
very high degree, this is the figure of Antenantiosis (see above).

When we say of a man that “he is no fool,” we mean that he is very wise; or when we
say of a thing, “it is not a hundred miles from here,” we mean that it is quite close at
hand. We thus emphasize that which we seem to lessen: e.g. , when it is written, “I praise
you not,” it means I greatly blame you!

Ex. 20:7 . —“The LORD will not hold him guiltless:” i.e. , He will hold him guilty of
breaking the whole law.
Lev. 10:1 . —They “offered strange fire before the LORD , which he had commanded
them not.” Here, the figure is translated. The Heb. is literally, “which the Lord had not
commanded them,” i.e. , He had very solemnly prohibited it; see Ex. 30:9 .

Num. 21:23 . —“And Sihon would not suffer Israel to pass through his border.” Heb.:
“would not give permission,” i.e. , he did more, he prohibited them, as the verse goes on
to explain, and opposed them even to the extent of using force.

Ps. 43:1 . —“Plead my cause against an ungodly (margin, Heb., ‘unmerciful’) nation.”
Heb. ( l chahseed ), not merciful, i.e., cruel and malignant .

Ps. 51:17 . —“A broken and a contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not despise:” i.e. , Thou
wilt graciously accept and welcome and bless.

Ps. 78:50 . —“He spared not their soul from death,” i.e. , He gave their life over to the

Ps. 83:1 ( 2 ). —“Keep not thou silence, O God: hold not thy peace, and be not still, O
God:” i.e. , Arise, O God; and speak; vindicate and deliver me from mine enemies.

Ps. 84:11 . —“No good thing will he withhold from them that walk uprightly:” i.e. , he
will give them every good thing, and preserve them from all evil.

Ps. 107:38 . —“And suffereth not their cattle to decrease:” i.e. , will abundantly multiply
their cattle.

Prov. 12:3 . —“A man shall not be established by wickedness:” i.e. , he shall be

Prov. 17:21 . —“The father of a fool hath no joy:” i.e. , he hath plenty of sorrow.

Prov. 18:5 . —“It is not good to accept the person of the wicked,” i.e. , it is a very hateful
thing in God’s sight to do so.

Prov. 30:25 . —“The ants are a people not strong,” i.e. , very weak.

Isa. 14:6 . —“And none hindereth,” i.e. , all help.

Isa. 42:3 . —“A bruised reed shall he not break, and the smoking flax shall he not
quench:” i.e. , He will strengthen the bruised reed and kindle to a flame the smouldering

Jer. 2:8 . —“The prophets prophesied by Baal, and walked after things that do not
profit:” i.e. , that led to their ruin. So verse 11 .

Zech. 8:17 . —“Love no false oath,” i.e. , hate every such oath.
Matt. 2:6 . —And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Juda, art not the least among the
princes of Juda:” i.e. , thou art the greatest!

Matt. 12:32 . —“It shall not be forgiven him:” i.e. , he shall have the gravest punishment
in this life and in the life to come ( Mark 3:29 ). Just as those, on the other hand, whose
sins are forgiven are “blessed” ( Rom. 4:7 ).

John 6:37 . —“Him that cometh to me, I will in no wise cast out.”

Here, there is very much more implied than is expressed in the literal words. Not only
will I not cast him out, but I will by all means receive him and preserve him, and defend
him: he shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck him out of My hand. Compare
10:28 , and see further under Ellipsis ( page 106 ) and Repeated Negation and Synonymia

John 14:18 . —“I will not leave you comfortless,” i.e. , I will certainly come to you by
My Holy Spirit and be your ever present help and defence. Moreover, I will come again
and receive you to Mine own self.

Acts 20:12 . —“And they brought the young man alive, and were not a little comforted:”
i.e. , they were very greatly comforted.

Acts 21:39 . —“A citizen of no mean city:” i.e. , a very important city.

Tarsus was celebrated as a distinguished seat of Greek Philosophy and Literature.

According to Strabo it ranked with Athens and Alexandria in the number of its schools
and learned men.

Acts 22:18 . —“Make haste, and get thee quickly out of Jerusalem: for they will not
receive thy testimony concerning me:” i.e. , they will not only reject it, oppose it to the
uttermost, but will seek to kill thee.

Acts 26:19 . —“I was not disobedient unto the heavenly vision”: i.e. , I was immediately
and altogether obedient. He thus makes his own obedience more emphatic; while by
stating it negatively he denies what his enemies implied. They implied that he ought to
have been disobedient; but he meets this by asserting that he was “not disobedient,” i.e. ,
most obedient.

Rom. 1:13 . —“I would not have you ignorant, brethren.”

This means very much more than a mere negative wish. It is a strong positive and
earnest desire that they might assuredly know and be well instructed.

Ignorance is man’s special human infirmity. Animals know more than man ( Isa. 1:3
). No animal is so helpless as man in the years of infancy.
It is remarkable, therefore, that in connection with the Church of God, and the epistles
addressed to churches as such, containing the special instruction neccssary in
consequence of man’s ignorance concerning the church as the mystery of God, there are
six different occasions on which it is written: “I would not have you ignorant, brethren.”

“ SIX ” is the number specially significant of man . Man was created on the sixth day;
and, wherever in Scripture we have this number or any multiple of it, it always stamps the
subject as having to do with Man. *

The significance of these six occurrences of this weighty expression will be seen by
those who have patience to work them out in the order in which they are given to us by
the Holy Spirit.

Rom. 1:13 . Of Paul’s purpose to prosecute his great mission and ministry to the
saints in Rome. So chap. 15:23 .

Rom. 11:25 . That blindness in part is happened to Israel.

1 Cor. 10:1–11 . That the camp in the wilderness was the type of the baptized
assembly under the preaching of the kingdom.

1 Cor 12:1 . Concerning spiritual things connected with the Church as the Body of
Christ by the baptism with the Holy Spirit.

2 Cor. 1:8 . Of the trouble at Ephesus, at the close of his ministry there ( Acts 19 ),
when his preaching the kingdom ends and the revelation of the Mystery begins.

1 Thess. 4:13 . Concerning those that are asleep. Their resurrection and translation
with the saints that are alive at the coming of the Lord, to be for ever with Him,
when the Mystery is completed.

Rom. 1:16 . —“I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ:” i.e. , I count it my highest
honour and glory to proclaim it, and to suffer for it, while I have full confidence in its
power to accomplish all God’s purposes of grace.

Rom. 4:19 . —“And being not weak in faith”: i.e. , Abraham being very strong in faith.

Rom. 5:5 . —“Hope maketh not ashamed”: i.e. , it enables us to “rejoice in hope of the
glory of God” (verse 2 ), and to “joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ.” This hope,
therefore, is no false hope, but will prove a great and eternal reality.

Rom. 10:2 . —“They have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge.”

* Many illustrations of this will be found in Number in Scripture , by the same author and
By lessening the terms of the expression, the truth is more strongly stated; and the
emphasis is thrown on their blindness and ignorance, which is enlarged upon in the next
verse, while zeal and ignorance are combined in verse 19 . Hence the expression, “not
according to knowledge,” by the figure of Tapeinosis means really with great blindness .

Rom. 13:10 . —“Love worketh no ill to his neighbour”: i.e. , it refuses to work ill, and
not only so, but it works good for his neighbour.

1 Cor. 2:14 . —“The natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God”: i.e. , he
does more than this, he rejects them, he will not have them: why? “For they are
foolishness unto him.” This on the one hand constitutes the guilt of man in the invariable
result of the exercise of his “free-will”: while on the other hand it is equally true as to
God’s sovereignty; “neither can he know them (lit., get to know them), because they are
spiritually discerned.”

1 Cor. 11:22 . —“I praise you not”: i.e. , I condemn you in this thing.

2 Cor. 2:11 . —“We are not ignorant of his devices,” i.e. , we are very well aware of

Gal. 5:21 . —“They which do such things, shall not inherit the kingdom of God”: i.e. ,
they shall not only not inherit the kingdom, but shall be cast out into outer darkness and
destroyed without remedy.

Heb. 11:16 . —“Wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God”: i.e. , God is
well-pleased to be their God, and to own them as His chosen people.

Heb. 13:2 . —“Be not forgetful to entertain strangers”: i.e. , make it your business to
remember to show hospitality.

Rev. 12:11 . —“They loved not their lives unto the death.” The fact implied is that they
disregarded their life to the point of death, and that because there was One whom they
loved more than life and for whose sake they willingly gave it up.

Rev. 18:7 . —“I am no widow”: i.e. , I am well-husbanded and prosperous.


Catabasis (See Anabasis )


Syllogismus; or, Omission of the Conclusion

Syl´-lo-gis´-mus . Greek, , a reckoning altogether , a bringing of all the
premisses; and, the conclusion before the mind. From ( sun ), together , and
( logizesthai ), to reckon . (Hence the word “logic”).

The regular form of every argument consists of three propositions of which the first
two are called “ premisses ” (the first being the major , and the latter the minor ), while
the last, which necessarily follows from them, is called the “ conclusion .”

But the term Syllogismus is given to this figure because it is a departure from this
rule, the law of logic being legitimately broken for the sake of emphasis.

It falls into this division because it is a figure of Rhetoric, in which something is

omitted for the sake of emphasis. It is not the omission of words , as such, as in Ellipsis;
or of sense , as in Meiosis or Tapeinosis; but it is a figure in which the premisses are
stated, but the conclusion is omitted, and left to the imagination to enhance and heighten
the effect; as when we say, “it can be better imagined than described.” Indeed, so great is
the emphasis which is thus acquired that the Latins gave it other names.

They called it SIGNIFICATIO , because something is signified which is not


RATIOCINATIO , or Reasoning , because only the Reasons (and not the conclusion)
are stated; or, special importance is given to the reasons , even though the conclusion
may be given (See Rom. 3 )

And it is called EMPHASIS , because of the emphasis thus given to the argument
which is omitted.

1 Sam. 17:4–7 . —The description of Goliath’s armour and weapons is given; and it is
left for us to conclude how great his strength must have been.

Isa. 2:3 , 4 . —“Out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from
Jerusalem. And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they
shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks.”

Here the facts, or premisses, are stated, but it is left for us to draw the conclusion as to
the marvellous results of this wonder-working word, which going out of Zion shall bring
them about. That “Word of the Lord” by which the heavens and earth were created shall
presently be spoken and bring peace and prosperity to the nations.

Isa. 4:1 . —“And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, We will
eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel: only let us be called by thy name, to take
away our reproach.”

This is the continuation and conclusion of chap. 3: in which, from verse 18 , the
punishment of the pride of the “daughters of Zion” is set forth: but it is left for us to draw
the solemn conclusion, How great must be the desolation:—the gates, where the
husbands of the daughters of Zion used to assemble, now mourn and are deserted; ( 3:26 .
Jer. 14:2 . Lam. 1:4 )—and the women whom many men did woo now come and offer
themselves to one man, renouncing the legal claim of the wife ( Ex. 21:10 ).

Isa. 49:20 . —Here the greatness of Zion’s blessing and prosperity is shown by the
statement of the facts in verses 18–21 . It is left for us to draw this conclusion which is
left unstated.

Matt. 10:30 . —“But the very hairs of your head are all numbered,” i.e. , therefore how
infinite must be the knowledge of our “Father”! how should I not therefore fear Him!

Matt. 24:20 . —“But pray ye that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the sabbath
day.” The conclusion is implied:—for then would your troubles and distress be increased
and intensified beyond the power of tongue to tell.

Luke 7:44 . —“Thou gavest me no water for my feet: but she hath washed my feet with
tears, and wiped them with the hairs of her head.” What is implied is—How much greater
therefore is her love than yours! So verses 45 and 46 .

1 Cor. 11:6 . —“If the woman be not covered, let her be shorn also.”

But she is not shorn, therefore the conclusion is, let her be covered.

2 Thess. 3:10 . —“If any would not work, neither should he eat.”

Here the conclusion is to be supplied: Every man must eat; therefore every man must
work: for it is not meant that a man’s food is to be withdrawn from him.


Enthymema; or, Omission of Premiss

En´-thy-mee-ma , a thought or a consideration .

This is the opposite of SYLLOGISMUS .

In Syllogismus, the premisses are stated, but the conclusion is omitted; while, in
Enthymema , the conclusion is stated and one or both of the premisses omitted.

Both are alike, therefore, in being an abbreviated Syllogism.

It is also related to Hypocatastasis ( q.v. ), in that it is an implication. But in

Hypocatastasis it is an ordinary statement or word which is to be implied; while, in
Enthymema it is the premiss of an argument which is left to be supplied.
The Latins call it COMMENTUM , a thought or a contrivance , and CONCEPTIO ,
the wording or drawing up of a statement .

It may be illustrated thus:—“We are dependent; we should, therefore, be humble.”

Here the major premiss is omitted—“dependent persons should be humble.”

A Biblical example occurs in

Rom. 7:1–6 . —Here the fact is asserted that law has dominion over a man only while he
is alive (verse 1 ), and this fact is applied to those who died ( i.e. , were judicially
reckoned as having died) when Christ died. So that all the members of the body of Christ
died, and therefore the law has no logger dominion over them (verses 5 , 6 ).

In proof of this, an illustrative argument is used, as to the case of a husband and wife.
Both are bound to each other by law: and, while both are alive the union of one of them
with another person is unlawful; but, if one be dead, then such a union on the part of the
survivor is legitimate.

But only one of the cases is given: viz. , the death of the husband.

The death of the wife is there, but only in thought; and this other premiss has to be
supplied by the mind in the course of the argument.

So that after the third verse we must add the other premiss in some such words as

“ And if the wife die, I need not say that she is free”; or, “ but it goes without saying
that if the wife die, of course she is free .”

Wherefore (as the conclusion is given in verse 6 ) we died in Christ, and are therefore
free from that law wherein we were held; for “he that has once so died stands justified
(the penalty having been paid) from his sin.

Now if we died with Christ we have been raised also with Him ( 6:8 . Col. 2:12 ).
Thus we were planted together with Him in “His death, and raised with Him ( 6:4 ) to
newness of life. And be it noted that this is no mere marriage union. To prevent this
conclusion the verb to marry is not used in verses 3 and 4 . There, instead of the usual
verb marry , which we should expect to find, we have the verb to become , with the
dative case; and must in each instance supply the Ellipsis . In the case of the woman, she
“becomes” joined, “becomes” bound under the law to a husband; but, in the case of those
who died with Christ, they “ become ” united to Him as members of His body and
“become” His property. Their union with Him is not in Incarnation, but in death, burial,
and resurrection; and having died with Him are freed from the Law, instead of being
bound to it.

Matt. 27:19 . —“Have thou nothing to do with that just man.”

Here the fire, and feeling, and urgency of Pilate’s wife is all the more forcible, in that
she does not stop to formulate a tame, cold argument, but she omits the major premiss;
which is greatly emphasized by being left for Pilate to supply. The complete Syllogism
would have been:

1. It is very wicked to punish a just or innocent man.

2. Jesus is a just man.

3. Have therefore nothing to do with punishing him.

The conclusion thus contains the proof of each of the premisses on which it rests.

Thus is emphasized one of the four testimonies borne to the innocence of the Lord
Jesus by Gentiles at the time of His condemnation.

1. Pilate’s wife ( Matt. 27:19 ).

2. Pilate himself, “I am innocent of the blood of this just person” ( Matt. 27:24 ).

3. The dying malefactor, “This man hath done nothing amiss” ( Luke 23:41 ).

4. The Centurion, “Certainly this was a righteous man” ( Luke 23:47 ).




WE now come to the second great division of our subject, viz. , figures which depend, for
their new form, on some addition , either of words or of sense.

In the one case, only the words are affected, by their repetition in various forms and
ways. In the other, the addition is made to the sense by the use of other words.

These all come under the head of Pleonastic Figures; just as the first division included
all Elliptical Figures.

Bullinger, E. W. (1898). Figures of speech used in the Bible (Page 137). London; New
York: Eyre & Spottiswoode; E. & J. B. Young & Co.
All these various forms of repetition and addition are used for the purpose of
attracting our attention, and of emphasizing what is said, which might otherwise be
passed by unnoticed.

When we reflect that no error in composition is more readily made than the undue
repetition of words, called Tautology , it is remarkable that there are more than forty
different ways of repeating words used by the Holy Spirit: over forty legitimate modes of
breaking the law which governs the use of language; and of repeating words, in such a
way that not only is there no tautology, but beauty is added to the composition and
emphasis given to the sense.

Under this division come all the forms of repetition, either of letters, words,
sentences, or subjects; which may be thus classified:—

Figures involving REPETITION and ADDITION


1. Repetition of letters and syllables.

a. The same letters.

b. Different letters.

2. Repetition of the same word.

a. In the same sense.

b. In a different sense.

3. Repetition of different words.

a. In a similar order (but same sense).

b. In a different order (but same sense).

c. With a similar sound (but different sense).

d. With a different sound (but similar sense).

4. Repetition of sentences and phrases.

5. Repetition of subjects ( Correspondence ).


1. By way of Repetition.

2. By way of Amplification.

3. By way of Description.

4. By way of Conclusion.

5. By way of Interposition.

6. By way of Argumentation.

We will now consider the various Figures which come under these various heads:



( a ) Of the same Letters


Homœopropheron; or, Alliteration

The Repetition of the same Letter or Syllable at the commencement of Successive Words

Ho-mœ-o-proph´-e-ron ( homoios ), like , and ( propher ), to

carry , or place before: i.e. , Successive words which carry the same letter or the same
syllable before , or at the beginning.

This figure, therefore, is the repetition of the same letter or syllable at the beginning
of two or more words in close succession. Its English name is ALLITERATION (from ad
, to , and litera , letter ). Churchill speaks of “Apt Alliteration’s Artful Aid.”

This figure is seen, of course, only in the Hebrew and the Greek. It is difficult to
reproduce it in a translation. And where it occurs in the English it may be only accidental,
and carry no weight or emphasis.

The song of Deborah, in Judges 5 , abounds with examples of Homœopropheron ,

which add great fire and force and beauty to the original. It is impossible to accurately
and literally reproduce it in English, but with a little liberty we can give the English
reader some idea of the use of this Figure.
We may as well, at the same time, do so according to its structure (see under
Correspondence ) and we present the structure first in outline, before setting it out in full.

The structure of Judges 5 in outline:

A 2 –. Praise to Jehovah for the avenging of Israel.

B a – 2 , 3 . Israel. The people’s voluntary service.

b 4–8 . Contrasted states of the country.

a 9 . Israel. The leaders’ voluntary service.

b 10 , 11 . Contrasted states of the country.

B b 12–18 . Contrasted conduct.

a 19–22 . The Enemy. Assault and defeat.

b 23–27 . Contrasted conduct.

a 28–30 . The Enemy. Presumption and disappointment.

A 31 . Praise to Jehovah for the avenging of Israel.

Adhering to this form, we may set the song forth thus:—

A 2 . Bless ye Jehovah,

B a That the L eaders in Israel took the lead;

That the people willingly offered themselves.

H ear, O ye kings; H earken, O ye princes;

I , even I , will sing to Jehovah,

Will strike the strings unto Jehovah, Israel’s God.

b Jehovah, when thou s ettest f orth from S eir,

When thou wentest f orth f rom Edom’s f ield,

The earth trembled, yea, the heavens d ropped;

Yea, the clouds d ropped d own water,

The m ountains m elted away before Jehovah,

Even yon, Sinai, before Jehovah, God of Israel. *

In the days of Shamgar, son of Anath,

In Jael’s days,

The highways were effaced;

The travellers had to w alk in tortuous w ays,

E ffaced were Israel’s hamlets— e ffaced

Till I, D eborah, r ose up— r ose up a mother in Israel

New g ods had they g ot them,

Therefore the p ress of war a pp roached their gates.

Was there f ound s hield or s pear among f orty thousand in Israel?

a My heart is with the leaders of Israel,

Who willingly offered themselves among the People:

Bless ye Jehovah.

b Ye who ride upon white asses,

Ye who r ecline upon r ich r ugs,

W ho w alk by the w ay—Speak!

Instead of the shouting of the archers among the water-drawers.

They praise there the righteous acts of Jehovah,

His righteous acts in His villages in Israel.

Then the People of Jehovah hastened down to the gates.

B b A w ake, a w ake, † Deborah!

* Hyperbole ( q.v. ).
A w ake, a w ake, s peak the s ong!

Barak, arise! c onquer thy c onquest,

Thou son of Abinoam.

Then down against the r obust r ushed a r emnant;

Jehovah’s Host r ushed with me against the p owerful,

From Ephraim’s stock—the victors over Amalek:

After thee marched Benjamin among thy peoples;

From M achir came the M asters,

M en that wield the M arshall’s staff out of Zebulun.

But the princes of Issachar were with Deborah,

Yea, Issachar was like B arak,

When into the valley his men th rew th emselves at his feet,

While by the b rooks a b ode Reu b en,

With great resolutions of heart.

Why sittest thou among the f olds listening to the shepherd’s f lute?

By the b rooks Reu b en has great searchings of heart.

Gilead stays beyond Jordan,

And Dan—Why does he abide in his s hips?

Asher s tays s till on the s hore of the s ea,

S taying s till in its bays,

But Z ebulun ha z arded his s oul unto death

With Naphthali, upon the heights of the field.

† Geminatio .
a K ings c ame to fight—then the K ings of C anaan fought

At Taanach and by M egiddo’s M eres;

S ilver gained they none.

From heaven they s trove; the s tars in their courses

They s trove against S isera:

Ki s hon’s s tream s wept them away—

A s tream of s uccours was Ki s hon’s s tream.

Tread s trongly on, my S oul!

When s truck the s ounding hoof of the r ushing s teed—

Of the r ushings ‡ s trong ones.

b C urse ye M eroz, com m ands Jehovah’s Angel,

C urse ye, c urse ye her inhabitants,

Be c ause they c ame not to Jehovah’s help,

To Jehovah’s help * amid the mighty.

Blessed above women be Jael,

Heber the Kenite’s wife,

Blessed above women † of the tents!

He asks for water, she gives him milk;

In a b eauteous b owl she c arries him cream:

With her left hand she t akes the t ent-peg,

With her right the h eavy h ammer,

‡ Epizeuxis ( q.v. ).
* Epizeuxis ( q.v. ).
† Anaphora ( q.v. ).
S he s wings it over S isera, s mites his head,

Crashes through and t ransfixes his t emples,

At her f eet he f alls—he lies,

At her f eet † he lies, writhes again, and f alls,

As he writhes himself again he f alls—dead! ‡

a Sisera’s mother l ooks from the window-edge,

She l ooks from the l attice- l edge and l aments:

“Why l ingers his car so l ong?

Why s top his chariots’ s teps?”

Her wise ladies answer her,

But she repeats her words to herself:

“Will they not find booty and share it?

Two m aidens for each m an; ||

Booty of purple robes for Sisera,

Yea, booty of purple robes!

Two for each neck of the captors?” §

A So f all all thy f oes, O Jehovah,

But let them that love Him s hine forth as the s un in his s trength.
Rom. 11:33 . , anex ereuneeta ) are his
judgments, and his ways , anex ichniastoi )!”

‡ Asyndeton ( q.v. ).
|| Some critics have quoted this as a specimen of the low moral standard of theScriptures,
not seeing that it is merely telling us what the heathen woman (Sisera’s mother) said!
And in that woman’s language we have the key to the victory which one woman won;
and to the vengeance which another woman wrought.
§ Aposiopesis ( q.v. ).
Here, the two important words are rendered still more emphatic by commencing with
the same syllables.

His judgments are anex ereuneeta (unsearchable), and His ways anex ichniastoi

This means that His judgments are incomprehensible, and His ways untrackable. The
former word occurs nowhere else in the N.T.; the latter only here, and in Eph. 3:8 , where
it is rendered “unsearch-able”:—“The unsearchable riches of Christ.” This does not
merely vaguely express that Christ’s riches are uncountable or untold, but that they
cannot be traced out . The context shows that this present interval between “the
sufferings of Christ” and “the glory that should follow,” had been kept a secret (
, musteerion , or mystery ), and had not been revealed, until it was made
known by the Spirit through Paul ( Rom. 16:25 , 26 . Eph. 3:2–11 . Col. 1:26 , 27 ). The
prophets sought to know the secret as to “what or what manner of time” the Spirit of
Christ which was in them did signify: but, it was untrackable; they could not follow it:
His ways were “past finding out.” *

1 Thess. 1:2 . —“We give thanks to God always for you all.” The last words are
emphasized by being put as a beautiful Homœo-propheron. The Greek is
( P antote P eri P ant n ), i.e. , always concerning you all.

1 Thess. 5:23 . —We give our own rendering: “And may the God of peace Himself
, holo teleis
, holo kleeron ), the spirit, and the soul, and the body, be preserved ( i.e. , reserved, see 1
) the parousia
(presence or coming) of our Lord Jesus Christ.”

Here the two words are “ holo teleis kai holo kleeron .”

Heb. 1:1 . —“God who at sundry times and in divers manners, etc.”
( pol ymer s pol ytrop s pal ai ), “ in many parts and many ways
of old .”

Here, there is both Homœopropheron and Homœteleuton: the two words both
beginning with poly - and ending with - s .


Homœoteleuton; or, Like Endings

The Repetition of the same Letters or Syllables at the end of Successive Words

* See The Mystery , by the same author and publisher.

H ´-mœ-o-tel-eu´-ton ( homoios ), like , and ( teleutee ), an
ending, i.e. , words with like endings .

This is the opposite Figure to Homœopropheron; and is used when successive words
end with the same or similar letters or syllables.

These two figures are for the most part involved in others which affect the whole of
the connected words; and therefore we shall meet with other examples as we proceed.

Mark 12:30 . —“This is the first commandment.” In the Greek this sentence consists of
three words, each ending with the same syllable: ( haut ee pr t ee
entol ee ); and thus our attention is called to this weighty saying.

1 Pet. 1:3 , 4 . —“Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, which
according to his abundant mercy hath begotten us again unto a lively hope by the
resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, to an inheritance incorruptible, and undefiled,
and that fadeth not away.”

Here, the Homœoteleuton emphasizes the wondrous character of this inheritance:—

( aphthar ton , amian ton , amaran ton ),

uncorruptible, undefiled, unfading . It is difficult accurately to reproduce the sound of
this in English; except in marking it by the voice in reading aloud.

We might say, incorruptible, indefilable, indestructible , but this would be at the

expense of exact accuracy in translating.


Homœoptoton: or, Like Inflections

The Repetition of Inflections

Ho-me-op´-to-ton ( homoios ), like , and ( pt sis ), a falling , which

in grammar means an inflection: i.e., a case formed by the declining of a noun, or tenses,
etc. , in the conjugation of a verb: as in the Latin message of Julius Cæsar, “ veni, vidi,
vici ,” i.e. , “I came, I saw, I conquered.”

This figure differs from the two former, in that the endings are not only similar, but
the similarity arises from the same inflections of verbs or nouns, etc.

It will be seen, therefore, that this figure belongs peculiarly to the Original languages,
and cannot always be transferred in translation.
Rom. 12:15 . —“Rejoice with them that do rejoice, and weep with them that weep.” Here
the inflections of the infinitive and participles necessarily go together in the Greek,
though, of course, not in the English.

. Chair ein meta chairon t n .

. Klai ein meta klaion t n .

The two lines likewise each exhibit an example of Polypt ton ( q.v. ), and also of
Homœopropheron ( q.v. ).

The figure may be reproduced in English thus:—

Be cheerful with those that are glad,

Be tearful with those that are sad.

2 Cor. 11:3 . —Lest your minds “be corrupt , haplo
teetos , hagno teetos ), that is towards ( i.e. , with reference to)

This is the reading of the R.V. , and is according to all the critical Greek Texts.

In English the words maybe rendered “simpleness and singleness.”

2 Tim. 3:2 , 3 . —In these two verses nearly all the words end in - ( -oi ), the
masculine plural case-termination.

These similar endings may arise, as above, where the words are quite different. But
when the two words are derived from the same root; or when they occur, not in the
language in which they appear, but in the language from which they are translated (either
written or spoken), then the figure is called—


Paromœosis: or, Like-Sounding Inflections

The Repetition of Inflections similar in Sound

Par´-o-mœ-o´-sis . Greek, , assimilation , especially of words; assonance .

It is from ( para ), beside ( homo sis ), likeness .

It is called also PAROMŒON , , nearly like .

q.v. Which see.

R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.
Sometimes it is wrongly called Parechesis , , likeness of sound or tone ,
from , beside ( eechos ), a sound ( eecheesis ), a sounding .
But Parechesis properly describes the figure when one of the two words belongs to
another language, or when the similarity is seen only in the original language and not in
the translation. See Parechesis .

Matt. 11:17 . —“We have piped unto you, and ye have not danced ( rchee sasthe ); we
have mourned unto you, and ye have not lamented ( ekop sasthe ).”

Here the two words have the same ending, sasthe , which greatly emphasizes the
sense. It is as though we could render it, “We have piped for you, and ye never stept ; we
dirged for you, and ye never wept.” Though this would emphasize it, it would be by
another figure ( Paronomasia , q.v. ), because the words are similar, only vaguely in
sound , but are not spelt with the same letters.

And, though the similar ending is caused by the inflection of the verb, it is not the
figure of Homœoptoton , because the two words are derived from the same root, which
lends an additional force and emphasis.

In the language of Syria, which Christ probably used, the words would be ,
ra-ked-toon , and , ar-ked-toon , both verbs being from the same root and
differing only in the conjugation: , meaning in one, to leap or spring up , from joy (
Ecc. 3:4 ) and in the other to leap or start up from fear ( Ps. 29:6 ; 114:4 , 6 ). *

John 1:5 . —“And the light shineth in darkness; and the darkness comprehended it not.”

The figure does not appear either in the English or the Greek: but in the Chaldee or
Syriac language “darkness” is , k’vel and “comprehended” is , kabel .

John 10:1 . —“He that entereth not in by the door into the sheep fold.” Is beautifully
expressed in the Syriac ,

1 Cor. 1:23 , 24 . —In these verses there is a beautiful combination of four different
words from the same root in order to emphasize the solemnity of the passage:

“We preach Christ crucified ( , mishkal , a cross , see Gen. 48:14 ), unto the
Jews a stumbling-block ( , mikshol ), and unto the Greeks foolishness ( ,
sekel ), but unto them that are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power ( ,
hishkeel ) of God and the wisdom ( , sekel ) of God.”

* This figure is not preserved in the Hebrew translation of the New Testament; the word
being , rekadtem , and , sephadtem , which is Homœoteleuton pure and

Acrostichion: or, Acrostic

Repetition of the same or successive Letters at the beginnings of Words or Clauses

THE English name of this figure is Ac-ros´-tic ( akros

), at the point ( i.e. , at the beginning or the end ) and ( stichos ), a row or order . It
is a figure of repetition, not of the same letter, but of different letters at the beginning or
end of words arranged in lines .

These letters may be thus repeated at the beginning or end of lines, either in the same
order in which they occur in the Alphabet (in which case they are called
ABECEDARIAN ), or in some other certain or particular order, making the letters at the
beginning or end of successive lines or words spell another word.

The Greeks gave it another name, PARASTICHIS ( ) from ( para ),

beside , and ( stichos ), a row , meaning that the letters are placed at the side .

By the use of this peculiar figure, our attention is attracted to the special importance
of certain passages. There are thirteen such passages in the Scriptures, and whenever we
meet with them, we are asked to give great attention to them, and to put marked emphasis
upon them.

The following are all the Acrostic or Abecedarian passages in the Bible, in which the
order of the Alphabet is followed:—

Pss. 9 . and 10 . —These two Psalms are linked together by an irregular alphabet running
through, and thus combining the two. Ps. 9 beginning with and Ps. 10 with , which
begins the last half of the alphabet.

The figure tells us that we are to connect these two Psalms together, and shows us
that we are to read them together, and that their subject is one: viz.: “the man of the earth”
( 10:18 ), the Antichrist; whose days, character, and end they give. While “the Great
Tribulation” is referred to twice ( 9:9 and 10:1 ). , “ times of trouble .” A
phrase which occurs only in these two places.

Other significant expressions also occur in each of the two Psalms:

“Arise,” 9:19 , 10:12 ; “the oppressed,” 9:9 , 10:18 ; “forget not the poor,” 9:12 ,
10:12 ; “the heathen,” 9:5 , 15 , 17 , 19 , 20 , and 10:16 .

Ps. 9 is “the expectation of the poor” ( 18 ). Ps. 10 is “the desire of the meek” ( 17 ).
The acrostic alphabet is incomplete and irregular, like the “times” which these Psalms
describe. We cannot reproduce the two Psalms here, but can only indicate the Acrostic in

commences each of the four lines of verses 1 , 2 ; , Verse 3 ; , verse 5 ; is

wanting; , verse 6 ; , verses 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 ; , verse 11 ; , verse 13 ; , verse 15 ; ,
verse 17 ; , verse 18 . , 10:1 ; , verse 5 ; , Verse 8 ; , , , are wanting; ,
verse 12 , is repeated from 9:19 in order to call our attention to the same words of the
same prayer; is found in verse 14 ; , twice in verse 15 ; , in verse 17 .

We must believe that the Acrostic is purposely incomplete, but what the design and
the lesson may be must be left to the patient students of God’s word. It may be that it is to
correspond with these “times of trouble,” for they also will be broken up and incomplete.

Ps. 25 —Here again the Acrostic is designedly irregular, proving its genuineness rather
than suggesting its corruption.

This design is shown by the fact that, in Ps. 34, the same letter is omitted, and the
same letter is duplicated by being added for the last verse. Ps. 25:22 and 34:22
commence with the same word ( pahdah ), “ redeem , ” and both verses thus marked
contain a similar sentiment: Ps. 25:22 , “Redeem Israel, O God, out of all his troubles”:
and 34:22 , “The LORD redeemeth the soul of his servants.” These two verses are thus
made to stand out by themselves.

The Acrostic letters are thus distributed:— , verses 1 and 2 ; , verse 2 (second
word); , verse 3 ; , verse 4 ; , verse 5 ; omitted; verse 6 ; , verse 7 ; , verse 8 ;
, verse 9 ; , verse 10 ; , verse 11 ; , verse 12 ; , verse 13 ; , verse 14 ; , verse
15 ; , verse 16 ; , verse 17 ; Omitted , verse 18 , 19 ; , verse 20 : , verse 21 ;
(repeated), verse 22 .

Ps. 24 —Here, as in Ps. 25, the sixth letter is omitted, the alphabet ending at verse 21 ;
and the repeated thus puts verse 22 outside the alphabetical series.

Thus far the two Psalms (25 and 24) are framed on the same model.

In this Psalm, with the above exception, there is one letter left for each verse in its

Ps. 37 —Here the series is complete. The being masked behind the preposition (in
the word , for ever , verse 28 ), and the behind the conjunction “ but , ” in
verse 39 .
Every letter has two verses of two lines each, except three: , verse 7 ; , verse 20 ,
and , verse 34 , which have but one verse of three lines each.

The Acrostic is as follows:— commences verse 1 ; , verse 3 ; , verse 5 ; ,

verse 7 ; , verse 8 ; , verse 10 ; , verse 12 ; , verse 14 ; , verse 16 ; , verse 18 ;
, verse 20 ; , verse 21 ; , verse 23 ; , verse 25 ; , verse 27 ; , verse 28 , third
line (“they are preserved for ever”); , verse 30 ; , verse 32 ; , verse 34 ; , verse 35
; , 37 ; , verse 39 .

Ps. 111 —The acrostic here is perfect. The Psalm has twenty-two lines, which commence
successively with the twenty-two letters of the Hebrew alphabet.

Ps. 112 is formed on precisely the same model, and the two Psalms form a pair, Ps. 111
being occupied with Jehovah and Ps. 112 with the man that feareth Jehovah. They may
be thus compared—the letters marking the Correspondence ( q.v. ).

Ps. 111

cxi. a 1–3 .— His righteousness for ever.

b 4–8 .— Gracious and full of compassion; ever mindful of His covenant.

c 9 , 10 .— His covenant and praise for ever.

Ps. 112

112 a 1–3 .— His righteousness for ever.

b 4–8 .— Gracious and full of compassion; in everlasting remembrance.

c 9 , 10 .— His exaltation for ever.

Ps. 119 —This Acrostic Psalm differs from every other. It consists of 176 verses, divided
into 22 groups of eight verses each: (8 × 22 = 176). The eight verses of each group begin
with the same letter. For example: the first eight verses each begin with Aleph (A), the
second eight with Beth (B); and so on through the whole Psalm.

* It is noteworthy that the first of these ( ) occurs seven verses from the beginning; the
last ( ), seven verses from the end; while the middle letter ( ) is the middle of the
whole Psalm.
† Ginsburg’s Hebrew Bible omits the Vau ( ).
It is very difficult to preserve this in a translation, and impossible where the letters of
one language are not the same either in power or number or order.

It so happens, however, that the ninth portion (verses 65–72 ), in which each verse
begins with Teth (T), begins also with T in the Authorized Version in all the verses
except two ( 67 and 71 ). These can be easily made to begin with T also, by changing the
word “Before” in verse 67 to Till; and the words “It is” in verse 71 to ’ Tis . Then it will
exactly correspond to the Hebrew original.

Attempts have been made to render other portions in a similar manner, but with little
success. What comes naturally in an Original Text, must be somewhat forced in
translating it into another language. We offer the following as an example:—


A h! the happinesses of the perfect in the way,

Such as walk in the law of Jehovah.

A h! the happinesses of the keepers of His testimonies,

Who seek Him with their whole heart.

A ssuredly they have not worked iniquity:

In His ways they ever walked.

A s to Thy commandments—Thou hast commanded us,

That we should diligently keep them.

A h! Lord , that my ways were prepared

To keep Thy statutes.

A shamed, then, I shall never be,

While I have respect unto all Thy commandments.

A ll my heart shall praise Thee in uprightness,

While I learn the judgments of Thy righteousness.

A ll Thy statutes also I will keep:

Leave me not utterly.


B y what means shall a young man cleanse his way?

By taking heed thereto according to Thy word.

B y every means my heart hath sought Thee:

Let me not err from Thy commandments.

B esides, I have laid up Thy word in my heart,

That I might not sin against Thee.

B lessed art Thou, O Jehovah,

Teach me Thy statutes.

B y my lips have I recounted

All the judgments of Thy mouth.

B y walking in Thy Mandate’s way,

I found joy beyond all wealth.

B y Thy precepts shall I guide my musings,

And shall pore o’er Thy paths,

B y thy statutes shall I be delighted;

Thy word I shall not forget.

Ps. 145 —Here the Acrostic is perfect, with the exception of the letter Nun , (N), which
comes between verses 13 and 14 .

It has evidently dropped out through the carelessness of some scribe; for it must have
been in the manuscripts from which the Septuagint, Vulgate, Syriac, Arabic and Æthiopic
Versions were made, as they contain the verse. One Hebrew MS. has been found by Dr.
Ginsburg containing the verse; which reads, “The LORD is faithful in all His words, and
holy in all His works.”

Moreover, it falls in with the structure of the Psalm, for the member, in which verse
nun ( ) occurs, consists of verses 13–20 and is as follows:—
a 13 . “Thou,” second person.

b 14 . “He,” third person.

a 15 , 16 . “Thou,” second person.

b 17–20 . “He,” third person.

The members b and b thus commence with similar words.

The Psalm is “David’s Psalm of praise.” It is the only Psalm that is dignified by this
title. It is a special Psalm, therefore, and the Acrostic marks it as such, there being exactly
22 verses, one letter for each verse, and each verse consisting of two lines.

The structure (see under Correspondence ) shows that it consists of seven members,
arranged alternately, the subject of the first being Praise promised , and that of the
second, Praise offered in fulfilment of that promise.

It is as follows:—

Psalm 145
A1 1 , 2 . Praise promised (first person) for Jehovah Himself.

B1 3 . Praise offered (third person) to Jehovah.

A2 4–7 . Praise promised (first and third persons alternately) for Jehovah’s works.

B2 8 , 9 . Praise offered (third person) for Jehovah’s works.

A3 10–12 . Praise promised (third person only) for Jehovah’s kingdom.

B3 13–20 . Praise offered (third person) for Jehovah’s kingdom.

A4 21 . Praise promised (first and third persons) ( , shall bless , as in verse

10 ).
Prov. 31:10–31 is a perfect alphabetical Acrostic, marking and calling our attention to
this song in praise of a virtuous woman. Döderlein calls it “ a golden A B C for women .”
It follows here, the words of a faithful mother. The following is the structure of the
A 10 . The woman and her worth.

B1 11 , 12 . Her husband.

C 13–22 . Her work.

B2 23 . Her husband.

C 24–27 . Her work.

B3 28 , 29 . Her children and her husband.

A 30 , 31 . The woman and her worth.

Like Ps. 145 it consists of twenty-two verses, and each verse contains two lines.

Lam. 1 is an acrostic chapter. It consists of 22 verses, each of which commences with a

successive letter of the alphabet, and each consists of three lines, except verse 7 ( ,
Zayin ) which contains four lines.

Lam. 2 is the same, except that in this case it is verse 19 ( , Koph ) which contains four
lines. and (verses 16 and 17 ) are transposed.

Lam. 3 is different. It consists of 66 verses; the first three each commencing with (A);
the second three each commencing with

(B), and so on. Here, also as in chap. 2 , and (verses 46–48 and 49–51 ) are

Lam. 4 —Here, there are 22 verses, each verse commencing successively with the letters
of the alphabet, and consisting of two lines. Here, also as in chaps. 2 and 3, the and
(verses 16 and 17 ) are designedly transposed.

These are all the Alphabetical Acrostics.

There are, however, others, to which our attention is called by the Massorah, as well
as by their being written in larger characters in certain Manuscripts.

In these cases the Acrostic letters spell certain words. But these are no more
accidental than those which are alphabetical. Other acrostics have been found; but, as
they are without Massoretic or Manuscript authority (and, therefore, probably are
undesigned) we do not notice them.

Ps. 96:11 . —The Massorah has a rubric calling attention to the name of Jehovah here in
a complete sentence of four words:— *

* Reading the English words backwards.

earth-the glad-be-let-and heavens-the rejoice-Let.

“Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth be glad” (lit., “ Let-rejoice the-heavens
and-let-be-glad the-earth ”).

This is the great truth and the grand climax of God’s purposes, which the Psalms as a
whole set forth and declare. Especially so in this fourth book of the Psalms, which reveals
those purposes in relation to the earth.

Ps. 96 is a call to “all the earth” (verse 1 ) to sing the “new song,” and Ps. 97 is, or rather
will yet be, the earth’s glad answer to that call. *

Esther. —In the Book of Esther four times the name of Jehovah occurs in the form of an
Acrostic. †

Jehovah had declared ( Deut. 31:16–18 ) that if His people forsook Him He would
hide His face from them. Here this threatening was fulfilled. But, though He was hidden
from them, He was present, working for them, to deliver them. Hence the outward form
of the book is in harmony with the circumstances of the people: Jehovah was not with
them, but He was for them; and therefore, though His name does not occur so that it may
be sounded and pronounced by the voice, it appears, so that it may be visible to the
opened eyes.

Further, the four Acrostics are all different from each other.


occurs in 1:20 . It is formed by the initial letters, for the event was initial. It is formed by
spelling the word backwards , for Jehovah was overruling and turning back the wisdom
of man. The four Hebrew words are

i.e. , “ All the wives shall give ,” or exhibiting a similar Acrostic in English—

“ D ue R espect O ur L adies”

shall give to their husbands, etc.”

This counsel resulted in bringing Esther to the throne; so that, when Haman’s plot had
been made, it might be thwarted ( 4:14 ).

* See A Key to the Psalms .

† See a separate pamphlet on this subject by the same author and publisher, The Name of
Jehovah in the Book of Esther .

( 5:4 ) is formed, as before, by the initial letters; for Jehovah was initiating His plans: but
it is spelt forwards (as in our common form of Acrostics), for Jehovah was ruling rather
than overruling. The four Hebrew words are—

“ Let the King and Haman come this day ,” or,

“ L et O ur R oyal D inner

be graced this day by the King and Haman.” The name of Jehovah appears in the
invitation; for He was to be there in order to bring the counsels of man to nought and”
take the wise in their own craftiness.”

Nothing happens at the dinner beyond an invitation to Haman to dine at the royal
table the next day. “Then went Haman forth that day joyful and with a glad heart” ( 5:9 ).
Yes, “that day,” for it was his last!


( 5:13 ) is the beginning of the end. Hence it is formed by the final letters, for the end was
approaching. It is read backwards , for the Lord was turning back all the proud purposes
of Haman. Haman goes home to his wife and says:

“ This availeth me nothing ,” or “Yet am I

sa D , fo R n O avai L

is all this to me.”

This sadness was a precursor of, and foreboded, his coming execution. Haman dines
on the morrow with the king and queen; and events soon reached their climax; which
comes in


( 7:7 ). It is again in the final letters, for Haman’s end had come. It is spelt forwards ; for
Jehovah was ruling , and had determined the event:—
Haman saw “ that evil was determined against him ,” or, “For he saw that there was

evi L t O fea R determine D

against him by the King.”

There was indeed evil to fear: for that evil had been determined not by King
Ahasuerus, but by Jehovah: and the evil came swiftly upon him, for he was at once taken
out and hanged.

Thus these four Acrostics at once conceal and reveal the Name of Jehovah, and
emphasize the four pivots on which the whole history turns.

Est. 7:5 . —This is another Acrostic for which there is Massoretic authority, the letters
being written in larger characters in certain MSS

It is that name by which God revealed himself to Moses and to Israel, the “I AM ,”
who had come down to deliver them. He who came down to deliver them in Egypt now
comes down to deliver them in Persia: and, though He was not revealed, nor His name
written, yet He has caused it to be emblazoned on the pages of the history.

When Ahasuerus learned from Esther, that “the Jews’ enemy” had laid his plot to
destroy the whole nation, he cries out in his ignorance,


that durst presume in his heart to do so?” He uses the words of which the final letters
spell the name EHJHE (pronounced E-he-yhe both backwards and forwards).

EHEYEH knew who Haman was and where he was. He who is the great “I am,” sees
the end from the beginning; and both rules and over-rules all events for the
accomplishment of His purposes, and for the deliverance of His People. (See Ex. 2:23–25
; 3:14 , 15 ).

Acrostics, like many other figures, occur only in the Originals, and cannot be
reproduced in a translation.

It is possible also for figures to occur in a translation which are not in the Hebrew or
Greek! In such cases they are, of course, either accidental or designed. In either case they
are of no value or weight.
An Acrostic can be made, for example, in the English of John 3:16 , which is
accidental. But as it may be useful to some in teaching others, we note it here—

John 3:16

G od so loved the world, that he gave his

O nly begotten

S on, that whosoever believeth in him should not

P erish, but have

E verlasting

L ife.

This verse contains the good news of the Gospel, which, by a singular coincidence, is
the very word which may thus be written as an Acrostic.


( a ) In the Same Sense

There are no less than twelve ways in which the same word may be repeated in the same
sense in the same sentence. The first is called


Epizeuxis: or, Duplication

The Repetition of the Same Word in the Same Sense

When the word is repeated in close and immediate succession, no other word or words
coming between, it is called GEMINATIO , pronounced Gem-i-n ´-tio , which means a
doubling, duplication, a re-doubling . It is also called ITERATIO ( It´-er- -ti-o ),
iteration; CONDUPLICATIO ( con-d -pli-ca´-tio ), conduplication , or full doubling .

When the words do not immediately succeed each other, but are separated by one or
more intervening words, the figure is then called EPIZEUXIS , pronounced Ep´-i-zeux´-is
epi ), upon , and ( zeugnumi ), to
yoke , or join closely together . The intervening words thus form the yoke which joins the
repeated words.
The Latins give this figure the name of SUBJUNCTIO ( Subjunc´-tio ), which is
derived from the Greek and has exactly the same meaning, subjoining (from jugum, a
yoke ).

We may give the figure the English name of “Duplication,” “Gemination,”

“Iteration,” or “Repetition.”

It is a common and powerful way of emphasizing a particular word, by thus marking

it and calling attention to it.

In writing, one might accomplish this by putting the word in larger letters, or by
underlining it two or three times. In speaking, it is easy to mark it by expressing it with
increased emphasis or vehemence.

How important for us to notice, in the Scriptures, the words and expressions which
the Holy Spirit has thus marked and emphasized in order to impress us with their

Gen. 6:17 . —“And, behold, I, even, I , do bring a flood of waters upon the earth.”

Gen. 7:19 . —“And the waters prevailed exceedingly.”

Here, as in other passages, the doubled adverb is used for a superlative. (

me d , me d ), greatly, greatly . We have the same words in 17:2 , “And I will multiply
thee exceedingly ( me d , me d ). So also verse 6 , exceeding ; and verse 20 ,
exceedingly ; 30:43 , “And the man increased exceedingly ( me d , me d )”; Ex. 1:7 , “
Waxed exceeding ”; Num. 14:7 , “It is an exceeding ( me d , me d ) good land”; 1 Kings
7:47 , “Because they were exceeding ( me d , me d ) many”; 2 Kings 10:4 , “But they
were exceedingly ( me d , me d ) afraid”; Ezek. 9:9 , “And Judah is exceeding ( me d ,
me d ) great”; 16:13 , “And thou wast exceeding ( me d , me d ) beautiful”; 37:10 , “An
exceeding ( me d , me d ) great army.”

Gen. 22:11 . —“And the angel of the LORD called unto him out of heaven, and said,
Abraham, Abraham .”

This is the first occurrence of this figure, used of names. There are ten such in the
Scriptures (the number ten completing the cycle of Divine order). *

Seven of these are used by God to man (four of which are in the Old Testament, and
three in the New), the other three being used under other circumstances. When thus used,
the figure calls special attention to the occasion or to the person, and to some solemn
moment of importance in the action, or of significance in the words.

Used by God to men. (7)

* See Number in Scripture , by the same author and publisher.

Old Test. (4)

1. Abraham, Abraham ( Gen. 22:11 ).

2. Jacob, Jacob ( Gen. 46:2 ).

3. Moses, Moses ( Ex. 3:4 ).

4. Samuel, Samuel ( 1 Sam. 3:10 ).

New Test. (3)

5. Martha, Martha ( Luke 10:41 ).

6. Simon, Simon † ( Luke 22:31 ).

7. Saul, Saul ( Acts 9:4 ).

Used under other circumstances. ‡ (3)

8. Lord, Lord ( Matt. 7:21 , 22 . Luke 6:46 ; 13:25 ).

9. Jerusalem, Jerusalem ( Matt. 23:37 . Luke 13:34 ).

10. Eloi, Eloi ( Mark 15:34 . Matt. 27:46 . Ps. 22:1 ).

It is to be noted that in raising the dead the Lord Jesus never used this figure! As
much as to say it needed no emphasis whatever to make the dead hear His voice (see
Mark 5:41 ).

The disciples may cry, “ Master, Master , we perish!” ( Luke 8:24 ), but He calmly
rebukes the winds and the waves.

Gen. 25:30 . —“And Esau said to Jacob, “Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red
pottage .”

, plural , plural )
as wheat: but I have prayed for thee ( singular ) that thy faith fail not.”

Satan “sifts” to get rid of the wheat! Christ “fans” to get rid of the chaff ( Matt. 3:12 ).

‡ Each of these three examples is unique. In No. 8 it is the name of the Lord used by
man. In No. 9 it is used of God’s city and people by Christ. In No. 10 it is used of God by
The Hebrew having no superlative, doubles the adjective (see under Idiom ),
( hah-ahdom, hah-ahdom ), red, red , i.e. , this very red [ food ]; or, this
deliciously red food .

Ex. 2:12 . —“And he looked this way and that way.”

Here the Hebrew ( k h vahk h ), this and this , is well translated, The
repetition emphasizes the fact that he looked in every direction. See also Josh. 8:20 , i.e. ,
in any direction. 2 Kings 2:8 . Also Josh. 8:33 , ( mizzeh oomizzeh ), i.e. , on
all sides. 1 Kings 2:36 , “Go not forth thence any-whither” ( ahneh vah-ah-nah
), this and this . 2 Kings 4:35 , see margin.

Ex. 4:16 . —“And he shall be , even he shall be to thee instead of a mouth:” i.e. , he
shall surely be, etc.

Ex. 15:16 . —“ Till thy people pass over , O LORD , till the people pass over , which
thou hast purchased:” i.e. , till thy people have completely passed over and are safe on the
other side.

Ex. 23:30 . —“By little and little I will drive them out from before thee,” ( me-
at, me-at ), “ little, little , I will drive, etc.:” i.e. , I will drive them out by very slow
degrees. There s no “by” or “and” in the Hebrew of this passage. These words should be
in italics. The figure is beautifully rendered in English idiom, where two adverbs are used
to express the superlative.

Ex. 28:34 . —“A golden bell and a pomegranate, a golden bell and a pomegranate upon
the hem of the robe round about:” i.e. , alternately.

Ex. 34:6 . —“And the LORD passed by before him, and proclaimed, JEHOVAH,

Here, if we were to translate the figure idiomatically, it means that He proclaimed the
wonderful name, Jehovah! (which He did in the sixth and seventh verses).

Lev. 6:12 ( 5 ). —“And the priest shall burn wood on it every morning.”
( babb ker, babb ker ), morning, morning : i.e. , every morning, regularly, and without

Lev 24:8 . —“Every sabbath he shall set it in order before the LORD continually.”

Hebrew ( Bey m hashabbath beyom hashabbath ), on-the-

day-of the-Sabbath, on-the-day-of the-Sabbath : i.e. , every Sabbath, with emphasis on
the word “every,” i.e. , every Sabbath without fail.
Num. 17:12 , 13 ( 27 , 28 ). —After Aaron’s rod had been brought forth, the people were
frightened and cried to Moses, “Behold, we die, we perish, we all perish. Whosoever
cometh near, cometh near unto the tabernacle of the LORD shall die: shall we be
consumed with dying?”

Here the figure is ( hakkahrev hakkahrev ), cometh near, cometh near .

It is idiomatically translated by the A.V. , but literally by the R.V.

There is also the repetition of the word ( ahvadnoo ), “we perish, we all

Deut. 28:43 . —Here the figure is really translated idiomatically, and not literally. “The
stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high,” i.e. , (
mahalah, mahalah ), high, high ; “and thou shalt come down very low” ( i.e. ,
( mattah, mattah ), low, low ).

Thus the figure emphasizes the depth of the misery into which Israel should be
brought if they would not hearken to the voice of Jehovah (verse 15 ).

Judges 5:22 . —

“Then did the horsehoofs stamp:

By reason of the pransings, the pransings of his mighty ones.”

( middaharoth daharoth ), i.e. , the violent pransings, if translated

idiomatically. See under Idiom .

1 Sam. 2:3 . —“Talk no more exceeding proudly.”

( gevohah, gevohah ), proudly, proudly , i.e. , arrogantly or


Here the repeated adjective is idiomatically translated as a superlative.

2 Sam. 7:5 . —“Go and tell my servant David (Heb., to my servant, to David), Thus saith
the LORD , Shalt thou build, me a house for me to dwell in?”

Here there is great emphasis to be placed on the repeated pronoun, “me,” in order to
rebuke the popular and universal thought of the natural heart, which ever says, “See now,
I dwell in a house of cedar, but the ark of God dwelleth within curtains.”

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.
2 Sam. 18:33 . —“O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would God I had
died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son! ”

Here the figure emphasizes the vehemence of David’s grief.

2 Kings 4:19 . —“And he said unto his father, My head, my head. ” ( ,

roshee, roshee .)

How eloquent: and what a volume is contained in this simple figure, so naturally used
by the child; as an English child would say, “My poor head.”

2 Chron. 4:3 . —“Compassing the sea round about.” ( sahveev, sahveev ),

around, around: i.e. , completely round, all around. The same repetition is used, to
express complete surrounding, in Ezek. 37:2 ; 40:5 , 14 , 16 (twice), 17 , 25 , 29 , 30 , 33 ,
36 , 43 ; 41:5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 16 (the second “round about”), 17 , 19 ; 42:15 , 20 ;
43:12 . In all these descriptions of the new and future Temple, the repetition of
( sahveev, sahveev ) emphasizes the completeness of the measurements.

Ps. 22:1 . —“ My God, my God ( , Elee, Elee ), why hast thou forsaken me?”

Who can tell the depth of meaning and of feeling, which this figure here reveals? It is
thus impressed upon us, because it cannot be expressed by words. See Mark 15:34 .

Ps. 67:6 , 7 ( 7 , 8 ). —

“ God shall bless us ,

God shall bless us :”

i.e. , God shall really and truly bless us in very deed.

Ps. 77:16 ( 17 ). —

“ The waters saw thee , O God,

The waters saw thee. ”

(See under Prosopopœia .) Thus emphatically describing Ex. 14

Ps. 96:13 . —

“ For He cometh, for He cometh :”

i.e. , for He shall surely come.

Ps. 118:11 . —Twice “ They compassed me about ”; and in verses 15 and 16 , we have
three times “ The right hand of the Lord. ”

Ps. 137:7 . —“Remember, O LORD , the children of Edom in the day of Jerusalem; who
said, Rase it , rase it, even to the foundation thereof,” i.e. , ( ahroo, ahroo ),
“Down-with-it, down-with-it,” or we might render the figure, utterly overthrow it .

Prov. 20:14 . —“ It is naught , it is naught , saith the buyer: but when he is gone his
way, then he boasteth.”

Heb. is ( ra, ra ), i.e. , “very bad,” or “worth nothing.” What a picture of

Eastern bargaining!

Ecc. 3:18 . —Lit., I said in my heart respecting the estate of the sons of men that … they
, even they are like beasts.”

Here the figure of Pleonasm ( q.v. ) first emphasizes the word “men,” and then the
Epizeuxis again increases that emphasis.

Ecc. 7:24 . —“That which is far off and exceeding deep, who can find it out?”

( ahmok, ahmok ), deep, deep : i.e. , as it is translated, “exceeding


Isa. 6:3 . —The holiness of Jehovah is emphasized beyond measure, and the three
persons in one God are indicated by the thrice repeated “ Holy, holy, holy is the LORD of
hosts.” Here the highest degree of holiness is ascribed to Jehovah.

Isa. 21:9 . —“Babylon is fallen, is fallen ”: to emphasize the certainty and the greatness
of the fall of that great city, and the completeness of its final overthrow. See also Rev.
18:2 .

Isa. 26:3 . —“Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace.”

Here the figure is idiomatically translated . The Hebrew reads (see margin)
( shalom, shalom ), peace, peace , thus emphasizing the word and denoting much
peace, great peace; or, as in A.V. , “perfect peace.” In 57:19 and Jer. 6:14 it is not thus

Professor Driver mentions this duplication of words as being a post-Isaian feature of

literary style ( Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testament , pp. 233, 234). He
says, “The literary style of chapters 40–56 is very different from that of Isaiah”: one of
the “literary features” being the repetition of words. It is remarkable, as being
characteristic of the wisdom and acumen assumed by the higher critics, that though
Professor Driver mentions the repetition of , peace, peace , in Isa. 57:19 , he
does not mention the very same repetition in 26:3 : which is an evidence of the very unity
of the two parts of Isaiah which he is seeking to disprove. *

Isa. 28:10 . —This is probably the ironical language of the “scornful men” (verse 14 ),
introduced by the Ellipsis of verse 9 : “Whom [ say they ] shall he teach knowledge?…
for [ it is ] precept upon precept; precept upon precept; line upon line; line upon line;
here a little , and there a little. ” And, then, the Prophet retorts: “For (or Yea, verily)
with stammering lips ( marg. , stammerings of lips ) and another tongue will he speak (
marg. , he hath spoken ) to this people.”

In the English the Epizeuxis is not perfect, because the word “upon” comes between,
but in the Hebrew the words follow each other closely.

i.e. , “For it is tzav latzav; tzav latzav; kav lakav, kav lakav; z hr sh hm, z hr sh hm .”

See also verse 13 .

Isa. 40:1 . —“ Comfort ye, comfort ye my people, saith your God.” Here the Epizeuxis
consists of one word in the Hebrew, ( nachmoo, nachmoo ): and calls our
attention to the passage; while it emphasizes the plenitude of that comfort wherewith
Jehovah has determined to comfort His People Israel at no distant date.

Isa. 51 . —In this Scripture we have three calls emphasized by this figure.
A1 51:9–11 . A call to the arm of Jehovah:—“ Awake, awake , put on strength, O
arm of the LORD .”

* The same applies to other arguments: e.g. , Dr. Driver says (p.227) that certain words
“occurring in chapters 40–66 . point to a later period of language than Isaiah’s age … A
remarkable instance is afforded by 65:25 … where , the common Hebrew word for
together , is replaced by , an expression modelled upon the Aramaic , and
occurring besides only in the latest books of the Old Testament.” But Professor Driver
does not mention the fact that the word occurs in the earlier books of the Bible: so early
indeed as Gen. 3:22 ; 49:16 . 1 Sam. 17:36 , and elsewhere. True, in these passages it is in
the construct state: but that makes no difference so far as the argument is concerned.
Moreover, as this very word occurs in chap. 1:28 , 31 , and 11:6 , 7 , as well as in
66:17 , it is an argument against Dr. Driver’s division of Isaiah into two halves.
marg. Margin.
B1 12–16 . Followed by comfort.

A2 17–20 . A call to Jerusalem:—“ Awake, awake , stand up, O Jerusalem.”

B2 21–23 . Followed by comfort.

A3 52:1 , 2 . A call to Zion:—“ Awake, awake , put on strength, O Zion.”

B3 3–12 . Followed by comfort.

Isa. 57:19 . —“I create the fruit of the lips:— Peace, peace to him that is far off and to
him that is near,” etc.: i.e. , great peace, perfect peace as in 26:3 ( q.v. ).

Jer. 4:19 . —“ My bowels, my bowels! ” to emphasize the great distress experienced.

Jer. 6:14 . —“They have healed also the hurt of the daughter * of my people slightly,
saying Peace, peace ; when there is no peace.” Here the figure contrasts with the fact that
there was no peace for Jerusalem the fact that her false prophets continually promised
plenty of peace, much peace.

Jer. 22:29 . —“O earth, earth, earth , hear the word of the LORD .”

Ezek. 21:9–13 ( Heb. 14–18 ). —“ A sword, a sword is sharpened, and also furbished.”

This is to call our attention to “the sword of the LORD ,” viz. , Babylon, and to show
that His sword is a sword for war , and not a sword worn for honour . This is the key to
this difficult passage. That there are difficulties is seen the moment we observe the italics,
note the marginal alternatives, and consult the commentators!

Jehovah’s sword was not like the sword of His son Judah, not like his “rod” or
“sceptre” (verse 10 ), which was merely for honour, and was no use against a tree. But
this sword (verse 10 ) “contemneth the rod (or sceptre) of my son, as [ it despiseth ] every
tree (or wood).” Verse 12 should be, “Cry and howl, son of man: for it shall be upon my
people, it shall be upon all the princes of Israel: my people shall be delivered to the
sword: smite therefore upon thy thigh” (which was the symbol of fear in man, as beating
the breast was in woman). Verse 13 . “Because it was proved, and what? ( i.e., what will
happen? what will be the result? ) if the sword shall not despise the wood, saith the Lord!
It will not be, saith Adonai Jehovah!” ( i.e. , it will not despise it! it will destroy it!)

Thus we have the sword of Jehovah emphasized: and the structure of these verses
explains their meaning.
A 8–10 . The sword of Jehovah (Babylon). Its sharpness and brightness.

B – 10 . Its contempt for the rod or sceptre of His son Judah.

* These words are supplied, apparently from chap. 8:11 , 21 .

A 11 , 12 . The sword of Jehovah. Its destroying power.

B 13 . Its contempt for the wooden rod or sceptre of Judah.

The point is that the sword of the Lord is a sword of war, not of honour; and its power
is so great that the sceptre of Judah (which was of wood ) will not withstand it.

Ezek. 21:27 . —“I will overturn, overturn, overturn it; and it shall be no more until he
come whose right it is; and I will give it him”: i.e. , I will completely and thoroughly
overturn it.

The threefold Epizeuxis emphasizes the completeness of the overthrow of the throne
of David; hence, by implication, the certainty of the promised fulfilment of the prophecy
that He who is David’s Son and David’s Lord, shall surely reign upon that same throne
according to Luke 1:32 , 33 , and many other Scriptures.

Ezek. 22:2 . —“ Wilt thou judge, wilt thou judge? ”: i.e. , Wilt thou really and truly
judge? See under Heterosis .

Ezek. 33:11 . —“ Turn ye, turn ye from your evil ways.”

Ezek. 34:11 . —“Behold, I , even I , will both search my sheep and seek them out.”

And verse 20 : “Behold I , even, I , will judge between the fat cattle and between the
lean cattle.”

Thus does Adonai Jehovah emphasize what He will do in consequence of the

unfaithfulness of the shepherds, who fed not His flock, but fed themselves. (See under
Ellipsis , page 114 ).

Ezek. 34:17 . —“I judge between cattle and cattle .” ( .)

For the emphasis in this passage, see the notes on it under the figure of Ellipsis ( page
40 ).

Dan. 5:11 . —“Whom the king Nebuchadnezzar thy father, the king , I say , thy father
, made master of the magicians”: i.e. , thy father the great and mighty king

Dan. 10:19 . —“ Be strong , yea, be strong :” i.e. , be very strong.

Zeph. 1:14 . —“The great day of the LORD is near , is near , and hasteth greatly”: i.e. , is
very near.

Matt. 5:37 . —“But let your communication ( R.V. , speech) be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay :
for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.”
Here the figure emphasizes the fact, not that we are forbidden to say , “Yea” or “nay”
twice; but that we are merely to say, “Yes” or “no,” and not to indulge in vehement
asseverations and oaths; “for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.”

Matt. 23:37 . —“O Jerusalem, Jerusalem , thou that killest the prophets,” etc.:
emphasizing the pathetic appeal by the exceeding guilt of the city in killing the prophets
of Jehovah.

Luke 23:21 . —“ Crucify him , crucify him,” emphasizing the vehemence of the cry,
and the determination of the priest-led people.

John 1:51 . —“ Verily, verily ( ameen ameen ). Twenty-

five solemn sayings of the Lord Jesus are thus emphatically marked in John’s Gospel: viz.
, 1:51 ; 3:3 , 5 , 11 ; 5:19 , 24 , 25 ; 6:26 , 32 , 47 , 53 ; 8:34 , 51 , 58 ; 10:1 , 7 ; 12:24 ;
13:16 , 20 , 21 , 38 ; 14:12 ; 16:20 , 23 ; 21:18 . It might prove a useful study to trace the
sequence of truth in these successive statements.

Apart from the Repetition, which occurs only in the fourth Gospel, there is something
to be learnt from the number of times the word occurs. *

Heb. 10:37 . —“Yet a little while,” Lit., how little, how little.
( eti gar mikron hoson hoson ).

Eph. 3:9 . —Lit. “And to enlighten all [ as to ] what [ is ] the dispensation of the Mystery
which has been hidden away, away , from the ages in [or by] God.” Showing the
completeness with which the secret was hidden in former times. Compare Rom. 16:25 ,
and Col. 1:26 .


Anaphora; or, Like Sentence-Beginnings

The Repetition of the same Word at the beginning of successive Sentences

A-naph´-o-ra ( ana ), again , and ( pher ), to bring

or carry . It means a carrying back, reference , or repeating over again .

This figure is also sometimes called EPANAPHORA : which is the same word with
( epi ), upon , prefixed. In Latin it is called RELATIO .

This figure is so-called because it is the repeating of the same word at the beginning
of successive clauses: thus adding weight and emphasis to statements and arguments by
calling special attention to them.

* See Number in Scripture , by the same author and publisher.

Anaphora differs from Epibole ( q.v. ). In the case of Epibole several words are
repeated, consisting of a sentence or phrase; whereas, in Anaphora only one word is thus

Scripture abounds with this figure, which adds great importance to many of its
solemn statements. We give a few examples:—

Deut. 28:3–6 . —

“ Blessed shalt thou be in the city, and

blessed shalt thou be in the field:

blessed shall be the fruit of the body,

and * the fruit of thy ground,

and the fruit of thy cattle,

the increase of thy kine,

and the flocks of thy sheep.

blessed shall be thy basket and thy store,

blessed shalt thou be when thou comest in,

blessed shalt thou be when thou goest out.”

See the same figure in verses 16–19 with the word “ cursed ” repeated at the
beginning of successive sentences.

2 Sam. 23:5 . —According to the Hebrew, each line begins with the word ( kee ), For

“ For is not my house thus with God?

For He hath made with me an everlasting covenant, ordered

in all things and sure,

For this is all my salvation, and all my desire.

For shall He not make it to prosper?”

* See Polysyndeton .
These four lines are in the form of an introversion:—
a Question.

b Answer and Reason.

b Answer and Reason.

a Question.

In a and a the question is concerning David’s house; while in b and b the subject is
Jehovah’s covenant. See under Correspondence .

Ps. 3:1 , 2 ( 2 , 3 ). —

“ Many are they that rise up against me,

Many there be which say of my soul,” etc.

Ps. 94:3 , 4 . —“ How long ” In verse 4 it should be repeated by Ellipsis and put in italics
twice. In the A.V. it is thus put only once; in the R.V. not at all, the figure not being seen.

Ps. 115:12 , 13 . —

“ He will bless us.

He will bless the house of Israel.

He will bless the house of Aaron.

He will bless them that fear the LORD .”

This figure stands here in immediate contrast with the figure of Epistrophe ( q.v. ) in
verses 9–11 , where the same phrase ends successive clauses.

See also in the Songs of Degrees, Ps. 121:7 , 8 ; 122:6 , 7 ; 123:2 , 3 ; 124:1 , 2 , and 3
, 4 , 5 ; 126:2 ; 127:1 ; 128:5 , 6 ; 129:1 , 2 .

Ps. 148:1–4 . —“ Praise ” is seven times repeated at the beginning of successive

sentences. So also in the whole of Ps. 150

Isa. 51:1 , 4 , 7 . — Three times we have the Divine call “ Hearken unto me. ”

Jer. 1:18 . —“Behold, I have made thee this day a defenced city,

and an iron pillar,

and brazen walls—

against the whole land,

against the kings of Judah,

against the princes thereof,

against the priests thereof, and

against the people of the land.”

The figure, here, emphasizes the fact that the prophet in being God’s spokesman was
recognised as the “man of God,” * but also (and therefore) as necessarily “against” man.
For, inasmuch as man’s thoughts and man’s ways are always the opposite of God’s, he
who is for God cannot help being opposed to man.

Jer. 4:23–26 . —We have “ I beheld ” four times repeated; to enchance the solemnity of
the desolation of Jehovah’s judgments.

Jer. 5:17 . —“ They shall eat up ” is three times repeated; to emphasize the complete
devouring of the land by the enemy.

Jer. 50:35 , 36 . —“ A sword ” is four times repeated; to emphasize the slaughter in the
destruction of Babylon.

Jer. 51:20–23 . — Ten times we have the words “ with thee ” repeated to amplify the
statement in verse 20 . “Thou art my battle ax,” spoken of Israel.

Hos. 3:4 . —“For the children of Israel shall abide many days

without a king,

and without a prince,

and without a sacrifice,

and without an image,

and without an ephod,

and without teraphim.”

* See The Man of God , by the same author and publisher; price one penny.
Here there is something more than a simple Polysyndeton ( q.v. ), as another word is
joined with the conjunction.

The employment of this figure emphasizes the present desolation of Israel.

Micah 5:9–13 . —“ I will cut off ” is repeated four times; to amplify and extend the
prophecy in verse 9 .

Micah 7:11 , 12 . —Here we have “ In that day ” repeated to emphasize the time; and “
from ” to amplify the places whence they shall come.

Zeph. 1:2 , 3 . —“ I will consume , ” three times repeated, indicates the solemnity of the
threatening and the certainty of its execution.

Matt. 5:3–11 . —The word “ Blessed ” nine times repeated.

Matt. 5:22 . —

“ Whosoever is angry, etc.

Whosoever shall say, etc.”

Matt. 11:7 , 8 , 9 . —“ What went ye out … to see ?”

This question is three times repeated; to emphasize and call attention to the fact that,
though they were all attracted to John, yet they rejected him, and his ministry, and his
testimony. See under Erotesis .

Matt. 11:18 , 19 . —This is lost in the English Version: as in the Greek the verb “ came ”
is put out of its natural place (by the figure of Hyperbaton , q.v. ), and is made to
commence the two successive sentences.

It is a very remarkable Anaphora .

Rom. 8:33 , 34 , 35 . —Here we have the three questions, each beginning with “ Who
shall? ” (See page 87 ).

The first two questions should be answered like the third.

“ Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect?

Shall God that justifieth?

Who is he that condemneth?

Shall Christ that died, …?

Who shall separate us …?

Shall tribulation? etc.”

1 Cor. 3:9 . —This, too, is hidden in the translation. In the Greek the figure is clearly

“ God’s fellow-labourers we are:

God’s husbandry,

God’s building, ye are.”

Note, that the fellow-labourers are ourselves with one another; and not we who are
fellow-labourers with God. We are not to dishonour God by bringing Him down and
making Him one of ourselves. The popular explanation is only another instance of man’s
nature, which made him so easy a prey to Satan’s temptation-promise, “Ye shall be as
gods” ( Gen. 3:5 ).

Herein lies the difference between the First Adam and the Last, between the First man
and the Second. The first man thought equality with God was a thing to be grasped at: but
the Second Man did not so consider it ( Phil. 2:6 , R.V. ). Equality with God was not a
thing to be obtained, but a thing to be either inherently possessed (as He possessed it as
the Son of God), or to be received as the gift of God (as He received it as the Son of

1 Cor. 6:11 . —“And such were some of you,

but ye are washed,

but ye are sanctified,

but ye are justified in the name of the Lord Jesus and by the Spirit of our God.”
1 Cor. 6:12 .

“ All things [or rather meats ] are lawful unto me, but

All things [to eat ] are not expedient:

All things [or meats ] are lawful for me [ to eat ], but I will not be brought under
the power of any.”

Here the figure is combined with another called Mesarchia ( q.v. ).

1 Cor. 11:3 . —“But I would have you know that

the head of every man is Christ: and

the head of the woman is the man: and

the head of Christ is God.”

We have here Polysyndeton ( q.v. ), as well as an irregular Climax ( q.v. ).

1 Cor. 12:8–11 . —We have the repetition of the words, “ to another. ” In the Greek the
( allos ), another (of the same
( heteros ), another (of a different kind), twice , in
connection with “faith” and “kinds of tongues.” *

“ To one is given by the Spirit the word of wisdom,

to another ( allos ) the word of knowledge by the same Spirit.

To another ( heteros ) faith by the same Spirit;

to another ( allos ) the gifts of healing by the same Spirit.

To another ( allos ) the working of miracles;

to another ( allos ) prophecy;

to another ( allos ) discerning of spirits;

to another ( heteros ) divers kinds of tongues;

to another ( allos ) the interpretation of tongues:

but all these worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally AS
HE WILL ,” and not as we may will or “claim.”

1 Cor. 13:4 . —In the first three verses we have the figure of Polysyndeton ( q.v. ), or
“many ands.” In verses 4–7 , we have a combination of two figures:— Asyndeton ( q.v. ),
or “no-ands”; and Anaphora in the repetition of the word “Charity” (verse 4 ).

In verse 7 , the Greek order of the words is: Charity

“ all things beareth,

all things believeth,

* It is probable that Heteros marks a new class; while Allos refers to subdivisions of the
same class.
all things hopeth,

all things endureth.’

In verse 8 :

“ Whether there be prophecies, they shall fail;

whether there be tongues, they shall cease;

whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away.”

In verse 9 :

“ In part we know, and

in part we prophesy.”

In verse 11 . “When I was a child,

as a child I spake,

as a child I understood,

as a child I thought.”
2 Cor. 11:26 . —Here we have the repetition of “ in perils ” eight times.

2 Cor. 7:11 . —We have the repetition of the word “ yea ” to increase the effects and
results of true godly sorrow for sin in seven particulars. Referring to six different aspects
of their sorrow as manifested in three different directions.

The word rendered “yea” really means but; and it may be preserved by supplying the
Ellipsis: —what carefulness (or rather earnestness) it wrought in you, but not earnestness
merely—that is saying too little—

in respect of themselves.

but self-defence,

but indignation,

in respect of Paul.

but fear,

but vehement desire,

in respect of him who had done the wrong.

but zeal,

but revenge,

The first “ but ” combines the additional figure of Epitasis ( q.v. ), which is here an
emphatic addition to a statement or argument of six particulars.

Eph. 6:12 . —“For we wrestle not

against flesh and blood, but

against principalities,

against powers,

against the rulers of the darkness of this world,

against spiritual wickedness in high places.”

This is to emphasize the fact that our conflict is spiritual , and that Satan’s sphere of
operations is not immorality or crime, but religion. See all the references to him in
Scripture, and note how opposed they are to popular Satan-myth of the world and of

Phil. 3:2 . —Note the repetition of the word “ beware. ”

Phil. 4:2 . —“ I beseech Euodias, and beseech Syntyche.”

Phil. 4:8 . —We have here the repetition of the word “ whatsoever things ” with which
the figure of Asyndeton ( q.v. ) is combined, in order to emphasize the important
conclusion “ Think on these things :” and these things, in eight nouns are arranged in
the figure of Chiasmus ( q.v. ).

1 John 1:1–3 . —

“ That which was from the beginning,

which we have heard,

which we have seen with our eyes,

which we have looked upon …

That which we have seen and heard declare we unto you.”

ho ), which , emphasizes with great
solemnity the subject of the epistle which is opened thus in so stately a manner.

Jas. 5:7 , 8 . —Three times we have “ Be patient ” with reference to the coming of the

Jas. 5:13 , 14 . — Twice we have the question “ Is any? ”

“ Is any among you afflicted?

Let him pray.

Is any merry?

Let him sing psalms.

Is any sick among you?

Let him call,” etc.

Here are contrasted prayer and praise; and praying with singing. Teaching us that
prayer is not to be sung. *

1 John 3:5 , 8 . —“ He was manifested to take away our sins; … the Son of God was
manifested that he might destroy the works of the devil.”

Here the two great purposes of Christ’s manifestation are declared: the one present,
and the other future; the one in grace now, and the other in power hereafter; the one in
sufferings, and the other in glory.

Other examples of Anaphora may be seen in Gal. 1:8 , 9 . Rev. 7:5–8 (with
Epistrophe ), and elsewhere: for these examples are given only as specimens.


Epanalepsis; or, Resumption

The repetition of the same word after a break, or parenthesis

Ep´-an-a-lep´-sis ( epi ), upon ( ana ), again , and

( leepsis ), a taking; and means a taking up upon again .

In Latin it is called RESUMPTIO ( Re-sump´-tio ).

* See Intoned Prayers and Musical Services , by the same author and publisher.
In this figure the word is resumed , rather than repeated, from the beginning of
another sentence: and when the word is resumed after a parenthesis it is called
APOSTASIS , and the parenthesis is closed by the apostasis .

A-pos´-ta-sis , which means a standing away or off

from, distance, interval; the repeated word which resumes the statement or argument,
standing away at a distance from the first word.

Moreover, the word so taken up and resumed may not be necessarily from the
beginning of the sentence, but it may be taken up again from the middle or from any
other part, as in this sentence:—

“The persecutions undergone by the Apostles were a trial to their faith, and a confirmation to ours; a trial to them,”

It differs from Anaphora ( q.v. ) in that the repeated words are not immediately
successive, but are separated by a break or parenthesis: the repetition being a resumption
of what the writer or speaker had already before begun to say.

Rom. 3:25 , 26 . —“Whom God hath set forth to be a propitiation through faith in his
blood, to declare [ his righteousness for the remission of sins that are past, through the
forbearance of God; to declare , I say ] , at this time his righteousness:” etc.

1 Cor. 4:11 , 13 , where the words in verse 11 , “ unto this present hour , ” are taken up
again at the end of verse 13 , “ unto thid day. ”

1 Cor. 10:25 , 29 . —Here, after a parenthesis (verses 26–28 ) the word “ conscience ” is
repeated from the end of verse 25 , and the argument is resumed in verse 29 .

Eph. 3:1 , 14 . —“ For this cause I , Paul, [ the prisoner of Jesus Christ.… (then after a
parenthesis of thirteen verses he resumes in verse 14 ), For this cause] I bow my knees,”

Phil. 1:22 , 24 . —In verse 20 , the apostle had been speaking of glorifying God “by life,
or by death.” For, if he lived, it would be “Christ,” and if he died, it would be “gain” to
him, and would release him and give him rest from all his labours. The real conclusion is
that if he continued to abide in the flesh it would be better for them. But this conclusion is
interrupted by the mention, parenthetically, of a third thing, which made him unable to
say which of the two (living or dying) he would really prefer, because this third thing was
so much better than either of the other two; for it was—the return of Christ. Then, having
mentioned this, he takes up the statement again, repeating the beginning of verse 22 (“in
the flesh”) and continuing it in verse 24 .

Verse 23 :—“But if I live in the flesh, [ this is the fruit of my labour (yet what I shall
choose I wot not, for I am being pressed * out of † these two, having a strong desire unto

* , I am being pressed.
the return, ‡ and to be with Christ, which is a far, far better thing): but to remain in the
flesh] is more needful for you” [ i.e. , than dying—not better than Christ’s return].

He had told the Thessalonian saints that “we which are alive and remain shall not
precede those who are asleep. For the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a
shout, with the voice of the archangel and with the trump of God; and the dead in Christ
shall first rise. Then we which are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them
in clouds to meet the Lord in the air, and SO ( , hout , thus, in this manner ) shall
we ever be with the Lord.” There, is therefore, no other way of being with the Lord.” The
Spirit of God would not have written one thing to the Thessalonians and a different thing
to the Philippians.


Polysyndeton; or, Many-ands

The repetition of the word “and” at the beginning of successive clauses

Pol´-y-syn´-de-ton . Greek, , from ( pol s ), many , and (

syndeton ), bound together; hence, in grammar, it means a conjunction (from ( syn )
and ( dein ), to bind ). The word, therefore, means much bound together or many
conjunctions .

It is called also POLYSYNTHETON , from ( titheemi ), to put or place .

Hence many puttings: i.e. , of the same word—in this case of the word “and.”

The English name for the Figure will, therefore, be MANY-ANDS .

Polysyndeton is merely one special form of Anaphora ( q.v. ): i.e. , it is a repetition of

the same word at the beginning of successive sentences: but this is always one special
word “and.”

To understand the full significance and use of Polysyndeton , the student must
consider along with it the opposite Figure A-syndeton (the same word syndeton with “a”
prefixed, meaning no , instead of “poly,” meaning many ). See A-syn´-de-ton, i.e. , NO-
ANDS ( page 137 ).

The two Figures form a pair, and should be studied together.

occurs 857 times, and is never translated “betwixt” anywhere else, But it is 165
times rendered “out of.”
‡ This is not the infinitive mood of the verb depart, but three distinct words. ( eis ),
unto , to ) the ( analusai ), return . This verb occurs in N.T. only in
Luke 12:36 , “when he shall return from the wedding.” It does mean, to depart, but from
thence to here, not from hence to there. See Tobit. 2:1 . Judith 13:1 . 1 Esd. 3:3 . Wisd.
2:1 ; 5:12 . Ecclus. 3:15 . 2 Mac. 8:25 ; 9:1 ; 12:7 ; 15:28 . Josephus Ant. vi., 4, 1 .
The Laws of Grammar decide for us how the conjunction “and” should be used. If we
are enumerating a number of things, we (by usage) place the conjunction immediately
before the last. This is the cold law, which leaves what we say without any special
emphasis. But this law may be legitimately broken in two different ways for the sake of
emphasis. In order to attract the attention of the hearer or reader, we may either use NO
ANDS , or we may use MANY ANDS . Man may use these figures, however, without
sufficient reason, and unwisely: but the Holy Spirit ever uses words in all perfection, and
it behoves us carefully to note whatever He thus calls our attention to.

When He uses “No-ands,” He does not ask us to stop and consider the various
particulars which are enumerated, but to hasten on to some grand climax. In this case that
climax which we read at the end, is the all-important matter on which the greatest
emphasis is to be placed.

When He uses “many-ands,” there is never any climax at the end. Instead of hurrying
us on, breathlessly, to reach the important conclusion; we are asked to stop at each point,
to Weigh each matter that is presented to us, and to consider each particular that is thus
added and emphasized.

One illustration of each will make this quite clear. We have an example of both in one
chapter ( Luke 14 ), and, strange to say, in connection with precisely the same four

In verse 13 , we have Asyndeton (no-ands): and in verse 21 , Polysyndeton (many-


In the former case ( Asyndeton ), we are not asked to consider the various classes of
persons mentioned, but we are hastened on to the important and weighty conclusion:—

Verse 13 , 14 . “When thou makest a feast, call the poor,

—the maimed,
—the lame,
—the blind:
and thou shalt be blessed. ”

In other words, we are taught that, though we are not obliged to make a feast at all,
yet, even if we do, we can call whom we please: but, if we call such persons as are here
described, there is a great blessing attached: hence, we are hurried over the enumeration
of these classes to be told of this blessing. And, even then, it really does not matter much
whether they are actually blind or lame, etc. The point is they must not be able to return

On the other hand, the Master’s servant is commanded to “bring in” such persons to
the Lord’s feast, as a matter of simple obedience: and when he has done this, he has done
no more than his duty, and is at the best, but an “unprofitable servant.” Hence, by the use
of this figure of Polysyndeton in verse 21 , we are not hurried on to any climax at the end,
but we are detained at each step, and are thus asked to consider carefully what is taught
Us by the mention of each of these various classes:—

“Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city,

and bring in hither the poor ( i.e. , those whom no one would think of inviting, but who
would welcome the invitation ( 15:1 . Matt. 20:31 ):—“the poor” who could not
afford to buy “a piece of ground” (verse 18 ), or “five yoke of oxen” (verse 19 ).

and the maimed ( i.e. , those who would be most unlikely to be able to say, “I have
married a wife” (verse 20 ),

and the halt ( , as in verse 13 , where it is translated “lame”: i.e. , those who
could not “go” to use the oxen, or to “prove them,” at the plough, verse 19 ),

and the blind ( i.e. , those who could not say, “I must needs go and see” the piece of land
which I have bought, verse 18 ).

Here, by this figure, instead of being hurried forward to a weighty conclusion we are
led gently backward by each “and” to think of these four classes, and to contrast them
with those whom the Lord had just described in the preceding parable as making excuses.

These two illustrations will prepare us for the consideration of the two figures
separately, and enable us to understand them.

We consider here only the illustrations of Polysyndeton . The examples of Asyndeton

will be found under that figure ( pages 137–148 ), which being Elliptical, i.e. ,
characterised by the omission of the word “and” has been placed under the First Division,
Figures of Omission.

Gen. 8:22 . —Here the completeness of the covenant and the fulness of the blessing, and
the certainty of the Divine promise, is set forth in a double four-fold description:—

“While the earth remaineth,

seedtime and harvest,

and cold and heat,

and summer and winter,

and day and night, shall not cease.”

Gen. 19:12 . —“And the men said unto Lot

Hast thou here any beside?


and thy sons,

and thy daughters,

and whatsoever thou hast in the city, and bring them out of this place.” See also verses
16 , 19 ; and verse 17 for Asyndeton .

Gen. 22:9 , 11 . —The solemnity and deliberation of Abraham’s actions is emphasised,

and each is marked off from the other by this figure:—

and they came to the place which God had told him of;

and Abraham built an altar there,

and laid the wood in order,

and bound Isaac his son,

and laid him on the altar upon the wood:

and Abraham stretched forth his hand:

and took the knife to slay his son:

and the angel of the LORD ,” etc.

Gen. 25:34 . —“Then Jacob gave Esau bread and pottage of lentiles;

and he did eat

and drink,

and rose up,

and went his way:

And Esau despised his birthright.”

Here our attention is drawn to the deliberateness of Esau’s action. There is no haste in
the words, as there was none in Esau’s deed. Each part of it is minutely pointed out, and
dwelt upon, as showing that Esau did not fall under some sudden temptation, but that he
deliberately and wilfully “despised his birthright.” (See Heb. 12:16 , 17 .)
Gen. 43:8 . —This is shown more clearly in the Hebrew; it is partly hidden in the A.V. ,
to suit the English idiom. Here, the Polysyndeton is used to heighten the effect of Judah’s
appeal to his father to let them all depart and procure the food they so greatly needed. The
Hebrew reads:—

“ And Judah said unto Israel, his father, Send the lad with me,

and we will get up,

and we will go,

and we shall live,

and so we shall not die;

also we,

also thou,

also our households.”

Ex. 1:7 . —Here the figure is employed in order to impress us with the marvellous
increase of Israel by the Divine blessing (See Ps. 105:24 ; 107:33 ).

“ and the children of Israel were fruitful,

and increased abundantly,

and multiplied,

and waxed exceeding great,

and the land was filled with them.”

Josh. 7:11 . —Jehovah shows to Joshua (and to us) the greatness of Achan’s sin, by
bringing out emphatically all the acts which formed part of it. The Hebrew reads:—

“Israel hath sinned,

and they have also transgressed my covenant, which I commanded them;

and ( ), vegam , they have also taken of the accursed thing,

and have also stolen,

and have dissembled also,

and they have also put it among their own stuff.”

Five times we have ( vegam ), and also , in this verse.

Josh. 7:24 . —Here, to show the awful solemnity of the judgment executed upon Achan,
and the magnitude of his sin, twelve times we have the conjunction, eleven of the times
with ( ).

“ And Joshua,

and all Israel with him, took Achan the son of Zerah,

and the silver,

and the garment,

and the wedge of gold,

and his sons,

and his daughters,

and his oxen,

and his asses,

and his sheep,

and his tent,

and all that he had:

and they brought them unto the valley of Achor.”

1 Sam. 17:34–36 . —Here David enhances the importance of what he tells King Saul, by
bringing out graphically each detail of that which makes him a type of the Good

“And David said unto Saul, Thy servant kept his father’s sheep

and there came a lion

and a bear,

and took a lamb out of the flock:

and I went out after him

and smote him,

and delivered it out of his mouth:

and when he arose against me, I caught him by his beard,

and smote him,

and slew him. Thy servant slew

both ( ) the lion,

and ( ) the bear.

and this uncircumcised Philistine shall be as one of them, etc.”

2 Kings 2:12 , 14 . —“And he took hold of his own clothes,

and rent them in two pieces:

and he took up (he took up also) the mantle of Elijah that fell from him,

and went back,

and stood by the bank of Jordan;

and he took the mantle of Elijah that fell from him,

and smote the waters,

and said, Where is the LORD God of Elijah?

and when he also had smitten the waters, they parted hither and thither,

and Elisha went over.”

All this to show us the importance, not of any great climax, but of each part of that
wondrous miracle.

2 Kings 5:26 . —In the words of Elisha to Gehazi on his return from Naaman, he brings
out by the use of this figure all that was in Gehazi’s heart; showing that he knew how
Gehazi had already planned and arranged how he should spend and lay out the money
which he had asked of Naaman.
“ Is it a time to receive money,

and to receive garments,

and oliveyards,

and vineyards,

and sheep,

and oxen,

and menservants,

and maidservants?”

1 Chron. 29:11–13 . —Here the greatness and the goodness of Jehovah is set forth in
David’s Thanksgiving . The whole structure * of this thanksgiving is as follows:—

A a 10 –. David blessing Jehovah

b – 10 . Jehovah’s eternity.

B 11 . Jehovah’s greatness “above all.”

B 12 . Jehovah’s goodness “unto all.”

A a 13 . David blessing Jehovah,

b 14 , 15 . David’s mortality.

C 16 . The House and its provision,

D 17 . “I give” “mine heart.” (Time past and present).

D 17–19 . Prepare their heart to give. (Time to come).

C 19 . The house and its provision.

The figure occurs in B and B: —

* For these structures see under Correspondence below.

“Thine, O LORD , is the greatness ( Ps. 145:3 ),

and the power (verse 12 and Ps. 21:14 ),

and the glory ( beauty , verse 13 . Ps. 96:6 ),

and the victory ( lustre , 1 Sam 15:29 ),

and the majesty ( Ps. 21:6 ); for all that is in the heaven

and in the earth ( is thine ): *

Thine is the Kingdom, O LORD ,

and thou art exalted as head above all,

(The figure is lost by saying “both riches and honour.)

and the riches

and the honour

come of thee,

and thou reignest over all;

and in thine hand is power

and might;

and in thine hand it is to make great,

and to give strength unto all:

and now, our God, (not “Now therefore”) we thank thee,

and praise thy glorious name!”

Ps. 107:35–37 . —Here, to enhance the blessings which Jehovah bestows upon His
people they are set forth with such distinctness that we are asked to dwell upon each one
that goes to make up the whole:

“He turneth the wilderness into a standing water,

* Or, omitting the italics “because of all in the heavens and in the earth.”
and dry ground into watersprings,

and there he maketh the hungry to dwell, that they may prepare a city for habitation;

and sow the fields,

and plant vineyards, which may yield fruits of increase.”

Isa. 2:11–19 . —Here the figure is employed to set forth the completeness of the manner
in which Jehovah will shake terribly the earth” ( 19 , 21 ). There is another figure
employed (see under Synonymia ): and this, with the structure, shows us the importance
and solemnity of the whole passage. It commences with chap. 2 , and ends with chap. 4 .
A 2:1–5 . Promise.

B 2:6–22 . Threatening of judgment (general).

B 3–4:1 . Threatening of punishment (particular).

A 4:2–6 . Promise.

Then these members may be expanded thus:—

A. The Promise , 2:1–5 .

A C 2:1 , 2 . Zion, its exaltation. All people flowing unto it.

D 3 –. What they say: “Come ye, . . we will walk, etc.”

C – 3 , 4 . Zion, its rule. The word going out from it.

D 5 . What the people say: “Come ye, . . let us walk, etc.”

Then the second member B, with which we have to do (the figure o Polysyndeton
marking it and stamping it as a, whole), may be expanded, thus:—
B. Threatening of judgment ( general ), 2:6–22 . (With special reference to men.)

In B ( 3–4:1 ) the reference is specially to women.

In A ( 4:2–6 ) the reference is:—

a 2 . General.
E F 6 –. Jehovah ceasing from His People.

G – 6–9 . Reason. Because they exalt themselves before God, and humble
themselves before their idols.

G 10–21 . Judgment. The People humbled, and Jehovah alone exalted.

Idols abolished.

F 22 . “Cease ye from man,” &c.

Once more, the member G may be expanded, thus:—

G. The Judgment ( 2:10–21 ).

G H1 a 10 –. Concealment. “Go to the rock,” etc.

b – 10 . Reason: “For fear of the LORD , ” etc.

by Jehovah.
J c 11 . Man abased. Jehovah exalted

d 12–16 . High things brought low

c 17 . Man abased. Jehovah exalted

d 18 . Idols utterly abolished

H2 a 19 –. Concealment. “They shall go to the rocks,” etc.

b – 19 . Reason: “For fear of the LORD , ” etc.

J 20 –. Idols cast away by man.

H3 21 –. Concealment, “to go into the clefts of the rocks.”

– 21 . Reason: “For fear of the LORD , ” etc.

We may note in passing that in J we have Jehovah and Idols: while in J we have Man
and his Idols.

b 3 . To men.

b 4 . To women.

a 6 . General.
Now, we are prepared to see how the judgment executed by Jehovah in J (verses 11–
18 ) is further emphasized by the figure of Polysyndeton; as it is still further marked and
emphasized by the figure of Synonymia ( q.v. ):—

J c 11 . The lofty looks of man shall be humbled,

and the haughtiness of men shall be bowed down,

and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

Jehovah’s judgment on GOD’S WORKS ( seven members ).

d 12–16 . For the day of the LORD * of hosts shall be upon every one [or
thing ] that is proud and lofty,

and upon every one [ thing ] that is lifted up;

and he shall be brought low:

and upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up,

and upon all the oaks of Bashan,

and upon all the high mountains,

and upon all the hills that are lifted up,

Jehovah’s judgment on MAN’S WORKS ( four ).

and upon every high tower,

and upon every fenced wall,

and upon all the ships of Tarshish,

and upon all pleasant pictures.

c 17 . And the loftiness of man shall be bowed down,

and the haughtiness of men shall be made low;

and the LORD alone shall be exalted in that day.

* This is the first mention of “the Day of the Lord.” For the significance of this, see
Number in Scripture by the same author and publisher.
Jehovah’s judgment on man’s works.
d 18 . And the Idols, he shall utterly abolish.
Isa. 3:17–4:1 . —Here, we have, in these few verses, the “many ands” marking the
minuteness of the Lord’s judgment on the daughters of Zion.

These verses form one member ( B ) of the larger structure (see above), which may be
expanded, as follows:—

B . 3–4:1 . Threatening of judgment ( Particular ).

B e 3:1–7 . Threatening. What Jehovah will “take away” from Jerusalem and
from Judah.

f 8–9 –. Sin. Tongue, doings, countenance.

e – 9–11 . Threatening. “Woe, woe.”

f 12 . Sin. Weak and oppressive rulers (4, 4).

13–15 . Threatening. Jehovah will judge and rule.

16 . Sin. Feminine haughtiness.

17–4:1 . Threatening. What Jehovah will “take away” from the daughters of

Here, in the last member ( 3:17–4:1 ), we have twenty-six “ands,” which the reader
can notice for himself.

Isa. 37:37 . —Here, to enhance the overthrow of Sennacherib’s army, and to show how
completely Jerusalem was delivered from the siege which he made against it, we read:—

“So Sennacherib king of Assyria departed,

and went,

and returned,

and dwelt at Ninevah.”

Jer. 31:28 . —Here the figure emphasises both the “scattering” and the “gathering” of

“ And it shall come to pass, that, like as I have watched over them to pluck up,

and to break down,

and to throw down,

and to destroy,

and to afflict; so will I watch over them, to build

and to plant, saith the LORD .”

Hag. 1:11 . —To enhance the description of the troubles which had fallen upon Israel, a
nine-fold “and” is employed (nine being the number of judgment ) * :—

“ And I called for a drought upon the land,

and upon the mountains,

and upon the corn,

and upon the new wine,

and upon the oil,

and upon that which the ground bringeth forth,

and upon men,

and upon cattle,

and upon all the labour of the hands.”

Matt. 7:25 . —Here the perfect security of the “wise man,” who hears the sayings of
Jesus, and is likened unto a man who built his house upon a rock, is emphasized by a
five-fold “ and ” (five being the number of grace ).

“ And the rain descended (on the roof),

and the floods came (at the foundations),

and the winds blew (at the sides),

and beat upon that house:

and it fell not.”

* See Number in Scripture , by the same author and publisher.

While, on the other hand, in verse 27 , the insecurity of the “foolish man,” who hears,
but does not, the sayings of Jesus, is set forth by a six-fold “and” (six being the number of
man and of human independence and imperfection: —

“ And the rain descended,

and the floods came,

and the winds blew,

and beat upon that house;

and it fell:

and great was the fall of it.”

Matt. 24:29–31 . —Here, to emphasize the wondrous events of the day of the Lord, and
the order of them, the figure is used.

“Immediately after the tribulation of those days

The sun shall be darkened,

and the moon shall not give her light,

and the stars shall fall from heaven,

and the powers * of the heavens shall be shaken,

and then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man † in heaven:

and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn,

and they shall see the Son of Man † coming in the clouds of heaven with power and ‡

great glory.

and he shall send his angels with a trumpet and ‡ a great sound ( marg. ),

and they shall gather together his elect from the four winds, * from one end of heaven to
the other.”

* See under Catachreesis .

† See under Idiom and Synecdoche .
‡ See under Hendiadys .
* See under Metonomy (of the adjunct).
This important passage describes the events which shall succeed “immediately after”
the great tribulation (which was the subject of Old Testament prophecy. See Ps. 9:9 ; 10:1
. Jer. 30:7 . Joel 2:11 , 31 . Amos 5:18 . Zeph. 1:14 , etc. Rev. 6:17 ): so that there is,
therefore, no interval for a millennium of peace and blessedness before the coming of the

This is the coming of the Lord with His saints (the Church), not His coming for what
will already have previously taken place before the Great Tribulation begins. The Second
coming corresponds with the First Coming (so-called) in that the first part of it answers to
His “coming forth” at Bethlehem ( Micah 5 ii.), and the second part answers to the
“cometh unto” at Jerusalem ( Zech. 9:9 ), the latter being referred to in 2 Thess. 2:2 , R.V.
, and the former revealed in 1 Thess. 4:16 , 17 .

Consequently his title, “The Son of Man,” agrees with the scope of the passage;
which has to do with dominion on the earth. While the elect can only be the elect of Israel
(see Deut. 30:4 (lxx.) Zech. 2:6 , etc.).

Mark 3:31–35 . —Here each part of the instructive scene is emphasized to attract our

“There came then his brethren,

and his mother,

and standing without, sent unto him, calling him:

and the multitude sat about him,

and they said unto him, Behold thy mother

and thy brethren without seek for thee:

and he answered them, saying, Who is my mother, or my brethren?

and he looked round about on them which sat about him,

and said, Behold my mother,

and my brethren! For whosoever shall do the will of God, the same is my brother,

and my sister,

and mother.”
The scene which is thus emphasized is connected with verse 21 as appears from the
structure † of this whole passage.

Mark 3:21–35 .
A a 21 –. Jesus’s kindred (margin),

b – 21 –. Their interference with him.

c – 21 . Their disparagement of him.

B d 22 –. The Scribes’ first charge: “He hath a devil.”

e – 22 . The Scribes’ second charge: “By the prince of the

devil scasteth he out devils.”

B e 23–27 . His answer to the second charge.

d 28 , 29 . His denunciation of the first charge.

A a 31 –. Jesus’s kindred,

b – 31 , 32 . Their interference with Him,

c 33–35 . His disparagement of them.

From this structure we learn that (1) the object of the visit, is explained in verses 21–
31 , and that (2) the reference of verse 28 is to the first charge of the Scribes—explaining
what is called “the unpardonable sin”: and (3) that the “kindred” of verse 31 included his
mother in the design and conspiracy.

Luke 1:31 , 32 . —Here the birth of the Lord Jesus is presented as it is in Isa. 9:6 , 7 ,
with the “sufferings” overleaped, and the present season of His rejection not noticed. Our
attention is called to all the wondrous details and separate parts of His glory, which,
though thus linked together and connected with His birth, are not immediately

“ And , behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb,

and bring forth a son,

and shalt call his name JESUS . He shall be great,

and shall be called the Son of the Highest:

† For what is meant by Structure see below under Correspondence .

and the Lord God shall give unto him the throne of his father David:

and he shall reign over the house of Jacob for ever;

and of his kingdom there shall be no end.”

It is Matt. 1:21 , 23 , which refers to Isa. 7 , and thus connects the King with the
“sufferings”: while it is Luke, which refers to Isa. 9 , and thus connects “the Man” with
the glory that shall follow. †

Luke 7:11–18 . —Here, there is no climax, but we are asked to stop and dwell upon each
additional circumstance, and see why it is mentioned, and what is its peculiar lesson for

And it came to pass the day after, that he went into a city called Nain:

and many of his disciples went with him,

and much people. Now, when he came nigh to the gate of the city, behold, there was a
dead man carried out, the only son of his mother,

and she was a widow:

and much people of the city was with her:

and when the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her,

and said unto her, Weep not.

and he came

and touched the bier:

and they that bare him stood still.

and he said, Young man, I say unto thee, Arise.

and he that was dead sat up,

and began to speak;

and he delivered him to his mother;

and there came a fear on all:

† See below under Rev. 12

and they glorified God, saying, That a great prophet is risen up among us;

and , That God hath visited his people,

and this rumour of him went forth throughout all Judæa,

and throughout all the region round about;

and the disciples of John showed him of all these things.”

Here in these eight verses we have no less than twenty “ands,” each introducing a fact
and a statement for our earnest consideration; each fraught with truth and teaching. The
last, for example, is the reason why John sent his disciples to Jesus. This reason is not
given in Matt. 11:2 : which is thus explained. John was languishing in prison; and, when
he heard that Jesus was raising the dead, he naturally wondered, if Jesus were “He that
should come,” why he should be suffering in prison.

See also Mark 3:1–6 , the miracle of the man with the withered hand.

Luke 7:38 . —Here the woman’s devotion to the Lord is set forth in a gracious five-fold
enumeration of the parts of which it was made up:—

“ And stood at his feet behind him weeping,

and began to wash his feet with tears,

and did wipe them with the hairs of her head,

and kissed his feet,

and anointed them with the ointment.”

Five “ands” in one verse!

Luke 10:27 . —Here a five-fold description is given in order to set forth that love which
is “the fulfilling of the Law”:—

“Thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart,

and with all thy soul,

and with all thy strength,

and with all thy mind:

and thy neighbour as thyself.”

It is sometimes said that we are never commanded to do that which is impossible. But
the truth is, the Law is given, and the perfection of this command is thus emphasized, in
order to reveal and bring to light our own impotence , that we may thankfully cast
ourselves on God’s omnipotence in that Saviour whom He has provided and anointed.

Luke 12:45 , 46 . —Here, the sin of the wicked servant, who said, “My lord delayeth his
coming,” is set forth in a fourfold description:—

“ And shall begin to beat the menservants and maidens,

and to eat

and drink,

and to be drunken.”

Likewise his punishment is described in a fourfold manner:—

“The lord of that servant will come in a day when he looketh not for him ,

and at an hour when he is not aware,

and will cut him in sunder,

and will appoint him his portion with the unbelievers.”

What a solemn fact it is that those who put off the hope of the Lord’s Coming till
after the Tribulation are the ones who “smite” their fellow-servants; and this merely
because they hope to be taken away before it comes!

Luke 15:20 . —Here, five particulars give the fulness of Divine grace in receiving the
lost sinner:—

“When he was yet a great way off,

his father saw him (eyes),

and had compassion (heart),

and ran (feet),

and fell on his neck (arms),

and kissed him” (lips).

There is no climax; but we are asked to dwell separately on these five aspects of
grace, five (4 + 1) being the number which is symbolical of grace. *

Luke 15:22 , 23 . —Here, we have an eight-fold enumeration of the gifts: showing the
completeness of the blessings poured upon accepted one:—

“The father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe (but do more than that);

and put it on him;

and put a ring on his hand,

and shoes on his feet:

and bring hither the fatted calf,

and kill it;

and let us eat

and be merry.”

John 10:27 , 28 . —The riches of the grace bestowed upon the Lord’s people are thus
enumerated and emphasized by the five-fold Polysyndeton: —

“My sheep hear my voice,

and I know them,

and they follow me;

and I give unto them eternal life;

and they shall never * perish,

and not anyone shall pluck them out of my hand” (so Greek).

Acts. 1:8 . —“But ye shall receive power, after that the Holy Ghost is come upon you:

and ye shall be witnesses unto me

both in Jerusalem,

* See Number in Scripture , by the same author and publisher.

* See under Repeated Negation .
and in all Judea,

and in Samaria,

and unto the uttermost part of the earth.”

Thus is emphasized for us the fact that there is one message, for all places and for all
times. “Preach the Gospel to every creature.” Not “adapt the Gospel to every century.”

There are, here, three concentric circles. (1) The innermost “Jerusalem and in all
Judea,” the place of Religiousness where they professed to worship God and to read His
word. (2) “And in Samaria” which was the place of corrupt religion, for it is written of
Samaria, “they feared the LORD , and served their own gods” ( 2 Kings 17:33 ). (3) “And
unto the uttermost part of the earth,” which was the place of no religion .

The witness for each was to be, not concerning Doctrines or Sacraments, or Rites and
Ceremonies; but, concerning a PERSON ! “Ye shall be witnesses unto ME ”—a
crucified, risen, and coming Saviour. This is to be the witness: and this is the Gospel.

Rom. 8:29 , 30 . —Here there is no climax or conclusion, but each great fact is to be
weighed and duly considered. We emend the A.V. only by putting the word “also” in the
correct place *

“For whom he did foreknow, he did predestinate also . .

Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he called also:

and whom he called, them he justified also:

and whom he justified, them he glorified also.”

Rom 9:4 . —Here the figure is used to impress us with the wonderful possessions and
privileges of Israel,

“Who are Israelites; to whom pertaineth the adoption ( sonship , Deut. 4:7
, 33 , 34 ),

and the glory ( 1 Sam. 4:21 ),

and the covenants (which precede the Law, Gal. 3:17 ),

and the giving of the Law,

* See a pamphlet, entitled, Also: a Bible-Study on the use of the Word , by the same
author and publisher.
and , hee latreia , the [tabernacle] worship ),

and the promises.”

1 Cor. 1:30 . —“But of him are ye in Christ Jesus, who of God is made unto us wisdom,

and righteousness,

and sanctification,

and redemption.”

The R.V. rendering does not alter the fact that these four wondrous things are
distinctly separated, so that we are to study them, each one by itself, and to learn the
weighty lessons and the equal importance of each. It is Christ Jesus who is our
righteousness; and He is equally our sanctification, and in Him we are perfect and
complete as to our standing before God; and in Him we now wait for Resurrection: i.e. ,
the redemption of our bodies from the power of the grave ( Rom. 8:23 . Eph. 4:30 ).

Eph. 4:31 . —“Let all bitterness ( , pikria , the opposite of , chreestoi ,

verse 32 , kind ).

and wrath ( , thumos , the opposite of , eusplangchnoi tender-

hearted ),

and , orgee , the opposite of , charizomenoi , forgiving ),

and clamour,

and evil-speaking be put away from you with all malice.”

Here there is no climax; but in the next verse we have the opposite figure of
Asyndeton , in which there are no “ands,” because there is a weighty conclusion at the
end, to which we are hastened on.
“Be ye kind ( , chreestoi , the opposite of , pikria bitterness , verse 31

—tender-hearted ( , eusplangchnoi , the opposite of , thumos , wrath


—forgiving one another ( , charizomenoi , orgee ,

anger ),

* There is an “and” here in the A.V. , but the Greek is ( de ), but . This is omitted by
Lachmann, and put in the margin by Tregelles, Westcott and Hort.
even as God for Christ’s sake hath forgiven you. ” †

Phil. 3:3 . —“For we are the circumcision, which worship God in the spirit,

and rejoice in Christ Jesus,

and have no confidence in the flesh.”

Thus the Spirit emphasises these three great fundamental principles of Christianity,
and asks us to dwell upon each, noting the necessity of making all our worship wholly
spiritual ( John 4:23 , 24 ); making the Lord Jesus the source of all our joy; and
renouncing all attempts to work out a righteousness of our own.

1 Thess. 2:11 . —“Ye know how we exhorted

and comforted

and charged every one of you, as a father doth his children.” (See under Ellipsis, page 89

1 Tim. 1:5 . —Here, the figure points us to the true genealogy of charity, or love.

“Now the end of the commandment is charity out of a pure heart,

and of a good conscience,

and of faith unfeigned.”

If the faith be not right and unfeigned, then the “conscience” cannot be “good.”
Conscience is the result of faith. It will condemn us in the doing of what we believe to be
wrong. It will approve the doing of what we believe to be right. Hence, the importance of
a true “faith.”

If the conscience be not “good,” the heart cannot be pure; and if the heart be not pure,
there can be no true, divine love.

2 Tim. 4:17 , 18 . —Contrast this passage with the example of Asyndeton in 2 Tim 3:10 ,
11 . In that passage we are not detained over the manner of the Lord’s deliverance, but
pointed to the great fact that He did deliver out of all. But here we have no such climax,
and are asked to stop and consider each part of the wondrous deliverance.

“Notwithstanding, the Lord stood with me,

and strengthened me; that by me the preaching might be fully known,

( humin ), us , which is put in the margin by Tr. WH. and R.V.

and that all the Gentiles might hear:

and I was delivered * out of the mouth of the lion.

and the Lord shall deliver me from every evil work,

and will preserve me † unto his heavenly kingdom, to whom be glory for ever and ever.

Heb. 13:8 . —“Jesus Christ the same yesterday,

and to-day,

and for ever.”

Jas. 1:24 . —Here the repeated “and” greatly emphasises what Bengel calls the
“hastiness joined with levity” of the natural man.

“For he beholdeth himself,

and goeth his way,

and straightway forgeteth what manner of man he was.”

Jas. 4:13 . —The Polysyndeton here, Bengel says, expresses the caprice of a mind secure
and indifferent—the will of a mind at ease.

“Go to now, ye that say, To-day or to-morrow we will go into such a city,

and continue there a year,

and buy

and sell,

and get gain.”

2 Pet. 1:5–7 . —Here the sevenfold “and” points to all that is included in and follows the
greatest gift of God (verse 3 ). Faith itself is God’s gift ( Eph. 2:8 ), and therefore it is not
added to anything. It is the “precious faith” which is “obtained” through the righteousness
of God (verse 1 ).

* See under the figures of Ellipsis and Polyptoton .

† See under the figure of Paregmenon .
“ And besides this ( , kai auto touto , and for this very reason: i.e. ,
because we have “precious faith” (verse 1 ), and are “partakers of the Divine nature”
(verse 4 ), giving all diligence (see verse 15 and 3:14 ), add to your faith, virtue (
, teen areteen , courage ) ;

and to virtue, knowledge;

and , engkrateia , self-control , which is the fruit

of knowledge. It means having self well reined in, the government of all the passions
of the flesh);

and to temperance, patience (under afflictions or the sufferance of evil, as courage is

used in encountering and averting evil);

and to patience, godliness (which is the only foundation of true patience or endurance.
Apart from godliness it is stoicism, or mere indifference),

and to godliness, brotherly kindness (the love of your Christian brethren);

and to brotherly kindness, charity” (the love of all). ( 1 Pet. 1:22 ).

Thus “faith” is the source out of which all virtues must spring, and “love” is the point
to which all such virtues tend. Hence, “Whatsoever is not of faith is sin” ( Rom. 14:23 , ),
and “the end of the commandment is love” ( 1 Tim. 1:5 ).

Another important figure is combined here with Polysyndeton (see under Climax
(which is repeated Anadiplosis ).

Rev. 1:11 . —Here the seven churches are to be separated as being equal in importance,
and distinct in their position:—

“What thou seest write in a book

and send it unto the seven churches which are in Asia; unto Ephesus,

and unto Smyrna,

and unto Pergamos,

and unto Thyatira,

and unto Sardis,

and unto Philadelphia,

and unto Laodicea.”

Rev. 3:17 . —Here, the figure is used to bring out the Laodicean condition of soul.

“Because thou sayest, I am rich

and increased with goods,

and have need of nothing;

and knowest not that thou art wretched,

and miserable,

and poor,

and blind,

and naked.”

Rev. 6:15 . —Here, to show the universality of the fear which will be manifested when
“the great day of his wrath is come”—all classes of society are named and stated with all
formality in order to impress our minds:—

and the kings of the earth,

and the great men,

and the rich men,

and the chief captains,

and the mighty men,

and every bondmen,

and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains.”

Rev. 12 —This chapter is rendered remarkable by the figure of Polysyndeton . Forty-four

times the word “and” is repeated, bringing before us a variety of details connected with
matters which are thus shown to be of the greatest possible importance. In chap. 5 , we
have the book written “w , es then kai
opisthen ), pointing to its esoteric (or inner ) and exoteric (or outer ) meaning. What
follows in chaps, 6–11 , describes the exoteric or outside manifestations—events which
will be seen by all; for chap. 11 carries us right on to the end, to the sounding of the
“seventh” or last trumpet, and thus covers the whole ground, even including Resurrection
and Judgment, and the setting up of the kingdom of the Messiah. See 11:15–18 , which is
coterminous with Rev. 20 .
Chapter 12 does not, therefore, go forward, but takes us back to the time, even before
chap. 5 , and gives us the esoteric or inner meaning, and reveals to us the sources,
springs, and secrets of all that leads up to the judgments recorded in chaps, 6–11 Chapters
13–14 introduce supplementary information which must be read into those earlier
preceding chapters ( 6–11 ), showing the part that the Dragon and his agent the Antichrist
will have in them.

Chapter 12 is constructed as follows:.—

REV. 12
A a 1–5 . The woman, the dragon, and the child.

b 6 . The woman’s flight, and its duration (1,260 days).

B , came to pass ).

A b 14 . The woman’s flight and its duration three years and a half

a 15 , 16 . The woman, the dragon, and the rest of her seed.

B 17 . War on earth.

Each of these members can, of course, be expanded. For example:—

a: ( 1–5 ). The woman, the dragon, and the child .

The woman.
a c 1 –. A great sign in heaven.

d – 1 . A woman. Her description (“crown,” , a victor’s crown).

e 2 . Her action: and the child.

The dragon.
c 3 –. Another great sign in heaven.

d – 3 . The dragon. His description (“crowns,” , royal fillers)

(see only here, and 13:1 and 19:12 ).

e 4 , 5 . His action: and the child ( Dan. 8:10 ).

b: (verse 6 ) may be expanded thus: as may be also b (verse 14 ).

b f 6 –. The woman: her flight.

g – 6 –. Her place—the wilderness.

f – 6 –. The woman: her nourishment.

g – 6 . Her continuance—1,260 days.

The larger member B: ( 7–13 ) may be thus shown:—

B: ( 7–13 ) War in heaven .

B h 7 , 8 . Heaven. War in heaven.

i 9 . Earth. The dragon cast into the earth.

h 10–12 . Heaven. Rejoicing in heaven.

i 13 . Earth. The dragon cast into the earth.

i (verse 9 ) thus:—

The dragon cast out on earth.

i j 9 –. The Dragon.

k – 9 –. Place; cast out into the earth.

j – 9 –. His angels.

k – 9 . Place. Cast out with him.

h (verses 10–12 ) thus:—

Rejoicing in heaven.
h l 10 . Heaven. Rejoicing.

m – 10 –. Earth. Salvation come for it.

n – 10 , 11 . Reason. “For the accuser, etc.”

l 12 . Heaven. Rejoicing.

m – 12 –. Earth. Woe to the inhabiters.

n – 12 . Reason. “For the devil is come down,” etc.

The woman and her seed and the dragon takes us back to Gen. 3 , where we see the
“enmity” placed between them. Thence we are taken to the woman (Israel), through
whom the child was to come, as seen in the call of Abraham, and in the establishment of
“Israel,” and his twelve sons, of which the twelve stars (the Zodiacal signs * ) were the
symbols. (See Gen. 37 ).

The Zodiac is a certain zone of the heavens extending about 9° each side of the
Ecliptic. This is divided into twelve parts, each of which has its own peculiar “sign.” The
word “Zodiac” is not to be derived from , or , to live , or , a little animal
(for not all the signs are animals), but from a more ancient root through the Hebrew ,
to go, to go by steps, to step, to move slowly in a regular and stately manner. (See 2 Sam.
6:13 . Jer. 10:5 . Judges 5:4 . Ps. 68:8 . Hab. 3:12 ). The noun means a step . So that the
Zodiac is literally a way with steps . Its later Biblical name is Mazzaroth ( ), Job
38:32 (see margin); or Mazzaloth ( ), 2 Kings 23:5 (see margin), from the root
( azal ), to go or revolve, divided , as the Zodiac is divided into signs. Gesenius points out
that the Mazzaroth (from ) has another sense, and means to admonish, premonish,
presage . See Gen. 37:9 , 10 , where in Joseph’s prophetic dream he sees the whole
family represented as “The sun, and the moon, and the eleven stars,” (himself being the
twelfth. *

* Just as the seven stars in chap. 1 are the symbols of the Churches.
Ancient Jewish authorities hold that these twelve stars were the signs of the Zodiac. This
is, without doubt, the case. These “stars” have been well called “signs,” for in them is
written in the very heavens the history of redemption. Each of the symbolical figures is
pictured performing some typical action. From the earliest times, also, one was
appropriated to each of the twelve sons of Jacob. Josephus informs us that the tribes
carried these signs on the tribal standards. The Chaldee paraphrase, of a still earlier date,
says the same. The Targums also add their testimony. As the order of encampment is
described in Num. 1 and ii., the four tribes: Judah, Ephraim, Dan and Reuben are
equidistant. The sign of Judah was “ Leo ,” the lion; Ephraim’s was “ Taurus ,” the bull;
Dan’s was “ Scorpio ,” the scorpion (afterwards changed to the “ Aquila ,” the eagle); and
Reuben’s was “ Aquarius ,” the man. These four signs are at the four cardinal points of
the Zodiac, exactly corresponding with the position of the four tribes. It is interesting to
note that the sign now known as “ Libra ,” or, the scales, is not found in the more ancient
Zodiacs, its place being occupied by “ Ara ,” the altar, the top of which the sign or
hieroglyphic much more resembles. The idea contained in Libra, the scales, or Justice, is
the altar on which justice was satisfied. Libra or Ara was not borne on any of the
standards, Simeon and Levi being included under one ( Pisces ). Hence the place of Libra
, or rather of Ara , the altar, was the place occupied by the Tabernacle, and by the altar of
burnt offering itself. It is remarkable that the three decans, or constellations of Libra , or
Ara , are the Cross, the Victim, and the Crown.

The evidence is altogether too overwhelming for us to take these “twelve stars” as
representing anything but Israel. It is a “woman” that is seen, but her surroundings (of
The birth of the seed of this woman is set forth in the Old Testament in two distinct
prophecies, showing its two-fold character, one answering to “the sufferings of Christ”;
the other, to “the glory that should follow.”

In Isa. 7:14 , we have the Incarnation of “Emmanuel—God with us” ( Matt. 1:23 ).

While, in Isa. 9:6 , 7 , we have the birth presented, with the scene of humiliation

The former is the “suffering” aspect: the latter is the “glory” aspect of the birth of this

It is remarkable that in Matthew—(the gospel of the kingdom)—we have the

suffering aspect from Isa. 7:14 ; while in Luke—the gospel of Christ as man—we have
the glory aspect from Isa. 9:6 , 7 . See and compare Luke 1:31–33 .

In Rev. 7:5 , it is this latter, or the glory aspect of Messiah’s birth that is presented, as
referred to in Pss. 2 and 87 It leaps over the “sufferings of Christ,” and over the whole of
the interval of this present dispensation, and goes forward at once to the time when He
shall reign over and rule all nations. “Who was to rule” (verse 5 ) is ( mellei ), and
means “who is to rule all nations.” It passes from the birth of the man-child, and goes on
at once to “the glory which should follow, when the government shall be upon his

It is Christ Personal therefore, in the first instance, who is the subject of this
prophecy. He was the “man-child” “caught up to God and His throne.”

But this does not exhaust the prophecy. The word rendered “man-child” in verse 5 is
a peculiar word. * The R.V. renders it “a son, a man child.” Here it is, according to all the
critical texts (including the Revi ( arsen ). Now
here is neuter , and therefore cannot possibly refer to any one individual. It cannot
apply to either a man or a woman. The mother of this child is not an individual! but is
collective and composite. So also is the child. †

sun and moon, and the twelve signs of the Zodiac) show that she personifies
emblematically the whole nation of Israel.

See The Witness of the Stars by the same author and publisher.

( arseen ), occurs only in Matt. 19:4 . Mark 10:6 . Luke

2:23 . Gal. 3:28 , where in each case the sex is emphatic.
† We have a similar example of a neuter word including both sexes in the word
( gunaikaria ), in 2 Tim. 3:6 , where it is rendered “silly women.” But it
occurs only here, and is neuter . It therefore includes silly women of both sexes!
Some see in this “man-child” the Church of God. But the Church is neither “woman”
nor “child,” “neither male nor female” ( Gal. 3:28 ). The Church is “one new man” in
Christ ( Eph. 2:15 ). The Church was before creation, “ before the foundation of the
world” ( Eph. 1:4 ), and is not, therefore, the subject of prophecy, as is the kingdom and
dominion in the earth, which was “ from the foundation of the world” ( Matt. 13:35 ;
25:34 , etc.).

On the other hand, we have such distinct prophecies in the Old Testament of this
woman and her child that it surprising any should fail to connect them.

A time is coming when a new nation is to be brought forth in Israel; a nation bringing
forth the fruits which Israel should have brought forth; the nation referred to in Matt.
21:43 .

Concerning that day Jehovah bids Zion to “sing” ( Isa. 54:1–10 ).

Of that day Jehovah has said, “Before she travailed, she brought forth; before her pain
came, she was delivered of a MAN-CHILD . Who hath heard such a thing? who hath
seen such things? Shall the earth be made to bring forth in one day? or shall a nation be
born at once? for as soon as Zion travailed she brought forth her children” ( Isa. 66:5–14

Again Micah 4:9 , 10 distinctly foretells this travail of Zion; while chap. 5:2 , 3
connects together this composite man-child. In verse 3 , we have the birth of Him, who
shall be “ruler in Israel.” His rejection by His people is not named, but the consequent
rejection of His people by Him both implies it and contains it; for, in the next verse, we
read, “Therefore will He give them up, until the time that she which travaileth hath
brought forth; then the remnant of his brethren shall return unto the children of Israel.
And He shall stand and rule ( marg. ) in the strength of the LORD , in the majesty of the
name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends
of the earth.”

Surely, if there is any connection whatever between prophecy and its fulfilment, we
have it in Rev. 12 , where we see in this woman, Zion, “travailing in birth, and pained to
be delivered” (verse 2 ), and the dragon standing “before the woman which was ready to
be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born.”

This was true of Messiah, and it will be true of the servant (the composite “child”), as
the rest of the chapter goes on to explain.

It is this birth of a nation “in one day,” which will lead to the “war in heaven,” * (see
Dan. 10:20 ; 12:1 ), and lead to the Dragon’s being cast out into the earth. This will bring
on the crisis described in this chapter and chapter xiii. (See 2 Thess. 2:6 , under Ellipsis .

* See a small pamphlet, Things to Come , by the same author and publisher.
The chapter is too long to quote here in full, but if all the many “ands” be noted and
marked, the importance of all these details will be at once noticed. See the next example.

Rev. 13:1–9 . —Here the figure is used to mark, to emphasize, and to call our attention to
the solemn events, which will follow upon Satan’s being cast out into the earth, to find no
more place in heaven ( 12:8 ). Forty-five times the word “and” is repeated in this chapter!

Rev. 12 is the key to the Apocalypse for the events recorded in it are Preliminary to
the events recorded in the earlier part of the book.

First of all comes the taking up of the Body of Christ ( 12:5 ) which causes the “war
in heaven ( 12:7–12 ), and ends in the casting out of Satan. This is the great event which
is the beginning of the end, and which ushers in the Apocalyptic scenes and judgments. *

Consequent on this follows a great persecution of Israel; which will be to those who
are left, the first exoteric or visible sign of the Devil’s “great wrath” ( 12:12 ). But this
persecution will for a time be thwarted. “The earth” will “help the woman” ( 12:16 ).
That is to say, the settled state of the peoples of the earth will stop this persecution.

Then the Dragon at once proceeds to organise his great rebellion. In the Greek the
twelfth chapter ends with the first sentence of chap. xiii.: where, as in the R.V. , the true
reading is—“And HE stood upon the sand of the sea.” The best MSS., with Lachmann,
Tregelles, Alford, and We ( estathee ), he stood , not
( estatheen ), I stood .

That is to say, the settled state of “the earth” preventing the destruction of Israel, the
Dragon takes his post upon the sand of “the sea” and out of the waters and the earth (of
the peoples) he calls up the two Beasts of chap. 13 .—his last two great instruments,—the
“Antichrist” and the “False Prophet,”—by which he will seek to carry out his purposes.

( anabainon , present participle

), rising or mounting up , not “rise up” as in A.V. The R.V. has “coming up.” John sees
the first Beast “rising up out of the sea” (implying a gradual rather than a sudden act):
and the second Beast out of “the earth” (verse 11 ).

And then he proceeds to describe their characters and their deeds. The figure of
Polysyndeton (a remarkable example) calls our attention to the many important details,
each one of which is to be dwelt upon by us as being full of meaning and instruction:—

And he stood upon the sand of the sea (i.e., the dragon, when cast out from heaven),

and I saw a beast rising up out of the sea having seven heads,

* Chap. 9:1 , though coming before chap. 7 ., records a vision subsequent to it. John says,
“I saw a star lying fallen ( pept kota ) from heaven.” not "“all,” as in A.V.
R.V. has “fallen.”
and ten horns,

and upon his horns ten crowns,

and upon his heads the names of blasphemy;

and the beast which I saw was like a leopard (a combination of Daniel’s beasts in one,
Dan. 7 ) (a leopard is Greece),

and his feet were as the feet of a bear (Persia),

and his mouth as the mouth of a lion (Babylon),

and the dragon gave him his power (six times we have in this chapter “it was given

and his seat (or throne, 2:13 ; 16:10 ),

and great authority ( Luke 4:6 . 2 Thess. 2:9 , 10 ).

and I saw one of his heads, as it were, wounded to death (similar to verses 6 , 12 , 14 ),

and his deadly wound was healed;

and all the world wondered [ and followed ] after the beast ( 3:10 . 2 Thess. 2:11 , 12 ),

and they worshipped the dragon (this is the one great object, aim, and end of Satan, Matt.
4:9 ) which gave power unto the beast;

and they worshipped the beast, saying, Who is like unto the beast? who is able to make
war with him? (Compare Ex. 15:3 , 11 , for the blasphemy.)

and there was given to him a mouth, speaking great things and blasphemies ( 2 Thess.
2:4 ),

and authority was given him to continue forty and two months ( Dan. 7:25 ),

and he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name ( Dan. 7:8 ,
11 , 20 , 25 ; 11:36 . Ps. 52 : 2 Thess. 2:4 ),

and his tabernacle (whither the saints have been previously taken),

and them that dwell in heaven ( i.e. , the body of Christ which shall have been caught up,
when the accuser has been cast down).

and it was given him to make war with the saints ( Dan. 7:21 , 25 ; 11:40–44 ),
and to overcome them ( Dan. 8:12 , 24 ; 11:28 , 30–33 ; 12:7 ):

and power was given him ( John 19:11 ) over all kindreds,

and tongues,

and nations (as with Nebuchadnezzar, Dan. 3:7 );

and all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him ( 2 Thess. 2:11 , 12 ), whose names
are not written in the book of life ( Matt. 24:24 . Dan. 12:1 . These are they who “
overcome ” him 2:7 , 11 , 17 , 26 ; 3:5 , 12 , 21 ; 12:11 ) of the Lamb slain from the
foundation of the world. If any man have an ear to hear, let him hear.” *

This chapter contains two visions relating to two Beasts * : the first, the Antichrist; the
second, the “False Prophet.” The first is the false Christ, and the second is the false—and
satanic counterfeit of the Holy Ghost. The second is marked, like the first, by the figure
of Polysyndeton .

The structure of this chapter is very remarkable. In the Greek the first sentence forms
the end of chap. 12 . So we commence with the second “And I saw”:—

The Vision of the Two Beasts ( Rev. 13 ).

A 1 –. The vision ( ), “And I saw.”

B – 1 –. The first Beast (Antichrist).

C , rising ).

D – 1 , 2 –. His description.

E – 2 . His power ( ) derived from the dragon.

F 3–8 . His deeds.

G a 9 . The Spirit’s call: “Let him hear.”

b 10 . The lesson: “Here is patience and faith.”

A 11 –. The vision ( ), “And I saw.”

B – 11 –. The second Beast. “The False Prophet” ( 16:13 ; 19:20 ).

C , rising ).

* See 2 Thess 2 , under Ellipsis and Correspondence .

D – 11 . His description.

E ) derived from the first Beast.

F – 12–17 . His deeds.

G b 18 –. The lesson: “Here is wisdom.”

a – 18 . The Spirit’s call: “Let him count.”

Here A to F and A to F relate to the Beasts, while G and G relate to the saints. The
order of the two members of G and G is an introversion, to make them off from the rest.

Rev. 18:12 , 13 . —Here the figure heaps up and amasses the wealth of Babylon. Each
item is to be dwelt upon: there is no climax:—

“The merchandise of gold,

and silver,

and precious stones,

and of pearls,

and fine linen (merchandise, not the gift of grace as with the Bride, 19:8 , “granted” to
her: her righteous award ),

and purple,

and silk,

and scarlet,

and all thyine wood,

and all manner of vessels of ivory,

and all manner of vessels of most precious wood,

and of brass,

and iron,

and marble,

and cinnamon ( amomum , an Italian shrub of sweet odour),

and odours,

and ointments,

and frankincense,

and wine,

and oil,

and fine flour,

and wheat,

and beasts (of burden),

and sheep,

and horses,

and chariots,

and slaves, *

and souls of men.

Many other examples of Polysyndeton are to be found, e.g ., Num. 20 : 2 Chron.

32:27 , 28 , 29 , 30 . Isa. 3:18–24 . Zeph 1:15 , 16 . Mark 4:1–9 . Eph. 1:21 . Phil. 4:9 .
Rev. 11:17 , 18 ; 20:9–15 ; 21:8 and 22–27 ; 22:1–6 , 17 .


Paradiastole; or, Neithers and Nors

The Repetition of the Disjunctives Neither and Nor, or, Either and Or

Par´-a-di-as´-to-lee . Greek, , from para ), beside or along , and

( stolee ), a sending (from ( stello ), to send ). Hence a sending beside or
along . It is a form of Anaphora , by which one word is repeated at the beginning of
successive sentences. It differs from Polysyndeton , in that instead of a conjunction , the

* (Greek somata, bodies , was used by the Figure of Synecdoche as a term for
slaves , as we use “hands” for labourers. See lxx. Gen. 36:6 . Hebrew in both
passages, used of the dead body ( Num. 9:6 ; 19:11–13 ) and for the living ( Lev. 24:17 ),
but especially for slaves or captives ( Num. 31:35 , 40 , 46 . The “bodies” carry the
merchandise, and the “souls” are counted as merchandise. See under Synecdoche .)
repeated word is a disjunctive , because it denotes a sending along, i.e. , it separates and
distinguishes. The words NEITHER and NOR , or EITHER and OR , are the words
which are repeated in the figure of Paradiastole , causing the various items to be put
together disjunctively instead of conjunctively.

Hence the Latins called it DISJUNCTIO , Disjunction .

Its use is to call our attention to, and to emphasize, that which is thus written for our

Ex. 34:4 . —“The diseased have ye not strengthened,

neither have ye healed that which was sick,

neither have ye bound up that which was broken,

neither have ye brought again that which was driven away,

neither have ye sought that which was lost.”

Thus are the false shepherds indicted for their unfaithfulness and neglect.

Luke 18:29 . —“And he said unto them, Verily I say unto you there is no man that hath
left home,

or parents,

or brethren,

or wife,

or children, for the kingdom of God’s sake, who shall not receive manifold more in this
present time, and in the world to come, life everlasting.”

John 1:13 . —“Which were born

not of blood,

nor of the will of the flesh,

nor of the will of man, but of God.”

Thus is emphasized the important doctrine that the new birth is entirely the work of
the sovereign grace of God.

Rom. 8:35 . —“Who shall separate us from the love of Christ?

S hall tribulation,

or distress,

or persecution,

or famine,

or nakedness,

or peril,

or sword?”

Thus is emphasized the blessed fact that our eternal security depends not on human “
perseverance , ” but on Divine preservation , as the Lord Jesus said “This is the
FATHER’S WILL which hath sent me, that of all which He hath given me I should lose
nothing ( John 6:39 ).

This is followed up by the wondrous answer to the question inverses 38 and 39 . “I

am persuaded that

neither death,

nor life,

nor angels,

nor principalities,

nor powers,

nor things present,

nor things to come,

nor height,

nor depth,

nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in
Christ Jesus our Lord.”

1 Cor. 3:21 , 22 . —“All things are yours; whether Paul,

or Apollos,
or Cephas,

or the world,

or life,

or death,

or things present,

or things to come;

all are yours; and ye are Christ’s; and Christ is God’s.

Thus the riches of the glory of our inheritance in Christ is revealed and set forth and
displayed before our eyes.

2 Thess. 2:2 . —“That ye be

not quickly shaken from your mind,

nor yet be troubled,

neither by spirit,

nor by word,

nor by Epistle as from us as [ though we had said ] that the day of the Lord has set in.”

Thus does the apostle emphasize his strong desire that nothing might loosen them (as
a ship is loosed from its moorings) from the blessed hope of “our gathering together unto
Him” when He shall “come forth” into the air “for” His people, who then shall be
“caught up to meet Him,” and thus be for ever with Him.

This he had taught them in the first epistle ( 4:13–18 ) for their comfort, but now
some person or persons must have deceived them by asserting that the apostle had said,
or written to say, that “the Day of the Lord had set in.” If this were so, they might well be
troubled, for he was proved to have deceived them and to have given them a false hope,
for they had not been “gathered” to Christ to meet Him in the air before the day of the
( hyper ), on behalf of , or in the interest of that blessed hope, in
order to thus assure them that he had never said or written any such thing.

Nothing stands between the day of Christ and our ascension to meet Him in the air.
Many things stand between that event and our coming “with” Him in “the Day of the
Lord.” The teaching of Paul by the Holy Ghost is very different from popular Christian
teaching to-day. The popular teaching is that that shall not come till the world’s
conversion comes: the truth here stated is that it cannot come till the apostacy shall have

Popular teaching is that the world is not yet good enough! The figure here points us to
the fact that the world is not bad enough! There yet lacks the coming of the Apostacy and
of Antichrist. See further under Ellipsis, page 14–17 .


Epistrophe; or, Like Sentence-Endings

The Repetition of the same Word or Words at the end of successive Sentences

E-pis´-tro-phee , a turning upon or wheeling about ( epi ),

upon , and ( strepho ), to turn .

It is a figure in which the same word or words are repeated at the end of successive
sentences or clauses, instead of (as in Anaphora ) at the beginning.

It is sometimes called ANTISTROPHE ( an-tis´-tro-phee ), a turning against; also

EPIPHORA ( e-piph´-o-ra ), a bringing to or upon .

The Latin name is CONVERSIO ( con-ver´-si-o ), a turning round .

All these titles express the character of the figure, which is thus the opposite of
Anaphora .

Gen. 13:5 . —“And the land was not able to bear them that they might dwell together:
for their substance was so great that they could not dwell together. ”

Deut. 27:15–26 , where each clause ends with the word “ Amen. ”

Deut. 32:10 . — * It is beautifully expressed in the Hebrew by the repetition of the

pronoun ( h ), him , at the end of each sentence. It in hidden in the translation, both in
the A.V. and R.V. , on account of not being in accordance with the English idiom. It

“In a desert land He found him

And in the waste howling wilderness, about, he led him.

He instructed him.

As the apple of His eye He kept him. ”

* The Errata section of the print edition marks this example for deletion.
So also in verse 12 :—

“So the Lord alone did lead him ,

And there was no strange god with him. ”

Ps. 24:10 . —

“Who is this King of glory?

The Lord of hosts, He is the King of glory. ”

Ps. 115:9–11 . —

“O Israel, trust thou in Jehovah ,

he is their help and their shield.

O house of Aaron trust in Jehovah ,

he is their help and their shield.

Ye that fear the Lord, trust in Jehovah ,

he is their help and their shield. ”

Thus is emphasized by Epistrophe the strength and security of Jehovah’s people.

Ps. 118:18 , 19 . —Twice we have the Epistrophe: —

“ Than to put any confidence in man. ”

And three times (verses 10–11 ):—

“ But in the name of the Lord I will destroy them. ”

We have also Anaphora in verses 8 , 9 , and 10–12 .

See also in the Psalms called the “Songs of degrees”:

120:2 , 3 , “ false or deceitful tongue ”;

121:3 , 4 , “ not slumber ”;

123:4 , 5 , “ contempt ”;

125:1 , 2 , “ for ever ”;

131:2 , “ a weaned child ”;

132:2 , 5 , “ the mighty God of Jacob. ”

Ps. 136 is a notable example of this figure, for every clause ends with the well-known
words, “ for his mercy endureth for ever. ”

Ezek. 33:25 , 26 . —The words are twice repeated to emphasize their solemnity. “ And
shall ye possess the land. ”

Joel 2:26 , 27 . —Twice are the Words repeated and thus solemnly emphasized. “ And
my people shall never be ashamed. ”

Rom. 8:31 . —

“If God be for us

Who can be against us? ”

Rev. 7:5–8 , which have the repetition of the sealing and the number , as we have
Anaphora at the beginning in the words “ of the tribe. ”

Rev. 22:11 . —We have here the word “ still ” repeated at the end of four successive
sentences. The figure of Polysyndeton is also seen in the repetition of the word “ and ” at
the beginning of these sentences (verse 17 ).

The repetition of the verb “ come. ”

This figure may not only exist in the originals, and be hidden in the translati o n, but
there may apparently be a repetition in the English when there may be none in the
original. For example, Acts 19:15 , “Jesus I know, and Paul I know.” But, in the Greek,
the two words for “know” are quite different. Jesus I know ( ( gin sk ), to
perceive , or know , and to be influenced by the knowledge ), and Paul I know (
( epistamai ), to have knowledge of ).


Epiphoza; or, Epistrophe in Argument

The Repetition of the same Word or Words at the end of successive Sentences: used in Argument

Ep-i-pho´-za ( epi ), upon , and ( pherein ) to bear or bring

. Hence in a bad sense to attack or assault , especially with words. Epiphoza is the figure
of Epistrophe , when used rhetorically in attack or in strong argument. We have an
example in

2 Cor 11:22 . —
“Are they Hebrew? so am I;

Are they Israelites? so am I;

Are they the seed of Abraham? so am I. ”

The repetition here greatly emphasizes and displays the feeling.


Epanadiplosis; or, Encircling

The Repetition of the same Word or Words at the beginning and end of a Sentence

Ep´-an-a-di-pl ´-s î s ( epi ), upon ( ana ),

again , and ( diplous ), a doubling .

It means a doubling upon again , and the Figure is so called because the same word is
repeated both at the beginning and at the end of a sentence.

The Latins called it INCLUSIO , inclusion: either because the first word of the
sentence is included at the end, or because of the importance of the matter which is thus
included between the two words.

They called it also CYCLUS , from the Greek ( kyklos ), a circle , because the
repetition concluded what is said, as in a circle.

When this figure is used, it marks what is said as being comprised in one complete
circle, thus calling our attention to its solemnity; giving completeness of the statement
that is made, or to the truth enumerated, thus marking and emphasizing its importance.

The Massorah gives two lists of this peculiar form of repetition, * which we have
incorporated in our examples marking them with an asterisk.

The Figure is frequently hidden or lost in translation (both in A.V. and R.V. ), so that
in these cases we shall be obliged to vary the rendering in order to properly exhibit it.
Some are very difficult to reproduce, as in our first example.

* Gen. 9:3 . —“ Everything ( ) moving that liveth shall be meat for you; even as the
green herb have I given you everything. ”

Here the first, according to our English idiom, is every , while the last means the

* See Ginsburg’s Massorah , Rubrics, 424, Vol. II., letter ; and 98, Vol. I., letter .
Ex. 32:16 . —“ The tables were the work of God, and the writing the writing of God,
graven upon the tables. ” See also under Anadiplosis .

* Lev. 7:19 . —“ The flesh that toucheth any unclean thing shall not be eaten: it shall be
burnt with fire; and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall eat of the flesh. ”

* Lev. 23:42 . —“ In booths shall ye dwell seven days; all that are Israelites born shall
dwell in booths. ”

* Num. 3:33 . —“Of Merari was the family of the Mahlites, and the family of the
Mushites: these are the families of Merari. ”

* Num. 8:12 . —“ The Levites shall lay their hand upon the bullocks: and thou shalt
offer the one for a sin-offering and the other for a burnt-offering, unto the LORD , to make
an atonement for the Levites. ”

* Num. 31:40 . —“And the persons (Hebrew, souls ) were sixteen thousand: of which
the LORD’S tribute was thirty-and-two persons (Hebrew, souls ).”

* Num. 32:1 . —“And cattle , a very great multitude, had the sons of Reuben and the
sons of Gad; and when they saw the land of Jazer, and the land of Gilead, behold the
place was a place for cattle. ”

* Num. 32:41 . —“And Jair, the son of Manasseh, went and took the small towns
thereof, and called them Havoth-Jair.”

* Deut. 31:3 . —“ Jehovah thy God, he will go over before thee, and he will destroy
these nations from before thee, and thou shalt possess them: and Joshua, he shall go over
before thee, as hath said Jehovah. ” See also under Anadiplosis .

* Josh. 15:25 . —“And Hazor , Hadattah, and Kerioth, and Hezron, which is Hazor. ”

* Judges 11:1 . —Now Jephthah the Gileadite was a mighty man of valour, and he was
the son of an harlot, and Gilead begat Jephthah. ”

* 1 Sam. 26:23 . —“ Jehovah render to every man his righteousness and his faithfulness:
for the Jehovah delivered thee into my hand to-day, but I would not stretch forth mine
hand against the anointed of Jehovah. ”

* 2 Sam. 9:12 . —“ Mephibosheth had a young son whose name was Micha. And all
that dwelt in the house of Ziba were servants unto Mephibosheth .” See also under
Anadiplosis .

* 2 Sam. 19:8 . —“ Now ( , attah ) therefore, arise, go forth, and speak comfortably
unto thy servants; for I swear by the LORD , if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one
with thee this night; and that will be worse unto thee than all the evil that befel thee from
thy youth until now ( , attah ).

* 1 Kings 22:47 . —“A king there was not in Edom; a deputy was king .”

* 2 Kings 23:25 . —“And like him there was no king before him; that turneth to the
LORD with all his heart, and with all his soul, and with all his might, according to all the
law of Moses: neither after him arose there any like him. ”

* 1 Chron. 9:8 . —The verse begins and ends with “ Ibneiah. ”

* Neh. 11:21 . —“ The Nethinims dwelt in Ophel: and Ziha and Gispa were over the
Nethinims. ”

* Est 7:7 . —“ The king , arising from the banquet of wine in his wrath, went into the
palace garden. And Haman stood up to make request for his life to Esther the queen: for
he saw that there was evil determined against him by the king. ”

Ps. 27:14 . —“ Wait on the LORD ; be of good courage, and He shall strengthen thine
heart, wait (I say) on the LORD . ”

See also under Apostrophe .

Ps. 53:2 . —“ God looked down from heaven upon the children of men, to see if there
were any that did understand, that did seek God. ”

Ps. 122:7 , 8 . —

“ Peace be within thy walls

And prosperity within thy palaces.

For my brethren and companion’s sake,

I will now say, Peace be within thee.”

Ecc. 1:2 . —“ Vanity of vanities, saith the preacher, vanity of vanities; all is vanity. ”

There is also the figure in this verse of Mesadiplosis ( q.v. ).

Ecc. 7:2 . —“A good name is better than ointment that is good. ”

The figure is lost by the translation both in the A.V. and the R.V. There is another
figure in this verse: Paronomasia ( q.v. ).

Mark 7:14–16 . — Hearken , akouete ) unto me every one of you and

understand: there is nothing from without a man, that entering into him can defile him:
but the things which come out of him those are they that defile the man. If any man have
ears to hear, let him hearken , akouet ).”

See under Polyptoton , for the figure employed in the last sentence.

Mark 13:35–37 . —“ Watch ye, therefore: for ye know not when the master of the house
cometh, at even, or at midnight, or at the cock-crowing, or in the morning: lest coming
suddenly he find you sleeping. And what I say unto you I say unto all, Watch. ”

Luke 12:5 . —“ Fear him , which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell: yea, I
say unto you, Fear him. ”

John 3:8 . —In this verse the figure is hidden both in the A.V. and R.V. The word is
( to pneuma ), the Spirit , which is used both at the beginning and the end of the
passage in the original. But at the beginning it is translated “the wind,” and at the end
“the Spirit.” The R.V. has “the Spirit breathed, etc.” in the margin.

Now the word ( pneuma ), spirit , occurs 385 times in the New Testament,
and is never translated “wind,” except in this one place. There is a proper word for
( anemos ). It occurs 31 times, and is always translated wind .
So that it would have been much clearer to have used this word, if “wind” had really been

If then we keep here the translation “spirit,” which is used everywhere else, the verse
will read and the figure appear as follows:—

“ The Spirit breatheth where He willeth, and thou hearest His voice, but thou
knowest not whence He cometh or whither He goeth; so is every one that is born of the
Spirit. ”

The wind has no will, but the Spirit has a will and a voice, and it is of Him that we are

The verb ( thelein ), to will , occurs 213 times, and always expresses a mental
act of desire or determination proceeding from one capable of wishing, willing, or
determining. See the nearly synonymous expression in 1 Cor. 12:11 . “But all these
worketh that one and the selfsame Spirit, dividing to every man severally AS HE WILL .”

Moreover, it is not correct to assert this of the “wind.” We do know whence it comes
and whither it goes, and the Scriptures them-themselves assert that the comings and
goings of the wind can be easily known and traced. See Job. 1:19 . Ps. 18:10 . Ecc. 1:6 ,
Ezek. 37:9 . Luke 8:23 . But not so of the Spirit (see Ecc. 11:5 ), where “spirit” is placed
in direct contrast with “wind” in the previous verse.

The things opposed in the immediate context are flesh and spirit, earthly things and
heavenly things, nature and grace, and AS the Spirit in His movements is contrary to
nature and above nature, SO is every one who is born of the Spirit. Those who are thus
born are “sons of God, therefore the world knoweth us not, because it knew Him not” ( 1
John 3:1 ). As the world knoweth not and understands not the motions and working of the
Spirit of God, so the new breathings, and new will, and new desires, and new motions of
the new nature in those who are born of the Spirit are also unknown.

Rom. 8:24 . —“ Hope that is seen is not hope. ”

Gal. 2:20 . —In this verse the figure, which is in the Greek, is lost in the translation
owing to the difference of idiom. In the Greek it reads:—

“ Christ , I have been crucified-together-with, yet I live: and yet it is no longer I that
live, but, in me, Christ. ”

See also under Hyperbaton .

Phil. 4:4 . —“ Rejoice in the LORD alway: and again I say Rejoice. ”

James 2:14–16 . —The passage begins and ends with the words, “ What doth it profit.

The repetitions at the beginning and end of distinct portions, or independent passages
(such as Pss. 8 , ciii., etc.), belong rather to the subject-matter and are classed under
Correspondence ( q.v. ).


Epadiplosis; or, Double Encircling

Repeated Epanadiplosis

WHEN Epanadiplosis occurs at the beginning and end of successive sentences, it is called
EPADIPLOSIS ( Ep-a-dip´-lo-sis ), a doubling upon .

Ps. 47:6 . —

“ Sing praises to God, sing praises:

Sing praises unto our King, sing praises. ”

Rom. 14:8 . —“For whether we live , to the Lord we live; and whether we die , to the
Lord we die. ”

Bullinger, E. W. (1898). Figures of speech used in the Bible (Page 169). London; New
York: Eyre & Spottiswoode; E. & J. B. Young & Co.

Anadiplosis; or, Like Sentence Endings and Beginnings

The Repetition of the same Word or Words at the end of one Sentence and at the beginning of

An´-a-di-plo´-sis ( ana ), again , and ( diploun ), to

double , or ( diplous ), double .

It is also called EPANASTROPHE ( Ep´-a-nas´-tro-phe ( epi ), upon ,

( ana ), again , and ( strephein , to turn ), and means, a turning upon again

Also PALILLOGIA ( pa-lil-log´-i-a ), from ( palin ), again , and ( logos

), a word .

In Latin it is called REVERSIO , a turning back; and REDUPLICATIO , a

reduplication . The figure is so-called because the word which ends one sentence is
repeated at the beginning of the next.

The words so repeated are thus emphasised as being the most important words in the
sentence, which we are to mark and consider in translation and exposition.

The Massorah * gives two lists of such words; which we have included in our
examples, marking them with an asterisk.

The figure is frequently missed in the English translation, both in the A.V. and R.V.
In these cases we have given our own translation of the original, so as to bring out and
exhibit the words which are thus affected by the figure of Anadiplosis .

* Gen. 1:1 , 2 . —“In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. And the
earth became without form and void.”

Thus Anadiplosis is the very first Figure employed in the Bible. And it is used to call
our attention to, and emphasize, the fact that, while the first statement refers to two
things, “the heaven and the earth”; the following statement proceeds to speak of only one
of them, leaving the other entirely out of consideration.

Both were created “in the beginning.” But the earth, at some time, and by some
means, and from some cause (not stated) became a ruin:—empty, waste, and desolate; or,

* See Ginsburg’s Massorah , Rubrics 422 and 423, Vol. II . .

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.
R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.
as it is expressed by another Figure ( Paronomasia , q.v. ), tohoo and bohoo. Now,
whatever may be the meaning of tohoo ( ), it is expressly stated, in Isa. 45:18 , by
Him who created the earth that “He created it not tohoo ( ).” Therefore it must at,
and after some subsequent period of unknown duration, have fallen into the ruin which
the second verse declares and describes.

The repetition of the word “earth” here, directs our attention to this fact; and proceeds
to describe the process by which the earth was restored and peopled.

The whole chapter exhibits a parallel between this work, and that “new creation” *
which takes place in the case of every one who is born again of the Holy Ghost, and has
the new man created within him.

* Gen. 7:18 , 19 . —“And the ark went upon the face of the waters: and the waters
prevailed exceedingly.” (See under Epizeuxis ).

* Gen. 31:6 , 7 . —“Ye know that with all my power I have served your father: and
your father hath deceived me, and changed my wages ten times; but God suffered him
not to hurt me.” (See under Hysterologia and Idiom .

* Gen. 31:33 , 34 . —“Then went he out of Leah’s tent and entered into the tent of
Rachel. Now Rachel had taken the images,” etc. Here, by rendering it “Rachel’s tent”
the figure is hidden, and the emphasis on Rachel is lost.

* Ex. 7:16 , 17 . —Here the figure is entirely hidden in the English. The words ,
being translated hitherto and this . To preserve the figure we must render it, “And,
behold, thou wouldest not hear until now. Now saith Jehovah.”

* Ex. 12:4 , 5 . —“Every man, according to his eating shall make your count for the
lamb. The lamb shall be without blemish.”

* Ex. 32:16 . —“And the tables were the work of God, and the writing, the writing of
God, graven upon the tables. ” Here we have not only the figure of Anadiplosis in the
repetition of the word writing ( , miktav ), in the middle of the verse, but we have
Epanadiplosis in the repetition of the words, the tables ( , halluchoth ). See also
under Anthopopatheia .

* Num. 33:3 , 4 . —“Israel went out with an high hand in the sight of all the Egyptians.
For the Egyptians buried all their firstborn, etc.”

q.v. Which see.

* Compare 2 Cor. 4:6 ; 5:17 , etc.; and see a pamphlet on “ The New Creation and the
Old , ” by the same author and publisher.
* Deut. 31:3 , 4 . —“And Joshua, he shall go over before thee, as hath said Jehovah ,
and Jehovah shall do unto them as he did to Sihon and Og, etc.”

* 2 Sam. 9:12 , 13 . —“All that dwelt in the house of Ziba were servants unto
Mephibosheth. So Mephibosheth dwelt in Jerusalem.”

* 2 Sam 19:10 , 11 . ——“Now, therefore, why speak ye not a word of bringing back the
King? And the King David sent to Zadok,” etc. This emphasis on the word king is lost in
the English.

* Est. 6:5 , 6 . —“And the king said, Let him come in. Then came in Haman.”

* Est. 7:7 , 8 . —“He saw that there was evil determined against him by the king. Then
the king returned out of the palace garden.”

Thus tbe fourth acrostic containing the name of Jehovah is emphasised. *

Ps. 98:4 , 5 . —The Hebrew figure is lost in the A.V. , but is preserved in the R.V. In the
Hebrew, verse 4 ends with the word ( zammeroo ), and verse 5 begins with the same

“Make a joyful noise unto the LORD , all the earth:

Break forth and sing for joy, yea, sing praises.

Sing praises unto the LORD with the harp.”

Ps. 113:8 . —

“He lifteth the needy out of the dunghill,

That He may set him with princes ;

The princes of His People.”

Ps. 115:12 . —

“The Lord hath been mindful of us, and He will bless :

He will bless the house of Israel.

He will bless the house of Aaron.

He will bless them that fear the LORD ,” etc.

* See under Acrostichion ( page 186 ), also a pamphlet on these four acrostics by the
same author and publisher.
Here, the figure of Anadiplosis passes on into Anaphora .

* Ps. 121:1 , 2 . —

“I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills from whence cometh my help.

My help cometh from the LORD which made heaven and earth.”

* Ps. 122:2 , 3 . —

“Our feet shall stand within thy gates, O Jerusalem ,

Jerusalem is builded as a city that is compacted together.”

The difference between this figure and that of Epizeuxis will be seen by comparing
Matt. 23:37 ; when the same word is repeated, but in quite a different manner; for another
purpose and with another emphasis.

Ps. 126:2 , 3 . —

“Then said they among the heathen,

The LORD hath done great things for them ,
The LORD hath done great things for us, whereof we are glad.”

Ps. 127:1 , 2 . —

“Except the LORD keep the city,

The watchman waketh in vain.

In vain ye rise up early,” etc.

Ps. 145:18 . —

“The LORD is nigh unto all them that call upon him ;

To all that call upon him in truth”

* Prov. 13:21 , 22 . —

“To the righteous shall be repayed good.

A good man leaveth an inheritance,” etc.

* Isa. 24:4 , 5 . —“Languish do the haughty people of the land.

The land also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof.”

These four lines form an Epanodos ( q.v. ).

* Hos. 2:21 , 22 ( Heb. 23 , 24 ). —“And they shall hear the land: and the land shall
hear the corn,” etc.

See also under Anaphora , Polysyndeton , Climax and Prosopopœia : so richly

emphasized is the wondrous prophecy.

Matt. 7:22 . —“Lord, Lord, have we not prophesied in thy name ? and in thy name
have cast out devils? and in thy name done many wonderful works? Here the Anadiplosis
develops into Anaphora by the repetition of the words at the beginning of the last
sentence. See under Erotesis .

Hab. 3:2 . —“Revive thy work in the midst of the years, in the midst of the years
make known.” See also under Pleonasm .

Matt 10:40 . —“He that receiveth you receiveth me , and he that receiveth me receiveth
him that sent me.” The figure is Clearer in the Greek than in the English.

John 14:11 . —“Believe me that I am in the Father , and the Father in me.”

John 18:37 . —It is difficult to express the figure in this verse in English. The “I” is
repeated thus:

“Thou sayest that a King am I. I to this end was born.”

Rom. 8:17 . —“If children, then heirs: heirs of God, etc.”

Rom. 9:30 . —“What shall we say then? That the Gentiles which followed not after
righteousness have attained to righteoushess; righteousness which is of faith.”

Rom. 10:17 . —“So then, faith cometh by hearing , and hearing by the word of God.”

2 Cor. 5:17 , 18 . —To see the figure, which is in the Greek, we must translate “Behold,
become new are all things , and all things are of God.”

2 Cor. 9:6 . —“He that soweth sparingly, sparingly shall reap also: he that soweth
bountifully, bountifully shall reap also.”

Here is combined also the figure of Symploce ( q.v. ) in the repetition of the words
“sow” and “reap.” There is also a double Epanodos in the arrangement of the lines.

Gal. 4:31 , and 5:1 . —So then, brethren, we are not children of a bondwoman, but of
the free , eleutheras ). In the freedom , eleutheria ) wherewith
Christ hath made us free, stand fast.”

Phil. 2:8 . —“And being found in fashion as a man, he became obedient unto death , the
death of the cross.”
Jas. 1:3 . —“The trying of your faith worketh patience , but patience —let it have its
perfect work, etc.” See below, under Climax .


Climax; or, Gradation

Repeated Anadiplosis

WHEN Anadiplosis is repeated in successive sentences, it is called Climax , from

( klimax ), a ladder, a gradual ascent, a going up by steps .

Hence, in Latin, it is called SCALA , a ladder; GRADUS , a step; or, GRADATIO ,

a gradation .

By some, it is called EPIPLOCE ( e-pip´-lo-ce ), a folding upon .

There are two figures to which this name is sometimes given. There is a climax where
only words are concerned, and a climax where the sense is concerned. A climax of words
is a figure of Grammar; and a climax of sense is a figure of Rhetoric. We have confined
our use of the word climax to the former; as there are other names appropriated to the
latter. A Climax in Rhetoric is known as Anabasis ( q.v. ), where the gradation is upward;
and Catabasis ( q.v. ), where it is downward: and these have other alternative titles. See
below under figures of sense.

Climax relates to words; and is, as we have said, a repeated Anadiplosis , or a

combination of successive Anadiplosis and Epanadiplosis: where the last word of one
sentence is repeated as the first word of the next, and the last of this next sentence is
repeated as the first word of the sentence following, and so on.

Sometimes there may be two or three words, only one of which is repeated; or the
repeated noun may be represented by a pronoun.

It is a beautiful figure, very expressive; and at once attracts our attention to the
importance of a passage.

Hos. 2:21 . —“And it shall come to pass in that day, I will hear. saith the LORD , I will

the heavens , and

they shall hear

the earth ; and

the earth shall hear

the corn, and the wine, and the oil , and

they shall hear Jezreel.”

Thus does the Spirit emphasize the blessing wherewith Jehovah will bless His
People—when they shall obtain mercy, and He will betroth them unto Himself for ever.

Jezreel ( i.e. , Israel, by the figure of Metonymy , q.v. ) shall cry out for and expect the
corn and wine and oil; and these, by the beautiful figure of Prosopopœia ( q.v. ), are
represented as hearing, and in their turn, crying out to the Earth to bring them forth: the
Earth, in its turn, is represented as hearing them, and crying out to the heavens to send
rain and heat and light and air; and these in their turn hear, and cry out to Jehovah, the
giver of all, who in judgment had made the heaven as brass, the earth as iron, and the rain
as powder and dust ( Deut. 28:23 , 24 ), but who in that day will first give repentance to
Israel, and then their cry reaches to Jehovah, who will open the heavens, and give rain,
and the Earth shall bring forth her fruit ( Jer. 14:22 ).

Thus the figures Epizeuxis (“I will hear”), Polysyndeton , Climax , and Prosopopœia
are heaped together to express the coming fulness of Israel’s blessing.

Joel 1:3 , 4 . —The prophecy of Joel opens with the solemnity which this figure always
gives. “Tell ye

your children of it, and let

your children tell

their children , and

their children another generation.

That which the palmerworm hath left hath

the locust eaten; and that which

the locust hath left hath

the cankerworm eaten; and that which

the cankerworm hath left hath

the caterpiller eaten.”

John 1:1 , 2 . —“In the beginning was

the Word : and

the Word was with

God : and


the Word was, and

the same [ word ] was in the beginning with God.”

The order of the words as thus placed in the Greek exhibits, by the figure of Climax ,
a great solemnity in the measured rising of the sense, and emphasizes the fact that “the
word was God,” for the use of the article in the third proposition preserves the actual
sense from being mistaken or hidden by the Climax , which is obtained by the inversion
of the words from their natural order.

Thus, beautifully is the true Deity of the Lord Jesus affirmed.

His attributes and their effect are similarly marked in verses 4 and 5 :—

John 1:4 , 5 . —“In Him was

life ; and the

life was the

light of men. And the

light shineth in

darkness ; and the

darkness comprehended it not.”

Rom. 5:3 , – 4 , – 5 . —“And not only so, but we glory also * in

tribulations : knowing that

tribulation worketh

patience ; and

patience [ worketh ]

experience ; and

* See “ Also ”: a Biblical Study , by the same author and publisher.

experience worketh

hope ; and

hope maketh not ashamed.”

Rom. 8:29 , 30 . —“For whom he did foreknow, he did

predestinate also to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the
firstborn among many brethren. Moreover, whom He did

predestinate , them he

called also; and whom he

called , them He

justified also; but whom he

justified , them he glorified also.”

Rom. 10:14 , – 15 . —“Whosoever shall

call upon the name of LORD shall be saved. How then shall they

call on him in whom they have not

believed ? and how shall they

believe in him of whom they have not

heard ? And how shall they

hear without a

preacher ? And how shall they

preach , except they may be sent.”

Jas. 1:3 , 4 . —“Knowing this that the trying of your faith worketh

patience. But let

patience have her

perfect work, that ye may be

perfect and entire, wanting nothing.”
Jas. 1:14 , 15 . —“But every man is tempted when he is drawn away of his own

lust , and enticed. Then when

lust hath conceived, it bringeth forth

sin : and

sin when it is finished, bringeth forth death.”

2 Peter 1:5–7 . —“We have already considered this verse under the figure of
Polysyndeton , which is almost inseparable from the figure of Climax . It is there very
differently exhibited, however, to show that figure.

We need not further explain the passage here, but merely exhibit it to show the
sevenfold Climax.

“Add to your faith

virtue : and to


knowledge : and to


temperance : and to


patience : and to


godliness : and to


brotherly kindness : and to

brotherly kindness , charity.

Mesarchia; or, Beginning and Middle Repetition
The Repetition of the same Word or Words at the beginning and middle of successive Sentences

Mes-ar´-chi-a´ , from the Greek ( mesos ), middle ( archee ), beginning

, because the same word or words are repeated at the beginning and middle of successive

It differs little from Anaphora , where the sentences are independent.

It resembles also Epizeuxis , when the repetition comes very close together.

Num. 9:20 . —“ According to the commandment of the LORD they abode in their
tents, and according to the commandment of the LORD they journeyed.”

Here, the repetition is at the beginning and the middle of the passage.

Ecc. 1:2 . —“ Vanity of vanities , saith the Preacher, vanity of vanities , all is vanity.”

This may be regarded also as combined with Epanadiplosis ( q.v. ).

Jer. 22:10 . —“ Weep ye not for the dead, … but weep sore for him that goeth away.”
(See also Polyptoton ).

Ezek. 37:25 . —“ And they shall dwell in the land that I have given unto Jacob my
servant, wherein your fathers have dwelt, and they Shall dwell therein, even they and
their children and their children’s children for ever.”

Zeph. 1:15 , 16 . —“ That day is a day of wrath, a day of trouble and distress, a day of
wasteness and desolation, a day of darkness and gloominess, a day of clouds and thick
darkness, a day of the trumpet and alarm,” etc.

This is the figure of Mesarchia , for it occurs in the beginning and middle of the first
sentence. Afterwards it becomes the figure of Mesodiplosis , inasmuch as the word “day”
occurs in the middle of successive sentences, the first part of which consists of the
repetition of the Ellipsis : “That day is … ”

Matt. 10:40 , 41 . —Here the verb “ receive ” is repeated several times at the beginning
and middle of several sentences.


Mesodiplosis; or, Middle Repetition

The Repetition of the same Word or Words in the middle of successive Sentences
Mes-o-dip-lo´sis , from the Greek ( mesos ), middle , and ( dipl sis ), a
doubling . The doubling or repetition of a word or words in the middle of successive

Sometimes called MESOPHONIA ( Mes-o-Pho´-ni-a ), from ( mesos ), middle

, and ( ph nee ), a sound, tone, speech , or voice .

2 Cor. 4:8 , 9 . —

“We are troubled on every side, yet not distressed;

We are perplexed, but not in despair:

Persecuted, but not forsaken;

Cast down, but not destroyed.”


Mesoteleuton; or, Middle and End Repetition

The Repetition of the same Word or Words in the middle and at the end of successive Sentences

Mes-o-tel-eu-ton , from ( mesos ), middle , and ( teleutee ), a finish, or end,

i.e. , the same word or words repeated in the middle and at the end of successive

2 Kings 19:7 . —“Behold I will send a blast upon him, and he shall hear a rumour, and
shall return to his own land: aud I will cause him to fall by the sword in his own land. ”

The repetition greatly emphasizes the fact stated.

Isa. 8:12 . —“Say ye not a confederacy to all them to whom this people shall say a
confederacy. ”

There is the figure also of Polyptoton ( q.v. ) in “say ye” and “shall say.”

Mark 5:2 , 3 . —“And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out
of the tombs a man with an unclean spirit, who had his dwelling among the tombs. ”

See also Polyptoton .


Repetitio; or, Repetition

Repetition of the same Word or Words irregularly in the same Passage

THIS name is generally given as an alternative to the figure of Geminatio or Epizeuxis .

But as that figure already has several names, and there is another form of repetition which
seems to be without a name, we have appropriated Repetitio ( i.e., Repetition ), to that
form which comes under none of the figures already enumerated.

A word or words are repeated, not in immediate succession, as in Epizeuxis ; not at

the beginning, middle, or end of sentences (as in those just treated); not at definite
intervals; but frequently in the same passage and irregularly for the sake of emphasizing
and calling attention to it.

The name clearly defines the nature of the figure, which may frequently be met with.
We append a few examples:—

Ezek. 36:23–29 . —Here the words “ you ” and “ your ” are very frequently thus
repeated, giving great emphasis to the whole of this precious promise for Israel in the
latter day. The use of this figure strongly forbids the interpretation of this passage to any
but Israel (verses 22 , 32 ).

John 14:1–4 . —The repetition of the pronouns “ I ” and “ you ” emphasizes the fact that
nothing is to come between the Lord and the hearts of His people, so that His promised
return may be the object ever before them.

John 16:12–15 . —Here, the verbs “shall” and “will” are repeated eleven times in these
four verses, in order to impress us with the importance of the promise and the absolute
certainty of its performance.

“I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit,
when He, the Spirit of truth, is ( shall have) come, He will guide you into all truth (“all
the truth,” R.V. ): for He shall not speak of ( i.e. , from) Himself; but whatsoever He
shall hear, that shall He speak: and He will show you things to come. He shall glorify
me: for He shall receive of mine, and shall show it unto you. All things that the Father
hath are mine: therefore said I, that He shall take of mine, and shall show it unto you.”

Thus is emphasized the solemn promise of the Lord Jesus that the Holy Spirit should
give a further revelation of Truth, which could not be made known at that time. We have
it in the seven Epistles addressed to churches by the Holy Spirit, through Paul. * That
great promise cannot find its fulfillment subjectively or individually, giving “truths” to
different persons, so different (not to say opposite) that fierce controversies rage
concerning them. It cannot have been fulfilled in the inspiration of any one church. It can
have been fulfilled only by the provision of those text-books of Christian doctrine, which
we have in the “Pauline” Epistles addressed to churches, beginning with Romans and
ending with Thessalonians. Here, we have “all the truth” into which the Spirit was to

* See Things to Come for 1898 and 1899.

guide. Truth which glorifies Christ and instructs the Christian as to his standing before
God and his walk with God. No other part of God’s Word contains such a body of
Christian Theology. Every Scripture is written for us, “for our learning”; but these are
written specially about the Church of God.

Gal. 4:9 . —“How turn ye again to the weak and beggarly elements whereunto ye desire
again to be in bondage.”

By this repetition we are pointed to the key to this whole passage, as well as to the
explanation of an obscure word and a difficult expression. All turns on the meaning of the
word, which is rendered “elements” ( , stoicheia ). “The elements of the
world” (verse 3 ), and “weak and beggarly elements” (verse 10 ). The word “again,”
twice used, connects these two together, and emphasizes them.

Verse 3 reads:—

“Even so we, when we were children, were in bondage under the

” ( stoicheia tou kosmou ): i.e. , the stoicheia pertaining to the world.

It is clear what the cosmos is, for it is the world with reference to its creation, and
embraces the whole world. But what are the stoicheia ? The answer is given in verse 8 ,
“When ye knew not God ye did service (or ‘were in bondage,’ the same word as in verses
3 and 10 ) unto them which by nature are no gods.” The stoicheia were the rites and
ceremonies of heathen idolatry.

In Greece to-day every mountain, tree, and grove and fountain has its stoicheion or
god, who has to be appeased and propitiated.

These Galatians had been such idolators (verse 8 ), but they had abandoned these rites
and ceremonies for Christianity, and yet wanted to bring in the stoicheia , or the rites and
ceremonies of Judaism into the Church.

The same term is thus applied both to Paganism and Judaism, and from the stand-
point of being “all one in Christ Jesus” ( 3:28 ).

The Jewish rites of circumcision, purification, and the observance of “days and
months and times and years,” etc., are put upon the same level as the worship and
propitiation of spirits in trees and mountains, etc. And the Holy Spirit asks by the apostle,
“When ye knew not God ye were in bondage unto them which by nature are no gods. But
now having known God … how turn ye again unto the weak and beggarly stoicheia
whereto ye desire again to be in bondage? Ye observe days and months and times and
years. I am afraid of you, lest I have bestowed upon you labour in vain” ( Gal. 4:8–11 .
Compare Col. 2:16–18 ).

Hence, stoicheiolatry consists of introducing that which belongs to the world (

, cosmos ) into Christian worship and practice. Romanism has given the stoicheia
of paganism and Judaism a very large place in its creeds and ritual; While the Protestant
Churches show that they have not wholly purged themselves from them when they adopt
worldly methods and adapt Jewish rites and ceremonies to Christian faith and practice.

1 Thess. 5:1 , 2 , 4 , 5 . —The repetition of the pronoun “ you ” and “ ye ” in these verses
stands in marked contrast to the repetition of the pronouns “ they ” and “ them ” in verse
3 , thus pointing out to us the significant lesson that those who are “waiting for God’s
Son from Heaven” are not concerned with “times and seasons” which have to do with
“the day of the Lord,” and His coming as “a thief” on the ungodly. The day of the Lord is
His coming with His saints unto the world. But, before this can happen, He will have
come forth into the air to receive them to Himself ( 1 Thess. 4 .) Therefore, though “times
and seasons” have to do with “the day of the Lord,” they have nothing to do with those
who look for “the day of Christ.”

2 Tim. 3:14 , 15 . —“But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast
been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them: and that from a child thou
hast known the holy Scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation.”

This is in harmony with the whole of this second epistle to Timothy, which is thus
marked as being so different from the first epistle.

In the first epistle we see the Church in its rule; and in the second, we see it in its ruin
. In the first, Timothy is instructed as to how he is to conduct himself in the Church in its
corporate capacity; whom he is to appoint to its various offices; and what are to be their
qualifications, etc., etc.

But when we pass to the second epistle we find all changed. The corporate position
and testimony of the Church is gone, and all now is individual—intensely individual, as
may be seen all through. In the four chapters we have the four stages of the “Down-grade

In 1:15 all turn away from Paul’s teaching: but “ I am not ashamed: for I know whom
I have believed” (verse 12 ): “Be not thou ashamed” (verse 8 ), “ I call to remembrance
the unfeigned faith that is in thee ” (verse 5 ).

In chap. 2:18 , 19 , others err “concerning the truth. Nevertheless, the foundation of
God standeth sure, having this seal, the Lord knoweth them that are his. And let everyone
that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity.”

In chap. 3:8 there are those who “resist the truth,” but the only hope is for the
individual believer to cling fast to the God-breathed word, and to use this sword of the

In chap. 4:4 there are and shall be those who turn away their ears from the truth, and
shall be turned unto fables.” The immediate injunction follows: “but watch thou in all
things . . make full proof of thy ministry, etc.”
All this is emphasized and forced upon our notice by the repetition of the pronouns in
this epistle.

Rev. 8:7–12 . — Eleven times are the words, the “ third part ” repeated ( , to
triton ).


Polyptoton; or, Many Inflections

The Repetition of the same Part of Speech in different Inflections

Po-lyp´-t -ton . Greek, ; from ( pol s ), many , and ( pt sis ),

a falling: in grammar, a case (from an assumed form , pto , to fall ). Hence,
Polyptoton means with many cases, i.e. , a repetition of the same noun in several cases, or
of the same verb in several moods or tenses. With many inflections is a definition which
covers both nouns and verbs.

It is called also METAGOGE ( met-a-g -gee ). Greek , from ( meta ),

a change ( ag ), to lead . It means a change of course; a different
arrangement of the same word, a leading of the same word through different inflections.

In Latin it is called CASUUM VARIETAS , a variety of cases .

This figure, therefore, is a repetition of the same word in the same sense, but not in
the same form: from the same root, but in some other termination; as that of case, mood,
tense, person, degree, number, gender, etc.

By “case,” etc., is to be understood not merely the case of nouns, but inflections of all

We have arranged the different forms of Polyptoton , as follows:—


1. Verbs repeated in different moods and tenses.

2. Verbs with their imperatives, or participles ( HOMOGENE ).

a. In strong affirmation.

b. In strong negation.

3. Verbs with cognate noun.

4. Verbs with other parts of speech (combined Polyptoton ).


1. Nouns repeated indifferent cases.

2. Nouns repeated in different numbers.

a. In singular and plural.

b. In singular and dependent genitive plural.


1. Verbs repeated in different moods and tenses

Gen. 1.24. —Here, the Hebrew is: “God, when He visiteth , or in visiting, will visit

And this, in order to emphasize the certainty of Joseph’s belief in the promise of God,
as is stated in Heb. 11:22 . “By faith Joseph, when he died made mention of (margin,
remembered ) the departing of the children of Israel; and gave commandment concerning
his bones:” i.e. , Joseph remembered the promise of God made to his fathers and had such
faith in it that he expressed his certainty s to its fulfillment by the use of this figure.

It is translated: “God will surely visit you”: but to give effect to the figure we might
render it: “God will most certainly visit you,” putting great emphasis on the words “most

Ex. 23:5 . —“If thou wouldest forbear to help him, helping thou shalt help with him”:
i.e. , as A.V. , “thou shalt surely help with him” (See Appendix D, Homonyms ).

2 Kings 21:13 . —“And I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it and
turning it upside down.”

The figure is thus used to emphasise the completeness with which the Lord would
empty Jerusalem.

Jer. 8:4 . —

“Shall they fall and not arise?

Shall he turn away and not return?”

As these words stand they are unintelligible and the figure is obscured. The R.V. is no
“Shall men fall, and not rise up again?

Shall one turn away and not return?”

The Massorah * calls attention to the fact that of the two words “turn and,” the first
letter of the second word should be the last letter of the first word, this being one of the
examples where words are wrongly divided.

Thus read the sense comes out in agreement with the context of which Israel is the

“Shall they fall and not arise?

Shall they return [ to Him ] and He not return [ to them ].

This agrees also with Mal. 3:7 , and it brings out the correspondence between the two
lines, as well as exhibits more clearly the Polyptoton .

Matt. 11:15 . —“He that hath ears to hear, let him hear (
ta akouein akouet ).

On fourteen occasions in the New Testament does the Lord use this expression (thus,
or in similar words), and we place them all together here under the first occurrence so
that we may see the fulness of the cumulative effect.

In the English we have a Paronomasia ( q.v. ) as well, “ ears to hear ,” but not in the
Greek, except in the case of the eight in Revelations, where we have ( ous
ak ous ato ). The real figure lies in the emphatic polyptoton in each case.

This solemn injunction was never used by mere human lips. No mortal man could
demand the attention to which this emphatic command lays claim None but the Lord ever
used these words. They are (unlike many other of the examples) translated literally, but
they mean: He whose ears are opened, let him surely hear, or let him take heed to give the
most earnest attention!

This attention and obedience the Lord claimed on fourteen separate occasions.

The fourteen are not divided into two sevens, but into six and eight (two fours and
two threes).

Six being the number of man , He spoke the words six times as “the Son of Man” on
earth: and eight being the number of resurrection ), He spoke the words eight times as the
Risen Lord from heaven.

* Ginsburg’s Edition, Vol. II, page 54.

Though the occasions were fourteen (7 × 2) on which the words were used, the actual
number of times the words are written down by the Holy Spirit is sixteen (4 × 4, or 4 2 ),
two being in the parallel passages in the Gospels. *

These fourteen occasions are connected with different parts of one great subject,
which is dispensational in its character: and this figure being used only of this one
subject, points us to the significant fac that it requires the Divinely opened ear to
understand the great dispensational change which was about to take place.

It had been foretold in Isa. 6:9 (see above) that it should come about in consequence
of the ears being closed to the divine announcement: and seven times this solemn
infliction of judicial blindness is written down in the Scriptures of Truth.

When the great change was announced in consequence and fulfillment of this! then,
fourteen times did the Lord Himself emphasize the important fact that only the opened
ear would be able to understand it; implying that it referred to secret things, and that only
those to whom that secret was revealed would be able to understand it or receive it.

For the interpretation of these fourteen occurrences, see Things to Come (July to Dec.,
1896; Jan. and Feb., 1897; Sept. and Oct., 1898, etc.) * We here give merely their order.

1. Elijah and John the Baptist ( Matt. 11:15 ).

2. The parable of the sower ( Matt. 13:9 ; Mark 4:9 ; Luke 8:8 ).

3. The candlestick ( Mark 4:21–23 ).

4. The parable of the tares ( Matt. 13:43 ).

5. The two dispensations ( Mark 7:16 ).

6. The tower; the king and the salt: or, the great supper and its lessons ( Luke
14:16–35 ).

7-13. The epistles to the seven churches ( Rev. 2 , iii.).

14. The beast from the sea ( Rev. 13:9 ).

Matt. 13:9 , 43 . —See 11:15 .

Matt. 19:12 . —“He that is able to receive it, let him receive it.” ( ,
ch rein ch reit ).

* For the significance of these numbers see Number in Scripture (pp 20–47). by the same
author and publisher.
* G. Stoneman, 39 Warwick Lane, London, E.C.
Mark 4:12 . —See Matt. 13:13 .

Mark 4:23 . —See Matt. 11:15 .

Mark 7:16 . —See Matt. 11:15 .

Luke 8:8 . —See Matt. 13:13 .

Luke 14:35 . —See Matt. 11:15 .

John 12:40 . —See Matt. 13:13 .

John 13:7 . —Here there is apparently a Polyptoton of the verb “to know,” but it is only
in the English, not in the Greek. “What I do thou knowest not now, but thou shalt know

In the Greek the two verbs are different. The first is ( ouk oidas ), thou
knowest not as a matter of fact. The second is gn see ) thou shalt learn, i.e., get
to know hereafter.” It is this latter verb which is used in 1 Cor. 2:14 , for the natural man
not only cannot receive, or discern, them, but he cannot even learn them, or get to know
them, not having the necessary spiritual capacity.

John 13:10 . —Here again there is no Polyptoton of the verb to wash , as appears in the
English, for in the Greek the two words are quite different. “He that is washed (
, leloumenos , i.e., bathed ) needeth not save to wash ( , nipsasthai ,
i.e., to wash a part of the body) his feet.” The teaching is that he who is purged by the
offering on the brazen altar, needeth only the water of the brazen laver, which was for
“the priests to wash in.” So those who are regenerated by the Holy Ghost and have their
standing in Christ need only the washing of the hands and the feet, i.e. , the cleansing of
their works and ways by “the washing of water by the word.”

John 17:26 . —“And I have declared unto them thy name and will declare it.”

John 17:25 . —“O righteous Father, the world hath not known , egn ) thee: but
I have known , egn n ) thee, and these have known , egnosan ) that
thou hast sent me.”

Rom. 2:21–23 . —“Thou therefore that teachest ho didask n ) another,

teachest ( , didaskeis ) thou not thyself?

Thou that preachest a man should not steal , dost thou steal ( , ,
mee kleptein, klepteis )?

Thou that sayest a man should not commit adultery , dost thou commit adultery (
, , mee moicheuein, moicheueis )?
Thou that makest thy boast of the law ( nom ) through breaking the law (
, nomou ), dishonourest thou God?”

1 Cor. 6:2 . —“Do ye not know that the saints shall judge ( , krinousin ) the
world? and if the world shall be judged ( , krinetai ) by you, are ye unworthy [
to judge ] (Ellipsis of the verb) the smallest matters ( , kriteeri n ), i.e. , “are
you unworthy [ to judge ] th e smallest judgments?”

2 Cor. 1:10 . —“Who delivered us from so great a death, and doth deliver: in whom we
trust that He will yet deliver us.”

Gal. 1:8 , 9 . —“But though we, or an angel from heaven, preach any other gospel (
, euangelizeetai ) unto you than that which we have preached (
, eueengelisametha ) unto you, let him be accursed. As we said before,
so say I now again, If any man preach any other gospel ( , euangelizetai
) unto you …. let him be accursed.”

See also under Anaphora .

2 Tim. 3:13 . —“But evil men and seducers shall wax worse and worse, deceiving and
being deceived. ”

2 Tim. 4:17 , 18 . —“And I was delivered out of the mouth of the lion. And the Lord
shall deliver me from every evil work.”

There is also the figure of Polysyndeton in this verse ( q.v. ).

1 John 3:7 . —“Little children, let no man deceive you; he that doeth righteousness is
righteous , even as He is righteous. ”

See also this verse under the figure of Tapeinosis .

Heb. 10:37 . —“He who cometh will come ”: i.e. , He will surely come.

See also under the figure of Epizeuxis .

Rev. 2:7 , 11 , 17 , 29 ; 3:6 , 13 , 22 ; 13:9 . —See Matt. 11:15 , and, under

Correspondence , “The seven epistles to the churches” by the Holy Spirit through St.

2. Verbs with their Infinitives or Participles

In this case a verb and its participle are used in combination in order to add an intensity to
the sense; or to give the verb, as it were, a superlative degree.
This form of the figure is sometimes called Ho-mog´-e-nee ( homos ), the
same , and , genos , kindred ).

HOMOGENE means therefore of the same kindred, akin , because the two verbs are

It is used in two ways:—

a. In strong and emphatic affirmation.

a. In strong negation.
( a ) In strong affirmation or exhortation

Gen. 2:16 . —“Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat.” Hebrew, eating thou
shalt eat.

The conjugated verb is strengthened and emphasized by the infinitive preceding it.
This infinitive Eve omitted in 3:2 , and thus “diminished” from the word of God.

Gen. 2:17 . —“Thou shalt surely die.” Hebrew, dying thou shalt die.

Here again Eve ( 3:3 ) alters the Word of God by saying “Lest ye die”! * (
moth tahmuth ) thou shalt most certainly die , were the words of the LORD God.

Thus she changes a certainty into a contingency.

See this verse under the figure of Synecdoche .

Gen. 3:16 . —“Unto the woman He said multiplying, I will multiply thy sorrow, etc.,”
i.e. , as in A.V. , “I will greatly multiply.”

Gen. 28:22 . —Hebrew, “Tithing, will I tithe for thee,” i.e. , as in A.V. , “I will surely
give the tenth unto thee.”

Gen. 37:33 . —“Joseph is without doubt torn in pieces.”

The Heb. is ( taroph, toraph ), tearing, he is torn. The figure employed

shows the intensity of Jacob’s feelings. He exclaims:

“The tunic of my son!

A wild beast hath devoured him!

* Not only does she thus diminish from and alter the Word of God but she adds to it the
words “neither shall ye touch it,” which the LORD God had not spoken!
Tearing —Joseph is torn. ”

I.e. , he hath been certainly killed or cruelly mangled.

Ex. 3:16 . —“I have surely visited you.” Hebrew, visiting I have visited you.

Ex. 19:12 . —Here the figure is translated: “He … shall be surely put to death.” Lit.,
stoning , he shall be stoned.

So verse 13 : “He shall surely be stoned.”

Josh. 24:10 . —“But I would not hearken unto Balaam: therefore he blessed you still.”
Hebrew, blessing, he blessed you: i.e. , he kept blessing you, or he surely blessed you, or
he did nothing but bless you, or he blessed you exceedingly.

2 Kings 3:23 . —“The kings are surely slain.” Hebrew, destroying they are destroyed.

Ps. 118:18 . —“The LORD hath chastened me sore.” Hebrew, Jah chastening hast
chastened me .

Isa. 6:9 . —“Hear ye indeed.” Hebrew, Hear ye in hearing . “And see ye indeed.”
Hebrew, “See ye in seeing,” etc.

On four occasions is this great dispensational prophecy repeated in the New

Testament in order to emphasise and call attention to the great change which was about to
take place.

1. Matt. 13:14 . Mark 4:12 . Luke 8:4 .

2. John 12:39 , 40 .

3. Acts 28:25–27 ,

4. Rom. 11:8 .

Thus, seven times in all, this great prophecy is written down by the Holy Spirit in the
Scriptures of Truth.

See Matt. 11:15 above ( page 269 ).

Jer. 22:10 . —“Weep sore for him that goeth away.” Hebrew, weeping weep.

Jer. 23:17 . —“They say still unto them that despise me,” etc. Hebrew, saying they say :
i.e., they maintain , or they keep saying , etc.

Dan. 11:13 . —“He shall certainly come.” Hebrew, coming he shall come.
Zech. 8:21 . —“Let us go speedily.” Hebrew, going let us go.

Matt. 13:13 . —“Because they seeing see not , and hearing they hear not ”: i.e. , they
are determined not to hear and not to see.

See also Mark 4:12 . Luke 8:10 . John 12:40 . Acts 28:26 ; and Rom. 11:8 : where Isa.
6:9 is quoted.

Acts 7:34 . —Here the figure of Polyptoton is translated as though it were Epizeuxis (
q.v. ). Lit. it is “Seeing I have seen ”: i.e. , I have surely seen.

Acts 28:26 , 27 . —See Matt. 13:13 .

Rom. 11:8 . —See Matt. 13:13 .

Rom. 12:15 . —In this verse we have two examples of the repetition of the infinitive and

“ Rejoice with them that do rejoice ( , chairein meta

chairont n ), and weep with them that weep ( , klaiain meta
klaiont n ).”

Two other figures are combined here— Homœopropheron and Homœoptoton ( q.v. ).

Heb. 6:14 . —“Surely blessing I will bless thee, and multiplying I will multiply thee”:
i.e. , Surely in blessing I will most certainly bless thee, etc.

( b ) In strong negation

Gen. 3:4 . —“And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die.”

Here the serpent emphatically denies Jehovah’s words, and says, dying thou shalt
not die.

He is thus introduced to us in his special sphere—denying the Word of God. For he is

the god of this world’s religion and not of its crimes and immoralities . And his sphere is
in the corruption of the truth rather than in the degradation of the flesh. *

Ex. 5:23 . —“Thou hast not delivered them at all.”

Thus beautifully is the figure rendered. Hebrew, delivering thou hast not delivered

* See The Silence of God , by Robert Anderson, LL.D., C.B., published by Hodder and
Ex. 34:7 . —“And wilt by no means clear the guilty.” Hebrew, clearing thou wilt not
clear. Even so the Substitute of the Lord’s people was not cleared. When he bore their
sins he bore the punishment also that was due to them.

Ps. 49:7 ( 8 ). —“None of them can by any means redeem his brother.”

Thus beautifully is the figure rendered, which the R.V. has not attempted to improve.

Hebrew, a brother redeeming doth not redeem a man: i.e. , even though he pay
down the price there is no redemption.

3. Verbs with cognate noun

A verb and a cognate noun are used together, when great emphasis is placed upon the
assertion or expression. It is a kind of superlative degree in verbs to declare the
magnitude and gravity of an action or the greatness and importance of its results.

Gen. 1:11 . —“Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed.” Lit., seeding seed.
Thus emphasizing the fact that trees, etc., were created bearing the seeds: and not the
seeds producing the trees. The hen was created producing the egg, and not the egg
producing the hen. Thus, at the very outset of the Word of God, the modern figment of
“evolution” is exploded.

Gen. 8:21 . —“And the LORD smelled a sweet savour.” Lit., smelled the sweet smell , or
the savour of rest: i.e. , Jehovah accepted the sacrifice, and was satisfied with the
atonement made by Noah.

The figure of Anthr popatheia ( q.v. .) is involved.

Gen. 27:3 . —“Take me some venison.” Lit., hunt me some hunting , i.e. , fetch me
some game.

The lxx. similarly expresses it .

Venison, so called from the Latin venatio , to hunt.

Gen. 27:33 . —“And Isaac trembled very exceedingly.”

Thus beautifully is the Hebrew figure turned into an English idiom.

The Hebrew is: “And Isaac trembled with a great trembling greatly.” (See margin).

Gen. 27:34 . —“And … Esau … cried with a great and exceeding bitter cry. ”

Gen. 28:20 . —“And Jacob vowed a vow , ” i.e. , solemnly vowed.

Gen. 30:8 . —“And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister.”
Lit., “with wrestlings of God, have I wrestled with my sister”; where we have another
figure, Enallage , by which the Noun “of God” is used instead of the adjective “great,”
denoting therefore “with very great and super-human wrestlings have I wrestled.” (See
Enallage ).

Gen. 35:14 . —“And Jacob set up a pillar ( vayatzev matzevah ), lit., and he
pillared a pillar. So verse 20 . *

Num. 4:23 . —“All that enter in to serve the service to work the work in the
Tabernacle of the congregation.”

Num. 11:4 . —“And the mixt multitude that was among them fell a lusting.” Hebrew,
lusted a lust: i.e. , lusted exceedi

Num. 16:30 . —“But if the LORD make a new thing.” Hebrew, create a creation: i.e. ,
do something wonderful.

I Sam 4:5 . —“All Israel shouted with a great shout ”: i.e. , with a very loud and
prolonged or sustained cry.

2 Sam. 12:16 . —“And David fasted,” lit. , fasted a fast: i.e. , completely or truly fasted.

2 Sam. 13:36 . —“And all his servants wept very sore.” In Hebrew the figure is “ wept a
great weeping greatly.”

1 Kings 1:40 . —“The people piped with pipes , and rejoiced with great joy ”: i.e. , their
joy scarcely knew bounds.

2 Kings 4:13 . —“Thou hast been careful for us with all this care ”: i.e. , exceedingly

* It seems clear that this should be the reading also in Gen. 33:20 , where we have the
same verb ( vayatzev ), which means to stand or rear up , as one lifts and sets up a
(single) memorial stone which we now call a “ menhir .” But the noun is different (
mizbeach ), which means an altar . Some ancient scribe either mistook matzevah ( a
pillar ) and wrote mizbeach ( an altar ), or the noun was originally abbreviated by the use
of the initial letter ( mem ) and was afterwards filled out incorrectly. Because the verb
that always goes with altar is ( banah ), to build , as with bricks, etc. (except in Gen.
35:1 , 3 and Ex. 30:1 , where it is ( asah ), to make; and 1 Kings 16:32 , where it is
( kum ), to raise or set up as a building, and not ( natzav ), to stand up as a
2 Kings 13:14 . —“Now Elisha was fallen sick of his sickness ”: i.e. , was exceeding
sick so that he died.
2 Kings. 19:7 . —“He shall hear a rumour,” lit., hear a hearing , i.e. , he shall hear
important news, something that will upset his plans.

Ps. 14:5 and 53:5 . —“There were they in great fear.” The Figure is “they feared a fear.

Ps. 144:6 . —“Cast forth lightning.” Heb., lighten lightning , i.e. , lighten exceedingly,
and destroy them.

Prov. 30:24 . —“ Wise , made wise. ” Here, the emphasis created by the repetition in the
form of Polyptoton , makes a superlative adjective and is beautifully and idiomatically
rendered “exceeding wise.”

Man is by nature ignorant. He is born more ignorant than the beasts. He has,
therefore, to be “made wise”; and, in spiritual things, this can be done only by the Holy
Spirit of God.

Isa. 8:12 . —“Neither fear ye their fear , nor be afraid ( i.e. , fearful). Sanctify the LORD
of hosts Himself, and let Him be your fear.”

Isa. 22:17 . —“Behold, the LORD will carry thee away with a mighty captivity.” This
verse and the next are very difficult, as is attested by a comparison of the A.V. and R.V.
with their marginal readings. The above words are literally, “Behold, Jehovah will hurl
thee with the hurling of a [strong] man.” The R.V. expresses it: “The LORD will hurl
thee away violently.”

Jer. 22:16 . —“He judged the cause.” Lit., He judged the judgment ; i.e. , righteously

So Lam. 3:59 .

Jer. 51:2 . —“And will send unto Babylon fanners ( , zareem ) that shall fan her
, v’zer aha ).”

Ezek. 18:2 . —“What mean ye that ye use this proverb? Heb.: (

mishleem eth-hammahshal ). Lit., ye proverb this proverb , i.e. , ye have this proverb in
constant use.

Ezek. 38:12 . —“To take a spoil, and to take a prey.” Lit., to spoil spoil and to prey
prey ; i.e. , to take great spoil and a great prey.

* See Metonymy (of adjunct).

Dan. 11:3 . —“A mighty King shall stand up that shall rule with a great rule ”; i.e. , have
a vast dominion.

Jonah 1:10 . —“Then were the men exceedingly afraid.” Lit., feared with great fear.

Micah 2:4 . —“In that day shall one take up a parable against you, and lament with a
lamentation of lamentations ”: i.e. , shall exceedingly lament. Or, as in A.V. “lament
with a doleful lamentation.” See below, page 284 .

Nah. 1:15 ( 2:1 .). —“Keep thy solemn feasts.” Hebrew, Feast thy solemn feasts.

The figure gives a superlative degree, as it were, to the verb, implying that, before
this, feasts had only been formally observed: henceforth they are to be truly celebrated.

Hab. 3:2 . —“O LORD , I have heard thy speech, and was afraid.” Hebrew, I have heard
hearing of thee, i.e. , I have heard thy fame.

Zech. 1:2 . —“The LORD hath been sore displeased with your fathers.” The figure is thus
beautifully rendered. Lit., it is “Jehovah hath been displeased with displeasure with your

Verse 14 . “I am jealous for Jerusalem and for Zion with a great jealousy , ” i.e. , I
am exceedingly jealous.

Verse 15 . “I am very sore displeased with the heathen that are at ease.” Lit., “with a
great wrath am I wroth. ”

Zech. 7:9 . —“Execute true judgment.” Thus elegantly is the figure expressed: “ Judge
judgment of truth.” See John 7:24 .

This Hebrew idiom appears in the New Testament, showing that though the words are
Greek the thoughts and idioms are Hebrew. (See under Idioma ).

Matt. 2:10 . —“They rejoiced with exceeding great joy. ,


See this verge under Ellipsis .

Mark 4:41 . , ephobeetheesan

phobon ). Lit. , they feared a fear.

Luke 22:15 . —“With desire I have desired to eat this passover with you.”

Having translated the figure literally in the Text, the A.V. half repents it, and gives
the English idiom in the margin, “ I have heartily desired .”
John 6:28 . —“What shall we do that we might work the works of God?” i.e. , might
really do what God wills us to do.

John 7:24 . —“ Judge righteous judgment ” ( , teen dikaian

krisin krinate ). See Zech. 7:9 .

Acts. 23:12 . —“Certain of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a
curse.” ( Marg. , or, with an oath of execration ).

And then, in verse 14 , to emphasize this, they say, “We have bound ourselves under
( anathemati anethematisamen .) Lit., we
have vowed a great vow.

Anathematizo means to devote , and so to separate from; especially to devote to


Eph. 6:18 . — “Praying always with all prayer , ” i.e. , earnestly praying.

Col. 2:19 . — “Increaseth with the increase of God” ( , auxei teen

auxeesin ). Lit. , increaseth the increase , i.e. , receives abundant increase from God, or
worthy of God: or, receives Divine increase.

1 Tim. 1:18 . —“That thou … mightest war a good warfare ” ( ,

strateuee strateian ). This comes also under the figure of Paronomasia ( q.v. ).

2 Tim. 4:7 . —“I have fought a good fight ” ( , ton

ag na ton kalon eeg nismai ): i.e. , I have earnestly fought the good fight.

Jas. 5:17 . —“He prayed earnestly.” This is the beautiful rendering of the figure
( proseuchee proseeuxato ) with prayer he prayed. See
Paronomasia .

Rev. 16:9 . —“And men were scorched with great heat.” Lit., burnt with great burning
, i.e. , exceedingly burnt.

Rev. 17:6 . —“I wondered with great wonder ” ( A.V. , admiration), i.e. , I wondered

This figure exists even when the noun is absent through the figure of Ellipsis :

Num. 11:14 . —“I am not able to bear [ the burden of ] all this people alone, because it , [
i.e., the burden ] is too heavy for me.”

Marg. Margin.
Verse 17 shows that the word burden is implied; and that Moses means, I am not able
to bear the heavy burden of all this People alone. (See under Ellipsis , page 56 ).

Ps. 13:3 . —Here the noun is actually supplied in the A.V. “Sleep the sleep of death,” i.e ,
sleep the last solemn sleep of death.

4. Verbs with other parts of speech. (Combined Polyptoton )

Isa. 24:16 . —“My leanness, my leanness, * woe unto me! the treacherous dealers have
dealt treacherously ; yea, the treacherous dealers have dealt very treacherously. ”

Here, from the two roots “deal” and “treachery” is heaped together this variety of
inflections, to enhance the result of the enemy’s treatment.

Hos. 10:1 ( R.V. ). —“Israel is a luxuriant vine, which putteth forth his fruit: according
to the multitude of his fruit he hath multiplied his altars, according to the goodness of
his land they have made goodly pillars” ( i.e. , images).

Here, in the repetition of the various inflections of the words “fruit,” “multiply,” and
“good,” and in the repetition of “according to” ( Anaphora ), and in the repetition of
sense in “altars” and “images,” our attention is arrested and drawn to the fact that
prosperity only led the People astray into idolatry.

2 Cor. 10:12 . —“For we dare not make ourselves of the number, or compare ourselves
with some that commend themselves: but they measuring themselves by themselves ,
and comparing themselves among themselves , are not wise.

This is still more emphatic when we see the structure of this verse.
a For we are not bold (

b ) or compare ( ) ourselves

c with certain of them that commend themselves:

c but they themselves, measuring themselves by themselves ,

b and comparing ( ) themselves with themselves

a are without understanding (

Here in “a” and “ a ” we have the declaration, in “a” as to what we are not, and in “ a
” as to what they are not.

In “b” and “ b ” we have comparison ( ).

* This is the figure of Epizeuxis ( q.v. ).

In “c” and “ c ” we have commending and measuring.

Note also that in “b” and “c” the pronoun occurs once, while in the corresponding
members it is answered by a double occurrence.

For the meaning of the verb “compare,” see below under adjectives ( page 284 ), and
also under Ellipsis , page 77 .

Gal. 5:7 , 8–10 . —“Ye did run well: who did hinder you that ye should not obey (
, peithesthai ) the truth? This persuasion ( , peismonee ) cometh not
of him that calleth you . . A little eaven leaveneth the whole lump. I have confidence (
, pepoitha ) in you through the LORD , that ye will be none otherwise minded.

Here we have three forms of the same word, or three words from the same root. This
is lost in the translation. ( peith ) is more than to believe , it is to be persuaded, to
hold or hold on to a belief. Hence, ( peisma ) denotes a ship’s cable , by which it
holds on , and in which it trusts , while is a holding on , here (in verse 8 )
evidently a holding on to one’s own views with obstinacy.

Perhaps the word “confidence” may best be repeated: “who did hinder you that ye
should not have confidence in the truth? This self-confidence cometh not of him that
calleth you … but I have confidence in you,” etc.

Eph. 1:3 . —“ Blessed ( , eulogeetos ) be the God and Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ, who hath blessed , ho eulogeesas ) us with all spiritual
blessings ( , eulogia ) in heavenly places (or spheres ) in Christ”: i.e. , who hath
richly blessed us with all, etc.


1. Nouns repeated in different cases

Ezek. 28:2 . —“Son of man, say unto the prince of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord GOD
(Adonai Jehovah): Because thine heart ( ) is lifted up, and thou hast said I am a
God, I sit in the seat of God ( 2 Thess. 2:4 ) in the heart ( , i.e., in the heart ) of the
seas; yet thou art a man and not God, though thou set thine heart ( ) as the heart (
) of God.”

John 3:13 . —“And no man hath ascended up to heaven ( , eis ton

ouranon ), but He that came down from heaven ek tou ouranou ),
even the Son of Man which is (or was) in heaven ho n en t
ouran ).”

* Another example of Polyptoton .

It is to be remembered that the last clause is doubtful. “Many ancient authorities omit
it,” as the R.V. remarks in the margin.

But, taking it as it stands, we have the three inflections of the word “heaven,” calling
our attention to a great fact that no one has ever gone up to heaven that is by his own act
(see Prov. 30:4 ), for the verb “ascended” is active: and the tense is the Perfect, meaning
no one hath ascended up, and is in heaven. The verb, too, is ( poreutheis ),
intimating a leisurely journey, not an instantaneous rapture.

It does not deny that men like Enoch and Elijah had been taken up by God, which is a
very different thing.

( ho n ) is difficult to express in English. It is lit., the

one being , but it means here not “who is,” but who was in heaven, i.e. , before He came
down as stated in chap. 1:1 , and who shall again “ascend up where He was before”
(chap. 6:62 ).

So in chap. 1:18 , it should be rendered “which was in the bosom of the Father.”

Compare, for this sense, chaps, 9:25 ; 19:38 . Luke 24:44 . 2 Cor. 8:9 . And see
above, under Ellipsis ( page 22 ), and Heterosis .

Rom. 4:18 . —“Who against hope believed in hope ( , par

elpida ep elpidi ).

Rom. 11:36 . —“For of Him , and through Him , and to Him are all things.”

Gal. 2:19 , 20 . —“For I through the law am dead (died) to the law
, eg gar dia nomou nom apethanon ), that I might live ( ,
zees ) unto God. I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live ( z ); yet not I but
Christ liveth ( zee ) in me, and that [ life ] which I now live ( z ) in the flesh I
live ( z ) by the faith of the Son of God.”

See further on this verse under the figure of Epanadiplosis .

2. Nouns repeated in different numbers

( a ) In singular and plural

Ps. 68:15 , 16 ( 16 , 17 ). —In the Hebrew it is clearer than in the English, because what
in English requires two or more words, in Hebrew is only one word, or a compound

“ A mountain of God is the mountain of Bashan.

A mountain of mountain peaks is the mountain of Bashan.

Why look ye askance (or envy) ye mountain peaks.

At the mountain which God hath desired for His abode?

Yea, the LORD will dwell in it for ever.”

Thus, is the Hill of Zion specially marked out as the place which Jehovah chose for
His House.

Isa. 2:11 . —The lofty looks of man shall be humbled, and the haughtiness of men shall
be bowed down.

So also in verse 17 , where the singular and plural are used together (as here) to
emphasize the far reaching effects of the day of the Lord, here (verse 12 ) mentioned for
the first time in the Bible.

In other places also we have the same figure: and it tells us that God makes a
distinction between “man” and “men,” opposite to that which the world makes.

As for “man” God has condemned him root and branch, while the world would deify

As for “men” God saves and blesses them with an everlasting salvation, while the
world makes very little of “men” as individuals, and indeed pursues them with
persecutions, and fights against them with “wars and hatreds.”

See further on this whole passage, under the figures of Polysyndeton and Synonymia .

Jer. 15:16 . —“ Thy words were found, and I did eat them; and thy word was unto me
the joy and rejoicing of mine heart.”

Here the two numbers ( sing. and pl. ) in close conjunction, bring out the contrast
between the separate “words” and the “word” of God as a whole.

Compare John 17:8 , 14 , 17 .

( b ) In singular and genitive plural

A noun is repeated in the genitive plural in order to express very emphatically the
superlative degree which does not exist in Hebrew. See under Idiom .

Thus this figure is a kind of Enallage ( q.v. ), or exchange, by which a noun in the
genitive plural, is used instead of a superlative adjective.

sing. The Singular Number.

pl. The Plural Number.
Gen. 9:25 . — “A servant of servants shall [Canaan] be”: i.e. , the lowest and most
degraded of servants, or the most abject slave.

Ex. 26:33 , etc. —“ Holy of holies. ” In A.V. : “the most holy.”

Num. 3:32 . —“ Chief of the chief. ” In A.V. : “chief over the chief.”

Deut. 10:17 . —“For Jehovah your Elohim is Elohai of the Elohim , and Adonai of the
Adonim , a great El.” *

In A.V. and R.V. this is rendered, “The LORD your God is God of Gods, and Lord of
Lords, a great God,” etc.

1 Kings 8:27 . — The heaven and heaven of heavens cannot contain thee”: i.e. , the
highest heaven.”

Ecc. 1:2 , etc. —“ Vanity of vanities ”: i.e. , the greatest vanity.

Song Sol. 1:1 . —“ The song of songs , ” i.e. , the most beautiful or excellent song.

Dan. 2:37 . Ezek. 26:17 . —“ A king of kings ”: i.e. , the most mighty king.

Dan. 2:47 . —“ God of gods ”: i.e. , the great, living, or true God. The most mighty God.

Dan. 8:25 . —“ The Prince of princes ”: i.e. , the most powerful Prince.

Hos. 10:15 . —“So shall Bethel do unto you because of your great wickedness.” The
figure is here translated, and given in the margin “Hebrew, the evil of your evil .”

Micah 2:4 . —“ A lamentation of lamentations , ” i.e. , a great lamentation. See above,

page 278 .

Phil. 3:5 . —“ A Hebrew of the Hebrews , ” i.e. , a thorough Hebrew. See this verse
under Asyndeton .

1 Tim. 6:15 . —“ The King of kings, and Lord of lords. ” Compare Rev. 17:14 and
19:16 .

Rev. 1:6 . —“ The ages of the ages , ” i.e. , to the remotest age, for ever and ever.


* See in Divine Names and Titles , by the same author and publisher.
John 1:11 . —“He came unto His own , ( , ta idea ; i.e. , his own possessions,
neuter ) and His own ( , hoi idioi , i.e. , His own people, masculine ), received
Him not.”

1 Cor. 2:13 . —“Comparing spiritual things with spiritual. ” In the Greek it is

( pneumatikois pneumatika sunkrinontes ), i.e.,
to spiritual persons spiritual things declaring .

Or, as in the English order, “declaring ( sunkrinontes , see Num. 15:34 ) spiritual
things ( pneumatika , neuter plural ) to spiritual persons ( pneumatikois , masculine
gender dative plural ). *

2 Cor. 9:8 . —“And God is able to make all ( , p san ), grace abound toward you;
that ye always having all sufficiency in all things ( , panti pantote
p san ) may abound to every (all) ( , p n ) good work.”

( b ) Repetition of the same word: in a Different Sense


Antanaclasis: or, Word-Clashing

Repetition of the same Word in the same Sentence, with Different Meanings

Ant´-an-a-cla´-sis ( anti ), against or back ( ana ), up , and (

klasis ), a breaking from ( kla ), to break . Hence, a breaking up against . This
name is given to this figure; because, when a word has been used once in a sentence in its
plain and natural sense, it is used again in the same sentence in another sense which
breaks up against it . It is the use of the same word in the same sentence in two different
senses. It is essential to this figure that the two words must be the same in spelling. *
When they are similar in spelling but alike in sound, the figure is known by another
name, Paronomasia ( q.v. ).

It is in frequent use in all languages: e.g. , “while we live , let us live ”: or “learn
some craft while you are young that when you are old you may live without craft. ”

When the Declaration of American Independence was being signed, Hancock said,
“We must be unanimous; there must be no pulling different ways.” “Yes,” said Franklin,
“we must all hang together, or most assuredly we shall all hang separately.”

* Compare chap. 3:1 ; and see The Mystery , by the same author and publisher. And see
under Ellipsis , page 77 .
* This differs from a Homonym (see Appendix D ), which is a different word though spelt
in the same way.
A correspondent recently wrote concerning a certain subject: “The more I think of it
the less I think of it,” where the meaning is obvious.

With this figure we combine in our references the figure of


Ploce: or, Word-Folding

pronounced plo´-kee . Greek ( plokee ), a fold or plait , from ( plek ), to

twine, twist, weave , or braid .

As in Antanaclasis , the same word is repeated in a different sense. Only with Ploce
that sense implies more than the first use of it. It often expresses a property or attribute of
it. “His wife is a wife indeed.” In that great victory “ Cæsar was Cæsar. ” Lord Chatham
says, speaking of Oliver Cromwell, “He astonished mankind by his intelligence, yet did
not derive it from spies in the cabinet of every prince in Europe; he drew it from the
cabinet of his own sagacious mind. He observed facts, and traced them forward to their

In our examples from Scripture, we will not give two separate lists of these figures, as
it is often very difficult to classify them. In many of the examples the reader will have,
however, little difficulty in distinguishing them. Other names are also used for this figure,
either synonymous, or referring to some special variation, or shade of meaning. It is
), h , the same ,
and , kind: i.e., of the same family: in the case of words from the same root or
origin: and is thus more appropriately confined to the figure Polyptoton ( q.v. ).

ANACLASIS , an´-a-clas´-is , a breaking back .

), an-tis´-ta-sis , a standing against , or opposition . So

called because the one word stands against the other in an opposite sense. In Rhetoric, the
figure is used where an action is defended by showing that something worse would have
happened if it had not been done.

DIALOGIA ( di-a-log´-i-a ), the interchange of words or of their meanings.

In Latin the figure is called

REFRACTIO ( re-frac´-ti-o ), a breaking back; similar in meaning to Antanaclasis .

RECIPROCATIO ( re-cip´-ro-ca´-ti-o ), interchange of words or meanings.

There are instances of two words being spelt exactly alike, and yet having different
meanings. These are called HOMONYMS . We can hardly class them with Figures of
Speech, because they are not used as such, and are not used in Repetitions. We have,
however, given a list of the most important in Appendix D.

The following are examples of Antanaclasis , or Ploce:—

Judges 11:40 . —“The daughters of Israel went from days to days to talk with the
daughter of Jephthah the Gileadite four days in a year.”

Here, “days” is first used by Syncedoche for a year ( i.e. , year to year), and
afterwards literally for days of twenty-four hours (“four days”). See under Synecdoche .

Judges 15:16 . —The word ( ham r ) means not only an ass , but a mass (or heaps
as the word is rendered) to imply that the Philistines were to be no more regarded than

“With the jaw-bone of an ass ( ham r ),

A mass ( ham r ), yea, masses; *

With the jaw-bone of an ass,

I slew a thousand men.”

1 Sam. 1:24 . —“And the child was young.” Hebrew: And the child ( , naar ) was a
child ( , naar ). In English idiom we should put the emphasis on “ WAS .”

In the former case the word is used of the child Samuel; and in the latter case, a child
of tender age, (by the figure Synechdoche , q.v. , the word “child” is Used to denote the

Ps. 141:5 . —“It shall be an excellent oil (oil of the head ) ( , rosh ): let not my
head ( , roshee ) reject it.

The first time it means the head, or head of hair; and the second time it is put by
Synecdoche ( q.v. ) for the whole body or person, i.e. , let me not refuse it.

* According to another pointing of the same consonants (as exhibited in the lxx.), this
line would read, “ I have utterly destroyed them .” In this case the Figure would be (not
Antanaclasis ) but Polyptoton ( q.v. ): viz. exaleiphon
exeeleipsa ), or Hebrew, ( cham r chamarteem ). Thus preserving the
correspondence between the second and fourth lines.
Isa. 37:18 . —“Of a truth, LORD , the kings of Assyria have laid waste all the nations (
, ha-aratzoth , lands ) and their countries ( , artzam , land ).” Here, the
repeated word is , land.

As the Text now stands, the word lands is put by Metonomy ( q.v. ) for the inhabitants
(but according to an alternative reading in some MSS. it is actually nations , as it is the
parallel passage 2 Kings 19:17 ); and in the second, for their country which they
inhabited. Hence, the A.V. has translated the figure by giving two different renderings,
(“nations” and “countries”) of the one repeated word “land.”

Isa. 58:10 . —“If thou draw out thy soul to the hungry and satisfy the afflicted soul. ”

Here, the word “soul” is first put (by Metonymy ) for the feelings of kindness,
liberality, and charity; and then (by Synecdoche ) for the person himself who is in trouble.

Isa. 66:3 , 4 . —Here, the words of Jehovah are emphasized and solemnised by the
structure of the passage which exhibits Epanodos or Chiasmos ( q.v. ); and the words
when repeated are used in another sense, the first time of the natural acts of men, and the
second by Anthropopatheia ( q.v. ), of God.
a Their soul delighteth in their abominations.

b I also will choose their delusions and will bring their fears upon them:

c Because when I called, none did answer:

c When I spake, they did not hear;

b But they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that

a In which I delighted not.

Here, in “a” and “ a ,” we have delighting: in “b” and “ b ,” the choosing: while, in
“c” and “ c ,” we have the reason given for each.

Jer. 7:18 , 19 . —“That they may provoke me to anger. Do they provoke me to anger?
saith the LORD .”

In the first place, it is used of the act of the people in provoking God: in the latter, it is
used of the punishments inflicted. Do they provoke me? No; they bring upon themselves
the anger and fury of Jehovah, as the next verse goes on to explain.

Jer. 8:14 . —“Let us be silent there.” Thus the People propose to rest in quietness and
security in their sin. But the prophet answers them with the same word in a different
sense: “The LORD our God hath put us to silence ; ” i.e. , the silence of Divine
punishment—the silence of death.
Jer. 34:17 . —“Ye have not hearkened unto me, in proclaiming liberty . . behold, I
proclaim a liberty for you, saith the LORD .”

The people had refused to give “liberty” to the oppressed, which He had commanded
in verse 9 . Therefore He will proclaim another kind of liberty—liberty for the sword, and
pestilence, and famine to destroy them; as the context shows.

Ezek. 20:24–26 . —Here the figure is heightened by the structure of the passage.
A a Because they had not executed my judgments ,

b but had despised my statutes ,

B and had polluted my sabbaths . .

A b Wherefore I gave them statutes that were not good,

a and judgments whereby they should not live:

B and I polluted them in their own gifts, etc.”

Matt. 8:22 . —“Let the dead bury their dead. ”

In the former place, the word refers to the spiritually dead, “dead in sin”; in the latter,
to those who have departed this mortal life.

John 1:10 . —“The world was made by Him (the Word), and the world knew Him not.”

The former place refers to the created world, the latter to unbelieving men.

John. 1:11 . —“He came unto His own , and His own received Him not.”

In the former place, it refers to His own possessions ( neuter plural ); in the latter, to
His own people ( masculine plural ). See under Polyptoton .

John 2:23 , 24 . —“Many believed ( , pisteuein ) in His name, when they saw
the miracles which He did. But Jesus did not commit himself ( , pisteuein ) unto

In the former place, the word “believed” means to assent to His doctrines by a
confession of faith; in the latter place, to trust as a friend, to place confidence in. The
words read therefore: “Many believed in His name when they saw the miracles which He
did. But Jesus did not himself believe in them.”

John 3:31 . —“He that is of the earth , ek tees gees ) is of the earth
, ek tees gees ), and speaketh of the earth , ek tees gees );” i.e. ,
he that is of the earth (in respect to his natural birth and origin) is of the earth (in respect
to his nature) and speaketh according (to his nature).

John 4:31 , 32 . —“His disciples prayed him, saying, Master, eat. But He said unto them,
I have meat to eat that ye know not of.”

In the former place, the word is used naturally of eating food; in the latter, spiritually,
of doing the Father’s will. See verse 34 .

John 19:22 . —“What I have written , I have written. ”

In the former place, it refers to the act of writing; in the latter, to the writing which
standeth written.

Rom. 2:12 . —“As many as have sinned without law , anom s ) shall also
perish without law , anom s ). Here, in the former case, it means not under the
Law; in the latter, it means without the judgment of the Law.

Rom. 2:26 . —“If the uncircumcision keep the righteousness of the law, shall not his
uncircumcision be counted for circumcision.”

In the former place, the word “uncircumcision” denotes the Gentiles; and in the latter,
their condition as fulfilling the requirements of the Law. For this is the force of
( dikai ma ), which is not righteousness as a state or condition, but the righteous
requirements of the Law.

Rom. 3:21 . —“But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being
witnessed by the Law and the Prophets.”

In the former case, the word denotes moral law ( no article ) without the works of the
law, as opposed to faith; in the latter case, the word denotes the Mosaic Law ( with article

N.B.—There is no article before the word righteousness, so that it means a Divine

righteousness: the same as in chap. 1:17 .

Rom. 3:27 . —“Where is boasting then? It is excluded. By what law ? of works? Nay;
but by the law of faith.”

In the first place it refers to divine law; and in the second not to law at all but to faith
itself by the genitive of apposition, “the law, i.e. , faith,” as in 1:17 . (See Appendix B ).

Rom 7:13 . —“But sin, that it might appear sin. ”

In the former place, sin is used of the old nature; while, in the latter it is used of its
real sinful nature and character.
Rom. 7:23 . —“But I see another law in my members, warring against the law of my
mind, and bringing me into captivity to the law of sin which is in my members.”

In the first and third places, the word “law” refers to the old nature, which is
indwelling sin, because it once lorded it over him, though now it only struggles to usurp
again; in the second it refers to the divine law ( i.e. , the new nature) implanted in him,
which is contrary to the former, and contests its claims.

Rom. 9:6 . —“They are not all Israel which are of Israel. ”

Here the former place refers to the true spiritual seed of Israel; the latter denotes
Israel according to the flesh, the natural descendants from Israel’s loins.

Rom. 12:13 , 14 . —“Given ( , di kontes ) to hospitality. Bless them that

persecute ( , di kontas ) you.”

The word ( di kein ) is used in the former place, and means to pursue or
follow closely in a friendly sense; but, in the latter place, it means the same in a hostile
sense, to follow closely so as to persecute.

In the A.V. , the figure is lost by translation. Literally, it is “ Follow up hospitality.

Bless them that follow you up [ to injure you ].

1 Cor. 11:24 . —“And when He had given thanks, he brake it, and said, Take, eat: this is
my body, which is broken for you.”

Here the verb to break is used, in the former case, in its proper signification: while, in
the second place, it is used spiritually for the sufferings and crucifixion of Christ; as is
clear from Luke 22:19 , where the word is “given.”

1 Cor. 15:28 . —“And when all things shall be subdued , hupotassein )

unto him, then shall the Son also himself be subject , hupotassein ) unto
Him that put all things under Him.”

The verb means to arrange in order , but also to reduce to order . The former sense is
used of Christ, the latter of all others (as explained on Ps. 110:1 ). *

1 Cor. 15:28 . —“That put all things under him, that God may be all in all. ”

In the first place “all” refers to all created things and beings; in the second, to all
universal power, “that God may be over all things; and, in the third, it refers to all places.

* See Things to Come for October, 1898.

“All,” being an adjective, must be associated with some noun (expressed or implied)
which it qualifies. Here the nouns are implied, and the omission (see under Ellipsis )
produces the figure of Antanaclasis .

2 Cor. 5:21 . —“For He hath made Him to be sin for us, who knew no sin.”

The order of the Greek is not ambiguous as is the English:—

“For He who knew no sin was made sin for us.” Here, in the former place, it means
“sin” in the ordinary acceptation of the word; while in the latter place, it is put by
Metonymy ( q.v. ) for a sin-offering.

Eph. 1:3 .—“ Blessed ( , eulogeetos ) be the God and Father of our Lord
Jesus Christ who hath blessed , ho eulogeesas ),” etc.

This is really Polyptoton . But here we repeat it in order to point out that the word
“blessed” is used in two different senses. We do not bless God in the same way that He
blesses us. The former word is always used of God, the latter may be used of men. The
former word means the Being who is to be spoken well of, the latter means the being of
whom good has been lastingly spoken—especially by God Himself.

1 Tim. 6:5 , 6 . —“Supposing that godliness is to be a way of making gain … but

godliness with contentment IS a great way of making gain. ”

Here the word ( porismos ) is used in two opposite associations. In the

former case of what a false Christianity supposes it to be; and in the second, what it really

Heb. 2:14 . —“That through death he might destroy him that had the power of death ,
that is, the devil.” Here, the first “death” is put by Synecdoche , for the atoning results of
Christ’s death: while the second means the act and article of natural or physical death.

1 Pet. 3:1 . —“That, if any obey not the word [ t log : i.e. , the Gospel],
they also may without the word [ , logou : i.e. , speaking or talking] be won by the
conversation of the wives.”


Synœceiosis; or, Cohabitation

The Repetition of the same Word in the same Sentence with an Extended Meaning

Syn´-œ-cei-o´-sis from ( sun ), together with , and ( oikei sis ), dwelling

in the same house .
This figure is so called because two words are used, and in the general sense, but with
a different and more extended signification. They dwell together as it were in the same
house; and yet, while one speaker takes up the word and uses it in the same sense, he yet
means a different thing.

The Latins called it COHABITATIO , cohabitation, a dwelling together .

Matt. 5:19 . —“Whosoever … shall break one of these least commandments, and shall
teach men so, he shall be called the least in the kingdom of heaven.”

In the former place, the allusion is to the distinction which the Pharisees made
between different commandments (just as Rome has since made the distinction between
“venial” and “mortal” sins). There is no such distinction, and therefore, when in the latter
place Christ says “he shall be called the least,” He means that he will not be there at all,
for there will be no such distinction there. There is no least in either case.

Matt. 18:1 . —“Who, in that case, is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” In verse 4
Christ answers, “Whosoever shall humble himself as this little child, the same is greatest
in the kingdom of heaven.”

In the former place the disciples use the word in its ordinary sense of pre-eminence.
But in the latter place Christ (alluding to the former sense) means that no one except
Himself has ever humbled Himself thus: and who is to dispute that He must be greatest in
that kingdom. The occasion also is important; compare verse 1 with 17:24–27 .

Matt. 19:16 , 17 . —“And behold one came and said unto him, Good Master, what good
thing shall I do that I may have eternal life? And He said unto him, Why callest thou me
good ? There is none good but one, that is God. ”

In the former case, the young man uses the word “good” of mere creature goodness,
such as he supposed Christ to have; while in the latter case, the Lord alludes to the first,
using the word in the same sense, but not in the same way; thus teaching that there is no
real “good” apart from God—no “good” except that which comes from God and returns
to Him.

John 6:28 , 29 . —“What shall we do that we might work the works * of God? Jesus
answered … them, This is the work of God, that ye believe on Him whom He hath sent.”

In the former case, the word “works” is used by the Jews in its proper acceptation: it
is repeated by Christ in the same sense, but with another meaning altogether, as He goes
on to explain.

Acts 26:28 , 29 . —Here the apostle repeats the word “ almost ” (or “with little” R.V. ) in
the same sense, but with a far higher and more extended meaning.

* See Polyptoton .

Syllepsis; or, Combination

The Repetition of the Sense without the Repetition of the Word

Syl-lep´-sis , from ( sun ), together with , and ( leepsis ) a taking .

This name is given to the figure when only one word is used, and yet it takes on two
meanings at the same time.

The word itself is used only once; and ought to be, but is not repeated in the next
clause, being omitted by Ellipsis ( q.v. ), but the two meanings are taken together with the
one word.

It is called SYNESIS ( Syn´-e-sis ), a joining or meeting together , and SYNTHESIS (

Syn´-the-sis ), a putting together, compounding , from ( sun ), together , and (
titheemi ), to put or place .

The Syllepsis here considered is rhetorical rather than grammatical ( q.v. ). There is a
form of Syllepsis which involves change rather than addition. It will be found therefore
under those figures in our third division.

2 Chron. 31:8 . —“They blessed the LORD and his people Israel.”

Here there is a duplex statement. They blessed the LORD , that is they gave Him
thanks and celebrated His praises; and they blessed His People Israel; but in a different
way; they prayed for all spiritual and temporal blessings for them in the name of the

Two meanings are thus given to the word, which is used only once. The sense is
repeated, but not the word, and the sense is not the same in each case.

Joel 2:13 . —“Rend your heart, and not your garments.”

Here the word “rend” is used only once, but with two significations: in the former
sentence it is used figuratively; in the latter literally—the heart not being rent in the same
sense in which garments are rent.


( a ) In a similar order (and in the same sense)

Symploce; or, Intertwining
The Repetition of different Words in successive Sentences in the same Order and the same Sense

Sym´-plo-kee´ , from ( sun ), together with , and ( plokee ), a folding . An

intertwining of two different words in a similar order: one at the beginning and the other
at the end of successive sentences.

It is a combination of Anaphora ( q.v. ) and Epistrophe ( q.v. ).

The Latins called it COMPLEXIO , combination , and COMPLICATIO , a folding

together .

When phrases or sentences are thus repeated, instead of single words, it is called
Cœnotes ( q.v. ).

Though there may be more than one word in the English, it does not follow that there
is more than one in the original.

Isa. 2:7 , 8 . —We have it in alternate lines:

“ Their land also is full of silver and gold,

Neither is there any end of their treasures;

Their land is also full of horses.

Neither is there any end of their chariots;

Their land also is full of idols, etc.”

Isa. 65:13 , 14 . —“Thus saith the Lord God,

“ Behold my servants shall eat,

But ye shall be hungry.

Behold my servants shall drink,

But ye shall be thirsty.

Behold my servants shall rejoice,

But ye shall be ashamed.

Behold my servants shall sing for joy of heart,

But ye shall cry for sorrow of heart.”

In the last two lines we have Epistrophe in the word heart.

Jer. 9:23 ( 22 ). —Here, in the Hebrew, the three sentences begin, “ Let him not glory ”
( , al-yithhalleyl ), and each ends with the pronominal suffix , his .

1 Cor. 12:4 , 5 , 6 . —Here in the Greek each verse begins With “ diversities ” or
differences ( , diaireseis ), and ends with “ the same ” ( , autos ).

1 Cor. 14:15 . —Here the two words repeated and emphasized by Symploce are “ the
spirit ” and “ the understanding. ”

1 Cor. 15:42–44 . —Here we have four pairs, a kind of double Anaphora .

“ It is sown in corruption;

It is raised in incorruption.

It is sown in dishonour;

It is raised in glory.

It is sown in weakness;

It is raised in power.

It is sown a natural body;

It is raised a spiritual body.”

2 Cor. 9:6 . —Here the Greek exhibits a beautiful example of this figure.

“He that soweth sparingly, sparingly shall reap also:

He that soweth bountifully, bountifully shall reap also. ”

With this is combined the figure of Anadiplosis ( q.v. ), in the repetition of the words
“sparingly” and “bountifully.”

Rev. 18:21–23 . —To emphasize the complete overthrow of Babylon six times we have
the repeated words “no more.”

Babylon … shall be found no more at all ,

and the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters shall be
heard in thee no more at all.

and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found in thee any more at

and the sound of a millstone shall be heard in thee no more at all.

and the light of a candle shall shine in thee no more at all:

and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard in thee no more
at all. ”

Here we have Anastrophe ( i.e., Polysyndeton ) combined with Epistrophe .

( b ) In a different order (but the same sense)


Epanodos; or, Inversion

The Repetition of the same Words in an inverse Order (but same Sense)

E-pan´-o-dos ( epi ), upon ( ana ), back ( hodos ), a way ,

and means a way back again , or more simply a return .

After two, three, or more words have been mentioned, they are repeated, not in the
same order again, but backward.

The Latins called it REGRESSIO , i.e., regression , and INVERSIO , i.e., inversion .

When propositions are inverted and thus contrasted, and not merely the words, the
figure is called ANTIMETABOLE (see the next figure).

When only the subject matter is thus related it is called CHIASMUS ( q.v. ), though
this may also be called an Epanodos . This we have given under Correspondence . When
words or phrases are repeated in this inverse order it is called SYNANTESIS , a meeting
together .

Gen 10:1–31 . —
a 1 –. Shem ,

b – 1 –. Ham ,

c – 1 . and Japheth.
c 2–5 . The sons of Japheth.

b 6–20 . The sons of Ham.

a 21–31 . The sons of Shem.

Ex. 9:31 . —
a “And the flax

b and the barley was smitten,

b for the barley was in the ear,

a and the flax was bolled.”

Isa. 6:10 . —
a “Make the heart of this people fat,

b and make their ears heavy,

c and shut their eyes;

c lest they see with their eyes,

b and hear with their ears,

a and understand with their heart. ”

Rom. 2:14 . —“Which have not the law ( , mee nomon ) . . these having not
the law ( nomon mee ).” The figure, which does not appear in the English,
shows us that in the former sentence we are to place the emphasis on the word “ not , ”
and in the latter on the word “law.”

N.B.—The words “by nature” must be read with “who have not the law,” and not
with the verb “do.” Gentiles by nature are not under the Law of Moses, yet they do many
things unconsciously in accordance with it; and so far, they endorse it, and condemn
themselves. The keeping of this law can no more save them than the law of Moses can
save the Jews. All are under sin ( 3:9 ), the Gentile (chap. 1), the Jew (chap. 2), and all
alike guilty before God ( 3:19 ).

2 Cor. 1:3 .—
a “Blessed be God ,

b even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,

b the Father of mercies,

a and the God of all comfort.”

3 John 11 .—
a “Follow not that which is evil ,

b but that which is good.

b He that doeth good is of God;

a But he that doeth evil hath not seen God.”

For further illustration see under Correspondence .


Antimetabole; or, Counterchange

Epanodos, with Contrast or Opposition

An´-ti-me-tab´-o-lee ( anti ), against , ( meta ), reversely , and (

ballein ), to throw .

This figure repeats the word or words in a reverse order, for the purpose of opposing
one thing to another, or of contrasting two or more things. It is the figure of Epanodos
with this special added object of opposing words against one another.

It is also called DIALLELON , from ( dia ), through , and ( laleo ), to

speak, to say (or place by speaking) one thing against another . Also METATHESIS ,
Me-tath´-e-sis, i.e., transposition , from ( meta ), beyond , or over , and (
titheemi ), to place . This name is also given in Etymology, where letters are transposed.
The Latins called it COMMUTATIO , commutation, i.e., changing about .

Gen. 4:4 , 5 . —
a And the LORD had respect

b unto Abel and to his offering:

b But unto Cain, and his offering

a he had not respect.

2 Chron. 32:7 , 8 . —
a There be more with us

b than with him;

b With him is an arm of flesh,

a but with us is the LORD our God.

Isa. 5:20 . —“Woe unto them that call


good , and


evil ;

that put darkness

for light ,

and light for

darkness ;

that put bitter

for sweet ,

and sweet for

bitter. ”
Isa. 55:8 . —
a “For my thoughts

b are not your thoughts,

b neither are your ways

a my ways, saith the LORD .”

In verse 9 these words are in their natural order.

In verses 8 and 9 taken together, the figure is a simple Epanodos :

a “For my thoughts are not your thoughts ,

b Neither are your ways my ways , saith the LORD .

b For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than
your ways ,

a and my thoughts than your thoughts .”

Here in a and a we have “thoughts”; while in b and b we have “ways.”

Further, there is another involved Epanodos in b and b , between the “my” and
“your”; as there is between a and b.

Mark 2:27 . —
a “The sabbath

b was made for man ,

b and not man for

a the sabbath .”
John 8:47 . —
a “He that is of God ,

b heareth God’s words ,

b ye therefore hear them not ( i.e. , the words)

a because ye are not of God .”

John 15:16 . —
a “ Ye have not chosen

b me ,

b but I

a have chosen you. ”

John 14:17 . —“Even the Spirit of Truth;
a whom the world cannot receive ,

b because it seeth him not,

c neither knoweth him:

c but ye know him;

b for he dwelleth with you,

a and shall be in you.”

Here the words are not repeated in b and c , but the fact is stated as to seeing and

1 Cor. 11:8 , 9 . —
a “For the man

b is not of the woman ;

b but the woman

a of the man.

c Neither was the man created

d for the woman ,

d but the woman

c for the man. ”

Gal. 5:17 . —
a “ The flesh lusteth

b against the spirit ,

b and the spirit

a against the flesh. ”

1 John 2:18 . —
a Last time (little children)

b Antichrist to come (and as)

b many come (even now)

a last time (whereby).

2 John 6 . —
a “This is love, that we walk

b after his commandments.

b This is the commandment ,

a that . . ye should walk in it.”

3 John 11 . —
a “Follow not that which is evil ,

b but that which is good ;

b He that doeth good is of God,

a but he that doeth evil hath not seen God.”

Other examples of introverted parallelism (of lines) may be studied in Gen. 12:16 .
Deut. 16:5 , 6 : 28:1 , 2 . 1 Sam. 1:2 ; 25:3 ; 2 Sam. 3:1 . 1 Kings 16:22 . Prov. 30:8 , 9 .
Isa. 56:3–7 . Joel 2:18–21 , 30 , 31 . Micah 3:12–4:2 . Zech. 9:5 . But they are to be found
everywhere, and they abound in the Psalms.

These examples Will be sufficient to explain and illustrate the figure and show its

See further under Parallelism and Correspondence .

(c) Similar in sound (but different in sense)


Paregmenon; or, Derivation

The Repetition of Words derived from the same Root

Pa-reg´-me-non , from ( para ), beside or along ( agein ), to lead .

Bullinger, E. W. (1898). Figures of speech used in the Bible (Page 250). London; New
York: Eyre & Spottiswoode; E. & J. B. Young & Co.
In this figure the repeated words are derived from the same root. Hence, the name
Paregmenon is used of the Figure when the words are similar in origin and sound, but not
similar in sense.

The Latins called it DERIVATIO .

This is one of the Figures common to all languages, but is generally very difficult to
translate from one tongue into another.

Ps. 68:28 ( 29 ). —“Thy God hath commanded thy strength ( , uzzechah ):

strengthen ( , uzzah ) O God that which thou hast wrought for us.”

Matt. 16:18 . —“Thou art Peter ( , petros ) and upon this rock ( , petra ) I
will build my assembly.”

Here note (1) that Petros is not merely Simon’s name given by our Lord, but given
because of its meaning. “ Petros ” means a stone, a piece of a rock, a moving stone which
can be thrown by the hand. While “ petra ” means a rock or cliff or crag , immovable,
firm, and sure. Both words are from the same root, both have the same derivation, but
though similar in origin and sound they are thus different in meaning. This difference is
preserved in the Latin, in which petros is saxum , while petra is rupes or scopulus .

(2) In the case of petros , we have another figure: viz., Syllepsis , for the word is used
in two senses, though used only once. There is a repetition, not of the word but of the
thought which is not expressed: “Thou art , ” where it is used as a proper name
Peter , and there is no figure: but the sense of the word is there as well, though not
repeated in words: “Thou art ( ), a stone .” Thus there is a metaphor implied, i.e. ,
Hypocatastasis ( q.v. ).

(3) While petros is used of Peter, petra is used of Christ: for so Peter himself
understood it (see 1 Pet. 2:4 , 5 , 6 , and Acts 4:11 , 12 ; and so the Holy Spirit asserts in 1
Cor. 10:4 . “And that rock ( ) was Christ,” where we have a pure metaphor ( q.v. ).
So that petros represents Peter’s instability and uselessness as a foundation, while petra
represents Christ’s stability as the foundation which God Himself has laid ( 1 Cor. 3:11 .
Isa. 28:16 ).

John 13:7 appears to be the Figure of Paregmenon in the English. But there is no figure
in the Greek. “What I do thou knowest not now; but thou shalt know hereafter.”

Here, the two words “know” are different in the Greek. The first is ( oida ), to
know , as a matter of absolute knowledge, but the latter is ( gin sk ), to get to
know, learn .

q.v. Which see.

John 15:2 . —“Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away ( , airei
): and every branch that beareth fruit he purgeth it † ( , kathairei ).”

Acts 8:31 . —“Understandest thou what thou readest” ( ,

gin skeis ha anagin skeis ).

Here, the former verb means to know by learning, to get to know; and the latter
( and ), again , means to read ,
especially, to read out loud .

Rom. 2:1 . —“Thou art inexcusable, O man, whos ,

ho krin n ), for wherein thou judgest ( , krineis ) another thou condemnest (
, katakrineis ) thyself; for t , ho krin n ) doest
the same things.”

Rom. 5:19 . —“For as by one man’s disobedience ( , parakoees ) many were

, hypakoees ) of one shall many be made

Rom. 12:3 . —“Not to think of himself , hyperphronein )

than he ought to think ( , phronein ); but to think ( , phronein )
soberly ( , s phronein ),” etc.; i.e. , “but so to think that he may think

1 Cor. 11:29 . —“For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh
damnation ( , krima ) to himself, not discerning ( , diakrin n ) the
body [ of the Lord ].”

Here the last words “of the Lord” go out (according to L.T.Tr. WH. and R.V. ). And
the former word krima means not damnation, but a matter for judgment, an accusation;
while the latter word diakrin n means to distinguish, to make a distinction; though, by
the act of communion, they professed to belong to the Body of Christ, yet if they did not
discern the truth connected with that Body ( i.e. , Christ Mystical) and distinguish their
fellow-members of that Body from all others, they condemned themselves, they accused
themselves. For, while they ate and drank thus, they did so unworthily: and by that very
act they condemned themselves.

* I.e., he lifteth up , as in Luke 17:13 . John 11:41 . Acts 4:24 . Rev. 10:5 , and especially
Dan. 7:4 (Theodotian’s Version). See under Ellipsis , page 13 .
† I.e., he pruneth it .
L. Lachmann and his critical Greek Text.
T. Tischendorf and his critical Greek Text.
Tr. Tregelles and his critical Greek Text.
WH. Westcott and Hort, and their critical Greek Text.
R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.
1 Cor. 11:31 , 32 . —“For if we would judge ( , diekrinomen ) ourselves,
, ekrinometha ). But when we are judged (
, krinomenoi ) we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not be
condemned ( , katakrith men ) with the world.”

2 Cor. 4:8 . , aporoumenoi ), but not in despair (

, exàporoumenoi ),” i.e., at a loss to know what to do, but not utterly at
a loss .

2 Cor. 5:4 . , ekdusasthai ), but

, ependusasthai )”: i.e. , that we would not be found naked
in the grave, but be clothed with our resurrection body.

The figure belongs also to Paregmenon ( q.v. ).

2 Cor. 10:6 . —“Having in a readiness to revenge all disobedience ( ,

parakoeen , hupakoee ) is fulfilled.” So Rom. 5:19 .

2 Thess. 3:11 . , ergazomenous ) not at all, but are

busybodies ( , periergazomenous ).”

It is difficult to express the thought in English. The latter word means to overdo
anything; to do with pains what is not worth doing. We might say doing nothing, yet
over-doing; or, not as official, but officious; or, not busy, but fussy; or, not doing their
own business, but the business of others .

Heb. 10:34 . ,
huparchont n ), knowing in yourselves that ye have in heaven a better and an enduring
, huparxin ).”

Jas. 2:4 . —“Are ye not then partial in yourselves, and are become judges of evil
thoughts?” There the two words ( diekritheete ) and ( kritai ) are from
the same root: the former means to make a distinction , and the latter judges .

John 3:20 . —“For if our heart condemn ( katagin skee ) us, God is
greater than our heart, and knoweth ( , gin skei ) all things.”

Both words are from the same root, and mean to know , but the former to know
something against; and the latter, simply to know , or rather get to know, learn . For
nothing can be hidden from God. Man cannot get to know our hearts by any means which
he may try. God can; and does.


Paronomasia; or, Rhyming-Words

The Repetition of Words similar in Sound, but not necessarily in Sense

Par-o-no-ma´-si-a , from ( para ) beside ( onomazein ) to name,

make a name , or a word . The figure is so-called because one word is placed alongside
of another , which sounds and seems like a repetition of it. But it is not the same; it is
only similar. The meaning may be similar or not, the point is that two (or more) words
are different in origin and meaning, but are similar in sound or appearance.

Some rhetoricians misname this figure Prosonomasia , others include it in

Antanaclasis or Parechesis .

The Latins called it ANNOMINATIO , or AGNOMINATIO , from ad, to , and

nominatio , a naming (from nominare , to name ). The word thus has the same meaning
as the Greek name.

This figure is not by any means what we call a pun. Far from it. But two things are
emphasized, and our attention is called to this emphasis by the similarity of sound.
Otherwise, we might read the passage, and pass it by unnoticed; but the eye or the ear is
at once attracted by the similarity of sound or appearance, and our attention is thus drawn
to a solemn or important statement which would otherwise have been unheeded.
Sometimes a great lesson is taught us by this figure; an interpretation is put upon the one
word by the use of the other; or a reason is given in the one for what is referred to by the
other. Sometimes a contrast is made; sometimes a thought is added.

The figure is very frequently used and is never to be disregarded.

This figure is common to all languages, but the instances cannot readily be translated
from one language into another. In some cases we have attempted to express the Hebrew
or Greek words by the use of similar words in English; but this is generally at the
sacrifice of exact translation. Only by a very free translation of the sentence can the two
words be thus represented.

Sometimes we have found even this to be impossible: but in each case we have given
the original words in English characters, so that the similarity of sound may be perceived.
We have not in each case stopped to point the lesson taught by the figure, as it is
generally sufficiently plain and clear.

Neither have we made any classification of the passages, otherwise they might well
be divided into those which are connected with proper names, or prophetic denunciations,
etc. Or we might have classified them as (1) synonymous ; (2) antithetic ; and (3) of
varied signification .

Gen. 1:2 . —“And the earth had become toh ( ) and boh ( ).” For the
lesson taught by this (the second Figure used in the Bible), see under Anadiplosis .
Gen. 4:25 . —“She called his name Seth ( , Sheth ). For God, said she, hath
appointed ( , sh th , set ) me a seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew.”

Gen. 9:27 . —“God shall enlarge ( , yapht ) Japhet ( , l’yephet ).”

Gen. 11:9 . —“Therefore is the name of it called Babel ( , Babel ), because the
LORD did there confound ( , balal , or turn to babble ) the language of all the earth.”

Gen. 18:27 . —Abraham says, “Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the
Lord, which am but dust ( , aphar ) and ashes ( , v’epher ).” See also Job
30:19 .

Gen. 29:34 . —“Now this time will my husband be joined ( , yillaveh ) … therefore
was his name called Levi ( , Levi , or joiner ).”

Gen. 29:35 . —“Now will I praise ( , deh ) the LORD : therefore she called his
name Judah ( , y’hudah ).”

Gen. 41:51 . —“And Joseph called the name of the firstborn Manasseh ( ,
M’nasheh ): For God, said he, hath made me forget ( , nasshanee ).”

Gen. 41:52 . —“And the name of the second called he Ephraim ( , Ephrayim ):
for God hath caused me to be fruitful ( , hiphranee ) in the land of my affliction.”

Gen. 49:8 . —“Thou Judah ( , y’hudah ), thy brethren shall praise thee ( ,
yoducha ).”

Gen. 49:16 . —“Dan ( , Dan ) shall judge ( , yadeen ) his People as one of the
tribes of Israel.” *

Gen. 49:19 . —“Gad ( , Gad ), a troop ( , g’d d ) shall overcome him ( ,

y’g denn ); but he shall overcome ( , yagud ) at the last.”

Ex. 32:18 . —“And he said, It is not the voice of them that shout ( , an th ) for
mastery, neither is it the voice of them that cry ( , an th ) for being overcome: but
the noise of them that sing ( , ann th ) do I hear.”

* Compare Gen. 30:6 : “And Rachel said, God hath judged me ( , dananni ) …
therefore she called his name Dan ( , Dan ).”
It may be Englished thus: “It is not the sound of those who strike , neither the sound
of those who are stricken: but the sound of those who strike up (musically) do I hear.”

Num. 5:18 . —“And the priest shall have in his hand the bitter water ( , mey
hammar m ) that causeth the curse ( , hamarr m ).”

Num. 18:2 . —“And thy brethren also of the tribe of Levi ( , Levee ), the tribe of thy
father bring thou with thee, that they may be joined ( , v’yillavu ) unto thee to
minister unto thee.”

Num. 24:21 . —“And he looked on the Kenites ( , hakeyn ), and took up his
parable, and said, Strong is thy dwellingplace, and thou puttest thy nest ( , kinnecha
) in a rock.”

Deut. 30:3 . —And in all the passages where Jehovah says, “I will turn or bring again (
, v’shavt ) the captivity ( , eth-sh’v th ) of my people,” there is this
use of two similar words. See 2 Chron. 28:11 . Neh. 8:17 . Job 42:10 . Ps. 14:7 ; 53:6 ( 7
); 85:1 ( 2 ); 126:1 , 4 . Jer. 30:3 , 18 ; 31:23 ; 32:44 ; 33:7 , 11 , 26 ; 48:47 ; 49:6 , 39 .
Lam. 2:14 . Ezek. 16:53 ; 29:14 ; 39:25 . Amos 9:14 . Zeph. 2:7 ; 3:20 .

1 Sam. 1:27 , 28 . —“For this child I prayed; and the LORD hath given me my petition (
, sh’al th ), which I asked of him ( , sh altee ): therefore also I have
lent him ( , hishilt h ) to the LORD ; as long as he liveth he shall be lent (
, sha l ).”

1 Sam. 13:7 . —“And some of the Hebrews ( , v’ivr m ) went over ( ,

avr ) Jordan.”

N.B.—“Abram the Hebrew” was so called to describe him as the man who had come
from the other side of the Euphrates and had crossed over into Canaan. They are so called
by Saul in this chapter, verse 3 . See also 14:11 , 21 , where the Philistines call them so.

2 Sam. 22:42 . —“They looked ( , yish ), but there was none to save ( ,
m sh s ).” Or, they might crave , but there was none to save .

See also Ps. 18:41 ( 42 ).

From the two similar roots ( shaah ), to look , and ( yasha ), to save .

1 Kings 2:36 . —“And the king sent and called for Shimei, and said unto him, Build thee
an house in Jerusalem, and dwell there, and go not forth thence any whither” (
, aneh veanah ), i.e. , as in English, hither and thither. So verse 42 ; and 2 Kings 5:25 :
Gehazi said “Thy servant went no whither,” i.e. , aneh veanah , hither and thither.

1 Chron. 22:9 . —“For his name shall be Solomon ( , Shel m h ), and I will
give peace ( , shal m ) and quietness unto Israel in his days.”

2 Chron. 28:11 ; Neh. 8:17 . See Deut. 30:3 .

Job. 11:12 . —“For vain ( , nav v ) man would be wise ( , yillavev ), though
man be born like a wild ass’s colt.” Or, For man, in his vanity , will vaunt of sanity ;
though humanity be born as a wild ass’s colt.

From the two verbs of like origin.

Job 42:10 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Ps. 14:7 ( 8 ). —See Deut. 30:3 .

Ps. 18:7 . —“The earth shook ( , vattigash ) and trembled ( , vattirash

).” Or, The earth shaked and quaked.

Ps. 22:16 ( 17 ). —Every important Massorah gives a list of words which occur twice in
different senses. The word ( kaar ) is one of these words, and the two places are
Isa. 38:13 and Ps. 22:16 . There can be no doubt also that some Codices read ( ka-
ar ) as a rival reading. Dr. Ginsburg concludes from the Chaldee translation that both
these readings were at one time in the text, and it is not improbable that one of the words
of this pair dropped out. * If this was the case then there was originally not only a
beautiful completeness as to the sense, but also a forcible Paronomasia as well.

“They tore ( , kaar ) like a lion ( , kaari ) my hands and my feet.” Or

“Like a lion they tore my hands and my feet.”

This is borne out by the structure of the passage (verses 12–17 ). †

The reading is shown to require the two words, which thus make the beautiful

“Like a lion they tore my hands and feet.”

Exactly as in Isa. 38:13 .

* See his Introduction to the Hebrew Bible , pp. 968–972.

† See under Ellipsis , pp. 28 , 29 .
Ps. 25:16 . —“Turn thee unto me, and have mercy upon me; for I am desolate and
afflicted” ( , v’ahn ahn , lit. “ afflicted am I ”).

Ps. 39:11 ( 12 ). —“When thou with rebukes dost correct man ( , sh ) for iniquity,
thou makest his beauty to consume away like a moth ( , sh ).”

Ps. 40:3 ( 4 ). —“Many shall see it ( , yir ) and fear ( v’y ra ).” Or, Many
will peer and fear .

See also Ps. 52:6 .

Ps. 53:6 ( 8 ). —See Deut. 30:3 .

Ps. 56:8 ( 9 ). —“Thou tellest my wanderings ( , n dee ); put thou my tears into thy
bottle ( , b’nodecha ).” The similarity of sound is intended to call our attention
to the fact that the tears caused by our wanderings are noted and noticed by God.

Ps. 64:4 ( 5 ). —“Suddenly do they shoot at him ( , yoruh ) and fear ( ,

y rak ) not.”

Ps. 69:30 , 31 ( 31 , 32 ). —“I will praise the name of God with a song ( , b’sh r
)…. This also shall please the LORD better than an ox ( , mish r ) or bullock that
hath horns and hoofs.”

Ps. 85:1 . See Deut. 30:3 .

Ps. 96:5 . —“For all the gods ( , kol-elohay ) of the nations are idols (
, el l m ).” This latter word means nothings, or things of naught; so that we
might render it, “The gods of the nations are imagi nations .”

Ps. 119:13 . —“With my lips ( , bispatai ) have I declared ( , sipparti ).”

Ps. 122:6 . —“Pray for ( , shaal ) the peace of ( , sh’lom ) Jerusalem (

, Y’r shalayim ): they shall prosper ( , yishlahy ) that love thee.”

Ps. 126:1 , 4 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Ps. 137:5 . —“If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand forget her cunning .” This
is how the passage stands in the A.V. and R.V. It has also been treated as an Ellipsis (see

A.V. The Authorized Version, or current Text of our English Bible, 1611.
pp. 9 , 10 ); where we have supplied “ me ” after the verb, i.e. , let my “right hand forget
me .”

The first verb is ( eshkachech ), if I forget thee . And the second is (

tishkach ), let it forget (third pers. sing. Kal. fut. from , shachach ).

Dr. Ginsburg suggests that in the transcription from the ancient Phoenician characters
to the present square Hebrew characters, the aleph ( = ) which originally commenced
the latter word, was mistaken for Tau ( = ), which it closely resembles, and thus the
verb was changed from the first person to the third in the second clause. If we restore the
Aleph ( ) we have the following sense and a beautiful Paronomasia: —

“If I forget thee ( , eshkachech ), O Jerusalem, may I forget ( ,

eshkach ) my right hand.”

Prov. 6:23 . —“For the commandment is a lamp, and the law ( , v’t rah ) is light
( , r ); and reproofs of instruction are the way of life.”

Prov. 18:24 . —The Paronomasia here lies in the word “friends,” , reyim , and
, lehitr a ( i.e. , reye and r a : the “ m ” of the former, and “ lehith ” of the
latter belonging to the inflections). The latter is from ( raah ), to break (and not
from ( raah ), to feed ), and means to our own detriment , and not to make friends .
Then further, ( ish ) is not a peculiar spelling of ( sh ), man , but stands for ,
there is . So that the verse reads:

“There are friends to our own detriment (or ruin);

But there is a friend that sticketh closer than a brother.”

Or, as we might put it:

“There are friends that break us,

But there is a friend that makes us.”


“There are friends that give us broken hearts ,

But there is a friend who ne’er departs .”

Ecc. 7:1 . —“A good ( , t v ) name ( , shem ) is better than ointment ( ,
mishshemen ) that is good ( , tov ).

See under Epanadiplosis .

Ecc. 7:6 . —“As the crackling ( marg. sound ) of thorns ( , hassirim ) under the
pot ( , hassir ) so is the laughter of fools.”

Here the figure attracts the attention to the fact that the burning of the thorns makes a
noise, but it lasts only for a moment and it is all over. So it is with the laughter of fools.
See further and compare Ps. 58:9 ; 118:12 , and Ecc. 2:2 .

It may be Englished thus: “As the sound of the nettle under the kettle ;” or, “as the
flaming of whin * neath a caldron of tin ;” or, “as the blazing of grass neath a caldron of
brass .”

Isa. 2:19 , 21 . —“When He ariseth to shake terribly ( , laar tz ) the earth (

, haaretz ).”

Isa. 5:7 . —“He looked for judgment ( , mishpat ), but behold oppression (
, mishpach ); for righteousness ( , tzdakah ), but behold a cry ( ,
tze k h ).”

We might English this by rendering it, “He looked for equity , but behold iniquity ;
for a righteous nation , but behold lamen tation .”

Isa. 7:9 . —“If ye will not believe ( , im lo taamin ), surely ye shall

not be established ( , ki lo teamen .

We may English it thus:—“If ye will not understand , ye shall not surely stand .”

“If ye have no belief , surely ye shall have no relief .”

Or, “no confiding , no abiding .”

Isa. 10:16 . —“And under his glory he shall kindle ( , yekad ) a burning ( ,
yek d ) like the burning ( , kik d ) of a fire.”

marg. Margin.
* Furze or gorse.
Isa. 13:4 . —“The LORD of hosts ( , tzeva th ) mustereth the host ( , tzeva )
of the battle,” or a host for the battle.

Isa. 13:6 . —“Howl ye; for the day of the LORD is at hand; it shall come as a destruction (
, k’sh d ) from the Almighty ( , mish-shaddai ).” The awful nature of that
day is emphasized by this figure, and our attention is directed to the fact that Destruction
comes from the all-bountiful One! It is like “the wrath of the Lamb,” of which we read in
Rev. 6:16 , 17 . We have the same figure again in Joel. 1:15 .

Isa. 15:9 . —“For the waters of Dimon ( , Dim n ) shall be full of blood ( ,
dam ).”

Isa. 17:1 . —“Behold, Damascus is taken away from being a city , meyeer ) and it
shall be a ruinous heap ( , me- ).” The latter word is put for , ma-avee , so that
by an unusual form of the word it may allude to the word “city.”

Isa. 17:2 . —“The cities ( , araye ) of Aroer” ( , Aroer ).

Isa. 21:2 . —“Go up ( , alee ), O Elam ( , eylam ).”

Isa. 22:18 . —“He will surely ( , tzan ph ) violently turn ( , yitznaphcha )

and toss thee ( , tzenepha ).”

Isa. 24:3 . —“The land shall be utterly ( hibb k ) emptied ( , tibb k ), and
utterly ( , v’hibb z ) spoiled ( , tibb z ): for the LORD hath spoken this

Isa. 24:4 . —“The earth mourneth ( , avelah ) and fadeth away ( , navlah ),
the world ( , tevel ) languisheth ( , umlelah ), and fadeth away ( ,
navlah ), the haughty people of the earth do languish ( , umlal ).

Isa. 24:17 , 18 . —“Fear ( , pachad ), and the pit ( , v’phachat ), and the
snare ( , vapach ) are upon thee, O, inhabitant of the earth. And it shall come to pass,
that he who fleeth from the noise of the fear ( , happachad ) shall fall into the pit (
, happachat ): and he that cometh up out of the midst of the pit ( ,
happachat ) shall be taken in tone snare ( , bappach ).

See also Jer. 48:43 , 44 .

Isa. 25:1 . —“O LORD , thou art my GOD : I will exalt thee ( , ar mimcha ), I
will praise thy name ( , deh shimcha ).”

Isa. 25:6 . —“And in this mountain shall the LORD of hosts make unto all people a feast (
, mishteh ) of fat things ( , sh’maneem ) a feast ( , mishteyh ) of
wines on the lees ( , sh’marim ), of fat things ( , sh’manim ) full of
marrow ( , m’muchayeem ), of wines on the lees ( , sh’marim ) well

Isa. 30:16 . —“But ye said, No; for we will flee ( , nan s ) upon horses ( ,s s
): therefore shall ye flee ( , t’n s n ): and, We will ride upon the swift ( , kal
); therefore shall they that pursue you be swift ( , yikkall ).

Isa. 32:6 . —“For the vile person ( , naval ) will speak villainy ( , n’valah ),”
where the A.V. preserves the figure very well.

Isa. 32:7 . —“The instruments also of the churl ( , vechele kelav ) are evil.”

Isa. 32:19 . —“When it shall hail ( , varad ) coming down on ( , b’redeth

) the forest.”

Isa. 41:5 . —“The isles saw it ( , ra ), and feared ( , v’yira ): the ends of
the earth were afraid ( , yecherad ) drew near ( , karv ) and came.

Isa. 54:8 . —“In a little ( , b’shetzeph ) wrath ( , ketzeph ) I hid my face

from thee for a moment.”

Isa. 57:6 . —“Among the smooth stones ( , bechalkai ) of the stream is thy
portion ( , chelkech ).”

Isa. 61:3 . —“To appoint unto them that mourn in Zion, to give unto them beauty ( ,
p’eyr ) for ashes ( , epher ).”

Jer. 1:11 , 12 ( R.V. ) —“The word of the LORD came unto me, saying, Jeremiah, What
seest thou? And I said, I see a rod of an almond tree ( , shaked ). Then said the
LORD unto me, Thou hast well seen; for I will watch over it ( , shoked ). So, A.V.
Our attention is thus called to the fact that the almond tree has to do With judgment
deferred, but finally executed. This is just what we have in Jeremiah: and hence it is the
truth set forth in the opening chapter.

The times of the Gentiles are passed over to show that their judgment is deferred tiff
that foretold shall have been executed on Babylon (chap. 25 ).

Chapters 50 and 51 give us the day of reckoning with Babylon for the plunder and
destruction of the temple. Jer. 50:4 , 5 tells us when it shall take place. So again 50:20 . If
we compare the following passages, it is clear that all this is yet future. Compare:

Jer. 51:13 with Rev. 17:1 , 15 ;

Jer. 51:8 with Rev. 18:2 ;
Jer. 51:45 with Rev. 18:4 ;
Jer. 50:13 with Rev. 18:19 ;
Jer. 51:48 with Rev. 18:20 ;
Jer. 50:15 , 25:10 with Rev. 18:22 , 23 ;

and we shall see that the judgment is indeed deferred; but, it will surely come. God will
“watch over” it to bring it to pass, and this is emphasized and marked by the three words:

Shaked—shoked—sheshach. *

For the Figure involved in these three words, see under Ænigma .

Jer. 1:17 . —Here there are two Paronomasias which are alternated:—

“Be not dismayed ( , techath ) at their faces ( , mipnehem ),

Lest I confound thee ( , achitcha ) before them ( , liphnehem ).”

Jer. 6:1 . —“Blow ( , tik ) in Tekoa ( ), the trumpet.”

Jer. 8:13 . —“I will surely ( , ahs ph ) consume them ( , asiphem ).”

Jer. 10:11 . —“The gods that have not made ( , avad ) the heavens and the earth,
even they shall perish ( , yevad ) from the earth, and from under these heavens.”

Thus is the verse emphasized, and our attention called to it. And when we look at it
we find that, unlike the rest of the prophecies of Jeremiah, this verse is not written in
Hebrew but in Chaldee! It is a message sent to the Gentiles and their gods by the God of

* See Jer. 25:26 ; 51:41 .

Israel; and, like parts of the book of Daniel which specially relate to the Gentiles, and
their times, it is in the Gentile and not in the Hebrew tongue.

See Dan. 2:4–7:28 . Ezra 4:8–6:18 ; 7:12–26 , where Israel is under Gentile power.
Jer. 30:3 , 18 ; 31:23 ; 32:44 ; 33:7 , 10 , 11 , 25 , 26 . See Deut. 30:3 .

Jer. 48:2 . —“In Heshbon ( , b’cheshb n ) they have devised ( , chashv

) evil against it: come, and let us cut it off from being a nation. Also thou shalt be cut
down ( , tidd mmi ), O Madmen ( , madmen ).”

Jer. 48:9 . —“Give wings unto Moab, that it may flee ( , natzo ) and get away (
, tetze ).” Or, may fly and flee away.

Jer. 48:43 , 44 . —See Isa. 24:17 , 18 .

Jer. 48:47 ; 49:6 , 39 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Lam. 2:5 . —“And hath increased in the daughter of Judah mourning ( ,

ta’aniyah ) and lamentation ( , v’aniyah ).”

Lam. 2:14 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Lam. 3:47 .— “Fear ( , pachad ) and a snare ( , vaphachath ) is come upon

us.” Or, scare and a snare .

Ezek. 7:6 . —“An end ( , ketz ) is come, the end ( , haketz ): it watcheth (
, hekitz ) for thee: behold, it is come.”

Ezek, 12:10 . —“Say thou unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD : This burden ( ,
hammassa ) concerneth the prince ( , hannasi ).” Or, this grief concerns a chief .

Ezek. 16:53 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Ezek. 24:21 . —“I will profane my sanctuary, the excellency of your strength, the desire
( , machmad ) of your eyes, and that which your soul pitieth ( , umachmal
).” Lit., the pity of your soul . Or, your eyes’ admi ration and your soul’s commise ration

Ezek. 25:16 . —“Behold I will stretch out mine hand upon the Philistines, and I will cut
off ( , v’hichratti ) the Cherethims ( , k’rethim ).”

Ezek. 29:14 ; 39:25 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Dan. 5:26–28 . —“This is the interpretation of the thing:

MENE ( , m’ney ): God hath numbered ( , m’nah ) thy kingdom and

finished it.

TEKEL ( , ): thou art weighed ( , t’k lta ) in the balances and art
found wanting.

PERES ( , p’res ): thy kingdom is divided ( , p’r sath ) and given to the
Medes and Persians ( , upharas ).

Hos. 8:7 . —“The bud ( , tzemach ) shall yield no ( , kemach ) meal.” Or, the
flower shall yield no flour .

Hos. 9:15 . —“Their princes ( , sarehem ) are revolters ( , s rrim ).”

Hos. 12:11 . —“Is there iniquity in Gilead ( , gilad , i.e. , heap of testimony)?
surely they are vanity: they sacrifice bullocks in Gilgal ( , baggilgal , i.e. , heap of
heap ): yea, their altars are as heaps ( , k’gallim ) in the furrows of the field.”

Joel. 1:15 . —See Isa. 13:6 .

Amos. 8:1 , 2 . —“And he said, Amos, what seest thou? And I said, a basket of summer
fruit ( , kayitz * ). Then said the LORD unto me. The end ( , haketz ) is come
upon my people Israel; I will not again pass by them any more.”

I.e. , they are now like the ripe fig, ready to be cut off, or ripe for judgment.

Amos. 9:14 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Jonah 4:6 . —“And the LORD God prepared a gourd, and made it to come up over Jonah,
that it might be a shadow ( , tzel ) over his head, to deliver ( , l’hatzil ) him
from his grief.” Or, a shield to shelter his head.

Micah 1:10 . —“In the house of Aphrah ( , l’aphrah ) roll thyself in the dust (
, aphar ).”

The names of all these places ( 10–15 ) are significant and connected with the
prophecy associated with them.

* From ( kutz ), to cut off, pick or gather ripe fruits .

“Declare ye it not at Gath, weep not at Accho” † ( Water Town).

“In the house of Aphra ( Dust town ) roll thyself in the dust .”

“Pass ye away thou inhabitant of Saphir ( Fair town ) in nakedness and shame” ( R.V.
and see margin A.V. ).

“The inhabitant of Zaanan ( Flock -town) is not come forth” ( R.V. ).

“The wailing of Beth-ezel (House-of- sloth ) shall take from you the stay thereof” (
R.V. ).

“For the inhabitant of Maroth ( Bitter -town) waiteth anxiously for good ( R.V. marg.
, “ is in travail ”), because evil is come down from the LORD into the gate of Jerusalem.”

“Bind the chariot to the swift steed, O inhabitant of Lachish ( Horse -town): she was
the beginning of sin to the daughter of Zion: for the trangressions of Israel were found in

“Therefore shalt thou give a parting gift to Moresheth-gath (Gath’s possession ).”

“The houses of Ackzib ( Lie -town or False -town) shall be a lie to the kings of

“Yet will I bring an heir unto thee, O inhabitant of Mareshah ( Heritage -town).”

“He shall come unto Adullam ( Rest -town) the glory of Israel.”

Nah. 2:10 . —“She is empty ( , b’ukah ), and void , mbooquah ), and

waste ( , umbullakah ).”

Hab. 2:18 . —“What profiteth the graven image that the maker thereof hath graven it: the
molten image, and a teacher of lies, that the maker of his work trusteth therein, to make
dumb ( , illimim ) idols ( , elilim ).”

Zeph. 1:2 . —“I will utterly ( , ahsoph ) consume ( , aseph ) all things from
off the land, saith the LORD .” Lit., , ( asoph, aseph ), to end, I end, i.e. , by
taking away I will make an end of.

† For so it should read, ( bacho ) rendered “at all,” being the primitive form of the
word and standing for the later and fuller spelling Accho was connected with water,
being a maritime town, and in the neighbourhood of inland swamps. Now called Akka
(French St. Jean d’Acre).
Zeph. 2:4 . —“For Gaza ( , Aazzah ) shall be forsaken ( , aazuvah) . . and
Ekron ( , v’ekr n ) shall be rooted out ( , teaker ).

Zeph. 2:7 and 3:20 . —See Deut. 30:3 .

Zech. 9:3 . —“And Tyrus ( , Tz r ) did build herself a strong-hold ( , matz r


Zech. 9:5 . —“Ashkelon shall see it ( , tere ) and fear ( , v’thira ).

Matt. 21:41 . —“He will miserably ( , kak s ) destroy those wicked ( ,

kakous ) wicked men.”

In the Greek the two words come together, thus: ( kakous kak s ).

Matt. 22:3 . —“They would not come.” ( ouk eethelon elthein ).

See under Meiosis .

Matt. 24:7 . —“There shall be famines ( , limoi ), and pestilences ( , loimoi

).” So Luke 21:11 .
Rom. 1:29 . —“Fornication ( porneia ), wickedness ( poneeria )
… full of envy ( , phthonou ), murder ( , phonou ),” etc.

Rom. 1:31 . , asunetous ) covenant-breakers (

, asunthetous ).”

Rom. 9:18 . —“Therefore hath He mercy on whom He will have mercy.” Lit., so then on
whom he will ( thelei eleei ).

1 Cor. 9:17 . , hek n , ech ) a

reward.” See under Oxymoron .

2 Cor. 8:22 . —“And we have sent with them our brother, whom we have oftentimes (
, pollakis ) proved diligent in many things ( , pollois ).”

In the Greek the words come together, and in a different order:— (

pollois pollakis ).

2 Cor. 9:8 . —“Having all sufficiency in all things,” ( panti

pantote pasan ).

* This word should go out according to the Texts of L.T.Tr. WH. , and R.V.
Phil. 3:2 . —“Beware of the katatomee ( ): for we are the peritomee (

Thus are contrasted the false and the true circumcision. True circumcision is “to
worship God in the spirit, to rejoice in Christ Jesus, and to have no confidence in the
flesh” ( Phil. 3:3 ). It is “of the heart in spirit, and not in letter” ( Rom. 2:25 , 29 ).

To go back therefore to ordinances, and to this ordinance, after having been made free
in Christ is mutilation , not true circumcision. The verb ( katatemnein ) is
always connected with mutilation , see Lev. 21:5 . 1 Kings 18:28 . Isa. 15:2 . Hos. 7:14 .

1 Tim. 1:18 . —“War a good warfare,” strateian strateuein .

1 Tim. 4:3 . —This passage has been referred to under Ellipsis and Zeugma; but there is
a latent Paronomasia in one word that is omitted. The Greek is ( k leuont n
), forbidding . This word suggests the other word which is omitted, but is obviously to be
understood:— ( keleuont n ), commanding . There is the difference of only
one letter between the two words. This is not, of course, a pure paronomasia as only one
of the words is expressed.

1 Tim. 6:5 , 6 . —Where the word porismos , gain , is connected with peirasmos ,
temptation, in verse 9 .

Heb. 5:8 . , emathen ) obedience by

, epathen ).”

Jas. 5:17 . —“With prayer ( proseuchee ) he prayed ( ,

proseeuxato )”: i.e. , as in A.V. , “He prayed earnestly.” See Polyptoton .


Parechesls; or, Foreign Paronomasia

The Repetition of Words similar in Sound, but different in Language

Par-ee-che´-sis . Greek, : from ( para ), beside ( eechee ), a

sound, a sounding of one word beside another .

Parechesis is a Paronomasia , when the repeated words of similar sound are in

another tongue .

The examples of Paronomasia which we have given are such only in the Hebrew and
the Greek, not in the English rendering of them There is no figure in the English
Translation; except when it may be possible to reproduce the similar words in translation
(as is done in Rom. 10:19 , disobedience and obedience , etc.). So far as the English is
concerned, and as related to it, all the examples of Paronomasia are really Parechesis ,
because they exist in another language and not in the translation of it.

Similarly, as the New Testament (if not originally written in Hebrew, and then at a
very early date translated into Greek) is at least full of Hebrew thought and idiom. (See
under Idiom .) So that, though there may be no Paronomasia in the Greek words, there
may be in the Hebrew thought, or in the Hebrew words which the Greek words represent.
In these cases, where the Paronomasia is in the Hebrew thought, it is called Parechesis
so far as the Greek is concerned. And it is only when we go to the Hebrew thought that
we can hear the Hebrew words sounding beside the Greek words.

To put the difference in a simpler form: Two words similar in sound are a
Paronomasia with regard to their particular language, both words being in the same
language. But a Parechesis is found when the two words are not in the same language.

The Greeks also called this figure

PAROMŒOSIS , from , very much alike; and

PARISON or PARISOSIS , from ( para ), beside ( isos ), equal to .

So that words equal to other words in one language are seen to be similar to those in
another language when placed beside them.

It follows, from what we have said, that all the examples of Parechesis must occur in
the New Testament:

Matt. 3:9 . —“God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham.”

Here, there is no Paronomasia either in the Greek or the English, but there is in the
Hebrew thought. Hence, these would be this Parechesis: —

( abanim ), stones . ( banim ), children .

“God is able of these abanim to raise up banim unto Abraham.”

Matt. 10:30 . —“The very hairs of your head are all numbered .” , mene , and ,
manyan .

Matt. 11:17 . ,
rcheesasthe ): we have mourned unto you, a ,
ekopsasthe ).

There is a Homœoteleuton in these two Greek words but no Paronomasia . The

Parachesis is seen by the Syriac, referring to which the Lord doubtless used. There we
see a beautiful example of Paronomasia , for the word “danced” would be ,
rakedton , and the word “lamented” would be , arkedton .

In the English it would be:—“We have piped unto you and ye did not leap : we have
mourned unto you, and ye do not weep .”

Matt. 11:29 . —“I am meek , and ye shall find rest .”

In the Peshito we have ( nich ), and ( n’yacha ), and better still in the
Lewis-Codex ( v’enichkon ), i.e., I shall give you rest ,” i.e. , I am neech and
v’eneechk n .

Mark 8:32 . —The words of Peter to Jesus are rendered in the Lewis-Codex:—“As if he
pitied him: be it far from thee.” This is , haes ; , chas .

Luke 7:41 , 42 . —See Rom. 13:8 .

John 1:5 . —“The light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not.”

In Syriac the word “darkness” would be , keval , and “comprehend” would be

, kabbel .

John 10:1 . —“He that entereth not by the door into the sheepfold” would be
, min tara let ra .

Rom. 13:8 . —“ Owe no man anything but to love one another.”

In the Greek (as in the English) these words are very different: but, to a Hebrew, the
two words would immediately be, in the mind, ( ), ach b and , chab . “ Ch v ,
be debtor to no man, but ach b one another.” The same is seen in Luke 7:41 , 42 .

Rom. 15:4 . —“That we through patience … might have hope .” This would be ,
sabbar and , subar (from the same root).

“That we through sabbar might have saubar .”

1 Cor. 1:23 , 24 . —“We preach Christ crucified, unto the Jews a stumbling-block, and
unto the Greeks foolishness; but unto them which are called, both Jews and Greeks,
Christ the power of God, and the wisdom of God.”

Here, there is a beautiful combination of words. By a simple change of letters, the

words signify cross, stumbling-block, foolishness, power , and wisdom: —
( maskal ) is cross.

( michsh l ) is stumbling-block.

( sechel ) is foolishness.

( haschil ) is power: i.e. , prosperity or success resulting from power in

doing anything.

( sechel ) is wisdom ( 1 Chron. 22:12 ; 26:14 . Prov. 12:8 ).

So that the whole passage would sound, in reading, thus:—“We preach Christ,
maskal , to the Jews michsh l , and to the Greeks sekel , but to them that are called both
Jews and Greeks, Christ the haschil of God and the sechel of God.”

2 Cor. 11:17 . —“But as it were foolishly , in this confidence of boasting .”

Here, foolishness and boasting are (from the same root)—

( hithallel ) and

( hith lel ).

( d ) With a different sound (but similar sense)


Synonymia; or, Synonymous Words

The Repetition of Words similar in Sense, but different in Sound and Origin

Syn-o-nym´-i-a , from ( sun ), together with ( onoma ), a name . A

Synonym is so Called when the sense of two or more words is similar, though the sound
and appearance and derivation may be quite different. Synonyms do not make the figure
called Synonymia unless they are used for the purpose of enhancing the force and fire of
the passage.

The Figure of Synonymia is a repetition of words different in sound and origin, but
similar in shades of meaning. When used rhetorically—repeating the same sentence in
other words—it has a variety of uses, to which distinct names have been given according
to the nature of the subject, or the object of the speaker. See below under the next section
(Section II., Repetition, affecting the sense).
Synonymia , when employed by man, is often an unnecessary and vain repetition of
empty words; but, when used by the Holy Spirit, it causes the mind to look again and
again at the subject. Man may use it to expose his unhappy vanity: but God uses it to
emphasize His wisdom, power, or purpose, when words of similar meaning are heaped
together to attract the attention, and impress the mind.

We have not, except in a few important instances, attempted to define the various
Synonyms employed. This is a work by itself, and will well repay the most patient and
careful study.

Ex. 1:7 . —“And the children of Israel were fruitful , and increased , and multiplied .”

Here, we are impressed with the extraordinary great and rapid increase of Israel in
Egypt, on which the Divine Comment in Ps. 105:24 is, “He increased His People
exceedingly.” See also Gen. 46:3 ; Deut. 26:5 ; Acts 7:17 .

The figure of Polysyndeton ( q.v. ) is combined, here, with Synonymia .

Ex. 2:23–25 . —“And the children of Israel sighed by reason of the bondage, and they
cried , and their cry came up unto God by reason of the bondage.”

Here the distress of the People is emphasized; as in the next verses the faithfulness of
God to His covenant is impressed upon us:

“ And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant

with Abraham,

with Isaac, and

with Jacob:

and God looked upon the children of Israel,

and God had respect unto them.”

Here we have Anaphora ( q.v. ), in the repetition of the word “with”: Polysyndeton (
q.v. ), in the repetition of the word “with,” combined with Synonymia , and all this in
order to emphasize this remarkable crisis and turning-point of Israel’s history.

Ex. 12:2 . —“This month shall be unto you the beginning of months : it shall be the first
month of the year to you.”

Thus the important fact of the change of the beginning of the year is emphasized. It
was no ordinary event; and it is thus impressed upon the People.
Ex. 15:16 . —“ Fear and dread shall fall upon them.”

Ex. 34:6 , 7 . —The import of the name “Jehovah” is revealed by a nine-fold

synonymous description, which may be thus exhibited:

“Jehovah passed by before him (Moses) and proclaimed Jehovah, Jehovah, El

merciful ,

and gracious ,


and abundant in goodness

and truth ,

keeping mercy for thousands,

forgiving iniquity ,

and transgression ,

and sin .”

Deut. 13:4 . —“Ye shall walk after the LORD your God , and fear him,
and keep his commandments,
and obey his voice;
and ye shall serve him,
and cleave unto him.”

Here the synonyms are heaped together in order to emphasize the steadfastness with
which the people were to follow Jehovah, and to impress them with the perfection
demanded by the Law.

With this is combined Polysyndeton ( q.v. ).

Deut. 20:3 . —“Hear, O Israel, ye approach this day unto battle against your enemies: let
not your hearts faint ,

fear not , and

do not tremble ,

neither be ye terrified
because of them.”

Ps. 5:1 , 2 ( 2 , 3 ). —

“ Give ear to my words, O LORD ,

Consider my meditation;

Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my King and my God.”

So David’s words and meditation and cry and prayer and voice are thus emphasized.

Ps. 6:8 , 9 ( 9 , 10 ). —

“The LORD hath heard the voice of my weeping,

The LORD hath heard my supplication,

The LORD will receive my prayer.”

Here we have Anaphora ( q.v. ) and Synonymia in David’s prayer, as well as in

Jehovah’s hearkening thereto, in order to emphasize the great truth conveyed in these two

Ps. 7:14 , ( 15 ). —

“Behold he travaileth with iniquity ,

and hath conceived mischief ,

and brought forth falsehood. ”

Here we have a double series of synonyms: in the nouns, as well as the verbs.

Ps. 7:15 ( 16 ). —

“He made a pit and digged it,

And he is fallen into the ditch which he made .”

Ps. 8:4 ( 5 ). —

“What is man that thou art mindful of him?

And the son Of man that thou visitest him?

Ps. 10:17 . —
“ LORD , thou hast heard the desire of the humble:

Thou wilt prepare their heart,

Thou wilt cause Thine ear to hear .”

Here Synonymia is enforced in the last line by Polyptoton ( q.v. ).

Ps. 29:1 , 2 . —

“Give the LORD , O ye sons of GOD ( i.e. , Angels; A.V. , “mighty”)

Give the LORD glory and strength .

Give the LORD the glory due unto His name;

Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness.”

Ps. 32:1 , 2 . —

“Blessed is he whose trangression is forgiven,

Whose sin is covered.

Blessed is the man unto whom the LORD imputeth not iniquity .”

These three synonyms must be understood, in order to receive the blessing which the
figure here announces.

(1) Trangression is ( pesha ), from the root, to break, to break with; hence, to
break covenant with, revolt, rebel (see 1 Kings 12:19 ; 2 Kings 8:20 ). When Jehovah
says ( Isa. 43:27 ): “Thy teachers have transgressed.” He means they have revolted from
Him. So with Isa. 1:2 .

(2) Sin is ( chattath ), a missing, not hitting the mark ( Judges 20:16 ); also of
the feet, to miss the step or footing; and hence, stumble; then, to err, go astray, trespass .
Every departure from God is, therefore, a missing of the mark, and trespass against Him.

(3) Iniquity is ( aven ), a bending or curving; then, of actions, acting crookedly

or perversely . It is generally rendered perverseness . See Isa. 53:5 (where it is rendered
iniquities ), 6 , 11 ; Jer. 33:8 .

The first of these three words refers specially to thought , the second to deed , and the
third to word .
The first is “forgiven”: i.e. , taken up and carried away ( Gen. 27:3 ( take ); Isa. 53:4 (
borne ), 12 ( bare ).

The second is “covered” by atonement.

The third is “not imputed”: i.e. , not reckoned or counted. Gen. 50:20 : “Ye thought
(or meant ) evil against me; but God meant it for good. (Here, we have the same word

“Oh! the blessednessess!

Rebellion forgiven;

Errings atoned for;

Perverseness not imputed (or remembered).”

Compare Ps. 103:14 and. Isa. 43:25 , where our infirmities which man will not
remember or make allowance for, God remembers, but our sins and iniquities which man
always remembers, God will remember no more for ever.

Ps. 89:30 , 31 ( 31 , 32 ). —

“If his children forsake my law,

And walk not in my judgments;

If they break my statutes,

And keep not my commandments.”

Here the Synonymia is alternated (positive and negative); together with alternated
Anaphora .

Prov. 4:14 , 15 . —Here, the synonyms are heaped together to emphasize the necessity,
of avoiding all evil and evil persons.

“ Enter not into the path of the wicked,

And go not in the way of evil men;

Avoid it,

Pass not by it,

Turn from it,

And pass away .”

Isa. 1:4 . —Here, four synonymous descriptions are used to give some estimate of
Israel’s condition. See under Anabasis and Eiphonesis .

Isa. 2:11–17 . —We have already seen under the figure of Polysyndeton ( q.v. ), how this
passage is emphasised both by that figure and by its structure.

We have now to note the bearing of another figure upon it: viz. , Synonymia . But the
use of this figure, the Synonyms are heaped together in order still further to attract our
attention; and to impress as with the importance and emphasis, which the Holy Spirit
would have us give to this Scripture; in which “the Day of the LORD ” is first mentioned,
and in which the essence of its meaning and character is given.

There are two classes of words—a kind of double Synonymia —going on at the same
time: one marking the pride of man and the true exaltation of the LORD , which shall
mark that Day, and the other the abasement of man which shall then take place.

Verse 11 . The lofty ( , gavah ) looks of man shall be humbled ( ,

shaphel ),

And the haughtiness ( , rum ) of men shall be bowed down ( ,

shachach ),

And the LORD alone shall be exalted ( , sagav ) in that day.

Verse 12 . For the Day of the LORD of hosts shall be upon every one that is proud
( , gaach ) and lofty ( , rum ),

And upon every one (or thing) that is lifted up ( , nahsah );

And he shall be brought low ( , shaphel ):

Verse 13 . And upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high ( rum ) and
lifted up ( , nasa ),

And upon all the oaks of Bashan,

Verse 14 . And upon all the high ( , rum ) mountains,

And upon all the hills that are lifted up ( nasa ),

Verse 15 . And upon every high ( , gavah ) tower,

And upon every fenced wall,

Verse 16 . And upon all the ships of Tarshish,

And upon all pleasant pictures.

Verse 17 . And the loftiness ( , navah ) of man shall be bowed down ( ,

shachah ),

And the haughtiness ( , rum ) of men shall be made low ( , shaphel


And the LORD alone shall be exalted ( , sagav ) in that day.”

Here we have five words for high repeated fourteen times; and two words for low
repeated five times.

The five: —

( gavah ). Three times: lofty, verse 11 ; high, verse 15 ; loftiness, verse 17 (in
R.V. , verses 11 and 15 , lofty; in verse 17 , loftiness),

( rum ). Five times: haughtiness, verses 11 , 17 ; lofty, verse 12 ( R.V. ,

haughty); high, verses 13 , 14 ( R.V. , high).

( sagav ). Twice: exalted, verses 11 , 17 (so R.V. ).

( gaah ). Once: proud, verse 12 (so R.V. ).

( nasa ). Three times: lifted up, verses 12 , 13 , 14 (so R.V. ).

The two: —

( shaphel ). Three times: humbled, verse 11 ; brought low, verse 12 ; made

low, verse 17 ( R.V. , brought low).

( shachach ). Twice: bowed down, verses 11 , 17 (so R.V. ).

These two words occur also in verse 9 .

It will be seen that the A.V. has quite destroyed the figure by its variety of rendering.
The R.V. has evidently aimed at more uniformity, and has preserved one English word
for each Hebrew word, except in two cases, where in verses 13 and 14 they have rendered
( rum ), high , and in 11 , 17 , haughtiness , and 12 , haughty . “Haughty” could
hardly be used of trees and mountains, but “high” could have been used of men, and thus
have made the translation uniform.

This is the first occurrence of the expression “the day of the LORD ,” and hence its
definition is thus given and thus emphasized by the figure of Synonymia .

The structure of the definition lends weight and solemnity to the description:
A 11 . Definition of the Day. “Man” and “Men” brought low, and God alone

B 12 . Persons (every one).

B 13–16 . Things (every thing).

A 17 . Definition of the Day. “Man” and “Men” brought low, and God alone

The order of the words too in A and A is remarkable. In connection with the loftiness
of man they are arranged alternately.

verse 11 .
A a ( gavah ),

b ( rum ),

verse 17 .
A a ( gavah ),

b ( rum ),

While in the humbling of man they are arranged in an Epanodos ( q.v. )

verse 11 .
A c ( shaphel ),

d ( shachach ),

verse 17 .
A d ( shachach ),

c ( shaphel ),
Isa. 52:13 . —“Behold my servant … shall be exalted , and extolled , and be very high

Thus the future exaltation of the Messiah is emphasized.

Jer. 13:17 . —“But if ye will not hear it, my soul shall weep in secret places for your
pride; and mine eye shall weep sore , and run down with tears , because the LORD’S
flock is carried away captive.”

This sorrow of the prophet thus emphasized was seen in greater solemnity when the
Saviour in later days wept over Jerusalem ( Luke 19:41 ).

Jer. 48:29 . —“We have heard the pride of Moab,

(he is exceeding proud ),

his loftiness ,

and his arrogancy ,

and his pride ,

and the haughtiness of his heart.”

Here is a six-fold Synonymia combined with Parenthesis ( q.v. ) and Polysyndeton .

And all to exhibit the terrible pride of Moab which was to be punished. Compare Isa.
16:6 .

Nah. 2:11 , 12 ( 12 , 13 ). —

“Where is the dwelling of the lions ,

And the feeding place of the young lions ,

Where the lion , even the old lion , walked, and the lion’s whelp ,

And none made them afraid?

The lion did tear them in pieces enough for his whelps ,

And strangled for his lionesses ,” etc.

Zeph. 1:15 . —“That day is

a day of wrath ,

a day of trouble
and distress ,

a day of wasteness

and desolation ,

a day of darkness ,

and gloominess ,

a day of clouds

and thick darkness .”

Here these Synonyms are heaped up to impress the wicked with the terrors of “that
day.” This is further heightened by being combined with the figures: Epizeuxis ( q.v. ),
verse 14 , Mesarchia ( q.v. ), Mesadiplosis ( q.v. ), Paronomasia ( q.v. ), and Asyndeton (
q.v. ).

Zeph. 2:9 . —Moab and Ammon shall be as Sodom and Gomorrah,

“even the breeding of nettles ,

and saltpits ,

and a perpetual desolation .”

Mark 12:30 . —“And thou shalt love the Lord thy God

with all thy heart ,

and with all thy soul ,

and with all thy mind ,

and with all thy strength .”

Thus is the first and great commandment emphasized by the combined figures of
Homœoteleuton ( q.v. ), Polysyndeton ( q.v. ), and Synonymia , in order to convict us of
the impossibility of keeping this law and to bring us to the feet of Christ, who alone could
keep it: that so we might be impressed with a sense of our own impotence, and cause us
thankfully to cast ourselves on His omnipotence (see Luke 10:27 ).

Luke 10:27 . —See Mark 12:30 .

Acts 2:23 . —“ Counsel and foreknowledge, Crucified and slain .”

Rom. 2:4 . —“Or despisest thou the riches of His

goodness ,

and forbearance ,

and longsuffering ?”

Here Polysyndeton ( q.v. ) is combined with Synonymia .

Rom. 2:7 . —“To them who by patient continuation in well-doing seek for

glory ,

and honour ,

and immortality ,

[ He will give ] eternal life .”

See under Ellipsis .

Rom. 2:8 , 9 . —“But unto them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey
unrighteousness, [ will be rendered ]

indignation and

wrath ,

tribulation , and

anguish .”

See under Ellipsis .

Rom. 2:10 . —“But glory, honour , and peace [ will be rendered ] to every man that
worketh good, etc.”

See under Ellipsis .

Rom. 2:18 , 19 , 20 . —In these verses the synonyms are heaped together to describe the
Jew who causes the Name of God to be blasphemed among the Gentiles (verse 24 ).

Rom. 6:6 . —“Knowing this that our old man is (was) crucified with him (Christ), that
the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin .”
Here all three terms refer, by the figure of Synonymia , to different aspects of the
same thing:

The “old man” expresses the origin in Adam.

By reason of its powers and operations it is called “the body of sin,” or sinful body.

And, lastly, its very nature and character is expressed by the name of “sin.”

Rom. 9:33 . —“ Stumbling-stone and rock of offence .”

Rom. 10:15 . —“ Gospel of peace, and … glad tidings of good things.”

1 Cor. 14:21 . —“With men of other tongues and other lips , etc.”

Gal. 1:12 . —“For I neither received it of man, neither was I taught it, but by the
revelation of Jesus Christ.”

Thus is emphasized the special commission which Paul received direct from God; and
thus is it distinguished from that commission which had been given to the Twelve.

Gal. 5:19–21 . —The works of the flesh are emphasized by sixteen synonyms, and by the
figure of Asyndeton ( q.v. ).

Eph. 1:20 , 21 . —To describe the exaltation of Christ we are told how He has been set
“Far above all

principality ,

and power ,

and might ,

and dominion ,

and every name that is named,” etc.

Eph. 5:19 . —Here the three synonyms, “ Psalms , and hymns , and spiritual songs , ”
are used to emphasize the true inward and spiritual occupation of the heart with Christ,
which is at once the result of being “filled with the Spirit” (verse 18 ), and the test or the
measure of being so filled.

It may be well to define these synonyms: ( psalmos ) means a touching , then

a touching of an instrument with a “plectrum.” ( psall ), the verb, means to
sweep the strings . So that the noun was used first of the instrument, and then of the song
accompanied by it. It is used seven times in the New Testament, and four times of the
Book of Psalms ( Luke 20:42 ; 24:44 . Acts 1:20 ; 13:33 ), and three times of psalms
generally ( 1 Cor. 14:26 . Eph. 5:19 . Col. 3:16 ). This points to the conclusion that the
psalms referred to here are the inspired Psalms of the Old Testament.

( hymnos ), whence our word “hymn,” which was originally a heathen word
used of a song in praise of a god or hero after death. The word was so steeped in profane
and idolatrous associations that the early Christians hesitated to use it, and it was not till
the fourth century that it came to be generally adopted. But then it was studiously
confined to a direct address of praise and glory to the true and living God; whereas the
Psalm might commemorate the mercies and blessings He bestowed. It occurs only here
( hymne ) occurs four times ( Matt. 26:30 . Mark 14:26
. Acts 16:25 , and Heb. 2:12 ). The latter two passages fully confirm the limited use of the
word: “And sang praises unto God” ( Acts 16:25 ). “Will I sing praise unto Thee” ( Heb.
2:12 ), while the former two would refer to the Old Testament Psalms always sung at the

( dee ), whence our word “ode,” occurs seven times, * five in the Apocalypse,
and two in the Epistles ( Eph. 5:19 , and Col. 3:16 ), where it is specially combined with
( pneumatikee ) spiritual , implying very strongly that they were composed
by spiritual persons, and had to do only with the things pertaining to the Spirit of God.
The heathen used it of any kind of song: harvest, festal, wedding, or battle, etc. Hence the
limitation suggested by the word “ spiritual , ” as distinct from these.

Although the first word, psalmos , implies musical instruments, it was only in Old
Testament worship that these were used: not in the New Testament, nor in the Primitive
Church. Basil, Ambrose, and Chrysostom all speak in panegyrics on music, but do not
mention instrumental music. Indeed, Clement of Alexandria, forbade the use of the flute
in the Agape , though he permitted the harp. Basil condemns it, and Justin Martyr
expressly says that it was not used in the Christian Church.

There is no gift of God which fallen man has not misused, and indeed diverted , or
rather per verted from its original design. The great enemy uses it for the destruction of
spiritual worship, under the guise of aiding it; and few discern the meshes of his
marvellously clever snare. †

Music and singing are clearly defined in these two passages Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16 .
The three verbs are “speaking,” “teaching,” and “admonishing.” This is to be done “to
yourselves,” “in you,” “in your hear , heautous
), not “one another” (see R.V. margin). The great requirement for this is “the Spirit” and
“all wisdom” and “grace.”

( ad ) occurs five times ( Eph. 5:19 . Col. 3:16 . Rev. 5:9 ; 14:3 ; 15:3 ).
† See Intoned Prayers and Musical Services , by the same author and publisher. One
The words “be filled with the Spirit * ” are usually quoted as though they were
followed by a full stop, and formed a complete sentence. This is not the case. How is any
one to know whether he is filled with the Spirit? The answer is given:—

“The word of Christ” will dwell in him richly: i.e. , the word spoken by Christ and the
word relating to Christ: the word which has Christ for its object and Christ for its subject,
, en ) the Spirit.

This indwelling of Christ will be the evidence of the Holy Spirit’s presence and
operation. For the Spirit and the Word can never be separated. He gives it; and He uses it,
and operates through it. It is His work to take of the things of Christ and show them unto
us, and thus to “glorify” Christ; never calling our attention to His work in us, but to
Christ’s work for us.

When this word thus dwells in us, we shall be full of its wondrous Psalms; we shall
be speaking in ourselves to God, by our hymns: and our songs will be spiritual, because
they will be sung in our hearts. There will be the melody which ascends and reaches up
to the Presence of God: because it will be a “singing by grace and with grace unto God.”

This occupation of the heart with Christ and His Word will be the measure in which
we are filled with the Spirit ( i.e. , with spiritual gifts).

It will be the singing of the “heart,” and not of the throat: and it will be “to the praise
and glory of God” (as it used to be) and not to the praise and glory of the choir or of the
performers. The heart which is indwelt by the Spirit, can sing to God. It will need no
“soloist” to do it by proxy. For we are not commanded to listen to the singing of another
or others, however exquisite it may be, but to sing ourselves as worshippers. This singing
requires no “ear for music,” but it needs a “heart” for Christ. For this music comes from
God and returns to God.

In the Word of God, prayer is always spoken, and never sung:—

“Moses besought the Lord, saying ” ( Deut. 3:23 ; Ex. 32:11 , etc.).

“Manoah intreated the LORD ), and said ” ( Judges 13:8 ).

“Hannah prayed, and said ” ( 1 Sam. 2:1 ).

“Elisha prayed, and said ” ( 2 Kings 6:17 ).

“Daniel prayed, and made confession, and said ” ( Dan. 9:4 , 20 ).

* It will be seen, under the Figure of Metonymy , that the word “Spirit” here (as in several
other passages) is put for the gifts of the Spirit .
Indeed prayer is contrasted with praise, for “Solomon spread forth his hands towards
heaven, and said ” ( 1 Kings 8:22 , 23 , 54 ). But when it is a question of praise then we
read that it was made with music and singing. ( 2 Chron. 5:12 , 13 ).

In the upper room the Lord and His apostles “ sang a hymn” ( Matt. 26:30 ); but when
in Gethsemane “He fell on his face and prayed, saying ” (verse 39 ).

In Jas. 5:13 they are again set in contrast: “Is any among you afflicted? let him pray .
Is any merry? let him sing psalms .”

This universal testimony of Scripture settles for us the question as to the distinction
between prayer embodied in hymns and prayer sung instead of said. That testimony of
Scripture is dead against the singing of prayers in any form or manner. It draws no
distinction between intoning prayers and singing them. Intoning is singing, and nothing
else: it is merely singing on one note instead of many. It is art and artificial; it is
unnatural and unreal—neither pleasing to God nor edifying for man.

Public worship is that in which the Word of God should be read , prayers prayed ,
and praise sung . God’s Word we read, not as our own, but as His, for our instruction. In
prayer and praise we say and sing our own words, as our own . It is therefore no
argument to urge that the Psalms were sung and they contain prayers. For

(1) We do not admit the first premises. Too little is known to justify the assertion that
all the Psalms were sung. Some were, undoubtedly; and these may be sung by us to-day,
if we can adopt the words as our own; but not otherwise.

(2) We cannot adopt the words of all the Psalms as our own, but only so far as they
are in harmony with the New Testament teaching as to our standing in Christ. The
language of those which were under the Old Covenant of Works cannot be adopted as the
language of those who are under the New Covenant of Grace.

We may read them as we read the other Scriptures for our instruction, but we might
just as well sing the Lessons as sing some of the Psalms.

Again we repeat, therefore, the other New Testament Rubrick—“Is any afflicted? let
him pray. Is any merry? let him sing Psalms” ( Jas. 5:13 ); and we conclude that prayer is
to be said, and praise is to be sung. Praise may even be said ; for three times are songs
said to be spoken . The Song of Moses ( Deut. 31:30 ); the Song of Deborah ( Judges 5:12
); and the Song of David ( 2 Sam. 22:1 ; Ps. 18 Title). But, while praise may be spoken,
prayer is never said to be sung.

Instead, therefore, of flying in the face of the universal testimony of Scripture, simply
because prayer is embodied by human poets in our hymns, we ought rather to question
whether the prayer in hymns should not be said , and only our hymns of praise sung. But
habits once formed are too strong for us to entertain the hope of making so radical a
reformation; though it would be better, if not easier, to alter a wrong habit than to alter
the testimony of the Word of God.

Phil. 4:9 . —“Those things which ye have both learned ,

and received ,

and heard ,

and seen in me, do.”

Col. 1:16 . —“For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in
earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones , or dominions , or principalities ,
or powers: all things were created by him, and for him.”

Here we are impressed with the wonders of the invisible world, of which so little is

Col. 3:16 . —See Eph. 5:19 .

1 Tim. 1:2 . —“ Grace, mercy , and peace .”

So also in the other two so-called “Pastoral Epistles,” 2 Tim. 1:2 , and Tit. 2:4 .

In all the other epistles it is only “grace,” or “grace and peace.” In these three epistles
“mercy” is added: as though to imply that with the many responsibilities of the pastoral
office, God’s “mercy” would be specially needed by those who exercised pastoral duties
in the Church of God.

1 Tim. 3:15 . —“That thou mayest know how thou oughtest ( R.V. , how men ought) to
behave thyself [or what conduct is incumbent on us] in

the house of God ,

which is the Church of the living God ,

the pillar and ground of the truth.”

What this is is shown in the next verse, viz. , the “great secret” concerning Christ
Mystical and not Christ Personal. *

See The Mystery , by the same author and publisher.

See also under Hendiadys .

This great Mystery is the Body of Christ, the House in which God dwells by His
Spirit; the assembly of the saints peculiarly belonging to the living God, as purchased
with the blood of the everlasting covenant; and this is the pillar and ground—the great
foundation pillar of the truth, so specially revealed to Paul to make known among the

2 Tim. 1:2 . —See 1 Tim. 1:2 .

2 Tim. 3:14 , 15 . —“But continue thou in the things which thou

hast learned and
hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou
hast learned them. And that from a child thou
hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise, etc.”

Here the importance of personal knowledge and study of the word of God is enforced:
not a mere acquaintance with the letter, but an assurance of the truth.

Tit. 1:4 . —See 1 Tim. 1:2 .


Repeated Negation; or, Many Noes

The Repetition of divers Negatives

THIS seems to deserve a place by itself, though the Greeks did not classify it, or name it.
They used it, however, and this is the all-important point.

It is a special form of Synonymia , the synonyms being negatives of different kinds

heaped together for a special purpose.

Negatives are repeated even in English to strengthen and increase the emphasis: just
as we say “No, no,” “No, I will not.” But in the Greek this is done much more
emphatically. Two or more negatives are used to strengthen the assertion.

These negatives are ou ) and ( mee ), which both equally mean no or not .

As we are now considering their combined use we need not too closely define their
separate use. Otherwise we might enlarge on the fact that the one, ou ), denies
absolutely what is a matter of fact, and negatives an affirmation: the other ( mee )
denies hypothetically what is implied, and negatives a supposition.

This difference may be seen in such passages as 1 Cor. 2:14 (

we have (both times) in the second.
Matt. 22:29 . —“Ye do err not ( , mee ), knowing the Scriptures.” Here the ( mee )
denies subjectively , not absolutely, implying that though they did actually know the
letter, they did not wish to know their truth.

When however they and their compounds, ( oude mee ), and (

oude ou mee ), are used together, this difference is sunk, and the combination produces a
most solemn and emphatic asseveration.

Indeed, so strong is it, that whenever man used it the result always belied it . See:—

Matt. 16:22 : where Peter says “This shall not be unto thee.” But it was .

John 13:8 : Peter says again, “Thou shalt never wash my feet.” But Christ did .

Matt. 26:35 : where Peter affirms “I will not deny thee.” But he did .

John 20:25 : Thomas says, “Except I shall see, etc., I will not believe.” But he did .

On the other hand, our Lord often used this figure: and, whenever He did so, He
always made it good:—

Matt. 5:18 . —“Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle * shall in no wise pass
from the law, etc.” Here we have the certainty of Divine Truth.

Matt. 5:20 . —“Except your righteousness shall exceed the righteousness of the scribes
and Pharisees, ye shall in no case enter into the kingdom of heaven.” Here we have the
absolute necessity of Divine righteousness.

Matt. 5:26 . —“Thou shalt by no means come out thence till thou hast paid the uttermost
farthing.” Here we have the inflexibility of Divine justice.

Matt. 13:14 . —As in Acts 28:26 , we have here the solemn announcement concerning
Israel’s judicial blindness, emphasising and strengthening its certainty.

Matt. 16:28 . —The certainty of His promise as to the manifestation of His coming glory
(see 17:1–5 , and 2 Pet. 1:16–18 ).

Matt. 18:3 . —The absolute necessity of conversion.

* This is a little ornament something like a fleur-de-lis over certain letters. The Hebrew
name for this is Taag , or little crown (plural Taagim ). The Greek is ( keraia ), a
little horn , which is exactly what the Taag is. See The Massorah , by the same author
and publisher, One Shilling. The jot or yod is the smallest letter of the alphabet. For full
information on this subject see Dr. Ginsburg’s Introduction to the Hebrew Bible ,
published by the Trinitarian Bible Society.
Matt. 23:39 . —The certainty of His words concerning the conditions as to His return.

Matt. 24:2 . —Completeness of the overthrow and dismemberment of the Temple.

Matt. 24:21 . —The greatness of the tribulation.

Matt. 24:34 . —The fact that when once these things begin to come to pass ( , not
, compare Luke 21:24 and 32 ), that generation which sees the abomination of
desolation set up (verse 15 ) shall see “all these things” come to pass.

Matt. 24:35 . —The inviolability of Christ’s words.

Matt. 26:29 .—The certitude of Christ’s pledge ( Mark 14:25 . Luke 22:18 ).

Luke 6:37 .—The certainty of divers promises. So Luke 10:19 .

Luke 18:7 .—The speediness of the Divine avenging.

Luke 18:30 .—The certainty of the future recompense.

Luke 21:18 .—The perfectness of Divine protection.

Luke 22:67 , 68 .—The accuracy of the Lord’s foreknowledge.

John 4:14 .—The satisfying power of the Divine gifts.

John 4:48 .—The obstinacy of unbelief.

John 6:35 .—The satisfying power of “the bread of life.”

John 8:12 .—The perfection of the Divine light.

John 8:51 , 52 .—Eternal security for the keepers of Christ’s sayings.

John 10:5 .—The miraculous power of His sheep’s spiritual instinct.

John 10:28 .—The Divine preservation of Christ’s sheep.

John 11:26 .—The certainty of being “changed in a moment” for those who are “alive
and remain” till His coming.

Once this repeated negation was used by an angel—Gabriel, in Luke 1:15 , of John
the Baptist, that “he shall neither drink wine nor strong drink.” And this was perfectly
fulfilled ( Matt. 11:18 ).
But there is one more use of the figure by Christ, so blessed and so important that we
have reserved it to the last:—

John 6:37 .—“All ( pan ho , everything ) that the Father giveth me shall
, heexei , will reach ) me; and him that cometh ( , ton
erchomenon , he who is on his way to ) to me I will in no wise cast out.”

The repeated “not” in the Greek is thus beautifully rendered, and George Keith
effectively sums it up in his hymn on Heb. 13:5 : “I will never leave thee nor forsake
thee,” where we have the in both clauses:—

“The soul that on Jesus has fled for repose,

He cannot, He will not desert to his foes;

That soul, though all hell should endeavour to shake,

He’ll never, no never, no never forsake.”



Cycloides; or, Circular Repetition

The Repetition of the same Phrase at regular Intervals

Cy-clo-id´-es means having the form of a circle; from ( kuklos ). a circle, and
( eidos ), form .

The figure is so called because the sentence or phrase is repeated at intervals, as

though in regular circles.

When this repetition occurs at the end of successive passages, as in poetry, in the
form of a Refrain or Burden , it is called AMŒBÆON ( q.v. ). But when it occurs at the
beginning or middle or any other part of the passage it is called Cycloides .

2 Sam. 1:19 , 25 , 27 . —Where we have the burden of the lamentation three times,
“How are the mighty fallen.”

Ps. 42:5 , 11 ( 6 , 12 ) and 43:5 . —We have the three-fold emphasis on the great
question: “Why art thou cast down, O my soul? and the blessed answer, “Hope thou in

Ps. 46:7 , 11 . —Here, the phrase occurs twice, “The LORD of hosts is with us: the God of
Jacob is our refuge.”
Ps. 56:4 , 10 ( 5 , 11 ). —Where we have the sentence repeated, to emphasize the fact that
when our enemies seem mightiest, we can say, “In God will I praise His word.”

Ps. 80:3 , 7 , 19 ( 4 , 8 , 20 ). —Three times we have the prayer: “Turn us again, O God,
and cause thy face to shine, and we shall be saved.”

Jer. 3:12 , 22 . —Where we have the twice repeated command to the backsliding People
to “return.”

Ezek. 32:20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 25 , 26 , 28 , 29 , 30 , 31 , 32 , —Twelve times we have

the expression repeated “ Slain with the sword , ” at intervals, irregularly, but twelve
times to denote the judgment as being executed by Divine government . *


Amœbæon; or, Refrain

The Repetition of the same Phrase at the End of successive Paragraphs

Am-œ-bæ´-on ( amoibee ), change, alteration (from

( ameibein ), to change . It is used of the repetition of the same phrase or
sentence, where it occurs in poetry at the end of successive periods.

Cycloides may occur at the beginning, or middle, or any part of the circle, but
Amœbæon only at the end.

This burden, therefore, thus emphasized is the main point for us to notice in what is
being said.

Ps. 118:1 , 2 , 3 , 4 . —Where, we have the refrain “For His mercy endureth for ever.”
(See under Symploce) .

Ps. 136 —Where at the end of every verse, we have the refrain, “For His mercy endureth
for ever.”

Isa. 9:12 , 17 , 21 and 10:4 . —Where we have the four-fold burden, to emphasize the
solemn warning, “For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out

Amos. 4:6 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 . —Here we have the solemn refrain five times repeated “Yet
have ye not returned unto me saith the LORD .”

Matt. 6:2 , 5 , 16 . —Where we have the thrice repeated lesson, “Verily … they have
their reward.” See under Idiom .

* See Number in Scripture , by the same author and publisher.

Luke 13:3 and 5 . —Where, twice, we have the solemn words, “I tell you, Nay; but
except ye repent ye shall all likewise perish.”

John 6:39 , 40 , 44 , 54 . —Four times we have the glorious fact repeated for our
assurance, I will raise him up at the last day.”

This, of course, is the Resurrection which was the subject of Old Test ment prophecy,
and the one referred to in Rev. 20 (the first or former of the two there named). But not the
one which was the subject of a special revelation to the Church of God in 1 Thess. 4:16 .

Rev. 2:7 , 11 , 17 , 29 ; 3:6 , 13 , 22 . —Seven times, at the end of each of these Epistles
is the solemn burden repeated “ He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith
unto the Churches. ”

These words are in the figure called Polyptoton ( q.v. ,) but this seven-fold repetition,
is the figure of Amœbæon . See under Polyptoton for the significance of this phrase, as
here used. *

Rev. 18:21 , 22 , 23 . —Here, the figure Epistrophe in the repetition of the words “no
more at all” becomes the figure Amœbæon in that the words are a solemn burden or
refrain in announcing the judgment on Babylon.


Cœnotes; or, Combined Repetition

The Repetition of two different Phrases: one at the Beginning and the Other at the End of
successive Paragraphs

Cee´-no-tees . Greek, ( koinotees ), sharing in common . The figure is so called

when two separate phrases are repeated, one at the beginning and the other at the end of
successive sentences or paragraphs.

When only words are thus repeated, the figure is called Symploce ( q.v. ), which is
repeated Epanadiplosis .

It is a combination of Anaphora and Epistrophe; but, affecting phrases rather than

single words.

The Latins sometimes called this figure (as well as Symploce ) COMPLEXIO ,
combination .

* Also the series of articles in Things to Come , commencing September, 1898.

Ps. 118:2 , 3 , 4 . —This is clearer in the Hebrew, where the three verses begin
successively with the words, “ Let say , ” and end With the words, “ for his mercy
endureth for ever. ”

Ps. 118:8 , 9 . —

“It is better to trust in the LORD

than to put confidence in man:

It is better to trust in the LORD

than to put confidence in princes.”

See also verses 15 , 16 .—

“The right hand of the LORD doeth valiantly,

The right hand of the LORD is exalted:

The right hand of the LORD doeth valiantly.”

In verses 10–12 there are three figures combined: There is Anaphora , in the
repetition of “They compassed me” at the beginning of several clauses; Epistrophe , in
the repetition of “ In the name of the LORD I will destroy them ” at the end; and in
verse 11 we have Epizeuxis in “they compassed me” being repeated in immediate

Ps. 136:1 , 2 , 3 . —Where the three successive verses begin with the words, “ O, give
thanks , ” and end with the words “ for his mercy endureth for ever. ”


Epibole; or, Overlaid Repetition

The Repetition of the same Phrase at irregular Intervals

E-pi´-bo-lee ( epiballein ), to cast upon . The figure is so named,

because the same sentence or phrase is cast upon or laid upon (like layers or courses of
bricks) several successive paragraphs.

It thus differs from Anaphora ( q.v. ) in that it consists of the repetition of several
words, whereas in Anaphora only one word is repeated.
Ex. 16:35 . —“And the children of Israel did eat manna forty years, until they came to a
land inhabited; they did eat manna , until they came unto the borders of the land of

Num. 9:18 . —“ At the commandment of the LORD the children of Israel journeyed,
and at the commandment of the LORD they pitched.”

Judges 5:27 . —

“ At her feet he bowed, he fell , he lay down:

At her feet he bowed, he fell : where he bowed, there he fell down dead.”

See under Anaphora , and Asyndeton .

Ps. 29:3 , 4 (twice), 5 , 7 , 8 , 9 . —Where seven times, we have the words, “ The voice
of the LORD , ” commencing seven successive clauses. The number of spiritual

Isa. 2:7 , 8 . —“ Their land also is full of silver and gold … Their land also is full of

Isa. 5:8 , 11 , 18 , 20 , 21 , 22 . — Six times we have paragraphs beginning “ Woe unto

them. ”

Matt. 6:19 , 20 . —We cannot forbear to quote these verses according to their structure.
A Lay not up for yourselves

B Treasures upon earth,

C Where moth and rust doth corrupt,

D And where thieves break through and steal:

A But lay up for yourselves

B Treasures in heaven,

C Where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt,

D And where thieves do not break through nor steal.

It will be seen how in each member there is the Correspondence ( q.v. ) of the same
words, or thought, by way of comparison or contrast.

Acts 20:22 and 25 . —Where two solemn statements are emphasized by commencing
“ And now, behold, I go …

And now, behold, I know.”


Synantesis; or, Introverted Repetition

The Repetition of the same Sentences or Phrases in Inverse Order

Syn-an-tee´-sis , from ( sunanta ), to meet face to face , means a meeting .

It is similar to Epanodos and Antimetabole ( q.v. ), but differs from them in that it
relates to the inverse repetition of sentences and phrases rather than of single words.

See, for examples, under Parallelism and Correspondence , below.



Parallelism; or, Parallel Lines

The Repetition of similar, synonymous, or opposite Thoughts or Words in parallel or successive

THIS form of sacred writing has been noted from the earliest times. De Rossi, * a learned
Jew of the sixteenth century, first published a mass of information on the subject in a
remarkable work, Meor Enajim ( i.e., The Light of the Eyes ). Bishop Lowth translated
chapter 60 † , which deals with the construction of lines: and Bishop Jebb in his Sacred
Literature extended the study. But none of these got beyond Parallelism as it is applied to
lines . This has universally gone under the name of, and been treated as, Poetry .

It is a form of the figure Synonymia , by which the subject of one line is repeated in
the next line in different, but so-called, synonymous terms.

Parallelism is of seven kinds: three simple and four complex:—


1. Synonymous or Gradational.

* Kitto. Bib. Cyc. III. 702 .

† Lowth’s Translation of Isaiah, Prel. Dis. p. xxviii. (15th Ed. 1857).
2. Antithetic or Opposite.

3. Synthetic or Constructive.


1. Alternate. Two lines repeated only once (four lines in all).

2. Repeated Alternation. Two lines repeated more than once.

3. Extended Alternation. Three or more lines repeated.

4. Introverted.

1. Synonymous or Gradational

This is when the lines are parallel in thought, and in the use of synonymous words.

The oldest example, and the first in the Bible, is in

Gen. 4:23 , 24 . —In these oldest human poetic lines Lamech celebrates the invention of
weapons of war: and it is significant that this should be the first subject of poetry!
Lamech’s son was “an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron,” and the injury of
others was the earliest application of the art.

Lamech is so elated with that which would give him power among men that he at
once breaks out in eulogy; and boasts that if any one injures him, he would outdo even
Jehovah in His punishment of those who should injure Cain.

There are three pairs of lines, and the synonymous words will be at once seen, as we
have exhibited them:—

“Adah and Zillah h earken to my voice ;

Ye wives of Lamech listen to my speech.

For I can slay a man , if he injures me,

And a young man , if he hurts me.

If Cain shall be avenged seven -fold,

Truly Lamech [ shall be avenged ] seventy- seven -fold.”

Luke 1:46 , 47 . —

“My soul doth magnify the Lord ,

And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour. ”

Ps. 1:1 . —“Blessed is the man

that walketh not in the counsel of the ungodly ,

nor standeth in the way of sinners ,

nor sitteth in the seat of the scornful. ”

Here, we have three series of gradation:—

Walketh, standeth, sitteth,

Counsel, way, seat.
Ungodly, sinners, scornful.

These gradations point us to the fact that there is a mine of truth contained in the
verse, on which a volume might be written.

The tenses also have their lessons for us too, for they imply “that never did walk …
stand … sit”: and so help to teach us that in this first Psalm David speaketh “concerning”:
i.e. , “with an ultimate reference to” ( , eis ), “ CHRIST ” (see Acts 2:25 ). In fact, this
first Psalm speaks of Christ as the one perfect Man; while the second speaks of Him as
the one perfect King: (“the model
( ho poimeen ho kalos ( ho kalos poimeen ): and then twice
over at least (see John 10:11 and 14 ); and so, too, is He the “model” Man and the
“model” King .

2. Antithetic, or Opposite

This is when the words are contrasted in the two or more lines, being opposed in sense
the one to the other.

Prov. 10:1 . —

“A wise son maketh a glad father ;

But a foolish son is the heaviness of his mother ”

* See under Ellipsis .

Prov. 27:6 . —

“ Faithful are the wounds of a friend ,

But deceitful are the kisses of an enemy ”

3. Synthetic, or Constructive

This is where the parallelism consists only in the similar form of construction:—

Ps. 19:7–9 . —

“The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul:

The testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.

The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart:

The commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.

The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever:

The judgments of the LORD are true, and righteous altogether”

Here, there is neither gradation nor opposition of words in the several lines; which are
independent, and depend for their parallelism on their construction.

In all the above cases the lines are simply parallel, and are chiefly in pairs.

When the parallelism appears in four or more lines, then it may be called


1. Alternate

This is when the lines are placed alternately. In this case, the first and third lines, and the
second and fourth lines, may, as a rule, be read continuously, while the intervening line is
thus placed in a parenthesis.

These alternate lines may be either synonymous or antithetic.

Gen. 19:25 . —
a “The cities (and He overthrew)

b The plain (and all the plain),

a The inhabitants of the cities ,

b The produce of the plain. ”
Deut. 32:21 . —
a “They have moved me to jealousy

b with that which is not God:

a They have provoked me to anger

b with their vanities:

c And I will move them to jealousy

d with those which are not a people:

c I will provoke them to anger

d with a foolish nation.”

Deut. 32:42 . —Here a and a are continuous, and likewise b and b . They must be so
read, thus dispensing with the italics. The line b we give from the R.V.
a “I will make mine arrows drunk with blood ,

b and my sword shall devour much flesh;

a with the blood of the slain and of the captives,

b from the head of the leaders of the enemy.”

Here a and a relate to the arrows, while b and b refer to the sword.

1 Chron. 21:22 . —
a Request. “ Grant me the place of this threshingfloor.”

b Design. “ That I may build an altar therein unto the LORD .”

a Request. “Thou shalt grant it me for the full price.”

b Design. “ That the plague may be stayed from the people.”

Here a and a are continuous, likewise b and b . We must read on from b to b , placing
a in a parenthesis. This shows that the plague was stayed, not because David paid the full
price for the place, but because of the atoning sacrifice which he offered.

Est. 8:5 . —
a The king. “If it please the king .”

b Esther’s personal influence. “And if I have found favour.”

a The king. “And the thing seem right before the king.”

b Esther’s personal influence. “And I be pleasing in his eyes.”

Prov. 18:24 , —The parallel here is lost owing to an obscurity in the Hebrew. The
Massorah records that the word ( sh ) (which has been taken by translators as
another spelling of ( eesh ), a man ) is put three times * for ( yesh ), there is .

The R.V. avoids the italics of the A.V. which are put in to make some sort of sense
owing to the A.V. having taken from the wrong root ( , to feed ), instead
of , to break ). So that instead of meaning to make friends , it means (as in the R.V. )
to be broken in pieces . Hence, to ruin oneself .

The point and the parallel, therefore, lies in the plural “friends”: i.e. , or many friends
in contrast with the faithfulness of the one “friend”:—
a “There are “ friends

b to our own detriment:

a But there is a friend

b that sticketh closer than a brother.”

See under Paronomasia .

Prov. 24:19 , 20 . —
a “Fret not thyself because of evil men ,

b neither be thou envious at the wicked ;

a For there shall be no reward to the evil man ;

b The candle of the wicked shall be put out.”

Isa. 1:29 , 30 . —

* The other two passages are 2 Sam. 14:19 (where the sense is unaffected, “If there is any
that turn” meaning “none can turn”), and Micah 6:10 , where the reading called Sevir
which is equal in authority to the Keri , is boldly adopted into the Text by both the A.V.
and the R.V. “Are there yet the treasures of wickedness in the house of the wicked,” etc.
a “For they shall be ashamed of the oaks which ye have desired,

b And ye shall be confounded for the gardens that ye have chosen.

a For ye shall be as an oak whose leaf fadeth,

b And as a garden that hath no water.”

Isa. 9:10 . —
a “The bricks are fallen down ,

b but we will build with hewn stones:

a The sycomores are cut down ,

b But we will change them into cedars.”

Isa. 14:26 , 27 . —
a “This is the purpose that is purposed upon the whole earth:

b And this is the hand that is stretched out upon all the nations,

a For the LORD of hosts hath purposed , and who shall disannul it?

b And his hand is stretched out, and who shall turn it back?”
Isa. 17:7 , 8 . —
a “At that day shall a man look to his Maker,

b and his eyes shall have respect to the Holy One of Israel,

a And he shall not look to the altars, the work of his hands,

b neither shall respect that which his fingers have made:”

Isa. 18:6 . —
a Fowls. “They shall be left, etc.”

b Beasts. “And to the beasts, etc.”

a Fowls. “And the fowls, etc.”

b Beasts. “And all the beasts, etc.”

Isa. 31:3 . —
a “The Egyptians are men ,

b and not God :

a And their horses flesh ,

b and not spirit. ”

See under Pleonasm .

Isa. 34:6 . —Here the first and third lines are continuous, as are also the second and
fourth lines.
a “The sword of the LORD is filled with blood ,

b it is made fat with fatness,

a and with the blood of lambs and goats,

b with the fat of the kidneys of rams.”

Isa. 51:20 ( R.V. .). —Here a and a , and b and b must be read together in order to catch
the sense.
a “Thy sons have fainted,

b they lie [ i.e. , are cast down]

a at the top of all the streets,

b as an antelope in a net.”
Isa. 59:5 , 6 . —
a “They hatch cockatrice’ eggs ,

b and weave the spide’s web ;

a He that eateth of their eggs dieth …

b Their webs shall not become garments.”

Isa. 61:4 . —
a “And they shall build the old wastes,

b They shall raise up the former desolations ,

a and they shall repair the waste cities,

b The desolations of many generations.”

See also under Epanodos , Antimetabole , and Chiasmos .

2. Repeated Alternation

This is not confined to two alternate lines repeated, making four lines in all, as in the
preceding examples; but in the repetition of the two parallel subjects in several lines.

Isa. 65:21 , 22 . —
a1 “And they shall build houses,

b1 and inhabit them;

a2 And they shall plant vineyards,

b2 and eat the fruit of them.

a3 They shall not build ,

b3 and another inhabit ;

a4 They shall not plant ,

b4 and another eat. ”

Or, these may be arranged in four longer alternate lines, thus:—

a Houses (they shall build ),

b Vineyards (they shall plant ).

a Houses (they shall not build ),

b Vineyards (they shall not plant ).

Where the first two lines are positive and the last negative.

1 John 2:15 , 16 . —
a1 “If any man love the world ,

b1 the love of the Father is not in him,

a2 For all that is in the world . .

b2 is not of the Father ,

a3 but is of the world. ”

3. Extended Alternation

The Scriptures abound with other illustrations of the arrangement of alternate parallel

But these alternate lines may consist not merely of two pairs, or of four lines; or, of
repeated alternations: the alternation may be extended . That is to say, the alternation may
be extended so as to consist of three or more lines.

Judges 10:17 . —
a “Then the children of Ammon

b were gathered together,

c and encamped in Gilead.

a And the children of Israel

b assembled themselves together,

c and encamped in Mizpeh.”

Matt. 6:19 , 20 . —
a “Lay not up for yourselves treasures upon earth,

b where moth and rust doth corrupt,

c and where thieves break through and steal:

a But lay up for yourselves treasures in heaven,

b where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt,

c and where thieves do not break through nor steal.”

See under Epibole .

4. Introverted Parallelisms
This is when the parallel lines are so placed that if there be six lines, the first corresponds
with the sixth, the second with the fifth, and the third with the fourth.

When this Introversion consists only of words and of the same words, it is called
Epanodos ( q.v. ).

When Propositions are introverted, it is called Antimetabole ( q.v. ).

When Subjects are introverted, it is called Chiasmus (see under Correspondence ).

Gen. 3:19 . —
a End. “Till thou return unto the ground.”

b Origin. “For out of it was thou taken.”

b Origin. “For dust thou art.”

a End. “And unto dust shalt thou return. ”

Ex. 9:31 . —
a “And the flax

b and the barley was smitten:

b For the barley was in the ear,

a and the flax was bolled.”

Num. 15:35 , 36 . —
a “And the LORD said unto Moses ,

b The man shall be surely put to death :

c they shall stone him with stones ,

d all the congregation without the camp.

d And they brought him forth, all the congregation without the camp

c and stoned him with stones ,

b and he died ;

a as the LORD commanded Moses. ”

Deut. 32:16 . —
a “They provoked Him to jealousy

b with strange gods:

b with abominations

a provoked they Him to anger.”

This shows that when “abominations” are spoken of, idols are meant.

1 Sam. 1:2 . —
a “The name of the one was Hannah ,

b and the name of the other was Peninnah :

b And Peninnah had children,

a but Hannah had no children.”

2 Sam. 3:1 . —
a “Now there was long war between the house of Saul

b and the house of David :

b but [ the house of ] David waxed stronger and stronger,

a And the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker.”

1 Kings 16:22 . —
a “But the people that followed Omri prevailed

b against the people that followed Tibni the son of Ginath:

b So Tibni died,

a and Omri reigned.”

2 Chron. 32:7 , 8 . —
a Our resource. “There be more with us. ”

b His resource. “Than with him. ”

b His resource. “ With him is an arm of flesh.”

a Our resource. “But with us is the LORD our God.”
Ps. 76:1 . —
a “In Judah

b is God known:

b His name is great

a In Israel. ”

This shows how “the Name” of God stands, and is put for God Himself. See under
Metonomy .

Ps. 115:4–8 . —
a 4 –. The idols.

b – 4 . Their fabrication.

c 5 –. Mouth without speech (singular in Heb.).

d – 5 . Eyes without sight (plural).

e 6 –. Ears without hearing ( pl. )

f – 6 . Nose without smell ( sing. )

e 7 –. Hands without handling ( pl. )

d – 7 . Feet without walking ( pl. )

c – 7 . Throat without voice ( sing. )

b 8 –. The fabricators.

a – 8 . The idolators.
Ps. 135:15–18 . —
a The idols of the heathen.

b Their fabrication.

pl. The Plural Number.

sing. The Singular Number.
c Mouths without speech.

d Eyes without sight.

d Ears without hearing.

c Mouths without breath.

b The fabricators.

a The idolatrous heathen.

Prov. 1:26 , 27 . —
a “I also will laugh at your destruction ,

b I will mock when your fear cometh;

b When your fear cometh as desolation,

a and your destruction cometh as a whirlwind.”

Prov. 3:16 . —
a Blessings. “ Length of days. ”

b Hand. “Is in her right hand. ”

b Hand. “And in her left hand. ”

a Blessings. “ Riches and honour. ”

Isa. 5:7 . —
a “For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts

b is the house of Israel ,

b and the men of Judah

a His pleasant plant. ”

Isa. 6:10 . —
a “Make the heart of this people fat,

b and make their ears heavy,

c and shut their eyes ;

c lest they see with their eyes ,

b and hear with their ears ,

a and understand with their heart. ”

See under Polyptoton, page 299 .

Isa. 11:4 . —
a “He shall smite the oppressor,

b with the rod of his mouth ,

b and with the breath of his lips

a Shall He slay the wicked.”

The current Hebrew Text reads ( eretz ), the earth , but this is manifestly a
scribal error for ( aritz ), the oppressor . The Aleph ( ) being similar in sound with
Ayin ( ) was easily exchanged by transcribers. And the Parallelism shows beyond doubt
that this is the case here. *

Isa. 50:1 . —
a “Where is the bill of your mother’s divorcement, whom I have put away ?

b or which of my creditors is it to whom I have sold you?

b Behold, for your iniquities have ye sold yourselves,

a And for your transgressions is your mother put away. ”

Isa. 51:8 , 9 . —
a “For my thoughts are not your thoughts ,

b Neither are your ways my ways , saith the LORD ,

b For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so aremy ways higher than your
ways ,

a and my thoughts than your thoughts. ”

* This is from the MS. notes for the second edition of Dr. Ginsburg’s Hebrew Bible.
Here the whole paragraph is introverted. In a and a we have “thoughts,” in b and b we
have “ways.” But the pronouns in a and a are alternate as to the “thoughts”:—
c My thoughts.

d Your thoughts.

c My thoughts.

d Your thoughts.

While they are introverted in b and b as to the “ways”:—

e Your ways.

f My ways.

f My ways.

e Your ways.

Further we may note that a and b are negative; and b and a are positive.

Isa. 60:1–3 . —
a “ Arise ,

b Shine; for thy light is come,

c and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee.

d For behold darkness shall cover the earth,

d and gross darkness the people:

c but the LORD shall arise upon thee and His glory shall be seen upon

b And the Gentiles shall come to thy light ,

a and kings to the brightness of thy rising.”

All these structures may be described , as well as set forth in full. Thus:—
a The rising of Israel. (“Rising up.”)

b The Light received.

c The glory of the LORD .

d The darkness of the earth.

d The darkness of the peoples.

c The glory of the LORD .

b The Light reflected.

a —The rising of Israel. (Dawning: “Thy sunrise.”)

Dan. 5:19 . —
a Severity (“Whom he would he slew ”).

b Favour (“and whom he would he kept alive ”).

b Favour (“and whom he would he set up ”).

a Severity (“and whom he would he put down ”).

Matt 6:24 . —
a “No man can serve two masters:

b For either he will hate the one

c and love the other:

c or else he will hold to the one

b and despise the other.

a Ye cannot serve God and mammon.”

Matt. 7:6 . —
a “Give not that which is holy unto the dogs,

b neither cast ye your pearls before swine,

b lest they trample them under their feet,

a and turn again and rend you.”

Here, the introversion shows that it is the swine who tread the pearls under foot, and
the dogs which rend.
Rom. 11:21–23 . —
a “If God spared not the natural branches,

b take heed lest He also spare not thee.

c Behold therefore the goodness

d and severity of God:

d on them which fell, severity ;

c but toward thee, goodness , …

b otherwise thou also shalt be cut off.

a And they also (the natural branches), if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be
graffed in.”

This passage occurs in the Dispensational part of the Epistle to the Romans (9–11).
See under Correspondence . Hence, it relates to Jew and Gentile as such; and
consequently it is not to be interpreted of the Church, the standing of which is so clearly
set forth in chapter 8 . So that the statement in line b can have no reference to those who
are in Christ, for whom there is no condemnation and no separation.

1 Cor. 1:24 , 25 . —
a Power. “Christ the power of God.”

b Wisdom. “And the wisdom of God.”

b Wisdom. “Because the foolishness of God is wiser than men.”

a Power. “And the weakness of God is stronger than men.”

2 Cor. 1:3 . —
a Deity. “Blessed be God. ”

b Paternity. “Even the Father. ”

b Paternity. “The Father of mercies.”

a Deity. “And the God of all comfort.”

2 Cor. 8:14 . —
a Equality. “By an equality.”
b Liberality. “That now … at this time your abundance may be a supply for
their want.”

b Liberality. “That their abundance also may be a supply for your want.

a Equality. “That there may be … equality.”

Gal. 2:7 , 8 . —
a Paul’s commission. “When they saw that the Gospel of the uncircumcision was
committed unto me. ”

b Peter’s. “As the Gospel of circumcision was unto Peter. ”

b Peter’s. “For he that wrought effectually in Peter to the apostleship of the


a Paul’s commission. “The same was mighty in me toward the Gentiles.”



IT was reserved for Thomas Boys to extend and develope the study of Parallelism . What
others before him had thought to be confined to lines , or only to short passages, he
discerned to be true also of whole paragraphs; yea, of whole sections and even of books.
He therefore discarded the term Parallelism as being altogether inadequate when used of
paragraphs and subjects. He adopted the term CORRESPONDENCE as applying to and
covering all the Phenomena connected with the structure of the sacred text. In 1824 he
gave the world his Tactica Sacra , and in the following year he gave his Key to the Book
of Psalms , which opened out the whole subject, and gave some examples from the
Psalms. In 1890, Dr. Bullinger edited from Mr. Boys’s Interleaved Hebrew Bible, and
other of his papers, * a complete edition of the whole 150 Psalms, which he called, “ A
Key to the Psalms , ” thus connecting it with the work published in 1825.

This law of Correspondence is seen in the Repetition of Subjects , rather than of Lines
, or Propositions .

Bullinger, E. W. (1898). Figures of speech used in the Bible (Page 304). London; New
York: Eyre & Spottiswoode; E. & J. B. Young & Co.
* These were most kindly placed at his service by the Rev. Sydney Thelwall (Vicar of
Radford), in whose possession they are. See Mr. Thelwall’s preface to the Key to Psalms
These subjects may be repeated in three different ways, or rather in two, for the third
is only a combination of the other two. They may be repeated alternately; or they may be
introverted , when it is called Chiasmus (and sometimes Epanodos ) ; or these two may
be combined in innumerable ways.

Each of the subjects occupies a separate paragraph, and these we call members .
These members may be of any length; one may be very short, the other quite long. A
longer member may be again divided up and expanded, as each member possesses its
own separate structure, and this again may be part of one still larger.

For the sake of convenience, we arbitrarily place letters against each member for the
purpose of distinguishing it from the others and of linking it to its corresponding member,
as well as for easy reference. Using Roman and Italic type we are enabled to mark the
different subjects which correspond, or are set in contrast, the one with the other

Thus the subject of the member marked “A” ( Roman type ) will be the same subject
which is repeated in A ( Italic type ). The same with B and B , a and a , b and b .

In whatever form we may have this figure, it is always of the greatest possible use
and importance. It enables us not merely to perceive the symmetrical perfection of the
passage, but to understand its true sense; to see its scope and thus be guided to a sound

What may be obscure in one member may be clear in its corresponding member.

The subject, which may not be mentioned in one member may be named in the other.
We are thus helped to a correct interpretation. For example, in the structure of 1 Pet.
3:18–22 it is not clear who or what may be “the in-prison-spirits” of verse 19 . But in the
corresponding member (verse 22 ) they are mentioned by name as “angels.” We thus
learn that the subject of the former member (verse 19 ) is the disobedience of angels in
the days of Noah (Gen. 6), while the subject of the latter (verse 22 ) is the subjection of
angels and authorities and powers. Having thus got the scope of the passage, we get the
meaning of “spirits,” and remember how it is written, “He maketh His angels spirits” (
Ps. 104:4 . Heb. 1:7 ). We at once connect their sin in the days of Noah and their prison
with Gen. 6:1 . 2 Pet. 2:4 , and Jude 6 . We thus have the clue to the true interpretation of
this passage, which if followed out will lead to a correct exegesis. *

For another example see Ps. 144. ( page 33 ), where the structure (an extended
alternation) clearly shows that verses 12–15 consist of the “vanity” which the “strange
children” speak, and the “falsehood” which they utter. The Psalm ends with a solemn
conclusion (– 15 ), which stands out apart from the structure by itself in all its solemnity.

Ps. 144 —
A 1–4 . Thanksgiving.

* See a pamphlet on The Spirits in Prison , by the same author and publisher.
B 5–7 . Prayer (“Bow thy heavens,” etc.).

C 8 . Description of the strange children and their vain words: “Whose

mouth,” etc.

A 9 , 10 . Thanksgiving.

B 11 –. Prayer (“Rid me”).

C – 11–15 . Description of the strange children. After , “ who ” in

verse 12 supply “ say , ” in italics, corresponding with “whose mouth” in
verse 8 .

Then we have, in the concluding sentence, the true estimate of happiness, and in what
it consists, as opposed to the vain and false estimate of the strange children:—

“Blessed the people whose God is Jehovah,” as is further set forth in Ps. 4:6 , 7 and
146:5 .

The correspondence, here, corrects the common and popular interpretation of this
Psalm, and rescues it for the glory of God.

It is clear, therefore, from this, that the subject of Correspondence cannot be too
diligently studied, if we would discover some of the wondrous perfections of the Word of
God, or arrive at its proper interpretation.

Correspondence may be thus arranged:—


1. SIMPLE : where there are only two series, each consisting of two members.

2. EXTENDED : where there are two series, but each consisting of several

3. REPEATED : where there are more than two series:

a. consisting of two members each.

b. consisting of more than two members each.


III. COMPLEX , or COMBINED , where there is a combination of the other two.

† See under Ellipsis ( page 33 ).


This is when the subjects of the alternate members correspond with each other, either by
way of similiarity or contrast.

We now give a few examples selected from all parts of Scripture.

1. Simple Alternation

We so call it when it consists of only four members: i.e. , two series with two members
each. In this case the first member of the first series corresponds with the first member of
the second, while the second member of the first series corresponds with the second
member of the second series.

In other words, it is alternate when, of the four members, the first corresponds with
the third, and the second with the fourth.

Josh. 9:22–25 . —
A 22 . The question of Joshua. “And Joshua called.”

B 23 . The sentence of Joshua. “Now therefore” ( ), veattah ).

A 24 . The reply of the Gibeonites. “And they answered.”

B 25 . Submission to Joshua’s sentence. “Now, behold” ( , veattah ),

Ps. 19 —
A 1–4 –. The heavens.

B – 4–6 . The sun in them ( , bahem , in them ).

A 7–10 . The Scriptures.

B 11–14 . Thy servant in them ( , bahem , in them ).

Prov. 1:8–19 . —
A 8 . Two-fold exhortation. “My son, hear … forsake not.”

B 9 . Reason. “For they shall be,” etc.

A 10–15 . Two-fold exhortation. “My son, if … my son walk not.”

B 16–19 . Reason. “For their feet,” etc.

Isa. 32:5–7 . —
A The vile person shall be no more called liberal,

B Nor the churl said to be bountiful.

A For the vile person will speak villany and his heart will work iniquity to practise
hypocrisy, and to utter error against the LORD , to make empty the soul of the
hungry, and he will cause the drink of the thirsty to fail.

B The instruments of the churl are evil; he deviseth wicked devices to destroy
the poor with lying words, even when the needy speaketh right.”

Here, in A, and A , we have the vile person; while in B and B we have the churl. A
and B are negative; and A and B are positive.

Jer. 17:5–8 . —

A 5 . Cursed is the man ( , gever ) * that trusteth in man ( , adam ) † and

maketh flesh his arm, and whose heart departeth from the LORD .

B 6 . For he shall be like the heath in the desert, and shall not see when good
cometh, but shall inhabit the parched places in the wilderness, in a salt land
and not inhabited.

A 7 . Blessed is the man ( , gever ) that trusteth in the LORD , and whose hope
the LORD is.

B 8 . For he shall be as a tree planted by the waters, and that spreadeth out her
roots by the river, and shall not see when heat cometh, but her leaf shall be
green; and shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither shall cease from
yielding fruit.
Ezek. 36:26 , 27 . —
A “A new heart also will I give you,

B And a new spirit will I put within you:

A And I will take away the stony heart out of your flesh, and I will give you an
heart of flesh.

B And I will put my Spirit within you.

* Gever is vir , a strong man.

† Adam is homo , a created man, and is thus put in contrast with Jehovah in A .
Here, in this prophecy concerning Israel in the day of their coming glory, there are
four members and two subjects. In the first and third it is the “heart,” while in the second
and fourth it is the “spirit.”

These words cannot be applied to the Christian now, inasmuch as the old nature is not
taken away, but a new nature is imparted. This is the teaching of Rom. 1:16–8:39 , where
in 1:16–5:11 , sins are first dealt with, as the fruit of the old nature, and then, from 5:12–
8:39 , sin is dealt with, as the tree which produces the fruit: and we are taught that,
though the evil fruits are still produced, God reckons the tree itself as dead. So, though
sin itself no longer reigns, yet sins are still committed by the old nature; but the saved
sinner is to reckon that old nature, i.e. , himself, as having died with Christ, and he has
now a new nature.

The old nature is not taken away, as it will be in the case of Israel in that day: so the
believer has in himself one nature that cannot but sin, and another that cannot sin ( 1 John
3:9 ; 5:18 ).

The old nature can never be improved, and the new nature needs no improvement.

Until the believer recognises this truth he can never know peace with God.

Heb. 1 , 2 —
A 1:1 , 2 –. God speaking.

B – 2–14 . The Son of God: “better than the angels.”

A 2:1–4 . God speaking.

B 5–18 . The Son of Man: “lower than the angels.”

Here the two subjects are arranged alternately. And note that B is in a parenthesis
with respect to A and A ; while A is in a parenthesis with respect to B and B . In other
words, A and A read on continuously, without reference to B, while B and B likewise
read on without reference to A , which is thus practically in a parenthesis.

Hence the word “therefore,” 2:1 , is not consequent on 1:14 , but on 1:2 –. And the
“for” in 2:5 is consequent, not on 2:4 , but on 1:14 . The respective members therefore
read on

Thus: ( 1:1 ) “God, who at sundry times and in divers manners spake in time past unto
the fathers by the prophets, hath in these last days spoken unto us by his Son … (ii. i.)
therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the the things which we have heard,
And: ( 1:14 ) “Are they not all ministering (worshipping) spirits, sent forth to minister
for (to serve) them who shall be heirs of salvation ? . . ( 2:5 ) for unto the angels hath he
not put into subjection the world to come, etc.”

2. EXTENDED Alternation

This is when there are still only two series, but each series consists of more than two

And these are so arranged that the first of the one series corresponds with the first of
the other; and likewise the second of the former corresponds with the second in the latter.

This has been called by some Direct Chiasmus , reserving the term “Indirect
Chiasmus ” for what we have called Introverted Correspondence, or Chiasmus proper.

Bengel calls this “Direct Chiasmus”: but this is contrary to the very name of the
figure: viz. , the letter Chi (X.), which he says, is, as it were, the type or mould according
to which the sentence or words is or are arranged.

We prefer to consider it merely as Alternate Correspondence in an extended form,

reserving the term Chiasmus for Introverted Correspondence.

Ps. 66 —
A 1 , 2 . Exhortation to praise.

B 3 . Address. God’s works in the world.

C 4 . Address. Promise for the world.

D 5–7 . Invitation: “Come and see.”

A 8 , 9 . Exhortation to praise.

B 10–12 . Address. God’s dealings with His People.

C 13–15 . Address. Promise for himself.

D 16–20 . Invitation: “Come and hear.”

Ps. 72 —
A 2–4 . Messiah’s goodness to the poor.

B 5–10 . Other attributes.

C 11 . General adoration.
A 12–14 . Messiah’s goodness to the poor.

B 15–17 –. Other attributes.

C – 17 . General adoration.

The two members B and B form together a wonderful introverted Correspondence. *

Ps. 132 —This Psalm affords a beautiful example of an extended Alternation of subjects.
We cannot, here, print the whole Psalm in full, but give the following key to it:—
A 1 , 2 . David swears to Jehovah.

B 3–5 . What David sware.

C 6 , 7 . Search for and discovery of the dwelling-place.

D 8 . Prayer to enter into rest.

E 9 –. Prayer for priests.

F – 9 . Prayer for saints.

G 10 . Prayer for Messiah.

A 11 –. Jehovah swears to David.

B – 11 , 12 . What Jehovah sware.

C 13 . Designation of the dwelling-place.

D 14 , 15 . Answer to prayer in D.

E 16 –. Answer to prayer in E.

F – 16 . Answer to prayer in F.

G 17 , 18 . Answer to prayer in G.
Acts 7:1–53 . —
A 2 . Mesopotamia.

B 3–8 . Abraham.

* See The Key to the Psalms . Edited by the same author, and published by Eyre &
C 9–19 . Joseph.

D 20–38 . Moses.

E 39–43 . Resistance.

A 44 . The wilderness.

B 45 –. Joshua.

C – 45 , 46 . David.

D 47–50 . Solomon.

E 51–53 . Resistance.
Rom. 2:17–20 . —
A “Restest in the law,

B and makest thy boast of God,

C and knowest His will,

D and approvest the things that are more excellent

E being instructed out of the law;

A and art confident that thou thyself art a guide of the blind,

B a light of them which are in darkness,

C an instructor of the foolish,

D a teacher of babes,

E which hast the form of knowledge and of the truth of the law.”

In the first series, we have what the Jew considers as to himself. In the second series,
how he uses it in relation to others.

1 Thess. 1:2–10 , and 2:13–16 . —

A 1:2–4 . The thanksgiving of Paul and his brethren.

B 5 . Reason: Reception of the Gospel in the power of God.

C 6–9 . The effect of the Gospel thus received.

D 10 –. Believing. Thessalonians “wait” for God’s Son.

E – 10 . Deliverance from the wrath to come.

A 2:13 –. The thanksgiving of Paul and his brethren.

B – 13 . Reason: Reception of the Gospel in the power of God.

C 14 . The effect of the Gospel thus received.

D 15 , 16 –. Unbelieving Jews “killed” God’s Son.

E – 16 . Delivered to the wrath to come.

1 Thess. 4:13–5:11 . —
A 4:13 . Instruction necessary as to “them which are asleep” ( .*
The R.V. reads , are falling asleep ).

B 14 . First reason ( ): For, those who have fallen asleep ( )

God (by Jesus) will bring again from the dead.

C 15 . Second reason ( ): For, those who “are alive and remain” (

) shall not precede them.

D 16 , 17 . Third ): Because both will be caught up

) at the Descent of the Lord into the air.

E 18 . Encouragement: “Wherefore comfort one another with these


A 5:1 . Instruction not necessary as to “the times and the seasons” of this
Resurrection and Ascension, which will take place before the Day of the Lord.

B 2–6 . First reason ( ): For they already knew that the destruction of the
wicked will mark the coming of the Day of the Lord. Contrast (verses 4 , 5 )

* , to fall asleep , involuntarily: hence used (in nearly every place) of death ,
but only of saints. Matt. 27:52 ; 28:13 . Luke 22:45 . John 11:11 , 12 . Acts 7:60 ; 12:6 ;
13:36 . 1 Cor. 7:39 ; 11:30 ; 15:6 , 18 , 20 , 51 . 1 Thess. 4:13 , 14 , 15 . 2 Pet. 3:4 .
R.V. The Revised Version, 1881.
and Exhortation (verse 6 ): “Therefore let us not sleep ( ); † but
“let us watch” ( ). ‡ (See note on page 372 ).

C 7 , 8 . Second reason ( ): “For they that sleep ( ) sleep (

) in the night.” Contrast and Exhortation (verse 8 ).

D 9 , 10 . Third ): Because God hath not appointed us to

wrath, but to obtain salvation ( viz. , that of the body in Resurrection)
through our Lord Jesus Christ, that whether we watch ( )‡
or sleep ( ) live with Him (as
in D, above).

E 11 . Encouragement: “Wherefore comfort yourselves together,”

2 Tim. 3:16 and 4:2 . —There is a beautiful extended alternation between the subjects of
these two verses. See pages 146 and 148 .

The Word of God is God-breathed and profitable for

A “doctrine,

B for reproof (or conviction),

C for correction,

D for instruction.”

Therefore .
A “Preach the word,

B reprove (or convict),

† , to go to sleep , voluntarily: hence not used of death, but either of taking rest
in sleep, or of the opposite of watchfulness. Matt. 8:24 ; 9:24 ; 13:25 ; 25:5 ; 26:40 , 43 ,
45 . Mark 4:27 , 38 ; 5:39 ; 13:36 ; 14:37 , 37 , 40 , 41 . Luke 8:52 ; 22:46 . Eph. 5:14 . 1
Thess. 5:6 , 7 , 7 , 10 .
is translated “wake” only in verse 10 , above. Elsewhere it is always “watch,”
“be watchful,” or “be vigilant.”

Thus the marked use of in the first series, and of in the second
series teaches us that the hope of Resurrection and Ascension before the Day of the Lord
is for all who are Christ’s, whether they are dead or alive; whether they are watchful or
unwatchful .
C rebuke,

D exhort,” etc.
3. Repeated Alternation

Alternate correspondence is repeated when there are more than two series.

( a ) Two members in each series

In this case the first member of the first series corresponds with the first member of the
second, third, fourth series, etc.; while the second member of the first series corresponds
with the second member of the other series. These we have indicated as A 1 , A 2 , A 3 and
B 1 , B 2 , B 3 respectively, A corresponding with A 2 , A 3 , etc.: and B 1 with B 2 , B 3 , etc.

Ps. 26 . —
A1 1 –. Prayer.

B1 – 1 . Profession.

A2 2 . Prayer.

B2 3–8 . Profession.

A3 9 , 10 . Prayer.

B3 11 –. Profession.

A4 – 11 . Prayer.

B4 12 . Profession.
Ps. 80 . —
A1 1–3 . Prayer (People).

B1 4–6 . Representation (People).

A2 7 . Prayer (People).

B2 8–13 . Representation (Vine).

A3 14 , 15 . Prayer (Vine and Vineyard).

B3 16 . Representation (Vine and People).

A4 17–19 . Prayer (People)

Ps. 145 . —
A1 1 , 2 . Praise promised; from me (to Jehovah).

B1 3 . Praise offered.

A2 4–7 . Praise promised; from others and me (to Jehovah for His works).

B2 8 , 9 . Praise offered.

A3 10–12 . Praise promised; from others and works (to Jehovah for His kingdom).

B3 13–20 . Praise offered.

A4 21 . Praise promised; from me and others.

Here, in “David’s Psalm of Praise” we have seven members, with two subjects in an
extended alternation.

( b ) More than two members in each series

This is a combination of Extended with Repeated Correspondence.

In this case, the first members of each series correspond with each other; while the
second member corresponds with the second, the third with the third, etc.

Ps. 24 . —Here, we have an alternation of three members repeated in three series:

A1 1 , 2 . Right to the earth.

B1 3 . Questions.

C1 4–6 . Answer.

A2 7 . Right to heaven.

B2 8 –. Question.

C2 – 8 . Answer.

A3 9 . Right to heaven.

B3 10 –. Question.

C3 – 10 . Answer.
Ps. 147 . —
A1 1–3 . Praise, and reason. (Kindness to Israel).

B1 4 , 5 . General operations. (Kingdom of nature).

C1 6 . Contrast. (What the Lord does).

A2 7 . Praise.

B2 8 , 9 . General operations. (Kingdom of nature).

C2 10 , 11 . Contrast. (What the Lord delights in).

A3 12–14 . Praise, and reason. (Kindness to Israel).

B3 15–18 . General operations. (Kingdom of nature).

C3 19 , 20 –. Contrast. (What the Lord has shown).

A4 – 20 . Praise.

This is where there are two series, and the first of the one series of members corresponds
with the last of the second; the second of the first corresponds with the penultimate (or
the last but one) of the second: and the third of the first corresponds with the
antepenultimate of the second. That is to say, if there are six members, the first
corresponds with the sixth , the second with the fifth , and the third with the fourth . And
so on.

The Greeks called it CHIASMOS or CHIASTON from its likeness in form to the
letter Chi (X.). For the same reason the Latins called it CHIASMUS , as well as
DECUSSATA ORATIO from decusso, to divide cross-wise ( i.e. , in the shape of an X).
The Greeks called it also ( alleelous ), together and
( echein ), to have or hold, a holding or hanging together .

This is by far the most stately and dignified presentation of a subject; and is always
used in the most solemn and important portions of the Scriptures.

Bengel observes with regard to this form of the Figure, that “its employment is never
without some use: viz. , in perceiving the ornament and in observing the force of the
language; in understanding the true and full sense; in making clear the sound
Interpretation; in demonstrating the true and neat analysis of the sacred text.” *

Gen. 43:3–5 . —

* See The Structure of the Books of the Bible , by the same author and publisher.
A Judah’s words: “The man did solemnly protest unto us, etc.”

B Jacob’s act: “If thou wilt send.”

B Jacob’s act: “But if thou wilt not send him.”

A Joseph’s words: “For the man said unto us, etc.”

In A and A , we have Joseph’s words; and in B and B , Jacob’s action.

Lev. 14:51 , 52 . —
A “And he shall take the cedar wood , and the hyssop , and the scarlet ,

B and the living bird ,

C and dip them in the blood of the slain bird , and in the running water ,

D and sprinkle the house seven times:

D And he shall cleanse the house

C with the blood of the bird , and with the running water ,

B and with the living bird ,

A and with the cedar wood , and with the hyssop , and with the scarlet. ”

Note also the figure of Polysyndeton ( q.v. ) emphasizing each particular item in this

Deut. 32:1–43 (the Song of Moses).—

A 1–6 . Call to hear; and the reason. The publishing of Jehovah’s Name, His
perfect work and righteous ways.

B 7–14 . The goodness and bounty of Jehovah to Israel. (Period of the


C 15–19 . Israel’s evil return for the good. Their pride; forsaking of God:
despising the Rock of their salvation. Moving Him to anger. (Period of
past history).

D 20 . Divine reflections on the period while Israel is “ Lo-ammi .” *

God’s hiding from them (Hosea).

q.v. Which see.

E 21 . Jehovah’s provocation of Israel. (Period of Acts and present

E 22–25 . Jehovah’s threatening of judgment. (The great


D 26–33 . Divine reflections on the period while Israel is “ Lo-ammi .”

Their scattering from God (Hosea).

C 34–38 . Israel’s evil return for Jehovah’s goodness. Their helpless

condition moving Him to pity. He not forsaking them. Their rock useless.
(Period of present history).

B 39–42 . The vengeance of Jehovah. (The period of the Apocalypse).

A 43 . Call to rejoice; and the reason. The publishing of Jehovah’s kingdom.

Vengeance on Israel’s enemies. Mercy on His land and His people. (Fulfilment of
the Prophets).
Ps. 23 is a simple introversion, which is marked by the use of the persons.
A 1–3 . First and third persons: “I” and “He.”

B 4 . First and second: “I” and “Thou.”

B 5 . First and second: “I” and “Thou.”

A 6 . First and third: “I” and His.

Ps. 103 is a beautiful example of a large introversion of ten members:—
A 1–5 . Exhortation to bless.

B 6 , 7 . Gracious goodness. (Kingdom of Grace).

C 8 . Merciful goodness.

D 9 . Sparing goodness.

E 10 . Pardoning goodness.

E 11–13 . Pardoning goodness

D 14–16 . Sparing goodness.

C 17 , 18 . Merciful goodness.

* Hebrew: not my people .

B 19 . Glorious goodness. (Kingdom of Glory).

A 20–22 . Exhortation to bless.

The Visions of Zechariah. —

A 1:1–17 . False peace under the kingdom of the Gentiles.

B 1:18–21 . Providential workings to break up the empires of Daniel 2 , and

restore Judah, Israel and Jerusalem.

C 2:1–13 . Deliverance of the true Jerusalem out of Babylon.

D 3:1–10 . Priesthood and Royalty remodelled. Jerusalem changed

before God after the pattern of Messiah.

D 4:1–14 . Royalty and Priesthood remodelled. Jerusalem changed

before men after the pattern of Messiah.

C 5:1–11 . The evil of the false Jerusalem sent into Babylon.

B 6:1–8 . Providential workings to break up the kingdoms of Daniel 7 , and

restore Judah, Israel, and Jerusalem.

A 6:9–15 . True peace under the kingdom of Messiah.

Matt. 3:10–12 . —
A “And now also the ax is laid unto the root of the trees: therefore every tree
which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire.

B I indeed baptize you with water unto repentance:

C but he that cometh after me is mightier than I ,

C whose shoes I am not worthy to bear:

B He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire.

A Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and gather His
wheat into the garner; but He will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire.”
Mark 5:2–6 . —
A “And when he was come out of the ship, immediately there met him out of the
tombs a man with an unclean spirit,

B who had his dwelling among the tombs ;

C and no man could bind him … no, not with chains:

D because that he had been often bound with fetters

E and chains ,

E and the chains had been plucked asunder by him,

D and the fetters broken in pieces:

C neither could any man tame him.

B And always, night and day, he was in the mountains and in the tombs crying
and cutting himself with stones.

A But when he saw Jesus afar off, he ran and worshipped Him.”
John 5:8–11 . —
A “Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, and walk.

B And immediately the man was made whole ,

C And took his bed and walked;

D And on the same day was the sabbath.

D The Jews therefore said unto him that was cured, It is the sabbath

C It is not lawful for thee to carry thy bed.

B He answered them, He that made me whole ,

A The same said unto me, Take up thy bed and walk .”

Here in A and A we have the words of Christ; in B and B the man made whole; in C
and C the bed he carried; and in D and D the Sabbath.

John 5:21–29 . —We have a combined series of introverted and alternate

correspondence in these verses:—
A 21 . Concerning quickening and resurrection.

B 22 , 23 . Concerning judgment.

B 24 . Concerning judgment.
A 25–29 . Concerning quickening and resurrection.

The last member A is alternate, and may be thus extended:—

A c 25 , 26 . Concerning life and resurrection.

d 27 . Concerning judgment.

c 28 , 29 –. Concerning resurrection.

d – 29 . Concerning judgment.

These complex structures are not confined to Psalms or selected passages, but
pervade the whole Bible, affecting the order of the books themselves, and the separate
structure of each.

Gal. 2:16 . —
A “Knowing that a man is not justified

B by the works of the law ,

C but by the faith of Jesus Christ ,

C even we have believed in Jesus Christ, that we might be justified by the

faith of Christ ,

B and not by the works of the law : for by the works of the law

A shall no flesh be justified.”

The Epistle to Philemon. —
A 1–3 . Epistolary

a 1 , 2 . Names of those with Philemon.

b 3 . Benediction.

B 4–7 . Prayers of St. Paul for Philemon. Philemon’s hospitality.

C 8 . Authority.

D 9 , 10 –. Supplication.

E – 10 . Onesimus, a convert of St. Paul’s.

F 11 , 12 –. Wrong done by Onesimus. Amends made by St.

G – 12 . To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul.

H 13 , 14 . Paul and Philemon.

I 15 . Onesimus.

I 16 –. Onesimus.

H – 16 . Paul and Philemon.

G 17 . To receive Onesimus the same as receiving Paul.

F 18 , 19 –. Wrong done by Onesimus. Amends made by St.


E – 19 . Philemon a convert of St. Paul’s.

D 20 . Supplication.

C 21 . Authority.

B 22 . Philemon’s hospitality. Prayers of Philemon for Paul.

A 23–25 . Epistolary.

a 23 , 24 . Names of those with Paul.

b 25 . Benediction.

It will be observed that the first and last members are alternate .


This is where the members of a structure are arranged both in alternation (simple or
extended) and in introversion , combined together in various ways, giving the greatest
possible variety and beauty to the presentation.

Not only is this complex arrangement Of a passage complete in itself; but very often
there is a double arrangement, the one within the other, and consistent with it, though
differing from it.

And further, the longer members of any particular structure generally contain and
have their own special arrangement, and may be severally expanded.

In some of the following examples, we have given first the general structure of a
whole book or passage and then the expansion of some of the larger members of which it
is composed.
The Ten Commandments as a whole, as well as separately, are beautiful examples of
complex structure. Take the fourth as a specimen ( Ex. 20:8–11 ):—
A 8 . The Sabbath-day to be kept in remembrance by man.

B a 9 . The six days for man’s work.

b 10 . The Seventh day for man’s rest.

B a 11 –. The six days for Jehovah’s work.

b – 11 –. The seventh day for Jehovah’s rest.

A – 11 . The Sabbath-day blessed and hallowed by Jehovah.“

Here, it will be noted that the first half (A and B) is concerning man’s side and duty,
and the latter half ( A and B ) is concerning God’s side.

Ps. 84 —
A a 1–4 . Blessedness of the dwellers.

b 5–7 . Blessedness of the approachers.

B 8 . Prayer.

B 9 . Prayer.

A a 10 . Blessedness of the dwellers. (“For.”)

b 11 , 12 . Blessedness of the approachers. (“For.”)

This Psalm is a simple introversion of four members, but the first member, “a,” while
it thus forms part of a larger member is itself constructed as an extended introversion,
which helps to the understanding of verses 1–4 .
a c 1 . “Thy tabernacles.”

d 2 . Desire for the courts of the Lord.

e 3 –. As the sparrow.

e – 3 –. As the swallow.

d – 3 . Desire for the altars of the Lord.

c 4 . “Thy house.”
The two members d and d read on connectedly thus: “My soul longeth, yea, even
fainteth for the courts of the LORD : my heart and my flesh crieth out for the living God
… even thine altars, O LORD of hosts, my King and my God.”

Thus we are prevented from supposing that birds could build nests in the altar of
burnt offerings, on which fires were always burning, and which was overlaid with brass;
or in the altar of incense, which was within the Holy Place, and overlaid with gold! (see
page 96 ).

Ps. 49 . is perhaps one of the most striking examples of Complex Correspondence which
the Scriptures afford. The Psalm, as a whole, is alternate , with a Thema , or general
subject. The first and third members are arranged as an introversion; while in each of the
four members of which it is composed, a couplet is answered by a quatrain, and a
quatrain by a couplet.

The THEMA , or SUBJECT , anticipates the double form of the Psalm itself. It is in two
quatrains: (1) All people to hear (2) I will speak. The first two lines of each quatrain are
broken up and arranged alternately, while the second two lines of each quatrain are

(1) All People to hear .

s 1 –. “ Hear this

t – 1 –. All ye people ,

s – 1 –. Give ear ,

t – 1 . All ye inhabitants of the world.

u 2 –. Low

v – 2 –. and high.

v – 2 –. rich

u – 2 . and poor. ”

(2) I will speak .

w 3 –. “ My mouth shall speak

x – 3 –. of wisdom ,

w – 3 –. and the meditation of my heart shall be

x – 3 . of understanding.
y 4 –. I will incline mine ear

z – 4 –. to a parable ;

z – 4 –. I will open my dark saying

y – 4 . upon the harp. ”

Then comes the Psalm proper:

The Psalm itself.

A a 5 . Why fear? (couplet).

b 6–9 . No redemption for the worldly (quatrain, alternate).

c 10 –. Death (couplet).

d – 10 , 11 . Worldly wisdom (quatrain, introverted).

B 12 . Man compared to beasts (couplet).

A d 13 . Worldly wisdom (couplet).

c 14 . Death (quatrain, introverted).

b 15 . Redemption for me (couplet).

a 16–19 . Fear not (quatrain, alternate).

B 20 . Man compared to beasts (couplet).

Here note that, as in other cases, the corresponding members (which are marked by
the same letters) may be read on, the one being explanatory of the other: the question in
“a” (“Why fear?”) being answered in a (“Fear not, etc.”)

Ps. 105 . affords another beautiful example, but we can give only the key to it.
A 1–7 . Exhortation to praise the LORD (second person, plural).

B 8–12 . Basis of praise, God’s covenant with Abraham, in promise.

C a 13 . The journeyings of the Patriarchs.

b 14 , 15 . Their favour and protection.

c 16 . Their affliction.
d 17–22 . Mission of Joseph to deliver.

C a 23 . The journeyings of the People.

b 24 . Their favour and protection.

c 25 . Their affliction.

d 26–41 . Mission of Moses to deliver.

B 42–45 –. Basis of praise. God’s covenant with Abraham, in performance.

A – 45 . Exhortation to praise the LORD (second person, plural).

Here, the Psalm as a whole is an introversion , while the two central members are
placed in strong correspondence by an extended alternate arrangement; in which we have
in the first (C) the history of the Patriarchs (Genesis), and in the second (C) the history of
the Nation (Exodus).

Note also that while A and A are in the second person plural, all the rest of the Psalm
is in the third person.

Note further that the two longer members B and B are similarly constructed, and the
subjects repeated by extended alternation (as in C and C ), thus:—
B e 8–10 . The Covenant remembered.

f 11 . The Land promised.

g 12 . The People described.

B e 42 , 43 . The Covenant remembered.

f 44 . The Land inherited.

g 45 . The People described.

In like manner the two longer members d and d may be shown to have the same
wonderful structure.
d h 17 . The sending of the deliverer.

i 18 , 19 . His trial by the word.

k 20–22 . The deliverance.

d h 26 . The sending of the deliverers.

i 27–36 . Egypt’s trial by the word (see verse 27 , margin).

k 37–41 . The deliverance.

Ps. 146 :. —This Psalm affords another beautiful example of the combined
correspondence. As a whole the Psalm is an Introversion; while the inner members
consist of an extended alternation : —
A 1 , 2 . Praise. Hallelujah.

B a 3 –. Wrong trust, in man.

b – 3 . Man powerless.

c 4 . Man perishable.

B a 5 . Right trust, in God.

b 6–9 . God all-powerful,

c 10 –. God eternal.

A – 10 . Praise. Hallelujah.
Ps. 148 . —
A 1 –. Hallelujah.

B a – 1 . Praise from the heavens (second person).

b 2–4 . Enumeration of heavenly things.

c 5 –. Injunction to praise (third person).

d – 5 , 6 . Inducements: (“for”).

B a 7 –. Praise from the earth (second person).

b – 7–12 . Enumeration of earthly things.

c 13 –. Injunction to praise (third person).

d – 13 , 14 –. Inducements: (“for”).

A – 14 . Hallelujah.

Here, again, while the whole Psalm is introverted, the two centre members are
arranged as an extended alternation.
Mark 3:21–35 . —
A a 21 –. His kindred. “His friends” ( marg. kinsmen ).

b – 21 –. Their interference. “Went out.”

c – 21 . Their disparagement of Him. “For they said, etc.”

B d 22 –. The Scribes: Their first charge, “He hath.”

e – 22 , Their second charge, “He casteth out.”

B e 23–27 . His answer to the second charge.

d 28–30 . His denunciation of the first charge.

A a 31 –. His kindred. “There came then his, etc.”

b – 31 , 32 . Their interference. “Sent, calling.”

c 33–35 . His disparagement of them.

From this beautiful complex structure, we learn that, as “ d ” corresponds with “d,”
the sin against the Holy Ghost is the saying that Christ was possessed by a devil! And
also, from the correspondence of “ b ,” with “b” we learn that the interference of the
mother and brethren of Christ was because they said He was “beside Himself.” No
wonder then that their disparagement of Him (in “c”) is answered by His disparagement
of them (in “ c ”).

We give examples of the Seven Epistles addressed by the Holy Spirit through St. Paul
to the Churches: but for the fuller development of them we must refer the reader to our
larger work on this great and important subject. *


Epistle to the Romans. —

A 1:1–6 . The Gospel. Always revealed: never hidden.

B 7–15 . Epistolary.

marg. Margin.
* What is the Spirit saying to the Churches? See a series of articles commenced in Things
to Come , Sept. , 1898.
C a 1:16–8:39 . Doctrinal.

b 9–11 . Dispensational.

C a 12:1–15:7 . Practical.

b 8–13 . Dispensational.

B 15:14–16:24 . Epistolary.

A 16:25–27 . The Mystery. Always hidden: never before revealed.

THE EXPANSION OF B AND B ( 1:7–15 , and 15:14–16:24 ).

B c 1:7 . Salutation.

d 8 , 9 . Prayer, etc. (his for them).

e 10–13 . His journey.

f 14 , 15 . His ministry.

B f 15:15–21 . His ministry.

e 22–29 . His journey.

d 30–33 . Prayer, etc. (theirs for him).

c 16:1–24 . Salutation.

The whole of this epistle is marvellously constructed, and the construction is

absolutely essential to its correct interpretation.

It is hardly the design of this work to go too deeply into these structures; but the
doctrinal portion (a | 1:16–8:39 ) is too important to be passed over.

It is divided into two parts. The first deals with the old nature, and with the fruits of
the old tree. The second deals with the tree itself, and the conflict between the two
natures in the believer.

C. ROMANS 1:16–8:39 .

It is of the greatest importance to note that the break occurs at the end of chapter 5:11

Up to that point the question dealt with is “sins.” From that point it is “sin.” And,
unless this great distinction be made the doctrine cannot be understood. The two parts,
then, stand, as follows:—
a D 1:16–5:11 . SINS . The products of old nature. The fruits of the old tree.

E 5:12–8:39 . SIN . The old nature. The old tree itself

THE FIRST DIVISION , D ( 1:16–5:11 ). SINS .

The old nature and its fruits.

D g 1:16 , 17 . The power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth
God’s Gospel revealing a righteousness from God.

h 1:18 . The wrath of God revealed against all ungodliness and


h 1:19–3:20 . The wrath of God revealed against all ungodliness and


g 3:21–5:11 . The power of God unto salvation to every one that believeth
God’s Gospel revealing a righteousness from God.

THE SECOND DIVISION , E ( 5:12–8:39 ). SIN .

The old nature itself, and its conflict with the new nature.
E i 5:12–21 . Condemnation to death through a single sin of one man (
): but justification of life through a single righteous act of one man (

k 6:1–7:6 . We are not in sin, having died in Christ.

k 7:7–25 . Sin is in us, though we are alive in Christ.

i 8:1–39 . Condemnation of sin in the flesh, but now “ NO condemnation” to

us who are alive unto God in Christ Jesus and in whom is Christ.

THE EXPANSION OF b ( ROM . ix–xi.).

A 9:1–15 . Paul’s sorrow regarding Israel’s failure.
B l 6–13 . God’s purpose regarded only a portion.

m 14–29 . God’s purpose regarded only a remnant.

C n1 9:30–33 . Israel’s failure in spite of the Prophets .

n2 10:1–13 . Israel’s failure in spite of the Law .

n3 14–21 . Israel’s failure in spite of the Gospel .

B m 11:1–10 . God’s purpose regarding the remnant accomplished.

l 11–32 . God s purpose will ultimately embrace the whole.

A 33–36 . Paul’s joy regarding God’s purpose.

EXPANSION OF a ( ROM . 12:1–15:7 ).

a o 12:1 , 2 . Personal and individual.

p 3–8. Ecclesiastical.

q 9–18 . Social.

r 19–21 . Civil.

r 13:1–7 . Civil.

q 8–14 . Social.

p 14:1–23. Ecclesiastical.

o 15:1–7 . Personal and individual.

The First Epistle to the Corinthians. —

A 1:1–9 . Epistolary. Salutation. Introduc