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HC VIN C N G NGH Bu CHNH VIN THNG TS.

NGUYN PHM ANH DNG

G I O TRNH

L TRNH P H T TRIN THNG TIN DI NG


Ln

NH XUT BN THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG

HC VIN CNG NGH Bu CHINH VIN THNG

TS. NGUYN PHM ANH DNG

G I O TRNH

L TRNH PHT TRIN THNG TIN DI NG

3G

Ln

4G

THV1H KHOA HC K THUT


B U IN

S:.%:M08
PH BN:

NHA XUT BN THNG TIN V TRUYN THNG

I I

01 HM 10

LI NI U
Thng t i n d i ng l ngnh cng nghip vin thng pht trin nhanh nht v i con s thu bao t n 3.8 t tnh n cui nm 2008. Khi ngun t dch v thoi t tin phc v mt s ngi d i chuyn, n t nay v i s ng dng ngy cng rng ri cc thit b thng tin di ng th h ba, thng t i n d i ng c th cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v i hi tc s liu cao k c cc chc nng camera, MP3 v PDA. V i cc dch v i hi tc cao ngy cng tr nn ph bin th nhu cu v 3G cng nh pht trin n ln 4 G ang cng tr nn cp thit. phc v nhu cu hc tp ca sinh vin, Hc vin Cng ngh B u chnh Vin thng phi hp v i N h xut bn Thng t i n v Truyn thng xut bn "Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G" do TS. Nguyn Phm A n h Dng bin son. 3G l thut n g dng chi cc h thng thng tin di ng th h th 3 (Third Generation). Mng 3G (Third-generation technology) l th h t h ba ca chun cng ngh in thoi di ng, cho php truyn c d liu thoi v d liu ngoi thoi (ti d liu, gi email, t i n nhn nhanh, hnh nh...). 3G cung cp c hai h thng l chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh. H thng 3G yu cu mt mng truy cp v tuyn hon ton khc so v i h thng 2 G hin nay. im mnh ca cng ngh ny so vi cng ngh 2 G v 2.5G l cho php truyn, nhn cc d liu. m thanh, hnh nh cht lng cao cho c thu bao c nh v thu bao ang di chuyn cc tc khc nhau. V i cng ngh 3G, cc nh cung cp c th mang n cho khch hng cc dch v a phng tin, nh m nhc cht lng cao; hnh nh video cht lng v truyn hnh s; Cc dch v nh v ton cu (GPS); E-mail; video streaming; High-ends games;... Do khun k h c hn, gio trnh s ch tp trung trnh by hai cng ngh: l H S P A (s pht trin tng cng ca W C D M A ) v 3GPP LTE. C th coi cng ngh HSPA v s pht trin tip theo ca n l hu 3G cn cng ngh L T E l tin 4G. y l cc cng ngh d kin s rt pht trin trong nhng thp nin ti. Gio trnh c xy dng trn c s sinh vin hc m n "a truy nhp v tuyn v l thuyt tri ph".

V y l gio trnh cho m n chuyn i hi sinh vin phi t c nn gio trnh c bin son chi tit vi kt cu hp l sinh vin c th t hc. M i chng u c phn gii thiu chung, c phn tng kt v cc cu hoi. Gio trnh bao gm 16 chng. Chng u gii thiu tng quan v cc h thng pht trin ca 3G v l trnh pht trin ln 4G. Chng 2 cp n cc vn lin quan n t ruyn dn v tuyn bng rng. Chng 3 nghin cu cc cng ngh a truy nhp O F D M A v SC-FDMA ng dng cho LTE. Chng 4 trnh by mt trong cc k thut quan trng ca 3G pht trin v 4G l a anten. Chng 5 trnh by mt s k thut then cht ca 3G pht trin v 4G l: thch ng ng truyn, lp biu ph thuc knh v H A R Q (pht li lai ghp). Chng 6 v chng 7 trnh by nguyn l ca HSDPA v HSUPA. Chng 8 cp n cc vn qun l t i nguyn v t uyn ca HSPA. Chng 9 trnh by dch v VoIP trong HSPA. Chng l o trnh by mt s dch v tin tin ca HSPA l M B M S - dch v qung b, a phng da phng tin v CPC - ktni gi lin tc. Chng 11 trnh by cc mc tiu LTE. Chng 12 trinh by cc vn chung ca truy nhp v tuyn L T E v kin trc giao din v t uyn LTE. Chng 13 v 14 trnh by lp vt l v cc th tc truy nhp LTE. Chng 15 trnh by pht trin kin trc h thng LTE/SAE. Chng 16, trnh by m phng nh gi hiu nng HSPA. L T E v tnh ton qu ng truyn. Ngoi ra phn Ph lc ca gio trnh, trnh by cc yu cu i v i phn v t uyn ca my u cui HSPA v c thm phn Thut ng vit tt, Ti liu tham kho bn c tin tra cu. Gio trnh c t l t liu tham kho cho sinh vin cc trng i h i hc, cc chuyn gia. cc cn b qun l v k thut trong lnh vc thng tin di ng. Mc d c nhiu c gng, song qu trnh bin son s kh trnh khi thiu st, Hc vin rt mong nhn c kin gp ca cc bn ng nghip v bn c gn xa. Xin trn trm* cm n!

H C V I N C N G NGH B U CHNH V I N T H N G

MC LC
Li ni u Chng 1. Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G, L T E trong 3GPP v l trnh tin ln 4G 1.1. M u 1.2. Qu trnh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP .3. K hoch nghin cu pht trin LTE .4. IMT-ADVANCED v l trinh tin ln 4G 1.5. Tng quan truy nhp gi tc cao (HSPA) 1.6. Tng quan LTE 1.7. Kin trc m hnh LTE 1.8. Tng kt 1.9. Cu hi 5

13 14 14 24 27 30 33 42 45 46

Chng 2. Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong thng tin khng dy bng rng 47 2. . Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc s liu cao 2.2. Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng hn ch v iu ch bc cao 2.3. n h hng ca mi trng truyn s ng ln truyn dn khng dy bng rng 2.4. Cn bng chng phainh chn lc tn s 2.5. Truyn dn a sng mang cho khng dy bng rng 2.6. Tng kt 2.7. Cu hi 54 59 65 72 77 78 48

Chng 3. O F D M A v SC-FDMA ca L T E 3.1. M u 3.2. T m tt nguyn l O F D M 3.3. c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho 3.4. M ha knh v phn tp tn s trong truyn dn O F D M 3.5. La chn cc thng s O F D M c s 3.6. n h hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi 3.7. S dng O F D M cho ghp knh v a truy nhp 3.8. Pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v O F D M 3.9. Nguyn l tr uyn dn DFTS-OFDM 3.10. Tng quan SC-FDMA 3.11. s p xp sng mang con SC-FDMA 3.12. Tr nh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian 3.13. Tng kt 3.14. Cu hi C h n g 4. K thut a anten 4. . Cc cu hnh a anten 4.2. Cc l i ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten 4.3. a antenthu 4.4. a anten pht 4.5. Ghp knh khng gian 4.6. Tng kt 4.7. Cu hi ,

79 80 81 91 93 95 98 99 102 105 114 119 121 125 125 127 127 129 129 136 146 155 155

C h n g 5. Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn v yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp 5.1. M u v tc s liu 157 157 159

5.2. Thch ng ng truyn: iu khin cng sut

5.3. Lp biu ph thuc knh 5.4. Cc so pht li tin tin 5.5. Yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm 5.6. Tng kt 5.7. Cu hi Chng 6. HSDPA 6.1. Tng quan 6.2. HS-DSCH 6.3. MAC-hs v x l lp vt l 6.4. Lung s liu 6.5. iu ch bc cao 6.6. Lp biu v thch ng ng truyn 6.7. HARQ vi kt hp mm 6.9. Cu trc cc knh bo hiu ca HSDPA 6.10. HSDPA M I M O 6.11. Cc th tc lp vt l ca HSDPA 6.12. Di ng 6.13. Cc th loi E 6.14. Tng kt 6.15. Cu hi Chng 7. Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao HSUPA 7. . Tng quan 7.2. E-DCH 7.3. MAC-e v x l lp vt l 7.4. Lung s liu 7.5. Lp biu 7.6. HARQ vi kt hp mm

161 176 177 32 g3 185 186 191 200 204 206 208 215

6.8. CQI v c phng tin nh gi cht lng khung khc ....230 c 235 248 254 257 259 261 263 265 266 272 281 286 287 298

7.7. Bo hiu iu khin 7.8. Th tc lp vt l 7.9. Di ng 7.10. Cc th loi UE 7.11. Tng kt 7.12. Cu hi Chng 8. Qun l ti nguyn v tuy n 8.1. Tng qun qun l ti nguyn v tuy ca HSDPA n 8.2. Cc gii thut RNC cho HSDPA 8.3. Cc gii thut nt B cho HSDPA 8.4. Tng quan qun l ti nguyn v tuy HSUPA n 8.5. Cc gii thut RNC cho HSUPA 8.6. Cc gii thut nt B cho HSUPA 8.7. Tng kt 8.8. Cu hi Chng 9. VoIP trong HSPA 9.1. ng lc VoIP 9.2. Nn tiu 9.3. VoIP trong HSPA 9.4. Tng kt 9.5. Cu hi Chng 10. Cc dch v qung b/a phng, a phng tin v kt ni gi lin tc 10.1. Tng quanMBMS 10.2. Cc knh cho MBMS 10.3. Kt ni gi lin tc 10.4. Tng kt 10.5. Cu hi

314 327 329 331 331 333 335 336 337 352 365 366 370 372 372 375 376 378 379 388 389 391 392 402 406 417 418

Chng l i . Cc mc tiu thit k L T E v SAE 11.1. Cc mc tiu thit k LTE 11.2. Cc mc tiu thit k SAE 11.3. Tng kt 11.4. Cu hi Chng 12. Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din v tuyn L T E 12.1 .Tng quan truy nhp v tuyn LTE 12.2. Kin trc giao thc LTE 12.3. iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC) 12.4. iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MC) 12.5. Lp vt l (PHY) 12.6. Cc trng thi LTE 12.7. Lung s liu 12.8. Tng kt 12.9. Cu hi Chng 13. Lp vt l L T E 13.1. Cu trc tng th min thi gian 13.2. S truyn dn ng xung 13.3. S truyn dn ng ln 13.4. Tng kt 13.5. Cu hi Chng 14. Cc th tc truy nhp L T E 14.1. Tm 14.2. Truy nhp ngu nhin 14.3. Tm gi 14.4. Tng kt 14.5. Cu hi

419 420 430 434 435

437 438 449 451 453 465 468 470 471 472 473 473 476 502 521 522 523 523 529 539 540 541

Chng 15. Pht trin kin tr h thng, SAE c 15.1. Phn chia chc nng gia mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li 15.2. Mng truy nhp v tuyn HSPAAVCDMA v LTE 15.3. Kin tr mng li c 15.4. Tng kt 15.5. Cu hi

543 544 548 558 568 568

Chng 16. Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE...571 16.1. nh gi hiu nng 571 16.2. nh gi hiu nng ca pht trin 3G v LTE da trn m phng tnh 573 16.3. nh gi LTE trong 3GPP da trn m phng ng 16.4. Qu ng truyn HSPA 16.5. Qu ng tr uyn LTE 16.6. Tng kt 16.7. Cu hi Ph lc Thut ng vit tt Ti liu tham kho 588 593 598 602 602 605 623 633

Chng

TNG QUAN K HOCH NGHIN CU PHT TRIN 3G, LTE TRONG 3GPP V L TRNH TIN LN 4G
Cc h thng thng tin di ng 3G (gi tt l 3G) c trin khai ti nhiu nc trn th gii. 3 G ang c trin khai v 4G c nghin cu c mt chun chung. L trnh pht trin t 3G ln 4G ca 3GPP l mt l trnh di hn v c v th p o trong xu th cnh tranh ca cc cng ngh thng tin di ng bng rng.
+

Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Qu trinh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP K hoch nghin cu pht trin L T E - IMT-Advanced l l trnh tin ln 4G - Tng quan truy nhp gi tc cao HSPA - Tng quan L T E - Kin trc m hnh L T E Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c thng tin v co hot ng nghin cu v pht trin (R&D) 3 G v l trnh ln 4G ang c tin hnh trong 3GPP v bit c mt s cng ngh trin vng cho 4G khc nh W i M A X ( W i M A X bn c c th xem thm t i liu tham v khn 'WMAX' ca Hc vin Cng ngh Bu chnh Vin thng). hiu c chng ny, bn c cn c k ni dung tham kho thm cc gio trnh [1], [9], [10], [ l i ] , [12], [14], [15], [16] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

14

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

1.1. M U
Chng ny s trnh by cc hot ng nghin cu v pht trin (R&D) 3G v l trnh ln 4G ang c tin hnh trong 3GPP - l t chc quc t chu trch nhim cho vic pht trin v hi ha cc t iu chun c pht hnh ca UMTS UTRA ( W C D M A v TD-SDMA). Qu trnh nghin cu pht trin UMTS ln 3G pht trin v tin dn n 4G l vic a ra cng ngh HSPA (High Speed Packet Access: a truy nhp gi tc cao) v LTE (Long Term Evolution: pht trin di hn) cho phn v tuyn v SAE (System Architecture Evolution: pht trin kin trc h thng) cho phn mng. Hin nay UMTS v ang trin khai trn th gii. 3GPP tin hnh nghin cu ci thin hiu nng ca M T S bng vic a ra cc pht hnh R5, R6 v R7 vi cc tnh nng nh HSDPA, HSUPA v MBMS. Mc tiu ca L T E l nghin cu pht trin hiu nng h thng sau R R A N c th trin khai vo nm 2010. Cc nghin cu ca LTE nhm gim gi thnh, tng cng h tr cho cc dch v li nhun cao v ci thin khai thc bo dng cng nh cung cp dch v. t c cc mc tiu ny cn a ra mt cng ngh v tuyn tim nng mi cho php nng cao hiu sut ph tn, thng lng ngi s dng v gim thi gian tr. Ngoi ra cng cn nghin cu gim phc tp ca h thng (nht l i vi cc giao din) v qun l ti nguyn v tuyn hin qu d dng trin khai v khai thc h thng.

1.2. QU TRNH TIU CHUN HA VVCDMA/HSPA TRONG 1 2 1 3GPP ...


3GPP c giao trch nhim tin hnh cng tc tiu chun ha HSPA. Trc t chc quc t n c giao nhim v tiu y chun ha cho WCDMA. Hot ng tiu chun ha cho WCDMA/HSPA ca t chc ny t nm 1999 n nm 2006 c tng kt theo thi gian a ra cc pht hnh trn hnh 1.1.

Chng Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G,


a) L trnh a ra cc pht hnh trong 3GPP

15

Thng mi

3GPPR3

3GPPR5

3GPPR6

3GPPR7

3GPP R8

b) L trnh tng tc truyn s liu trong cc pht hnh ca 3GPP 3GPPR99(R3) 3GPPR5 3GPPR6 3GPPR7 3GPP R8

-VC

0,4Mbit/s 0,4Mbit/s

14,4Mbit/s 0,4Mbt/s

14.4Mbit/s 5,7Mbit/s
VC d

LTE: 100Mbit/s 28,8Mbit/s* 4.HSPA: 42Mbit/s' LTE: 50Mbis 11Mbis

' Vi gi thit 2x2MIMO cng vi 16QAM ' Vi gi thit 2x2 MIMO cng vi 64QAM *

Hnh . . L trnh nghin cu pht trin trng 3GPP

Mc pht trin u tin cho WCDMA t c vo cui nm 1999 khi pht hnh 1999 (R3) c cng b cha ng ton b cc c t WCDMA. Pht hnh R4 c a ra sau vo u nm 2001. Tip theo l pht hnh R5 c a ra vo nm 2002 v R vo nm 2004. Pht hnh R7 c a ra vo na cui ca nm 2006. 3GPP lc u c bn nhm c t k thut khc nhau (TSG: Technical Speciications Group) v sau l nm nhm chuyn t cc hot ng GSM/EDGE vo 3GPP. Sau khi c cu li vo nm 2005, quay li cn bn nhm TSG (hnh 1.2) sau y: - TSG RAN (Radio Access Network: mng truy nhp v tuyn). TSG RAN tp trung ln giao din v tuyn v cc giao din bn trong u gia cc trm thu pht gc (BTS)/cc b i khin mng v tuyn (RNC) cng nh giao din gia RNC v mng li. TSG RAN chu trch nhim cho cc tiu chun HSDPA v HSUPA

16

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G - TSG CT (li v cc u cui). TSG CT tp trung ln cc vn

mng li cng nh bo hiu gia mng li v cc u cui - TSG SA (dch v v ki trc h thng). TSG SA tp trung ln n n cc dch v v ki trc h thng tng th - TSG GERAN (GSM/EDGE RAN). TSG R A N tp trung ln cc vn v RAN GSM/GPRS/EDGE.
Cc i tc c t chc Cc thnh vin ring r C i din

nhng cho giao din

v tuy n da trn

N h m iu phi n

TSG G E R A N TSG SA TSG RAN TSG C T

Cc nhm cng tc (WG)

Hnh 1.2. Cu trc 3GPP Di TSG l cc nhm cng tc (WG: Working Group), ti y cng tc nghin cu k thut thc s c tin hnh. Ch
ng hn di TSG RAN, ni nghin cu HSDPA v HSUPA, c nm nhm cng tc sau y: - TS R A N WG1: chu trch nhim cho cc kha canh v lp vt l - TS RAN WG2: chu trch nhim cho cc kha cnh lp 2 v lp 3 - TSG WG3: chu trch nhim cho cc giao din bn trong RAN - TSG RAN WG4: chu trch nhim cho cc yu cu v hiu nng v v tuy n - TSG RAN WG5: chu trch nhim cho kim tra u cui.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G,

17

Cc thnh vin ca 3GPP gm cc i tc c t chc. Cc hng c nhn phi l thnh vin ca mt trong cc i tc c t chc v da trn t chc ny h c quyn tham gia vo hot ng ca 3GPP. Di y l cc i tc c t chc hin nay: - Lin minh cc gii php cng ngh vin thng ATIS) t M - Vin Tiu chun vin thng chu u (ETSI) t chu u - Lin hip cc tiu chun thng tin Trung Quc (CCSA) t Trung Quc - Lin hip gii cng nghip v kinh doanh v tuyn (ARIB) t Nht Bn - y ban cng ngh vin thng (TTC) t Nht Bn - Lin hip cng ngh vin thng (TTA) t Hn Quc 3GPP to lp ni dung k thut ca cc c t, nhng chnh cc i tc c t chc s cng b cng vic ny. iu ny cho php c c cc tp c t ging nhau ti tt c cc vng irn th gii v v th m bo ph bin trn tt c cc lc a. Ngoi cc i tc c t chc, cn c cc i tc c gi l i din th trng nh UMTS Forum, l b phn ca 3GPP. Cng tc trong 3GPP c xy dng xung quanh cc danh mc cng tc (nghin cu), thng qua cc thay i nh c a ra trc tip nh 'cc yu cu' thay i i vi c t. i vi cc danh mc ln hn, thng thng nghin cu kh thi c thc hin trc khi tin n cc thay i thc t i vi cc c t. 1.2.2. Chun ha HSDPA trong 3GPP K h i pht hnh R3 hon thnh, HSDPA v HSUPA vn cha c a vo k hoch nghin cu. Trong nm 2000, khi thc hin hiu chnh W C D M A v nghin cu R4 k c TD-SCDMA, ngi ta nhn thay rng cn c mt s ci thin cho truy nhp gi. cho php pht trin ny nghin cu kh thi (danh mc nghin cu) cho HSDPA c khi au vo thng 3 nm 2000. Nghin cu ny dc bt du.

a u c K11 uau vau

TH VIN KHOA HC K THUT


BU IN

PHU BN:

18

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

theo cc nguyn tc ca 3GPP (phi c nht bn hng ng h). Cc t hng ng h k h i u nghin cu H S D P A g m M o t o r o l a v Nokia thuc pha cc nh bn m y v BT/Cellnet, T-Mobile v N T T D 0 C 0 M 0 thuc pha cc nh khai thc. Nghin c u k h thi kt thc ti phin hp ton th T S G R A N v kt lun rng cc gii php c nghin cu cho thy c li. Trong danh mc nghin cu H S D P A ny c cc vn c nghin cu ci thin truyn dn s liu gi ng xung so v i cc c t R3. Cc chuyn nh pht li lp vt l v lp biu da trn B T S c u nghin c u cng v i m ha v i ch thch ng. Nghin cu cng bao h m c m t s nghin cu vcng ngh pht thu nhiu anten di tiu "Nhiu u vo nhiu u r a " ( M I M O ) cng v i chn nhanh (FCS: Fast Cell Selection). V nghin cu kh thi cho thy c th t c ci thin ng k vi mc phc tp hp l, nn r rng l cn tip tc danh mc nghin cu thc t pht trin cc c t. Sau k h i danh mc cng tc ny c thit lp, phm v i cng tc ny vn tun theo danh mc nghin cu nhng M I M O c ly ra thnh mt danh mc nghin cu ring v nghin c u kh thi FCS cng c bt u c lp. Danh mc nghin cu H S D P A c nhiu nh bn m y ng h hn v danh mc nghin c u thc t ny nhn c s ng h t cc nh bn my l n nh Motorola, N o k i a v Ericsson. T r o n g qu trnh nghin cu, tt nhin con s cc hng ng gp k thut cho qu trnh ny cn ln hn nhi M t n m sau, c t H S D P A R5 c pht hnh. u. Tt nhin vn cn c cc hiu chinh cho HSDPA, nhng nhng chc nng li c trong cc c t lp vt l. Nghin cu m t phn b chm li do cc hot ng hiu chinh song song cn thit cho cc u cui v mng R3 ang c trin khai. Nht l i v i cc kha cnh giao thc, cc k i m tra k lng c thc hin pht hin cc chi tit cn hiu chnh v lm r ngha cc c t v y l trng hp i vi cc thit b R3 trc k h i bt u cc hot ng thng mi ti chu u vo na cui ca nm 2002. Nghin c u cc b phn ca

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trn 3G.

19

giao thc HSDPA chim nhiu thi gian nht. trong nghin cu tng thch ngc c bt u vo thng 3 nm 2004. Trong s cc chuyn khc lin quan n HSDPA, danh mc nghin cu M I M O khng hon thnh trong chng trnh khung thi gian ca R5 v R. Ngi ta vn tranh lun xem c xng ng a n vo h thng hay khng v y l chuvn nm trong danh sch cc chuyn ca R7. Nghin cu kh thi i vi FCS kt lun rng li ch nhn c t n khng ng k so vi s tng thm phc tp v th sau khi nghin cu ny khp li khng c danh mc nghin cu no c a ra cho FCS. Trong khi tp trung ln FDD (ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s). T D D (ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian) cng c a vo danh mc nghin cu HSDPA k c cc gii php tng t trong c hai ch T D D ( T D D bng hp v bng rng). 1.2.3. Chun ha HSUPA trong 3GPP Mc d HSUPA l thut ng c s dng rng ri trn th trng, trong qu trnh chun ha HSUPA thut ng ny c s dng di ci tn "knh ring ng ln tng cng' (E-DCH: Enhanced u p l i n k Dedicated Channel). Nghin cu c tin hnh trong giai on hiu chinh HSDPA v c bt u bng danh mc nghin cu v 'tng cng ng ln cho cc knh truyn tV vo thng 9 nm 2002. T pha cc nh bn my, Motorola, Nokia v Ericsson l cc hng ng h khi xng nghin cu cho vn ny trong 3GPP. Cc k thut c nghin cu cho HSUPA (E-DCH) bao gm (xem hnh 1.3): - H A R lp vt l nhanh cho ng ln - Lp biu nhanh ng ln da trn nt B - di thi gian truyn dn (TTI) ng ln ngn hn - Thit lp T T I nhanh

20

Gio trnh L trnh phi (nn thng tin d ng 3G ln 4G

Lp biu nhanh ng ln da trn nt B

Hnh 1.3. Cc k thut c xem xt nghin cu cho HSUPA Sau mt thi gian nghin cu di v chi tit, bo co kt qu nghin cu lm sng t cc li ch ca cc k thut c nghin cu. Bo co cho thy rng khng c li ch tim nng khi s dng iu ch bc cao trn ng ln v th iu ch thch ng khng c ua vo danh mc nghin cu thc t. Danh mc nghin cu ny c kt thc vo thng ba nm 2004 vi khuyn ngh vic bt u danh mc nghin cu trong 3GPP c t HARQ lp vt l nhanh v c ch lp biu da trn nt B cho ng ln cng nh di TTI ngn hon. Ngoi ra c ch thit lp cc knh DCH nhanh hn khng c a vo khuyn ngh ny, nhng cc vn ny c cp trong cc danh mc nghin cu khc i vi pht hnh 3GPP R da trn cc kt qu nhn c trong giai on danh mc nghin cu ny. Hnh .4 cho thy cc k thut c chn cho danh mc nghin cu HSUPA. 3GPP bt u danh mc nghin cu 'ng ln tng cng FD c t cc tnh nng ca HSUPA theo khuyn ngh ca bo co. Trong thi gian ny nghin cu TDD cha c tin hnh, nhung n s c nghin cu trong k hoch R7.

Chng : Tong quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G.

21

Lp biu nhanh ng ln da trn nt B Tri ngn hn cho ng ln

HSUPA

Hnh A. Cc k thut c la chn cho danh mc nghin cu HSUPA

>

HARQ cho dng ln

Do nghin cu nn tng chi tit v tt c thc hin trong thi gian nghin c u 18 thng, cng nh khng cn bn v i cng tc hiu chnh cc pht hnh trc, cc c t c pht trin nhanh v phin bn tnh nng u tin c a ra cho cc c t l i vo thng 12 n m 2004. Phin bn ny vn cha phi l phin bn hon thin c u i cng, nhng n cha cc chc nng then cht v trn c s cc chc nng ny c th tip tc tin hnh nghin c u hiu chinh v hon t h i n c h i tit.
Bt u nghin cu kh thi To lp danh mc nghin cu Cc thc hin tin vo th
trng 3/2004 Hiu chinh v kt thc cc danh mc nghin cu

920 /02

10/2002 hng v li ch -2/2004


nhm kinh t

Phn tch nh

Nghin cu chi tit v a ra cc yu cu thay i

2005

4-11/2004
Chp thun yu cu thay di Quyt dinh tch cc To lp cc dc t

3/2004

Trinh by kt qu cho TSG

12/2004 trong 3GPP

Hnh 1.5. V d v qu trnh tiu chun ha HSUPA

22

Gio trnh L trnh pht Hin ihn tin di ng 3G ln 4G Thng 3 nm 2005. danh mc nghin cu ny chnh thc c

hon thin cho cc c t chc nng. ngha l c th chuyn sang hiu chinh tnh nng ny. Trong cc thng cn li ca nm 2005 cc vn m. cng nh cc yu cu hiu nng c hon thin. V d v qu trnh tiu chun ha cho HSUPA c minh ha trn hnh 1.5. Bc cui cng cho HSUPA l hon thin tng thch ngc cho giao thc. iu ny s cho php thit lp mu chun cho cc thit b s c a vo th trng. Theo k hoch, qu trnh ny c tin hnh v o thng 3 nm 2005, sau khi vic xem xt ASN.l kt thc (ASN.l l ngn ng m ha bn tin giao thc c s dng trong mt s giao thc ca 3GPP). 1.2.4. Pht trin tng cung ca HSPA v HSDPA Trong khi HSUPA ang c c t, vn c cc nghin cu pht trin ci thin R HSDPA cng nh mt s lnh vc khc. nh: - c t hiu nng cho cc u cui tin tin hn s dng phn tp thu v (hoc) cc my thu tin tin - Ci thin tm ph sng ng ln bng cch s dng bo hiu phn hi ng ln - Cc ci thin trong lnh vc di ng ca HSDPA bng bo hiu nhanh hn v thi gian x l ngan hn. Mt danh mc nghin cu vi tn l 'kt ni lin tc cho nhng ngi s dng s liu gi' c nh ngha cho R7 vi mc ch gim chi ph trong cc thi gian phc v v duy tr lin kt nhng khng c lung s liu lin tc cn thit. Mt v d cho kiu dch v ny l dch v thoi trn c s gi vi tn gi ph bin l VoIP. Danh mc nghin cu M I M O vn tip tc c tin hnh vi nhiu xut. Nguyn l then cht l c hai (hay nhiu) anten pht vi cc lung thng tin khc nhau v sau s dng hai hay nhiu anten kt hp vi x l tn hiu tin tin ti u cui phn tch cc lung ny nh minh ha trn hnh 1.6.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G.

23

Thch thc ch yu l phi chne minh rng liu c nhn uc tng li ng k so li nhn c t cc ci thin hiu nng trong R v cc giai php ci thin dung lng hin c bng cch b sung thm my pht - chng hn chuyn t cu hnh ba on sang cu hnh su on . Cc kt lun trong 3GPP cho n thi im ny ch l trong mi trng v m, HSDPA vi M I M O c v khng mang li li ch v dung lng so vi trng hp thu phn tp v my thu tin tin ti u cui. V th thch thc ny vn cn tip tc c xem xt trong R7 v cc pht hnh tip theo. Nghin cu s hng n cc nh hn (cc vi m).

%Y %

C c b lc RF v bng gc PA: B khuch i cng sut

Gii tri ph v giai m khng gian/thi gian

P h n pht BTS vi kh nng c hai m y pht trn m t o n

u cui vi hai m y thu v kh nng gii m M I M O

Hnh 1.6. Nguyn l MI MO vi hai anten pht v hai anten thu Cc danh mc vn ang c nghin cu cho HSDPA hoc HSPA gm vn v gim tr thit lp cuc gi chuyn mch gi (PS) v chuyn mch knh (CS) nhm rt ngn thi gian cn thit chuyn t trng thi ri vo trng thi tch cc ( C e l l D C H ) . V hu ht cc bc trong W C D M A s vn gi' nguyn khng lin quan n cuc gi cs hay PS, nn cc ci thin ny mang li li ch cho c HSDPA/HSUPA ln thit lp cuc gi thoi bnh thng. u tin nghin cu tp trung ln xc nh cch thc cai thin thit lp cuc gi thoi R3 v ng thi tin ti s dng cc phng php c th p dng c cho cc thit b hin c. Sau nghin cu chuyn sang

24

Gio trnh L trnh pht /riu thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cc cai thin l n hn khng s dng c cho cc thit b hin c nhng tim nng hn v cc u cui s thay i. Ngha l cc thit b c kh nng R7 s nhn c thm cc ci thin trong hu ht cc trng hp. Pht trin HSPA trong R7 (cn gi l H S P A ) a n
+

tc 28Mbis cc i i vi ng xung v l M b i t / s cc i i vi ng ln.

1.3. K HOCH NGHIN cu PHT TRIN LTE


Nghin c u pht trin tiu chun L T E c tin hnh trong cc E-UTRAN TSG (Technical Sp eciication Group : nhm c t k thut). Trong cc cuc hp ca R A N TSG chi c mt vi vn k thut l c tn thnh. Thm ch trong cc cuc hp sau cc vn ny vn c xem xt li. 3GPP vch ra k hoch lm vic chi tit cho cc nhm nghin cu TSG RAN. L trnh pht trin ca L T E gn lin v i l trnh pht trin ca 3GPP. Hnh 1.7 cho thy l trnh pht trin ca 3GPP.
R99 (R3) 12/1999
-CSvPS - Cc knh mang R3 - MMS - Cc dch v nh v -v.v .. .

R6 - Cc tng cng 3/2002 -TD-SCDMA 5/20005 R7. R . . 8. HSDPA - v.v... ng ln tng IMS Thoi AMR-VVB cng (EDCH) LTE MBMS v.v... SAE Tng tc Pht trin HSPA VVLAN-UMTS v.v .. . v.v...

R4 3/2001

R5

Hnh . 7. L trnh pht trin 3GPP Cc vn nghin cu c thc hin trong hai TSG: T S G RAN: Nghin cu tiu chun cho giao din v tuyn TSG SA: Nghin cu kin trc mng. Ke hoch nghin cu pht trin tiu chun LTE c cho trn hnh 1.8.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu phi trin 3G.

25

Hnh 1.8. K hoch nghin cn tiu chun E-UTRAN Qu trnh nahin cu dc tin hnh trong cc nhm TSG 3GPPLTE/SAE di s iu hnh ca PCG (Proect Coordination Group: nhm iu phi n 3GPP) c cho trn hnh ] .9.

TSG GERAN (Mng truy nhp v tuyn)

TSG RAN (Mng truy nhp v tuyn)

PCG (Nhm diu phi n)

J
TSG CT (Mang l i v
d u CUI)

TSG SA (Cc vn ch v v h thng)

f
V / V

GERAN WG1 (Cc vn v tuyn) GERAN WG2 (Cc vn giao thc) GERAN WG3

) )
\ /

RAN WG1 (c l lp v tuyn)


RAN

SAWG1 (Cc ch v)

K
f
r

CTWG1

(MM/CC/SM (lu))

(c 13 lp

WG2 2 v RR

SA WG2 (Kin trc) CT WG3 " \ (Tdng lc VI ^ mng ngoi) ) CT WG4 (MAP/GTP/ BCH/SS) > J

lp 3 v tuyn!

(o k t m u

CUI)

RAN WG3 (c ta luB. lur. lu)

SA WG3 (An ninh)

RAN WG4 (Hiu nng


v luyn)

SA WG4 (Codec)

RAN WG5 (o Kim hp chun u CUI)

SA WG5 (Qun l vin thng) J

" CT WG5 {Truy nhp ch v m OSA) J


N

CT WG6 (Cc vn l ng dng the Ihng minh)

Hnh . 9. T chc ca nhm iu phoi n 3GPP

26

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Nh trn hnh .9 ta thy PCG iu hnh bn nhm TSG (nhm c t k thut) sau: () SA (Services and Architecture: dch v v h thng), (2) CT (Core Network and Terminals: mng l i v cc u cui), (3) GERAN (GSM EDGE: mng truy nhp v tuyn GSM EDGE), (4) RAN (Radio Access Netvvork: mng truy nhp v tuyn). Hnh 1.10 cho thy cc TR (bo co k thut) c thng qua trong 3GPP.

_ <" 9

3 5 3 i
N C > 0 '> to 0 <

e i s t c oi. V) K co .c

93

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu phi trin su. 1.4. I M T - A D V A N C E D V L T R N H TIN L N 4G

27

Trong ITU. nhm cng tc 8F (1TU-R WP 8F) ang tin hnh nghin cu cc h thng tip sau IMT-2000. Kh nng IMT-2000. cc tng cng ca n v cc h thng bao gm cc giao din sau IMT-2000 c cho trn hnh 1.11. Bang . cho thy mc tiu cua 4G. Bang L. Mc tiu cua 4G
Tc s liu Kt ni m n g Thng tin Tr Tr kt ni Tr truyn d n Gi thnh trn m t bt Gi thnh c s h tng 100Mbis c h o vng r n g , 1Gbit/s c h o vng h p Hon ton IP Rng khp, di ng. lin tc T h p h o n 3G T h p hn 5 0 0 m s T h p hn 5ms 1/10-1/100 thp hn 3G T h p hn 3G (khong 1/10)

-%%
Pht trin 3G

V
V / >
T r u

I IMT-2000

IMT-2000 tng cdng

\V

p , ni j j)j mai /
y n h k h d n g d y h t r

1 Mbt/S

10Mbis

100Mbis

1000Mbis

Tc s liu inh

Hnh . . Cc kha nng ca IMT-2000 v cc h thng sau MT-2000 theo khuyn ngh M. 1654 cua TU-R

28

Gio lnh L trnh pht Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G ITU-R WP 8F tuyn b rng cn c cc cng ngh v tuyn di

ng m i cho cc k h nng cao hn IMT-2000, tuy nhin vn cha chi r cng ngh no. Thut n g I M T - A d v c s dng cho cc h thng sau IMT-2000. T u y nhin I M T - A d v cng s c cc bc pht trin ging nh IMT-2000 v cha cc kh nng ca cc h thng trc . Q u trinh nh ngha I M T - A d v cn ang c khi tho trong WP8F v s hon ton ging nh qu trnh nghin cu cc khuyn ngh cho IMT-2000. N s da trn tp cc vu cu k thut ti thiu, v cc tiu ch nh gi v khi u bng vic m i tt c cc thnh vin I T U v cc t chc khc. Cc cng ngh c c s c nh gi da trn cc tiu ch tha thun. Vic nh gi s c tin hnh cng v i s cng tc ca cc t chc bn ngoi I T U nh cc t chc nghin cu tiu chun. V qu trnh nv cn s ng thun nn mt s cng ngh c th pdng cho I M T - A d v khng th xc nh trc. N phi l s cn i gia: tnh kinh t khi m rng, h tr cc mi trng ca nhng ngi s dng khc nhau v kh nng ca cc cng ngh khc nhau. Ngoi ra kh nng s dng m y u cui trn ton cu cng s l mt tiu ch quan trng. M t hot ng chnh trong ITU-R na lin quan n IMT-2000 Adv l vn xc nh ph tn S dng. iu ny s c tin hnh

trong WRC"07 ( W o r l d Radio Congress: Hi ngh v tuyn th gii). Trong gii nghin cu. mt s n nghin c u ang c tin hnh trong IMT-2000 A d v v th h sau ca truy nhp v tuyn. Chng hn n Winner c h tr mt phn k i n h ph t Lin minh chu u , l n dnh cho nghin cu v vn ny. Khi nim Winner c rt nhiu cc phn t rt gn vi LTE. T u y nhin Winner t mc tiu cho tc s liu cao hn v v th c thit k cho bng thng rng hn 20MHz. M t im khc na l Winner s s dng cc ch chuyn tip v a chng.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht

trin 3G,

29

n c n n Mt kh ging nh ca chu u ni trn l "Tng lai" (Future) ca Trung Quc tp trung ln xut giao din v tuyn cho IMT-Adv. Tuy nhin la chn cc xut cui cng cho IMT-Adv s l cc t chc pht trin tiu chun nh: ETSI. ARIB. CWTS... C quan tiu chun ton cu nh 3GPP tt nhin s c vai tr quan trng trong vn hi ha c d xut t cc t chc tiu c chun cng nh t cc vng khc nhau. Mc d 3GPP hin nay cha tin hnh nghin cu trc tip IMT2000 Adv. tuy nhin 3GPP s xut ln ITU-R. IEEE 802.16 ( W i M A X ) cng ang hon thin khi nim cua mnh v hng n xut cho IMT-Adv trong 802.lm. Tn" t 3GPP2 cng ang tin ti xut IMT-Adv. LTE l mt trong s cc con ng tin ti 4G. LTE s tn ti trong giai on u ca 4G. tip theo n s l I M T Adv. LTE cho php chuyn i dn t 3G UMTS sang eiai on u 4G sau sang IMT Adv. Chuyn i dn t LTE sang I M T Adv l chia kha ca thnh cng trn th trng. Ngoi LTE ca 3GPP ta cng cn nghin cu cc hng chuyn i khc sang 4G. 3GPP2 cng v ang thc hin k hoch nghin cu LTE cho mnh, h thng do 3GPP2 xut l U M B (Ultra Mobile Band). Chng trnh khung ca k hoch ny bt u t nm 2000 v theo d kin th c c t tiu chun s c c cng b vo thng 12 nm 2007. Ngoi ra W i M A X cng c k hoch tin ti 4G. Ta c the m t qu trnh tin ti 4G ca cc cng ngh hin c nh trn hnh 1.12.

30

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Kh nng di ng 1985 1995 2000 2005 HSPA HxEVDO GSM cdmaOne\ 2010 2015 Thi gian

LTE z. ,.J?>E3G

\ V * \IMT-Advanced4G;

f
\
1 G

2G

j\

J[

3G-

2Trin khai ^

\WCDMA\
cdia20001x (WiMAX/IEEE"

AMP, TACS \

Vj02.i6a^
/ WFLT I^EEE802.1W

Thp

Tc so l iu <10kbit/s E3G: 3G tng cng <200kbit/s 300kbit/s-10Mbit/s <100MbiVs 100Mbit/s-1Gbit/s

Hnh . 12. Qu trnh pht mn cc cng ngh thng tin di ng n 4G

1.5. TNG QUAN TRUY NHP GI TC CAO (HSPA) 1.5.1 M u Truy nhp gi tc cao ng xung (HSDPA: High Speed Down link Packet Access) c 3GPP chun ha ra trong R5 vi phin bn t chun u t v o nm 2002. Truy nhp gi ng ln iu in tc cao (HSPA: High Speed Uplink Packet Access) c 3GPP chun ha trong R vo thng 12 nm 2004. C hai HSDPA v HSUPA c gi chung l HSPA. Cc mng HSDPA u t c in a vo thng mi vo nm 2005 v HSUPA c a vo thng mi vo nm 2007. Tc s liu
nh ca HSDPA lc u l 1,8Mbit/s v t n n g 3,6Mbis v 7,2Mbit/s vo nm 2006 v 2007. tim nng c th t n trn 14,4Mbit/s nm 2008. Trong giai on u tc inh HSUPA l - 2Mbit/s. trong giai on hai tc ny c th t n 4 - 5,7Mbit/s vo nm 2008.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin so,

31

HSPA c trin khai trn W C D M A hoc trn cng mt sng mang hoc s dng mt sng mang khc t c dung lng cao (xem hnh 1.13).
f2

Nt B

RNC

SGSN

GGSN

Hnh . li. Trin khai HSPA vi sng mang ring (f2) hoc chung sng mang vi WCDMA (fl) HSPA chia s chung h tng mng vi WCDMA. nng cp WCDMA ln HSPA chi cn b sung phn mm v mt vi phn cng trong BSC v RNC. Lc u HSPA c thit k cho cc dch v tc cao phi thi gian thc, tuy nhin R v R7 ci thin hiu sut ca HSPA cho VoIP v cc ng dng tng t khc.
R5 H S D P A S liu t GGSN

u cui Tc HS-DSCH inh 14,4Mbis trn 2ms Thng s QoS: tc bt cc i: 3Mbit/s

Hnh . 14. Tc s liu khc nhau trn cc giao din (trng hp HSDPA) Khc vi W C D M A trong tc s liu trn cc giao din nh nhau (chng hn 384kbit/s cho tc cc i), tc s liu HSPA trn cc giao din khc nhau. Hnh 1.14 minh ha iu ny cho HSDPA. Tc inh (14.4Mbit/s trn 2ms) ti u cui chi xy ra

32

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

trong thi im iu kin knh truyn tt vi th tc trung binh c th khng qu 3Mbit/s. m bo truyn lu lng mang tnh cm ny, BTS cn c b m lun li lu lng v b lp biu truyn lu lng ny trn h tng mng. 1.5.2. Kin trc giao din v tuyn HSDPA v HSUPA cho s liu ngi s dng Hnh 1.15 cho thy kin tr c giao din v tuyn HSDPA v HSUPA cho s liu ngi s dng. Mt phang bo hiu khng c th hin trn hnh 1.3 (trong mt phng ny bo hiu c ni n RLC sau c a ln DCH hay HSDPA hoc HSUPA). s liu t cc d
ch v khc nhau c nn tiu IP ti PDCP (Packet Data Convergence Protocol: Giao thc hi t d liu gi). MAC-hs (High Speed: tc cao) thc hin chc nng lp biu nhanh da trn BTS.
Nn tiu IP (PDCP)

Phn on v lp (RLC) Cc dch v c s nh: ting thoi AMR, video G h p knh (MAC-d) 1 Sp t toi

(MAC-es)
Knh ring (DCH) Pht lp H A R Q nhanh (MAC-hs) Pht lp H A R Q nhanh (MAC-e)

Lp vt l MAC-hs: High Speed MC: MC tc cao MAC-e: E-DCH M C : M C knh E-DCH MAC-es: thc th M C knh E-DCH sp t li th t

Hnh . 15. Kin trc giao din v tuyn HSDPA v HSUPA cho s liu ngui s dng

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu phi Irin 3G. 1.6. T N G Q U A N L T E

33

C th tm tt cc nhim v nghin cu ca LTE v SAE nh sau: /. v phn v tuyn (LTE): - Ci thin hiu sut ph tn. thng lng ngi s dng, tr - n gin ha mng. v tuyn - H tr hiu qu cc dch v gi nh: MBMS. IMS
. v phn mng (SAE):

- Ci thin tr. dung lne v thng lng - n gin mng li - Ti un ha lu lng IP v cc dch v - n gin ha vic h tr v chuyn giao n cc cng ngh khng phi 3GPP Kt qu nghin cu ca LTE l a ra c chun mng truy nhp v tuyn vi tn gi l E-UTRAN (Enhance Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network: Mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t ton cu tng cung), n gin trong gio trnh ny ta s gi chung l LTE. Trong cc phn di y ta s xt tng quan kin trc LTE v k hoch nghin cu n trong 3GPP. 1.6.1. Tc s liu nh LTE s h tr tc inh tc thi tng ng k. Tc ny c inh c ty '.heo kch thc ca ph c n nh. LTE s m bo tc s liu inh tc thi ng xung ln n lOOMbit/s khi bng thng c cp pht cc i l 20MHz (5bit/s/Hz) v tc nh ng ln 50Mbit/s khi bng thng c cp pht cc i l 20MHz (2,5bit/s/Hz). Bng thng LTE c cp pht linh hot t 1,25MHz ln n 20MHz (gp bn ln bng thng 3G-UMTS). Lu rng tc nh c th ph thuc vo s lng anten pht v anten thu ti UE. Cc mc tiu v tc s liu nh ni trn c

34

Gio trnh L trnh pht Hin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

c t trong U E tham chun gm: () kh nng ng xung v i hai anten ti UE, (2) kh nng ng ln v i mt anten ti UE. Trong trng hp p h c dng chung cho c ng ln v ng xung. L T E khng phi h tr tc s liu inh ng xung v ng ln ni trn ng thi.

1.6.2. Tr mt phang c v mt phang


Cn gim ng k tr mt phng iu khin (mt phang C) (chng hn bao g m tr chuyn i t trng thi ri sang trng thi trao i s liu khng k tr tm gi l OOms) (hnh 1.16).

<100ms

Hnh . l. V d v chuyn i trng thi trong kin trc E-UTRAN


L T E phi c thi gian chuvn i trng thi nh hn lOOms (nh trong ch r i ca R ) vo trng thi tch cc (nh trong R C e l l _ D C H ) . N cng cn m bo thi gian chuyn i nh hn 50ms t trng thi ng (nh trong R Cell_PCH) vo trng thi tch cc (nh trong R Cell_DCH). Cn m bo tr trong mt phang u nh hem lOms. T r mt phng u c nh ngha l tr mt chiu gia mt gi ti lp IP trong U E (hoc nt bin ca U T R A N ) n l p IP trong nt bin ca U T R A N (hoc UE). Nt bin ca U T R A N l nt giao din U T R A N vi mng li. Chun phi m bo tr mt phang u ca L T E nh hn 5ms (hnh 1.17) trong iu kin khng ti (ngha l m t ngi s dng vi mt lung s liu) i v i gi nh (chng hn ti t i n bng khng

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G,

35

cng vi tiu ). R rng rng cc ch n nh bng thng ca LTE c th nh hng ng k ln tr.

eNodeB: Nt B c thm cc tinh chc nng b sung so vi nt B ca VVCDMA/HSPA

Hnh 1.17. Tr mt phang u 1.6.3. Thng lu o ng s liu Thng lng ng xung trong LTE s gp ba n bn ln thng lng ng xung trong R HSDPA tnh trung bnh trn 1MHz. Cn lu rng thng lng HSDPA trong R c xt cho trng hp mt anten ti nt B vi tnh nng tng cng v mt my thu trong UE; trong khi LTE s dng cc i hai anten ti nt B v hai anten ti E. Ngoi ra cng cn lu rng khi bng thng cp pht tng, thng lng cng tng. Mt khc thng lng ng ln trong LTE cng gp hai n ba ln thng lng ng ln ca R HSUPA tnh trung bnh trn 1MHz. Trong o gi thit rng R HSUPA s dng mt anten pht ti UE v hai anten thu ti nt B; cn ng ln trong LTE s dng cc i hai anten pht ti UE v hai anten thu ti nt B. 1.6.4. Hiu sut ph tn LTE phi m bo tng ng k hiu sut ph tn v tng tc b t ti bin trong khi vn m bo duy t cc v t t trm hin c r r ca U T R A N v EDGE. Trong mng c ti, hiu sut ph tn knh ng xung ca LTE phi gp 3 n bn ln R HSDPA tnh theo bit/s/Hz/trm. Trong gi thit rng R HSDPA s dng mt anten ti nt B v mt my thu, cn LTE s dng 2 anten ti nt B v mt anten ti UE.

36

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4U Hiu sut ph tn knh ng ln trong E-UTRAN phi gp ba

n bn ln R H S U P A tnh theo bit/s/Hz/trm v i gi thit HSUPA s dng hai anten ti nt B v mt anten ti U E cn L T E s dng hai anten ti nt B v hai anten ti UE. Cn lu rng s khc bit v hiu sut ph tn trn dng xung v ng ln l do mi trng khai thc khc nhau gia ng xung v ng ln. Thng thng ng ln rt nhy cm vi gim cp knh nh nhiu a ng v.v... v th gi thnh m bao hiu qu tch sng trong ng ln cao hn trong ng xung. L T E cn h t r s n nh bng thng kh nh c. chng hn 5, 10. 20 v c th c 15MHz. Cng cn xem xt c vic nh c bng thng 1,25 hay 2.5MHz trin khai trong cc vng bng thng c cp pht hp. Bng .2 v a .3 so snh thng s tc v hiu sut s dng bng tn gia L T E v HSPA trn ng xung v ng ln. Bng 1.2. So snh thng s tc v hiu sui s dng ph tn gia L TE trn ng xung v
HSDPA (R6) Tc nh (Mbit/s) Hiu sut ph tn (bit/Hz/s) Thng lng ngi s dng bin 14,4 0,75 0,006 LTE 144 18 ,4 0,0148

HSDPA
ch LTE/ dt 100/ t 3-4 ln HSDPA/t2,5 2-3 ln HSDPA/t2,5

Bng 1.3. So snh thng s tc v hiu sut s dng ph tn gia LTE (rn ng ln v
HSUPA (R6) Tc nh (Mbis) Hiu sut ph tn (bit/Hz/s) Thng lng ngi s dng bin 57 , 0,26 0,006

HSDPA
LTE 57 0,67 ch LTE/ t 50/ t 2-3 ln HSUPA/t2.6 2-3 ln HSDPA/t 2,5

0,015

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht trin 3G, 1 6 5 H tr di ng ...

37

Hiu nng L T E cn c ti u ha cho nhng ngi s dng di ng ti cc tc thp t 0 n 15kmph (kmph:km/gi). Nhng ngi di ng ti cc tc cao t 15 n 120kmph cn c m bo hiu nng cao tha mn. Cng cn h tr di ng ti cc tc t 120kmph n 350kmph (thm ch n 500kmph ph thuc vo bng tn c cp pht). Vic m bo tc 350kmph cn thit duy t r cht lng dch v chp nhn c cho nhng ngi s dng cn c cung cp dch v trong cc h thng xe la tc cao. Trong trng hp ny cn s dng cc gii php v m hnh knh c bit. Khi thit lp cc thng s lp vt l, L T E cn c kh nng duy t kt r ni ti tc ln n 350kmph thm ch ln n SOOkmph, ph thuc bng tn c cp pht. LTE cng cn h tr cc k thut cng nh cc c ch ti u ha tr v mt gi khi chuyn giao trong h thng. Cc dch v thi gian thc nh ting c h tr trong min chuyn mch knh trc y phi c E-UTRAN h tr trong min chuyn mch gi vi cht lng ti thiu phi bng vi cht lng c h tr bi UTRAN (chng hn tc bt m bo) trn ton b di tc . n h hng ca chuyn giao trong h thng ln cht lng (thi gian ngt) phi nh hn hay bng cht lng c cung cp trong min chuyn mch knh cua GERAN. 1.6.6. Vng ph LTE phi h tr linh hot cc kch bn ph sng khc nhau trong khi vn m bo cc mc tiu nu trong cc phn trn vi gi thit s dng li cc i trm T R A N v tn s sng mang hin c. Thng lng, hiu sut s dng ph tn v h tr di ng ni trn phi p ng cc c bn knh 5km v gim nh cht lng i vi cc c bn knh 30km.

38

Gio trnh L trnh pht Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Nh ni trn LTE. phi hot ng trong cc bng thng 1,25MHz: 2 5MHz; 5MHz; 10MHz; 15MHz; v 20MHz trn ca ng xung ln ng ln. cn m bo lm vic c ch n bng ln song bng. H thng phi h tr truyn ni dung trn ton th cc ti n g u y n bao gm c cc ti nguyn kh dng i vi nh khai thc (c g i l Radio Band Resources) trong cng mt bng tn hoc trong c c b n g tn khc nhau trn c ng ln ln ng xung. H thng phi h tr lp biu cng sut, lp biu thch ng... 1.6.7. MBMS tng cng MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Service: Dch v a phng qung b a phng tin) c a vo cc dch v ca L T E . Cc h thng LTE phi m bo h tr tng cng cho MBMS. LTE phi h tr cc ch MBMS tng cng so vi hot ng c a UTRA. i vi trng hp n phng, LTE phi c kh nng t c cc mc tiu cht lng nh h thng cc h thng UTRA k h i lm vic trn cng mt i trm. H tr MBMS ca LTE cn m bo cc yu cu sau: () Ti s dng cc phn t lp vt l: gim phc tp u cui, s dng cc phng php a truy nhp. m ha. iu ch c bn p dng cho om phng cho cc dch v MBMS v cng s dng tp ch bng thng ca E cho cc khai thc n phng cho MBMS, (2) Thoi v MBMS: gii php LTE cho MBMS phi cho php tch hp ng thi v cung cp hiu qu thoi dnh ring v cc dch v MBMS c h o ngi s dng; (3) Khai thc MBMS n bng: phi h tr trin khai cc sng mang LTE mang cc dch v MBMS trong ph tn n bng. 1.6.8. Trin khai ph tn Yu cu LTE lm vic vi cc kch bn trin khai ph tn sau y: - ng tn ti trn cng vng a l hoc cng i t r m vi G E R A N / T R A N trn cc knh ln cn

Chung : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht /riu 3t,

39

- n g t n ti trn cc knh ln cn hoc chng ln ti bin gii cc nc - L T E phi c kh nng hot ng c lp (khng cn sng mana khc) - T t c cc bng tn u c cho php tun theo pht hnh v cc nguyn tc bng tn c lp Cn lu rng trong trng hp cc yu cu iu phi bin gii. cc vn khc nh cc giai php lp biu cn c x e m xt cng v i cc hot ne khc ca lp vt l. 1.6.9. ng tn ti v tng tc vi cc 3GPP RT L T E phai h t r tng tc v i cc h thng 3G hin c v vi cc h khng theo chun 3GPP. L T E phai m bo kha nng ng tn ti gia cc nh khai thc trong cc bng lin k v trn bin. Tt c cc u cui L T E h tr khai thc T R A N / G E R A N phi c kh nng h tr o. chuyn giao n/t c hai h thng U T R A N v GERAN. Ngoi r a L T E cn phi h tr o gia cc R T (Radio Access Technology: cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn) vi nh hng chp nhn c ln s phc tp u cui v hiu nng mng, chng hn bng cch c u n g cp cho cc U E cc c hi o trn ng ln v ng xung thng qua lp biu. V th vn t ra dy khng chi l vic tng thch ngc m c vic h t r c ch chuyn giao gia cc mng 3GPP khc nhau. Ngoi ra cng cn nhn mnh rng H S D P A vn l mt gii php 3G t 3GPP v n hon ton tng thch ngc v i cc mng W-CDMA. Tng thch ngc l ht sc cn thit trong LTE. nhng cng cn xem xt cn thn trong m i tng quan v i cc tng cng v hiu nng v k h nng. vn tng thch gp phi y cng ging n h u cc vn tng thch c gii quyt gia U T R A N v G E R A N (da trn G S M ) .

40

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Di y l cc yu cu cho tng tc mng: - T h i gian ngt chuyn giao cc dch v thi gian thc gia

L T E v U T R A N / G E R A N khng c qu 300ms - T h i gian ngt chuyn giao cc dch v phi thi gian thc gia L T E v U T R A N / G E R A N khng c qu 500ms - Cc thit b u cui khng tch cc (chng hn ti trng thi R Cell_PCH) h tr U T R A N / G E R A N c b sung thm L T E khng nht thit c h i gim st cc bn t i n tm g i t m t trong s UTRAN, G E R A N va L T E Cc yu cu trn c t ra cho cc trng hp trong cc mng U T R A N v/hoc G E R A N cung cp h tr cc chuyn giao LTE. T h i gian chuyn giao ni trn c coi l gi tr cc ti thiu, c cc gi tr ny c th thay i k h i kin tr tng th v lp vt l c nh ngha chi tit. 1.6.10. Kin trc v qu trnh chuyn i K i n tr c ca L T E phi c s ng trong T S G (Technical Speciication Group: n h m c t k thut). K i n trc E-UTRAN phi c xy dng trn c s chuyn mch gi mc d phi h tr cc dch v thi gian thc v lu lng loi h i thoi. Kin tr c E - T R A N phi n gin ha v gim thiu s lng cc giao din. L T E phi m bo chuyn i kinh t t kin tr v giao din v c tuyn U T R A ca R. Thit k mng L T E phi c thc hin theo mt kin tr L T E duy nht da trn gi (kin trc khng dy ton IP c s n g tr trong cc mng L T E ) . Kin trc L T E phi gim thiu xy ra "mt im ca nhiu s c" v v th phi c cc bin php d phng. K i n trc L T E phi h tr cc yu cu QoS u cui u cui. Ngoi ra cc giao thc thng tin ng trc phi c ti u ha trong LTE. Cc c ch QoS phi xt n cho cc kiu lu lng khc nhau s dng hiu qu bng thng.

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu pht n in 3G.

41

L T E p h i h t r cc k i u dch v khc n h a u nht l t r o n g m i n PS ( c h n g h n V o I P , h i n d i n ) . E - U T R A N ( h a y v i t g n l E - R A N ) p h i c t h i t k g i m t h i u cc t h a y i t r ( J i t t e r ) c h o thng t i n gi TCP/IP. 1.6.11. Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn N h c p trn. qun l ti nguyn v t u y n i h i : () h tr tng c n g Q o S u c u i u c u i : ( 2 ) H t r h i u q u t r u y n cc l p c a o ; ( 3 ) H t r c h i a s ti v qun l chnh sch trn cc cng n g h t r u y n h p v t u y n ( R T ) khc nhau. 1.6.12. Cc vn v mc phc tp L T E p h i t h o a m n h i u nng v u cu. Ngoi r a m c p h c t p c n g phi c g i m t h i u n nh h t h n g v tng tc v i cc giai o n trc. i u ny c n e c h o php gim gi thnh t h i t b au c u i v U T R A N . t h c h i n cc y u c u trn t a c n lu cc v n sau. g i m p h c t p t r o n g q u trnh t h c h i n c v p h n c n g l n phn m m . t h i t k L T E p hi g i a m thiu s lng cc ty c h n v m b o l o i b cc tnh nng b t b u c tha. M t v n q u a n t r n g na l phi g i m t h i u s lng cc trng h p k i m t r a c n t h i t . chng h n g i m s lng cc t r n g thi ca cc g i a o thc. gim t h i u <sn lirome cc t h t c . cc thng s v tnh ht. C c y u c u i v i L T E p h i gim t h i u m c p h c t p ca U E lin q u a n n kch thc, t r n g lng v d u n g lng a c q u i ( c h c h v c h tch c c ) n h n g v n m bo cc dch v tin t i n ca L T E . t h a m n cc y u c u ni trn c n lu cc y u t sau: - C n x e m xt m c lin q u a n n kh nng h t r n h i u R T ( G E R A N / U T R A N / L T E ) k h i x e m xt p h c tp ca cc tnh nng L T E - C n g i m t h i u cc tnh nng bt b u c - K h n g c c cc c t kp h o c t h a c h o cc tnh nng b t buc k h i t h c h i n c n g m t n h i m v

42

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

- Phi gim thiu s lng cc ty chn. Tp cc ty chn p hi kh thi cho cc kiu UE v cc kh nng khc nhau. Cc kiu UE/cc kh nng khc nhau c s dng p ng mc phc tp ph thuc vo hiu nng. chng hn vic s dng nhiu anten. 1.7. KIN TRC M HNH LTE Hai kin trc m hnh c cc 3GPP WG (nhm cng tc ca 3GPP) xut cho kin trc LTE c cho trn cc hnh 1.18. 1 1 .9 v 1.20.

Hnh . 18. Kin trc m hnh BI ca E-TRAN cho trng hp khng chuyn mng

Chng : Tng quan k hoch nghin cu phi trin 30.

43

Trn m hnh kin trc hnh 1.18 cc k hiu c s dng nh sau. R I . R2 v R3 l tn ca cc im tham kho. G + k hiu cho G
x x

pht trin hay m rng. PCRF1 (PCRF: Policy and Charging Rules Function: chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch) th hin chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch pht trin. Cc ng ni v cc vng trn khng lin tc th hin cc phn t v cc giao din mi ca kin trc LTE.

Hnh 1.19. Kin trc m hnh BI ca E-UTRAN trong Ri, m bo chc nng chun b chuyn giao gim thi gian ngt Trn m hnh kin trc hnh .20 cc k hiu c s dng nh sau. R , th hin chc nng chun b chuyn giao gim thi gian | ngt. D kin giao din ny s tng i tng qut m bo cc t hp khc nhau ca R T . G + th hin G c thm h tr di ng gia
x v

44

Gio trnh L n inh phi Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cc h thng truy nhp (Inter AS). W + k hiu cho W c thm h tr


x x

di ng gia cc h thng, lnter AS M M (Inter Access System Mobility Management) k hiu cho qun l di ng gia cc h thng truy nhp. PCRF2 th hin chc nng quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch. trn hnh v chc nng ny c th hin hai ln chi th hin cu hnh. Cc ng trn v cc ng ni khng lin tc th hin cc phn t/giao din mi ca kin trc E-UTRAN.

MME: Mobility Management Entity: Thc th qun l ' 'lng UPE: User Plane Entity: Thc th mt phang ngi s dng 3GPP Anchor: Neo 3GPP SAE Anchor: Neo di ng gia cc h thng truy nhp 3GPP (2G/3G/LTE) v cc h thng truy nhp khng phi 3GPP (WLAN, WiMAX) SAE: System Architecture Evolution: Pht trin kin trc h thng

Hnh 1.20. Kin trc m hnh LTE theo TR

23.822

M hnh 1.20 th hin kin trc theo TR 23.882 trong cc giao din c c t
chi tit.

Chng 1: Tng quan k hoch nghin cu phi trin 30,

45

1.8. TNG KT
Chng ny xt tng quan cc qu trnh pht trin t 3G W C D M A ln 3G HSPA (3G+) v LTE (E3G/4G ). Cc cng ngh truy nhp HSPA vn cn da trn cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn C D M A ca WCDMA, tuy nhin cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn ca L T E s dng a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA). s c xt c th trong cc chng sau ca gio trnh. C th ni HSPA l hu 3G cn LTE l tin 4G. Trong chng ny ta cng xt l trnh tin ln 4G. Cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cho 4G s c th gi l IMT2000 Adv (IMT2000 tin tin). Hin nay c nhiu d n v xut nghin cu tm cng ngh thch hp cho 4G, tuy nhin cha c xut no c chp nhn vi th chua c chun cho 4G. Hy vng trong thi gian gn nht cc t chc quc t ln nh 3GPP, 3GPP2 hoc W i M A X tp trung ln nghin cu cng ngh c th cho 4G e t c cc tiu chun cho 4G. Chng ny cng xt tng quan qu trnh xy dng chun cho HSPA v LTE cng nh cc cng ngh ny. Nhn chung mc tiu ca cc cng ngh mi ny u nhm ci thin cc thng s hiu nng v gim gi thnh so vi cng ngh trc n: - Tng tc s liu inh - Tng tc bt ti bin - Ci thin hiu nng sut s dng ph tn - Gim tr vng - S dng bng thng linh hot - Gim chi ph u t mng - Gim mc phc tp. gi thnh cng nh tiu th cng sut ca u cui

46

Gio trnh L trnh phi Irin thng liu di ng 3G ln 4Q

- Tng thch vi cc pht hnh trc v vi cc cng ngh v tuyn khc - Ti un ha cho tc di dng thp ng thi h tr tc di ng cao. Chng ny cng xt tng quan nguyn l hot ng. m hnh giao thc. m hnh mng cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca HSPA v LTE. 1.9. CU H I . Trinh by qu trnh tiu chun ha WCDMA/HSPA trong 3GPP 2. Trnh by k hoch nghin cu pht trin LTE trong 3GPP 3. Trnh by khi nim IMT-Advanced l l trnh tin ln 4G 4. Trinh by tng quan nauvn l hot dng. m hnh giao thc. m hnh mng cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca HSPA 5. Trnh by tng quan nguyn l hot ng. m hnh giao thc cng nh mt s tnh nng c th ca LTE 6. Trnh by tng quan kin trc m hnh mng cua LTE

Chung 2

TRUYN DN TC s LIU CAO TRONG THNG TIN KHNG DY BNG RNG

Mc ch chnh ca pht trin 3G v ti n n 4G l cung cp cc tc s liu cao hn cho nhng ngi s dng u cui so vi 3G hin ti. iu ny khng chi bao hm kh nng cc tc inh cao hn m cn m bo tc cao hon ny trn ton b k c ti bin . Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny s bao gm: - Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc cao - Cc hn ch c bn i vi truyn dn tc s liu cao - Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng hn ch v iu ch bc cao - nh hng cua mi trng truyn sng ln truyn dn khng dy bng rng - C n hng chng phainh chn lc tn s - T uyn dn a s n g mang cho khng dy bng rng Mc ch chng ny nhm gip cho bn c hiu c cc hn ch c bn lin quan n vn : cc tc s liu no thc t t c trong cc kch bn khc nhau. y l cc hiu bi t nn tng cho cc phn sau ca chng cng nh cc chng khc lin quan n cc phng tin khc nhau tng cc tc s liu kh dng trong cc kch bn thng tin di ng khc nhau.

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G hiu c chng ny bn c cn hc k cc t liu c

trnh by trong chng v tham kho thm cc ti liu [9], [10], [11] [14], [15]. 2.1. CC HN CH co BN I VI TRUYN DN TC S LIU C A O Shannon a ra cng c l thuyt xc nh tc cc i c gi l dung lng cc i m thng tin c th c truyn trn mt knh thng tin cho trc. Mc d trong trung hp tng qut, cng c ny kh phc tp, tuy nhin trong trng hp c bit khi thng tin c truyn trn mt knh (hay mt ng truyn v tuyn) ch b nh hng ca tp m Gauss trng cng, dung lng knh c c xc nh bi mt biu thc kh n gin sau:

N)
Trong : + B
w

(2.1)

l bng thng kh dng cho truyn tin

+ s k hiu cho cng sut tn hiu thu + N k hiu cho cng sut tp m trng nh hng xu ln tn hiu thu. T (2.1) ta thy rng cc yu t cn bn hn ch tc s liu kh dng l cng sut thu kh dng, hay tng qut hn l t s tn hiu trn tp m S/N kh dng v bng thng kh dng B . e lm r hn
w

cch thc m cc nhn t trn hn ch tc s liu kh dng, ta gi thit rng thng tin s dng mt tc truyn tin R no . Cng sut tn hiu thu c khi ny c th c biu din l: s = E .R, trong
b

E l nng lng tn hiu thu trn bt. Ngoi ra cng sut tp m c th


b

c biu din l N = N .B, trong N l mt ph cong sut tp m o bng W/Hz.


0 n

Chng : Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

49

R rng rng tc thng t i n khng bao g i vt qu dung lng knh. D a trn iu ny v kt hp vi biu thc (2.1) ta c bt ng thc sau: r V A J V (2.2)

Hay. nu nh ngha hiu sut s dng bng thng (mc s dng bng thng) = R/B ,t
w

c: (2.3)

^ 8 : \ + .
l o

Ta c th vit li bt ng thc trn nhn c bin di cho nng lng thu cua mt bt thng tin c chun ha theo mt ph cng sut tp m k h i mc s dng bng thng " cho trc nh sau:

> m i n | ^

r
b 0

(2.4)

Ki

Biu thc ngoi cng bn phi. t s E /N yu cu ti m y thu, l mt h m p h thuc vo mc s dng bng thng (hnh 2.1). T hnh 2.1 ta thy, i v i mc s dng bng thng nh hn , ngha l cc tc thng t i n nh hn nhiu so vi bng thng c s dng, E /N yu cu thay i theo 7. i vi mt ph cng sut tp m t
b 0

cho trc, m i s tng tc thng tin u tng ng vi tng tng i cn* sut thu yu cu s = E /R ti my thu. Mt khc, i vi cc
b

mc s dng bng thng ln hn mt. E(/N yu cu tng nhanh


0

theo 7. V th trong trng hp cc tc s liu c cng gi tr hoc ln hn bng thng, m i s tng tc thng t i n khng km theo tng bng thng k h dng s dn n tng tng i kh ln cng sut tn hiu thu yu cu cc tiu.

50

Gio trnh L trnh phi Hin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

0.1

. _ , "1 Mc s dng bng thng,


:

10

Hnh 2. . ENo vn cu toi thiu ti mv thu ph thuc vo mc s dng bng thng 2.1.1. Truyn dn tc s liu cao mc cao trong cc kch bn gii hn bi tp m T phn tch trn, ta c th rt ra mt s kt lun lin quan n vic m bo tc s liu cao trong cc h thng thng tin di ng khi tp m l ngun gim cht lng ng truyn v tuyn chnh (kch bn b g i i hn b i tp m). - T r o n g cc kch bn ny, tc s liu c cung cp s lun lun b g i i hn bi cng sut thu kh dng hay trong trng hp tng qut l t s tn hiu thu trn tp m. Ngoi ra m i s tng tc s liu kh dng trong mt bng thng cho trc u i hi nht l tng cng mt lng tng i cng sut tn hiu t thu. n g thi nu c th m bo cng sut thu k h dng, th (t nht l theo l thuyt) c th m bo m i tc s liu trong mt bng thng hn ch kh dng. - T r o n g trng hp mc s dng bng thng thp, ngha l chng no tc s liu ca ng truyn v tuyn cn thp hn bng thng kh dng, m i s tng tc s liu i hi tng

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

51

tng i gn nh cng mt lng cng sut thu. Trng hp ny c gi l hot ng b gii hn bi cng sut (ngc vi hot ng b gii hn bi bng thng s xt di y), v (rong trng hp ny, tng bng thng kh dng khng nh hng ng k ln vic cng sut thu cn thit i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. - Tri li, trong trng hp mc s dng bng thng cao, ngha l trong trng hp cc tc s liu c cng gi tr hay ln hn bng thng kh dng, mi s tng thm tc s liu u i hi tng tng i kh ln cng sut tn hiu thu tr phi bng thng c tng t l vi tng tc s liu. Trng hp ny c gi l hot ng b gii hn bi bng thng v trong trng hp ny mi s tng bng thng s gim cng sut tn hiu thu yu cu cho mt tc s liu cho trc. V th s dng hiu qu cng sut t n hiu thu hay trong trng hp tng qut t s tn hiu trn tp m kh dng, bng thng truyn dn nht phi c cng gi tr nh tc s liu cn m bo. t Gi thit rng cng sut pht khng i, cng sut tn hiu thu c th c tng ln bng cch gim khong cch gia my pht v my thu, hay gim suy hao tn hiu trn ng truyn t my pht n my thu. Khi ny trong kch bn b gii hn bi cng sut, nht v mt l t thuyt ta c th tng tc s liu kh dng bng cch gim khong cch ngha l vng ph. Trong h thng thng tin di ng iu ny tng ng vi gim kch thc v v th cn nhiu trm hn bao ph cng mt din tch. c bit, vic m bo cc tc s liu vi cng gi tr hay ln hn bng thng kh dng (mc s dng bng thng cao) s i hi gim kch thc rt ln. Mt cch khc l chi chp nhn tc s liu cao cho cc u cui ti tm ch khng phi trn ton b . Cch Khc, tng tng cng sut tn hiu thu cho mt cng sut pht cho trc l s dng nhiu anten ti pha thu (phn tp anten

52

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4(J

thu). C th s dng nhiu anten thu ti trm gc (cho ng ln) hay nhiu anten thu ti u cui d i dng (cho ng xung). Bng cch kt hp cc tn hiu thu mt cch hp l. t s tn hiu trn tp m c th c tng t l v i s anten thu v th cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn i v i m t khong cch pht thu cho trc. a anten cng c th c p dng ti u pht. thng ti trm gc, v c s dng tp trung ton b cng sut pht v pha anten thu (n u cui d i ng ch). Gii php ny cng tng cng sut tn h i u thu v cho php t c cc tc s liu cao i vi mt khong cch t h u pht cho trc. Tuy nhin vic cung cp cc tc s liu cao bng cch s dng nhiu anten pht v anten thu c h i hiu qu n mt mc nht nh, ngha l c h n g no cc tc s liu ny cn b g i i hn bi cng sut c h khng phi bng thng. Bn ngoi im nv, cc tc s liu bt u b bo ha v m i s tng tip s lng anten pht hay anten t h u mc d c ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m nhng s khng m bo tng cc tc s liu. T u y nhin tnh trng bo ha tc s liu ny c th trnh c bng cch s dng ng thi nhiu anten ti pha pht v pha thu bng s d ghp knh khng gian hav cn c g i l M 1 M O ( M u l t i Input M u l t i Ouput - a u vo a u ra). Cc k thut a anten bao g m c ghp knh khng gian s c xt c h i tit t r o n g chng "Cc k thut a anten". M t gii php khc tng t s tn hiu trn tp m l g i m cng sut tp m hay g i m mt p h cng sut tp m t i m y thu. Phng php ny c th t c bng cch thit k m y t h u tin tin g i m h s tp m.
2.1.2.Truyn dn tc s liu cao trong cc kch bn b gii hn
bi n h i u

Cc phn tch trn chi xt cho mi trng thng t i n v tuyn b nh hng ca tp m. T u y nhin t r o n g cc kch bn thng t i n d i ng

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

53

thc t . n h i u t cc ln cn (c g i l nhiu gia cc ) thng gy g i m cp n g t r u y n v tuyn ln hom tp m. nht l trong trng h p nho v ti lu lng cao. Ngoi nhiu gia cc , cn xy ra n h i u t cc t r u y n dn khc trong c xt (c g i l nhiu n i ). Xt v n h i u mt. nh hng nhiu ln ng truyn v tuy n cng tng t nh nh hng ca tp m. Cc nguyn tc c xt trong cc phn trn cng p dng c cho kch bn trong nhiu l ngun gy g i m cp ng truyn v tuyn chnh: - K h i cho trc bng thne. tc s liu cc i c th t c b g i i hn b i t y s tn hiu trn nhiu. - V i c c u n g cp cc tc s liu ln hn bng thng kh dng (mc xng. Tng t nh cc kch bn i v i tp m, gim kch thc cng nh cc k thut a anten l cc bin php then cht tng cc tc s liu t r o n g kch bn b g i i hn bi nhiu: - G i m kch thc s g i m s ngi s dng v v i ths gim lu lng trn m t . N h vy gim mc nhiu tng i v v th cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn - K t h p h p l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s tn hiu trn nhiu sau k hp anten t - S dng to bp bng nhiu anten pht s tp t r u n g cng sut pht v pha m y t h u ch v dn gim nhiu ln cc ng truyn n v t u y n khc v v th ci thin tng t s tn hiu trn nhiu trone h thng. M t im khc bit quan trng gia nhiu v tp m l khc v i tp m, n h i u thng c cu trc nht nh v th m t mc nht s dng bng thng cao) s tn km t quan im cn m bo t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao m t cch khng tng

54

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

nh c th d bo c nhiu v c th loi b mt phn hay ton b n. Chng hn mt tn hiu nhiu ln c th n t mt phng xc nh v vy nu s dng x l khng gian bng nhiu anten ti pha thu ta c th loi b n mt phn hay ton b (s xt trong chng k thut a anten). Ngoi ra cng c th s dng cc khc bit v ph gia tn hiu ch v tn hiu nhiu loi nhiu v gim tng nhiu.

2.2. TRUYN DN TC S LIU CAO TRONG BNG THNG HN CH V IU CH BC CAO


Nh phn tch trong phn trc, cung cp cc tc s liu cao hom bng thng kh dng l khng kinh t, t quan im l n i hi t s tn hiu trn tp m v t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao mt cch khng tng xng ti my thu. Tuy vy bng thng thng l mt ti nguyn khan him v t tin v trong mt s trng hp c th m bo t s tn hiu trn tp m hay tn hiu trn nhiu cao, chng hn trong cc mi trng nh vi lun lng thp. Cc h thng thng tin di ng tng lai (pht trin ca 3G v 4G) phi c thit k tn dng c cc kch bn ny, ngha l phi c kh nng cung cp s liu cao trong mt bng thng c hn khi cc iu kin v tuyn cho php. Gii php n gin nht cung cp cc tc s liu cao trong bng thng truyn dn cho trc l s dng iu ch bc cao, ngha l m rng bng ch ci iu ch bao gm nhiu cch truyn tn hiu hn nhm cho php truyn nhiu bt thng tin hon trn mt k hiu iu ch. Trong trng hp iu ch QPSK (s iu ch ny c s dng cho ng xung ca WCDMA v cdma2000), bng ch ci iu ch bao gm bn cch truyn tn hiu khc nhau. Bn cch

Chng 2: Truyn dn lc s liu cao.

55

truyn tn hiu ny c m t bng bn im khc nhau trn mt mt phang hai chiu (hnh 2.2a). Bng bn cch truyn tn hiu khc nhau, QPSK cho php truyn 2 bt thng tin trn mt k hiu iu ch. Nu m rng n iu ch 16QAM (hnh 2.2b) 4 bt thng tin c th c truyn trn mt k hiu iu ch. M rng tip n 64QAM, 6 b t thng tin c th c truyn trn mt k hiu iu ch (hnh 2.2c). ng thi, bng thng ca tn hiu c pht khng ph thuc vo kch thc ca bng ch ci iu ch m ch ph thuc vo tc iu ch ngha l vo s k hiu iu ch c truyn trong mt giy. Nh vy mc s dng bng thng cc i (o bng bit/s/Hz) ca 16QAM v 6 4 Q A M gp hai v ba ln mc s dng bng thng ca QPSK. Cn nhn mnh rng c rt nhiu s iu ch c th s dng c khc so vi cc s trn hnh 2.2. Chng hn s 8PSK bao gm 8 cch truyn tin v cho php 3 bt thng tin truy ng thi n trn mt k hiu iu ch.
QPSK 16QAM OM

(a)

(b)

(c)

Hnh 2.2. Cc chm tn hiu i vi: (a) QPSK, (b) 16QAM v (c) 64QAM
Vic s dng s iu ch bc cao cung cp kh nng t c mc s dng bng thng cao hn, ngha l cung cp cc tc s liu cao hn trong mt bng thng cho trc. Tuy nhin mc s dng bng thng cao hn phi tr gi bng kh nng chu tp m v

56

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin ihng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nhiu km hn. Ni mt cch khc. cc s iu ch 16QAM v 64QAM i hi E / N ti my thu cao hn so vi PSK i vi xc


b 0

sut li bt cho trc. iu nv hon ton ph hp vi phn tch trong phn trc, trong kt lun rng mc s dng bng thng cao hn i hi E /N thu cao hn.
b

2.2.1. iu ch bc cao kt hp vi m ha knh Cc s iu ch bc cao nh 16QAM v 64AM i hi t l E / N cao hn so vi QPSK i vi mt t s li cho trc. Tuy nhin
b 0

khi kt hp vi m ha knh, vic s dng s iu ch bc cao s tr nn hiu qu hn trong mt s trng hp. ngha l n i hi E / N thu thp hn so vi s iu ch bc thp PSK i vi mt
h n

t s li cho trc. Chang hn iu ny c th xy ra khi mc s dng bng thng yu cu c th t c bng iu ch bc thp vi khng s dng hoc s dng m ha knh rt t. Trong trng hp ny m ha knh b sung c th p dng bng cch s dng s iu ch bc cao nh 16QAM c th cho php t c tng li hiu sut S dng cng sut so vi s dng QPSK. Ta xt v d sau. nu yu cu mc s dng bng thng gn bng 2 bt thng tin trn mt k hiu, th s QPSK ch cho php m ha knh rt hn ch (t l m gn bng mt). Mt khc, s dng iu ch 16QAM cho php s dng t l m vo khong mt phn hai. Tng t nu i mc s dng bng tn bng 4 bt thng tin trn mt k hiu, th vic s dng 64QAM c th hiu qu hn 16QAM v n cho php s dng t l m ha knh thp hn v v th nhn c li m ha b sung. T phn tch trn ta thy rng i vi mt t s tn hiu trn tp m/nhiu cho trc, tn ti mt s kt hp ti u gia s iu ch v t l m ha knh theo thng tin c truyn vi mc s dng bng thng cao nht (tc s liu cao nht i vi bng thng cho trc).

Chng 2: Truyn dn lc s liu cao. 2.2.2. Thay i ca cng sut pht tc thi

57

Nhc im chung ca cc s iu ch bc cao nh 1 6 A M v 6 4 Q A M l thng tin khng chi c mang bi pha m cn c bi bin ca sng mang (xem hnh 2.2b v 2.2c) dn n tn hiu sau iu ch c cc thay i rt ln v cc gi tr inh ln trong cng sut tc thi.
p
om
1

1 Min tuyn tinh Min bo ha

. 1 1

OBO

p
mu

1

IBO

1 insal

-H

in

IBO: khong li u vo OBO: Khong li u ra

Hnh 2.3. c tuyn b khuch i cng sut in hnh

Cc gi tr inh ln trong cng sut tn hiu tc thi i hi phi tng khong li trong b khuch i cng sut dch chuyn im cng tc vo vng tuyn tnh dn n hiu sut ngun ca b khuch i cng sut thp v lm tng cng tiu th cng sut (hnh 2.3). Ngoi ra do phi s dng cc b khuch i cng sut mnh hon nn gi thnh b khuch i cng sut cng cao hn. Mt gii php khc phc yu im ny l gim cng sut pht trung bnh, ngha l gim di ng i v i mt tc s liu cho trc. Hiu sut ca b khuch i cng sut c bit quan trng i vi u cui di ng (ng ln) do u cui di ng phi tiu th cng sut thp v c gi

58

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

r. i v i m y pht trm gc (ng xung) iu ny quan trng t hn v th iu ch bc cao thch hp hn i v i ng xung so vi ng ln. N h phn tch trong mc 2.1 cho thy truyn dn vi mc s dng bng tn cao l khng hiu qu v mt cng sut v n i hi phi tng mt cch khng tng xng t s tn hiu trn tp m v t s tn hiu trn nhiu i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. Ch c th S dng cc s iu ch bc cao cung cp cc tc s liu cao trong mt bng thng hn ch khi cc t s tn hiu trn tp m v tn hiu trn nhiu kh cao, chng hn trong cc mi trng nh vi ti lu lng thp hay i v i cc u cui gn trm gc. Ngoi ra cung cp cc tc s liu cao mt cch hiu qu nht xt t quan im t s tn hiu trn tp m v t s tn hiu t rn nhiu (hay vng ph tt nht), ta cn m bo bng thng ti thiu phi bng tc s liu. Tuy nhin tn ti nhiu vn quan trng lin quan n vic s dng bng thng rng hn trong cc h thng thng tin di ng: Ph tn thng l ti nguyn khan him v t tin v thng rt kh tm c cc cp pht ph ln m bo truyn dn bng lng, c bit l ti cc bng tn thp S dng cc bng thng pht v thu rng hn gy nh hng ln phc tp ca thit b v tuyn k c trm gc ln u cui di ng. Chng hn, bng thng truyn dn rng hn s nh hng ln tc ly mu ti m y pht v ti m y thu v v th nh hng ln phc tp v tiu th ngun ca cc b bin i s vo tng t v tng t vo s cng nh x l s ca tng u. Ngoi ra cc phn t v tuyn cng c thit k phc tp hn v t tin hn khi truyn dn bng rng.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

59

2 3 NH H N G CA MI TRNG TRUYN SNG LN .. TRUYN DN K H N G DY BNG RNG


Ngoi hai vn trn, mt vn rt quan trng nh hng ln truyn dn khng dy bng rng l mi trng truyn sng hay knh v tuyn (trong chng ny ta chi xt vn ny). Phainh a ng trn knh v tuyn dn n tn thi v chn lc tn s lm hng t n hiu thu. Tn thi v chn lc tn s xy ra khi tn hiu pht truyn n my thu qua nhiu ng truyn vi tr khc nhau (hnh 2.4a).
b) Tn thi

Hnh 2.4. Truyn sng a ng (a) gv ra tn thi (b) v chn lc tn s (c) Cn lu rng cc hnh 2.4b v 2.4c chi th hin mt ln "chp chp" p ng min thi gian v min tn s ca knh v tuyn tn thi. K h i u cui di ng di chuyn, cu trc truyn sng a ng thay i v cu trc ca cc p ng ny cng s thay i. Trong min thi gian khi trm gc (u vo knh v tuyn tn thi) pht i mt xung kim th u ra l mt dy xung c tr v bin khc nhau (hnh 2.4b) c c trung bng ba thng s: (1) tri tr trung bnh qun phng (RDS: Root Mean Squared Delay Spread): (2) tr tri trung bnh v (3) tr tri max x .
mnx

60

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tr tri l mt khi nim c s dng biu th tr ca mt ng truyn so v i ng truyn n sm nht (thng l LOS: ng truyn trc tip). M t thns s thi gian quan trng ca tn thi l tri tr trung bnh qun phng (RDS: Root Mean Squared Delav Spread): cn bc hai m m e n trung tm ca l lch tr cng sut. RDS l mt s do thch hp cho tri a ng ca knh. Ta c th s dng n nh gi nh hng ca nhiu giao thoa gia cc k hiu (ISI).

= Vi - Zp(T )T
k

(2.5)

Zp(t )
k

(2.7)

k trong P(x ) l cne sut trung bnh a ne ti thi dim T .


k k

Trong min tn s knh v tuyn tn thi tng ng vi p ng knh tn s thay i theo tn s (2.4c). Tn thi trong min thi gian v tnh chn lc trong min tn s cua knh s lm hng cu trc tn hiu pht trong min thi gian v min tn s dn n t s li cao hn. Tt c cc knh v tuyn u b chn lc tn s mt mc nht nh. Tuy nhin mc anh hng ny cng ln khi bng thng truyn dn cng ln. Ngoi ra mc chn lc tn s cng ph thuc vo mi trng, chng hn chn lc tn s t hn trong mi trng nh (t tn thi hn) v cc mi trng c t vt tn x v phn x sng hn nh mi trng nng thn. Tng t nh cc thng s tri tr trong min thi gian. ta c th s dng bng thng nht qun

Chmmg

2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

61

c trng knh trong min tn s. Tri tr trung bnh qun phng t l nghch vi bng thng nht qun v ngc li, mc d quan h chnh xc ca chng l mt hm ph thuc vo cu trc a ng. Ta k hiu bng thng nht qun l Be v tri tr trung bnh qun phng l a . K h i hm tng quan tn s ln hn 0.90 bng thng nht qun
T

ri c quan h sau y vi t tr truna bnh qun phng: B< * (2.8)


50,

Mt nh gi gn ng B cng thng c s dng l rng


c

bng vi tng quan nht bng 0.5 l: t B = (2.9)


c

V hai thng s trn lin quan cht ch vi nhau nn ta c th ch xt mt thng s trong qu trnh thit k h thng. Ngoi ra, hiu ng Doppler cng nh hng xu ln cc c tnh truyn dn ca knh v tuyn di ng. Do chuyn ng ca my di ng, hiu ng Doppler gy ra dch tn s i vi tng sng mang thnh phn. Nu ta nh ngha gc ti ct l gc hp bi phng ti
n

ca sng ti th n v phng chuyn ng ca my di ng nh hnh 2.10. th gc ny s xc nh tn s Doppler (dch Doppler) ca sng ti theo biu thc sau: f = f cosa
c D

(2.10)

Tc thay i ca cc p ng knh ph thuc vo tc chuyn ng ca u cui di ng v lin quan n tri Doppler f


D c c D

c nh ngha l: f = f . v/c, trong f l tn s sng mang (2GHz chng hn), V l tc chuyn ng ca u cui v c l tc nh sng (hnh 2.5).

62

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

s
A

AO => 1, =

v.f

= cos=-co sa In t c

Hnh 2.5. Gc ti a ca sng ti minh ha hiu ng Dopper

T h i g i a n n h t qun chu n h h n g t r c t i p c a dch Doppler, n l thng s knh t r o n g m i n t h i g i a n i n g u v i t r i Doppler. T r i D o p p l e r v t h i g i a n n h t qun l h a i thng s t l nghch vi nhau. N g h a l T *- (2.11)
c

Khi thit k h thng ta chi cn xt mt trong hai thng s ni trn. P h t h u c vo q u a n h g i a cc thng s tn h i u ( r n g bng tn, c h u k k hiu,...) v cc thng s knh (tri t r t r u n g bnh qun p h n g , t r i Doppler....). t a c t h phn l o i phainh p h m v i h p da trn h a i c tnh: t r i t r a n g v phainh c h n l c t n s. T r i tr a n g l m t thng s t r o n g m i n t h i g i a n , t r o n g k h i v i c knh

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

63

l phainh phang hay chn lc tn s li tng ng vi min tn s. V th thng s min thi gian, tri tr a ng, nh hng ln c tnh knh trong min tn s. Tri Doppler dn n tn tn v phainh chn lc thi gian, v th lin quan n tri Doppler ta c th phn loi phainh phm v i hp thnh phainh nhanh v phainh chm. Tri Doppler l m t thng s trong min tn s trong khi hin tng knh thay i nhanh hay chm li thuc min thi gian. V y trong trng h p ny, tri Doppler, thng s trong min tn s, nh hng ln c tnh knh trong min thi gian. Hiu bit c cc quan h ny s h tr ta trong qu trnh thit k h thng.

Bng 2. . Cc loi phainh phm vi hp


C s phn loi Tri tr a ng Loi
phainh
C

iu kin B B ; T>10o, B>B ; T<l0<7


C t

Phainh phng Phainh chn lc tn s Phainh nhanh

T>T ; B<f
C C

Tri Doppler Phainh chm T T ; Bf

Cc k hiu c s dng trong bng 2.1 nh sau: B k hiu cho rng bng tn tn hiu, Be k hiu cho bng thng nht qun, f k
D

hiu cho tri Doppliir. T k hiu cho chu k k hiu v tri tr trung
t

bnh qun phng. N u bng thng nht qun knh ln hn rt nhiu so vi rng bng tn t i n hiu pht, tn hiu thu s b phainh phang. K h i ny chu k k hiu ln hn nhiu so vi tri tr a ng ca knh. Ngc li, nu bng thng nht qun knh nh hn rng bng tn tn hiu pht, tn hiu thu s b phainh chn lc tn s. Trong trng hp ny chu k tn hiu n h hn tri tr a ng knh. K h i xy ra trng hp ny, tn hiu thu b m o dng dn n nhiu giao thoa gia cc k hiu (ISI). Ngoi ra vic lp m hnh cc knh phainh chn lc tn s phc tp hn nhiu so v i lp m hnh knh phainh phng, v lp

64

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

m hnh cho knh phainh chn lc tn s ta phi s dng b lc tuyn tnh. Do ta cn c gng chuyn vo knh phainh phang cho tn hiu truyn dn. Tuy nhin do khng th thay i tri tr a ng v bng thng nht qun, nn ta chi c th thit k chu k k hiu v rng bng tn tn hiu t c knh phainh phang. V th nu cho trc tri tr. ci thin hiu nng truyn dn. ta chn gi tr chu k k hiu trong gii thut iu ch thch ng t c knh phainh phng thay v knh phainh chn lc. Da trn tri Doppler, ta c th phn loi knh thnh phainh nhanh v phainh chm. Nu p ng xung kim knh (trong min thi gian) thay i nhanh trong chu k k hiu, ngha l nu thi gian nht qun knh nh hn chu k k hiu ca tn hiu pht, knh s gy ra phainh nhanh i vi tn hiu thu. iu ny s dn n mo dng tn hiu. Nu p ng xung kim knh thay i vi tc chm hn nhiu so vi k hiu bng gc pht, knh s gy ra phainh chm i vi tn hiu thu. Trong trng hp ny knh t ra tnh i vi mt s chu k k hiu. Tt nhin ta mun c phainh chm vi n h tr cht lng truyn dn n nh hom. Ta khng th xc nh Doppler khi thit k h thng. V th, khi cho trc tri Doppler, ta cn chn rng bng tn tn hiu (bng thng sng mang con) trong gii thut iu ch thch ng nhn c knh phainh chm thay v knh phainh nhanh. Nh vy ta s t c cht lng truyn dn tt hn. Cc b cn bng min thi gian v min tn s c s dng t lu chng tn thi trong min thi gian v chn lc tn s trong min tn s. Cc b cn bng ny m bo hiu nng tha mn vi phc tp hp l cho cc bng thng tng ng vi bng thng 5MHz ca WCDMA. Tuy nhin nu tng bng thng truyn dn ln hn na chng hn 20MHz nhu mc tiu ca 3GPP L T E th phc tp ca cc b cn bng hiu nng cao tr thnh mt vn nghim trng.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

65

Cch tip cn khc l nghin cu cc s truyn dn v thit k tn hiu t c hiu nng truyn dn tt ngay c khi chn lc tn s knh v tuyn cao m vn m bo phc tp ca my thu mc cho php. D i y l hai gii php cho truyn dn bng rng t tiu ch ni trn: . S dng cc kiu truyn dn a sng mang khc nhau pht tn hiu bng rng tng bng nhiu tn hiu bng hp ghp knh theo tn s. Trng hp c bit ca truyn dn a sng mang l truyn dn O F D M s c xt chi tit trong chng 3. 2. S dng cc s truyn dn n sng mang c thit k c bit c th cn bng hiu qu nhng vi phc tp hp l. Gii php ny s c xt trong chng 3. 2.4 CN BNG CHNG PHAINH CHN LC TN S Trc y phng php ch yu x l s gim cp tn hiu do phainh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn l p dng cc dng cn bng khc nhau ti pha thu cho truyn dn on sng mang. Mc ch ca cn bng sa mo rtc tuyn tn s (cn bng min tn s) hoc dng xung tn hiu (cn bng min thi gian) do phainh chn lc tn s gy ra v mc nht nh khi phc li dng tn hiu ban u. Truyn dn n sng mang s c s dng cho ng ln ca LTE v th trong phn ny ta s xt cc gii php cn bng chng phainh cho truyn dn n sng mang. 2 4 1 Cn bng tuyn tnh min thi gian ... Phng php cn bng cn bn nht l b cn bng tuyn tnh min t h i gian cu to t mt b lc tuyn tnh c p ng xung kim W(T) (hnh 2.6). Bng cch chn cc p ng xung kim khc nhau, ta c th thc hin cc chin lc cn bng (my thu) khc nhau. Chng hn, trong

66

Gio trnh L trnh pht Irin thng Un di ng 3G ln 40

cc h thng DS-CDMA cu trc my thu gc thng c s dng. My thu RAKE l mt cu trc my thu n gin ca hnh 2.6. trong p ng xung kim ca b lc c chn m bo lc phi hp knh w(x) = h*(-t) (2.12)

trong p ng b lc c chn l phc lin hp ca p ng xung kim knh o. B lc ny cng thng c gi l b lc kt hp cc i.


My pht f M hnh knh n) st) rt)
W(T) / ')

My thu

Hnh 2.6. Cn bng c bn trong min thi gian

La chn b lc my thu theo tiu chun MRC (b lc phi hp knh) cho php t c t s tn hiu trn tp m sau b lc cc i (v th b lc ny c tn l kt hp t l cc i). Tuy nhin lc da trn MRC khng cung cp bt k sa mo tn hiu no do tnh cht chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn gy ra. V th lc my thu da trn MRC ch ph hp khi tn hiu thu b gim cp ch yu do tp m hoc nhiu t cc ngun pht khc ch khng cho cc trng hp gim cp tn hiu do chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn. Mt gii php khc l chn la b lc my thu b tr ton b i vi chn lc tn s knh v tuyn. iu ny c th t c bng cch chn p ng xung kim b lc my thu theo quan h sau:
h(T)w(x) = (2.13)

trong -' k hiu cho tch chp tuyn tnh. Cch chn b lc ny cn c gi l cn bng p buc v khng (ZF: Zero Forcing). Cn bng ZF cho php b tr ton b chn lc tn s knh v tuyn (cn

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

67

bng hon ton) v v th hon ton trit c mi gim cp tn hiu lin quan. Tuy nhin cn bng ZF c th dn n t s tn hiu trn tp m sau cn bng rt ln v v th gim hiu nng ng truyn tng th, c bit khi knh c p ng tn s bin ng nhanh. Gii php th ba v l giai php cho php chn c b lc cn xng gia gim cp tn hiu do chn lc tn s v tp m/nhiu c gi l cn bng M M S E (Minimum Mean Square Error: sai li trung bnh nh nht). B lc trong trng hp ny c la chn phi m bo gim thiu sai li trung bnh bnh phng gia tn hiu u ra b cn bng v tn hiu c pht: e =

E{\m-s)f}

(2.14)

Trong thc t b lc cn bng tuyn tnh thng c thc hin dng b lc FIR ri rc theo thi gian vi L nhnh tr nhn cc mu tn hiu thu nh minh ha trn hnh 2.7.
r
My thu

nT

r .,

rt)

w w

<
r
n

>

-i

'Un
-1

r w
<
0

'

Hnh 2.7. Cn bng tuyn tnh c thc hin theo b lc FIR ri rc thi gian

68

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G C th chng m i n h rng b cn bng M M S E r i rc thi gian v i

w = [w .w,
n

W ]
M

c xc nh theo biu thc sau:

w = R"'p (2.15) T r o n g R l ma trn t tng quan u ra ca knh c kch thc LxL. M a trn ny ph thuc vo p ng xung k i m ca knh v p l vct tng quan cho u ra/u vo ca knh vi kch thc L x l , ph thuc vo p ng xung k i m ca knh. T r o n g trng hp di cn bng ln ( L ln), b cn bng MMSE min thi gian c th rt phc tp v hai l do sau: - Bn thn b cn bng (b lc) c th rt phc tp - Tnh ton thit lp b lc M M S E nht l tnh ton o ca tng quan R kch thc L x L c th rt phc tp 2.4.2. Cn bng min tn s M t cch khc gim phc tp ca cn bng tuyn tnh l thc hin cn bng trong min tn s nh minh ha trn hnh 2.8. Trong cn bng tuyn tnh min tn s, cn bng c thc hin theo tng khi kch thc N. Trc tin tn hiu thu sau ly mu c chuyn i vo min tn s bi D F T kch thc N (DFT: Discrete Fourier Transbrm: bin i Fourier r i rc). Sau cn bng c thc hin bng lc trong min tn s vi cc nhnh lc trong min tn s l w, W . . , W . chng hn bng D F T cho cc nhnh lc min |..
0 N

thi gian w , W |
0

W[ . ca hnh 2.7. Sau cng tn hiu min tn s |

nhn c sau cn bng c chuyn i ngc vo min thi gian bng I D F T (Inverse Discrete Fourier Transbrm: bin i Fourier ngc r i rc) kch thc N. Nn chn kch thc N ca khi l hai ly tha ca mt s nguyn: N = 2" v i n l mt s nguyn c th thc hin tnh ton FFT/IFFT theo c s hai cho x l DFT/IDFT.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

69

i v i m i ln x l khi kch thc N. cn bng min tn s c bn bao gm: - M t DFT/FFT kch thc N - N ln nhn phc (b lc min tn s) - M t bin i ngc IDFT/IFFT kch thc N c bit trong trng hp cc knh b chn lc tn s nng ( di cn bng L ln), cn bng min tn s theo hnh 2.8 phc tp t hn nhiu so v i cn bng min thi gian theo hnh 2.7.
My thu X l theo khi (kch thc khi = N) nT r(t) DFT

<

IDFT

*>u Ki Hnh 2.8. Cn bng tuyn tinh min tn s Tuy nhin c hai vn gp phi i vi cn bng min tn s: - Lc min thi gian trn hnh 2.7 thc hin tch chp tuyn tnh ri rc thi gian. Tri li lc min tn s theo hnh 2.8 tng ng vi tch chp vng trong min thi gian. Nu gi thit b cn bng min thi gian c di L, th L - l mu u tin ti u ra ca b cn bng min tn s s khng ging nh u ra tng ng ca b cn bng min thi gian.

70

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G - Cc nhnh ca b lc min tn s W(), W| W . | c th c
N

xc nh nh sau, trc ht xc nh p ng xung ca b lc min thi gian tng ng sau chuyn i b lc ny vo min tn s bang DFT. Tuy nhin nh ni trn, vic xc nh b lc min thi gian (chng hn MMSE) c th kh phc tp trong trng hp di L ca b cn bng ln. Mt cch gii quyt vn th nht l thc hin chng ln qu trnh x l tng khi ca b lc cn bng min tn s nh minh ha trn hnh 2.9, trong chng ln c thc hin t nht l L - l mu. Vi chng ln ny. L - l mu (khng chnh xc) u tin ti u ra ca b cn bng min tn s c th c loi v cc mu tng ng ny (cc mu ng) cng c cung cp ti phn cui ca khi thu/c cn bng trc . Nhc im ca kiu "chng ln v loi b ny" l chi ph tnh ton v v th my thu s phn no phc tp hn.
X l khi (N mu)

1<

*.

C h n g ln ( > L-1 mu)

Hnh 2.9. X l chng ln v loi b


My pht To khi To tn hiu n sng mang Chn CP Bin i D/A

1 4 N mu

Y//A < N+V mau

Hnh 2. lo. Chn CP trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang Mt cch gii quyt c hai vn ni trn l chn tin t chu trnh (CP: Cyclic-prec) ti pha pht (hnh 2.10), tng t nh

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

71

O F D M chn CP t r o n g trng hp truyn dn n sng mang c ngha l chn V m u ca CP vo tng k h i ti pha pht. Kch thc khi pht phi bng kch thc k h i N s dng cho cn bng min tn s pha thu. V i vic d a CP vo, t quan im my thu knh s th hin nh l tch chp vng trn k h i x l kch thc N ti m y thu. V th khng cn x l chng ln v loi b. Ngoi ra by g i cc nhnh ca b lc m i n tn s c th c tnh ton trc tip t c tnh p ng tn s knh c ly m u m khng cn phi tnh trc b lc cn bng m i n t h i gian. Chng hn, trong trng h p b cn bng M M S E cc nhnh lc m i n tn s c th c tnh theo biu thc sau: w =- f (2.16)
k

Trong P l cng sut tp m v H l p ng tn s knh


N k

c ly mu. i v i cc di ca b cn bng ln. tnh ton ny phc tp h o n nhiu so v i tnh ton min thi gian nh xt trong phn trc. N h c im ca chn CP trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang cng g i n g nh i v i O F D M , ngha l mt thm chi ph cho c cng sut v bng thng. M t phng php gim chi ph CP l tng kch thc N ca b cn bng min tn s. T u y nhin cn bng theo k h i c chnh xc, knh phi hu nh khng thay i trong on t h i gian tng ng v i kch thc khi x l. H n ch ny m bo g i i hn trn i v i kch thc khi N, trong kch thc ny p h thuc vo tc thay i knh. Lu rng ging nh hn ch i v i khong cch gia sng mang con ca O F D M
FKT

A f = 1/T , khong cch ny ph thuc vo tc thay i knh (xem chng 3).

72

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G N A SNG MANG CHO KHNG DY

2.5. T R U Y N BNG

RNG

M t cch tng tng bng thng truyn dn m khng lm hi tn hiu do chn lc tn s knh v tuyn l s dng truyn dn a sng mang. N h c m t trn hnh 2.11, trong truyn dn a sng mang, thay v truyn mt tn hiu bng rng. nhiu tn hiu bng hp (thng c gi l cc sng mang con) c ghp knh theo tn s v c truyn ng thi trn cng mt ng truyn v tuyn n cng mt m y thu. Bng cch pht N tn hiu song song trn cng mt ng truyn v tuyn, c th tng tc s liu tng ln N ln. Khi ny nh hng gy hi i tn hiu do chn lc tn s knh v tuyn ph thuc vo bng thng kh hp ca tng sng mang con. nh hng ny khng khc g nh hng i vi s truyn dn bng hp c bng thng tng ng vi bng thng ca tng sng mang con.
Truyn dn bng hp iu ch M ha knh. iu ch _ To dng Ph tn s v tuyn . -0*!==>M ha knh. iu ch Truyn dn bng rng a sng mang iu ch tn si To dng v tuyn *

ph
dng ph To dng ph To dng ph

- . C-3/2AI' C-1/2A

te

*&-* .
fc-1/2Af
*-*

.
fc+3/2Af

ruQOOO
fc fc

Hnh 2.1 . M rng n truyn dn bng thng rng hn bng a sng mang

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

73

Nhc im ca kiu pht trin truyn dn a sng mang trn hnh 2.11 l khi m rng mt cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn bng hp hin c vo mt bng thng truyn dn rng hn bng cch truyn dn song song N sng mang bng hp l phi ghp cc bng thng sng mang con ny phn cch nhau chng khng gy nhiu cho nhau. iu ny nh hng tiu cc ln hiu sut s dng bng thng.

30,0 20,0 10,0 - 00 , -10,0 -20,0

_I

13. -00
s -40,0 - , 25 -, -, -, -, 00 20 15 10 05 , 05 ; to 15 ,

25 ,

Tn s, MHz

<Wf) =

1 +COS

x{\f\- V
)> />/ !.; (1 + a ) 2

. 0-)
2
2 cr

fi =2.f =f .-a) = 4JMHz


Hnh . 12. Ph ca WCDMA, khun dng cosin tng vi a=0,22 V d ta xt s pht trin a sng mang cho WCDMA (s
ny c gi l MC-WCDMA) cho vic truyn dn bng thng rng hn.

74

Gio trnh L trnh phi rin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

W C D M A c tc chip R = 3,84Mchip/s tng ng v i tn s


c

c r

= 3,84MHz. T u y nhin do vic to dng ph, thm ch ph l

thuyt ca W C D M A (khng k s m rng p h do s khng hon thin ca m y pht) c rng ln hn 3.84MHz. Chng hn nh trn hnh 2.12. nu p h W C D M A c dng cosin tng v i dc Oi = 0,22, th rng bng tn ca n cng bng B = ( +0,22)3,84MHz = 4,7MHz.
w

i v i M C - W C D M A . khong cch gia cc sng mang con phi bng 4,7MHz trnh nhiu gia cc sng mang con. cn lu rng cng c th s dng khong cch gia cc sng mang con nh hn v i iu kin nhiu gia cc sng mang con phi g i i hn. N h c im t h hai ca truyn dn a sng mang l tng t nh iu ch bc cao. truyn dn song song nhiu sng mang con s dn n cc thay i cng sut tc thi ln hn. V th truyn dn a sng mang cng s dn n nh hng tiu cc ln hiu sut ca b khuch i cng sut. M t gii php cho vn ny l g i m cng sut trung bnh, ngha l gim di ng tn hiu i v i mt tc s liu cho trc. V th tng t nh vic s dng iu ch bc cao. truyn dn a sng mang thch hp hn i v i ng xung (truyn dn u cui d i ng) do tm quan trng ca vic m bo hiu sut b khuch i cng sut ti u cui di ng cao hn. u im chnh ca kiu pht trin a sng mang nh hnh 2.11 l m bo s pht trin rt t t v c thit b ln p h tn ca cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn n bng thng truyn dn rng hn nht l i v i ng xung. iu quan trng l c th thit k a sng mang theo hng pht trin ln truyn dn bng rng ni trn m vn cho php s dng cc thit b hin c khng c kh nng thu a sng mang vi iu kin m i sng mang con ng xung th hin nh mt sng mang bng hp, trong k h i i v i cc u cui d i ng a sng mang, mng c th cung cp cho n ton b bng thng a sng mang truyn tc s liu cao hn.

Chcmg 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.


My pht
Chuyn i lung bt vo cc k hiu iu c h IFFT v chn CP

75

Tn s

n 20MHz

My thu
Lung b t Chuyn i cc k hiu v lung b t

FFT

loai CP

Hnh 2.13. Nguyn l OFDM


K hiu vo

p dng cho ng xung ca LTE

-,

Ai

AAAM V
IFFT

Ly mu Ly mu

IA

FFT

Knh

A-

W\A/\AA/V mMAAAA/vm.
M y pht

'VXAAAAA/V

My thu

2.74. w /r/; bin i IFFTpha pht v FFTpha thu

76

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Mt gii php s dng truyn a sng mang cho php tit kim

bng thng l OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex: ghp knh phn chia theo tn s trc giao). L T E s dng gii php ny cho ng xung. Nguyn l tng qut OFDM trong trng hp ny c minh ha trn hnh 2.13. Qu trnh bin i IFFT v FFT c tm tt trn hnh 2.14. i vi ng ln gim nh hng ca t s cng sut inh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average Power) ln OFDM, ng ln s dng mt phng n ci tin ca OFDM cho php truyn t n hiu ging nh on sng mang vi tn gi DFTS OFDM (OFDM Sread DFT: OFDM tri ph bng DFT) hay cn c gi l SC-FDMA (Single Carrier- Frequency Division Multiple Access: a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s n sng mang) c minh ha trn hnh 2.15.
My pht Lung b t

i lung Chuyn i I.. I


/~| .

bt vo cc k hiu iu ch

DFT

Sp xp cc sng mang con

IFFT v chn CP

Tn s

Lung b t

Chuyn i cc k hiu vo vo lung bt

My t h u

IDFT

<

Giai sp xp cc sng 4 mang con

B cn bng MMSE

FFT v loi CP

DFT: Bin i Fourier ri rc IDFT: Bin i Fourier ri rc ngc FFT: Bin i Fourier nhanh IFFT: Bin i Fourier nhanh ngc CP: Tin t chu trnh MMSE: Sai li trunng bnh binh phng cc tiu

Hnh 2.15. Nguyn l DFTS OFDM hay SC-FDMA Trong chng 3 ta s xt chi tit v vic s dng truyn dn a sng mang da trn OFDM cho ng xung v n sng mang SC-FDMA cho ng ln.

Chng 2: Truyn dn tc s liu cao.

77

2.6. TNG KT
C h n g ny xt cc nguyn nhn hn ch truyn dn bng rng t r o n g cc h thng thng t i n v tuyn v cc gii php khc phc. T r u y n dn tc cao (bng rng) c th b g i i hn bi cc yu t sau: - Bng thng hn ch - Tp m - Nhiu - M o dng tn hiu do nh hng phainh chn lc tn s ca ng t r u y n i v i trng h p t h nht k h i cng sut tn hiu t h u cn ln ta c th: - S dng iu ch bc cao - Cc s a anten da trn ghp knh khng gian. i v i trng hp t h hai ta c th: - G i m kch thc gim c l y p h sng dn n tng t s tn h i u trn tp m v th cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn - K t h p h p l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s tn h i u trn tp m sau kt hp anten - S dng to bp bng nhi u anten pht s tp trung cng sut pht v pha m y thu ch v v th tng t s tn hiu trn tp m. i v i trng h p t h ba ta c th s dng cc bin php sau: - G i m kch thc s gim s ngi s dng v v i th s gim lu lng trn m t . N h vy gim mc nhiu tng i v v th cho php t c cc tc s liu cao hn

78

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


- K hp h p l cc tn hiu thu ti nhiu anten s tng t s t n t hiu trn nhiu sau k hp anten t - S dng to bp bng nhiu anten pht s tp t r u n g cng sut pht v pha m y t h u ch v dn n g i m nhiu ln cc ng t r u v n v tuvn khc. do ci t h i n tng t s tn h i u trn nhiu t r o n g h thng. i v i trng hp t h t ta c th: - S dng truyn dn n sng mang k t h p v i b cn bng ti m y thu - S dng truyn dn a sng mang c bit l O F D M

2.7. C U H I . Trnh by cc hn chc bn i vi truvn dn tc s liu cao. 2. Trnh by truyn dn tc s liu cao trong bng thng hn chv iu chbc cao. 3. Trnh by cc nh hng ca mi trng truyn sng ln truyn n khng dy bng rng. 4. Trnh by nguyn l cn bng chng phainh chn lc tn s. 5. Trnh by nguyn l truyn dn a sng mang cho khng dy bng rng. 6. K h i u cui d i ng gn trm gc nn s dng s iu ch bc cao hay bc thp. ti sao? 7. C nn s dng ghp knh khng gian khi u cui x a trm gc hay khng, ti sao? 8. K h i tp m cao vn m bo truyn dn tc s liu cao ta cn lm g? 9. K h i nhiu cao vn m bo truyn dn tc cao ta cn lm g? 10. g i m nh hng phainh chn lc tn s dn n nhiu gia cc k hiu ta c th s dng cc gii php g?

Chng 3

OFDMA V SC-FDMA CA LTE

) F D M l cng ngh truyn dn a sng mang tit kim bng tn s c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin v tu yn bng rng. OFDMA l phng php a truy nhp da trn OFDM c s dng trong cc h thng tin di ng bng rng thay th cho CDMA. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - T m tt nguyn l OFDM - c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho - M ha knh v phn tp tn s trong truyn dn OFDM - La chn bng thng cho OFDM c s - n h hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi - S dng O F D M cho ghp knh v a truy nhp - Pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v OFDMA - Nguyn l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM - Nguyn l SC-FDMA, sp xp sng mang con SC-FDMA v trnh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc v nguyn l ca cc k thut a truy nhp v tu yn OFDMA v SC-FDMA va ly do s dng cc k thut a truy nhp v tu ny trong LTE. yn hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [1], [T, [8], [9], [10] [14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

80

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

3.1. M U Trong chng ny trc ht ta s xt nguyn l OFDM v ng dng ca n trong m hnh lp vt l OFDMA ng xung ca LTE. OFDM c tip nhn l s truyn dn ng xung cho LTE v cng c s dng cho cc cng ngh khng dy bng rng khc nh W i M A X v cc cng ngh truyn hnh qung b DVB. Nhc im ca iu ch OFDM v cc phng php truyn dn a sng mang khc l s thay i cng sut tc thi ca tn hiu pht rt ln dn n t s gia cng sut nh v cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average Power Ratio) rt ln. iu ny lm gim hiu sut ca b khuch i cng sut v tng gi thnh b khuch i cng sut. Nhc im ny rt quan trng i vi ng ln v cc MS phi tiu th cng sut thp v c gi thnh h. Nhiu phng php c xut gim PAPR ca tn hiu OFDM. Tuy nhin hu ht cc phng php ny ch m bo gim PAPR mc khng cao. Ngoi ra cc phng php ny i hi tnh ton phc tp v gim hiu nng ng truyn. Truyn dn a sng mang bng rng l mt gii php truyn dn a sng mang ph hp cho ng ln ngha l cho my pht ca MS. Tuy nhin cn nghin cu x l mo dng sng tn hiu xy ra trong mi trng thng tin di ng do phainh chn lc tn s. LTE s dng mt dng iu ch ci tin ca OFDM c tn gi l DFTS-OFDM (DFT Spread OFDM: OFDM tri ph bng DFT). y mt cng ngh y ha hn cho thng tin ng ln tc cao trong cc h thng thng tin di ng tng lai. DFTS-OFDM c hiu qu thng lng v phc tp tng t nh OFDM. u im chnh ca DFTS-OFDM l t s cng sut inh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average Povver Ratio) thp hom OFDM. DFTS-OFDM. LTE s dng DFTS-OFDM cho a truy nhp ng ln vi tn gi l SC-FDMA. Chng ny xt nguyn l ca DFTS-OFDM v SC-FDMA ng dng trong LT.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

81

3.2. T M TT NGUYN L OFDM


Truyn dn O F D M l mt kiu truyn dn a sng mang. Sau y l mt s c trung quan trng ca OFDM: - S dng nhiu sng mang bng hp. Chng hn nu mt h thng MC-WCDMA ( W C D M A a sng mang) bng thng 20MHz s dng 4 sng mang vi mi sng mang c bng tn l 5MHz, th vi bng thng nhu vy O F D M c th s dng 2048 sng mang vi bng thng sng mang con 15 MHz. - Cc sng mang con trc giao vi nhau v khong cch gia hai sng mang con lin k bng i lng nghch o ca thi gian k hiu iu ch sng mang con (hnh 3.1). V th cc sng mang con ca OFDM c t gn nhau hem so vi FDMA.

F F T

= 1/AI"

Thi gian

Tn s

a) K hiu iu ch

b) sp xp cc sng mang con

Hnh 3. . K hiu iu ch v ph ca tn hiu OFDM Ta k hiu N l tng s sng mang con ca h thng truyn dn OFDM v p l s sng mang con m mt my pht trong h thng c th s dng. S khi pht thu ca h thng OFDM c cho trn hnh 3.2. Hot ng ca h thng OFDM trn hnh 3.2 nh sau.

82

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Chng 3: OFDMA 3.2.1. M y pht

v SC-FDMA

ca LTE

83

Cc khi k hiu iu ch thng thng (QPSK hay 16QAM chng hn) gm p k hiu iu ch (k hiu l X^.X x _) c
r

a qua b bin i ni tip vo song song (S/P) c p lun? song song vi di k hiu ca mi lung bng TpFTi trong TFFT c gi l di hiu dng ca mt k hiu OFDM. M i k hiu iu ch Xi ( i = 0,1,P-l) c gi tr phc th hin ph ri rc ca sng mang con th i trong s N sng mang con ca h thng. Cc sng mang con c iu ch X x ...,x,,_ c kt hp vi N-P
m r ]

sng mang con rng (bng khng) to nn tp {Xi} (i = 0,1,..., N-l) gi tr phc v c a ln N u vo ca b bin i Fourier nhanh ngc (IFFT). IFFT cho ra N sng mang con trong min thi gian {Xi} (i = 0,1,..., N - l ) . Cc sng mang con trong min thi gian ny c th hin cc mu ri rc vi tn s ly mu f = Nf = N.,
t

i
T = t

7.. *. trong A f l khong cch gia cc sng mang con v s ~ ~ ^~ l chu k ly mu. Tn hiu u ra IFFT c biu din dng cc mu ri rc. Sng mang con th i ti thi im k trong min thi gian c xc nh nhu sau:

xu, - X,/'" (3.1)


m=0

trong i (i = 0,1

N - l ) , k (k l mt s nguyn nm trong khong t

-00 n 00 k hiu cho sng mang con th i ca k hiu O F D M th k tng ng; Xj, gi tr phc ca tn hiu c iu ch thng thng
k

th i ti thi im k; m (m = 0,1
s

N) l mu th m ca tn hiu c
FFT

ly mu vi thi gian ly mu T = T /N tng ng vi tn s ly mu f = N/T .


s FFT

84

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tn hiu u ra b bin i song song thnh ni tip (P/S) trong min thi gian ti thi im k c xc nh nh sau:

x = EEX,/"^EV"
k

N-IN'1

P-1

j2 n m

(3.2)

i^o

i-0

i vi OFDM ta c th biu din tn hiu pht trong min tn s nh sau:

x =[x
k

0k

x,

Xp_ O...O] , trong [.]"' l php chuyn v


1 l k

l s k hiu iu ch thng thng trong khi k v s s "0" bng N-P. Tn hiu trong min thi gian nhn c bng cch nhn tn hiu trong min tn s vi ma trn sau:
J6n j2(

N - l ).
N

e
j8n N

j4<N-l|r,

(3.3)

j2(N

-Di N o

j4( N - ) N

|()IN D a N

j2(N

IXN-I)r.

trong hng ca ma trn trong (3.3) th hin cc sng mang con ti thi im ly mu m. B chn CP (Cyclic Prex) thc hin chn V mu ( di T p)
C

ca k hiu OFDM vo u k hiu ny c di k hiu bng: T = Tppj+Tcp, trong Tppx l di hiu dng cn T p l khong
C

thi gian bo v chng ISI (nhiu gia cc k hiu) gy ra do phainh a ng v V mu c chn l V mu c copy t cc mu cui cng ca tn hiu x . Thng thng T p c chn bng thi
k C

gian tr tri cc i (tr ca ng truyn n mun nht cn c xt so vi tr ca ng n sm nht). K h i ny m trong phng trnh (3.3) s l: m = 0,1,..., N-l,..., N+V-l v tng s mu u ra b CP s

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA

ca LTE

85

bng N+V. Ta c th biu din tn hiu sau chn CP trong min thi gian v min tn s nh hnh 3.3.
T (Thi gian k hiu OFDM) Ca s quan trc N im

V im CP

Khoang cch sng mang con


1/TFFT

Thi gian (cc mu)


S

Bng thng t n hiu: 1/T

Tn s (cc sng mang con)

Hnh 3.3. Trnh by OFDM

(sau chn CP) trong min thi gian v tn s

B bin i s vo tng t (DC) cho ta tn hiu tng t c dng sau:


N-l

Xk(t) =

j2a
i=0

TFFT )

(t-kT) , kT-Tcp < t < k T + T nu khc

FT

(3.4) Hay:
P-I j27t

'

n ^ (t-kT) ,
TFFT

kT - T p < t < kT + T
C

F F T

Xk(t) =

i = 0

nu khc (3.5) ngha ca vic chn CP c gii thch trn hnh 3.4. Trong trng hp knh tn thi do b
phainh a ng mt phn tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con s b
mt i: phn cui ca k hiu

86

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

OFDM pht trc do n tr s chng ln ln phn u ca k hiu OFDM pht sau. Trong trng hp ny khong thi gian tng quan ca b gii iu ch cho k hiu c xt s chng ln mt phn l n k hiu trc (hnh 3.4a). V th tch phn tn hiu i thng s cha nhiu ca tn hiu phn x t k hiu trc . Hu qu l khng chi xy ra nhiu gia cc k hiu (IS) m cn c nhiu gia cc sng mang con (ICI: Inter Channel Interference).
a) Khng chn CP
T

Tin hiu i thng Tin hiu phn x

5F

Khong thi gian ly t c phn tin hiu di thng h cho bin di Pourier

b) Chn CP Copy v chn b) Chn CP

1 1
IFFT

I \w: ?*>>f7
Chn CP

(N im)
T

IU
T / 7 * T,ii,(N+L mu) /-

/ / v(N mu)

l'

///

Tn hiu i thng Tin hiu phn x

Khong thi gian d ly t c h phn tin hiu di thng cho bin di Fourier

Hnh 3.4. Gii thch ngha chn CP Mt cch khc gii thch nhiu gia cc sng mang con trong knh v tuyn phainh tn thi nh sau. Nguyn nhn tn thi ca knh l do p ng tn s ca knh phainh chn lc tn s. V th tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang khng ch c m bo bi phn cch gia chng trong min tn s m cn bi cu trc c th min

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

87

tn s ca tng sng mang: thm ch nu knh min tn s khng i i vi bp ph chnh ca mt sng mang con OFDM v ch c cc bp ph bn b hng do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn, t h iu n cng dn n mt tnh trc giao gia cc sng con cng vi y nhiu gia cc sng mang con. Do cc bp bn ca mi sng mang con OFDM ln. nn d lng tn thi b hn ch (tng ng vi tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn thp) vn c th xy ra nhiu gia cc sng mang con. y m gii quyt vn n v l cho OFDM c kh nng thc s chng tn thi trn knh v tuyn, chn CP (Cyclic Prex: tin t chu trnh) c thc hin. Chn CP tng di k hiu OFDM t TVFT ln
TFFT+TCP>

trong Tp l di ca C P tng ng vi vic gim tc k hiu OFDM. T hnh 3.4b ta thy tung quan vn c thc

hin trn on thi gian Tppx = 1/Af v tnh trc giao sng mang con s c m bo ngay c trong trng hp knh tn thi chng no on tn thi cn ngn hn di CP. Nhc im ca chn tin t CP l chi mt phnT /(T FT Tcp)
+ FFT F

ca cng sut tn hiu thu l phn thc t c b gii iu ch OFDM s dng v iu n c ngha l mt mt phn cng sut khi y gii iu ch OFDM. Ngo vic mt cng sut, chn CP cn gy ra i mt bng thng v tc k hiu OFDM gim trong khi rng bng tn ca tn hiu khng gim. Mt cch khc gim CP l gim khong cch gia cc sng mang A f tng ng vi tng Tppj. Tuy nhin cch ny lm tng nhy cm ca truyn dn O F D M vi s thay i nhanh ca knh kho tri Doppler cao v cc kiu sai s tn s khc. Cn lu rng CP khng th bao ph ton b di ca tn thi knh. Ni chung cn c mt s cn nhc gia mt cng sut do CP v hng tn hiu (do ISI v ICI) m phn d tn thi do CP khng ph ht gy ra. iu n c ngha rng tn ti mt im ti u cho di y

88

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

CP m vic tng n khng nh hng xu n mt cng sut dn n gim kch thc v ngc li vic gim n khng lm nh hng xu n hng tn hiu.

3.2.2. My thu
Tn hiu u vo my thu (u ra knh) c dng sau: y(t) = x(t)h(t)+i(t) (3.6)

trong h(t) l li knh v T|(t) l tp m Gauss trng cng v k hiu cho tch chp. B bin i t tung t vo s (ADC) s bin i y(t) vo s, b loi b CP s loi CP. Qua trnh loi CP c thc hin bng tch chp vng. Di y ta s gii thch nguyn l t c h chp vng. Ta c th biu din k hiu OFDM bao gm CP ri rc trong min thi gian dng vct sau:
*
=

[ N-V-I'*\-V">*V-l *0>"*I'""*V-I ] 0.7)


X
1

-V-

"

'

CP
m

s liu gc

trong x k hiu cho mu m ca tn hiu OFDM trong min thi gian. Nu khng xt tp m, t n hiu u ra ca knh s l = x E , trong h l vct c di v+1 biu th p ng knh xung kim trong thi gian k hiu OFDM. Hnh 3.5 gii thch qu trnh tch chp dch vng gia p ng knh xung kim h v X u vo cho hai mu u tin ca y.
a) Mu au tin ca Un hiu u ra knh b) Mu th hai ca tin hiu du ra knh

Hnh 3.5. Minh ha qu trnh tch chp quay vng gia p ng knh xung kim h v Xp

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

89

D a trn cc phn tch trn, ta c th biu din tn hiu u ra knh sau tch chp vng cho cc mu hu ch nh sau:
y

= K

+ \ K-\+h x

N - r

y< = Vi + Mo + + . - * MvV,

(3-8)

y - \ = V.v-I + V.v-2
K

+-

+ MV,! .--

Sau tch chp vng nu chi g i li cc thnh phn u tin v tri ca h phng trnh (3.8) ta s loi b c CP. T a c th biu din li phng trnh (3.8) dng ma trn quay vng nh sau:

(3.9)
\V-2

= X h + i Sau b loi b CP, V mu ca CP b loi b v N mu cn li l cc mu ca tn hiu hu ch. B bin i ni tip vo song song cho ra N lung song song ng v i N sng mang con thu ca tn hiu thu trong min thi gian:

y'(m)} (i

= 0.1

N - l ) dng cc mu r i rc

m ( m = 0 1....N-1). Cc sng mang ny c a ln b bin i FFT chuyn i t min thi gian vo min tn s. Sau FFT my thu ly ra p sng mang con cn thu trong min tn s ', ( i = 0,1 m i sng mang con c xc nh nh sau:
p - l NI.0

P-l),

(3.10)

m-

90

Gio trnh L trnh phi rin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


,P-1), y, (m) k hiu cho m u m trong m i n thi
k

trong i ( = 0,1

gian ca k hiu iu ch thng thng t h i t r o n g k h i p k hiu c pht ti u ra ca knh k (k l m t s nguyn nm trong khong t -QO n 00 ) l k h i t h k tung ng; l X
k

gi tr phc ca tn hiu

thu trong m i n tn s trong k h i k hiu k; m ( m = 0,1,...,N-1) l mu t h m ca tn hiu c ly mu trong m i n thi gian v i thi gian ly mu T = T
s FFT

/ N tng ng v i tn s ly m u f = N/T
s

FFr

Tn hiu u r a b bin i n i tip vo song song s l chui ni tip cc k h i u t h u ca k h i k c th c b i u din dng vct sau:
X

-*V-l.]

(3.11)

T n g qut ta c th biu din ton b cc bc x l tn hiu ca mt h thng thng t i n O F D M v i cc tn hiu dng vct nh hnh 3.6. Min thi gian h" 1 * m
1

p/s

Cng CP

h(n)

Loai CP

SP y
1

FFT X, FEQ

Tch chp vng: = X h + TI Min tn s

FEQ: B cn bng min tn s

Hnh 3.6. H thng thng tin OFDM

bng gc

vi cc tn hiu dng vct


T r u y n dn O F D M c th c biu din t r o n g khng gian hai chiu: tn s - t h i gian nh hnh 3.7.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

91

;,:.;f- i
. . . . . . K-2 K-1 k K+1 K+2

Hnh 3.7. Biu din tn hiu truyn dn


Thi gian (s th t k hiu OFDM)

OFDM

trong khng gian hai chiu (tn s-thi gian) 3.3. C TNH KNH V CC K HIU THAM KHO Knh O F D M bao gm t hp iu ch OFDM (x l IFFT), knh v tuyn tn thi v gii iu ch OFDM (x l FFT) c m t dng knh min tn s trn hnh 3.8. Nu coi rng CP ln (khi ny tch chp knh v tuyn tn thi trong khong thi gian ly tch phn T
F F T

ca b gii iu ch c th coi l tch chp dch vng tuyn tnh), Hp.| c th c rt ra trc tip

th cc nhnh knh min tn s Ho

t cc p ng knh xung kim nh hnh 3.8. khi phc li k hiu pht cho qu trnh x l tip theo (chng hn tch k hiu s liu v gii m knh), my thu phi nhn X, vi phc lin hp ca Hj.- H' (hnh 3.9). Qu trnh ny thng c gi l cn bng mt nhnh v c p dng cho tng sng mang con c thu. c th thc hin iu ny, my thu phi c tnh cc nhnh knh min tn s Ho, Hi,..., Hp..

92

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


M y pht Tp m
-Vi

M y thu I k I Loi b CP FFT (N im)

',, .

IFFT (N im)

Chn CP

Knh ht)

4
"V"
Mu

>MJ

Hi,

A , = W,A; + '

11,

H: p ng knh i vi x rt. Tp m tc ng ln x

Hnh 3.8. M hnh knh OFDM trong min tn s

M y thu

Ho Xo-

-M)
H

-><> >*

'

''"'
--

Xi,

Hnh 3.9. M hnh knh phi thu OFDM min tn s vi b cn bng mt nhnh Cc nhnh knh min tn s c th c c tnh gin tip bng cch trc ht c tnh p ng knh xung kim sau tnh ton Hk. Tuy nhin phng php nhanh hon l c tnh cc nhnh knh min tn s trc tip. Trong trng hp ny h thng chn cc k hiu tham kho (cn c gi l cc k hiu hoa tiu) ti cc khong thi gian quy nh trong li thi gian tn s ca OFDM (hnh 3.10). Do bit trc c cc k hiu tham kho ny nn my thu c th c tnh

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

93

knh min tn s xung quanh v t k hiu tham kho. Cc k hiu r tham kho phi c mt ln c trong min thi gian v min tn s c th m bo cc c tnh knh cho ton b li thi gian tn s ngay c trong trng hp cc knh v tuyn b phainh chn lc tn s v thi gian cao.

/
Thi gian

/
1

K hiu tham kho

Hnh 3. 0. Cc k hiu tham kho trn trc thi gian tn s

3.4. M H A KNH V PHN TP TN S TRONG TRUYN N OFDM


Cht lng knh v tuyn b phainh chn lc tn s lun lun thay i trong min tn s. Hnh 3.1 l a v b cho thy s ph thuc ca cht lng knh v tuyn (cng sut tn hiu thu hoc t s tn hiu trn tp m) vo tn s cho trng hp n sng mang bng rng (WCDMA chng hn) (hnh 3.1 la) v a sng mang (OFDM) (hnh 3.1 l). Trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang, mi k hiu iu ch c truyn trn mt bng thng rng, trong do nh hng ca phainh chn lc tn s bng thng ny c th bao gm c vng tn s c cht lng truyn dn cao v vng tn s c cht lng truyn dn thp. Vic truyn dn thng tin trn mt bng tn rng gm nhiu di bng vi cht lng khc nhau ny c gi l phn tp tn s.

94

Gio (rnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Tri li trong trng hp OFDM. mi k hiu chi c truyn

trn mt bng thng hp. Vi th mt s k hiu c th ri vo vng tn s c cht lng knh rt thp. V th tng k hiu ring le thng thng s khng nhn c phn tp tn s ngay c khi knh mang tnh chn lc tn s cao. Kt qu l t l li bt c s ca truyn dn OFDM trn knh chn lc tn s tung i km v km hn nhiu so vi t s li bt c s trong trng hp truvn dn n sng mang bng rng. Tuv nhin trong thc t m ha knh c s dng trong hu ht cc h thng thng tin s nht l trong trng hp thng tin di ng. Trong m ha knh mi bt thng tin c truyn phn tn trn nhiu bt m. Nu sau cc bt m ny thng qua cc k hiu iu ch c sp xp ln cc sng mang con v cc sng mang con ny c phn b hp l trn ton b bng thng truyn dn ca tn hiu OFDM (hnh 3.1 le), th mi bt thng tin s nhn c phn tp tn s (ngha l mi bt ny c truyn trn cc bng tn c cht lng khc nhau ca knh) mc d cc sng mang con v c cc bt m khng nhn c phn tp tn s. Phn b cc bt m trong min tn s nh hnh 3.1 le i khi c gi l an xen tn s. an xen tn s trong trng hp ny ging nh an xen trong min thi gian c s dng kt hp vi m ha knh chng phainh thay i theo thi gian. Nh vy, tng phn vi truyn dn n sng mang bng rng, m ha knh (kt hp vi an xen tn s) l khu quan trng truyn dn OFDM nhn c ch li t phn tp tn s trong knh chn lc tn s. V m ha knh thng c s dng trong thng tin di ng nn y khng phi l nhc im qu nghim trng ca OFDM, ngoi ra cng cn nhn mnh rng ngay c khi t l m kh cao h thng vn nhn c mt lng phn tp tn s sn c.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA

ca LTE

95
b) Tin hiu OFDM Cc sng mang con b cht lng knh rt xu

a) n sng mang bng rng


1(0 I L

ro

9 > c Tn s Tn s c) M ha knh kt hp vi an xen tn s cung cp phn tp tn s cho truyn dn OFDM M ha knh an xen tn s iu ch OFDM b bt thng tin

M ha knh c, c, c, c Cc bt m
t

an xen tn s (sp xp ln cc sng mang con)

Hnh 3.11. Gii thch vai tr ca m ha knh trung phn tp tn s cho truyn dn OFDM)

OFDM

(M ha knh kt hp vi an xen tn s cung cp

3.5. LA CHN CC THNG S OFDM c S


s dng OFDM cho truyn dn trong thng tin di dng, cn la chn cc thng s c s di y: - Khong cch gia cc sng mang con Ai" - S sng mang con N cng vi khong cch gia sng mang con quyt nh ton b bng thng truyn dn ca tn hiu OFDM - di CP: T p. Cng vi khong cch gia cc sng mang
C

Af = l/T , T p quyt nh di k hiu OFDM: T = T p+T , hay


FfT C C FFT

tc k hiu OFDM.

96

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

3.5.1. Khong cch gia cc sng mang con ca OFDM


T n ti hai tiu ch cn cn nhc trong vic chn sng mang con: - Khong cch gia cc sng mang con cng n h cng tt ( T cng ln cng tt) gim thiu t l chi ph cho CP: T p / ( T
C F F T C F F T

+T p)

- Khong cch gia cc sng mang con qu n h s tng s nhy cm ca truyn dn O F D M i vi tri Doppler K h i truyn qua knh phainh v tuyn, do tri Doppler ln, knh c th thay i ng k trong on ly tng quan T PT dn n trc
F

giao gia cc sng mang b mt v nhiu gia cc sng mang. T r o n g thc t, i lng nhiu gia cc sng mang c th chp nhn rt l n ty thuc vo dch v cn cung cp v m c tn hiu thu chu c tp m v cc nhn t gy gim cp khc. Chng hn ti bin ca mt ln t s tn hiu trn tp m cng nhiu c th kh thp k h i tc s liu thp. V th mt lng n h nhiu b sung gia cc sng mang con do tri Doppler c th b qua. T u y nhin trong cc trng hp t s tp m cng nhiu cao chng hn t r o n g cc nh hay ti v t gn BS, k h i cn cung cp cc tc s liu cao, cng mt r lng nhiu g i a cc sng mang con nh trn cng c th gy nh hng xu hn nhiu. Cn lu rng ngoi tri Doppler. nhiu g i a cc sng mang con cng xy ra do hot ng khng chnh xc ca m y pht v m y thu nh: cc sai s tn s v tp m pha.

3.5.2. S lng cc sng mang con


Sau k h i chn c khong cch gia cc sng mang con theo mi trng (da trn cn nhc gia tri Doppler v tn thi), s lng cc sng mang con c xc nh da trn bng thng k h dng v pht x ngoi bng.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA CHU LTE

97

rng bng tn c s ca tn hiu OFDM bng P.Af, ngha l s sng mang con nhn vi khong cch gia cc sng mang con. Tuy nhin ph ca tn hiu OFDM c s gim rt chm bn ngoi rng bng tn O F D M c s (hnh 3.12). L do gy ra pht x ngoi bng ln l vic s dng to dng xung ch nht dn n cc bp sng bn gim tng i chm. Tuy nhin trong thc t lc hoc to ca s min thi gian c s dng loi b phn ln cc pht x ngoi bng ca OFDM. Trong thc t cn dnh 1 0 % bng tn cho bng bo v i vi tn hiu OFDM. Chng hn nu bng thng kh dng l 5MHz th rng bng tn OFDM P.Af chi c th vo khong 4,5MHz. Gi s L T E s dng khong cch gia cc sng mang l 15kHz, th iu ny tng ng vi vo khong 300 sng mang con trong 5MHz.
30,0

Tn s (MHz)

Hnh 3.12. Ph ca tn hiu OFDM c s 5MHz

3.5.3. di CP
v nguyn tc, di CP T p phi bao ph c di cc i
C

ca tn thi d tnh c th xy ra. Tuy nhin tng di CP m khng

98

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gim A f dn n tng chi ph cng sut cng nh bng thng. Mt cng sut dn n kch thc gim v h thng b hn ch nhiu hn bi cng sut, v th cn c s cn i gia mt cng sut cho CP v thit hi tn hiu do tn thi khng c CP bao p h ht. Ngoi ra khi kch thc tng tn thi tng, nhng k h i kch thc vt qu mt gi tr no cng khng nn tng T -p. v mt cng sut c th gy
t

nh hng xu ln tn hiu nhiu hn nh hng ca tn thi do khng c p h ht bi CP. M t l do c th phi s dng Ten di hn lin quan n trng hp truyn dn a v i vic s dng S F N (Single-Frequency Network: M n g n tn) s xt trong mc sau. N h vy t i u hiu nng i v i cc mi trng khc nhau, mt s h thng O F D M h tr nhiu di CP. Cc di CP khc nhau ny c th c s dng trong cc trng hp sau: - CP ngn hn trong cc mi trng nh g i m thiu chi ph cho CP - CP di hn trong cc mi trng c tn thi rt ln v c bit trong trng hp SFN 3.6. NH HNG CA THAY I MC CNG SUT TC THI M t trong s cc nhc im ca truyn dn O F D M l s bin ng l n trong cng sut pht tc thi dn n g i m hiu sut b khuch i cng sut v tiu t h cng sut ca u cui d i ng cao hn hoc phi g i m cng sut pht ra dn n gim c l y ph sng. N h i u phng php c xut gim gi tr nh ca t n hiu O F D M : - Dnh trc tng. Dnh trc mt tp sng mang con khng s dng cho truyn dn s liu. Cc sng mang con ny c iu ch c th trit b cc gi tr nh l n ca ton b tn hiu O F D M v v th

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

99

c th gim khong li ca b khu i cng sut. Nhc im ca ch phng php dnh trc tng l mt bng thng do khng th s dng mt s sng mang con cho truyn dn s liu. Ngoi ra tnh ton phng php iu ch cho dnh trc tng cng rt phc tp - Xo trn chn lc. Chui bt sau m ha knh c xo trn vi cc m ngu nhin ha. Sau mi chui c xo trn c iu ch OFDM, v tn hiu c cng sut nh thp nht c chn pht. Sau gii iu chO F D M ti pha thu, gii ngu nhin (gii xo trn) v gii m knh c thc hin cho tt c cc chui ngu nhin c th c. Nhc im ca phng php ny l tng phc tp ca my thu v phi thc hin nhiu gii m ng thi.

3.7. S DNG OFDM CHO GHP KNH V A TRUY NHP


Hnh 3.13 m t s dng OFDM cho a truy nhp OFDM c th truyn dn ng thi cc n/t cc my u cui bng phn chia tn s. Phng php ny c gi l ghp knh nhng ngi s dng cho ng xung (t trm gc cc my u cui di ng) v a n truy nhp cho ng ln (t cc my u cui di ng trm gc). n

Hnh 3.13. OFDM

c s dng cho s ghp knh/a truy nhp

Trn ng xung, OFDM c s dng lm s ghp knh nhng ngi s dng. Trong khong thi gian mt k hiu OFDM, ton b cc sng mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tp con khc

100

Gio trnh L trnh phi rin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nhau v c gn cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau truyn n cc u cui khc nhau (hnh 3.14.a). Tung t trn ng ln, OFDM c s dng lm s a truy nhp. Trong khong thi gian mt k hiu O F D M ton b cc sng mang con kh dng c chia thnh cc tp con khc nhau v c gn cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau truyn t cc u cui khc nhau n trm gc (hnh 3.14b). S a truy nhp ng ln s dng OFDM c gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s trc giao (OFDMA: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access) i vi ng t MS n BS. Thng thng thut ng OFDMA c s dng cho c ng xung v ng ln v th trong gio trnh ny n gin ta s chi s dng thut ng ny cho hai ng. Hnh 3.13 gi thit rng cc sng mang con lin tip c s dng truyn n/t my di ng u cui. Tuy nhin cc tp con, sng mang con c phn b trn ton b cc sng mang con kh dng cng c s dng truyn n/t cc my u cui di ng (hnh 3.14). Li ch ca cc s OFDM phn b l c th nhn c phn tp tn s b sung tri rng trn ton bng thng rng hn cho tng ng truyn.
a) ng xung b) ng ln

Hnh 3.14. Ghp knh ngi s dng/OFDMA phn b

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA

cua LTE

101

Trong trng hp O F D M A c s dng cho ng ln. tn hiu OFDM pht i t cc u cui di ng khc nhau c ghp knh theo tn s, iu quan trng l cc truyn dn t cc u cui cc v t khc nhau so vi trm gc phi n trm gc mt cch ng b r theo thi gian. c bit l s mt ng b gia cc truyn dn t cc u cui di ng khc nhau ti trm gc phi nh hn di CP m bo tnh trc giao gia cc sng mang con thu c t cc u cui di ng khc nhau trnh nhiu gia nhng ngi s dng. Do khc nhau v khong cch t cc u cui di ng n trm gc v v th dn n khc nhau v thi gian truyn lan (s khc nhau c th vt xa di CP), nn cn phi iu khin nh thi pht ca tng u cui (hnh 3.15). iu khin nh thi pht nhm iu chinh nh thi pht ca tng u cui di ng m bo rng cc truyn dn ng ln c ng b ti trm gc. Do thi gian truyn lan thay i khi u cui di ng chuyn ng trong , iu khin nh thi pht phi l mt qu trnh tch cc, lin tc iu chnh nh thi pht cho tng u cui di ng.

Hnh 3.15. iu khin nh thi pht ng ln

Ngay c khi iu khin nh thi pht hon ho, vn lun c mt lng nhiu gia cc sng mang con do sai s tn s. Trong trng hp sai s tn s hp l v tri Doppler nh, nhiu ny thung tng i nh. Tuy nhin iu ny chi xy ra khi coi rng cc sng mang con khc nhau c thu ti trm gc vi cng sut gn nh nhau. Trn

102

Gio trnh L trnh phi rin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ng ln do khong cch gia cc u cui d i ng n trm gc khc nhau v th suy hao ng truyn ca cc ng truyn ny cng c th rt khc nhau. N u hai u cui pht cng m t cng sut th do khong cch khc nhau cng sut tn hiu thu ti trm gc t hai u cui ny c th rt khc nhau v v th tn hiu thu t trm u cui mnh hem s gy nhiu i v i tn hiu thu y u hn cho d vn duy tr c trc giao hon ho gia cc sng mang con. trnh iu ny cn phi thc hin iu khin cng sut pht ca cc u cui mt mc nht nh i v i O F D M A ng ln bng cch g i m cng sut ca u cui gn trm gc m bo cng sut ca cc tn hiu thu gn n h u nhau.

3.8. PHT QUNG B V A PHNG TRONG NHIU V OFDM


Cc dch v qung b/a phng trong h thng thng t i n d i ng cho php cung cp ng thi thng t i n cho nhiu u cui d i ng. Cc dch v ny thng c tri rng trn m t vng rng ln cha nhiu nh hnh 3.la. Thng t i n qung b/a phng c th l mt V i d e o clip mi, thng t i n v tnh hnh thi tit a phng, thng tin v th trng chng khon ti mt thi im cho trc v c nhiu ngi quan tm. K h i cn cung cp cng mt thng t i n cho nhiu u c u i d i ng trong cng m t , tin l i nht l cung cp thng t i n ny bng cch s dng mt ng truyn dn v tuyn qung b cho ton ng thi n tt c cc u cui d i ng lin quan (hnh 3.16b), c h khng nn pht thng t i n ny bng cc ng truyn dn ring cho tng u cui di ng (truyn n phng, hnh 3. c). Pht qung b trn hnh 3.16b phi c nh c c th t n cc u cui d i ng thu yu nht bao g m c cc u cui ti bin .

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

103

iu ny dn n chi ph ti nguyn kh cao (cng sut m y pht trm gc c th t c tc s liu dch v cho trc). M t gii php cho v n ny l hn ch tc s liu qung b m bo t s tn h i u trn tp m g i i hn chng hn i v i bin v c bit l i v i cc kch thc ln. M t gii php khc cho php duy tr tc s liu qung b cao l gim kch thc tng cng sut thu ti bin . N h n g iu ny dn n tng s lng m bo vng qung b cho trc v lm tng gi thnh trin khai h thng.

Hnh 3.16. Pht qung ba a (a), om (b) v pht n phng (c)


T r o n g trng hp pht qung b a , c th tit k i m ti nguyn m vn m bo tc s liu nu cc u cui d i ng ti bin s dng cng sut t h u t truyn dn qung b ca nhiu k h i tch sng/gii m s l i u qung b. V th c th t c li cng sut ln, nu cc u cui c th thu ng thi v kt hp cc truyn dn qung b t nhiu trc k h i tch tn hiu v gii m. Phng php ny

104

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

c gi l kt hp mm cc truyn dn qung b/a phng t nhiu v c ng dng cho MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Service: dch v qung b/a phng a phng tin) trong WCDMA. Trong trng hp WCDMA. mi pht qung b trn ng xung s dng mt m ngu nhin ring vi th u cui c th nhn bit tn hiu tng trong qu trnh kt hp mm. Mc d kt hp mm tng ng k cng sut thu cho cc u cui ti bin , tuy nhin truyn dn qung b t cc khc nhau vn gy nhiu cho nhau. iu ny lm hn ch t s tn hiu trn nhiu v v th gii hn tc s liu. Mt gii php loi b nhc im ni trn v ci thin hn na cc dch v qung b/a phng trn mng thng tin di ng l m bo rng cc truyn dn qung b t cc khc nhau hon ton ging nhau v c pht ng b theo thi gian. Trong trng hp ny cc truyn dn thu c t cc khc nhau nhn t u cui di ng th hin nh mt truyn dn duy nht b nh hng ca truyn sng a ng (hnh 3.17). Pht cc tn hiu ging nhau c ng b theo thi gian, c bit l trong trng hp cung cp cc dch v qung b/a phng i khi c gi l khai thc mng n tn s (SFN: Single Frequency Network).
Nhn t du cui di ng: Tng ng nhau I 1

CB^) CZzZ LE
Hnh 3. 7. Tng ng gia pht qung b a c ng b v truyn sng a ng Trong trng hp truyn dn t nhiu ging nhau v c ng b thi gian, "nhiu gia cc " do cc truyn dn trong cc ln cn

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

105

xt t u cui s c thay th bng tn hiu b hng do tn thi. Nu truyn dn qung b s dng OFDM vi CP bao ph phn chnh ca tn thi, th cc tc s liu qung b ch b gii hn bi tp m v iu ny c ngha c th t c tc s liu qung b rt cao c bit l trong cc nh hn. Ngoi ra khc vi kt hp mm a ca W C D M A MBMS, my thu OFDM khng cn nhn dng cc khi kt hp mm, v tt c cc truyn dn nm trong gii hn ca CP s c my thu 't ng' thu nhn (ging nh trng hp truyn sng a ng ca mt tn hiu).

3.9. NGUYN L TRUYN DN DFTS-OFDM 3.9.1. S khi h thng DFTS-OFDM


Hnh 3.18 cho thy s khi ca h thng DFTS-OFDM v OFDM tng ng. Trn hnh 3.18 v trong cc phn sau ta s dng cc k hiu sau y: X/. k hiu s liu th p (p = 0,1 u vo b D F T ca DFTS-OFDM X : Mu l (n = 0,1,...,P-1) trong min tn s ca tn hiu ti u ra ca DFT Xi: Sng mang con th i (i = 0.1 min tn s ti u vo ca b IFFT X j : Sng mang con th i (i = 0.1 min thi gian ti u ra ca IFFT
Xj.It

P-l) trong khi s liu ti

N-) c iu ch trong

N-l) ca tn hiu OFDM trong

(m): Mu m (m = 0,1

N-l) ca tn hiu OFDM ti u ra

ca b bin i t song song vo ni tip (PS) ti thi im k (k l mt s nguyn nm trong khong t -00 n 00).

106

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

^3.

>
i
Q 1

Cng CP
OI O) .ra c JD

c o o to o
CL ra c m (5 X E

to Q. l X

sp con v n

Sp song

man

Sp sng

ro

OI

Q. 1
><

IFFT N dim

c 5 o

ra c ro E

p/s

o. rr

h-

i -I
> 5 o i> V _ c iQJ 9
Ui Oi

'c u

2
Q

o
Q_

z
o

L.

<0

~ - ) I
Ui P . . c
'O

t
5

>> ai

00

o
s

5
s

3 9 2 My pht DFTS-OFDM ...


My pht DFTS-0FDM bin i tn hiu nh phn thnh mt dy sng mang c iu ch. vy n thc hin cc thao tc x l tn hiu nh hnh 3.18. X l tn hiu c thc hin theo tng khi k

Chng 3: OFDMA v SC-FDMA cua LTE

107

hiu iu ch. M i khi bao gm p k hiu trong mi k hiu c di T


s m o d

. Vy mt khi l mt khong thi gian T

snl0I

j.P. Ti u

vo ca my pht, b iu ch bng gc bin i u vo nh phn thnh mt chui nhiu mc cc s phc v nhm chng thnh cc khi k hiu x }
r

(p = 0,1

P-l) c khun dng ca mt trong s

cc s iu ch sau: BIT/SK. PSK. 16QAM hoc 6 4 A M trong p l s sng mang con m h thng OFDM dnh cho my u cui. H thng thc hin thch ng iu ch v v th tc bt truyn dn s ph hp vi iu kin knh hin thi ca my u cui. Bc th nht trong qu trnh iu ch DSTF-OFDM l thc hin bin i Fourier ri rc (DFT: Discrete Fourier Transbrm) kch thc p to ra th hin min tn s x | c a cc k hiu u vo. trong
n

n = 0,1,..., P-l v P<N. Sau tp sng mang con c iu ch uc kt hp vi N-P sng mang con rng (bng khng) c tp sng mang con c iu ch min tn s { x , } ( i = 0,1 N - l ) a

ln u vo b IFFT. Sau IFFT ta c tp cc sng mang con c iu ch |Xj} trong min thi gian ti u ra ca IFFT. Khi ny mi X, (i = 0,1 N - l ) iu ch mt tn s. Sau b bin i ni tip thnh song song (S/P) ta c cc mu cua tn hiu OFDM x(m). Sau tn hiu OFDM s iu ch mt sng mang v tt c cc k hiu c iu ch s c truyn ln lt. Ging nh OFDM, gi tr ca N l mt s ly tha hai (N = 2 trong k l mt s nguyn) c th x
k

l FFT theo c s hai vi phc tp thp v p = N/Q l mt c s nguyn ca N . Q c gi l tha s tri rng bng tn ca chui k hiu. Nu tt c cc u cui u p ht p k hiu trn mt khi, th h thng c th x l ng thi cuc truyn dn ng thi m khng b nhiu ng knh (CCI: Co-Channel Intererence). My pht thc. hin hai qu trnh x l tn hiu na trc khi pht. N chn mt tp k hiu vi tn gi l CP (Cyclic Preix) ng vai tr thi gian bo v ngn chn nhiu gia cc khi ( I B I : Inter-block Intererence) do

108

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

truyn a ng. My pht cng thc hin lc tuyn tnh (c gi l to dng xung) gim nng lng ngoi bng. Tng qut, CP l copy phn cui ca khi v t vo phn u ca khi. Vic s dng n c hai l do. Trc ht n ng vai tr khong bo v gia hai khi lin k. Nu di ca CP ln hon tri tr cc i ca knh, th s khng c IBI. Th hai n cho php chuyn i tch chp tuyn tnh ri rc thi gian vo tch chp dch vng ri rc thi gian. V th s liu pht qua knh c th c m hnh nh tch chp vng gia p ng xung kim v khi s liu c truyn, m trong min tn s l nhn theo tng im ca cc mu DFT. Khi ny loi b mo knh, ti my thu ta ch cn chia DFT ca tn hiu thu cho DFT ca p ng xung kim theo tng im hoc c th s dng k thut cn bng min tn s phc tp hn. Trn hnh 3.18 ta thy s khc nhau gia DFTS-OFDM (hnh 3.18a) v OFDM (hnh 3.18b) ch ch DFTS-OFDM s dng thm DFT ti pha pht v IDFT ti pha thu. Chnh v th i khi DFTS-OFDM c tn gi l DFT spread OFDM (OFDM c tri ph bng DTF) hay iu ch OFDM c m ha trc. Nu kch thc p ca DFT bng kch thc N ca IFFT th cc khi DFT v IFFT trn hnh 3.18a s loi tr nhau. Tuy nhin nu P<N v cc u vo IFFT cn li c t vo khng th tn hiu u ra IFFT s l mt tn hiu c thuc tnh "n sng mang", ngha l mt tn hiu c thay i cng sut t v bng thng ph thuc vo p. Nu ta coi rng tn s ly mu ti u ra ca FFT l f th bng thng
s

chun ca tn hiu pht s bng B = P / N x f . V th nu thay i kch


s

thc p ca khi, th bng thng tc thi ca tn hiu pht s thay i. iu ny cho ph p n nh bng thng linh hot. Ngoi ra bng cch chuyn dch cc u vo IFFT theo cch sp xp u ra DFT, ta c th dch tn hiu pht trong min tn s. nhn c mc linh hot cao theo bng thng tc thi c xc nh theo kch thc p ca

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE
k

109

DTF. thng thng ta khng th m bo p = 2 vi k l mt s nguyn. Tuy nhin chng no cn c th biu din p nh l tch ca cc s nguyn t nh. DFT vn c th x l FFT khng theo c s 2 vi phc tp thp. Chng hn DFT kch thc p = 144 c th c thc hin bng cch kt hp x l FFT theo c s 2 v c s 3 (3 .2 ).
2 4

Li ch trc ht ca DFTS-OFDM so vi s truyn dn a sng mang nh O F D M l gim mc thay i cng sut pht tc thi hay PAPR v nh th tng hiu sut b khuch i cng sut. Li ch ny c m t trn hnh 3.19. Hnh 3.19 cho thy phn b PAPR ca DFTS-OFDM v OFDM thng thng. PAPR c nh ngha nh l t s gia cng sut tn hiu nh trong mt khi IFFT (mt k hiu OFDM) v cng sut tn hiu trung bnh.
1
V
X

>.

\ , t 0 1

\ \ \

! \

N
x n v

s *

\L

-VDF-rs-OFD
\

*\

OFDM

1
\ \

V 1
\ \

V V
\\
\\ \\

5
X,

9 dB

10

V 1

S o thnh phn lp phng (CM: Cubic Metric): - OFDM: 3,4dB - DFTS-OFDM (QPSK): 1,0dB - DFTS-OFDM (16QAM): 1,8dB

Hnh 3.19. Phn b PAPR i vi OFDM

DFTS-OFDM

(ng lin nt: QPSK; ng t nt: I6QAM)

110

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


T hnh 3.19 ta thy PAPR ca DFTS-OFDM thp hn nhiu so

vi OFDM thng thng. Trong trng hp iu ch 16QAM, PAPR ca DFTS-OFDM hi tng. Tri li i vi O F D M PAPR t ph thuc vo s iu ch hn. Ta c th gii thch iu ny nh sau: Tn hiu OFDM pht l tng ca rt nhiu sng mang con c iu ch c lp, v th cng sut tc thi c phn b gn nh hm m khng ph thuc vo s iu ch p dng cho cc sng mang con khc nhau. Mc d PAPR c th c s dng m t nh tnh s khc nhau v bin ng cng sut gia cc s tr uyn dn khc nhau, nhng n cha phi l s o tt nh gi nh lng nh hng ca s bin ng cng sut ln li cn thit ca b khuch i cng sut. S o tt hn v nh hng ny cng nh nh hng ln hiu sut ca b khuch i cng sut l s o thnh phn lp phng (CM: Cubic Metric). C M l s o v i lng li cn thit i vi mt dng sng ca tn hiu cho trc so vi lng li cn thit ca dng sng tn hiu chun. Hnh 3.19 cho thy C M (c cho bn phi hnh v) c cng xu th nh PAPR. Tuy nhin s khc nhau v CM nh hn s khc nhau v PAPR. 3.9.3. My thu DFTS-OFDM Nguyn l hot ng ca my thu DFTS-OFDM c cho phn di ca hnh 3.18a. v c bn, my thu thc hin cc x l tn hiu ngc so vi my pht. Trc ht x l FFT kch thc N c thc hin. tip theo loi b cc mu tn s khng lin quan n tn hiu cn thu, cui cng x l DTF ngc kch thc p. Trong trng hp l tng nu khng xy ra hng tn hiu do knh v tuyn, gii iu ch DFTS-OFDM s khi phc li hon ho khi cc k hiu c tr uyn. Tuy nhin tr ong trng hp tn thi gy ra do knh v tuyn b phainh chn lc tn s, tn hiu DFTS-OFDM s b hng bi "t nhiu". Ta c th hiu iu ny nh sau:

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA

cua LTE

111

V l tn h i u n sng mang bng rng. tn hiu tri p h ca D F T S - O F D M s b hng trong trng hp knh tn thi. N u knh l chn lc tn s trn bng tn ca DFT. th D F T o ti m y t h u khng th khi phc ng k h i cc k hiu pht gc. V th i v i D F T S ta cn s dng b cn bng b t r tnh chn lc tn s ca knh. M y thu D F T S - O F D M s dng b cn bng min tn s tuyn tnh phc tp hn b tr tnh chn lc tn s t ca knh. Nguyn l b cn bng min tn s c cho trn hnh 3.20. Sau FFT, t r o n g N m u tn s ca tn hiu s ch c p sng mang con cn t h u c ly r a v c a ln u vo ca b cn bng min tn s. Sau cc m u ny c cn bang b i b lc min ln s c nhiu nhnh lc c cc trng s w , W|
0

Wp tng ng nh

hnh 3.20. Sau tn hiu sau cn bng c chuyn ngc li min thi gian b i I D T F kch thc p ( x e m hnh 3.18a). w

w,

f,_ w
N..-I

Y,.

Hnh 3.20. B cn bng min tn s tuyn tinh cho


0

DFTS-OFDM

Cc trng s ca cc nhnh lc w , W , . , p | c th c xc |..W. nh trc ht b i cc p n g x u n g k i m ca b lc min thi gian M M S E tng n g sau chuyn vo min tn s bng DFT. T u y

12 1

Gio trnh L trnh phi Irin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

nhin b lc min thi gian MMSE c th rt phc tp nht l khi s nhnh tr cn ln do tn hiu truyn dn bng rng. Tuy nhin vic chn CP cho php loi b ngay t u nhiu ISI do chng ln gia hai k hiu v v th trng s nhnh lc c th c tnh nh sau: w,=- f (3.12)
\f,\+p

trong Hi l mu ca p ng tn s ti fj v P l cng sut tp m.


N

So vi b cn bng min thi gian thi b cn bng min tn s n gin hn nhiu nht l khi di b cn bng ln. y chnh l l do m b cn bng min tn s c chn cho DFTS-OFDM. Nhc im chnh ca chn CP l phi chi ph thm bng thng v cng sut khng cn thit cho CP. 3.9.4. DFTS-OFDM vi to dng ph Tn hiu DFTS-OFDM c to ra trong cc phn trc y l tn hiu c ph dng hnh ch nht. gim hn na s bin thin ca tn hiu DFTS-OFDM, ta c th thc hin to dng ph thch hp cho tn hiu ny. S to dng ph cho DFTS-OFDM c m t trn hnh 3.21. Sau x l DFT kch thc p cho cc k hiu iu ch, t n hiu c nh k tri rng trong min tn s. Sau qu trnh to dng ph c thc hin bng cch nhn cc mu tn s vi hm to dng ph, chng hn hm cosin tng cn bc hai (mt ph cng sut c dng cosin tng) c biu din nh sau: cos :
7tai\
4

/(-n

71

T _ '

(3.13)

trong T l thi gian k hiu v thng s a (0 < oe < 1) l h s dc.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-PDMA

cua LTE

113

Sau tn h i u ny c a ln b IFFT.

DFT (P)

Tri rng bng thng

IFFT (N)

CP

DC

_xt)

Tri rng bng thng

To dng ph

Hnh 3.21. DFTS-OFDM vi to dng ph min tn s 1 V

0,1

DFT 3-OFD/l

\/
\ c FDM <x=0|2- ot=o,i; V 0

0.01

10 11 12

0,001
X,

8 dB

S o thnh phn lp phng (CM: Cubic Metric): - OFDM: 3,4 dB - DFTS-OFDM (a=0): 1,0dB - DFTS-OFDM (ct=0,l5): 0,8B - DFTS-OFDM (a=0,22): 0.45dB Hnh 3.22. Phn bo PAPR v s o thnh phn lp phng oi vi DFTS-OFDM c to dng ph

114

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Hnh 3.22 cho thy to dng ph cho php gim hn na s bin

i cng sut ca tn hiu pht nh vy t c hiu sut b khuch i cng sut cao hn. Tuy nhin ci gi phi tr cho to dng ph l vic gim hiu sut s dng ph tn do ph tr nn rng hon. Chng hn khi h s dc ca b lc cosin tng ( = 0.22 c ngha l bng V thng tng thm 22% so vi khng to dng ph. V th to dng ph chi p dng cho cc trng hp b hn ch cng sut khi cng sut pht ch khng phi ph l ti nguyn qu him. K h i ny vic gim thay i cng sut pht nh to dng ph cho php ci thin c ly ng ln. 3.10. TNG QUAN SC-FDMA Trong cc ng dng thng tin di ng, OFDMA c un im rt ln v kh nng khng i vi nh hng ca truyn tn hiu a ng. Kh nng khng ny t c nh vic h thng OFDM pht thng tin trn N sng mang con bng hp trc giao vi mi sng mang con hot ng ti tc bt ch bng N tc bt ca thng tin cn truyn. Tuy nhin dng sng OFDM th hin s thng ging ng bao rt ln dn n PAPR cao. Tn hiu vi PAPR cao i hi cc b khuch i cng sut c tnh tuyn tnh cao trnh lm mo tn hiu. t c mc tuyn tnh ny, b khuch i phi lm vic ch cng tc vi li (so vi im bo ha) cao. iu ny dn n hiu sut s dng cng sut (t s cng sut pht vi cng sut tiu th mt chiu) thp v th c bit nh hng i vi cc thit b cm tay. Mt vn khc gp phi OFDMA trong cc h thng thng tin di ng l cn dch cc tn s tham kho i vi cc u cui pht ng thi. Dch tn ph hng tnh trc giao ca cc cuc truyn dn n nhiu a truy nhp.

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

115

khc phc nhc im ny. 3GPP nghin cu s dng phng php a truy nhp ng ln s dng DFTS-OFDM vi tn gi l SC-FDMA v p dng cho LTE. Ging nh trong OFDMA, cc my pht trong h thng SC-FDMA s dng cc tn s trc giao khc nhau (cc sng mang con) pht i cc k hiu thng tin. Tuy nhin cc k hiu ny c pht i ln lt ch khng phi song song. V th khng nh OFDMA, cch sp xp ny lm gim ng k s thng ging ca ng bao tn hiu ca dng sng pht. V th cc tn hiu SC-FDMA c PAPR thp hn cc tn hiu OFDMA. Tuy nhin trong cc h thng thng tin di ng b nh hng ca truyn dn a ng, SC-FDMA c thu ti BTS b nhiu gia cc k hiu kh ln. BTS s dng b cn bng thch ng min tn s loi b nhiu ny. Cch t chc ny ph hp cho cc h thng thng tin di ng, n cho php gim yu cu i vi khuch i tuyn tnh trong my cm tay vi tr gi bng b cn bng thch ng min tn s phc tp trong BTS. Hnh 3.23 m t nguyn l SC-FDMA. Hnh 3.23a m t trng hp a truy nhp ca hai u cui c n nh bng thng bng nhau (c cng P), cn hnh 3.23b m t trng hp a truy nhp ca hai u cui c n nh bng thng khc nhau. Bng cch dch cc u ra ca DFT n cc u vo thch hp ca IFFT, h thng c th pht tn hiu vo ng v t min tn s r c quy nh theo lp biu.

116

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA ca LTE

117

Hnh 3.24 cho thy s khc nhau trong qu trnh truyn cc k hiu s liu theo thi gian. Trn hnh ny ta coi mi ngi s dng c phn 4 sng mang con (P = 4) vi bng thng con bng 15kHz, trong mi k hiu OFDMA hoc SC-FDMA truyn 4 k hiu s liu c iu ch QPSK cho mi ngi s dng. Hnh 3.24 bn t ri cho thy i vi O F D M A 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn ng thi vi bng tn con cho mi k hiu l 15kHz trong khong thi gian hiu dng
TPFT

ca mt k hiu OFDMA, trong khi i vi

SC-FDMA, 4 k hiu s liu ny c truyn ln lt trong khong thi gian bng l/p (P = 4) thi gian hiu dng k hiu SC-FDMA vi bng tn con bng Pxl5kHz (4x15 Hz) cho mi k hiu.

OFDMA Mi k hiu s liu chim 15kHz trong ton b thi gian hiu dng k hiu OFDMA

SC-RMA Mi k hiu s liu chim Px15kHz trng thi gian bng 1/P thi gian hiu dng k hiu SC-FDMA (P=4)

PSD: Mt p h cng sut CP: Tin t c h u trnh TFFT: Thi gian hiu dng k hiu O F D M A

Hnh 3.24. V d minh ha s khc nhau trong vic truyn cc k hiu s liu theo thi gian i vi OFMA OFDMA truyn cc k hiu so liu ln lt v SC-FDMA: truyn cc k hiu s liu ng thi cn SC-FDMA

118

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Ging nh OFDMA, thng lng SC-FDMA ph thuc vo cch

sp t cc k hiu thng tin ln cc sng mang con. C hai cch phn l cc sng mang con gia cc my u cui. Trong SC-FDMA ni vng (LFDMA: Locallized SC-FDMA) hay cn c gi l DFTS-OFDM ni vng (Locallized DTFS-OFDM), mi u cui s dng mt tp sng mang con lin k pht i k hiu ca mnh. V th bng thng truyn dn L F D M A bng mt phn bng thng h thng. Trong SC-FDMA phn b (DFDMA: Distributed F D M A ) hay cn gi l DTFS-OFDM phn b (Distributed DFTS-OFDM), cc sng mang dnh cho mt u cui c phn b trn ton b bng tn t n hiu. Mt phng n ca SC-FDMA phn b c gi l SC-FDMA an xen (IFDMA: Interleaved SC-FDMA), trong cc sng mang con c chim bi mt u cui cch u nhau v cc sng mang con gia chng rng dnh cho cc u cui khc. Hnh 3.25 cho thy hai cch sp xp ni trn, trong c ba u cui, mi u cui pht i cc k hiu trn bn sng mang con trong mt h thng c 12 sng mang con. Trn hnh 3.25a, trong cch sp xp IFDMA u cui s dng cc sng mang con 0, 3, 6 v 9 cn trong cc sp xp L F D M A (hnh 3.25b) u cui s dng cc sng mang con 0, 1,2, 3.
a) Ch phn b (IFDMA) b) Ch khoanh vng (LFDMA) VTTV

Cc sng mang con u cui 1 u cui 2 u cui 3

Cc sng mang con

Hnh 3.25. Cc phng php n nh sng mang con cho nhiu ngi s dng Hnh 3.26 cho thy s thc hin sp xp L F D M A v IFDMA.

Chng 3: OFDMA
a) LFDMA DFI (P) p=5

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

119
b) IFDMA
DFI

(P) p=5 IFFT (N)


0

oa

IFFT

(N)

<

-3
Hnh 3.26. S sp xp: a) LFDMA v b) IFDMA Xt v kh nng khng i vi li truyn dn (iu ny nh hng ln thng lng). SC-FDMA phn b c kh nng khng phainh chn lc tn s tt hn SC-FDMA ni vng v thng tin cn truyn c tri rng trn ton b bng tn tn hiu. Do vy n s cung cp kh nng phn tp tn s. Tri li L F D M A cho php t c phn tp a ngi s dng khi xy ra phainh chn lc tn s nu n n nh cho tng ngi s dng phn bng tn trong ngi s dng ny c c trng truyn dn tt nht ( li knh cao). Phn tp a ngi s dng da trn vic phainh c lp i vi cc my pht khc nhau. H thng cng cn c b lp biu theo knh (CDS: Channel Dependent Scheduler) cho cc sng mang. CDS i hi h thng gim st cht lng knh truyn ph thuc tn s cho tng u cui v thch ng n nh sng mang con thay i p ng tn s knh ca tt c cc u cui.

oe

3.11. SP XP SNG MANG CON SC-FDMA


Mt s phng php c s dng sp xp cc k hiu truyn dn Xp ln cc sng mang con ca SC-FDMA c th c s dng. Cc phng php ny c chia thnh phn b v ni vng nh minh ha trn hnh 3.26. Trong ch sp xp sng mang con phn

120

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

b, cc u ra ca DFT c t trn ton b bng thng vi 0 c chn vo v t cc sng mang con khng c s dng. Nh ni r trn, I F D M A (SC-FDMA an xen) l mt trng hp c bit quan trng ca SC-FDMA phn b (DFDMA). Tri vi IFDMA, trong L F D M A (SC-FDMA ni vng) u ra ca DFT c t ln cc sng mang con lin tc, v th n s chim mt on ca tor b bng thng. Cc phng php sp xp cn c chia thnh tnh v lp biu theo knh (CDS: Channel Dependent Scheduling). CDS n nh cc sng mang con cho ngi s dng ty thuc vo p ng k.ih i vi ngi s dng. i vi phung php th nht, sp xp sng mang con phn b cung cp phn tp tn s, bi v ph ca tn hiu cn truyn c tri rng trn ton b bng thng. Vi sp xp phn b, CDS ci thin thm hiu nng. Tri li CDS rt quan trng i vi sp xp sng mang con ni vng v n ci thin ng k phn tp a ngi s dng nh ni trn.
Xo Xi X *3

r X,

DFT

* *

"
=
p=0

,p = 4

N=QxP 12=3x4

^ 1 IFDMA}

Xo

Xi

X2

N=QxP
\.LFPMA } Xo
Xi

Xa

N: Tng s sng mang con; P: Kch thc khi s liu; Q: Tha s t rng bng thng. ri

Hnh 3.27. v d v cc k hiu truyn dn ca SC-FDMA trong min tn s i vi p = 4, Q = 3,N = 12

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

121

Cho n nay ta chi cp tng qut vic sp xppk hiu trong mi khi ln N>p cc sng mang con truyn dn. Tuy nhin vi N = 256 trong cc h thng thc t. s kh nng sp xpc th c qu ln i vi cc gii thut lp biu thc t. gim mc phc tp sp xp, cc sng mang con c nhm thnh cc ctnmk (khc) v tt c cc sng mang con trong cng mt chunk c n nh ng thi. Chng hn 256 sng mang con c th chia thnh 32 chunk, trong mi chunk c 8 sng mang con hay 16 chunk vi mi chunk c 16 sng mang con. Hnh 3.27 cho thy mt v d v qu trnh x l s cho cc k hiu truyn dn ca SC-FDMA trong min tn s i vi P = 4,Q = 3 v N = 12. 3.12. TRNH BY TN HIU TRONG MIN THI GIAN 3.12.1. Trnh by tn hiu IFDMA trong min thi gian Ta c th biu din tn hiu IFDMA trong min thi gian nhu sau:
N-l J-"7r
m

x(m) = xx,e
1=0

(3.14)

trong : X '
n

, i = Q.n ( 0 < n < P - l )

( 3

1 5 )

[0 , nu khc

m = p.q+p; N = Q.p ; 0 < q < Q-l; 0 < p < P-l (3.16) hiu c ba phng trnh trn, ta xt v d trong N = 12, Q = 3 p = 4. y l v d trong d kch thc FFT l 12 vi tng s sng mang con bng 12. c ba ngi s dng vi mi ngi s dng c cp pht bn sng mang con cho bn k hiu iu ch u vo (xem hnh 3.27). T phng trnh (3.15): Xi = o = X =o, Xi=3 X = h X i = = X = v X j = = x = ;
= n 6 n 2 9 n 3

122

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G S dng (3.16), ta c th bin i phng trnh (3.14) nh sau:
N-l i2m P- |2-%I 4 j2n<Pi|+pl

x(m) = X .
X
1=0

=sv
11=0

-Zv
n-0

-)
3 1 7

Vi q = 0 ta c:

x(m)= P - )
=X 3 18

T phng trnh (3.17) v (3.18) ta thy s ph thuc ca tn hiu sau bin i IFFT theo thi gian khng khc g tn hiu u vo (Xp). Hnh 3.28 minh ha truyn dn cc k hiu I F D M A theo thi gian. T hnh ny ta thy cc k hiu c truyn ln lt theo thi gian. khc vi OFDM cc k hiu c truyn ng thi theo thi gian. 3.12.2. Trnh by tn hiu L F D M A trong min thi gian Tng t nhu trn ta c th biu din tn hiu L F D M A trong min thi gian nh sau:
, j_

(3.19)

(3.20) 0 , nu khc m = Q.p+q; N = Q.P; 0<q<-l;0<p<P-l (3.21) hiu c ba phng trnh trn. ta xt v d trong N = 12, Q = 3, p = 4. y l v d trong d kch thc FFT l 12 vi tng s sng mang con bng 12. c ba ngui s dng vi mi ngi s dng c cp pht bn sng mang con cho bn k hiu iu ch u vo (xem hnh 3.27). Ta xt v d cho ngi s dng th nht vi q = 0. T phng trnh (3.19) v (3.20): Xj=o = X = 0, Xj= I = x= I, Xj = 2 = x = 2 v Xj = 3 = X ; m = Q.p
n n= 3

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-FDMA cua LTE

123

S dng (3.21). ta c th vit li phng trnh (3.19) nh sau:


thi J-"T7
ln

l * ni

X(m)-x,e " = xe
1=0 n.1)

11=0 n=0

= Xp

(3.22)

T phng t r i n h (3.21) ta thy trong trng hp q = 0. tn hiu u ra L F D M A ging nh tn hiu u vo. i v i trng hp q*0 ta nhn c phng trnh biu din tn hiu u ra I F F T trong min thi gian nh sau: * = ^ r ( - )
c Jf 3 23

trong *m l gi tr xen gia cc k hiu Xp (xem hnh 3.28), Cp. l


m

trng s phc. N h vy trong trng hp L F D M A cc k hiu cng c truyn ln lt. y chnh l l do ti sao SC-FDMA PAPR thp hn OFDM. Hnh 3.28 cho thy truyn dn k hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian cho trng hp N = 12, Q = 3 v p = 4. i v i I F D M A , cc k hiu thi gian chi l lp li ca cc k hiu u vo gc vi quay pha h thng c p dng cho tng k hiu trong min thi gian. V th PAPR ca tn hiu SC-FDMA ging nh trung hp tn hiu n sng mang thng thng. T r o n g trng hp L F D M A , tn hiu thi gian l cc bn sao chnh xc ca cc k hiu thi gian u vo trong p v t r ly mu. N-P m u cn li l tng c trng s ca tt c cc k hiu trong khi vo. Hnh 3.28 cho thy v d ca cc tn hiu chim chunk bao g m c sng mang khng.

124

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

(vi

Xo

Xi

I
{*< )|FDMA}
m

Xo

Xi

Xo

Xi

X2

X3

Xo

Xi

X2

X3

x(m)

L F D M A

Xo

*0

*1

Xi

*2

*4

*7

*m = c .x , c l trng s phc ,
p p

T h i

ian

Hnh 3.28. V d v cc k hiu truyn dn SC-FDMA trong min thi gian

Hnh 3.29 cho thy bin ca cc k hiu SC-FDMA cho trng hp N = 64. p = 16, Q = 4 v PSK.

Thi gian (s mu)

Hnh 3.29. Bin ca cc k hiu SC-FDMA N = 64, p = /, = 4 v QPSK

cho trcmg hp

Chng 3: OFDMA

v SC-PDMA ca LTE

125

3.13. TNG KT
Trong chng ny ta xt nguyn l chung ca OFDM v DFTS-OFDM. OFDM l phng php truyn dn a sng mang cho php truyn dn v tuyn bng rng vi tit kim bng thng nht. V th n uc s dng cho m hnh lp vt l OFDMA ng xung ca LTE. Tuy nhin do nhc im ca OFDM l n c PAPR cao, nn DFTS-OFDM c s dng cho m hnh lp vt l SC-FDMA ng ln. DFTS-OFDM l dng ci tin ca OFDM trong cc k hiu trc khi a ln IFFT c t ph nh DFT. Trong khi cc k ri hiu iu ch c truyn song song trong OFDM. th trong DFTSOFDM (SC-FDMA) cc k hiu ny c truyn ni tip v y chnh l l do ti sao PAPR ca SC-FDMA thp hom ca OFDM.

3.14.

CU

HI

. Trnh by nguyn l c tnh knh v cc k hiu tham kho. . Trnh by vai tr ca m ha knh trong phn tp tn s khi truyn dn OFDM. 3. Trnh by phng php la chn bng thng cho OFDM c s. 4. Trnh by nh hng ca thay i mc cng sut tc thi ln cht lng truyn dn. 5. Trnh by s dng OFDM cho ghp knh v a truy nhp. 6. Trnh by pht qung b v a phng trong nhiu v OFDMA. 7. Trnh by nguyn l truyn dn DFTS-OFDM. 8. Trnh by nguyn l SC-FDMA. 9. Trnh by cc phng php sp xp sng mang con SC-FDMA. lo. Trnh by cc tn hiu SC-FDMA trong min thi gian.

126

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

1. N u ngha ca chn CP. di ca thi gian CP p h thuc vo yu t g? 12. di chn CP nh hng nh th no ln cng sut pht v bng thng. 13. Ti sao s truyn dn DFTS-OFDM li cho php g i m PAPR. 14. N u trong s hnh 3. ] , p = N th ta c truyn dn kiu g?

Chng 4

K THUT A ANTEN

Cc k thut a anten c s dng ci thin hiu nng h thng bao gm: ci thin dung lng h thng (nhiu ngi s dng hn trn mt ) v vng ph ( ln hn) cng nh cung cp dch v tt hn nhu tc s liu trn mt ngi s dng cao hn. Cc k thut ny bao gm vic s dng nhiu anten ti my pht v my thu kt hp vi x l s tin tin. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Cc cu hnh a anten - Cc li ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten - a an ten thu - a anten pht - Ghp knh khng gian Mc ch ca chng ny nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc tng quan cc k thut a anten c s dng pht trin 3G c bit l cho HSPA v LTE. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [9], [10], [ 1], [14] , [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

4.1. CC CU HNH A ANTEN


Mt c trng quan trng ca mi cu hnh a anten l khong cch gia cc phn t anten do quan h gia khong cch anten v

128

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tng quan tng h gia phainh knh v tuyn ti cc anten khc nhau. Cc anten trong cu hnh a anten c th c t kh cch xa nhau t c tng quan tng h thp. Tuy nhin trong cc cu hnh khc. cc anten c th c t kh gn nhau tng tng quan tng h, khi ny tn hiu cc anten khc nhau s b phainh tc thi gn ging nhau. Cc cu hnh a anten ny c phn loi thnh phn tp, to bp v ghp knh khng gian s c xt cc phn di y. Khong cch anten thc t cn thit t c tng quan thp hoc cao ph thuc vo bc sng hay tn s sng mang s dng cho thng tin v tuyn. Ngoi ra n cng ph thuc vo kch bn trin khai. Trong trng hp cc anten trm gc trong cc mi trng thng gp l cc v m (cc kh ln, v tr t anten kh cao...), khong cch gia cc anten thng l vi chc bc sng m bo tng quan phainh tng h thp. Nhng i vi cc u cui di ng trong mi trng tng t, khong cch gia cc anten chi cn na bc sng (0,5A.) l m bo tng quan tung h kh thp. L do khong cch anten khc nhau gia trm gc v u cui di ng trong mi trng cc v m l cc phn x a ng gy ra phainh ch yu xy ra vng gn u cui di ng. V th nhn t u cui di ng, cc ng truyn khc nhau thng n vi gc rng v iu ny c ngha l tng quan phainh thp ngay c khi khong cch gia cc anten nh. Tri li, trong cc kch bn trin khai khc, nh trin khai vi m vi cc anten trm gc c t thp hom mi nh hay trin khai trong nh, mi trng nhn t pha trm gc rt ging vi mi trng nhn t pha u cui di ng. Trong cc kch bn ny khong cch anten trm gc nh hn cng m bo tng quan phainh thp. Cc phn tch trn tng ng vi gi thit rng cc anten c cng phn cc. Mt gii php khc t c tng quan phainh tng h thp l s dng phn cc khc nhau cho cc anten khc

Chng 4: K thut a anten

129

nhau. K h i ny c th t cch anten rt gn nhau nhn c mt kt cu anten n h g n m vn m bo tng quan gia chng thp.

4.2. CC LI CH CA VIC s DNG CC K THUT A ANTEN


Cc k thut a anten ti m y pht v ti m y thu c th c s dng theo cc cch khc nhau t c cc mc ch khc nhau: - N h i u anten ti m y pht v (hoc) ti m y t h u c th c s dng m bo phn tp chng phainh trn knh v tuyn. T r o n g trng h p ny, cc knh truyn do cc anten ny to ra phi c tng quan phainh tng h thp, hay ni m t cch khc cn c khong cch g i a cc anten l n (phn tp khng gian), hoc s dng cc anten c phn cc khc nhau (phn tp phn cc). - N h i u anten ti m y pht v (hoc) ti m y t h u c th c s dng '"to" dng bp anten tng hp (bp pht v bp thu) chng hn t c tng ch cc i trong phng n may pht hoc n my t h u hoc trit cc tn hiu nhiu chnh. Q u trnh to bp ny c th c thc hin da trn tng quan phainh tng h cao hoc thp g i a cc anten. - S c mt ng thi nhiu anten ti m y pht v m y thu c th c s dng to ra nhiu knh thng t i n song song trn giao din v tuyn. iu ny m bo kh nng s dng bng thng cao m khng gy g i m hiu sut s dng cng sut hay ni cch khc cho php tc t r u y n dn cao m khng gy nh hng l n n ph sng. Gii php ny c g i l ghp knh khng gian.

4.3. A ANTEN THU


Xt v mt lch s cng nh s p h bin, cu hnh thng gp v c bit t lu l cu hnh s dng nhiu anten ti m y thu. Phng php ny thng c g i l phn tp t h u hay phn tp RX, mc d mc ch ca n khng phi lun lun ch nhn c phn tp chng phainh.

130

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Hnh 4.1 m t nguyn l kt hp tuyn tnh cc tn hiu thu

,y

N r

t N anten thu bng cch nhn tn hiu thu ny vi cc tha


r N

s trng s phc w|.wj,....w* trc khi cng chng vi nhau. Vct nhn c sau kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh ny c th c biu din nh sau:

* = [

*Nr]

W
H

(4.1)

trong chi s H k hiu cho chuyn v Hermitian

My thu

Hnh 4. . Kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh Nu coi rng tn hiu pht khng b phainh chn lc (khng c tn thi) v tp m l tp m Gauss tr
n g cng, tn hiu thu ti cc anten khc nhau trn hnh 4. c th c biu din nh sau: ~y\ ' y=. _>v_ \ ' .x + .. nv

. V

Chng 4: K thut a unten

131

trong X l tn hiu pht. vct h bao gm N li knh phc v


r

vct bao gm tp m trng ti N nhnh thu t cc anten khc nhau


r

(xem hnh 4.2).


My thu

Hnh 4.2. Cc knh truyn trong kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh C th d dng chng minh rng t c t s tn hiu trn tp m cc i sau kt hp tuyn tnh, cn chn vct trng s w nhu sau: W
M R C

(4.3)

Kt hp ny cn c gi l kt hp t l cc i (MRC: Maximum Ratio Combining). Cc trng s MRC mc ch: - Quay pha tn hiu thu c ti cc anten khc nhau b tr pha ca knh tng ng v m bo rng cc tn hiu ng pha khi cng vi nhau (kt hp nht qun) - nh trng s cc tn hiu t l vi cc li knh tng ng, ngha l s dng trng s cao cho cc tn hiu thu mnh hn. Trong trng hp cc anten khng tung quan vi nhau, ngha l khong cch gia cc anten ln hay cc anten c phn cc khc nhau, th cc li knh hi. h ,..., h
2 N r

thc hin hai

s khng tng quan nhau v


r

kt hp phn tp tuyn tnh cung cp phn tp bc N . i vi to bp

132

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

pha thu. vic chn cc trng lng anten theo cng thc (4.3) tng ng vi bp thu c li cc i N trong phng hng n my
r

pht ch. V th vic s dng nhiu anten thu c th tng t s tn hiu trn tp m sau kt hp t l vi s lng cc anten thu. MRC l mt chin lc kt hp anten khi tn hiu thu ch yu b ph hy bi tp m. Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp ca thng tin di ng, tn hiu thu ch yu b ph hy bi nhiu t cc my pht khc trong h thng ch khng phi tp m. Trong trung hp s lng cc tn hiu nhiu kh ln, kt hp t l cc i vn l la chn tt chng hn trong trng hp tng nhiu th hin ging nh tp m v khng c hng n c th. Tuy nhin trong trng hp chi c mt ngun nhiu ln (hoc trong trng s ngun nhiu ln c hn) nh m t trn hnh 4.3, hiu nng chi c th c ci thin nu thay v chn cc trng s anten t c t s tn hiu trn tp m cc i sau kt hp anten (MRC), cc trng s anten c chn sao cho cc ngun nhiu ny b trit tiu. i vi to bp pha thu, iu ny tng ng vi bp thu c suy hao cao ti hng n ngun nhiu ch khng tng ng vi bp thu c li cc i theo hng n tn hiu ch. Vic s dng kt hp anten vi mc ch trit tiu cc ngun nhiu c th thng c gi l kt hp loi b nhiu (IRC: Intererence Rection Combining).

Hnh 4.3. Kch bn irng xung vi mt ngun nhiu vt tri ch c hai anten thu

Chng 4: K thut a anten

133

T r o n g trng hp ch c m t ngun nhiu vt tri nh hnh 4.3, ta c th biu d i n cng thc (4.2) nh sau:

Vi
y= *.

ni
= h.x + h/ .Xi
+1]

(4.4)

Av.
r

A.*>J

trong Xi l tn h i u nhiu v vct /, g m cc l i knh phc t ngun nhiu n N anten thu. p dng cc biu thc t (4. ) n

(4.4) ta thy rng tn hiu nhiu hon ton b trit tiu nu vct trng s w c chn thc hin biu thc sau: w"./7, = 0 trong (.) l chuyn v Hermitian. T r o n g trng h p tng qut, cng thc (4.5) c N
r

(4.5)

li gii khc

khng cho php l i n h hot chn trng s. Tnh linh hot ny c th c s dng trit cc ngun nhiu chnh khc. c bit hn na trong trng hp tng qut v i N
r r

anten thu, v mt l thuyt c th

hon ton trit tiu N -1 ngun nhiu tch bit. T u y nhin vic la chn cc trng s anten trit tiu hon ton m t s cc ngun nhiu ln c th dn n tng mc tp m sau khi kt hp anten. iu ny tng ng v i tng mc tp m trong trng hp b cn bng cng bc v khng. V t h ging nh trng hp cn bng tuyn tnh. phng php tt hom l chn vct trng s anten w t c sai s trung bnh bnh phng cc tiu: = E[\X-X\ ]
2

(4.6)

Phng php ny thng c g i l kt hp sai s bnh phng trung bnh cc tiu ( M M S E : M i n i m u m Mean Square Error).

134

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Mc d hnh 4.3 ch minh ha kch bn ng xung v i mt

trm gc gy nhiu ch yu, IRC cng c th c p dng cho ng ln trit tiu nhiu t cc u cui di ng c th. T r o n g trng hp ny. u cui d i ng gy nhiu c th nam t r o n g cng nh u cui d i ng ch (nhiu ni ) hoc trong bn cnh (nhiu gia cc ) (hnh 4.4). Trit nhiu n i lin quan n trng hp ng ln khng trc giao, ngha l k h i nhiu u cui d i ng pht ng thi bng cch s dng cng mt ti nguyn thi gian - tn s. Vic trit nhiu ni bng I R C i k h i cn c gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo khng gian ( S D M A : Space D i v i s i o n M u l t i p l e Access).
a) Nhiu ni b) Nhiu gia cc

gy nhiu

gy nhiu

Hnh 4.4. Kch bn my thu b mt my u cui di ng gy nhiu mnh T r o n g thc t knh v tuyn lun lun b tn thi m t mc nht nh hay ni mt cch khc c tnh chn lc tn s v iu ny dn n ph hy tn hiu bng rng. M t bin php chng li s ph hy tn hiu kiu ny l p dng cn bng tuyn tnh min thi gian hay m i n tn s. Cng cn nhn mnh rng vic kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh ni trn c rt nhiu im tng ng v i cn bang tuyn tnh: - Lc/cn bng tuyn tnh min thi gian thc cht l p dng xu l tuyn tnh cho tn hiu thu ti cc thi im khc nhau (hay cc tn s khc nhau) t c S N R sau cn bng cc i (cn bng da trn MRC). cng l mt s la chn loi b s ph h y tn hiu do

Chng 4: K thut a anten

135

tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn (cn bng cng bc khng, cn bng MMSE...) - Kt hp anten thu tuyn tnh l qu trnh x l tuyn tnh p dng cho cc tn hiu thu t cc anten khc nhau chng hn x l trong min thi gian nhm t c SNR sau kt hp cc i (kt hp da trn MRC), cng l mt s la chn trit cc ngun nhiu c th (da trn IRC, M M S E ) Vy, trong trng hp tng qut knh chn lc tn s v nhiu anten thu, ta c th p dng lc/x l khng gian thi gian hai chiu nh hnh 4.5. trong lc tuyn tnh c nhn nhn nh l tng qut ha ca nh trng s anten trn hnh 4. . Cc b lc phi c la chn kt hp gim thiu tng nh hng ca tp m. nhiu v cc ph hy tn hiu khc do chn tc tn s ca knh.

Hnh 4.5. X l tuyn tnh khng gian thi gian hai chiu (hai anten thu) Mt cch khc, c bit l trong trng hp chn CP c p dng ti pha pht, c th p dng x l tuyn tnh tn s/khng gian nh hnh 4.6. Cc trng s tn s khng gian cn c chn kt hp gim thiu tng nh hng ca tp m, nhiu v ph hy t n hiu do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn. X l tn s/khng gian trn hnh 4.6 khng dng IDFT cng c th c p dng nu phn tp thu c p dng cho truyn dn OFDM. Trong trng hp truyn dn OFDM khng c ph hy t n

136

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hiu o tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn. V th. cc trng s trn hnh 4.6 c chn vi mc ch chi gim nhiu v tp m. v nguyn l, s ny ging nh cc s kt hp anten ni trn (MRC v IRC) c p dng cho tng sng mang. Lu rng mc d trn cc s hnh 4.5 v hnh 4.6 ta chi xt hai anten, nhng c th m rng cho cc s nhiu hn hai anten.
My thu -

Hnh 4.6. X l tuyn tnh tn s/khng gian hai chiu (hai anten)

4.4. A ANTEN PHT


Mt gii php khc hoc b sung cho nhiu anten thu, phn tp v to bp cng c th t c bng cch p dng nhiu anten ti pha pht. S dng nhiu anten pht thng c quan tm cho ng xung, ngha l ti trm gc vi khi ny c nhiu khng gian hn lp t kt cu anten. Trong trng hp ny vic s dng nhiu anten pht m bo kh nng phn tp v to bp khng cn cc anten thu b sung v chui my thu tng ng ti u cui di ng. M t khc, do phc tp nn vic s dng nhiu anten pht cho ng ln (ti my u cui di ng) t hp dn hn. Trong trng hp ny, thng thng h thng s dng thm cc anten thu v dy cc my thu tng ng ti trm gc.

Chng 4: K thut a anten 4.4.1. Phn tp anten pht

137

N u khng bit r cc knh ng xung ca cc anten khc nhau ti m y pht, cc anten pht khng th m bo to bp m ch m bo phn tp. i v i phn tp cn m bo tng quan tng h gia cc knh ca cc anten khc nhau thp. N h xt trn, iu ny c th t c bng cch chn khong cch gia cc anten ln. hay m t gii php khc l s dng cc hng phn cc anten khc nhau. C rt nhiu cch tip cn khc nhau thc hin phn tp bng nhiu anten pht.

4.4.2. Phn tp tr
D o knh phainh b tn thi, nn s c nhiu ng truyn phainh c lp v i tr khc nhau n m y thu v iu ny cung cp phn tp a ng hay phn tp tn s. N u lng truyn sng a ng khng qu ln v s truyn dn s dng cc cng c chng li ph h y tn hiu do tnh chn lc tn s ca knh v tuyn (chng hn truyn O F D M hay cn bng tin tin ti pha thu) th h thng c th l i dng c truyn a ng. N u knh khng b tn thi, nhiu anten pht c th c s dng to ra tn t h i nhn to hay tng ng chn lc tn s nhn to bng cch pht i cc tn hiu nh nhau v i tr tng i khc nhau t cc anten khc nhau v i tng quan tng h thp gia cc anten ny. Kiu phn tp tr ny c m i n h ha trn hnh 4.7 cho trng hp hai anten pht. T r tng i T phi c chn m bo lng phn tp tn s ph hp trn rng bng tn ca tn hiu c truyn. Phn tp tre trn hnh 4.7 cng c th c m rng cho cu hnh c nhiu anten hn. u cui d i dng khng nhn bit c tr phn tp, n n gin coi y l m t knh v tuyn b tn thi. Tr phn tp c th c a vo cc h thng thng t i n di ng hin c m khng cn bt k mt h tr c bit trong tiu chun giao din v tuyn. Tr phn tp cng c th p dng cho m i s truyn dn c thit k x l cng

138

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

nh li dng phn tp phainh chn lc tn s ( W C D M A v cdma2000).


My pht trm gc

u cui d ng

Hnh 4.7. Hai anten phn tp tr

4.4.3. Phn tp tr vng


Phn tp tr vng (CDD: Cyclic Delay Diversity) cng ging nh phn tp tr chi khc mt im l phn tp tr vng hot ng theo tng khi v p dng dch vng ch khng p dng tr tuyn tnh i vi cc anten khc nhau (hnh 4.8). Nh vy phn tp tr vng c th p dng dc cho cc s truyn dn theo khi nh OFDM v DFTS-OFDM.
My pht trm gc - - -

My pht trm gc

X^mt - I
Xt***-*

AV
u cui di ng

2 T V 3 r

() b

Hnh 4.8. Phn tp tr vng (CDD) hai an ten pht

Chng 4: K thut a anten

139

T r o n g trng h p truyn dn O F D M , dch vng tn hiu trong min t h i gian tng n g v i dch pha ph thuc vo tn s v i u ny to nn tnh chn lc tn s nhn to t gc m y thu. C D D hai anten pht c thm rng cho cu hnh nhiu anten pht hn.

4.4.4. Phn tp theo m khng gian thi gian


M khng gian t h i gian l mt thut n g c s dng cho cc s pht nhiu anten t r o n g cc k hiu iu ch c sp xp vo min khng gian v thi gian ln cc anten pht nhn c phn tp nhi u anten pht. M hoa k h i khng gian thi gian (STBC: Space Time B l o c k Code) v i hai anten pht c s dng trong 3G W C D M A v i tn g i S T T D (Space-Time Transmit Diversity: Phn tp pht khng gian thi gian). Hnh 4.9 m t hot ng ca S T T D cho cc cp k hiu iu ch. A n t e n t h nht pht trc tip cc k hiu iu ch. cn anten t h hai pht cc cp k hiu iu ch theo t h t ngc li, ngoi ra cc k hiu ny cn c o du v chuyn thnh lin hp phc.
My pht trm gc-

u cui di ng

-*,*....

Hnh 4.9. Phn tp pht khng gian thi gian (STTD)


M ha khng gian thi gian hai anten trn hnh 4.9 c th c coi l c t l m bng mt. i ny c ngha rang tc k hiu u u vo c cng tc k hiu ti tng anten tung ng v i s s dng bng thng bng mt. Cng c th m rng m ha khng gian thi

140

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng Un d ng 3G ln 4G

gian cho nhiu anten hn. T u y nhin trong trng hp iu ch phc nh QPSK hay 16/64AM. cc m c t l m t m khng gy nhiu cho nhau (cc m khng gian thi gian trc giao) chi tn ti cho hai anten. N u cn trnh nhiu gia cc k hiu trong trng hp s dng nhiu hem hai anten, phi s dng cc m c t l nh hn m t v iu ny dn n gim s s dng bng thng. Vct thu ca truyn dn S T T D c th c biu din nh sau: y
_>,. _ ''!
n n +

"Aj -h ~
2

K. / V i .

T r o n g y v y | l cc k hiu thu trong khong thi gian pht cp k hiu. Cn lu rng biu thc trn c rt ra v i g i thit cc li knh h| v h khng thay i trong thi gian pht cp k hiu.
2

V i ma trn h c nh c ma trn nht phn nn c th khi phc c cc k hiu pht x v X


n +

t cc k hiu thu y. y

m khng

xy ra nhiu gia chng bng cch nhn ma trn w = " = "' vi vct (lu : chi s - k hiu cho ma trn do).

4.4.5. Phn tp theo m khng gian tn s


M khi khng gian tn s (SFBC: Space Frequency B l o c k Code) cng ging nh m S T B C chi khc l m ha c thc hin trong min khng gian (anten)/tn s c h khng trong m i n khng gian (anten)/thi gian. V th SFBC c th c p dng cho cc s O F D M v cc s truyn dn min tn s khc. Tng t nh STTD, S F T D c s dng cho SFBC (hnh 4.10). T hnh 4.10 ta thy cc k hiu iu ch (min tn s) X , A',.A\. A , . . c sp xp '..
0

trc tip ln cc sng mang con O F D M ca anten t h nht, cn khi cc k hiu -X , A','.-A' \...c sp xp l cc sng mang con n
:

O F D M ca anten t h hai.

Chng 4: K thut a anten

141

Hnh 4. l. Phn tp pht khng gian - tn s vi hai anten pht Cng ging nhu m ha khng gian thi gian, nhc im ca m ha khng gian tn s l khng th tng s anten ln hn hai m khng lm gim t l m. So snh hnh 4.10 vi hnh 4.8b. ta c th nhn thy s khc nhau gia SFBC v phn tp tr vng ch yu cch sp xp cc k hiu iu ch mi n tn s ln anten th hai. u im ca SFBC so vi CDD l SFBC cung cp phn tp ti mc k hiu di u ch trong khi CDD trong trng hp OFDM phi da trn m ha knh kt hp vi an xen mi n tn s cung cp phn tp. 4.4.6. To bp ti pha pht Nu c c mt s hiu bit v cc knh ng xung ca cc anten pht khc nhau v nht l mt s hiu bit v pha knh tng i ti pha pht, cc anten pht ngoi phn tp cn c th m bo to bp, ngha l to dng cho ton b bp anten theo phng n my thu ch. Ni chung to bp c th tng cng tn hiu ti anten thu ln n tha s N ngha l t l vi s anten pht. Khi ni v cc s

142

Gio trnh L trnh pht (nn thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

truyn dn da trn nhiu anten pht cung cp to bp, ta cn phn bit gia cc trng hp tng quan anten tung h cao v thp. Tng quan anten tng h cao lin quan n cu hnh anten vi khong cch gia anten nh nh hnh 4.1 la. Trong trng hp ny, cc knh gia cc anten khc nhau v my thu c th hu nh ging nhau k c phainh knh v tuyn ngoi tr s khc nhau v pha ph thuc vo phng. Khi ny c th li bp truyn dn tng n cc phng khc nhau bng cch s dng cc dch pha khc nhau i vi cc tn hiu pht trn cc anten khc nhau nh hnh 4.11 b.

Mt phn ca bc sng

Tn hiu c pht

(a) Cu hnh anten

(b) Cu trc bp

Hnh 4. . To bp kinh iu vi tng quan anten tirng ho cao Phng php to bp pha pht bng cch s dng cc dch pha khc nhau cho cc anten c tng quan cao i khi c gi l to bp kinh in. Do khong cch gia cc anten nh, bp pht tng kh rng v cc iu chinh phng bp sng (trong thc t l iu chnh cc dch pha anten) thng thng c thc hin kh chm. iu chinh c th c thc hin trn c s nh gi phng n u cui di ng ch c rt ra t o c trn ng ln. Ngoi ra do gi thit tng quan cao gia cc anten pht khc nhau. to bp kinh in khng th m bo phn tp chng phainh knh v tuyn ngoi vic chi tng cng tn hiu thu.

Chng 4: K thut a anten

143

Tung quan anten tng h thp lin quan n khong cch gia cc anten l n (hnh 4.12) hay cc phng phn cc anten khc nhau. V i tng quan anten tng h thp. nguyn l to bp c s cng ging nh s trn hnh 4.11. T u y nhin khc vi to bp kinh in, cc trng s anten phi c gi tr phc ngha l phi c th iu chnh c pha v bin ca tn hiu pht trn cc anten khc nhau. iu ny phn nh thc t l do tng quan anten tng h thp, c pha v li tc t h i ca cc knh anten c th khc nhau. Vi bc sng w ! B t in m ha

Tn hiu cn pht

Hnh 4.12. To bp da trn b tin m ha trong trng hp irng quan anten tng ho thp
K h i s dng cc trng s phc khc nhau cho cc tn hiu cn pht trn cc anten khc nhau, ta c th biu din vct tn hiu cho cc anten pht nh sau:
X.

"w, "
.X =
_
W

N t _

w.x

(4.8)

Cn iu rng to bp k i n h in trn hnh 4.11 cng c th c m t theo phng trnh (4.8), c ngha rng tin m ha anten v i hn ch l i bng m t v ch m bo cc dch pha cho cc anten pht khc nhau. Gi thit rng cc tn hiu pht i t cc anten khc nhau chi b phainh phang (phainh khng chn lc tn s) v tp m trng, ngha l khng c tn t h i , t c cng sut tn hiu thu cc i, cn chn cc trng s tin m ha nh sau:

144

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

w = =L=
j 1

(4.9)

M
Ngha l trng s phi bng lin hip phc ca l i knh h, c chun ha m bo tng cng sut pht c nh. Vct tin m ha phi m bo: - Quay pha tn hiu pht b tr pha tc thi ca knh v m bo cc tn hiu thu c ng b pha - n nh cng sut cho cc anten khc nhau theo nguyn tc cng sut ln hn c n nh cho cc anten c iu kin knh tc thi tt hn ( li knh |hj| cao) - m bo tng cng sut pht bng mt (hay mt hng s bt k) im khc nhau cn bn gia to bp kinh in trn hnh 4.11 vi gi thit tng quan tng h gia cc anten cao v to bp trn hnh 4.12 vi gi thit tung quan tng h gia cc anten thp l ch trong trng hp th hai h thng cn bit knh chi tit nh gi phainh tc thi ca knh. Cc gi tr mi ca vct tin m ha phi irc tnh trong mt khong thi gian ngn bt kp cc thay i ca phainh. Do cc iu chinh cho cc trng s b tin khuch i c xt n phainh tc thi (bao gm li knh tc thi), nn to bp trn hnh 4.12 cng cung cp phn tp chng phainh knh v tuyn. Ngoi ra trong trng hp thng tin da trn ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD: Frequency Division Duplex) trong truyn dn ng ln v ng xung s dng cc bng tn khc nhau, nn thng thng phainh gia ng ln v ng xung khng tng quan vi nhau. V th trong trng hp F D D chi u cui di ng l c th nh gi c phainh knh ng xung. Nn u cui di ng phi bo co c tnh knh ng xung cho trm gc thng qua bo hiu ng ln. M t cch khc, u cui di ng c th t mnh la chn vct tin m ha t mt tp hu hn cc

Chng 4: K thut a anlen

145

vct tin m ha c th c (c g i l bng m tin m ha) v bo co vct ny cho t r m gc. M t khc trong trng hp ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian ( T D D : T i m e D i v i s i o n Duplex). trong truyn dn ng ln v ng xung s dng chung m t bng tn nhng trong cc khe thi gian cch bit nhau, nn thng thng tn ti tng quan phainh cao gia ng ln v ng xung. T r o n g trng h p ny trm gc ( t nht l v mt l thuyt) c th xc nh phainh ng xung t o c trn ng ln. n h vy trnh c vic phn h i thng t i n . T u y nhin iu ny ch m bo k h i coi rng u cui d i ng thng xuyn pht trn ng ln. Cc phn tch trn y c a ra vi gi thit l knh khng thay i trong min tn s. T r o n g trng hp knh chn lc tn s, r rng rng khng th c h i c mt h s knh trn mt anten c tnh ton theo (4.9). T u y nhin trong trng hp O F D M , m i sng mang con thng tri qua m t knh khng chn lc tn s. V th trong trng hp truyn dn O F D M , tin m ha trn hnh 4.12 c th c thc hin trn c s tng sng mang con nh hnh 4.13, trong cc trng s ca b tin m ha ca tng sng mang con c chn theo (4.9).

IFFT

s/p
IFFT

YV " 2.N-I

Hnh 4.13. Tin m ha cho tng sng mang con trong trng hp OFDM (hai anten pht)

146

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Cn lu rng trong trng hp truyn dn n sng mang nh

trong W C D M A . phng php mt trng s trn m t anten nh hnh 4.12 c th c m rng xt n c knh tn thi/tn tn.

4.5. GHP KNH KHNG GIAN


T trc n nay ta ch x e m xt vic s dng nhiu anten ti c u pht v u thu chi ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m/nhiu v e t c l i phn tp chng phainh so v i vic ch s dng nhiu anten ti u pht hoc s dng nhiu anten ti u thu. Tuy nhin s dng nhiu anten ti c u pht v u thu cn cho php ghp knh khng gian t c hiu sut s dng p h tn cao hn trong trng hp t s tn hiu trn tp m/nhiu cao v tc s liu cao trn giao din v tuyn.

4.5.1. Nguyn l CO" s


T cc nghin c u trong cc phn trc ta hiu rng vic s dng nhiu anten ti m y pht v m y thu cho php ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m t l v i s lng anten khi p dng to bp ti c my thu v m y pht. Trng h p tng qut v i N, anten pht v N
r

anten thu,
r

h thng a anten c th tng t s tn hiu trn tp m N,xN ln. Nh xt trong chng 2, vic tng t s tn hiu trn tp m ny trong my thu cho php tng tc s liu trong trng hp tc s liu b gii hn bi cng sut c h khng b gii hn bi bng thng. T u y nhin mt k h i t n vng hot ng b gii hn b i bng thng cc tc s liu s bt u bo ha nu khng th tng bng thng. gii thch s bo ha tc s liu ta xt biu thc c s cho dung lng knh chun ha sau y:

_c_
B
w

= log

N)
t r 2

(4.10)

T r o n g bng cch s dng to bp, t s tn hiu trn tp m S/N c th tng t l v i N xN . T n g qut, l o g ( l + x ) t l v i X khi X

Chng 4: K thut a anten

147

nh. ngha l k h i t s tn hiu trn tp m nh. k h i ny dung lng gn nh t l v i t s tn hiu trn tp m. T u y nhin k h i X ln, log (l+x)log (x). ngha l k h i t s tn hiu trn tp m l n hn,
2 2

dung lng chi t l v i logarit ca t s tn hiu trn tp m. Tuy nhin trong trng hp nhiu anten pht v nhiu anten thu, trong mt s iu k i n nht nh. c th to lp N = minN,, N } knh
A r

song song, trong m i knh c t s tn hiu trn tp m gim N dung knh nh sau: = log 1+

ln (cng sut tn hiu c phn chia gia cc knh), ngha l v i

L1
N
4

(4.11)

V by g i ta c N

knh song song trong m i knh c dung

lng xc nh theo cng thc (4.11), tng dung lng knh cho cu hnh a anten k h i ny c xc nh nh sau:

= N og
A

N. N N.
(4.12)

- = min N,. N }. log, 1 + min{yv,.jv,.} , w


r

N h vy trong mt s iu kin nht nh, c th lm cho dung lng knh tng gn nh tuyn tnh v i s lng anten v trnh c bo ha tc s liu. T a s g i phng php ny l ghp knh khng gian. Thut n g x l anten M I M O cng thng c s dng. tuy nhin thut n g chnh xc cho tt c cc trng hp l a anten pht v a anten thu bao hm c trng hp phn tp pht thu kt hp. hiu c nguyn l c s v cch to lp cc knh song song trong trng hp nhiu anten ti my pht v nhiu anten ti m y thu, ta xt cu hnh anten 2x2, ngha l c hai anten pht v hai anten thu nh hnh 4.14. Ngoi ra ta g i thit rng cc tn hiu pht ch b

148

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin

thng

tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phainh khng chn lc tn s v tp m trng, ngha l khng xy ra tn thi knh.

Hnh 4.14. Cu hnh anten 2x2 T hnh 4.14 ta c th biu din cc tn hiu thu nh sau: y=

y\~

Xi K\ '
Ki Ki

~X\~
x

Hi

= h .X + T

(4.13)

trong h l ma trn knh 2x2. C th coi biu thc ny l s tng qut ha ca biu thc (4.2) cho nhiu anten pht v
i nhiu tn hiu khc nhau c pht trn cc anten pht khc nhau.
X

'1,

Y '
Ti

My thu

TX

"

X,

Hnh 4. 5. Thu tuyn tnh/gii iu ch cc tn hiu ghp knh khng gian Nu coi rng ma trn h l kh o, th my thu c th hon ton khi phc c vct X v c hai tn hiu X| v X i m khng cn

Chng 4: K thut a anten

149

nhiu gia chng bng cch nhn vct thu v i ma trn w=/j"' (hnh 4.15): + i .T] (4.14) = w.v+ =
H

X,

Mc d c th khi phc hon ho vct X trong trng hp khng c tp m chng no ma trn knh cn kh o h , biu thc (4.14) cng cho thy rng cc thuc tnh ca h s xc nh mc gii m/gii iu ch lin hp s tng mc tp m. c bit, ma trn knh cng gn v i ma trn n nht (singular matrix, ma trn n nht l ma trn khng k h o), mc tng tp m s cng ln hn. gii thch ma trn w ta cn hiu rng cc tn hiu pht t hai , anten pht l cc tn hiu gy nhiu cho nhau. K h i ny cc anten thu c s dng thc hin IRC, m thc cht l trit b hon ton nhiu t tn hiu pht trn anten t h hai khi tch tn hiu pht t anten th nht v ngc l i . Cc hng ca ma trn w hin IRC. Trong trng hp tng qut, mt cu hnh a anten s gm N, anten pht v N
r

chi om thun thc

anten thu. N h ni trn, trong trng hp ny, = min{NN }. Ta c th hiu iu


r

s lng cc tn hiu song song c th c ghp khng gian trong thc t b g i i hn bi bin trn N ny n h u sau: - Khng th pht nhiu h o n N, tn hiu, ngha l cc i ch c th ghp khng gian N, tn hiu - V i N anten thu, cc i chi c th trit N -1 tn hiu gy nhiu,
r r A

ngha l cc i ch c th ghp khng gian N tn hiu


r

Tuy

nhin trong nhiu trng hp, s lng cc tn hiu c


A

ghp khng gian, hay bc ghp knh khng gian s t hn N

ni trn:

- T r o n g trng hp iu knh rt km (t s tn hiu trn tp m thp) skhng cn l i ghp knh khng gian v dung lng knh l

150

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mt hm ph thuc gn nhu tuyn tnh vo t s t n hiu trn tp m. Trong cc trng hp ny, cu hnh a anten pht v thu phi l to bp ci thin t s tn hiu trn tp m ch khng phi ghp knh khng gian. - Trong trng hp tng qut hn, bc ca ghp knh khng gian phi c xc nh da trn cc thuc tnh ca ma trn knh N|XN.
r

Khi ny cc anten b sung cn c s dng m bo to bp. T hp to bp v ghp knh khng gian c th t c bng ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha s c xt ui y. 4.5.2. Ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha Tin m hoa tuyn tnh trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian c p dng ti pha pht x l tuyn tnh bng mt ma trn tin m ha kch thc N,xN (hnh 4.16). Nh ni trn, trong trng
r

hp tng qut, N bng hoc nh hon N(, ngha l N

t n hiu c

ghp khng gian v c pht i bng cch s dng N, anten.


My pht .

x' *

Ly
I
1

ly
NA tin hiu

x'

1 1 1

V
I l I
w

N, anten pht

i
I I

NI r .

Sa i
I I I

Hnh 4.16. Ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha

Lu rng nh ni trn, tng qut ha c th coi ghp knh khng gian nh to bp da trn b tin m ha c vct tin m ha kch thc N x l c thay bng ma trn tin m ha c kch thc N,xN .
t r

Chng 4: K thut a anten B tin m ha trn hnh 4.16 thc hin hai mc ch:

151

- Trong trng hp khi s lng cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian bng vi s lng anten pht (N = N ), b tin m ha c s
T

dng "trc giao" ha cc truyn dn song song nhm ci thin s cch ly tn hiu ti pha thu. - Trong trng hp khi s lng cc tn hiu c ghp song song nh hn s lng anten pht (N <N ), b tin m ha ngoi vic
A (

kt hp ghp knh khng gian v to bp cn m nhim thm vic sp xp NA tn hiu c ghp song song ln N, anten pht. khng nh tin m ha c th ci thin s cch ly gia cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian. ta biu din ma trn knh = H vo dng phn tch gi tr on: H=UDV" (4.15)

trong cc ct ca V v u to thnh mt tp trc giao gia chng vi nhau v D l mt ma trn ng cho c N


M A

gi tr cn hai eigen

mnh nht ca H H . S dng ma trn V lm ma trn tin m ha ti pha pht v ma trn U


H

ti pha thu, ta nhn c ma trn knh tng

ng H' = D (xem hnh 4.17). V H' l mt ma trn ng cho nn s khng c nhiu gia cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian ti pha thu. ng thi v c hai V v

u u c cc ct trc

giao, nn cng

sut

pht cng nh mc tp m ca b gii iu ch (gi thit tp m trng ghp khng gian) s khng thay i. R rng rng trong trng hp thc hin tin m ha, mi tn hiu s c mt "cht lng" ph thuc vo cc gi tr eigen ca ma trn knh (xem phn bn phi ca hnh 4.17). V th rt c li khi s dng thch ng ng truyn ng trong min khng gian bng cch chn t l m v (hoc) s iu ch cho tng ng truyn thch ng vi cht lng knh.

152
My pht N,

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Mythu NA "2

y-

Y Y

J-

U"

-V*
A" .:
2

L cn hai gi tr eigen trn ng cho ca ma trn D

Hnh 4. 7. Trc giao ha cc tn hiu ghp khng gian bng cch tin m ha
T r o n g thc t ma trn tin m ha s khng bao g i ph hp hon ton v i ma trn knh, v th lun c mt lng nhiu d g i a cc tn hiu ghp khng gian. C th x l nhiu ny bng cch x l tuyn tnh b sung ti pha thu nh hnh 4.15 hoc x l phi tuyn m ta s xt di y. xc nh ma trn V, h thng cn bit c ma trn knh H. Tng t nh to bp da trn tin m ha, cch tip cn chung l m y thu phi c tnh knh v quyt nh ma trn tin m ha ph hp t mt tp ma trn tin m ha kh dng (bng m tin m ha). Sau my thu phn hi thng tin v ma trn tin m ha v m y pht.

4.5.3. X l thu khng tuyn tnh


T r o n g cc phn trc x l thu tuyn tnh c s dng kt hp vi qu trnh khi phc tn hiu ghp khng gian. T u y nhin, h thng c th t c hiu nng gii iu ch tt hn n u p dng x l thu phi tuyn trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian. Gii php m y thu t i u cho cc tn hiu ghp khng gian l p dng tch tn hiu k h ging cc i ( M L : Maximum-Likelihood). Tuy nhin trong nhiu trng hp, tch tn hiu M L qu phc tp. V th c mt s xut gim phc tp cho hu ht cc s ML.

Chng 4: K thut a anten

153

M t gii php khc, x l phi tuyn gii iu ch cc tn hiu ghp khng gian c g i l k h nhiu ln lt (SIC: Successive lnterferrence Cancellation). SIC da trn g i thit l cc tn hiu c m ha ring bit trc k h i ghp khng gian. Q u trnh ny thng c g i l truyn dn nhiu t m (Multi-Codevvord), i lp vi truyn dn m t t m (Single-Codeword), trong cc tn hiu c g i thit l c m ha kt hp (hnh 4.18). cn hiu rng ngay c trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu t m , s liu c th c bt ngun t cng m t n g u n nhng sau c phn thnh cc tn hiu khc nhau c ghp khng gian trc k h i thc hin m ha knh.
NA tin hiu

Tin hiu

M ha v iu ch

Phn lung

Sp xp

Sp xp ln cc anten (a) N, anten Tn hiu th nht Tn hiu th hai M ha v iu ch M ha v iu ch Sp xp

Tin hiu th NA

M ha v iu ch

(b)
Hnh 4.18. Truyn dn mt t m (a) v truyn dn nhiu t m (b)
T hnh 4.19 ta thy trong trng hp k h nhiu ln lt, trc ht m y t h u g i i iu ch v gii m mt trong s cc tn hiu c ghp khng gian. Sau s liu sau gii m , nu gii m ng, c

154

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

m ha li v cc tn hiu thu s tr s liu ny loi b n. Sau tn hiu ghp khng gian th hai s c gii iu ch v gii m m khng b nhiu (t nht l trong trng hp l tng) bi tn hiu th nht v nu c gii m ng. n c m ha li v c loi b khi cc tn hiu thu cn li trc khi thc hin gii iu ch v gii m tn hiu th ba. Qu trnh ny c lp li nhiu ln cho n khi tt c cc tn hiu ghp khng gian c gii iu ch v gii m.
Giai iu ch/gii m tn hiu th nht

. . y ,

Gii iu ch

Gii m

Tn hiu c giai m th nht

635

M ha li Giai diu ch/gii m tin hiu th hai Gii iu ch M ha li Gii m _^.Tin hiu c gii m th hai

|t <-

Gii iu ch/gii m tin hiu th NA Gii iu ch Gii m Tin hiu c gii m th NA

Hnh 4.19. Gii iu ch/gii m cc tn hiu ghp khng gian da trn kh nhiu ln lt (SC) R rng rng trong trng hp kh nhiu ln lt. cc tn hiu u tin c gii iu ch v gii m l cc tn hiu b mc nhiu cao hn cc tn hiu c gii iu ch mun hn. V th SIC hot ng tt. cn phn loi kh nng chu nhiu ca cc tn hiu khc nhau, t nht theo nguyn tc, tn hiu c gii iu ch u tin phi chu nhiu tt hn tn hiu th hai, tn hiu th hai phi chu nhiu tt hn th ba... Gi thit truyn dn nhiu t m nh hnh 4.18b. nguyn tc trn c th t c bng cch p dng cc s iu' ch v t l

Chng 4: K thut a unten

155

m ha khc nhau cho cc tn hiu khc nhau. chng hn iu ch bc thp v t l m ha cao cho tn hiu c gii iu ch/gii m u tin. Phng php ny thng c gi l PARC (Per-Antenna Rate Control). 4.6. TNG KT Chng ny trnh by cc k thut a anten khc nhau p dng cho thng tin khng dy ni chung v cho WCDMA/HSPA cng nh LTE ni ring. C th tng kt cc li ch nhn c t p dng k thut a anten nh sau: - Phn tp khng gian ci thin ng k tin cy nh tng t s tn hiu trn tp m nhiu ln. - Cc li phn tp ni trn c th nhn c bng cc s dng a anten thu hoc a anten pht hay kt hp c hai. - Cc k thut to bp l gii php trc tip tng nng lng tn hiu hu ch nhng ng thi nn hoc loi b cc tn hiu nhiu. - Khc vi phn tp v to bp, ghp knh khng gian cho php truyn ng thi nhiu lung s bng cch x l tn hiu phc tp. - C th chuyn mch gia cc ch phn tp v ghp knh khng gian khc nhau t c im c thng lng v tin cy ti u. 4.7. CU HI 1. Trnh by cc khi nim tng quan v khng tng quan trong cc cu hnh a anten 2. Trnh by cc li ch ca s dng cc k thut a anten. 3. Trnh by cc k thut a anten thu. 4. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp anten pht.

156

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

5. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp tr v phn tp tr vng. 6. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp theo m khng gian thi gian. 7. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp tho m khng gian tn s. 8. Trnh by nguyn l c s ca ghp knh khng gian. 9. Trnh by nguyn l ghp knh khng gian da trn b tin m ha. 10. Trnh by nguyn l x l thu khng tuyn tnh. 11. N n s dng s ghp knh khng gian k h i m y d i ng xa hay gn trm gc, v sao? 12. N n s dng s phn tp k h i m y di ng x a hay gn trm gc, v sao? 13. V sao
m bo phn tp tt ph
i t cc anten pht hoc thu cch xa nhau?

Chng 5

LP BIU, THCH NG NG TRUYN V YU CU PHT LI T NG LAI GHP


Lp biu. thch n g ng truyn v yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp ( H A R Q : H y b r i d A u t o m a t i c Repeat reQuest) l cc cng ngh then cht cho thng t i n v tuyn bng rng. Cc ch c trnh by trong chung ny bao gm: - Thch n g ng truyn: iu k h i n cng sut v tc s liu - Lp b i u p h thuc knh - Cc s pht li tin tin - Y u cu pht li t ng lai ghp v i kt h p mm Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc chung v cc k thut thay i tc thi cu hnh knh truyn dn v tuyn p h thuc vo cht lng ng truyn t c dung lng truyn dn cao nht. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [ 1 ] , [ 5 ] , [ 9 ] , [ 1 0 ] , [ l i ] , [ 1 4 ] , [15] v tr l i cc cu hi cui chng.

5.1. M U
M t t r o n g cc c tnh quan trng ca thng tin v tuyn di ng l s thay i nhanh v ln ca cc iu k i n knh tc thi. T n ti mt s nguyn nhn i v i cc thay i ny. Phainh chn lc tn s

158

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4Q

dn n cc thay i nhanh v ngu nhin i vi suy hao ng truyn. Phainh che ti v tn hao ng truyn ph thuc khong cch cng nh hng ng k ln cng tn hiu thu. Cui cng nhiu ti my thu do truyn dn t cc khc v cc u cui di ng khc cng nh hng ln mc nhiu. Tm li c nhiu thay i nhanh v ngu nhin trong cht lng ca tng ng truyn v tuyn trong mt v cc thay i ny cn c xem xt cng nh khai thc mt cch c li. Chng ny s xt mt s k thut x l cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn tc thi. Lp biu ph thuc knh trong cc h thng thng tin di ng gii quyt vn v cch thc chia s cc ti nguyn v tuyn gia nhng ngi s dng (cc u cui di ng) khc nhau trong h thng, t c hiu sut s dng ti nguyn tt nht. iu ny c ngha l gim thiu lng ti nguyn cn thit cho mt ngi s dng v th cho php nhiu ngi s dng hn trong h thong trong khi vn p ng c cc yu cu cht lng dch v. Lin quan mt thit vi lp biu l thch ng ng truyn. Thch ng ng truyn gii quyt vn lin quan n cch thit lp cc thng s truyn dn ca ng truyn v tuyn x l cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn. Lp biu ph thuc knh v thch ng ng truyn u nhm khai thc tt nht cc thay i knh thng qua cc qu trnh x l thch hp trc khi truyn dn s liu. Tuy nhin do tnh cht ngu nhin ca cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn khng bao gi c th t c thch ng cht lng knh v tuyn tc thi mt hon cch ho. HARQ (Hybrid A R : A R lai ghp) v th rt hu ch. H A R i hi pht li cc gi thu b li. C th coi y nh l mt c ch x l cht lng knh v tuyn tc thi sau truyn dn v b sung rt tt cho lp biu ph thuc cht lng knh v thch ng ng truyn. HARQ cng phc v cho vic x l cc l i ngu nhin do tp m trong my thu.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng irng truyn

159

5 2 THCH NG NG TRUYN: IU KHIN CNG .. SUT V TC S LIU


iu k h i n cng sut ng c s dng t r o n g cc h thng thng t i n d i ng da trn C D M A nh W C D M A v cdma2000 b tr cc thay i iu k i n knh tc thi. ng nh tn gi, iu khin cng sut ng thc hin iu chnh cng sut pht ca ng truyn v tuyn bt r cc thay i v cc s khc nhau ca cc iu kin knh tc thi. M c ch ca iu chinh ny l duy t E /N(i khng r
h

i ti m y thu t r u y n thnh cng s liu m khng b xc sut li qu cao. v nguyn l, iu khin cng sut pht tng cng sut ti my pht k h i cc iu k i n knh v tuyn ti (v ngc li). N h vy v bn cht cng sut pht t l nghch v i cht lng knh (hnh 5.la). K t qu iu khin cng sut cho php m bo tc s liu khng i khng p h thuc vo cc thay i knh. i v i rc dch v nh thoi chuyn mch knh iu ny rt cn thit. C th coi iu khin cng sut l m t loi thch ng ng truyn trong iu khin cc thng s truyn dn c thc hin thch ng v i cc iu k i n knh tc t h i khc nhau nhm duy tr mc E /Nf) yu cu.
h

Tuy nhin t r o n g nhiu trng hp ca thng tin d i ng, c bit l trong trng h p lu lng gi. khng nht thit phi m bo tc s liu khng i trn knh v tuyn. T r o n g cc trng hp ny iu quan trng i v i ngi s dng l m bo tc s liu cao ti mc c th. T r o n g thc t, ngay c trong cc trng hp ca cc dch v "tc khng i " thng thng nh thoi v video, cc thay i (ngn hn) t r o n g tc s liu cng khng quan trng chng no tc s liu t r u n g bnh vn c duy t khng i ( v i gi thit l r trung bnh c ly t r o n g m t khong thi gian kh ngn). T r o n g cc trng h p ny k h i khng cn tc d liu khng i, th m t gii php thay th c h o iu khin cng sut l thch ng ng truyn bng cch iu k h i n tc ng. iu khin tc ng khng

160

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hng n duy tr tc s liu tc thi ca ng truyn v tuyn khng i trong mi iu kin knh tc thi. Tri l i . vi iu khin tc s liu c iu chnh b tr s thay i iu kin knh tc thi. Trong trng hp cc iu kin knh thun li. tc s liu c tng v ngc
b 0 0

li. Nh vy iu khin tc duy tr

E / N = P/(R.N ) ti mc yu cu khng phi bng cch thay i cng sut p m bng cch thay i tc s liu R. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh 5-1 b.

Hnh 5. . (a) iu khin cng sut, (b) iu khin tc Cc nghin cu cho thy rng iu khin tc hiu sut hn iu khin cng sut. v nguyn l. iu khin tc vn cho php b khuch i pht ton b cng sut v v th c s dng hiu sut.

Chng 5: Lp hin, thch ng ng truyn

161

Mt khc iu k h i n cng sut dn n trong nhiu trng hp b khuch i cng sut khng c s dng hiu qu v cng sut truyn dn thp hn cng sut cc i. T r o n g thc t tc s liu ca ng truyn v tuyn c iu chinh bng cch iu chnh s iu ch v (hoc) t l m ha knh. T r o n g cc iu k i n ng truyn v tuyn thun l i , E /N ti
h 0

my thu cao v hn ch tc s liu ch y u l bng thng. V th trong cc iu k i n nh vy. s iu ch bc cao ( 1 6 Q A M hoc 6 4 Q A M ) cng v i t l m cao c s dng. Tri li trong cc iu kin ng t r u y n v tuyn xu, s iu ch bc thp (QPSK chng hn) cng v i t l m thp c s dng. Chnh v th, thch ng ng t r u y n bng iu khin tc cn c gi l iu ch v m ha thch ng ( A M C : Adaptive Modulation and Coding).

5.3. LP BIU PH THUC KNH


Lp b i u iu k h i n vic n nh cc ti nguyn chia s g i a nhng ngi s dng ti t n g thi im. N lin quan mt thit v i thch n g n g t r u y n , thng th lp b i u v thch n g ng truyn c c o i nh l m t chc nng lin kt. Nguyn l lp b i u cng nh v i c c h i a s cc ti nguyn g i a n h n g ngi s dng, t nht v mt l t h u y t , p h thuc vo cc c tnh ca giao d i n v tuyn, vo v i c n g t r u y n l n g ln hay n g x u n g v vo vic t r u y n d n ca n h n g ngui s dng khc nhau c trc giao hay khng.

5.3.1. Lp biu ng xung


Trn ng xung, thng thng truyn dn n cc u cui d i ng khc nhau trc giao v i nhau, ngha l v l thuyt, khng xy ra nhiu gia cc t r u y n dn (khng c nhiu ni ). Trc giao ni ng xung c th t c trong m i n thi gian bng T D M (ghp

162

Gio (rnh L trnh pht

Irin

thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

knh phn chia theo thi gian); trong min tn s bng FDM (ghp knh phn chia theo tn s), trong min m bng C D M (ghp knh phn chia theo m). Ngoi ra min khng gian cng c th c s dng phn tch nhng ngi s dng bng cch sp xp cc anten. Cch ny thng c gi l ghp knh khng gian (SDM: Spatial Division Multiplexing), mc d trong nhiu trng hp n c s dng kt hp vi mt hay mt trong s cc phng php ghp knh ni trn. i vi s liu gi, trong lu lng thng mang tnh cm, v l thuyt c th ch ra rng T D M l thch hp hn c v v th thng thng y l phn t chnh trn ng xung. Tuv nhin TDM thng c kt hp vi vic chia s ti nguyn v tuyn trong min tn s (FDM) hoc trong min m (CDM). Chng hn trong trng hp HSDPA, ghp knh ng xung l kt hp T D M v CDM. Tri li trong LTE. ghp knh ng xung l kt hp T D M v FDM. L do chia s ti nguyn khng ch c thc hin trong mt mnh min thi gian s c xt mun hn sau mc ny. Khi xy ra truyn dn ng thi n nhng ngi s dng khc nhau hoc bng FDM hoc bng C D M . cng xy ra vic chia s ton b cng sut pht ca . Ni mt cch khc, khng ch c cc ti nguyn thi gian/tn s/m c chia s m cn c ti nguyn cng sut trong trm gc. Tri li trong trng hp ch chia s ti nguyn thi gian, s chi c mt truyn dn ti mt thi im v v th s khng xy ra chia s tc thi tng cng sut pht kh dng ca . Trong phn tch di y, ta gi thit rng lc u ng xung s dng T D M vi lp biu cho mt ngi s dng ti mt thi dim. Trong trng hp ny, mc s dng knh v tuyn s cc i nu ti mt thi im, ton b ti nguyn s c n nh cho ngi s dng ny vi iu kin knh tc thi tt nht:

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn.

163

- Trong trng hp thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin cng sut, iu ny c ngha l i vi tc s liu cho trc cng sut pht c th thp nht v v th gim thiu nhiu truyn dn n cc khc khi mc s dng ng truyn cho trc. - Trong trng hp thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin tc , iu ny c ngha l i vi cng sut pht cho trc, hay ni mt cch khc i vi nhiu n cc khc cho trc, mc s dng ng truyn t c cao nht. Tuy nhin, nu p dng cho ng xung, iu khin cng sut pht kt hp vi lp biu T D M c ngha l ton b cng sut pht kh dng trong hu ht cc trng hp s khng c s dng ht. Chnh v l do ny iu khin tc c a dng hon. Chin lc c phc tho trn l mt v d v lp biu ph thuc knh trong b lp biu xt cc iu kin ng truyn v tuyn tc thi. Lp biu ngi s dng theo cc iu kin ng truyn v tuyn tc thi tt nht thng c gi l lp biu t s tn hiu trn nhiu cc i (Max-C/I) hay tc cc i. V trong mt , cc iu kin ca cc ng truyn v tuyn khc nhau thng thay i c lp, ti mi thi im hu nh lun c mt ng truyn v tuyn vi cht lng gn nh cc i (hnh 5.2). V th knh c s dng cho truyn dn s c cht lng cao nht v vi iu khin tc , tc s liu cao nht c th c s dng. iu ny dn n dung lng h thng cao. Phng php nhn c li trong truyn dn c thc hin i vi nhng ngi s dng c iu kin ng truyn v tuyn thun li thng c gi l phn tp ngi s dng; thay i knh cng ln v s ngi s dng cng ln th li cng ln. V th tri ngc vi quan im truyn thng rng phainh nhanh (ngha l thay i cht lng knh v tuyn nhanh) gy nh hng tiu cc v cn phi chng, trong thc t vi lp biu knh phainh li c li v cn khai thc n.

164

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Thay i knh hiu dng nhn t trm gc

#2 Ngi s dng #1 - . . . Ngi S dng #2 Ngi s dng #3

#3 Thi gian

Hnh 5.2. Lp biu ph thuc knh v mt ton hc, b lp biu Max-C/I (tc cc i) c th c biu din nh l qu trnh lp biu ngi s dng k nh sau: fc = argmax/,

(5.1)

trong R l tc s liu tc thi cc i i v i ngi s dng i. Mc d t quan im dung lng h thng, lp biu max-C/I l c li, tuy nhin nguyn l lp biu ny khng cng bng trong tt c cc iu kin v cc thay i ln trong cc iu kin knh tc thi ch xy ra do phainh nhanh, chi k h i ny nhng ngi s dng m i nhn c tc s liu trung bnh nh nhau. Thng thng ngi s dng khng th nhn bit c cc thay i tc tc thi v nhanh. Tuy nhin trong thc t cc u cui d i ng s tri n g h i m c cc khc bit trong cc iu k i n knh trung bnh (ngn hn) chng hn do khong cch khc nhau v do phainh che t i gia trm gc v u cui d i ng. T r o n g trng hp ny cc iu k i n knh m mt u cui di ng phi tri nghim (trong m t thi gian di) c th ti hn cc iu k i n knh m cc u cui khc phi tri nghim. V th chin lc Max-C/I thun ty c th lm "cht i" u cui di ng c cc iu k i n knh t i , v u cui c cc iu k i n knh t i ny s

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn.

165

khng bao gi c lp biu. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh 5.3a, trong b lp biu Max-C/I c s dng lp biu gia hai ngi s dng khc nhau c cht lng knh trung bnh khc nhau. Hu nh ton b thi gian ch c mt ngi s dng c lp biu. Mc d cho php nhn c dung lng h thng cao, nhng tnh trng ny khng th chp nhn c t quan im cht lng dch v. Mt gii php khc cho chin lc lp biu Max-C/I c gi l lp biu quay vng c m t trn hnh 5.3b. Chin lc lp biu ny cho php nhng ngi s dng chia s ti nguyn m khng xt n cc iu kin knh tc thi. Lp biu quay vng c th c coi l lp biu cng bng, trong khi lng t i nguyn nh nhau (khong thi gian nh nhau) c phn cho mi ng truyn thng tin. Tuy nhin lp biu quay vng khng cng bng v mt m bo cht lng knh ging nhau cho tt c cc ng truyn tin. Trong trng hp ny cn dnh nhiu t i nguyn v tuyn (thi gian) hn cho cc ng truyn tin c iu kin knh ti hom. Ngoi ra lp biu quay vng khng xt n cc iu kin knh tc thi trong qu trnh lp biu v iu ny dn n tng hiu nng h thng thp hn nhung cht lng dch v gia cc ng truyn tin khc nhau cn bng hn so vi lp biu Max-C/I.

Thi gian (a)

Thi gian (b)

Thi gian (c)

Hnh 5.3. V d v ba hnh vi lp biu khc nhau (a) Max-C/1, (b) quay v ng, (c) cng bng t l. Ngi s dng c chn c th hin bng hnh m nt

166

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Chin lc lp biu phi c kh nng tn dng c cc thay i

nhanh ca knh ci thin thng lng trong khi vn m bo thng lng trung bnh ca tng ngi s dng nh nhau cho tt c nhng ngi s dng hay nht l m bo c mt thng lng t ngi s dng ti thiu cho tt c nhng ngi s dng. K h i phn t c h v so snh cc gii thut lp biu khc nhau. i quan trng l phi u phn bit cc kiu thay i cht lng dch v khc nhau: - Thay i nhanh cht lng dch v tng ng vi, chng hn, phainh a ng nhanh hay thay i nhanh mc nhiu. i vi nhiu ng dng s liu gi, cc thay i ngn hn kh ln ca cht lng dch v thng c th chp nhn hoc thm ch khng pht hin c i vi ngi s dng. - Cc khc bit di hn trong cht lng dch v gia cc ng truyn t i n khc nhau tng ng vi, chng hn, cc khc nhau v khong cch n trm gc v phainh che ti. Trong nhiu trng hp cn hn ch cc khc bit ny trong cht lng dch v V th mt b lp biu thc t phi lm vic ti mt v tr no gia b lp biu Max-C/I v b lp biu quay vng tn dng nhiu nht cc thay i trong cc iu kin knh m vn tha mn mt mc no s cng bng gia nhng ngi s dng. M t v d v b lp biu kiu ny l b lp biu cng bang t l c minh ha trn hnh 5.3c. Trong chin lc ny, cc ti nguyn chia s c n nh cho ngi s dng c i kin knh v tuyn tt u nht mt cch tng i, ngha l ti m i thi im, ngi s dng k c chn cho truy dn theo i kin sau: n u k = arg max
TT-

(5.2)

trong R l tc s liu tc ti i i vi ngi s dng i v R, l tc s liu trung bnh i vi ngi s dng i. Tc trung bnh c tnh trn mt chu k ly trung bnh cho trc Tp . m bo
F

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn .

167

vic s dng hiu qu cc thay i knh ngn hn v ng thi gii hn cc khc bit di hn n mt mc chp nhn, hng s thi gian Tpp phi c t ln hon hng s thi gian i vi cc thay i ngn hn. ng thi TPH phi ngn cc thay i cht lng dch v trong khong Tp khng b ngi s dng nhn qu r. Thng thng
F

Tp c th c t vi giy.
F

Trong cc phn tch trn, ta gi thit l cc t i nguyn v tuyn trn ng xung c n nh cho mt ngi s dng ti mt thi im, ngha l qu trnh lp biu chi c thc hin thun ty trong min thi gian bng cch s dng TDM. Tuy nhin trong mt s trng hp, T D M c kt hp vi CDM v FDM. v nguyn tc, c hai l do khng ch s dng mt mnh T D M cho ng xung: - Trong trng hp khng ti, ngha l khi lng s liu cn truyn n mt ngi s dng khng ln tn dng ton b dung lng knh v mt phn ti nguyn c th n nh cho ngi s dng khc hoc bng C D M hoc bng FDM - Trong trng hp cc thay i knh trong min tn s c khai thc bng cch s dng FDM m ta s xt di y. Cc chin lc lp biu trong cc trng hp ny c th c coi l tng qut ha ca cc s xt cho cc trng hp ch s dng TDM. Chng hn, x l cc ti tin nh, c th s dng phng php "lm no s thm n", trong ngi s dng c lp biu c chn theo Max-C/I (hay mt s lp biu khc bt k). Sau khi ngi s dng ny c n nh ti nguyn ph hp vi khi lng s liu ang i truyn dn, ngi s dng tt nht th hai c chn (theo chin lc lp biu ny) v c n nh (mt phn) ti nguyn d v c tip tc nh vy. Cui cng cng cn lu rng thng thng gii thut lp biu l vn ca vic thc hin trm gc ch khng phi l vn c c t trong mi tiu chun. iu cn c c t trong tiu chun h

168

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tr lp biu p h thuc knh l o c/bo co cht lng knh v bo hiu cn thit cho vic cp pht ti nguyn ng.

5.3.2. Lp biu ng ln
Phn trc xem xt qu trnh lp biu lin quan n ng xung. T u y nhin lp biu cng c p dng cho cc truyn dn ng ln v phn ln cc nguyn l xt trn cng c th s dng cho ng ln mc d c mt s im khc bit g i a hai ng ny. v c bn, ti nguyn cng sut ng ln c phn b gia nhng ngi s dng, trong k h i trn ng xung ti nguyn cng sut c tp trung ti trm gc. Ngoi ra, cng sut truyn dn cc i ng ln ca mt u cui thng thp hn nhiu so v i cng sut pht ra ca trm gc. iu ny nh hng ng k ln chin lc lp biu. Khng ging nh ung xung trong T D M A thun ty thng c s dng, lp biu ng ln thng da trn vic chia s trong min tn s v (hoc) min m kt hp v i m i n thi gian v mt u cui khng th c cng sut tn dng hiu qu dung lng ung truyn. Tng t nh trng hp ng xung, lp b i u ph thuc knh cng c li trong trng hp ng ln. T u y nhin cc c tnh ca giao din v tuyn c xt lin quan nhiu n vic ng ln da trn a truy nhp trc giao hay khng trc giao v k i u s thch ng ng truyn c s dng, ngoi ra cng nh hng ng k ln chin lc lp biu ng ln. T r o n g trng h p s a truy nhp khng trc giao nh C D M A , iu k h i n cng sut thng ng vai tr quan trng cho hot ng bnh thng. N h xt trn, mc ch ca iu khin cng sut l iu khin Eb/No thu c th phc h i c thng tin thu. Tuy nhin trong cc s khng trc giao, iu khin cng sut cng c m c ch khng ch nhiu tc ng n nhng ngi s dng khc. C th biu din iu ny bng vic coi rng m c nhiu cho

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

169

php cc i ti trm gc l m t ti nguyn c chia s. T h m ch nu xt t quan im m t ngi s dng, vic pht ton b cng sut t c tc s liu cc i l c li, th iu ny cng khng th chp nhn c t quan im nhiu v cc u cui khc trong trng hp ny c th khng truyn s liu thnh cng. V th v i a truy nhp khng trc giao, qu trnh lp biu cho m t u cui k h i cc iu k i n knh thun l i c th khng phi l trc tip chuyn sang tc s liu cao v cn xt n nhiu do cc u cui pht ng thi khc gy ra. Ni m t cch khc, cng sut thu (v v th tc s liu) n h iu k h i n cng sut s khng i. khng ph thuc vo iu kin knh ti thi im truyn dn, trong k h i cng sut pht ph thuc vo iu k i n knh ti thi im truyn dn. V th, thm ch lp biu p h thuc knh t r o n g v d ny khng cho trc ti p li lin quan n vic u cui pht tc s liu cao hom. tuy vy n vn cung cp l i cho h thng lin quan n nhiu n i thp hem. Phn tch trn v a truy nhp khng trc giao c n gin ha v khng a ra cc g i i hn i v i cng sut pht. T r o n g thc t cng sut pht ca m t u cui c g i i hn trn v vn thc hin cng nh q u y nh lut v qu trnh lp biu cho m t u cui truyn dn t r o n g cc iu k i n thun li s gim xc sut m u cui khng c cng sut tn dng dung lng. Trong trng hp s a truy nhp trc giao, iu khin cng sut khng cn thit v cc li ch m lp biu p h thuc knh mang li tng t nh t r o n g trng hp ng xung, v nguyn tc, t quan im nhiu n i , u cui c th pht ton b cng sut v b lp biu n nh m t phn ti nguyn trc giao thch hp (trong thc t l mt phn ca ton b bng thng) cho u cui ny truyn dn. T u y nhin cc hn ch v thc hin nh d r gia cc tn hiu thu hay di ng b g i i hn trong mch in ca m y thu c th t ra cc gii hn ln s khc nhau v cng sut cc i c php gia cc tn hiu t cc u cui pht ng thi. V th vn cn iu khin cng

170

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin {hng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

sut m t mc no dn n tnh trng gn ging nh trng hp khng trc giao. Cc phn tch v a truy nhp trc giao v khng trc giao ch yu ch xt n truy nhp ni . T u y nhin t r o n g nhiu h thng thc t, ti s dng tn s gia cc c s dng. T r o n g trng hp ny a truy nhp gia cc s khng trc giao khng p h thuc vo a truy nhp ni v n t ra cc g i i hn cho cng sut pht c php t m t u cui. Khng lin quan n vic a truy nhp trc giao hay khng trc giao c ng, cc nguyn l lp biu c s c s dng cho ng ln cng ging nh cho ng xung. B lp biu Max-C/I s n nh tt c cc ti nguyn ng ln cho u c u i c cc iu kin knh ng ln t t nht. B qua tt c cc g i i hn cng sut trong u cui, iu ny cho php t c dung lng cao nht (trong mt cch ly). T r o n g trng h p s khng trc giao, lm no s thm n l mt chin lc lp biu c th s dng. Bng cch lm no s thm n, u cui c cc iu k i n knh tt nht c n nh tc cao nht. N u mc nhiu ti m y thu nh hn mc cho php cc i, u cui c cc iu k i n knh t h hai cng c php pht v qu trnh tip din nh vy cho cng nhiu u cui h o n cho n k h i t n mc nhiu cc i cho php ti m y thu. Chin lc ny cho php t c mc s dng giao din v tuyn cc i nhng v i tr gi l tc s liu gia nhng ngi s dng rt khc nhau. T r o n g trng hp cc oan, ngi s dng ti bin v i cc iu k i n knh xu c th hon ton khng c pht. Ta c th m n g tng rng cc chin lc gia lm no s thm n v Max-C/I l cc chin lc cng bng t l khc nhau. Trong trng h p ny gii thut lm no s thm n a ra cc tha s trng s cho tng ngi s dng. Cc trng s ny t l v i t s gia tc s liu tc t h i v tc s liu trung bnh.

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

171

Cc b lp biu ni trn u gi thit rng hiu r cc iu kin ng truyn v tuyn tc thi, tuy nhin vic nhn c hiu bit ny trn ng ln rt kh (ta s bn v vn ny trong mc 5.3.4). Trong cc trng hp khng c thng tin v knh ng ln ti b lp biu, c th s dng lp biu quay vng. Tng t nh i vi ng xung, lp biu quay vng c ngha l cc u cui c pht ln lt, v th to nn mt hot ng ging nh T D M A vi tnh trc giao gia nhng ngi s dng trong min thi gian. Mc d lp biu quay vng n gin nhng n km xa chin lc lp biu ti u. Tuy nhin nh ni trn, cng sut pht trong mt u cui b hn ch v v th cn chia s ti nguyn ng ln trong min tn s v (hoc) min m. iu ny cng nh hng ln cc quyt nh lp biu. Chng hn, cc u cui xa trm gc thng hot ng trong vng b gii hn bi cng sut, t li cc u cui gn trm gc ri thng hot ng trong vng b gii hn bi bng thng. V th i vi u cui xa trm gc, tng bng thng khng dn n tng tc s liu, do tt nht l n nh mt lng bng thng nh cho u cui ny v n nh bng thng cn li cho cc u cui khc. Tri li, i vi cc u cui gn trm gc, n nh bng thng cao hn s dn n tc s liu cao hn. 5.3.3. Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu ph thuc knh trong min tn s Trong phn trc ta gi thit rng lp biu da trn T D M v gii thch trong trng hp ny l lm cch no c th tn dng c cc thay i knh ci thin hiu nng h thng bng cch p dng lp biu ph thuc knh, nht l kt hp vi iu khin tc ng. Tuy nhin khi c truy nhp trong min tn s, chng hn thng qua vic s dng OFDM, lp biu v thch ng ng truyn cng c th c thc hin trong min tn s. Thch ng ng truyn trong min tn s c ngha l da trn hiu bit v cc iu kin knh tc thi trong min tn s (hiu bit v

172

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

suy gim cng nh mc nhiu/tp m ca tng sng mang con) c th iu chnh cng sut v (hoc) tc s liu ca tng sng mang con t c mc s dng t i u. Tng t, lp biu p h thuc knh trong m i n tn s c ngha l da trn hiu bit v cc iu kin tc thi ca knh trong min tn s, cc sng mang con khc nhau c s dng cho cc ng truyn dn n/t cc u cui di ng khc nhau. Cc l i lp biu nhn c t vic khai thc cc thay i trong min tn s cng ging nh nhn c t cc thay i trong min thi gian. R rng rng trong cc tnh trng k h i m cht lng knh thay i ng k theo tn s, trong k h i cht lng knh thay i chm theo thi gian, lp biu ph thuc knh trong m i n tn s c th tng dung lng h thng. M t v d ca tnh trng ny l h thng bng rng trong nh v i mc di ng thp trong cht lng thay i theo thi gian chm.

5.3.4. Thu nhn thng tin trng thi knh


chn ra tc s liu ph hp (trong thc t l s iu ch v t l m ha knh thch hp), m y pht cn c thng t i n v cc iu kin knh truyn v tuyn. Thng t i n ny cng cn cho qu trnh lp biu ph thuc knh. T r o n g trng h p h thng da trn ghp song cng theo tn s ( F D D ) , ch m y thu l c th nh gi chnh xc cc iu k i n knh truyn v tuyn. i v i ng xung, hu ht cc h thng cung cp mt tn hiu ng xung c cu trc quy nh trc, c g i l hoa tiu ng xung hay tn hiu tham kho ng xung. T i n hiu tham kho ny c pht t trm gc v i cng sut khng i v c th c u cui d i ng s dng c tnh cc iu k i n knh ng xung. Thng t i n v cc iu k i n knh ng xung sau c bo co li cho trm gc. v c bn, m y pht cn c nh gi phn nh cc tnh trng knh ti thi im truyn dn. V th v nguyn tc, u cui c th s

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

173

dng m t b d bo d bo cc iu kin knh tng lai v bo co gi tr d bo ny cho trm gc. T u y nhin do iu ny i hi phi c t cc gii thut d bo v cch thc hot ng ca cc gii thut ny k h i u cui d i ng n cc v t khc nhau. nn hu ht cc h r thng thc t ch n gin bo co cc iu kin knh o c cho trm gc. C th c o i y l m t b d bo rt n gin v i gi thit rng cc iu k i n knh trong tng lai gn cng ging nh cc iu kin hin thi. V th s bin ng knh theo thi gian cng nhanh th thch ng ng truyn cng km hiu qu. V khng th trnh tr gia thi im u cui o cc iu kin knh v t h i im p dng cc gi tr c bo co ti m y pht, nn lp biu ph thuc knh v thch ng ng truyn thng thng lm vic tt nht ti mc di ng u cui thp. N u u cui di ng bt u chuyn ng nhanh, cc bo co kt qu o s b lc hu khi trm gc (BS) p dng n. T r o n g cc trng hp ny tt nht l thc hin thch n g ng truyn da trn cht lng knh trung bnh di hn v s dng yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp ( H A R Q ) bng kt hp mm cho thch n g nhanh. i v i n g ln khng th thc hin c tnh cc iu kin knh m t cch trc tip v khng c tn hiu tham kho c pht vi cng sut khng i dnng u cui d i ng. Bn lun v c tnh knh ng ln s c xt trong chng sau. T r o n g trng hp m t h thng s dng T D D (ghp song cng

phn chia theo t h i gian), trong truyn dn ng ln v ng xung c ghp chung theo thi gian trn cng mt bng tn, suy hao tn hiu n g ln c th c c tnh t cc o c ng xung ca u cui d i ng do tnh i ln ca phainh a ng trong trng h p T D D . T u y nhin cn l u n rng cch ny khng cung cp y thng t i n v cc iu kin ng xung. Chng hn cc tnh trng nhiu ti u cui ng xung v cc trm gc khc nhau trong trng hp T D D .

174

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

5.3.5. Hnh vi lu lng v lp biu


Cn lu rng khi ti h thng thp cc gii thut lp biu khc nhau t khc nhau (trng hp ch mt hay m t s t ngi s dng c s liu i truyn dn ti trm gc ti thi im lp biu). Cc khc bit ny ch r rt k h i ti cao. T u y nhin khng ch ti m c hnh vi ca lu lng cng nh hng ln hot ng tng th ca lp biu. N h ni trn, lp biu p h thuc knh tm cch khai thc cc thay i ngn hn trong cht lng v tuyn. Ni m t cch tng qut, mt mc cng hng di hn nht nh trong cht lng knh cn c tnh n k h i thit k b lp biu. T u y nhin k h i p t cng bng cao hn, thng lng s gim, nn cn phi cn nhc gia cng bng v thng lng. T r o n g qu trnh cn nhc ny, iu quan trong l phi xt n cc c tnh lu lng v n nh hng ln ln vic cn nhc gia thng lng h thng v cht lng dch v. m i n h ha ta xt ba b lp biu ng xung khc nhau: . B lp biu quay vng (RR: Round-Robin), t r o n g cc iu kin knh khng c xt 2. B lp biu cng bng t l (PR: Proportional Fair), trong r cc thay i ngn hn c khai thc trong k h i vn duy t tc s liu trung bnh di hn ca ngiraCrdng 3. B lp biu Max-C/I, trong ngi s dng c cht lng knh tc thi tt nht c lp biu i v i kch bn b m y, k h i lun c s liu sn sng ti BS cho tt c cc u cui trong , b lp biu Max-C/I s dn n nhng ngi s dng ti bin khng c hoc chi c thng lng rt thp. L do v chin lc cn bn ca b lp biu Max-C/I l tt c t i nguyn u c cp pht cho u cui c cht lng knh m bo tc s liu cao nht. Rt h i m k h i hoc h u nh khng bao gi ngi s dng ti bin c c cc iu k i n knh t t hn nhng

Chng 5: Lp biu. thch ng ng truyn

175

ngi s dng ti tm (tr trng hp xy ra phainh su ti tm ) v th rt h i m k h i hoc hu nh khng bao g i nhng ngi s dng ti bin c lp biu. Tri li b lp biu cng bng t l s m bo m t mc cng bng nht nh bng cch chn l a nhng ngi s dng lp biu nu h m bo tc s liu cao tng i so vi tc s liu trung bnh. V th c x u th l nhng ngi s dng c lp biu theo inh phainh ca h c h khng theo cht lng tuyt i. V th ngay c nhng ngi s dng ti bin cng s c lp biu v iu ny m bo s cng bng ( m t mc nht nh) gia nhng ngi s dng. i v i trng h p s liu gi mang tnh c m (bng n), tnh

trng khc hn. T r o n g trng hp ny, cc b m ca nhng ngi s dng s c hn v t r o n g nhiu trng hp thm ch rng. Chng hn m t trang web c kch thc nht nh v sau k h i pht i trang web ny, s khng cn s liu pht n u cui lin quan cho n khi ngi s dng n phm yu cu m t trang mi. T r o n g trng hp ny b lp biu Max-C/I vn m bo m t mc cng bng nht nh. Sau k h i b m ca ngi s dng c C/I cao nht rng, mt ngi s dng khc c b m khng rng v c C/I cao nht s c lp biu v tip tc nh vy. Nguyn nhn khc nhau g i a b m y v lu lng trnh duyt vveb c m i n h ha trn hnh 5.4. B lp biu t l cng bng c hiu nng nh nhau trong c hai trng hp. R rng rng mc cng bng do cc tnh cht lu lng e m li ph thuc rt nhiu vo lu lng thc t; v th trong mng thc t khng nn a r a m t s g i thit nht nh cho thit k k h i mu lu lng c th khc v i cc g i thit ny. V th nu ch da trn cc tnh cht lu lng i v i cng bng th s khng c chin lc tt, nhng cc phn tch trn nhn mnh rng cn thit k b lp biu khng chi ring cho trng hp b m y.

176

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin hng tin di ng 3G ln4G

B m ay

Duyt web

Thng lng ngi s dng a) i vi cc b m y

Thng lng ngi s dng b) i vi m hnh lu lng duyt web

CDF: Comutative Distribution Function: hm phn b tch ly

Hnh 5.4. Minh ha hnh vi ca cc chin lc lp biu khc nhau 5.4. CC S PHT LI TIN TIN Do s thay i cht lng tn hiu thu, truyn dn trn cc knh khng dy b mc li. mc nht nh c th chng li nh hng ca cc thay i ny bng cch s dng thch ng ng truyn nh xt trn. Tuy nhin khng th loi b c cc thay i khng th d bo c ca nhiu v tp m. V th hu ht cc h thng thng tin khng dy u s dng m ha sa li trc (FEC). Nguyn l c s ca m sa li trc l a cc bt d vo tn hiu cn pht. iu ny t c bng cch cng cc bt chn l vo cc bt thng tin trc khi truyn dn. Cc bt chn l c tnh ton t cc bt thng tin ty theo cu trc m ha c s dng. V th s bt c pht t rn knh ln hn s bt thng tin gc v mt lng d c a vo t n hiu pht.

Chng 5: Lp hiu, thch ng ng truyn

177

Mt cch khc x l cc li truyn dn l s dng yu cu pht li t ng (ARQ: Automatic Repeat Request). Trong s ARQ, my thu s dng m pht hin l i , thng l CRC (Cyclic Redundance Check: kim tra vng d) pht hin xem gi thu c b mc li hay khng. Nu khng pht hin c li trong gi s liu thu, s liu thu uc thng bo l khng mc li v my thu thng bo iu ny cho my pht bng cch pht i cng nhn (ACK). Tri li nu li b pht hin my thu s loi b s liu thu v thng bo cho my bng cch gi i ph nhn (NAK). p li NAK, my pht li thng tin ging nh gi. Hu ht cc h thng thng tin hin i k c W C D M A v cdma2000 u s dng kt hp m ha sa li trc v ARQ, kt hp ny c gi l ARQ lai ghp (HARQ). HARQ s dng cc m sa li trc hiu chinh mt tp con ca tt c cc li v da trn pht hin li pht hin cc li khng th sa. Cc gi s liu thu li b loi b v my thu yu cu pht li cc gi hng. Hu ht cc s HARQ s dng m CRC pht hin li, cc m Turbo v xon sa li, nhng v nguyn tc c th s dng m sa li v hiu chnh li bt k.

55. YU CU PHT LI T NG LAI GHP VI KT HP MM


Hot ng K A R Q m t trn thc hin xa cc gi b li v yu cu pht li chng. Tuy nhin mc d khng th gii m cc gi ny, tn hiu thu c ny vn cha thng tin v thng tin ny s mt nu xa cc gi thu mc li. Nhc im ny c khc phc bng cch s dng H A R Q vi kt hp mm. Trong s HARQ vi kt hp mm, gi mc li c lu li trong b nh m v sau c kt hp vi gi c pht li nhn c mt gi duy nht tin cy hn cc gi thnh phn. Gii m sa li c thc hin trn tn hiu kt hp. Nu gii m tht bi (CRC c s dng pht hin iu ny), pht li c yu cu.

178

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Theo quy nh, pht li trong mi s HARQ phi th hin

cng tp bt thng tin nh truyn dn gc. Tuy nhin tp cc bt c m ha v c pht trong mi ln pht li c th c la chn theo cch khc nhau chng no chng vn cn th hin cng tp bt thng tin. V th HARQ vi kt hp mm c chia thnh loi sn bt (Chase Combining) v phn d tng (Incremental Redundancy) ph thuc vo vic c i hi pht li tng t nh ln pht ban u hay khng (hay chi pht phn d tng). Kt hp sn bt c thc hin vi vic pht li cng tp cc b t c m ha ging nh ln truyn u tin. Sau mi ln pht li, my thu s dng kt hp t l cc i kt hp tng bt thu c vi cc bt ca cc ln truyn dn trc v tn hiu sau kt hp c a n b gii m. V pht li l bn sao ca ln pht u tin nn c th coi pht li vi kt hp sn bt l mt dng m ha lp. V th khng c phn d mi c pht. Kt hp sn bt khng cho thm li m ha m ch tng t s Eh/N tch ly cho mi ln pht li (xem hnh 5.5).
0

[cc bt thng tin I _ Cc bt c ' ma ha V V ' Chn CRC. Ma ha sa li t l 3/4

Cc bt c pht Pht ln u Pht ln hai

Nng lng c tch ly T l ma tng hp

pu

2h

Tssssssa 3Eb

, 4Eb r=3M

r=3/4

r=3/4

r=3/4

Hnh 5.5. V d kt hp sn bt VI kt hp phn d tng (IR), mi ln pht li khng ging nh ln pht u tin. Thay vo , nhiu tp cc bt c m ha c thnh lp trong mi tp th hin cng mt tp cc bt thng tin. Mi khi cn pht li, pht li s s dng mt tp cc bt c m ha khc vi ln pht trc . My thu kt hp pht li ny vi cc l n

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

179

pht trc ca cng m t gi. V pht li ny c th cha cc bt chn l b sung khng c t r o n g cc ln pht li trc nn t l m tng hp s c g i m sau m i l n pht li. Ngoi ra m i pht li khng nht thit phi cha cng s bt c m ha nh pht gc v tng qut s iu ch c th khc nhau cho cc ln pht li khc nhau. V th c th coi k t h p phn d tng nh l tng qut ha ca kt h p sn bt hay ngc li k t h p sn bt nh l trng hp c bit ca kt hp phn d tng. Thng thng kt hp phn d tng c xy dng trn mt m t l thp v cc phin bn d khc nhau c to ra bng cch chch b mt s bt u ra ca b m ha. T r o n g ln pht u. chi mt s c hn cc bt c m hoa l c pht v th t l m cao. T r o n g ln pht li, cc bt c m ha b sung c pht. Chng hn gi thit rng m c s c t l m 1/4 (c m t bt thng t i n th c ba bt c m ha). T r o n g ln pht u m t phn ba s bt c m ha c pht v th t l m l 3/4 (hnh 5.6). T r o n g trng h p gii m b l i v c yu cu pht li tip theo, cc bt c m ha b sung c pht dn n t l m tng h p 3/8. Sau ln pht li t h hai t l m tng hp s l 1/4. T r o n g trng hp pht li nhiu hn hai ln cc bt m ha pht s lp li v th t l m vn l 1/4.
Ci: h i !
O<\

m ha

Cc bt thng tin] Chn CRC. ^ M ha sa li l l 1/4

t? <fc
Cc bt c pht Phin bn d 1 Pht ln du Phin bn do 1 Phin bn d 1 Pht ln ba Phin bn d 1 Phtln bn

Nng lng dc tch ly T l m tng hp

Eb r=3/4

3Eb =1/4

4Eb
r=1/4

Hnh 5.6. V d v kt hp d tng

180

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


V i phn d tng, m c s dng cho ln pht u phi m

bo hiu nng tt khng chi k h i s dng c lp m c k h i c s dng kt hp v i m c pht ln hai. Tng t nh vy i v i cc ln pht sau. V th cc phin bn d thng uc to ra bng cch chch b m t s bt ca m t m t l thp, cc mu chch b phi c quy nh sao cho m t m t l cao phi l m t b phn ca cc m t l thp. Ni mt cch khc, t l m tng hp r, sau ln pht t h i bao gm cc bt c m ha ca cc phin bn d R V
k

(trong

k = . . ) phi c hiu nng nh mt m tt c thit k trc tip i ,. vi t l r. Cc loi m xon ny c gi l cc m xon tng thch

t l.
Cc hnh 5.7 v 5.8 cho thy v d v s dng H A R Q s dng m Turbo c s t l m r = 1/3 cho kt hp sn bt v kt hp phn d tng. Trn hnh 5.7 cc pht li u g i n g nhau v g i n g pht ln u. Trn hnh 5.8 cc pht li c h i pht phn d (cc bt chn l) v i s bt tng.
B m ha Turbo

H thng Chn l Chn l 2 r=1/3

Phi hp tc (chch b) H thng Chn l 1 Chn l 2 Pht ln th nht


-

Pht li 7T.


r=3/4

r=3/4 Kt hp m m (ti my thu)

H thng Chn l 1 Chn l 2 r=3/4

Hnh 5.7. HARQ

kt hp sn bt s dng m Turbo

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn.

181

B m ha Turbo H thng Chn l 1 Chn l 2

I
r=1/3

Phi hp tc (chch b) Pht ln th nht H thng Chn l 1 Chn l 2 r=3/4


Pht li

.. ..

Kt hp phn d tng (ti my thu) H thng Chn l 1 Chn l 2


mi
., . .

Chi pht cc bt chn l

; -

i
V

:
r=3/8

Hnh 5.8. HARQ

kt hp phn d tng s dng m Turbo

T r o n g cc phn trnh by trn y, ta g i thit l m y t h u t h u c tt c cc phin bn d trc. N u tt c cc phin bn d u cung cp cng m t lng t i n v gi s liu, th t h t cc phin bn d khng quan trng. T u y nhin i v i m t s cu trc, cc phin bn d c t m quan trng khc nhau. Chng dn i v i cc m Turbo, trong cc bt h thng c t m quan trng hem cc bt chn l, v th ln pht u tin phi nht l cha cc bt h thng v m t s bt t chn l. T r o n g cc ln pht li c th c cc bt h thng khng phi cc bt c pht ln u. T u y nhin nu ln pht u c t h u v i cht lng k m hoc hon ton khng t h u c, th vic ch pht li cc bt chn l l khng thch hp v cc bt h thng cung cp cht lng t t hom. V th tng d v i s dng cc m T u r b o c li k h i s dng n h i u m c phn h i , chng hn s dng hai ph nhn khc nhau: N A K yu cu cc bt chn l b sung v L O S T yu cu

182

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

pht li cc bt h thng. Tng qut, vic xc nh s lng cc bt h thng v cc bt chn l khi pht li da trn cht lng tn hiu ca cc ln pht trc khng phi n gin. HARQ vi kt hp mm, bt k s kt hp sn bt hay phn d tng, dn n gim tc s liu do cc ln pht li v c th coi l thch ng ng truyn ngm. Tuy nhin khc vi thch ng ng truyn da trn cc c tnh iu kin knh tc thi tng minh, HARQ vi kt hp mm iu chnh ngm tc s liu da trn kt qu gii m. Xt v tng thng lng, kiu thch ng ng truyn ngm ny c u im hn thch ng ng truyn tng minh v d b sung ch cn thit khi cc ln truyn dn trc khng cho php gii m ng. Ngoi ra n khng phi d bo cc thay i ca knh nn n c th hot ng tt khng ph thuc vo tc chuyn ng ca u cui. V thch ng ng truyn ngm c th cung cp li thng lng h thng, vn t ra l v sao thch ng ng truyn tng minh vn cn thit. L do chnh ca vic s dng thch ng ng truyn tng minh l gim tr. Mc d xt t quan im thng lng h thng chi cn s dng thch ng ng truyn ngm l , nhng cht lng dch v ca ngi s dng u cui c th khng m bo xt v quan im tr. 5.6. TNG KT Chung ny xt mt s cng ngh c s dng nh l cc cng ngh then cht trong cc h thng thng tin di ng 3G tng cng v 4G: lp biu, thch ng ng truyn v HARQ. Lp biu ph thuc knh trong cc h thng thng tin di ng gii quyt vn v cch thc chia s cc ti nguyn v tuyn gia nhng ngi s dng (cc u cui di di ng) khc nhau trong h thng t c hiu sut s dng t i nguyn tt nht. Lp biu ph thuc

Chng 5: Lp biu, thch ng ng truyn

183

knh cho ph g i m thiu lng ti nguyn cn thit cho m t ngi s p dng v th cho php nhiu ngi s dng hn trong h thng trong khi vn p n g c cc yu cu cht lng dch v. Thch ng ng truyn gii quyt vn lin quan n cch thit lp cc thng s truyn dn ca ng truyn v tuyn x l cc thay i cht lng ng truyn v tuyn. Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu lin quan mt thit v i nhau. Tuy nhin do tnh cht ngu nhin ca cc thay i cht lng

ng truyn v tuyn, khng bao g i c th t c thch ng cht lng knh v tuyn t c thi m t cch hon ho. H A R Q ( H y b r i d ARQ: A R Q lai ghp) v th rt hu ch. H A R Q i hi pht li cc gi thu b l i . C th coi y nh l mt c ch x l cht lng knh v tuyn tc t h i sau truyn dn v b sung rt tt cho lp biu ph thuc cht lng knh v thch ng ng truyn. H A R Q cng phc v cho vic x l cc l i ngu nhin do tp m trong m y thu. T r o n g s H A R Q v i kt h p mm, gi mc l i c lu li trong b n h m v sau c kt hp v i gi c pht li nhn c mt gi duy nht t i n cy hn cc gi thnh phn. Gii m sa l i c thc hin trn tn hiu kt hp.

5.7. CU HI
1 Trnh by nguyn l thch ng ng truyn da trn iu khin . cng sut. 2. Trnh by nguyn l thch ng ng truyn da trn tc s liu. 3. Trnh by nguyn l lp biu ph thuc knh. 4. Trnh by cc s pht li tin tin. 5. Trnh by yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp v i kt hp m m kiu sn bt (Chase C o m b i n i n g ) .

184

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

6. Trnh by yu cu pht li t ng lai ghp vi kt hp mm kiu phn d tng (Incremental Redundancy Combining). 7. Hy s dng khi nim t s tn hiu trn tp m E(/N = (P/R )/N
0 b 0

gii thch ngha ca hai s thch ng


ng truyn trn hnh 5.1? 8. Tiu ch c bn ca lp biu ph thuc knh l gi? 9. Ti sao lp biu knh li cho php tng dung lng? 10. Ti sao ni HARQ l mt dng thch ng
ng truyn? 11. So snh cc s kt hp mm sn bt v phn d tng trong HARQ?

Chng 6

HSDPA

Mc tiu ca HSDPA l m rng giao din v tuyn ca WCDMA, tng cng hiu nng v dung lng (tc s liu nh cao) ca WCDMA. t c mc tiu ny, HSDPA s dng mt s k thut nh: iu ch bc cao, lp biu ph thuc knh v HARQ vi kt hp mm. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - HS-DSCH - MAC-hs v x l lp vt l - Lung s liu - iu ch bc cao - Lp biu v thch
ng ng truyn - HARQ vi kt hp mm - CQI v cc phng tin nh gi cht lng khung khc - Cu trc cc knh bo hiu ca HSDPA - HSDPA M I M O - Cc th tc lp vt l ca HSDPA - Di ng - Cc th loi UE

186

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G len 4G

Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc kh y v cng ngh a truy nhp HSDPA c s dng trong 3G ca3GPP. e hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k t liu c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [], [9]. [10]. [ l i ] , [14] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng. 6.1 TNG QUAN 6.1.1 Truyn dn knh chia s c im ch yu ca HSDPA l truyn dn knh chia s. Trong truyn dn knh chia s. mt b phn ca tng ti nguyn v tuyn ng xung kh dng trong (cng sut pht v m nh knh trong W C D M A ) c coi l ti nguyn chung c chia s ng theo thi gian gia nhng ngi s dng. Truyn dn knh chia s c thc hin thng qua knh chia s ng xung tc cao (HS-DSCH: High-Speed Dovvlink Shared Channel). HS-DSCH cho php cp pht nhanh mt b phn ti nguyn ng xung truyn s liu cho mt ngui s dng c th. Phng php ny ph hp cho cc ng dng s liu gi thng c truyn theo dng cm v v th c cc yu cu v ti nguyn thay i nhanh. Cu trc c s thi gian v m ca HS-DSCH c cho trn hnh 6.1. Ti nguyn m cho HS-DSCH bao gm mt tp m nh knh c h s tri ph 16 (xem phn trn ca hnh 6.1). trong s m c th s dng lp cu hnh cho HS-DSCH nm trong khong t n 15. Cc m khng dnh cho HS-DSCH c s dng cho mc ch khc, chng hn cho bo hiu iu khin, cc dch v MBMS hay cc dch v chuyn mch knh. Phn di ca hnh 6.1 m t n nh ti nguyn m HS-DSCH cho tng ngi s dng trn c s TT1 = 2ms ( T T I : Transmit Time Interval: Khong thi gian truyn dn). HSPDA s dng TTI ngn
+

Chng 6:

HSDPA

187

gim tr v ci thin qu trnh bm theo cc thay i ca knh cho mc ch iu khin tc v lp biu ph thuc knh (s xt trong phn di).

HS-SCH TTI 2ms *

Cc m nh knh c s dng cho truyn dn HS-DSCH (10 trong thi d ny)

CH Ngi s dng 1 en Ngi s dng 2 s Ngi s dng 3 E 3 Ngi s dng 4

Thi gian

Hnh 6. . Cu trc thi gian-m ca

HS-DSCH

Ngoi vic c n nh mt b phn ca tng ti nguyn m kh dng, mt phn tng cng sut kh dng ca phi c n nh cho truyn dn HS-DSCH. Lun rng HS-DSCH khng c iu khin cng sut m c iu khin tc . Sau khi phc v cc knh khc, phn cng sut cn li c th c s dng cho HS-DSCH, iu ny cho php khai thc hiu qu tng ti nguyn cng sut kh dng. 6.1.2. Lp biu ph thuc knh Lp biu iu khin vic dnh knh chia s cho ngi s dng no ti mt thi im cho trc. B lp biu ny l mt phn t then cht v quyt nh rt ln n tng hiu nng ca h thng, c bit khi mng c ti cao. Trong mi TTI, b lp biu quyt nh HS-DSCH s c pht n ngi (hoc nhng ngi) s dng no kt hp cht ch vi c ch iu khin tc (ti tc s liu no). Nh xt trong chng trc, dung lng h thng c th c tng ng k khi c xt n cc iu kin knh trong quyt nh lp

188

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

biu: lp biu p h thuc knh. V trong m t , cc iu k i n ca cc ng truyn v tuyn i v i cc U E khc nhau thay i c lp, nn ti tng thi im lun lun t n ti m t ng truyn v tuyn c cht lng knh gn v i nh ca n (hnh 6.2). V th c th truyn tc s liu cao i v i ng truyn v tuyn ny. G i i php ny cho php h thng t c dung lng cao. l i nhn c k h i truyn dn dnh cho nhng ngi s dng c cc iu k i n ng truyn v tuyn thun l i thng c g i l phn tp a ngi s dng v li ny cng l n k h i thay i knh cng l n v s ngi s dng trong mt cng ln. V th tri v i quan im t r u y n thng rng phainh nhanh l hiu n g khng mong m u n v rng cn chng li n, bng cch lp biu p h thuc knh phainh c l i v cn khai thc n. M t s chin lc lp biu khc nhau c xt trong chng trc. Chin lc ca b lp biu thc t l khai thc cc thay i ngn hn (do phainh a ng) v cc thay i nhiu nhanh nhng vn duy t c tnh cng bng di hn gia nhng ngi s dng. r v nguyn tc, s mt cng bng di hn cng l n th dung lng cng cao. V th cn cn i gia tnh cng bng v dung lng.
Cc thay i knh hiu dng nhn t nt B - - Ngi s dng #1 - - - * Ngi s dng #2 ~" Ngi s dng #3

#3

#2

#3

#1

Hnh 6.2. Lp biu ph thuc knh cho HSDPA


Ngoi cc iu k i n knh, b lp biu cng cn xt n cc iu kin lu lng. Chng hn, s v ngha nu lp biu cho m t ngi s dng khng c s liu i truyn dn cho d iu k i n knh ca ngi

Chng 6: HSDPA

189

s dng ny tt. Ngoi ra mt s dch v cn c cho mc u tin cao hn. Chng hn cc dch v lung i hi c m bo tc s liu tng i khng i di hn, trong khi cc dch v nn nh ti xung khng c yu cu cao v tc s liu khng i di hn. 6.1.3. iu khin tc v iu ch bc cao Trong chng trc, iu khin tc c coi l phng tin thch ng ng truyn cho c dch v truyn s liu hiu qu hn so c vi iu khin cng sut thng c s dng trong CDMA, c bit l khi n c s dng cng vi lp biu ph thuc knh. i vi HSDPA, iu khin tc c thc hin bng cch iu chnh ng t l m ha knh v chn la ng gia iu ch QPSK v 16QAM. iu ch bc cao nh 16QAM cho php t c mc s dng bng thng cao hn QPSK nhng i hi E /N cao hn. V
h 0

th 16 Q A M ch yu ch hu ch trong cc iu kin knh thun li. Nt B la chn tc s liu c lp cho tng T T I 2ms v c ch iu khin tc c th bm cc thay i knh nhanh. 6.1.4. HARQ vi kt hp mm HARQ vi kt hp mm cho php u cui yu cu pht li cc khi thu mc li, ng thi iu chnh mn t l m hiu dng v b tr cc li gy ra do c ch thch ng ng truyn. u cui gii m tng khi truyn ti m n nhn c ri bo co v nt B v vic gii m thnh cng hay tht bi c 5ms mt ln sau khi thu c khi ny. Cch lm ny cho php pht li nhanh chng cc khi s liu thu khng thnh cng v gim ng k tr lin quan pht li so vi pht hnhR3. Khng nh H A R Q truyn thng, trong kt hp mm, u cui khng loi b thng tin mm trong trng hp n khng th gii m c khi truyn ti m kt hp thng tin mm t cc ln pht trc vi pht li hin thi tng xc sut gii m thnh cng. Tng

190

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phn d (IR) c s dng lm c s cho kt hp mm trong HSDPA, ngha l cc ln pht li c th cha cc bt chn l khng c trong cc ln pht trc. T chng 5 ta bit rng IR c th cung cp li ng k khi t l m i vi ln pht u cao v cc bt chn l b sung lm gim tng t l m. V th IR ch yu hoai ch trong t n h trng gii hn bng thng khi u cui gn trm gc v s lng cc m nh knh ch khng phi cng sut hn ch tc s liu kh dng. Nt B iu khin tp cc bt c m ha s s dng pht li c xt n dung lng nh kh dng ca UE. 6.1.5. Kin trc T cc phn trn ta thy rng cc k thut HSDPA da trn t h hc ng nhanh i vi cc thay i nhanh trong cc iu kin knh. V th cc k thut ny phi c t gn vi giao din v tuyn ti pha mng, ngha l ti nt B. Ngoi ra mt mc tiu quan trng ca HSDPA l duy tr ti a s phn chia chc nng gia cc lp v cc nt ca R3. c n gim thiu s thay i kin trc, v iu ny s on gin ha vic a HSDPA vo cc mng trin khai cng nh m bo hot ng trong cc mi trng m khng phi tt c cc u c nng cp bng chc nng HSDPA. V th HSDPA a vo nt B mt lp con M C mi, MAC-hs, chu trch nhim cho lp biu, iu khin tc v khai thc giao thc HARQ. Do vy ngoi tr cc tng cng cho RNC nh iu khin cho ph HSDPA i vi nhng p ngi s dng, HSDPA ch yu tc ng ln nt B (hnh 6.3). Mi UE s dng HSDPA s thu truyn dn HS-DSCH t mt ( phc v). phc v chu trch nhim lp biu, iu khin tc , HARQ v cc chc nng MAC-hs khc cho HSDPA. Chuyn giao mm ng ln c h tr trong truyn dn s liu ng ln s thu c t nhiu v UE s nhn c cc lnh iu khin cng s ut t nhiu . Di ng t mt h tr HSDPA n mt khng h tr HSDPA c x l d dng. C th m bo dch v khng b gin on cho

Chng 6:

HSDPA

191

ngi s dng (mc d ti tc s liu thp hn) bng chuyn mch knh trong RNC trong ngi s dng c chuyn mch n knh dnh ring (DCH) trong khng c HSDPA. Tung t, mt ngi s dng c trang b u cui c HSDPA c th chuyn mch t knh ring sang HSDPA khi ngi ny chuyn vo co h tr HSDPA.
n m n g li

RNC

RNC

Chc nng MAC-hs Lp biu - Thch ng tc , HARQ -

phc v

khng phc v

Hnh 6.3. Kin trc HSDPA

6.2.HS-DSCH 6 2 1 HS-DSCH v cc knh bo hiu ...


Knh chia s ng xung tc cao (HS-DSCH: High-speed Downlink Shared Channel) l knh truyn ti c s dng h tr truyn dn knh chia s v cc cng ngh khc trong HSDPA nh lp biu ph thuc knh, iu khin tc (gm c iu ch tc cao) v HARQ vi kt hp mm. Nh xt trong phn tng quan v hnh 6.1, HS-DSCH tng ng vi mt tp m nh knh c h s tri ph 16. M i m nh knh ny cn c gi l HS-PDSCH (High Speed

192

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Physical Downlink Shared Channel: knh chia s vt l ng xung tc cao). hiu r c knh HS-DSCH ta so snh tnh nng knh DCH v HS DSCH. Trc ht ta cn lu mt s im khc nhau gia WCDMA v HSDPA. WCDMA s dng cc knh FACH, DCH v DSCH truyn s liu gi, trong FACH truyn cc gi nh, DCH l knh chnh cn DSCH truyn cc gi c tc cao hn. HSPA thc cht thay th knh W C D M A DSCH bng knh HSDPA DSCH (trong R5 vn cn s dng W C D M A DSCH nhng trong R6 knh ny khng cn c s dng na). Trong R5, knh D C H lun i cng vi knh HSDPA DSCH (hnh 6.4). Nu s liu khng c truyn th DCH l knh mang v tuy bo hiu (SRB: Signalling n Radio Bearer). Trong trng hp dch v chuyn mch knh (AMR hoc video) c truyn song song vi s liu PS, th cc dch v cs c mang trn knh ny. Trong R bo hiu c th c truyn t rn knh F-DCH (Fractional DCH: DCH mt phn). Trong R5, s liu ngi s dng ng ln lun c truyn trn D C H (khi HSDPA tch cc), trong khi R s dng E-DCH (Enhanced DCH: DCH tng cng) cho HSUPA. Bng 6. so snh cc tnh nng knh DCH v HS-DSCH.

UE

Hnh 6.4. Cc knh cn cho hot ng HSDPA

trong R5

Chng 6: HSDPA

193

Bng 6. . So snh cc tnh nng knh DCH v HS-DSCH


Tnh nng H s tri ph kh bin iu khin cng sut nhanh iu ch v m ha thch ng Khai thc nhiu m Pht li lp vt l Thch ng ng truyn v lp biu theo BTS c c khng c khng khng DCH HS-DSCH khng khng c c, c m rng c c

Ngoi HS-DSCH cn cn c cc knh khc nh cc knh cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh v cho bo hiu iu khin. c th cn i gia khi lng ti nguyn m dnh cho HS-DSCH v khi lng ti nguyn m dnh cho cc mc ch khc, c th lp cu hnh cho s m nh knh kh dng cho HS-DSCH trong di t n 15. Cc m khng dnh cho HS-DSCH c s dng cho cc mc ch khc nh cho bo hiu iu khin v cc dch v chuyn mch knh. Nt m u tin trong cy m khng bao gi c s dng cho truyn dn HS-DSCH bi v nt ny cha cc knh vt l bt buc nh knh hoa tiu chng hn. C th tng kt cc khc bit quan trng gia khai thc s liu gi da HSDPA so vi trn R3 DCH nh sau: - Khng c iu khin cng sut nhanh, thay vo l thch ng ng truyn bng cch chn t hp cc m nh knh, t l m ha knh v iu ch thch hp. - H tr iu ch bc cao hom DCH. Vi s dng iu ch bin 16QAM, s bt mang trn mt k hiu tng gp i so vi iu ch QPSK ca R3.

194

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

- Nt B lp biu cho ngi s dng (n nh ti nguyn v tuyn) trong tng T T I = 2ms v thng bo kt qu lp biu bng bo hiu nhanh lp vt l. Vi DCH bo hiu lp cao hn t RNC n nh m bn c nh (SF tng ng). T T I ca DCH cng l u hem (10, 20, 40 hoc 80ms). - S dng pht li lp vt l v kt hp mm pht li, trong khi vi DCH nu c s dng pht li th s dng pht li mc RLC. - Khng c chuyn giao mm. s liu ch c pht t phc v. - Hot ng a m vi mt SF c nh. Ch SF = 16 l c s dng, trong khi vi DCH, h s tri ph c th l t 4 n 512. Vi HSDPA ch c m Turbo c s dng, trong khi vi DCH c m xon cng c th c s dng. - Khng c pht khng lin tc (DTX) ti mc khe. HS-PDSCH hoc c pht ton b hoc hon ton khng c pht trong

2ms Tri.
Chia s t i nguyn m HS-DSCH trc ht cn thc hin trong min thi gian. L do l khai thc ti a cc u im ca lp biu ph thuc knh v iu khin tc , v cht lng ti u cui thay i trong min thi gian nhng (hu nh) c lp vi tp m (cc knh vt l) c s dng truyn dn. Tuy nhin chia s ti nguyn m HS-DSCH trong min m cng c h tr nh trn hnh 6.1. Vi chia s m-thi gian, hai hay nhiu UE c th c lp biu ng thi bng cch s dng cc phn khc nhau ca ti nguyn m chung (cc tp khc nhau ca cc knh vt l). C hai l do cho chia s trong min m: (1) h tr cc u cui khng th tri ph tp m y ( v phc tp) v (2) h tr cc t i nh khi s liu c pht khng yu cu tp y cc m HS-DSCH c cp pht. Trong c hai trng hp ni trn, s lng ph ti nguyn khi n nh ton b ti nguyn m cho mt u cui.

Chng 6: HSDPA

195

Ngoi vic c cp pht mt phn trong s tng ti nguyn m, mt phn trong s tng cng sut kh dng cng c s dng cho truyn dn HS-DSCH. e t c mc s dng ti nguyn cng sut cc i trong trm gc. phn cng sut cn li sau khi phc v cc knh khc (cc knh c iu khin cng sut) phi c uu tin dnh cho HS-DSCH nh m t trn hnh 6.5. v nguyn tc. iu ny dn n cng sut pht khng i (hay mc nht nh khng i) trong mt . V HS-DSCH c iu khin tc , nn tc s liu ca HS-DSCH c th c la chn ph hp vi cc iu kin knh v tuyn v lng cng sut tc thi kh dng cho truyn dn HS-DSCH.
Cng sut

Cng sut k \ o Cc knh ring (c diu khin cng sut) Cc knh chung S dng cng sut khi chi c cc knh ring ng cng SUI
-n

Cng sut khng S dng

HS-DSCH

"

^'^Cc^ienh^rirg^^ (c diu khin cng sut) Cc knh chung HS-DSCH VI cp pht cng sut ng Thi gian

"O

Thi gian

Hnh 6.5. S dng cng sut ng vi HS-DSCH t c n nh cc ti nguyn chia s nhanh v t c tr ngi s dng u cui thp, T T I phi c la chn nh nht. Tuy nhin nu T T I qu nh s dn n chi ph b sung cho bo hiu i vi tng cuc truyn dn qu ln. cn i gia hai tiu ch i lp nhau ni trn T T I c chn bng 2ms cho HSDPA. Cn phi c bo hiu iu khin ng xung cho hot ng ca HS-DSCH trong tng TTI. s nhn dng ca UE (hoc cc UE) hin thi ang c lp biu phi c thng bo cng vi ti nguyn vt l (cc m nh knh) c s dng pht n UE ny. UE cng cn

196

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

c thng bo v khun dng truyn ti c s dng cho truyn dn cng vi thng tin lin quan n HARQ. T nguyn v thng tin v i khun dng truyn ti bao gm b phn cy m c s dng cho truyn dn, s iu ch c s dng v kch thc khi truyn ti. Bo hiu iu khin ng xung c mang trn knh HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel: knh iu khin chia s tc cao); knh ny c pht ng thi vi HS-DSCH bng cch s dng mt m nh knh ring. HS-SCCH l knh chia s thng bo v vic HS-DSCH c lp cu hnh cho UE no. Tt c cc UE u thu knh n tm xem n c c lp biu hay khng. y Trong mt c th nhiu knh HS-SCCH c lp cu hnh, nhng v HS-DSCH ch yu c chia s theo thi gian v ch c u cui hin ang c lp biu l cn thu knh HS-SCCH, v th thng thng chi c mt, hay nu chia s trong min m c h tr trong , th c th c mt s HS-SCCH l c lp cu hnh trong . Tuy nhin mi u cui c kh nng HS-DSCH phi c kh nng gim st ti 4 HS-SCCH. Bn HS-SCCH c chn n c th m bo tnh linh hot trong qu trnh lp biu cho nhiu UE; nu con s ny nh hn th b lp biu s chi hn ch n cc UE cn lp biu ng thi trong trng hp chia s min m. Truyn dn HSDPA cng i hi bo hiu iu khin ng ln cho HARQ thng bo cho nt B v vic thu truyn dn ng xung c thnh cng hay khng. Trong mi T T I m UE c lp biu, cc bo hiu A C K v N A K c gi trn ng ln thng bo kt qu ca gii m HS-DSCH. Thng tin ny c mang trn knh HSDPCCH: High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel: knh iu khin vt l ring tc cao). M i UE c thit lp mt knh HSDPCCH cng vi cu hnh HS-DSCH. Ngoi ra nt B cng cn bit thng tin v cc iu kin knh ng ln tc thi ti UE thc hin lp biu ph thuc knh v iu khin tc . V th mi UE phi o

Chng 6: HSDPA

197

cc iu kin tc thi ng xung v pht chi th cht lng knh (CQI: Channel Quality Indicator) trn knh HS-DPCCH. Ngoi cc knh HS-DSCH v HS-SCCH, u cui HSDPA cn nhn c cc lnh iu khin cng sut h tr iu khin cng sut vng kn ng ln ging nh i vi u cui WCDMA. iu ny t c thng qua knh DPCH (Dovvnlink Dedicated Physical Channel: knh vt l ring ng xung) i vi tng UE. Ngoi lnh iu khin cng sut, knh ny cn c s dng cho s liu ca ngi s dng khng c truyn trn knh HS-DSCH, chng hn cho cc dch v chuyn mch knh.
K n h chia s, cho mt /* \ Knh ring, cho mt U E

HS-DSCH
S liu n g i s dng n g xung

HS-SCCH

(F-)DPCH

DPDCH S liu n g i s dng n g ln

DPCCH B o hiu iu khin cho DPDCH

HS-DPCCH B o hiu iu khin lin quan n HS-DSCH

B o hiu C c lnh iu khin cho iu khin HS-DSCH cng sut

Hnh 6.6. Cu trc knh c HSDPA Pht hnh R h tr knh DPCH phn on, F-DPCH (Fractional DPCH) gim vic s dng cc m nh knh ng xung, v nguyn l, knh dnh ring ng xung ch c s dng mang cc lnh iu khin cng sut cho UE iu khin cng sut ng ln. Nu tt c cc cuc truyn dn s liu bao gm c cc knh mang v tuyn bo hiu lp cao u c sp xp ln HS-DSCH, th s lng ph cc ti nguyn m qu him nu s dng mt knh ring vi h s i ph 256 cho mt UE ch iu khin cng sut. F-DCH gii quyt iu ny bng cch cho php nhiu UE chia s mt m nh knh ng xung duy nht.

198

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G tng kt, ta x cu trc knh tng th c HSDPA trn hnh 6.6. t T hnh 6.6, ta thy cc knh cn thit cho hot ng HSDPA bao

gm: /. i vi R5 HS-DSCH (Knh chia s ng xung tc cao): Mang s

liu gi tc cao HS-SCCH (Knh iu khin chia s ng xung tc

cao): Mang thng tin v s m tri ph v phng php iu ch c s dng cho u cui u cui c th gii tri ph v gii iu ch ng HS-DPCCH (Knh iu khin vt l dnh ring ng ln

tc cao): Mang thng tin hi tip BTS c th thch ng ng truyn v pht li Knh DCH WCDMA 2. i vi R B sung thm knh ng ln F-DCH (knh DCH mt (DPDCH/DPCCH) ng ln: Ging nh

on): Chi nang thng tin v iu khin cng sut cho ng ln cho trng hp chi truyn s liu gi C knh HS-PDSCH v HS-SCCH u khng c phn tp v m ng xung hay chuyn mch mm. L do v vic t lp biu HS-DSCH trong nt B. V th khng th ng thi pht HS-DSCH n mt UE t nhiu nt B v iu ny dn n khng th s dng chuyn giao mm gia cc nt B. Ngoi ra cng cn lu rng trong mi , phn tp a ngi s dng c thc hin bi b lp biu ph thuc knh. B lp biu ch cho php pht n mt ngi s dng khi ngi ny c cc iu kin knh v tuyn tc thi thun li v v th li nhn c t phn tp v m s gim.

Chng 6: HSDPA 6 2 2 iu khin ti nguyn cho HS-DSCH ...

199

Khi a vo HSDPA, mt s phn qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c x l ti nt B thay v ti RNC. L do v p dng lp biu ph thuc knh v iu khin tc c t trong nt B khai thc cc thay i nhanh ca knh. Tuy nhin RNC vn chu trch nhim tng th cho qun l ti nguyn bao gm c iu khin cho php v x l nhiu gia cc . V th cc bo co v kt qu o lng mi t nt B n RNC c a vo h thng cng vi cc c ch cho RNC thit lp cc gii hn m nt B c php x l cc ti nguyn HSDPA trong . gii hn cng sut s dng cho HSDPA, RNC c th thit lp i lng cng sut cc i m nt B c php s dng pht ng xung cho HSDPA. iu ny cho php RNC iu khin i lng nhiu cc i m mt c th gy ra i vi cc ln cn. Trong gii hn m RNC thit lp, nt B c th t do qun l cng sut chi ph cho HSDPA trn ng xung. Nu i lng ny khng c (hay ln hn tng cng sut ca nt B), nt B c th s dng ton b cng sut kh dng cho truyn dn ng xung trn HS-DSCH v HS-SCCH. iu khin cho php trong RNC cn xt n i lng cng sut kh dng trong nt B. Ch khi c khi lng cng sut kh dng trong nt B, mt ngi s dng mi mi c php vo . V th cn o cng sut sng mang ang pht. Tuy nhin, cng vi vic a vo HSDPA, nt B c th pht ton b cng sut thm ch khi ch c mt ngui trong t c tc s liu cc i. i vi iu khin
cho ohD t r o n g RNC, iu ny th hin nh l y ti v khng th

cho php thm ngi s dng na. V th cn a vo vic bo co kt qu o mi v cng sut sng mang ang pht ca tt c cc m khng c s dng cho HS-PDSCH hay HS-SCCH. iu khin cho

200

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

php s s dng thng t i n ny quyt nh c cho php nhng ngi s dng m i vo hay khng (hnh 6.7).

Nt B

Cng sut sng mang ang pht ca tt c cc m khng s dng cho HS-DSCH hay HS-SCCH Gii hn tng cng sut HSDPA

RNC

B lp biu

iu khin cho php Gi tr o 'tc bt HS-DSCH cung cp Gi tr o cng sut HS-DSCH yu cu Tc bt cn m bo iu khin nghn

Hnh . 7. o c v gii hn ti nguyn i vi

HSDPA

Ngoi bo hiu lin quan n cng sut nh xt trn, cng cn c bo hiu cho cc dch v lung. h t r h i u qu dch v lung, cn m bo m t tc trung bnh t i thiu. vy RNC c th thng bo tc bt cn m bo. B lp b i u c t h s dng thng t i n ny m bo cung cp tc s liu cao trung bnh trong thi gian di hn cho mt hng i u tin no ca MAC-d. gim st s thc hin ny v c th quan trc ti t r o n g do cc quy nh ny, nt B c th bo co cng sut cn thit cho tng loi u tin do R N C lp cu hnh nhn dng cc U E i h i chi ph cao (i h i nhiu cng sut). Nt B cng c th bo co tc s liu ly trung bnh trn lOOms m thc t n cung cp cho tng loi u tin.

6.3 MAC-hs V X L LP VT L 6.3.1. Cu trc MAC-hs v lp vt l


N h xt trong phn tng quan, MAC-hs l m t l p con mi c t trong nt B chu trch n h i m lp b i u DS-DSCH, iu khin tc v hot ng ca giao thc H A R Q . h t r cc tnh nng ny, l p vt l cng c tng cng bng cc tnh nng

Chng 6: HSDPA

201

tng ng chng hn h tr kt hp mm trong HARQ. Hnh 6.8 m t MAC-hs v qu trnh x l lp vt l.


Cc lung MAC-d

Mm
X l u tin Thc th HARQ (cho mt ngi s dng) HS-DSCH Gn CRC

Lp biu v thch ng tc (cho mt )

MAC-hs

Lp 2 Lp 1

Ngu nhin ha bt

M ha Turbo

Phi hp tc HRQ Phn on knh vt l

an xen

sp xp chm tin niu

-T~
Hnh 6.8. MAC-hs v qu trnh x l lp vt l MAC-hs bao gm lp biu, x l u tin, chn khun dng truyn

ti (iu khin tc ) v cc b phn ca HARQ. s liu c d knh truyn ti HS-DSCH n x l lp vt l HS-DSCH.

khi truyn ti vi kch thc ng c a t MAC-hs thng qua

202

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Qu trnh x l lp vt l HS-DSCH nh sau. 24bit CRC c gn vo tng khi truyn ti. CRC c E s dng pht hin li trong khi truyn ti thu. gii iu ch 16QAM (mt kiu s iu ch c h tr bi HS-DSCH), my thu cn bit c bin to ra gi tr mm ch nh xc trc khi gii m Turbo. iu ny khc vi QPSK, trong khng cn bit bin v tt c thng tin c cha trong pha ca tn hiu thu. d dng nh gi tham chun bin , sau khi gn CRC cc bt c ngu nhin ha. Kt qu l chui ra ca b m ha Turbo c ngu nhin trc khi a ln iu ch 16QAM v iu ny h tr cho UE c tnh chun bin . Lun rng ngu nhin ha c thc hin cho tt c cc s iu ch, mc d ni mt cch cht ch n ch cn thit cho 16QAM. S m ha cn bn trong HSDPA l m ha Turbo t l 1 3 /. t c t l m ha do qu trnh iu khin tc la chn, c l v lp c s dng phi hp s bt c m ha vi s bt kh dng ca knh vt l. C ch phi hp tc cng l mt b phn ca HARQ lp vt l v n c s dng to ra cc phin bn d khc nhau cho s d tng. iu ny c thc hin thng qua cc mu c l (chch b) khc nhau; cc bt khc nhau c c l cho ln pht u v cc ln pht li. Phn on knh vt l thc hin phn b cc bt n cc m nh knh khc nhau c s dng cho truyn dn, sau l an xen. Sp xp chm tn hiu ch c s dng cho 16QAM. Nu kt hp sn bt c s dng cng vi 16QAM, th c th tng c hiu nng nu chm tn hiu thay i gia cc ln pht li. Chi tit v iu ny s c xt di y. 6.3.2. Tiu MAC-hs h tr vic sp t li th t v phn chia cc MAC-d PD trong UE nh trnh by trn, cn c bo hiu thng tin cn t i t h

Chng 6:

HSDPA

203

cho UE. V thng tin ny ch cn thit sau khi gii m thnh cng mt khi truyn ti, nn c th s dng bo hiu trong bng dng tiu MAC-hs. Tiu M C cha: - Nhn dng hng i sp t li th t - S trnh t pht (TSN) - S lng v kch thc MAC-d PDU Cu trc tiu MAC-hs c cho trn hnh 6.9. C phin bn (VF) bng 0 v c d tr cho cc m rng tng lai ca tiu MAC-hs. Nhn dng hng i (Queue ID) 3 bt nhn dng hng i sp t li th t cn c s dng trong my thu. Tt c cc MAC-d PDU trong mt MAC-hs PDU trc thuc cng mt hng i sp t li th t. Trng TSN 6 bt nhn dng s trnh t pht ca khi s liu MAC-hs. TSN l s duy nht trong mt b m sp xp li nhng khng duy nht gia cc b m sp xp li khc nhau. Cng vi Queue ID, TSN m bo h tr chuyn theo th t nh xt trong phn trc.
VF QueueID TSN SID, N, Fi

Tiu MAC-hs

C c MAC-d p

_u

Cc M C P D U c kcti thc N, SID|

C p MAC-d p !__ L Cc M C PDU c kch thc NkSIDk

Khi truyn ti (MAC-hs P D U )

Hnh 6.9. Cu trc tiu MAC-hs

Ti tin MAC-hs bao gm mt hay nhiu MAC-d PDU. SID 3 bt, nhn dng chi s kch thc cung cp kch thc MAC-d PDU v trng N 7 bt xc nh s lng MAC-d PDU. C F c s dng

204

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin d ng 3G ln 4G

chi th kt thc tiu MAC-hs. Tp SID, N v F c s dng cho tng tp cc MAC-PDU lin k v nhiu kch thc khc nhau ca MAC-d PDU c h tr bng cch to ra cc nhm MAC-PDU c kch thc ging nhau. Lu rng tt c cc MAC-d PDU ca mt khi s liu phi c t theo th t lin tc v nh s s trnh t c thc hin theo tng khi. V th nu chui cc MAC-d PDU vi kch thc c xc nh bi SID1, SID2, SID1 c pht, th ba nhm phi c to ra mc d ch c hai kch thuc MAC-d PDU. Cui cng, MAC-hs PDU c m thm (nu cn) sao cho kch thc ca MAC-hs PDU bng mt kch thc khi ph hp. cn lu rng trong hu ht cc trng hp, ch c mt kch thc MAC-d PDU, v th ch c mt tp SID, N v F. 6.4. L U N G S L I U m t lung s liu ca ngi s dng qua cc lp khc nhau ta xt cu hnh giao din v tuyn trn hnh 6.10 lm v d. Trong v d ny ta gi thit UE s dng dch v da trn IP trong s liu ca ngi s dng c sp xp ln knh HS-DSCH.

RRC SRBs PDCP RBs

RLC

RLC DTCHs MAC-d Cc lung 0 ( D

DCCHs

SRBs: Cc khi ngun bo hiu RBs. Cc khi ngun DCCHs: Cc knh iu khin ring DTCHs: Cc knh lu lng ring DCH (s): Knh (cc knh) ring HS-DSCH: Knh chia s ring tc cao DPCr: Knh vt l ring HS-DPSCH: Knh vt l chia s ring LI: Lp 1

DCH(S)

MAC-hs M C d HS-DSCH (5) T (HS-DPSCH)

rt
(DPCH) Hnh 6.10.

Cu hnh giao thc khi HS-DSCH

c n nh

Chng 6:

HSDPA

205

e truyn bo hiu trong mng v tuyn, mt s knh mang v tuyn c lp cu hnh trong mt phang iu khin. Trong R i , khng th sp x cc knh mang bo hiu v tuyn ln HS-DSCH v th p phi s dng cc knh truyn ti ring, nhng trong R hn ch ny c loi b HSDPA c th hot ng hon ton khng cn cc knh truyn ti dnh ring trn ng xung.
40 byte (IPv4) IP Tiu IP 2 hay 3 byte Tiu PDCP Thng thng ti 1460 byte Ti tin (s liu c a ng dng) P D C P SDU PDCP PDU RLC SDU L2RLC Thng thng 40 byte 2-4 byte Tiu RLC RLC PDU L2 MAC-d 0 hay 4 bt Tiu i MC-d MAC-d SDU liu MC-d Tiu i RLC MAC-d SDU " Tiu IP Tiu PDCP

L2 PDCP

RC SOI)

-1
CD

0
Thng thng 21 b t L2 MAC-hs T h n g tin HARQ

* MAC-hs
V Khi truyn ti

LI
TFCI |HARQ|

[
CRC j Sp xp l HS-PDSCH n s p xp len HS-SCCH TFCI: Transport Format Combination Indicator: ch th t hp khun dng truyn ti

CRC

Hnh 6.1 . Lung s liu ti

UTRAN

Hnh 6.11 m t lung s liu ti cc im tham kho c cho trn hnh 6.10. Trong v d ny gi s dch v IP c cung cp cho UE. PDCP thc hin (ty chn) nn tiu IP. u ra ca PDCP c a n thc th giao thc RLC. Sau khi thc hin mc ni (nu c), cc RLC S D c phn on vo cc khi nh hn thng l 40byte.

206

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

M t RLC-PDU g m mt on s liu v tiu RLC. N u ghp knh logic c thc hin trong MAC-d, th mt tiu 4 bt c b sung to nn m t MAC-d PDU. T r o n g MAC-hs, m t s MAC-d PDU (cc P D U ny c th c kch thc thay i) c lp rp li v mt tiu MAC-hs c gn thm to thnh m t k h i truy n ti, sau khi ny c m ha v c lp vt l pht i.

6.5. IU CH BC CAO 6.5.1. iu ch bc cao


Vic a ra M I M O nh xt trong chng trc cho php tng ng k tc s liu inh. S tng ny t c n h khai thc cc iu kin truyn sng trong knh v tuy thng qua truyn dn nhiu n lung. T u y nhin, trong mt s tnh trng, U E c th nhn c t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao nhung khng h t r truyn dn nhiu lung, chng hn trong trng h p truyn sng trc x. N h xt trong chng 5, iu ch bc cao s h u dng trong cc trng hp ny. iu ch bc cao cng s h u ch v n m bo tc s liu cao khi U E hay nt B khng c trang b nhiu anten. V th R7 tng bc iu ch n 6 4 Q A M trn ng xung v 1 6 Q A M trn ng ln. Cc tc nh k h i s dng iu ch bc cao c cho trong bng 6.2. H t r 6 4 Q A M trn ng xung v 1 6 A M trn ng ln cng da trn cng mt nguyn ly nh c t trong R. T u y nhin thc hin cc yu cu phn v tuyn ca m y pht, cn t mt khong li ln hn ti b khuch i cng sut cho cc s iu ch ny .

Bng 6.2. Tc s liu nh trn ng tn v dng xung khi s dng s iu ch bc cao


T c s liu inh d n g xung (Mbit/S) 16QAM 14 64QAM 21 64QAM v MIMO 42 T c s liu nh n g ln (Mbit/S) BPSK/QPSK 5,7 16QAM 11

Chng 6: HSDPA 6.5.2. an xen v sp t li chm tn hiu

207

i vi 16QAM. hai trong s bn bt c mang bi k hiu iu ch s tin cy hn ti my thu do s khc nhau ca cc bt ln cn gn nht trong chm tn hiu. iu nykhc vi iu ch QPSK trong c hai bt u c tin cy nh nhau. Ngoi ra i vi cc m Turbo, cc bt h thng c tm quan trng cao hom trong qu trnh gii m so vi cc bt chn l. V th cn sp xp cng nhiu cng tt cc bt h thng vo cc v tr bt tin cy hn trong mt k hiu 16QAM. S ca b an xen c cho trn hnh 6.12 c tip nhn cho HS-DSCH iu khin qu trnh sp xp cc bt h thng v cc bt chn l ln cc k hiu iu ch 16QAM. i vi QPSK ch b an xen trn trong hnh 6.11 l c s dng, trong khi i vi 16QAM hai b an xen ging nhau c s dng ng thi. Trc ht cc bt h thng c a vo b an xen trn, cn cc bt chn l c a vo b an xen di, Chm tn hiu 16QAM c quy nh sao cho u ra ca b an xen trn c sp xp ln cc v tr bt tin cy cn u ra ca b an xen di c sp xp vo cc v tr tin cy hon. t Nu 16QAM c s dng kt hp vi HARQ s dng kt hp sn bt, vic sp xp li cc k hiu 16QAM gia cc ln pht khc nhau s c li v mt hiu nng v n lm trung bnh ha nh hng tin cy ca cc bt. Tuy nhin cn lu rng li ny ch c c i vi pht li ch khng i vi pht ln u. Ngoi ra li nhn c t sp xp li chm tn hiu khng ng k khi s dng HARQ du tng. V th sp xp li chi p dng ch yu cho kt hp sn bt. Sp xp li chm tn hiu c thc hin bng cch hon v b t trong khi chn bt v c iu khin bi mt thng s sp xp bn bt thng qua iu khin hai thao tc c lp. Trc ht, u ra ca hai b an xen c th c trao i. Th hai u ra ca b an xen di (hay b an xen trn nu trao i c s dng) c th c o. Kt

208

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

qu h thng chn ra c mt trong s bn chm tn hiu khc nhau cho 16QAM.

C c bt h thng

"

/b=o|M33\

\ Chnb
. t

b.1

mm

b=0

b=3 |3|4-r|2| /

T phn on knh vn l

s a. c
1 = CL

Si

B an xen R3 (32x30

OGOO

B an xen R3 (32x30

oooo

acao

X
00*0 ocoo

,_

1A

^T7r-'

_
v^ "

Cc b t chn l

Ti ) Thng s sp

xp bt b

Cc phn t dm ca cc khi ch c s dng cho 16QAM. Cc tng mu khc nhau cho cc ch s minh ha th t sp xp cho chui 4 b t trong gch ngang trn ch s biu th o b t .

Hnh 6.12. an xen knh cho HS-DSCH

6.6. LP BIU V THCH NG NG TRUYN 6 6 1 Lp biu ...


Mt trong s cc nguyn l c s ca HSDPA l lp biu ph thuc knh. B lp biu trong MAC-hs iu khin vic s s dng phn m chia s no v ti nguyn cng sut no cho ngi s dng no trong mt T T I cho trc. y l phn t quan trng v cng l mt phn t quyt nh mt mc rt ln tng hiu nng ca h thng HSDPA, c bit l trong mt mng c ti ln. Khi ti thp, ch c mt hoc mt ngi s dng c lp biu v s khc bit gia t cc chin lc lp biu khc nhau l khng r rng. Nguyn l lp biu c m t trn hnh 6.13. Nt B nh g i cht lng knh ca tng my di ng HSDPA da trn hi tip lp vt l nhn c t ng ln. Sau lp biu v thch ng ng

Chng 6: HSDPA

209

truyn c thc hin nhanh ty thuc vo gii thut lp biu v s u tin ngi s dng.
Lp biu nhanh nt B da trn: 1. Phn hi cht lng

UE2

Hnh 6.13. Nguyn l lp biu ca nt B HSDPA Mc d 3GPP khng c t vic thc hin b lp biu, nhng mc ch tng th ca hu ht cc b lp biu l li dng cc thay i ca knh gia cc ngi s dng v lp biu truyn dn u tin cho ngi s dng c cc iu kin knh tt nht. Nh xt trong chng 5, tn ti mt s chin lc lp biu. Tuy nhin cc chin lc lp biu hiu qu yu cu ti thiu: - Thng tin v cc iu kin knh tc thi ti UE - Thng tin v trng thi b m v mc un tin ca cc lung s liu Thng tin v trng thi tc thi ca knh ti E thng nhn c thng qua 5 bt ch th cht lng knh (CQI) m tng UE nh k phn hi li cho nt B. UE tnh ton CQI da trn t s tn hiu trn tp m ca hoa tiu chung thu c. Thay v biu din CQI dng cht lng tn hiu thu, CQI c biu din dng kch thc khi truyn ti nn dng c xt n hiu nng thu. Cch biu din ny tng ng vi tc s liu tc thi m mt u cui c th h tr

210

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ch khng ch mt mnh cht lng knh. V th mt u cui c trang b my thu tin tin hn c th thu s liu ti tc cao hn ti cng mt cht lng knh s bo co CQI ln hn so vi mt u cui c my thu km tin tin hn mc d cht lng knh tng ng.
UE#i UE#j

Phn b theo mc u tin Trng thi b m #j

< =

=
Oi*
3

< = li I

Si
H x
B lp biu X CI

Lp rp khi truyn ti

Khi truyn ti HS-DSCH

Hnh 6.14. X l u tin trong b lp biu

Ngoi cht lng knh tc thi, b lp biu cng cn phi xem xt trng thi b m v mc u tin. R rng l khng th lp biu cho UE khng c s liu i pht. Cng cn lu rng c cc loi s liu cn c pht trong mt thi hn tr cho php khng ph thuc vo iu kin knh. Chng hn bo hiu RRC lin quan n chuyn h tr di ng v s liu ny cn c chuyn n UE nhanh nht. Mt v d khc (mc d khng quan trng v thi gian nh bo hiu RRC) l cc dch v lung i hi tc s liu trung bnh khng i. Cc dch v ny c gii hn trn v tr cho php ca mt gi. e h tr x l u tin trong quyt nh lp biu, mt tp hng i u t in

Chng 6: HSDPA

211

c nh ngha c th chn s liu vo theo mc u tin nh m t trn hnh 6.14. B lp biu chn s liu t cc hng i u tin cho truyn dn da trn cc iu kin knh, mc u tin ca hng i v cc thng tin lin quan khc. h tr hiu qu cc ng dng lung i hi tc trung bnh ti thiu, RNC c th "m bo" tc s liu ny bng cch cung cp thng tin v tc trung bnh ny cho b lp biu trong nt B. B lp biu c th xt n q nh ny trong qu trnh lp biu. uy 6 6 2 Thch ng ng truyn ... HS-DSCH s dng thch ng ng truyn theo 2ms. Ngoi quyt nh lp biu, MAC-hs trong nt B cng quyt nh t hp m ha v iu ch s s dng theo tng 2ms. Thch ng ng truyn da trn CQI ca lp vt l c pht i t u cui. Thch ng ng truyn l mt hm ca t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SIR) nh minh ha trn hnh 6.15. Nh trnh by trong chng 5, iu khin tc l qu trnh iu chinh tc thch ng vi cc iu kin v tuyn tc thi. Tc s liu c iu chnh bng cch thay i s iu ch v t l m. i vi tng TTI, c ch iu chnh tc trong b lp biu s chn cho mt (hoc nhiu ngi s dng) mt (hoc nhiu) khun dng truyn ti v cc t i nguyn m nh knh s dng. Khun dng truyn ti bao gm s iu ch (QPSK hay 16QAM) v kch thc khi truyn ti. T l m cui cng sau m ha Turbo v phi hp tc c xc nh bi s iu ch, kch thc khi truyn ti v tp m nh knh c n nh cho ngi s dng trong TTI cho trc, s cc bt c m ha sau phi hp tc c xc nh bi s iu ch v s m nh knh, cn cc bt thng tin trc m ha c xc nh bi

212

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

kch thc k h i truyn ti. V th bng cch iu chinh m t s hay tt c cc thng s ni trn, t l m tng c th c iu chnh.

i
C

"
L

60

80 Thi gian, T r i BTS iu chnh ch thch ng ng truyn da trn cc bo co cht lng knh t UE vi tr vi ms

160

Es: nng lng k hiu lo : mt ph cng sut nhiu cng tp m


r

Hnh 6.15. Thch ng ng truyn MAC-hs thc hin iu khin tc bng cch thit lp khun dng truyn ti c lp cho tng T T I 2ms ca HS-DSCH. V th c s iu ch v t l m tc thi u cth c iu chinh nhn c tc s liu thch h p v i cc iu k i n v tuyn hin thi. TTI 2ms kh ngn v th m bo iu khin tc b m c s thay i nhanh cht lng knh tc thi. Kch thc k h i truyn ti c th nhn m t t r o n g s 254 gi tr. Cc gi tr ny c lu trong nt B v U E (hnh 6.16). V th khng cn lp cu hnh kch thc k h i truyn ti k h i thit lp knh hoc khi chuyn phc v, n h vy gim bt k h i lng bo hiu b sung lin quan n d i ng. M i t hp m nh knh ca HS-DSCH v s

Chng 6: HSDPA

213

iu ch nh ngha m t tp con cha 63 trong s 254 kch thc k h i Huyn ti v 6 bt "thng t i n kch thc k h i truyn t i ca HS-DSCH" chi th m t trong s 63 kch thc k h i truyn ti c th c i v i tp c o n ny. Bng s ny, cc kch thc k h i truyn ti trong di 137-27952 bt c th c thng bo cng v i cc t l m ha knh t r o n g di t 1/3 1. n
16QAM 16 1514113 m 1? 9 j c
.' .

-
K h

Q P S K , t l 1/3

'

'

t r u

y n ti

ln nht 27952

110
2

Khi truyn ti "0 4 . nh nht 137 bt c 3.


c

4 ? ! IU
7

Bo co COI

\Xi

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Hnh 6.16. Kch thc khi truyn ti ph thuc vo s ma nh knh cho QPSK v 16QAM
i v i pht l i , t l m tc thi c th > 1 . iu ny x y ra v khng th thay i kch thc k h i truyn ti g i a ln pht u v ln pht li. V th thay v thng bo kch thc k h i truyn ti cho ln pht li, c t h s dng m t gi tr dnh trc ch th rng HS-DSCH khng c u n g cp thng t i n v kch thc k h i truyn ti v cn s dng gi tr t ln pht u. Cch lm ny tng thm tnh linh

214

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hot cho lp biu, chng hn khi ch cn pht mt lng nh cc b t chn l trong trng hp bo co CQI chi th rng UE "hu nhu" c th gii m thng tin gc. Nh ni trong phn tng quan, cch u tin thch ng s thay i nhanh trong cht lng knh tc thi l i khin tc v u chun HS-DSCH khng c t i khin cng sut nhanh. i ny u u khng c ngha l cng sut truyn dn HS-DSCH khng th thay i do cc l do khc, chng hn do s thay i cng sut cn thit cho cc knh ng xung. Hnh 6.5 m t v d vmt s n nh ng cng sut HS-DSCH trong HS-DSCH s dng ton b cng sut cn li sau khi cng sut cho cc knh khc c n nh. Tt nhin cng cn xt n tng nhiu trong qu trnh n nh khi lng cng sut cho HS-DSCH. Chc nng i khin ti nguyn cng sut u trong RNC chu trch nhim cho cng vic ny. N thit lp gii hn trn ca cng sut m nt B c s dng cho cc HS-DSCH v tt c HS-SCCH. Chng no nt B cn nm trong gii hn ny, n nh cng sut c thc hin bi nt B. Nt B s dng cc kt qu o lng (thng s o c quy nh trong chun) bo co vic s dng cng sut hin thi cho RNC. Thng tin vlng cng sut c s dng cho cc knh khng phi HSDPA c chc nng i u khin cho php trong RNC s dng. Khng c thng tin ny, RNC khng th quyt nh c cn t i nguyn cho nhng ngi s dng khng c HSDPA ang tm cch vo hay khng. Khc vi QPSK, gii iu ch 16QAM i hi chun bin ti UE. Cch t c i ny ph thuc vo thc hin c th. Mt cnh u lm l s dng c tnh knh t hoa tiu chung v tnh t s gia cc cng sut thu ca HS-DSCH v hoa tiu ly trung bnh trong khong thi gian 2ms. K h i ny c tnh bin tc thi cn thit cho gii iu ch 15QAM c th nhn c t hoa tiu chung v khong dch c c tnh. y l l do cn s dng ngu nhin ha bt trc khi

Chng 6: HSDPA

215

m ha T u r b o trn hnh 6.8. V i ngu nhin ha, c cc im tn hiu trong v ngoi ca chm tn hiu 1 6 Q A M u s c s dng v i xc sut cao v c th thc hin c tnh cng sut HS-DSCH t h u chnh xc. Tiu ch s dng iu khin cng sut (qu trnh la chn khun dng truyn ti trong MAC-hs) p h thuc vo thc hin c th v khng c nh ngha trong tiu chun, v nguyn l, mc tiu ca iu k h i n cng sut l chn ra m t khun dng truyn ti c th pht m t k h i truyn ti ln nht m vn m bo xc sut l i hp l trong cc iu k i n knh tc thi cho trc. T u y nhin, chn kch k h i truyn ti ln hn k h i lng s liu cn truyn trong m t T T I cho trc l v ch cho d iu kin knh cho php. V th vic chn khun dng truyn ti khng ch p h thuc vo iu kin knh tc thi m cn c vo tnh trng lu lng tc t h i ca ngun pht. V iu khin tc thng p h thuc vo cc iu kin knh tc thi, nn n da trn cc nh gi cht lng knh tc thi ti U E v b lp biu. N h ni, thng t i n v knh thng nhn c t C Q I mc d cc i lng khc cng cn thi t.

6.7. HARQ VI KT HP MM 6 7 1 Tng quan hot ng HARQ ca HSDPA ...


Chc nng H A R Q c t c trong MAC-hs v lp vt l. V MAC-hs c t trong nt B, nn cc k h i truyn ti b mc l i c th c pht li nhanh. Cc pht li H A R Q v th tr hom so v i t cc pht li da trn RLC. C hai l do cho khc bit ny: 1. Khng cn bo h i u gia nt B v R N C cho pht li H A R Q . V th trnh c cc tr Iub/Iur cho cc ln pht l i . X l pht li t r o n g nt B cng c l i t quan im dung lng Iub/Iur: cc pht l i H A R Q khng tiu ph dung lng truyn ti-mng.

216

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G 2. Giao thc R L C thng c lp cu hnh d a trn cc bo co trng thi khng thng xuyn v cc k h i s liu b l i (mt ln trn vi T T I ) gim ti bo hiu, trong k h i giao thc H A R Q ca H S D P A cho php bo co trng thi ny thng xuyn (mt ln trn m t T T I ) v th g i m thiu t h i gian quay vng.

Hnh 6.17. Nguyn l tng qut HARQ

ti nt B

T r o n g H S D P A , H A R Q lm vic theo tng k h i truyn ti hay theo tng T T I , ngha l m i k h i HS-DSCH C R C chi th l i , s yu cu pht li thng t i n ging nh k h i truyn ti gc. V ch c mt khi truyn ti trn m t T T I , nn n i dung ca ton b T U s c pht li k h i xy ra l i . iu ny cho php g i m k h i lng bo hiu ng ln v chi cn m t bt A C K / N A K trn m t T T I l . Ngoi ra cc nghin cu trong t h i gian thit k cho thy rng l i ch ca vic pht nhiu k h i truyn ti trn m t T T I v i k h nng pht li ring l l rt nh. N g u n l i truyn dn ch y u l cc thay i nhiu t ngt trong knh v cc l i trong hot ng thch n g knh. V T T I ngn, nn knh thay i trong thi gian truyn dn m t k h i truyn ti v t trong hu ht cc trng h p cc l i c phn b u trong thi gian T T I . iu ny hn ch cc l i ch t i m nng ca cc pht li ring l.

Chng 6: HSDPA

217

Nguyn l chung ca HARQ trong HSDPA c minh ha trn hnh 6.17. Trc ht gi cn pht c np vo b m ca nt B. Trong trng hp gii m pha thu tht bi, nt thc hin pht li m khng cn RNC tham gia. M y di ng thc hin kt hp cc pht li. Pht theo RNC chi thc hin khi xy ra s c hot ng lp vt l (li bo hiu chng hn). Pht li theo RNC s dng ch cng nhn RLC, pht li RLC khng thng xuyn xy ra. Tng phn d l s c s cho kt hp mm, trong cc ln pht li cha cc tp bt c m ha khc vi ln pht u. Cc phin bn d khc nhau, hay cc tp bt c m ha khc nhau, c to ra nh mt b phn ca c ch thch ng tc . B thch ng tc s dng c l (hay lp) thch ng s bt c m ha vi s bt knh vt l kh dng. Cc mu c l khc nhau cho php nhn c cc tp bt c m ha khc nhau hay cc phin bn d khc nhau. Hnh 6.18 m t iu ny. Lu rng kt hp sn bt l trng hp c bit ca kt hp phn d tng. Nt B quyt nh s dng phn d tng hay kt hp sn bt bng cch chn mu c l tng ng cho pht li.
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Trong trng hp gii m tht bi, cc b m ca UE nhn cc b t mm v yu cu pht li bng cch gi NAK. Sau khi xy ra pht li UE kt hp cc bt mm c nh m vi cc bt mm thu c t pht li v tm cch gii m t hp ny. thc hin kt hp mm ng, UE cn bit rng pht ln ny l pht li ca s liu c pht trc hay l pht s liu mi. vy, bo hiu iu khin ng xung cha chi th s liu mi v UE s s dng n quyt nh xa b m mm (truyn dn hin thi l cho s liu mi) hay cn thc hin kt hp b m mm v cc bt mm thu c (pht li).
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gim thiu tr lin quan n pht li, kt qu gii m phi c bo co sm nht cho nt B. ng thi cn gim thiu thng tin cho bo hiu phn hi ny. vy cn chn cu trc dng v i cho HSDPA, trong mt bt c pht t UE n HSDPA trong mt khong thi gian quy nh trc (khong 5ms) sau khi nhn c khi truyn ti. m bo truyn dn lin tc n UE, cn thc hin nhiu cu trc dng v i (hay cc qu trnh x l H A R Q ) song song

Chng 6: HSDPA

219

nh m t trn hnh 6.19. Nh vy mi ngi s dng s c mt thc th HARQ v mi thc th gm nhiu qu trnh x l HARQ. S ln x l HARQ phi ph hp vi thi gian quay vng gia UE v nt B bao gm c thi gian x l tng ng m bo truyn dn lin tc n UE. S dng s ln x l nhiu hn so vi tnh ton t thi gian quay vng s khng t c bt k li ch g t li gy ri thm tr pht li. V thi gian x l ca nt B c th khc nhau gia cc thc hin khc nhu, nn s ln x l HARQ c th khc nhau ty thuc vo vic lp cu hnh. C th lp cu hnh ln n 8 ln x l cho mt ngi s dng, tuy nhin thng thng s ln c s dng l su. iu ny m bo khong 2,8ms x l trong nt B t khi thu ACK/NAK cho n khi n B c th lp biu pht (hoc pht li) cho t UE trong; cng mt x l HARQ. Bo hiu iu khin ng xung c s dng thng bo cho UE v vic x l HARQ no s c s dng cho TTI hin thi. y l thng tin quan trng i vi UE v n cn thit thc hin kt hp mm vi b m mm; mi x l HARQ c b m mm ring ca minh. Hu qu ca vic thc hin nhiu x l HARQ c lp song song l cc khi truyn ti sau gii m c th khng ng th t. Chng hn c th phi pht li trong x l HARQ s mt, trong khi x l s hai li thnh cng ngay sau ln pht u. V th khi truyn ti c pht trong x l s hai s c chuyn n cc lp cao hn ti u thu trc khi truyn ti trong x l s mt dn t khi truyn ti hai c th n trc khi truyn ti mt (hnh 6.19). V th cn phi thc hin sp xp li th t cc khi truyn ti nhn c t cc x l HARQ trc khi a chng ln lp RLC cao hn. Hot ng sp xp li s c xt trong phn sau.

220

Gio trnh L trnh phi Hin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

6.7.2. Qu trnh x l H A R Q ti lp vt l Trong cc trnh by trc y v HARQ vi kt hp mm, n gin ta b qua mt s chi tit v hot ng ca lp vt l v giao thc. Trong phn ny ta s xt chi tit hn v qu trnh x l HARQ. Nh ni. HAR tc ng ln tng khi truvn ti n l, vi th mi khi HS-DSCH CRC chi th li, pht li s th hin thng tin nh l yu cu khi truyn ti gc. V chi c mt khi truyn ti trn mt T T I , nn khng th trn pht v pht li trong cng mt TTI. V s phn d tng l s kt hp mm HARQ c s, nn tng qut pht li s gm mt tp khc ca cc bt c m ha. Ngoi s iu ch, tp m nh knh v cng sut truyn dn c th khc so vi ln pht gc. Ni chung s phn d tng cho hiu nng tt hn, c bit l i vi cc t l m ban u cao nhng i hi cc yu cu cao hn i vi m mm trong UE v cc b t mm t tt c cc ln pht phi c nh m trc khi gii m. V th nt B cn bit c kch thc b nh m mm trong UE (cho tng x l HARQ tch cc). Cc bt c m ha khng va vi b nh m s khng c pht. i vi HSDPA, vn ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng qu trnh phi hp tc hai tng. Tng phi hp tc u thc hin gii hn s bt c m ha c th t va vo b nh m mm, cn tng phi hp tc th hai to ra cc phin bn d khc nhau. M i tng phi hp tc s dng mt s khi phi hp tc khc nhau c k hiu l RM (hnh 6.20). Mt RM c th c lp cu hnh c l hoc lp mt bt trong s n bt. Tng u c s dng d gii hn cc bt c m ha cho ph hp vi kh nng b m nh ca UE i vi x l HARQ hin thi. Mt s bt m ha b c l (chch b) m bo rng tt c cc bt c m ha ti u ra ca tng phi hp tc u s t va vo b

Chng 6:

HSDPA

221

m m m (c g i l b m I R o ti pha pht). V th ty thuc vo kch thc b m m m trong UE, t l m thp nht c th cao hn t l m m 1/3 t r o n g b m ha Turbo. L u rng nu s bt nhn c t m ha knh khng vt qu k h nng n h m ca UE, th tng p h i h p tc u s trong sut v khng xy ra c l .
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Hnh 6.20. Nguyn l phi hp tc hai tng Tng t h hai thc hin hai mc ch: - Phi h p s bt t r o n g b n h o v i s bt knh k h dng. s bt knh k h dng c xc nh bi kch thc ca tp m nh knh v s iu ch c chn cho T T I hin xt - To r a cc tp bt c m ha khc nhau di s iu khin ca hai thng s phin bn d r v s m ta s xt di y. Lp u cho tt c ba lung c p dng nu s bt k h dng ln hn s bt t r o n g b n h o IR, tri li c l c p dng. h t r tng phn d y , ngha l c k h nng ch pht hoc pht c h y u cc bt chn l trong ln pht li, c th s dng thng s s iu k h i n qu trnh c l cc bt h thng. N u t s = , th cc bt h thng c u tin v c l trc ht i v i hai lung bt chn l v i s lng bng nhau. Tri li, nu t s = 0 thi cc bt chn l c u tin v p dng c l trc ht i v i cc bt h thng. N u t r o n g trng hp u tin cc bt h thng m s cc bt sau

222

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

m ha ln hn s cc bt ca knh vt l, mc d tt c cc bt chn l b c l , c l s thc hin thm i v i cc bt h thng. Tung t t r o n g trng hp pht u tin cho cc bt chn l, m c l cc bt h thng cha th c l c p dng thm cho cc b t chn l. t c hiu nng tt, cc bt h thng phi c pht trong ln pht u, ngha l s = v t l m phi c t thp hn . i v i ln pht li ( g i thit rng truyn dn ln u khng thnh cng), c th p dng cc chin lc khc nhau. N u nt khng nhn c c A C K ln N A K tr l i cho ln pht u, U E c th mt pht ln v k t h p sn bt c s v tng u. V th t s - cng thch hp cho ln pht li ny. y cng l trng h p t r o n g t h u c N A K dng cho cc ln pht li. T u y nhin nu t h u c N A K thch hp. Thng s r iu k h i n mu c l t r o n g tng k h i p h i hp tc v quyt nh bt no b c l (hnh 6.20). Thng thng r = 0 c s dng cho pht ln u. i v i cc ln pht l i , r thng c tng c m t mu khc. V th bng cch thay i r, c th to ra nhiu tp cc bt c m ha th hin cng m t tp bt thng t i n (cc tp ny c th chng l n m t phn ln nhau), c n lu rng vic thay i s bt knh bng cch thay i s iu ch hay s m nh knh cng nh hng ln vic cc bt c m ha no s c pht thm ch k h i cc thng s r v s khng thay i gia cc ln pht. V i vic s dng s p h i hp tc hai tng, ta c th d dng h t r kt hp phn d tng v sn bt. Bng cch t s = v r = 0 cho tt c cc ln pht, tp bt c s dng cho cc ln pht li s ging nh tp bt ca ln pht u, ta c kt h p sn bt. Nu t s = v r = 0 cho ln pht u v t s - 0 v r > 0 cho cc ln pht li ta c s kt hp phn d tng. N u t s = cho tt c cc ln

phn d c s dng, ngha l cn u tin cc bt chn l, th s = 0 l

Chng 6: HSDPA

223

pht li v c ln pht u th ta c s I R mt phn, trong phn d tng cng vi cc bt h thng c pht trong tt c cc ln pht.
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Hnh 6.21. V d v qu trnh to ra cc phin bn d khc nhau trong IR. V d vi cc con s trong hnh 6.21 m t r hn hot ng qu trnh x l s liu ca HARQ lp vt l. Trong v d ny, ta gi thit rng mt khi truyn ti 2404 bt s c pht bng cch s dng mt trong s cc x l HARQ. Ngoi ra gi thit rng x l HARQ trong trng hp ny c kh nng nh m ti a 7000 gi tr mm do gii hn ca b nh trong UE v cu hnh b nh mm c thit lp

224

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

bi cc lp cao hn. Cui cng, knh c th mang c 3840 bt c m ha (iu ch QPSK, 4 m nh knh). 24 bt CRC c gn vo khi truyn ti, m ha Turbo t l 1 3 / c thc hin v 12 bt ui c gn thm, kt qu cho ra 7296 bt. Cc bt sau m ha c a n tng phi hp tc u, ti y cc bt h thng c gi nguyn 2432 bt cn hai lung bt chn l c c l nh nhau cho ra 2x2284 bt, kt qu cho ra 7000 bt v cc bt ny c a n tng phi hp tc th hai. V ch c th truyn nhiu nht l 7000 bt nn t l m thp nht c th c l 2432/7000 = 0,35, t l ny cao hn t l m m mt cht do hn ch ca b m mm trong UE. i vi ln pht u, tng phi hp tc th hai phi hp 7000 bt sau m ha vi 3840 bt knh bng cch ch c l cc bt chn l. iu ny t c bng cch s dng r = 0 v s = (truyn dn c kh nng t gii m) v kt qu cho t l m 2432/3840 = 0,63. e pht li nt B c th s dng s sn bt hoc phn d tng. Nu s sn bt c s dng bng cch t s = v r = 0, th 3840 bt c s dng cho ln pht u cng c s dng cho ln pht li (gi thit s iu ch v tp m ha knh khng i). Kt qu t l m hiu dng gi nguyn bng 0,63 v chn l khng c pht b sung, nhng nhn c tng nng lng cho tng bt. Lu rng v d ny gi thit l khun dng truyn ti cho ln pht u v ln pht li l nh nhau. Nu s dng phn d tng bng cch t s = 0 v r = , cc bt h thng b c l v ch c cc bt chn l l c pht li v 3840 b t chn l trong tng s 4568 bt chn l kh dng c ly ra sau ln phi hp tc tng u t va vo knh vt l. Lu rng mt s trong s bt chn l ny c trong ln pht u v s cc bt chn l duy nht khng ln va lp y ln pht u v ln pht li.

Chng 6: HSDPA

225

Sau pht li, ta c t l l 2432/7000 = 0,35. Nh vy t vi kt ri hp sn bt, kt hp phn d tng cho php tng li m ha b sung thm cho li nng lng. 6.7.3. Hot ng ca giao thc HARQ Nh ni trn. mi thc th HARQ c th h tr nhiu (n 8) x l HARQ kiu dng v i. L do s dng c ch ny l m bo truyn dn lin tc n mt UE. s ln x l HARQ c th c lp cu hnh bi bo hiu lp cao hn. s ln HARQ cn c chn cho ph hp vi thi gian quay vng bao gm TTI, tr giao din v tuyn ng xung v ng ln, thi gian x l trong UE v thi gian x l trong nt B. Thit k giao thc gi thit l thi gian gia kt thc khi truyn ti thu c v pht ACK/NAK c nh ngha r rng nh xt trong phn 6.7. Thc cht y chnh l thi gian m UE c th gii m s liu thu. T quan im tr, thi gian ny cng nh cng tt, nhng qu nh s khng p ng c tc x l ca UE. Mc d v mt nguyn tc, thi gian ny ph thuc vo kh nng x l ca UE, nhng gi tr 5ms cho thi gian ny c tha thun da trn cn i gia hiu nng v mc phc tp. Gi tr ny nh hng ln s x l HARQ cn thit. Thng thng tng s x l c t cu hnh bng 6 dn n 2,8ms cho x l cc pht li trong nt B. B lp biu iu hnh vic x l HARQ no s s dng cho ln pht hin thi v thng bo iu ny cho UE. Lu rng cc x l HARQ c th c thc hin theo th t bt k. Khi lng nh m mm kh dng trong UE c phn chia bn c nh cho cc x l khc nhau. V th s x l HARQ cng ln th khi lng nh kh dng cho mt x l H A R Q i vi phn d tng cng nh. Vic phn chia tng dung lng nh m mm gia cc x l HARQ c iu hnh bi RNC v khng nht thit phi m bo dung lng nh cho tng x l H A R Q phi bng nhau. Mt s x l HARQ c th c

226

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng n di ng 3G ln 4G

lp cu hnh vi dung lng nh m mm ln hn so vi cc x l khc, mc d thng thng tng dung lng nh m mm c chia u cho cc x l. Nu pht hin thi khng phi l pht li, th MAC-hs ca nt B s tng chi th s liu mi (ch th cha mt bt). V th i vi mi khi truyn ti mi bt ny c bt. Chi th ny c s dng UE xa b nh m mm cho cc pht ln u, v theo quy nh kt hp mm khng c thc hin cho pht ln u. Chi th ny cng c s dng pht hin cc trng hp li trong bo hiu trng thi, chng hn, nu chi th "s liu mi" khng c bt cho d s liu ln pht trc i vi x l HARQ ang xt c gii m thnh cng v c cng nhn, th chc chn xy ra mt li trong bo hiu ng ln. Tng t nu chi th khng c bt nhng s liu ln pht trc i vi x l HARQ ang xt c gii m sai, th UE s thay th s liu trc trong cc b nh m mm bng s liu thu c mi. Cc sai li trong bo hiu trng thi (ACK/NAK) s nh hng ln tng hiu nng. Nu A C K b hiu nhm l NAK, th s xy ra mt pht li HARQ khng cn thit dn n gim (mt lng nh) thng lng. Mt khc, hiu lm N A K l A C K s dn n mt s liu v nt B s khng pht li HARQ cho d UE gii m tht bi s liu ny. Ngoi ra s liu b mt li phi c giao thc RLC pht li v y l mt th tc tiu tn nhiu thi gian hn pht li HARQ. V th cc yu cu v sai li ACK/NAK thng khng i xng vi xc sut li thng thng l: P (NAK|ACK) = l " v Pr(ACK|NAK) = l". Vi
2 3 r

cc xc sut li ny, nh hng ca sai li bo hiu HARQ ln hiu nng TCP ca ngi s dng u cui l nh. 6.7.4. Chuyn theo th t Bn thn cc x l HARQ khng th m bo chuyn theo th t v khng c s tng tc gia cc x l. V th, cn thc hin chuyn

Chng 6: HSDPA

227

theo th t cho cc x l HARQ v cn thc hin mt hng sp xp sp t li th t li trong UE MAC-hs cho mc ch ny. Cc hng i u tin trong nt B s dng x l u tin trong qu trnh lp biu v tng ng vi chng l cc hng i sp xp li ti UE. MAC-hs ti nt B nhn cc MAC-d PDU t mt hay nhi lung u MAC-d. M i MAC-d PDU c n nh mt mc u tin v cc MAC-d PDU vi cc mc u tin khc nhau c th c trn vo cng mt lung MAC-d. Cc lung MAC-d c phn loi vo cc hng i u tin nh trn hnh 6.22. M i hng i u tin tng ng vi mt lung MAC-d c mt mc u tin MAC-d nht nh, trong bo hiu RRC c s dng thit lp chuyn i gia cc hng i u tin v cc lung MAC-d. V th b lp biu trong MAC-hs c th xt cc mc u tin khi a ra quyt nh. Mt hay mt s MAC-PDU t cc hng i u tin s c lp rp vo mt khi s liu, trong b lp biu s i khin s lng u cc M C PDU v chn la hng i u tin. Tiu MAC-hs cha nhn dng hng i, s trnh t pht v mt s thng tin khc. Tiu ny c gn vo khi truy n ti. Khi truy n ti c chuyn n lp vt l tip tc x l. V ch c mt nhn dng hng i v s trnh t pht trong khi truyn ti, nn tt c cc MAC-d PDU trong cng mt khi truyn ti n t cng mt hng i u tin. V th u trong cng mt T T I khng th trn cc MAC-PDU t cc hng i khc nhau. Trong E , thc th sp t li th t c s dng t khi thu cha cc MAC-d P D U vo ng hng i sp t li th t (hnh 6.22). M i hng i sp t li th t tng ng vi mt hng i u tin trong nt B, mc d cc hng i u tin nh m MAC-d PDU ong khi cc hng i sp t li th t nh m cc khi s liu. Bn ong mi hng i sp t li, s trnh t pht (c pht trong tiu

228

Gio (rnh L (rnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

MAC-hs) c s dng m bo chuyn cc M A C - d P D U theo trnh t. S trnh t pht l duy nht trong hng i sp t li nhung khng duy nht g i a cc hng i sp t li.
Nt B Cc lung MAC-d Cc MAC-d PDU Phn b hng
i u tin

UE Cc lung MAC-d Cc MAC-d PDU


1

Cc MAC-d PDU

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Khi truyn ti HS-DSCH

Hnh 6.22. Cc hng i mi tin trong MAC-hs v cc hng i sp xp li

ca nt B (hnh tri)

tng c bn cho sp t li t h t (c m i n h h a trn hnh 6.23) l lu g i k h i s liu t r o n g hng i sp t l i t h t cho n k h i tt c cc k h i s l i u c s trnh t thp hn c chuyn ht. T i t h i im to trn hnh 6.23, nt B t r u y n xong cc k h i s l i u v i cc s trnh t t 0 3. T u y nhin k h i s liu vi n s trnh t v n cha n c hng i sp t l i ca MAC-hs t r o n g UE, c t h l do cc pht l i H A R Q h a y cc sai l i ca bo hiu ng ln H A R Q . K h i s l i u 0 c tho g thnh cc M A C - d P D U v c t r u y n ln cc l p trn b i U E MAC-hs, trong k h i cc k h i 2 v 3 c n h m t r o n g hng i sp t li th t v k h i s l i u b mt.

Chng 6:

HSDPA

229

to

Nt B

UE

Nt B

UE

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Ca s thu L U trong hng i Ca s sp t li c chuyn ln lp cc lp co hn Thiu (mt)

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Hnh 6.23. Minh ha nguyn tc ca cc hng i sp t li th t

R rng rng c th xy ra s t hon hng i sp t li th t r nu cc khi s liu thiu (khi s liu trong trng hp ny) khng c thu thnh cng trong mt thi gian nht nh. V th mt c ch trnh s t hon da trn b nh thi c nh ngha cho MAC-hs. r Mi khi mt khi s liu c thu thnh cng nhng khng th chuyn ln lp trn, b nh thi c khi ng. Trn hnh 6.23 iu ny xy ra khi khi s liu 2 c thu thnh cng, nhng thiu khi s liu trong hng i sp t li th t. Lu rng cc i ch c mt ng h trnh t hon c tch cc. V th khng b nh thi no r c khi ng khi thu c khi s liu 3, v c mt b nh thi tch cc c khi ng cho khi s liu 2. K h i ng h ny chy ht (thi im ti trn hnh 6.23), khi s liu c coi l b mt. Tt c cc khi s liu cho n khi s liu thiu u tin s c tho g thnh cc MAC-PDU v c chuyn ln cc lp cao hn. Trn hnh 6 y% CC. khi s liu 2 v 3 c chuyn ln lp cao hn. Nu chi s dng c ch da trn b nh thi s hn ch cc gi c th c ca b nh thi v hn ch hot ng nu cc s trnh t

230

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

c duy t l cc s duy nht. V th, c ch trnh t hon da trn r r ca s c nh ngha b sung cho c ch da trn nh thi m bo hnh vi nht qun ca UE. Nu chc nng sp t li th t thu c mt khi s liu c s trnh t cao hn so vi cui ca s, t h khi s liu ny c chn vo b nh m sp t li th t ti v t r c ch ra bi s trnh t ny. ng thi ca s thu c dch ln sao cho khi s liu c thu ny tr thnh khi s liu cui cng trong ca s. M i khi s liu khng nm trong ca s sau khi ca s c dch ln s c chuyn ln lp cao hn. Trong v d trn hnh 6.23, kch thc ca s c s dng l 4, nhng kch thc ca s ca MAC-hs c the c lp cu hnh bi RNC. Trn hnh 6.23, khi s liu vi s trnh t c thu ti thi im t , v th ca s phi dch
2

chuyn cha cc s trnh t t 6 n . Khi trnh t 4 b coi l mt, v th nnm ngoi ca s trong khi khi s liu 5 c tho g v c chuyn ln cc lp trn. chc nng sp t li th t trong UE hot ng ng, Nt B khng c php pht cc MAC-d PDU c cc s trnh t cao hem hiu s ca s trnh t pht v kch thc ca s thu ca UE. 6.7.5. HARQ kt hp mm cho HSDPA-MIMO i vi tng lung, x l HARQ lp vt l v s dng nhiu x l HARQ cng ging nh trong trng hp mt lung. Tuy nhin, v nhiu lung c truyn trn cc anten khc nhau, nn mt lung c th c thu ng trong khi lung khc c th phi pht li ti tin. V th mi lung s c pht mt ACK/NAK t E n nt B. 6.8. CQI V CC PHNG TIN NH GI CHT LNG KHUNG K H C Ta thy rng mt trong s cc chc nng then cht ca HSDPA, m trc ht l lp biu v iu khin tc , u da trn vic t h hc

Chng 6: HSDPA

231

ng nhanh cc thng s truyn dn vi cc iu kin knh tc thi ca ng truyn n UE. Nt B c th t do to ra c tnh knh da trn mi thng tin kh dng, nhng nh xt, bo hiu iu khin ng ln t cc UE dng chi th cht lng ng truyn (CQI: Channel Quality Indicator) thng c s dng. CQI khng ch th mt cch c th cht lng knh, m ch chi th tc s liu no UE cn h tr trong cc iu kin knh hin hu. Ni mt cch c th hn, CQI l khuyn ngh v kch thc khi truyn ti (tng ng vi khuyn ngh v tc s liu). L do khng bo co kt qu o cht lng knh c th v cc UE khc nhau c th h tr cc tc s liu khc nhau trong cc mi trng ging nhau ty theo thc hin c th ca my thu. Vi vic bo co tc s liu ch khng phi kt qu o cht lng knh c th, UE c my thu tt hn c th cung cp dch v tt hn v iu n rt y c li khi s dng cu trc my thu tin tin cho ngi s dng u cui. i vi knh c iu khin cng sut, li nhn c t mt my thu tin tin l nt B c th s dng cng sut thp hn, v iu n c li cho mng ch khng phi cho ngi s dng u cui. y Cch nhn ny hon ton t ngc vi HS-DSCH s dng iu khin ri tc , trong mt UE c my thu tin tin c th thu c HSDSCH vi tc s liu cao hn so vi my thu bnh thng. Mi gi tr CQI 5 bt tng ng vi kch thc ca mt khi truyn ti, s iu ch v lng cc m nh knh. Cc gi tr s ny c cho trn hnh 6.16 (gi thit r u cui tc cao c kh ng nng thu c 15 m). Mt s bng khc nhau c s dng cho cc loi UE khc nhau v UE khng th bo co CQI vt qu kh nng ca mnh. Chng hn CQI ch h tr 5 m nh knh khng th bo co CQI tng ng vi 15 m, trong khi E 15 m c th lm iu ny. V th cc khong dch cng sut c s dng cho cc cht lng knh vt qu kh nng E. Dch cng sut xdB chi th rng

232

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

UE c th thu mt kch thc khi truyn ti nht nh, nhng ti cng sut pht thp hn nh gi t bo co CQI mt lng l X dB. iu ny c minh ha trong bng 6.3 cho mt s th loi UE. E thuc loi 1-6 ch c th thu n 5 m nh knh HS-DSCH v v th phi s dng dch cng sut cho cc gi tr CQI cao nht, trong khi UE loi 10 c th thu 15 m. Bng 6.3. V d v bo co CQI cho cc loi VE khc nhau
Gi tr COI 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Kch thc khi truyn ti Loi 1-6 Loi 10 S iu ch S lng m nh knh HS-DSCH Loi 1-6 Dch cng sut [dB]

Loi 10 Loi 1-6 Loi 10 Ngoi di

Khng p dng 137 173 233 317 377 461 650 792 931 1262 1483 1742 2279 2583 3319 3565 4189 4664 QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 5

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Chng 6:

HSDPA

233

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168 7168

5287 5887 6554 7168 9719 11418 14411 17237 21754 23370 24222 25558

16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 16QAM 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

5 5 5 5 7 8 10 12 15 15 15 15 1 2 -3 4 -5 6 7 8

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Cc gi tr CQI trong bng trn phn loi theo th t tng v UE s bo co gi tr CQI cao nht theo truyn dn vi cc thng s tng ng vi gi tr ny s ch gy ra xc sut li khi khng qu 10%. Cc gi tr CQI c chn sao cho tng CQI mt nc tng ng vi tng dB trong t s sng mang trn tp m trong knh AWGN.
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Hnh 6.24. Tng quan nh thi cho cc bo co CQI

234

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

C s to ra CQI l o c trn knh hoa tiu chung. CQI biu th cc iu kin tc thi ca knh trong khong thi gian ba khe vi kt thc mt khe trc khi pht CQI. Vic quy nh CQI bo co trong khong thi gian no nt B bm kp cc thay i trong cht lng knh gia cc bo co CQI c thc hin bng cch s dng cc lnh iu khin cng sut s xt di y. nh thi cc bo co CQI v thi gian sm nht c th s dng bo co ny cho mc ch lp biu uc minh ha trn hnh 6.24. Tc bo co cht lng knh c th c lp cu hnh cho mt bo co trong di 2-160ms. CQI cng c th b tt hon ton. V cc gii thut lp biu v thch ng tc l c th ca tng nh cung cp thit b, iu khin tc c th c thc hin theo cc tiu ch khc vi cc bo co ca UE (hoc c lp hoc kt hp). S dng mc cng sut pht ca knh DPCH lin kt cng l mt kh nng cho tiu ch ni trn, trong cng sut pht DPCH cao ch th cc iu kin knh khng thun li v cng sut pht DPCH thp ch th iu kin knh thun li. V mc cng sut l s o tng i ca cht lng knh v khng phn nh cht lng knh khch quan tuyt i, nn k thut ny ch c u im khi kt hp vi cc bo co c ht lng knh khng thng xuyn. Cc bo co UE cung cp cht lng knh tuyt i v cng sut pht ca knh DPCH c iu khin theo cng sut c th c s dng cp nht bo co c ht lng knh ny gia cc thi im bo co. S kt hp ny hot ng kh tt v c th gim ng k tn sut bo co CQI ca UE chng no DPCH khng nm trong chuyn giao mm. Trong chuyn giao mm, cng sut pht ca cc ng truyn v tuyn khc nhau tham gia v chuyn giao mm c iu khin cng sut v th tn hiu thu kt hp c cht lng. Hu qu l cng sut pht ca DPCH ti HS-DSCH khng chc chn phn nh cht lng knh m UE cm nhn c. V th khi xy ra chuyn giao mm cn bo co cht lng thng xuyn hn t UE.

Chng 6: HSDPA 6.9.CU T R C C C K N H B O HIU C A HSDPA 6 9 1 Bo hiu iu khin ng xung: HS-SCCH ...

235

HS-SCCH (i khi c gi l knh iu khin chia s) l knh vt l ng xung chia s mang thng tin bo hiu iu khin cn thit UE c th gii tri ph. gii iu ch v gii m knh HS-DSCH. Trong tng khong thi gian 2ms tng ng vi mt HS-DSCH TTI, mt knh HS-SCCH mang thng tin bo hiu lp vt l n mt UE. V HSDPA h tr truyn dn HS-DSCH n nhiu ngi s dng ng thi bng cch ghp m (xem mc 6. ) nn cn c nhiu knh HS-SCCH trong mt . Theo tiu chun, mt UE phi c th gii m bn knh HS-SCCH ng thi. Tuy nhin c th lp cu hnh nhiu knh HS-SCCH hn trong mt , mc d khi cn n iu ny. t HS-SCCH s dng h s t ph 128 v c cu trc thi gian da ri trn mt khung con c di 2ms bng di ca HS-DSCH. Cc thng tin sau y c mang trn HS-SCCH: - Khun dng truyn t bao gm: i + Tp m nh knh HS-DSCH [7bit] + S iu ch HS-DSCH. QPSK/16QAM [ bt] - Thng tin lin quan n HARQ bao gm: + S lng x l H A R [3bit] + Phin bn d [3bit] + Ch thi s liu mi [bt] + E I D nhn dng UE m thng tin HS-SCCH cn chuyn n [lbit ]. Nh s trnh by di y, UE ID khng c pht tng minh m c cha n trong tnh ton CRC v m ha knh DS-SCCH.

236

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Nh trnh by trong mc 6.6.2, khi truyn ti HS-DSCH c th nhn t n 254 kch thc khc nhau. M i t hp gia tp m nh knh v s iu ch tng ng vi mt tp con trong s cc kch thc khi truyn ti ni trn, trong mi tp con bao gm 63 kh nng c th c ca kch thc khi truyn ti. Thng tin v kch thc khi truyn ti ca HS-DSCH 6 bt ch th kch thc no trong s 63 kch thc khi truyn t i c th c c nh ngha s dng ton b t l m trong di t 1/3 n cho ln pht u. i vi pht li, cc t l m tc thi ln hn c th t c bng ch th rng "kch thc khi truyn ti ging nh ln pht trc trong x l HARQ ny". iu ny c ch th bng cch t trng "thng tin kch thc khi truyn ti HS-DSCH" vo 111111. Cch lm ny c li b sung tnh linh hot ca lp biu chng hn ch pht li mt s lng bt chn l trong trng hp bo co CQI cho thy rng UE "hu nh" c kh nng gii m tr uyn dn gc. Cc yu cu v vic cc phn thng tin khc nhau ca HS-SCCH cn c mt ti UE lc no nh hng ln cu trc chi tit ca qu trnh m ha knh HS-SCCH v sp xp knh vt l. Do phc tp ca cc UE khc nhau, UE cn bit tp m nh knh trc khi bt u pht HS-DSCH. Nu khng bit trc iu ny, UE s phi nh m tn hiu thu c gii tri ph tt c cc m ca HS-DSCH cc i n 15 m. Cng nn bit c s iu ch trc khung con HSDSCH v iu ny cho php gii iu ch kp thi. Mt khc kch thc khi truyn ti v thng tin lin quan n HARQ cng cn thit khi gii m HS-DSCH/kt hp mm. Thng qu trnh ny chi bt u cui HS-DSCH. V th, thng tin ca HS-SCCH c chia thnh hai phn: . Phn bao gm tp m nh knh v s iu ch [tng cng 8bit]. iu ny cho php u cui h tr 5 hoc l o m, thm ch c th n 15 m. V th vi mt u cui h tr s m nh

Chng 6: HSDPA

237

hn, cc m s dng c gii m t HS-SCCH v gii tri ph ch cn gii hn cc m d nh cho u cui. B lp biu s khng vt qu cc gii hn c thit lp bi kh nng ca u cui ny. 2. Phn 2 bao gm kch thc khi truyn ti v cc thng s lin quan n HARQ (chng hn x l HARQ no ang c pht). Ch th pht l mi hay lin quan n g c pht trc . i Ngay c khi cc pht trc ca mt gi khng c thu ng, ch th s liu mi vn thng bo cho u cui l c th loi cc truyn dn c khi b m. Ngha l ty theo dch v, hoc s c mt pht li mc RLC mun hn (ch RLC c cng nhn) hoc ch n gin l hy s liu v ng dng s phi chp nhn li (ch RLC khng cng nhn). Ngoi ra thng tin v phin bn d v chm tn hiu cng c truyn trong phn hai. nh thi gia HS-SCCH v HS-DSCH cho php u cui c thi gian mt khe ch ra cc m no s dng gii tri ph v xc nh s iu ch. i vi cc thng s cn li, thi gian x l khe cn c xt trc khi pht kt thc v cth bt u mt 2ms TTI mi. M ha HS-SCCH, sp xp knh vt l v tng quan nh thi cho truyn dn HS-DSCH c minh ha trn hnh 6.25. M ha knh HS-DSCH da trn m ha xon t l 1/3 c thc hin ring cho phn v phn 2. Phn c m ha v c phi hp tc n 40 bt t va khe th nht ca bn khung HS-SCCH. Trc khi sp xp ln knh vt l, phn mt c ngu nhin ha bi mt chui 40 bt c th ca E. Chui ny c rt ra t 16 bt UE I D s dng m ha xon t l Vi sau c c l. V i s trn hnh 6.25 thng tin phn c th c gii m sau mt khe ca bn khung

238

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

HS-SCCH. Ngoi ra trong trng hp c nhiu knh HS-SCCH, UE c th tm c ng HS-SCCH t s o mm ca b gii m knh ngay sau khe th nht. Mt cch UE s dng s o mm xc nh (nu c) knh no trong s nhiu knh HS-SCCH mang thng tin iu khin cho n l to ra t l log kh ging gia t m kh ging nht v t m kh ging th hai cho tng HS-SCCH. HS-SCCH c t l ny ln nht s c xc sut cao l knh cn truyn cho E v c th c chn gii m tip theo cho thng tin phn 2. Phn 1 Cc m, iu ch Phn 2 Nhn Kch thc thu bao, dng UE thng tin HARQ
CRC c th UE M ha xoan t l 1/3 M ha xon t l 1/3 c l Ngu nhin ha c th UE

c l

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Hnh 6.25. M ha knh HS-SCCH Phn hai c m ha v c phi hp tc n 80 b t t va vo khe th hai v th ba ca HS-SCCH. Phn hai cha c CRC c th UE pht hin li. CRC ny c tnh ton trn tt c cc bt thng tin gm c phn v phn kt hp cng vi nhn dng UE. Nhn dng ny khng c pht mt cch tng minh m ch cha ID

Chng 6: HSDPA

239

ca UE khi tnh ton CRC ti my thu, UE c th quyt nh y n c phi l i tng thu hay khng. Nu y l thng tin cho UE khc, CRC s khng c kim tra. Trong trng hp pht HS-DSCH n mt UE trong nhiu T T I lin tip, UE phi gii tri ph HS-SCCH ng thi vi cc m nh knh HS-DSCH. gim s lng b gii tri ph cn thit, cng mt knh HS-SCCH s c s dng khi tru yn dn HS-DSCH c thc hin trong nhiu T T I lin tip. Ngha l, UE ch cn gii tri ph mt HS-SCCH khi ng thi thu c HS-DSCH. trnh lng ph dung lng, cng sut pht HS-SCCH ch c iu chinh t n UE cn thu. Thng tin tng t s dng cho iu khin tc , chng hn cc bo co c CQI c th c s dng cho iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH.
6.9.2. Bo hiu iu khin ng xung: F-DPC

Nh trnh by trong mc 6.2.1, i vi mi UE c phc v bi knh HS-DSCH, cn c mt knh DPCH lin kt. v ngu yn tc, nu ton b tru yn dn s liu bao gm c bo hiu RRC c sp xp trn HS-DSCH, th khng cn mang bt c thng tin no trn DPCH. V th khng cn cc thng tin nh ch th kt hp khun dng truyn ti (TFCI: Transport Format Combination Indicator) hay cc hoa tiuringtrn knh DPCH nh vy. Trong trng hp ny DPCH ch c s dng cho HS-DSCH mang cc lnh iu khin cng sut n UE n iuchnh cng sut ng ln. V th R a ra knh F-DPCH (Tructional DPCH: DPCH mt phn) nh vy gim s lng cc m nh knh cn s dng cho cc knh dnh ring. Thay v cp pht mt knh DPCH vi h s tri ph 256 chi cho mc ch pht mt lnh iu khin cng sut trn mt khe, F-DPCH cho php n 10 UE chia s mt m nh knh cho mc ch ny. V bn cht F-DPCH c khun dng khe ch h tr bt TPC (iu khin cng

240

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

sut pht). Hai bt TPC (mt k hiu QPSK) c pht trong mt phn m i khe s dng h s tri ph 256, phn cn li khng c s dng. Bng cch thit lp nh thi ng xung cho nhiu UE nh trn hnh 6.26, 10 UE c th chia s m nh knh ny. Hnh 6.26 cng cho thy cch ghp theo thi gian cc lnh iu khin cng sut cho nhiu ngi s dng trn mt m nh knh.
MI khe

UE#1

DTX

PC DTX DTX PC DTX

UE#2

XI re
DTXTPC

Cng mi m nh knh
DTX

UE#10

Hnh 6.26. DPCH

mt phn (F-DPCH) c a vo R

Khi so snh vi R3 DPDCH, F-DPDCH chi truyn trng iu khin cng sut pht (TPC) nh minh ha trn hnh 6.27. Ngoi ra nh thi gc vn c duy tr trnh phi iu chinh cc nh thi da trn cc thc hin vng iu khin cng sut ca R3.
Khe DPCH s liu TPC Tri S liu DPOCH Hoa tiu DPCCH

DP CH DPDCH Tt pht TPC DPCCH

Tt pht

Khe di 0,667ms=2/3ms

Hnh 6.27. cu trc F-DCCHso

vi R3

DPCH

i vi mt s ngi s dng, mng lp cu hnh sao cho mi ngi s dng c cng mt m nhng nh thi khung khc nhau, v th c th pht cho nhng ngi s dng trn cng mt ngun m.

Chng 6: HSDPA

241

Nguyn l hot ng F-DCCH c minh ha trn hnh 6.28 cho trng hp hai ngi s dng chia s chung khng gian m.

256 chip , T,+256chip Khung 10ms


... I I

^
TRhe Khe

I I

IKhe 14
Tt pht

u cui 1

/ /Ttpht l T C P 256 chip

'ht t Nt B Ttphtl TCP ITCP T pht

Hnh 6.28. Nguyn l hot ng F-DPCH 6.9.3. Bo hiu iu khin ng ln: HS-DPCCH m bo hot ng ca HARQ v cung cp trng thi tc thi ca knh ng xung cho nt B, cn c bo hiu iu khin ng ln. Bo hiu ny c mang trn mt knh vt l mi b sung, HS-DPCCH s dng m nh knh tch bit vi DPCCH ng ln thng thng. Vic s dng m nh knh ring cho HS-DPCCH lm cho cc trm gc khng c kh nng HSDPA "khng th nhn thy" knh ny v cho php chuyn giao mm ng ln ngay c khi khng phi tt c cc nt B trong tp tch cc h tr HSDPA. HS-DPCCH s dng h s tri ph 256 v c pht song song vi cc knh ng ln khc (hnh 6.29). gim PAPR ng ln, m nh knh s dng cho HS-DPCCH v HS-DPCCH c sp xp ln nhnh hay Q ca m ny ph thuc vo s lng cc i cc

242

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

knh DPDCH m tp t hp khun dng truyn ti s dng trong cu hnh do UE thit lp.
"*
*

ACK/NAK
DPDCH 2560 chip 2560 chip

Phn hi COI

2560 chip

S liu
DPCCH Hoa tiu TFCI FBI TPC Hoa tiu

S liu

S liu

TFCI

FBI

TPC

Hoa tiu

TFCI

FBI

TPC

Hnh 6.29. cu trc HS-DPCCH V h s tri ph ca HS-DPCCH l 256, HS-DPCCH cho php 30 bt knh trong bn khung 2ms (3 khe). Thng tin HS-DPCCH c phn chia sao cho cng nhn HARQ c pht trong khe thi gian th nht, cn ch th cht lng khung c pht trong khe thi gian th hai v th ba (hnh 6.30). HS-DSCH Tri
Thi gian x l: 5ms

>1
ACK/NAK Khng ng b khe i '
-

1 bn khung (3 khe)
.-**

cai

HS-DPCCH DPCCH DPDCH

I mmimmimmm

'

'

' '

Hnh 6.30. cu trc bo hiu c s ng ln s dng HS-DPCCH ghp m I/Q

gim thiu thi gian quay vng HARQ, thi gian pht HS-DPCCH khng ng b khe vi cc knh ng ln khc. nh thi HS-DPCCH quy nh theo kt thc bn khung mang s liu HS-DSCH nh trn hnh 6.30. nh thi c thc hin sao cho

Chng 6: HSDPA

243

khong thi gian x l ca UE tnh t thi im kt thc HS-DSCH TTI cho n khi pht cng nhn ARQ l vo khong 7,5 khe (19200 chip) tng ng vi gn 5ms. NuHS-DPCCH ng b khe vi cc knh DPCCH ng ln, th s xy ra s khng r rng mt khe trong qu trnh nh thi HS-DSCH/HS-DPCCH. S khng r rng ny s gim thi gian x l kh dng i vi UE/nt B mt khe. Nh ng b gia HS-DPCCH ng ln v HS-DSCH ng xung, HS-DPCCH s khng nht thit phi ng b khe vi DPDCH/DPCCH ng ln. Tuy nhin cn lu rng HS-DPCCH lun lun c ng b vi DPCCH/DPDCH ng ln trn c s 256 chip m bo tnh trc giao ng ln. V th HS-DPCCH khng th c nh thi c nh so vi HS-DSCH thu. Thay vo , nh thi HS-DPCCH thay i trong khong t 19200 chip n 19200 + 252 chip. Lu rng CQI v ACK/NAK hay CQI c pht c lp vi nhau. Trong cc bn khung m ACK/NACK hay CQI khng c pht, khng thng tin no c pht trong trng tng ng cua HS-DPCCH. Cng nhn H A R Q bao gm mt bt thng tin, A C K hay N A K ch th rng HS-DSCH c gii m (c kim tra CRC) ng hay sai. ACK hay N A K ch c pht trong trng hp UE thu ng bo hiu iu khin HS-SCCH. Nukhng pht hin c bo hiu HS-SCCH gi cho UE, khng thng tin no c tru yn trong trng ACK/NAK (DTX). Cch lm ny cho php gim ti ng ln, v chi cc UE c nhn HS-DSCH trong ra l c pht ACK/NAK trn ng ln. A C K mt bt c m ha lp n 10 bt t va vo khe th nht ca bn khung HS-DPCCH. Pht lp tin cy ACK/NAK i hi khi lng nng lng. Trong mt s trng hp khi cng sut b hn ch, c th khng nng lng pht ACK/NAK trn mt khe thi gian. V th c th lp cu hnh E pht lp ACK/NAK trong N khe ACK/NAK tip

244

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin {hng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

theo. Tt nhin, khi UE c lp cu hnh pht cc cng nhn lp nhiu ln, n khng th nhn s liu HS-DSCH trong cc T T I lin tip, v khi ny UE khng th cng nhn tt c cc s liu HS-DSCH. Thay vo s c nht N-l bn khung 2ms rng gia mi HS-DSCH TTI t m s liu cn c thu. Cc pht lp nhiu ln cng nhn c th hu ch i vi cc ln hay trong mt s trng hp chuyn giao mm. Trong chuyn giao mm, ng ln c th c iu khin cng sut bi nhiu nt B. Nu bt c nt B no trong s cc nt B khng phc v c ng ln tt nht, cht lng HS-PDCCH ti nt B phc v c th khng v v th pht lp c th cn thit. Nh ni trn, nh hng ca cc li A C K nhm thnh NAK v N A K nhm thnh A C K l khc nhau, dn n cc yu cu khc nhau. Ngoi ra cng cn x l li D T X nhm thnh ACK. Nu UE mt thng tin lp biu v nt B tng nhm D T X l ACK, s xy ra mt s liu trong HARQ. V th cn s dng mt ngng quyt nh trong b pht hin ACK/NAK nh trn hnh 6.31. Da trn phng sai tp m ti b pht hin ACK/NAK, c th tnh ton ngng ny p ng mt xc sut nht nh v nhn nhm D T X l ACK, chng hn bng l". Sau c th thit lp cng sut A C K v N A K p
2

ng cc yu cu i vi li cn li ( A C K nhm l N A K v NAK nhm l ACK).


Pr(NAK^ACK) = 10" Pr(DTX-ACK) = 10 Pr(ACK-NAK) = 10

NAK

DTX Ngng thu

ACK

Hnh 6.31. Ngng pht hin trng ACK/NAK ca HS-DPCCH

Chng 6: HSDPA

245

R a ra mt tng cng cho bo hiu ACK/NAK. Ngoi A C K v NAK, UE cng c th pht hai t m b sung, PRE v POST trn HS-DCCH. UE c lp cu hnh s dng tng cng ny s pht PRE v POST trong bn khung trc v sau ACK/NAK (tr phi cc bn khung ny c s dng bi ACK/NAK cho cc khi truyn ti khc). V th mt A C K c th gy ra truyn dn tri di trn nhiu khung v nh vy c th gim cng sut trong khi vn duy tr t l li nhm A C K thnh N A K (hnh 6.32).
[""Khng s"l'i" liu HS-DSCH [s liu HS-DSCH '"'Khng s" liu"" s

Hnh 6.32. ACK/NAK

tng cng bng cch s dng PRE v POST

CQI bao gm 5 bt thng tin. M khi (20,5) c s dng m ha thng tin ny thnh 20 bt tng ng hai khe trn HS-DCCH. Tng t ACK/NAK, cng c th pht lp nhiu ln trng CQI trn nhiu khung v c th s dng pht lp ny ci thin vng ph. Gi tr CQI khng tng ng vi E /N hay t s tn hiu trn nhiu SIR
c 0

ti u cui. Thay vo gi tr c bo co ny l mt hm ph thuc vo mi trng a ng, kiu my thu u cui v t s nhiu ca chnh trm gc so vi cc trm gc khc v kh dng-cng sut ca BTS HSDPA. u im ca cch nh ngha ny l n bao hm cc thc hin my thu c th c v cc thay i ca mi trng v v th gi tr ny th hin c tc tt nht m u cui c. 6.9.4. Bo hiu iu khin cho HSDPA-MIMO h tr MIMO, bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng c ci tin cho ph hp. Bo hiu trong bng dng tiu MAC-es khng cn thay i v sp t li th t v chn hng i u tin khng b nh hng bi vic s dng MIMO. Tuy nhin h tr hiu qu cc tc

246

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

s liu cao do M I M O cung cp, cc lp M C v RLC cng c cp nht bng phn on linh hot. Bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng ng xung c mang t rn HS-SCCH, Trong trng hp UE c kh nng h tr MIMO, mt khun dng ci tin ca HS-SCCH c s dng c th cha thng tin b sung cn thit (hnh 6.33). Phn chia HS-SCCH thnh hai phn vn c gi nguyn. Phn mt c m rng cha c thng tin v s lng lung s pht n UE (mt hay hai) v s iu ch tng ng cng vi thng tin v ma trn tin m ha no trong s bn ma trn m nt B s s dng pht. Lin quan n phn hai ca HS-SCCH, khun dng c s dng ph thuc vo vic mt hay hai lung c lp biu pht n UE. Trong trng hp hai lung, cc b t b sung s c pht trn phn hai mang thng tin v kch thc khi truyn ti cho lung th hai. Mc d s bt trn knh HS-SCCH trong trng hp M I M O tng, h s tri ph ca HS-SCCH vn l 128. Cc bt b sung c t ln knh vt l bng cch iu chnh phi hp tc cho hai phn mt cch ph hp.
Phn 1 - Cc m nh knh - S iu ch - S lng lung 'ti Ma trn tin m ha Phn 2

Ch trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu lung Vng t xm l thng tin b sung so vi R5

- UE ID - Kch thc khi truyn ti - Thng tin HARQ _ -Kch thc khi truyn ti, lung 2 , - Thng tin HARQ, lung 2 '

Hnh 6.33. Thng tin HS-SCCH

trong trng hp h tr

MIMO

Bo hiu iu khin ng ln bao gm ACK/NAK, PCI, CQI v c pht trn HS-DPCCH. Trong trng hp truyn dn mt lung, ch mt bt ACK/NAK c pht v khun dng ging nhu R5. Trong

Chng 6: HSDPA

247

trng hp pht hai lung, hai bit ACK/NAK c m ha kt hp thnh ] 0 bt v c pht trn mt khe thi gian trn HS-DPCCH. Thng tin tin m ha (PCI: Precoding Control Indication) bao gm 2 bt ch th ma trn no trong s bn ma trn tin m ha l ph hp nht vi cc iu kin knh ti UE. Ch th cht lng knh (CQI: Channel Quality Indicator) chi th tc s liu m UE khuyn ngh trong trng hp truyn dn c thc hin bng cch s dng PCI c khuyn ngh. C thng bo CQI lung n v lung kp u cn thit v b lp biu c th quyt nh ch pht mt lung ngay c khi iu kin knh cho php hai lung, chng hn nu khi lng s liu cn pht nh. V khng th rt ra cht lng lung n t bo co lung kp, nn hai kiu CQI c nh ngha: 1. Bo co kiu A, cha PCI v s lung khuyn ngh (mt hoc hai) cng vi CQI cho mi lung trong s hai lung ny 2. Bo co kiu B, cha PCI v CQI trong trng hp pht mt lung
N/M= 3/4, chu k bo co 2ms, khng lp Khung con 2ms

4
A

N/M= 2/3, chu k bo co 8ms. h s lp 2 Khung con 2ms

*-*
A

Chu k bo co 8 ms

\./*

Lp

Hnh 6.34. V d bo co PCI/CQI kiu A v kiu B cho VE c lp cu hnh ho tr MI MO i vi bo co kiu B. bo co CQI 5 bt ging nh trong cc pht hnh trc c s dng, cn i vi bo co kiu A, CQI bao

248

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gm 8 bt. Trong c hai trng hp, cc bo co PCI v CQI c mc ni v c m ha thnh 20 bt bng cch s dng m khi. Tng t nhu i vi trng hp khng MIMO, cc bo co PCI/CQI c pht trong hai khe thi gian trn HS-DPCCH. m bo thch ng linh hot vi cc mi trng truyn sng khc nhau, N bo co u trong s M PCI/CQI bo co c kiu A v M-N bo co cn li c kiu B. T s N/M c lp cu hnh thng qua bo hiu t RNC. Hnh 6.34 m t hai v d.

6.10. HSDPA MIMO


M I M O l mt trong tnh nng mi c a vo R7 tng cc tc s liu inh thng qua truyn dn lung. Ni mt cch cht ch, M I M O (Multiple Input Multiple Output) l mt cch th hin tng qut s s dng nhiu anten cc pha pht v pha thu. Nhiu anten c th c s dng tng li phn tp v v th tng t s sng mang trn nhiu ti my thu. Tuy nhin thut ng ny thng c s dng biu th truyn dn nhiu lp hay nhiu lung nh l mt phng tin tng tc s liu n mc cc i c th trong mt knh cho trc. V th M I M O hay ghp knh khng gian c th nhn nhn nhu l mt cng c ci thin thng lng ca ngi s dng u cui ging nh mt "b khuch i tc s liu", v bn cht, ci thin thng lng ca ngi s dng u cui mt mc nht nh s dn n tng thng lng h thng. Nh xt trong chng 4, cc s M I M O c thit k khai thc mt s thuc tnh ca mi trng truyn sng v tuyn nhm t c cc tc s liu cao bng cch pht i nhiu lung s liu song song. Tuy nhin t c cc tc s liu cao nh vy, cn m bo t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao tng ng ti my thu. V th ghp knh khng gian ch yu c p dng cho cc nh hn hay vng gn vi nt B, ni m thng thng t s tn hiu trn nhiu

Chng 6: HSDPA

249

cao. Trong trng hp khng th m bo t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao, nhiu anten thu m UE c nng lc M I M O c trang b c th c s dng cho phn tp thu cho mt lung pht n. V th mt UE c nng lc M I M O s m bo tc s liu cao hn ti bin trong cc ln so vi mt UE tng ng chi c mt anten. HSDPA M I M O h tr truyn dn hai lung. M i lung c x l lp vt l nh nhau (m ha, tri ph v iu ch ging nh trng hp HSDPA mt lp). Sau m ha, tri ph v iu ch, tin m ha tuyn tnh c s dng trc khi lung s c sp xp ln hai anten. Nh cp trong chng 4, c nhiu l do cho vic s dng b tin m ha ny. Ngay c khi chi pht mt lung, n cng c li khi s dng pht phn tp bng hai anten pht. V th tin m ha trong trng hp mt lung cng ging nh phn tp pht vng kn ch (im khc nhau ch yu chi tit bo hiu v cp nht tc s c xt trong phn sau), v bn cht, c th nhn nhn cu hnh ny nh mt dng to bp. Ngoi ra, qu trnh tin m ha cn c mc ch lm mo trc tn hiu m bo hai lung trc giao (hay gn trc giao) ti my thu. iu ny cho php gim nhiu gia hai lung v gim nh qu trnh x l ca my thu. Vic a vo M I M O s nh hng ch yu l qu trnh x l n lp vt l; nh hng ln lp giao thc l nh v cc lp trn ch yu nhn M I M O nh l mt tc s liu cao hn. 6.10.1. Truyn dn s liu HSDPA-MIMO h tr truyn dn hai lung, HS-DSCH c ci tin h tr hai khi truyn ti trn mt TO. M i khi truyn ti th hin mt lung. CRC c gn vo tng khi truyn ti v mi khi truyn t i c m ha ring. Qu trnh ny c minh ha trn hnh 6.35. V hai khi truyn ti c s dng trong trng hp truyn dn nhiu

250

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

lung, HSDPA-MIMO l mt s nhiu t m (xem chng 4 cho cc s mt t m v a t m) v cho php s dng my- thu trit nhiu ln lt trong UE.

nH
X l u tin Thc th HARQ (cho mt ngi s ( ' dng) M HS-DSCH

Lp biu v thch ng tc (cho mt )

MAC-hs

Lp 2 Lp

TrBlkl

-TTrBlk2

Gn CRC M ha turbo Phi hp tc 4? HARQ

an xen

Lung 1 n iu ch cho anten o 1

Lung 2 n iu ch cho anten o 2

Hnh 6.35. X l HS-DSCH trong trng hp truyn dn MIMO X l lp vt l cho tng lung hon ton ging nh cho trng hp mt lung n cho n phn tri ph. trnh lng ph t i nguyn m nh knh, cng mt tp m nh knh phi c s dng cho hai lung. Ti my thu, hai lung c phn tch, chng hn bng b trit nhiu (chng 4). Tn hiu sau tri ph cho mi lung c th c coi nh tn hiu trn mt anten o. Trc khi cp cc tn hiu ca cc anten o ny cho cc anten vt l, tin m ha tuyn tnh c s dng nh t rn

Chng 6: HSDPA

251

hnh 6.36. i v i m i lung, b tin m ha ch n gin l mt cp trng s. Lung i c nhn v i trng s phc Wjj trc khi cp cho anten vt l j.
Lung 1 < . . Lung 2

Cc m nh knh SF = 16

Cc anten o

Tin m ha
Xi
W

l .
W w

u 2

Hoa tiu chung 1 _ _


2

- 2.
X

. 2.I 2.2.

Hoa tiu chung 2

*f'""'
Anten vt l 1

x -""
Anten vt l 2

Hnh 6.36. iu ch, tri ph, ngu nhin ha v tin m ha cho MI MO hai lung S dng tin m ha mang li nhiu li ch, nht l trong trng hp truyn dn lung em. Trong trng hp ny tin m ha cung cp l i phn tp v l i dn v c hai anten pht u c s dng v cc trng s c chn sao cho tn hiu t hai anten cng

252

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nht qun ti m y thu. K t qu l t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao hn so vi k h i khng c tin m ha, nh vy tng c vng ph i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. Ngoi ra, nu s dng ring b khuch i cng sut cho tng anten vt l, tin m ha m bo s dng c hai b khuch i trong trng hp truyn dn mt lung, nh vy tng tng cng sut pht. Cc trng s tin m ha trong trng hp truyn dn em lung c chn ging nh cc trng s c s dng trong R3 cho phn tp pht vng kn:

W,,=l/V2, .

w JLL W) L tlb 2 ' 2 ' 2


21

(61)

'

Trong trng hp truyn dn hai lung, tin m ha c th c s dng h t r my t h u trong qu trnh phn tch hai lung. Nu cc trng s cho lung 2 c chn l cc vct eigen (trc giao) ca ma trn ng phng sai ti my thu, th hai lung s khng gy nhiu ln nhau. V th, sau k h i chn song trng s cho lung , cc trng s W| 2, w ,2 c s dng cho lung 2 c xc nh theo yu cu
2

m bo cc ct ca ma trn tin m ha trc giao.

w=
w

(6.2)
2 , l 2,2
w

V c th xy ra bn gi tr cho w 1, nn s c th c bn ma trn
2

tin m ha w khc nhau. Thit lp cc trng s ph thuc vo thc hin ca nt B, nhng thng thng da trn ch ui iu khin tin m ha (PCI: Pre-coding Control Indicator) pht phn hi t E . gii iu ch s liu thu, U E phi c tnh c cc knh gia tng anten o ca trm gc v tng an ten vt l ca UE. V th cn c tnh tng s bn knh. M t gii php l truyn mt tn hiu hoa tiu chung trn tng anten o. T u y nhin iu ny s khng m bo tng thch ngc v cc U E coi rng hoa tiu chung s cp phi c

Chng 6: HSDPA

253

pht t anten s cp. Ngoi ra cng khng th gii iu ch cho cc knh khng phi M I M O (cc knh iu khin chng hn) v cc knh ny c pht khng s dng tin m ha. V th cc knh hoa tiu chung c pht ging nh trng hp phn tp pht. Trn mi anten vt l, mt hoa tiu chung c pht. Hoc hoa tiu chung s cp c lp cu hnh trn tng anten s dng cng m nh knh v m ngu nhin ha trn tt c cc anten, hoc hoa tiu chung s cp c lp cu hnh trn mt anten v hoa tiu chung th cp c lp cu hnh trn anten cn li. Trong trng hp hoa tiu chung s cp c lp cu hnh trn hai anten, cc mu hoa tiu trc giao tng h c s dng trn cc hoa tiu chung khc nhau (tt c bng khng cho anten th nht nh trong trng hp mt anten v chui khng v mt cho anten vt l th hai). C hai s ny u cho php UE c tnh knh t tng anten pht vt l n tng anten thu. Bit c ma trn tin m ha m nt B s dng, UE c th to ra mt c tnh knh hiu dng t tng anten o n tng anten thu vt l, nh l HW, trong :

"Xi

H =
4.1

(6.3)

v , l c tnh knh gia anten vt l i ti trm gc v anten vt l j ti UE. V th ma trn tin m ha c thng bo cho UE trn knh HS-SCCH. Thng bo tng minh ma trn tin m ha om gin ha ng k vic thc hin E so vi c tnh cc trng s nh trng hp phn tp pht vng kn trong R3. 6.10.2. iu khin tc cho HSDPA-MIMO iu khin tc cho tng lung cng ging nh trong trng hp mt lung. Tuy nhin c ch iu khin tc ny cng cn xc nh s lung pht v ma trn tin m ha s s dng. V th i vi

254

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mi T r i , phi xc nh s lung s pht, kch thc cc khi truyn ti cho mi lung, s lng cc m nh knh, s iu ch v ma trn tin m ha. Thng tin ny c cung cp cho UE trn knh HS-SCCH ging nh trong trng hp khng MIMO. V b lp biu iu khin kch thc cc khi truyn ti trong trng hp truyn dn a ng, tc s liu ca hai lung c th c iu khin ring r. Truyn dn a lung chi c li khi cc t s tn hiu trn nhiu cao v v th n s ch c s dng cho cc tc s liu cao nht. i vi cc tc s liu thp hn, cn s dng truyn dn mt lung. Trong trng hp ny, hai anten vt l c s dng cho pht phn tp v ch c mt anten o mang thng tin s liu ca ngi s dng.

6.10.3. Cc kh nng ca UE h tr MIMO


cho php nhiu loi thc hin UE khc nhau, h tr MIMO khng bt buc cho tt c cc UE. Ngoi ra truyn dn a lung ch l mt cng c tng cc tc s liu nh, nn M I M O ch yu chi lin quan n cc loi UE hng cao. V th, mt E h tr MIMO l UE loi 9 hoc loi lo. Mt UE c th c nng lc M I M O hay khng phi c thng bo dng kh nng UE; chng hn mt UE loi 9 c th lm vic trong ch M I M O trong khi UE loi l o c th khng. Nu M I M O khng c lp cu hnh trong mt u cui c nng lc MIMO, th hot ng ca n ging nh trong R.

6.11. TH TC LP VT L CA HSDPA
Gi thit rng c mt hay nhiu ngi s dng c lp cu hnh s dng knh HS-DSCH v s liu n b m trong nt B, th tc lm vic lp vt l HSDPA bao gm cc bc sau: - B lp biu trong nt B nh gi (2ms mt ln) cho tng ngi s dng c s liu trong b m: iu kin knh, trng t hi b m, thi gian t ln truyn dn trc, cc pht li cha

Chng 6: HSDPA

255

x l... Tiu ch chnh xc ca b lp biu ph thuc vo thc hin c th nh bn my ch khng c c t trong 3GPP. - Sau khi xc nh u cui s c phc v trong mt TTI c th, nt B nh ngha cc thng s cn thit ca HS-DSCH gm: s lng cc m. kh nng s dng 16QAM v cc quy nh v kh nng ca u cui. - Nt B bt u pht hai khe HS-DSCH trc HS-DSCH T T I tung ng. Gi s trong khung HS-DSCH trc khng s Liu khng c truyn cho u cui, HS-SCCH c chn t do (trong tp bn knh). Nu trong khung trc c s liu, th cn s dng HS-SCCH nh c. - u cui gim st tp bn knh HS-SCCH. Sau khi u cui gii m phn ca HS-SCCH d nh cho n, n bt u gii m phn cn li ca HS-SCCH ny v nh m cc m cn thit cho HS-DSCH. - Sau khi gii m cc thng s HS-SCCH t phn 2, u cui c th xc nh c s liu thuc x l HARQ no v c cn kt hp chng vi s liu c trong b m mm hay khng. - Trong R, tin t c pht trong trng ACK/NAK nu tnh nng ny c mang lp cu hnh (v khng c gi trong T r i trc). Vic pht tin t ph thuc vo gii m HS-SCCH ch khng ph thuc vo HS-DSCH. - Sau khi gii m s liu c kt hp, u cui pht chi th ACK/NAK trn ng ln ph thuc vo kt qu CRC trn s liu HS-DSCH (nu kt qu CRC ng, ACK c pht). - Nu mng tip tc pht s liu n cng mt u cui trong nhiu T r i lin tip, u cui s vn thu cng mt HS-SCCH nh c s dng trong TTI trc

256

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G - Trong R, khi cc lung s liu kt thc, u cui pht i mt hu t trong trng ACK/NAK nu tnh nng ny c tch cc Xt t p ng u cui i vi tng gi, hot ng HSDPA l

ng b trn ng xung. Xt t pha mng, hot ng ny l khng ng b khi mt gi hay mt pht li cho ln pht trc c pht. nh thi hot ng u cui gia cc s kin khc nhau c c t chnh xc t thi im thu HS-SCCH, sau l gii m HS-DSCH v kt thc bng pht ACK/NAK ln ng ln. Nh minh ha trn hnh 6.37, thi gian phn ng l 7,5 khe t lc kt thc HS-DSCH T r i n khi bt u pht ACK/NAK ln ng ln.
Truyn n dng ln HS-DPCCH (ACK/NAK+ phn hi)

Hnh 6.37. nh thi u cui lin quan n mt x l HARQ


Truyn dn iffrf9 ln n i n t HS-DPCCH (ACK/NAK+ c a i )

Hnh 6.38. Hot ng vi tin/hu t ca R

Chng 6: HSDPA

257

Trong R vi s dng tin/hu t nh thi khng thay i nhng i vi gi u tin khe ACK/NAK trc c s dng cho tin t (hnh 6.38) Khi truyn dn kt thc (u cui khng pht hin HS-SCCH) hu t c pht trong v tr m bnh thng ACK/NAK c pht. 6.12. DI NG Khc vi DCH, HSDPA khng s dng chuyn giao mm. V th trong khi ch c mt phc v cho HS-DSCH, th DCH c mt tp tch cc gm nhiu . Theo quy nh trong R3 u cui phi c kh nng x l n 6 trong tp tch cc. Khi lm vic trong chuyn giao mm vi s dng HSDPA, cn thay i cc s kin o nhn c thng tin v thay i cng tng i trong cc ca tp tch cc (hnh 6.39). Thng tin ny (khi vn nm trong ca s tp tch cc) khng khi ng cc hnh ng cho SCH nhng c th khi ng s thay i phc v HS-DSCH cho hot ng ca HSDPA.

CPICH: h o i tiu chung

Hnh 6.39. Hot ng HSDPA

cng vi tp tch cc DCH gm ba

RNC iu khin di ng ca HSDPA (thay i phc v) thng qua cc th tc bo hiu ging nhu i vi cc knh ring. C s thc hin di ng l chuyn giao di s iu khin ca mng v bo cc cc kt qu o t E. Da trn cc kt qu o ny, RNC lp li cu hnh UE v cc nt B tham gia vo qu trnh thay i phc v.

258

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G M t s c ch o c c t ngay t r o n g pht hnh u tin ca

W C D M A v c s dng cp nht tp tch cc, chuyn giao cng v o t r o n g cng m t tn s. V d, U E bo co v nhn dng s kin o, "thay i tt nht", m i k h i cng hoa tiu chung ca mt ln cn l n hn hin thi. Bo co ny c th c s dng quyt nh k h i no th chuyn mch ang phc v HS-DSCH sang mi nh trn hnh 6.40. T r o n g v d ny ta khng xt n cp nht tp t c h cc v g i thit l c ang phc v gc ln phc v ch u l mt b phn ca tp tch cc. S k i n 1D c xt trn hnh 6.40 l s kin ' Thay i tt nht', trong s k i n bo co c pht ng k h i P-CPICH t r o n g di bo co t r nn tt hem P-CPICH hin thi tt nht cng thm gi tr tr ty chn. V i c lp li cu hnh U E v cc nt B lin quan c th c thc hin ng b hoc khng ng b. V i lp li cu hnh ng b, thi gian tch cc c quy nh trong bn t i n lp li cu hnh m bo rng tt c cc bn tham gia u ng thi lp l i cu hnh ca mnh. V khng bit c tr gia nt B v R N C cng nh cc tr x l v giao thc, nn k h i la chn thi gian tch cc cn lu n d tr thch hp. T r o n g lp li cu hnh khng ng b cc nt tham gia phi tun theo bn t i n lp li cu hnh ngay sau k h i nhn c n. Tuy nhin t r o n g trng hp ny truyn dn s liu t m i c th bt u trc k h i U E chuyn mch t c vo m i v iu ny dn n giao thc R L C phi thc hin pht li m t b phn s liu b mt. V th lp li cu hnh ng b thng c s dng thay i phc v cho HS-DSCH. K h i chuyn t m t nt B ny sang m t nt B khc, giao thc MSC-hs c k h i ng li. V th trng thi ca giao thc H A R Q khng c chuyn giao gia hai nt B. Thay vo mi s mt gi t r o n g thi gian chuyn u c x l b i giao thc RLC. M t vn lin quan n d i ng l iu k h i n lung gia nt B v RNC. iu k h i n lung c s dng iu k h i n k h i lng s

Chng 6: HSDPA

259

liu c nh m trong MAC-hs ti nt B v trnh trn cc b m. Cc yu cu i vi iu khin lung mt mc nht nh i lp nhau. V mt mt cn m bo cc b m MAC-hs ln cha c ht khi lng s liu khi tn dng ht ti nguyn v tuyn (trng hp cc knh c iu kin thun li) mt khc cc b m ca MAC-hs phi nh gim thiu s lng gi cn chuyn n nt B mi khi chuyn giao gia cc nt B.
Nt B gc Nt B ch

UE

RNC

1D s kin o

Chun bi lp li cu hnh RL sn sng lp lai cu hnh R I Cam kt lp lai cu hnh R I

Lp li cu hnh knh mang v tuyn

a ra quyt nh thay i phc v

> Thit lp nt B ch

Hng dn UE thay i phc v

Lp li cu hnh knh mang v tuyn hon thnh o ID: Nhn dng Lung s liu

RL: Lin kt v tuyn

Hnh 6.40. Thay i phc v cho HS-DSCH. Gi thit rng c nt gc ln nt ch u nm trong tp tch cc

6.13. CC TH LOI UE
a dng ha thc hin UE, cc kh nng khc nhau ca UE c c t. Cc kh nng ca UE c phn chia thnh mt s thng s v cc thng s ny c pht i t UE khi thit lp kt ni v khi cc kh nng ny thay i trong qu trnh xy ra kt ni. Mng s s dng cc kh nng ny ca UE chn cu hnh ph hp vi UE. Mt s kh nng UE c p dng cho cc knh khc cng c th s dng cho HA-DSCH, nhng cng c mt s kh nng c th ring cho HS-DSCH.

260

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G v cn bn, cc kh nng U E lp vt l c s dng hn ch

cc yu cu i v i ba ti nguyn U E khc nhau: (1) ti nguyn tri ph, (2) b m m m c s dng cho chc nng H A R Q v (3) b gii m Turbo. Ti nguyn tri p h c hn ch b i s m HS-PDSCH cc i m U E cn gii tri ph ng thi. T n ti ba kh nng khc nhau lin quan n ti nguyn tri ph: k h nng gii tri ph cc i c th l 5, 10 hoc 15 knh vt l (HS-PDSCH). K h i lng n h m m m nm trong di t 14400 - 172800 b t mm ty thuc vo th loi UE. L u rng y l ton b k h i lng nh m m cho tt c cc x l H A R Q c h khng phi cho mt x l. K h i lng n h ny c chia cho cc x l H A R Q thng l bng nhau cho m i x l mc d cng c th phn chia khng bng nhau. Cc yu cu v ti nguyn gii m T u r b o c nh ngha thng qua hai thng s: s bt truyn ti cc i m U E c th thu c trong m t HS-DSCH T T I v khong thi gian t i thiu gia hai TO, ngha l khong cch thi gian gia hai ln truyn cc k h i truyn ti lin k. T h i gian gii m trong m t b gii m T u r b o t l mt cch gn ng i v i s bt thng tin, v th gi tr ny cung' cp gii hn cho tc x l c yu cu. Ngoi ra i v i cc E tc chm, c th trnh vic pht s liu lin tc bng cch c t thi gian gia cc T r i ln hn . g i i hn s t hp cc kh nng U E c th c v trnh cc t hp thng s v ngha, cc thng s v k h nng U E lin quan n lp vt l c n h m thnh 12 th loi v c lit k trong bng 6.4.

Chng 6: HSDPA Bng 6.4. Cc th loi HS-DSCH


Th loi HSDSCH S m HSDSCH cc i c th thu 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 Khong thi gian cc tiu gia cc Tri 3 3 2 2

261

Kch thc khi truyn ti cc i

S bt mm cc i

S iu ch c th h tr

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

7298 (3,6Mbis) 7298 (3,6Mbit/s) 7298 (3,6Mbit/s) 7298 (3,6Mbit/s) 7298 (3,6Mbis) 7298 (3,6Mbit/s) 14411 (7,2Mbit/s) 14411 (7,2Mbit/s) 20251 (10,1Mps) 27952 (14Mbit/s) 3630 (1,8Mbit/s) 3630(1,8Mbis)

19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800

16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM,QPSK 16QAM,QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK 16QAM, QPSK QPSK QPSK

1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1

6 1 . TNG KT .4
Chng ny. trnh by cu trc cc knh s liu v bo hiu s dng cho HSDPA.

262

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

HS-DSCH l knh chia s c s dng truyn s liu cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau. HS-DSCH s dng t 15 m n nh knh vi h s tri ph SF = 16 ty theo cu hnh. Nhng ngi s dng chia s knh ny theo thi gian. HS-DSCH cho php cp pht nhanh mt b phn ti nguyn ng xung truyn s liu cho mt ngi s dng c th. Phng php ny ph hp cho cc ng dng s liu gi trng c truyn theo dng cm v v th c cc yu cu v ti nguyn thay i nhanh. Ngoi knh s liu HSDPA h tr cc knh bo hiu nh HS-SCCH (ng xung), F-DPCH ng xung v HS-DPCCH ng ln. HS-SCCH (High Speed Shared Control Channel: knh iu khin chia s tc cao) mang bo hiu iu khin ng xung, n c pht ng thi vi HS-DSCH bng cch s dng mt m nh knh ring. HS-SCCH l knh chia s thng bo v vic HS-DSCH c lp cu hnh cho UE no. Tt c cc UE u thu knh ny tm xem n c c lp biu hay khng. HS-SCCH mang thng tin bo hiu iu khin cn thit UE c th gii tri ph, gii iu ch v gii m knh HS-DSCH. F-DPCH (Fractional DPCH) c s dng mang cc lnh iu khin cng sut cho E iu khin cng sut ng ln. HS-DPCCH mang thng tin bo hiu cho nt B m bo hot ng ca HARQ v cung cp trng thi tc thi ca knh ng xung. HS-DPCCH s dng m nh knh tch bit vi DPCCH ng ln thng thng. Chng ny cng xt chi tit vic p dng cc cng ngh t tin in cho HSDPA n t c dung lng cao nh: - Lp biu knh v thch ng ng truyn

Chng . HSDPA - iu khin tc v iu ch bc cao - HARQ -MIMO

263

Cui cng cc vn lin quan n di ng v th loi UE cng c xt trong chng ny. 6.15. C U H I 1. Trnh by cu trc knh HS-DSCH 2. Trnh by cu trc MAC-hs 3. Trnh by x l lp vt l ca HSDPA 4. Trnh by t chc lung s liu trong HSDPA 5. Trnh by p dng iu ch bc cao trong HSDPA 6. Trnh by nguyn l lp biu v thch ng ng truyn trong HSDPA 7. Trnh by nguyn l HARQ vi kt hp mm trong HSDPA 8. Trnh by CQI v cc phng tin nh gi cht lng khung khc 9. Trnh by cu trc cc knh bo hiu ca HSDPA 10. Trnh by nguyn l M I M O trong HSDPA li. Trnh by cc th tc lp vt l ca HSDPA 12. Trnh by qu
n l di ng trong HSDPA 13. Trnh by cc th loi HSDPA UE

Chng 7

TRUY NHP GI NG LN TC CAO, HSUPA

HSUPA (High Speed Uplink Packet Access; hay cn gi tng cng ng ln) c a vo W C D M A R. HSUPA m bo ci thin dung lng v hiu nng ng ln: Tc s liu cao hn, tr gim v dung lng h thng tng. HSUPA b sung cho HSDPA v kt hp hai thut ng ny c gi l HSPA. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - E-DCH - MAC-e v x l lp vt l - Lung s liu - Lp biu - HARQ vi kt hp mm - Bo hiu iu khin - Th tc lp vt l - Di ng - Cc th loi UE Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc kh y v cng ngh a truy nhp HSUPA c s dng trong 3G ca3GPP.
+

266

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G hiu c chng ny, bn dc cn c k t liu c trnh

by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [ 1 ] , [ 9 ] , [10], [ l i ] , [14] v tr l i cc cu hi cui chng.

7.1. TNG QUAN


Ct l i ca H S U P A cng s dng hai cng ngh c s nh HSDPA: L p biu nhanh v H A R Q nhanh v i kt h p mm. Cng ging nh HSDPA, H S P A s dng khong thi gian ngn 2ms cho T T I ng ln. Cc tng cng ny c thc hin trong W C D M A thng qua m t knh truyn ti m i , E-DCH (Enhanced Dedicated Channel: Knh ring tng cng). Mc d s dng cc cng ngh ging HSDPA, H S U P A cng c mt s khc bit cn bn so v i H S D P A v cc khc bit ny nh hng ln vic thc hin chi tit cc tnh nng: - Trn ng xung, cc ti nguyn chia s l cng sut v m u c t trong m t nt trung tm (nt B). Trn ng ln, t i nguyn chia s l i lng nhiu ng ln cho php, i lng ny ph thuc vo cng sut ca nhiu nt nm phn tn (cc nt E). - Trn ng xung b lp biu v cc b m pht c t trong cng m t nt, cn trn ng ln b lp biu c t trong nt B trong khi cc b m s liu c phn tn trong cc E . V th cc U E phi thng bo thng t i n v tnh trng b m cho b lp biu. - n g ln W C D M A v H S U P A khng trc giao v v th xy ra nhiu gia cc truyn dn trong cng m t . Tri l i trn ng xung cc knh c pht trc giao. V th iu khin cng sut quan trng i v i ng ln x l vn gn xa. E-DCH c pht vi khong dch cng sut tng i so v i knh iu khin ng l n c iu khin cng sut v bng cch iu chinh dch cng sut cho php cc i, b lp biu c th iu khin tc s liu E-DCH. Tri li i v i HSDPA, cng sut pht khng i ( mc nht nh) cng v i s dng thch ng tc s liu.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

267

- Chuyn giao c E-DCH h tr. Vic thu s liu t u cui ti nhiu l c li v n m bo tnh phn tp, trong khi pht s liu t nhiu trong HSDPA l phc tp v cha chc c li lm. Chuyn giao m cn c ngha l i khin cng sut bi nhiu m u gim nhiu gy ra trong cc ln cn v duy t tng tch ngc vi r E khng s dng E-DCH. - Trn ng xung, i ch bc cao hn (c xt n hiu qu u cng sut i vi hiu qu bng thng) c s dng cung cp cc tc s liu cao trong mt s trng hp, chng hn khi b lp biu n nh s lng m nh knh cho truyn dn nhng i lng t cng sut truyn dn kh dng li kh cao. i vi ng ln tnh hnh li khc; khng cn thit phi chia s cc m nh knh i vi nhng ngi s dng khc v v th thng thng t l m ha knh thp hn i vi ng ln. Nh vy khc vi ng xung, i ch u bc cao hu ch hn trn ng ln trong cc v m v v th t khng c xem xt trong pht hnh u ca HSUPA. 7.1.1. Lp biu i vi HSUPA, b lp biu l phn t then cht iu khin vic khi no v ti tc s liu no mt UE c php pht. u cui s dng tc cng cao th cng sut thu t u cui ti nt B cng phi cng cao m bo t s Et/N cn thit cho gii iu ch. Bng cch tng cng sut pht, UE c th pht tc s liu cao hn. Tuy nhin do ng ln khng trc giao, nn cng sut thu t mt E s gy nhiu i vi cc u cui khc. V th ti nguyn chia s i vi HSUPA l i lng cng sut nhiu cho php trong . Nu nhiu qu cao, mt s truyn dn trong , cc knh i khin v cc truyn u dn ng ln khng c lp biu c th b thu sai. Tri li mc nhiu qu thp cho thy rng cc E b i chnh thi qu v u khng khai thc ht ton b dung lng h thng. V th HSUPA s dng b lp biu cho php nhng ngi s dng c s liu cn pht

268

Gio trnh L trnh pht Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4Q

c php s dng tc s liu cao n mc c th nhng vn m bo khng vt qu mc nhiu cc i cho php trong . Khc v i HSDPA, b lp biu v cc b m pht u c t ti nt B. s liu cn pht c t ti cc E i v i ng ln. Ti cng m t thi im b lp biu t ti nt B iu phi cc tch cc pht ca cc U E trong . V th cn c mt c ch thng bo cc quyt nh lp biu cho cc U E v cung cp thng t i n v b m t cc U E n b lp biu. Chng trnh khung H S P A s dng cc cho php lp biu pht i t b lp biu ca nt B iu khin tch cc pht ca U E v cc yu cu lp biu pht i t U E yu cu t i nguyn. Cc cho php lp biu iu khin t s cng sut gia E-DCH v hoa tiu c php m u cui c th s dng; cho php ln hn c ngha l u cui c th s dng tc s liu cao hon nhng cng gy nhiu nhiu hn trong . D a trn cc kt qu o c mc nhiu tc thi, b lp biu iu khin cho php lp biu trong tng u cui duy tr mc nhiu trong ti mc quy nh (hnh 7. ).

Hnh 7. . Chng trnh khung lp biu ca HSUPA


T r o n g HSDPA, thng thng m t ngi s dng c x l trong mt T T I . i v i HSUPA, trong hu ht cc trng hp chin lc lp biu ng ln c th thc hin lp biu ng thi cho nhiu ngi s dng. L do v m t u cui c cng sut nh hn nhiu so v i cng sut nt B: mt u cui khng th s dng ton b dung lng mt mnh.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

269

Nhiu gia cc cng cn c i khin. Thm ch nu b lp u biu cho php mt UE pht ti tc s liu cao trn c s mc nhiu ni chp thun c, nhng vn c th gy nhiu khng chp nhn c i vi cc ln cn. V th trong chuyn giao m m, phc v chu trch nhim chnh cho hot ng lp biu, nhng UE gim st thng tin lp biu t tt c cc m UE nm trong chuyn giao m Cc khng phc v yu cu tt c nhng ngi s dng m. m n khng phc v giam tc s liu E-DCH bng cch pht i chi th qu ti trn ng xung. C ch ny m bo hot ng n nh cho mng. Lp biu nhanh cung cp mt chin lc cho php kt ni mm do hn. V c ch lp biu cho php x l tnh trng trong nhiu ngi s dng cn pht ng thi, nn s ngi s dng s liu gi tc cao mang tnh cm c cho php ln hn. Nu iu ny gy ra mc nhiu cao khng th chp nhn c trong h thng, th b lp biu c th phn ng nhanh chng hn ch cc tc s liu m cc UE c th s dng. Khng c lp biu nhanh, i khin cho php u c th chm tr hn v phi dnh mt d tr nhiu trong h thng trong trng hp nhi ngi s dng hot ng ng thi. u 7.1.2. HARQ vi kt hp mm H A R nhanh vi kt hp m c HSUPA s dng vi mc m ch c bn ging nh HSDPA: m bo tnh b vng chng li n cc sai li truyn dn ngu nhin. S c s dng ging nh i vi HSDPA. i vi tng khi truyn ti c pht trn ng ln, mt bt c pht t nt B n UE thng bo gii m thnh cng (ACK) hay yu cu pht li khi truyn ti thu b mc li (NAK). im khc bit chnh so vi HSDPA bt ngun t vic s dng chuyn giao mm trn ng ln. Khi UE nm trong chuyn giao mm, ngha l giao thc HARQ kt cui ti nhiu . V th trong nhiu trng hp s liu truyn dn c th c thu thnh cng ti

270

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mt s nt B nhng li tht bi ti cc nt B khc. Nhn t pha UE iu ny l . v nht mt nt B t h u thnh cng s liu. V th t trong chuyn giao mm, tt c cc nt B lin quan u gii m s liu v pht A C K hoc N A K . N u U E nhn c A C K nht t mt nt t B. U E coi rng s liu c thu thnh cng. H A R Q v i kt hp m m c th c khai thc khng chi m bo tnh bn vng chng li nhiu khng d bo c m cn ci thin hiu sut ng truvn tng dung lng v (hoc) vng ph. M t kh nng cung cp tc s liu xMbit/s l pht ti xMbit/s v t cng sut pht t c mt xc sut l i thp (vi phn trm) trong ln pht u tin. M t cch khc l m bo cng tc s liu tng bng cch pht tc s liu n ln cao hn ti cng sut pht khng i v s dng cc pht li H A R Q nhiu ln. T chng 5 ta thy rng phng php ny phi tr gi thp hn cho mt bt (E(/N )
0

so v i phng php t h nht. L do v tnh trung bnh ch cn pht t hon n ln. iu ny i k h i c g i l li kt cui sm v c th nhn nhn n nh thch ng tc tim n. Cc bt c m ha b sung chi c pht k h i cn thit. V th t l m sau cc ln pht li c xc nh theo t l m cn thit cho iu kin knh tc thi. y cng chnh l mc tiu m thch ng tc c gng t c. im khc chnh l thch n g tc c gng tm ra t l m ph hp trc k h i pht. Nguyn tc thch ng tc n tng tng t cng c th s dng cho HS-DSCH trn ng xung ci thin hiu sut ng truyn.

7.1.3. Kin trc


hot ng hiu qu, b lp biu phi c k h nng khai thc cc thay i nhanh theo m c nhiu v cc iu kin ng truyn. HARQ vi kt h p m m cng cho l i t cc pht li nhanh v iu ny gim chi ph cho cc pht l i . V th hai chc nng ny phi c t gn giao din v tuyn. D o cng ging nh HSDPA, cc chc nng lp

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

271

biu v H A R ca H S U P A c t ti nt B. Ngoi ra cng ging nh i v i H S D P A . cng cn m bo g i nguyn cc lp cao hn lp M C . V t mt m. iu khin cho php... vn t di quyn h iu k h i n c a RNC. iu ny cho php ua H S U P A vo cc vng c chn la: t r o n g cc khne. h tr truyn dn E-DCH. c th s dng chuyn mch knh sp xp lung s ca ngi s dng ln DCH. G i n g nh t rit l thit k HSDPA, m t thc t h M C m i (MAC-e) c a vo U E v nt B. T r o n g nt B, MAC-e chu trch nhim t ruvn t i cc pht li H A R Q v lp biu, cn t rong U E chu trch n h i m c h n l a tc s liu trong cc g i i hn do b lp biu trong MAC-e ca nt B t ra.
,n mng l i

RNC Chc nng MAC-es Sp t lai th t

RNC

Chc nng MAC-e Chc nng MAC-e Lp biu HARQ Nt B I "HARQ

. . .

(cc ) khng phc v khi UE nm


c v

trong chuyn gio m m

Hnh 7.2. Kin trc mng itc lp cu hnh E-DCH

(v

HS-DSCH)

K h i U E n m t r o n g chuyn giao m m v i nhiu nt B, cc k h i h truyn ti khc nhau c t c giai m ng ti cc nt B khc nhau. Kt qu l m t k h i t ruyn ti c th c thu ng ti m t nt B, trong k h i m t nt B khc vn tham gia v cc pht li ca mt khi truyn ti c pht sm hn. V th m bo chuyn cc k h i truyn ti ng trnh t n giao thc R L C cn c chc nng sp xp li th t t r o n g R N C dng m t thc th mi: MAC-es. T r o n g

272

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

chuyn giao mm, nhiu thc th MAC-e c s dng cho mt UE v s liu c thu t nhiu . Tuy nhin MAC-e trong phc v chu trch nhim chnh cho lp biu; MAC-e trong khng phc v ch yu x l giao thc HARQ (hnh 7.2). 7.2. E-DCH 7.2.1. E-DCH v cc knh bo hiu h tr lp biu v H A R vi kt hp mm trong WCDMA, mt kiu knh truyn ti mi, E-DCH (Enhanced Dedicated Channel) c a ra trong R. E-DCH c lp cu hnh ng thi vi mt hay nhiu knh DCH khc. Nh vy, truyn dn s liu gi tc cao trn knh E-DCH c th xy ra ng thi vi cc dch v s dng DCH t cng mt UE. Cc knh truyn ti E-DCH h tr lp biu nhanh da trn nt B, HARQ nhanh vi tng phn d v ty chn TO ngn hn (bng 2ms). Tuy nhin khc vi HSDPA, E-DCH c a HSUPA khng phi l knh chia s m l knh ring v theo cu t rc th n rt ging R3 DCH hom, nhng khc vi DCH, E-DCH c lp biu nhanh v HARQ. Bng 7. tng kt cc kh nng p dng c c tnh nng ca DCH, HSDPA v HSUPA.
Bng 7. . Bng so snh HSDPA,
Tnh nng DCH

HSUPA
HSDPA (HS-DSCH)

v DCH
HSUPA (D-DCH) C C Khng C C C 10,2

H s tri ph kh bin iu khin cng sut nhanh iu ch thch ng Lp biu da trn nt B HARQ lp 1 nhanh Chuyn giao mm di Tri (ms)

C C Khng Khng Khng C 80,40. 20,10

Khng Khng C C C Khng 2

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

273

Hnh 7.3 cho thy cc knh cn thit cho HSUPA. Ngoi knh s liu E-DCH cn c cc knh bo hiu cho n nh sau. Cc knh E-AGCH (E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel: knh cho php tuyt i ca E-DCH) v E-RGCH (E-DCH Relative Grant Channel: knh cho php tng i ca E-DCH) l cc knh h tr cho iu khin lp biu. Knh E-H1CH (EDCH HARQ Indicator Channel: knh ch th HARQ ca E-DCH) l knh h tr cho pht li s dng c ch HARQ. v cc knh ny ta s xt c th trong mc 7.7.

Hnh 7.3. Cc knh cn thit cho mt VE c kh nng

HSUPA

Khng nh HSDPA, HSUPA khng h tr iu ch thch ng v n khng h tr cc s iu ch bc cao. L do l cc s iu ch bc cao phc tp hn v i hi pht nhiu nng lng trn mt bt hn, v th n gin ng ln s dng s iu ch BPSK kt hp vi truyn dn nhiu m nh knh song song. Mt trong cc c tnh then cht ca HSUPA h tr s liu gi hiu qu l tr thp. V th HSUPA h tr T T I ngn 2ms m bo thch ng nhanh cc thng s truyn dn v gim cc tr ngi s dng u cui lin quan n truyn dn gi. iu ny khng ch gim chi ph pht li m cn gim thi gian pht ln u. Tr x l lp vt l thng t l vi khi lng s liu cn x l v T T I cng ngn th khi lng s liu cn x l trong tng T T I cng nh i vi mt tc s liu cho trc. Tuy nhin khi trin khai vi cc tc s liu

274

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nh (trong cc ln chng hn) c th cn c TTI di hn v T r i 2ms tr nn qu nh khng cn thit dn n chi ph tng i cho thng tin b sung qu ln. V th E-DCH h tr hai di T r i : 2 v lOms v mng c th lp cu hnh cho gi tr ph hp. v nguyn tc, cc UE khc nhau c th c lp cu hnh vi cc TTI khc nhau. E-DCH c sp xp n mt tp cc m nh knh ng l n c gi l cc knh s liu vt l ring ca E-DCH (E-DPDCH). Ph thuc vo tc s liu tc thi, s cc E-DPDCH v cc h s tri ph c th thay i.
Cc knh logic

i
B sung trong R6

MAC-d

Cciur j"l'c-d
Chn E-TFC

Ghp

Giao thc

HARQ DCH
M ha E-DCH M ha Turbo

L2 LI

Ghp TrCH

HARQ

an xen

an xen

Sp xp ln DPDCH

sp xp ln E-DPDCH

Hnh 7.4. Tch ring x l E-DCH v DCH Nh ni trn, E-DCH v DCH c th c pht ng thi. Tng thch ngc i hi nt B khng h tr HSUPA ng l n

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

275

khng th nhn thy E-DCH. iu ny c gii quyt bng cch tch ring x l D C H v E-DCH v sp xp cc tp m nh knh khc nhau nh hnh 7.4. Nu UE nm trong chuyn giao mm vi nhiu , th cc khng h tr E-DCH khng th nhn thy n. iu ny cho php nng cp dn mng hin c. Mt li ch na ca cu trc ny l n n gin ha vic a ra T r i 2ms v cng cho php t do hn trong vic la chn x l HARQ. Bo hiu iu khin ng xung cn thit cho hot ng ca E-DCH. Cc knh iu khin ng xung cng nh ng ln cn thit cho hot ng ca E-DCH c minh ha trn hnh 7.5 cng vi cc knh s dng cho HSDPA.
Chia s, 6 phc vu _J\ Ring, t mt UE rn t\

UE

HS-DSCH HS-SCCH E-AGCH E-RGCH E-HICH (F-)DPCH S l iu Bo hiu Cho php Cho php HARQ Cc lnh ngi
S dng

E-DPDCH E-DPDCH DPDCH SI Bo hiu hiu Bo hiu


B o

SSiSt2f*WI* AcvNAK(3iu
T i c
t

khin n o *
u n g

iu khin u khin cho lin quan

ng xung

lu

' ""'
v

enasut
9

%r n r.Ar knh mi c a vo cho HSUPA c thsngbng cc ng t nt hin ln (E^DPDCH


D S C M

Hnh 7.5. Cu trc knh tng th vi HSDPA

v HSUPA

HS-OSCH

Trong c ch HARQ, nt B phi c kh nng yu cu UE pht li. Thng tin ny (ACK/NAK) c pht trn knh vt l ring ng xung: E-HICH (E-DCH Hybrid ARQ Indicator Channel: Knh chi th HARQ ca E-DCH). M i E c lp cu hnh E-DCH s thu E-HICH ca mnh t tng tham gia vo chuyn giao mm vi n. Cc cho php lp biu (c pht i t b lp biu n UE iu khin cho php khi no v ti tc no UE c pht) c th c pht n UE trn knh cho php tuyt i E-DCH chia s: E-AGCH (E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel: knh cho php tuyt i

276

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

E-DCH). E-AGCH ch c pht t phc v v y l chu trch nhim chnh cho hot ng lp biu v ch cc U E c lp cu hnh E-DCH l c th thu c. Ngoi ra thng t i n cho php lp biu cng c th c truy n n U E thng qua knh E-RGCH (E-DCH Relative Grant Channel: Knh cho php tng i ca E-DCH). E-RGCH c s dng cho cc iu chnh nh trong k h i ang xy ra truyn s liu. D i y ta s kho st k hn hot ng lp biu. V ng ln khng trc giao theo thit k, nn cn thit iu khin cng sut nhanh x l vn gn xa. E-DCH khng khc vi mi knh ng ln khc v v th cng sut c iu khin theo cch ging nh cc knh ng ln khc. Nt B o t s tn hiu trn nhiu v pht i cc lnh iu khin cng sut trn ng xung n U E i chnh cng sut pht ca E . Cc lnh iu khin cng u sut c th c pht bng cch s dng D P C H hay tit kim cc m nh knh bng F-DPCH. Trn ng ln, cn c bo hiu iu khin cung cp cho nt B thng t i n cn thit cho gii iu ch v gii m truyn dn s liu. S d nh vy v, v mt nguyn l, phc v trong chuyn giao m m c thng t i n ny v n pht i cc cho php lp biu, nhng cc khng phc v trong chuyn giao m m khng c thng tin ny. Ngoi ra E-DCH cng h tr cc truyn dn khng c lp biu (s xt di y). V th cn c bo hiu i u khin ngoi bng trn ng ln v knh E-DPCCH (E-DCH Dedicated Channel) c s dng oho mc ch ny. Tng tc gia D C H v E-DCH trong truyn dn ng thi t mt U E rt on gin. Trc ht chn T F C (kt hp khun dng truyn ti) c thc hin cho D C H v cng sut c s dng cho qu trinh ny tt nhin khng cn kh dng cho qu trnh chn E-TFC. iu ny c ngha l D C H c quyn tuyt i trc tin i v i ti nguyn cng sut, hay ni m t cch khc D C H c u tin tuyt i so vi Physical Control

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

277

E-DCH. L do l v E-DCH c thit k cho truy nhp gi ng ln v v th nu c bt k dch v chuyn mch knh no th cc dch v ny phi c sp xp ln DCH. V cc dch v chuyn mch knh chu ng rt km i vi cc thay i tc s liu thng xuyn v t bin, v th c th ni rng cuc thoi A M R thng thng s nhn cng sut m n cn v pht cng sut ny trn D C H v chi cng sut cn li l c s dng cho E-DCH. n nh cng sut ca qu trnh chn TFC v E-TFC ca UE c minh ha trn hnh 7.6. cn lu rng tc D C H cho php cc i khi c lp cu hnh song song vi E-DCH l 64kbit/s.
Chn E-TFC c th s dng cng sut cn li sau khi chn TFC, b gii hn bi cng sut kh dng v cng sut cc i c lp biu Cng sut pht UE Cng sut pht UE cc i

Cng sut kh dng Cng sut kh dng cho truyn n DCH+E-DCH J cho E-DPCCH/E-DPDCH Cng sut DPCCH+DPDCH

B lp biu nt B iu khin cng sut tng i cc i m la chn E-TFC c th s dng

Chn TFC n nh ton b cng sut cn thit pht DPDCH ti tc s liu c chn

Cng sut pht DPDCCH c tinh

Hnh 7.6. Chia s ti nguyn cng sut E-DCH 7.2.2. Cp pht knh vt l

v DCH

Qu trnh sp xp knh E-DCH sao cho m ha knh ln cc knh vt l kh n gin. N h m t trn hnh 7.7, E-DCH c sp xp ln mt trong s cc knh E-DPDCH tch bit so vi knh DPDCH. Ph thuc vo E-TFC c chn, s lng cc knh E-DPDCH c s dng s khc nhau. i vi cc tc s liu thp, mt knh E-DPDCH vi h s tri ph t l nghch vi tc s liu l . duy tr tng thch ngc, vic sp xp DPCCH, DPDCH v HS-DPCCH c g i nguyn so vi cc pht hnh trc.

278

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G T h t cp pht cc knh E-DPDCH c chn la gim thiu

t s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh (PAPR: Peak to Average Power Ratio) trong U E v n cng p h thuc vo vic c mt cc knh HS-DGCH v D P D C H hay khng. P A P R cng cao t h khong li cn thit trong b khuch i cng sut cng ln v vng ph ng ln cng b gim. V th rt cn P A P R thp. P A P R cng l nguyn nhn v i sao SF2 c s dng v c th chng m i n h rng SF2 c P A P R thp hom SF4. i v i cc tc bt cao hn, hn hp cc h s tri p h 2xSF2+2xSF4 c s dng. Cc cu hnh knh vt l c th c khc nhau c lit k trong bng 7.2 v hnh 7.7 minh ha n nh knh vt l ng thi v i HS-DPCCH.
Khng c DCH trong cu hnh

. e-DPCCH , E-DPDCH,

.E-DPCCH E-DPCCH,

^CH2

E-DPDCH

E-DPCCH

HS-DPCCH ^t E-DPDCH, E-OPDCH. - ^ \

E-DPDCH,

E-DPCCH
2

C DCH trong cu hnh

Coi
> E-DPCCH * E-DPDCH, DPDCH

DPCCH E-DPDCH * HS-OPCCH


2 1 2

z7

' E-OPCCHi E-DPDCH *

* E-DPCCH

DPCCH

^* DPDCH HS-DPCCH ^N. * c.nimru c.norCHi E-DPOCH, E-DPCCH

Minh ha cho nhnh SF = 4 vi cc knh vi SF>4.

Hnh 7.7. Cp pht m trong trng hp khai thc ng thi E-DCH v HS-DCCH (Trng hp HS-DCCH khng c lp cu hnh cp pht m s hi khc)

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

279

Bng 7.2. Cc cu hnh knh vt l c th c #DPCCH


1

#DPDCH
1-6

#HS-DPCCh
0 hay 1

#E-DPCCH #E-DPDCH
-

Ch thch
Cc cu hnh R5 Tc th E-DPDCH 0,96Mbis Tc th E-DPDCH 1,92Mbis Tc th E-DPDCH 3.84Mbit/s Tc th E-DPDCH 5,76Mbis

0 hay 1

0 hay 1

1xSF>4

0 hay 1

0 hay 1

2xSF4

0 hay 1

0 hay 1

2xSF4

0 hay 1

2xSF2+2xSF4

rc s liu ca E-DCH l tc s liu th, tc s liu ca E-DCH cc i c th. thp hn do m ha v cc hn ch quy nh bi cc loi UE.

7.2.3. iu khin cng sut

iu khin cng sut lm vic tng t nh i vi DCH v vic a vo E-DCH s khng lm thay i kin trc iu khin cng sut tng th. iu khin cng sut vng trong iu chnh cng sut pht ca DPCCH. Cng sut pht E-DPDCH c thit lp bi E-TFC tng i so vi DPCCH theo cch tng t nh vic thit lp cng sut pht DPDCH bi chn la TFC. iu khin cng sut vng ngoi c t trong nt B a ra quyt nh da trn SIR ch c thit lp v>i icu khin cng sut vng ngoi t tai RNC. Vng ngoi trong cc pht hnh u tin ch yu c iu khin bi DCH B L E R (t l li khi) ti RNC. Nu DCH c lp cu hnh, vng ngoi (thc hin theo mt gii thut c th) c th chi tc ng ln DCH. Gii php ny hot ng tt chng no c cc ln pht n knh DCH, nhng hiu nng s b gim nu s ln pht DCH tha hn.

280

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Nu khng c DCH no c lp cu hnh, v nu s ln pht xy

ra trn DCH tha. cn xt n thng tin v cc ln pht E-DCH. Tuy nhin do vic a ra HARQ cho E-DCH, E-DCH BLER c th khng thch hp l u vo cho iu khin cng sut vng ngoi. Trong phn ln cc trng hp, E-DCH BLER ti RNC gn bng khng dn n vic vng ngoi h thp SIR ch v dn n mt DPCCH ng l n nu ch s dng E-DCH lm u vo cho c ch vng ngoi. V th h tr iu khin cng sut vng ngoi, s ln pht li thc t c s dng pht mt khi truyn t i c nt thng bo cho RNC. RNC c th s dng thng tin ny nh l mt b phn ca vng ngoi thit lp SIR ch trong vng trong.
7.2.4. iu khin ti nguyn cho E-DCH

Tng t nh HSDPA. mt b phn qun l t i nguyn cho HSUPA c x l bi nt B ch khng phi RNC. Tuy nhin RNC vn chu trch nhim tng th cho qun l t i nguyn bao gm iu khin cho php v x l nhiu gia cc . V th cn phi gim st v iu khin mc s dng t i nguyn ca cc knh E-DCH t c s cn i tt gia nhng ngi s dng E-DCH v khng s dng E-DCH. Hnh 7.8 m t iu ny.
Nt B RTWP ch RTVVP . bo co RNC

Khng s dng RTWPO Nhng ngi s dng E-DCH ni Nhng ngi s dngDCH ni 6 Kh dng cho E-DCH

RTWP bo co

kin i u h cho p hp kin i u h nghn

B lp biu

Tp m nn

Nhiu gia cc Tp m nhit

Tp m nn c c tinh

RTWP RTWP ch <

RTWP tham kho

RTWP: Received Total VVideband Power: tng cng sut thu bng rng

Hnh 7.8. Minh ha chia s ti nguyn gia cc knh E-DCH v DCH

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

281

iu khin cho php, RNC s dng tng cng sut thu bng rng (RTWP: Received Total VVideband Power), RTWP ch th tng mc s dng ti nguyn trong . iu khin cho php cng c th s dng tc bu c E-DCH cung cp. Cng vi vic o RTWP, c th thit k gii thut cho php nh gi khong cn trng ca b lp biu cho mt loi u tin c th. iu khin ti trong , RNC c th thng bo RTWP ch cho nt B trong trng hp nt B phi lp biu cc cuc truyn dn EDCH duy t RTWP trong gii hn ny. RNC cng c th thng r bo RTWP tham kho nt B c th ci thin c tnh ti ng ln trong . Lu rng chun khng quy nh vic b lp biu phi s dng kt qu o tuyt i (RTWP) hay tng i (tng tp m, c xc nh bng t s gia tng cng sut thu chia cho cng sut tp m: PP/PN)- Bn thn nt B thc hin mi php o cn thit cho mt thit k b lp biu c th. RNC c th iu khin t s nhiu gia cc v nhiu ni , RNC c th thng bo cho nt B v t s ch gia cng sut khng phc v E-DCH v tng cng sut E-DCH. B lp biu phi tun th gii hn ny khi thit lp chi th qu ti v khng c php chn cc UE khng phc v E-DCH nu gii hn ny khng b vt qu. Gii php ny nhm phng nga vic mt lm "cht i" cc UE trong cc ln cn. Nu khng s dng gii php ny, b lp biu v nguyn tc c th thng xuyn thit lp chi th qu ti "n cp" t i nguyn t cc ln cn; y l tnh trng khng th chp nhn c. 7.3. MAC-e V x L LP VT L Ging nh HSDPA, tr nh v thch ng nhanh l cc nt quan ng ca HSUPA. thc hin iu ny mt thc th mi chu trch nhim lp biu v khai thc giao thc HARQ c a vo nt B,

282

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

l MAC-e. Lp vt l cng c tng cng m bo h tr cn thit cho T T I ngn v cho kt hp mm trong HARQ. thc hin x l HSUPA trong UE, cng cn c thc th MAC-e trong UE. Nh ni trong phn trc, HSUPA s dng mt knh truyn ti ng ln mi E-DCH h tr cc tnh nng tng cng cho cc knh truyn ti ng ln ca R3. X l knh truyn ti ng l n cho E-DCH cng ging nh x l DCH ng ln ca R3 ngoi t r hai im sau (hnh 7.9). Ch c mt knh truyn ti E-DCH trong UE, trong khi c th c nhiu knh DCH ng thi c ghp chung n mt knh truyn ti tng hp c m ha (CCTrCH: Coded Composite Transport Channel). Tuy nhin lp M C c th ghp ng thi nhiu dch v vo mt knh E-DCH. Mt im khc bit na l HARQ c h tr cho E-DCH.
Lp M C

nmr
J CCtrCH kiu E-DCH ( X ly DCH TrCH ) CCtrCH kiu DCH

"

Sp xp cc CCTrCH ln cc knh vt l

E-DPDCH

DPDCH

Hnh 7.9. So snh qu trnh x l knh truyn ti ca HSUPA v R3DCH Sau x l knh truyn ti, E-DCH c sp xp ln mt hay nhiu knh s liu ring (E-DPDCH) song song cho truyn dn lp

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

283

vt l. Qu trnh ny c thc hin song song vi x l knh truyn ti DCH v cc knh vt l DPDCH ng ln. Nh vy c hai knh E-DCH v DCH u cth ng tn ti trong cng mt UE tuy nhin tc s liu cc i ca DCH b gii hn bng 64kbit/s cn tc cc i ca E-DCH c thit lp ty theo cu hnh. Hnh 7.10 cho thy qu trnh x l c th HSUPA trong UE. MAC-e trong UE bao gm ghp knh MAC-e, chn khun dng truyn ti v cc b phn ca c ch HARQ.
C c lung MAC-d

um
Giao thc HRQ

G h p knh

Chn TFC

MAC-e

Lp 2 Lp 1

E-DCH Gn CRC

M ha Turbo

Phi hp tc HR Phn on knh vt l

an xen

Sp xp chm tin niu

T
v x l lp vt l

Hnh 7. l. MAC-e

284

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hn hp cc dch v nh ti file ng ln ng thi vi VoIP cng c h tr. V ch c mt knh truyn ti E-DCH, nn s liu t nhiu lung MAC-d c th c ghp chung thng qua ghp knh MAC-e. Trong trng hp ny cc dch v khc nhau thng c pht trn cc lung MAC-d khc nhau v chng c th c cc yu cu cht lng phc v khc nhau. Chi c UE l c thng tin chnh xc v tnh trng b m v cng sut trong UE ti thi im pht mt khi truyn ti trn ng ln. V th UE c php t ng chn tc s liu hay ni mt cch cht ch l chn E-TFC (E-DCH Transport Format Combination: T hp khun dng truyn ti E-DCH). Tt nhin, UE cn xem xt cc quyt nh lp biu khi la chn khun dng truyn ti; quyt nh truyn ti th hin gii hn trn ca tc s liu m UE khng c php vt qu. Tuy nhin cng c th s dng tc s liu thp hn chng hn nu cng sut truyn dn khng m bo c tc s liu theo lp biu. Chn la E-TFC v ghp knh MAC-e s c xt cng vi lp biu. Giao thc HARQ cng ging nh giao thc c s dng cho HSDPA, gm nhiu x l HARQ dng v i hot ng song song. im khc chnh y l khi UE trong chuyn giao mm cng vi nhiu nt B, giao thc HARQ c kt cui ti nhiu nt B. X l lp vt l khng phc tp v c nhiu im tng ng vi x l lp vt l ca HS-DSCH. T MAC-e trong UE, s liu c chuyn t lp vt l trong dng mt khi truyn ti trn mt TTI t rn knh E-DCH. So snh vi chui m ha v ghp knh ca DCH, cu trc x l lp vt l ca E-DCH n gin hn v chi c mt knh E-DCH nn khng c ghp knh truyn ti. 24 bt CRC c gn n khi truyn ti cho php c ch HARQ trong nt B pht hin mi li trong khi truyn ti. M ha c thc hin bi cng mt loi m ha Turbo t l 1/3 nh i vi HSDPA.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

285

Chc nng H A R Q lp vt l c thc hin theo cch ging nh i vi HSDPA. Lp v c l cc bt nhn c t b m ha Turbo c s dng iu chinh s lng cc bt c m ha, cc phin bn d khc nhau c th c to ra. Phn on knh vt l phn phi cc bt sau m ha n cc m nh knh khc nhau, tip sau l an xen v iu ch. Cc nc h tr tc s liu i vi DPDCH v E-DPDCH khc nhau v ph thuc vo h s t ph SF. Bng 7.3 cho thy cc nc ri tc tc bt knh i vi hai loi knh ny.
Bng 7.3. Cc nc tc bt knh vt l i vi DPDCH
Cc tc bt knh 15-960 kbit/s 1,92 Mbit/S 2,880 Mbis 3,840 Mbit/s 4,800 Mbit/S 5,760 Mbit/S

E-DPDCH
E-DPDCH SF256-SF4 2xSF4
-

DPDCH SF266-SF4 2xSF4 3xSF4 4xSF4 5xSF4 6xSF4

2xSF2
-

2xSF4+2xSF2 S liu: 2560/SF b t 1 khe, 2560 chip, 2560/SF bt

E-DPDCH

Khe#0

Khen

Khe #2

~^_

\
Khung con 2ms

"Khe#i

Khe #14

Khung v tuyn 10 ms

Hnh 7.11. Cu trc khung v tuyn ca

E-DPDCH

Khi TTI lOms c s dng, tt c 15 khe ca khung E-DPDCH u c s dng truyn khi truyn ti nhn c sau chui x l

286

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

knh truyn ti E-DCH. Trong trng hp T T I 2ms c s dng mi khung con 2ms truyn mt khi truyn ti. Hnh 7.11 m t cu trc khung ca E-DPDCH. 7.4. LUNG S LIU
40byte(IPv4) TCP/IP L2 PDCP Tiu IP Thng thng n 1460 byte Ti Un (s liu ng dng) T IP iu

2hoc3byte

r PDCP PDU

L2 RLC 1hay2byte

Thng thng 40 byte

RLC DU L2 MAC-d MAC-d PDU L2 MAC-es A-^ 6 bt M C e

m.

* MAC-es t i tin

MAC-<f PDU

; -

Thng thng 12 bt
HARQ thng n L2 MAC-e

MAC-es PDU

MAC-es p p ~ |

|A-j MAC-esPDU MC

MAC-es PDU

Khi truyn ti (MAC-e POU) LI Kh! t r u y i n ti

:: \ c sp xp ln E-OPDCH

|CRC|

c sp xp ln E-PDCCH

Hnh 7.12. Lung s liu

Hnh 7.12 cho thy qu trnh chuyn dch lung s liu t ng dng qua tt c cc lp ca giao thc cng ging nh i vi HSDPA. Trong v d ny, dch v IP c s dng. PDCP ty chn thc hin nn tiu IP. u ra ca PDCP c cp cho RLC. Sau mc ni c

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

287

th c, cc RLC SDU c phn on thnh cc khi nh hn (thng di 40 byte) v tiu RLC c gn thm. RLC PDU c a qua lp MAC-d (trong sut i vi HSUPA) n MAC-e. MAC-e mc ni mt hay nhiu MAC-d PDU t mt hay nhiu lung MAC-d v chn cc tiu MAC-es v MAC-e to thnh mt khi truyn ti. Khi ny c chuyn trn knh E-DCH n lp vt l x l tip trc khi c pht.

7.5. LP BIU
Lp biu l mt trong s cc cng ngh c bn ca HSUPA. v nguyn tc, lp biu c trong phin bn u ca WCDMA, nhng H S P A h tr khai thc lp biu nhanh hn nhiu nh vic t b lp biu ti nt B. Trch nhim ca b lp biu l iu khin khi no v tc s liu no UE c quyn pht, v th iu khin i lng nhiu tc ng ln nhng ngi s dng khc ti nt B. C th hiu y l qu trnh iu khin tiu th ti nguyn chung ca tng nt UE (trong trng hp HSUPA l i lng nhiu cho php) v cng chnh l iu khin tng cng sut thu ti nt B. i lng ti nguyn ng ln chung m mt u cui s s dng ph thuc vo tc s liu c s dng. Ni chung, tc s liu cng cao, th cng sut pht yu cu cng ln v v th tiu th ti nguyn cng cao. Thut tig tng tp m hay tng trn nhit (rise-overthermal) thng c xem xt cho hot ng ng ln. tng tp m (c nh ngha l (I +No)/N , trong No v lo l mt ph
0 0

cng sut nhit v nhiu vi tng lo + No l tng cng sut thu ti nt B) l mt s o v s tng nhiu trong do hot ng pht. Chng hn, tng tp m OdB ch th h thng khng ti v tng tp m 3dB ch th mt ph cng sut nhiu do pht ng ln bng mt ph cng sut tp m. Mc d s tng tp m nh vy khng l mi quan tm chnh, nhng n li c quan h mt thit vi ti ng ln. Tng tp

288

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

m qu l n s dn n mt ph sng i v i m t s knh (do ti ng ln ln) - u cui khng c cng sut pht k h dng t c E /N ti trm gc. V th b lp biu ng ln phi duy tr tng
b 0

tp m trong cc gii hn cho php. Lp biu p h thuc knh c s dng trong H S D P A cng c th s dng cho H S U P A nhng cn lu rng l i ch t c l khc nhau. V iu khin cng sut nhanh c s dng cho ng ln, nn khi m t u cui pht k h i c iu kin knh thun l i s to ra cng lng nhiu trong ging nh u cui pht trong tnh trng iu kin knh khng thun l i k h i c hai u cui u pht cng tc s liu. iu ny hon ton tri ngc v i HSDPA, ti y cng sut khng i c s dng v cc tc s liu thch ng v i iu kin knh, v th nhng ngui s dng c iu kin knh thun l i hn s c tc cao hn. T u y nhin i v i ng ln cng sut pht s khc nhau i v i hai u cui. V th lng nhiu gy ra trong cc ln cn s khc nhau. B lp biu p h thuc knh v th s g i m tng tp m nh vy ci thin dung lng v (hoc) vng ph. T r o n g cc trng hp thc t, cng sut pht U E b gii hn bi hai y u t, cc quy nh v cc hn ch thc hin b khuch i cng sut. i v i W C D M A , cc loi cng sut khc nhau c c t hn ch cng sut cc i ca UE, trong 21 d B m l gi tr cng sut cc i thng gp. iu ny nh hng ln thit k lp biu ng ln v lm cho lp biu ph thuc knh c l i ngay c k h i xut pht t quan im n i . M t U E c lp biu k h i iu kin knh thun li s gim c r i do k h i pht cng sut ht g i i hn. iu ny c ngha l U E c th pht tc s liu cao hn nu c lp biu ti cc iu kin knh thun li. V th vic x e m xt cc iu kin knh thun li trong cc quyt nh lp biu s ci thin dung lng mc d trong phn l n cc trng hp s khc bit g i a lp biu khng ph thuc knh v lp biu p h thuc knh khng l n n h u trong trng hp ng xung.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

289

Lp biu quay vng l mt v d v chin lc lp biu trong cc u cui ln lt pht trn ng ln. Tng t nh lp biu quay vng trong HSDPA, iu ny dn n hot ng ging nh T D M A v trnh c nhiu ni do ng ln khng trc giao. Tuy nhin, v cng sut pht cc i ca cc u cui b gii hn, nn mt u cui khng th s dng ht dung lng ng ln v th gii php ny gim dung lng ng ln trong . Cc cng ln, xc sut m UE khng c cng sut pht kh dng cng cao. khc phc nhc im ny, mt gii php khc l n nh tc s liu nh nhau cho tt c nhng ngi s dng c s liu cn pht v chn tc s liu tun theo quy nh ti cc i. iu ny dn n s cng bng cc i xt v tc s liu nh nhau, nhng khng t c dung lng trong cc i. Li ch ca phng php ny l hot ng ca b lp biu n gin - khng cn i* tnh knh ng ln v trng thi cng sut pht i vi tng HE. Ch c trng thi b m ca tng UE v tng mc nhiu trong l cn thit. Vi phng php lm no k thm n, u cui c cc iu kin v tuyn tt nht s c n nh tc s liu cao nht ti mc c th. Nu mc nhiu ti my thu nh hon mc cho php cc i, u cui vi cc iu kin '.vnh tt nht th hai s c php pht v tip tc nh vy i vi u cui khc cho n khi t c mc nhiu cho php ti my thu. Cc chin lc nm gia hai chin lc trn cng c th c xem xt, chng hn cc chin lc cn bng t l. Chin lc ny a vo gii thut lp biu mt h s trng lng cho tng ngi s dng, h s ny t l vi t s gia tc s liu tc thi v gi tr trung bnh ca cc tc s liu. Trong kch bn thc t, cng cn xt n dung lng mng truyn ti, t i nguyn x l trong nt B v mc u tin ca cc lung s liu khc nhau khi a ra quyt nh lp biu.

290

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Cc chin lc lp biu khc nhau c trnh by trn y u

gi thit l k h i lng s liu cn pht l v tn (cc b m y). Tng t ging nh i v i HSDPA, cng cn x e m xt n hnh vi lu lng k h i so snh cc chin lc lp biu khc nhau. Cc ng dng s liu gi thng mang tnh c m v i cc yu cu ti nguyn thay i rt l n v nhanh. V th mc tiu tng th ca b lp biu l n nh phn ln ti nguyn chia s cho nhng ngi s dng tc thi i h i cc tc s liu cao, trong khi ng thi vn m bo hot ng ca h thng trong g i i hn quy nh ca tng tp m. M t l i ch c bit ca lp biu nhanh l n cho php gim nh chin lc cho php kt ni. i v i D C H , iu khin cho php thng phi dnh trc ti nguyn lin quan n tc inh vi c t gii php h i phc t s kin trong nhiu ngi hay tt c nhng ngi s dng ng thi yu cu pht v i tc cc i. 7.5.1. Chng trnh khung lp biu i vi HSUPA Chng trnh khung lp biu cho H S U P A ch tng qut ch n ch a ra quy nh bo hiu iu khin cho cc thc hin lp biu khc nhau. im khc bit chnh gia lp biu ng ln v ng xung l v tr t b lp biu v thng t i n cn thit cho cc quyt nh lp biu. T r o n g HSDPA, b lp biu v trng thi b m u nm cng mt nt, nt B. V th chin lc lp biu hon ton ph thuc vo thc hin v khng cn tiu chun bo hiu trng thi h tr cc quyt nh lp biu. T r o n g HSUPA, b lp biu vn c t ti nt B iu khin hot ng pht ca cc UE, nhng thng t i n trng thi b m li phn tn trong cc nt UE. Ngoi trng thi b m, b lp biu cng cn thng t i n v cng sut k h dng trong UE; n u U E pht gn vi cng sut pht cc i th vic lp biu tc cao l khng cn t i t h.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

291

V th cn phi c t bo hiu mang thng tin trng thi b m v cng sut pht kh dng t UE n nt B. C s cho chng trnh khung lp biu l cc cho php c pht i t nt B n cc UE cng vi gii hn tc s liu E-DCH v cc yu cu lp biu c pht i t UE n nt B yu cu cho php pht (ti tc cao hn tc hin c php). Cc quyt nh lp biu c a ra bi phc v, ny chu trch nhim chnh cho lp biu nh minh ha trn hnh 7.13 (trong trng hp ng thi c c HSDPA v HSUPA, cng mt phc v cho c hai ng xung v ng ln). Tuy nhin trong trng hp chuyn giao mm, cc khng phc v cng th tc ng ln hnh vi ca UE iu khin nhiu gia cc .

phc v

Hnh 7.13. Tng quan hot ng lp biu Cung cp cho b lp biu thng tin cn thit v tnh trng E, a ra quyt nh lp biu da trn thng tin ny v thng bo quyt nh ngc tr li cho E i hi mt khong thi gian nht nh. Tnh trng UE (trng thi b m v cng sut pht kh dng) c th khc nhau ti thi im pht so vi thi im m thng tin ny c

292

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cung cp cho nt B. Chng hn UE c th c s liu c truyn t hn tnh ton ca b lp biu do s liu u tin hn nhp vo b m truyn dn hoc cc iu kin knh tr nn ti hn dn n E c cng sut kh dng cho truyn dn s liu thp hn. x l cc tnh trng ny v khai thc cc gim nhiu do tc s liu thp hn, cho php lp biu khng thit lp tc s liu m chi a ra gii hn trn ca mc s dng ti nguyn. UE s chn tc s liu, hay chnh xc hn, chn t hp khun dng truyn ti E-DCH (E-TFC) trong cc gii hn do b lp biu thit lp. Cho php phc v (Serving Grant) l mt bin ni b trong tng UE, n c s dng theo di khi lng ti nguyn cc i m UE c php s dng. N c biu din nh l t s gia cng sut cc i E-DPDCH trn DPCCH v UE c php pht t mt lung MAC-d bt k v s dng mt kch thc khi truyn ti bt k chng no khng vt qu cho php phc v. V th, b lp biu chu trch nhim cho lp biu gia cc UE, cn cc UE t chu trch nhim lp biu cc lung M A C - d theo cc quy nh trong c t. v c bn lung un tin cao phi c phc v trc lung u tin thp. L do biu din cho php phc v bng t s cng sut cc i xut pht t vic cht lng c bn m b lp biu c gng iu khin l nhiu ng ln. Nhiu ny t l thun vi cng sut pht. Cng sut pht E-DPCH c nh ngha tng i so vi DPCCH m bo rng E-DPDCH phi chu tc ng ca cc lnh iu khin cng sut. V cng sut pht E-DPDCH thng ln hn nhiu so vi cng sut pht DPCCH, nn mt cch gn ng, t s cng sut E-DPCH trn DPCCH t l thun vi tng cng sut pht, (PE-DPCH PDPCCH)/PDPCCH ~ PE-DPCH/PDPCCH, v v th vic thit lp gii
+

hn cho. t s cng sut E-DPCH vi DPCCH tng ng vi iu khin cng sut pht cc i ca UE.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

293

Nt B c th cp nht cho php phc v trong UE bng cch pht i cho php tuyt oi (Absolute Grant) hay cho php tng i (Reaive Grant) n UE (hnh 7.14). Cc cho php tuyt i c pht trn knh E-AGCH chia s v c s dng cho cc thay i cho php phc v tuyt i. Thng thng cc thay i ny kh ln chng hn n nh mt tc s liu cao cho UE truyn dn gi ng ln. Cc cho php tng i c pht trn E-RGCH v c s dng thay i tng i cho php phc v. Khng nh cc cho php tuyt i, cc thay i ny chi nh; thay i do cho php tuyt i thng chi vo khong dB. Trong chuyn giao mm, cc thay i tng i c th c pht t c phc v ln khng phc v. Tuy nhin tn ti khc bit rt ln gia hai trng hp ny v chng c x l tch ring.
Cho php tuyt i Cho php tng i I Bo hiu t nt B

Cho php phc v T s cng sut E

ln ni b c duy tri trong UE Bi

<

Chn E:-TFC

Xc nh tc s liu ng ln

Tc s liu ng ln

Hnh 7.14. Quan h gia cho php tuyt i, cho php tng i v cho php phc v Cc thay i tng i t phc v c dnh cho mt UE, ngha l mi UE thu cho php tng i ring c th iu chnh cc cho php phc v ring trong cc UE khc nhau. Thay i tng i ny thng c s dng cho cc cp nht nh tc s liu, c th xy ra thng xuyn trong mt truyn dn gi ang din ra. Cho php

294

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tung i t phc v c th c ba gi tr: 'P', 'HOLD' hoc 'DOWN\ Lnh 'P' ('DOWN') chi th U E tng (gim) cho php phc v, ngha l tng (gim) t s cng sut E-DPCH trn DPCCH so v i t s cng sut c s dng cui cng t r o n g T T I trc trong cng m t x l HARQ. Lnh 'HOLD' ch th U E khng thay i cho php tng i. Hot ng ny c m t trn hnh 7.15.
0 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 1 2 12 ' 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

Cho phi
tng i

*r
8 8 8
t

10
0 0 ro

Cho php phc v (t s cng sut E-DPCH/ / DPCCHcci) T s cng sut E-DPCH/DPCCHthc
t c s dng)

Thu dc cho php tuyt di

o t

T h i gian

Hnh 7.15. M t s dng cho php tng i Cc cho php tng i t cc khng phc v c s dng iu khin nhiu g i a cc . B lp biu trong phc v khng c thng tin v nhiu gy r a i v i cc ln cn cho cc quyt nh lp biu. Chng hn ti trong phc v c th thp v t cch nhn ny, n c th lp biu truyn dn tc cao. T u y nhin ln cn c th khng chu c nhiu b sung do tc truyn dn cao ny gy ra. V th ln cn phi c th tc ng ln cc tc s liu c s dng. Thc ra, c th nhn nhn iu ny n h u l m t "ch th qu ti" ra lnh cho cc U E khng c ny phc v phi h thp tc s liu ca mnh. Mc d tn g i 'cho php tng i' c s dng cho chi th qu ti, nhng hot ng ny hon ton khc v i hot ng cho php tng i t phc v. Trc ht, ch th qu ti l m t tn hiu chung m tt c cc U E thu c. V ch c khng phc v l lin quan n mc nhiu tng t ln cn c h khng phi U E gy ra nhiu ny, v

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

295

th mt bo hiu chung l . Ngoi ra v khng phc v khng bit c cc mc u tin lu lng ca cc UE m n khng phc v, nn khng cn thi phi c bo hiu ring t khng phc v. Th t hai, chi th qu ti chi nhn hai ch khng phi ba gi tr: 'DTX' v 'DOWN\ trong gi tr th nht khng nh hng ln hot ng ca UE. Tt c cc UE nhn c 'DOWN' t bt k mt khng phc v no s phi gim cho php phc v tng i so vi T r i trc trong cng mt x l AR.
7.5.2. Thng tin lp biu

lp biu hiu qu, b lp biu cn c thng tin v tnh trng ca E lin quan n trng thi b m v cng sut pht kh dng. Tt nhin thng tin ny cng chi tit th cng tt cho b lp biu n a ra cc quyt nh chnh xc v hiu qu. Tuy nhin ng thi cng phi duy tr lng tin pht trn ng ln cng nh cng tt khng tiu th thi qu dung lng ng ln. mt mc nht nh cc yu cu ny i lp nhau v chng c gii quyt trong HSUPA bng hai c ch h tr nhau: 'bt hnh phc' ngoi bng c pht trn E-DPCCH v thng tin lp biu trong bng c pht trn E-DCH. Bo hiu ngoi bng c thc hin bng mt bt trn E-DPCCH: 'bt hnh phc'. M i khi UE c cng sut kh dng cho E-DCH pht tc s liu cao hon so vi c cho php bi cho php phc v v s bt trong b m i hi nhiu TTI hn so vi mt s lng TO nht nh, UE s t bt ny vo 'bt hnh' ch th rng n mun nhn c cho php phc v cao hn. Tri li, UE s thng bo 'hnh phc'. Lu rng ' hnh phc' ch c pht cng vi bt truyn dn s liu ang c thc hin v E-DPCCH chi c pht cng vi E-DPDCH. Bo hiu trong bng cung cp thng tin chi tit v mc chim b m bao gm c thng tin mc u tin v cng sut pht kh dng

296

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cho E-DCH. Bo hiu trong bng c pht i theo cch ging nh s liu ca ngi s dng, hoc mt mnh hoc l b phn ca truyn dn s liu. V th thng tin ny c li cho HARQ vi kt hp mm. V thng tin lp biu trong bng ch l c ch dnh cho UE khng c lp biu n yu cu ti nguyn, thng tin lp biu ny c th c pht khng theo lp biu v v th n c pht khng ph thuc vo cho php phc v. Khng ch cc truyn dn khng lp biu khng chu quy nh ca thng tin lp biu; mng cng c th lp cu hnh truyn dn khng theo lp biu cho cc s liu khc.

7.5.3. Chn E-TFC


Chn E-TFC chu trch nhim la chn khun dng truyn ti E-DCH lin quan n quyt nh tc s liu s c s dng cho pht ng ln v iu khin ghp knh MAC-e. R rng rng vic la chn ny cn xem xt n quyt nh lp biu m nt B a ra, la chn c thc hin thng qua cho php phc v nh xt trong phn trc. Mt khc ghp MAC-e c UE x l t quyt. V th, trong khi b lp biu x l vic cp pht ti nguyn gia cc UE, th la chn E-TFC iu khin cp pht ti nguyn gia cc lung trong mt UE. Quy tc ghp cc lung c quy nh trong chun; v nguyn tc, s liu c un tin cao c pht trc s liu c u tin thp. Vic a ra HSUPA phi xt n vic ng tn ti vi cc DCH. Nu vic ny khng c thc hin th cc dch v c sp x p ln cc DCH s b nh hng. iu ny c th dn n phi lp li cc cu hnh cho truyn dn DCH. V th yu cu c bn l trc ht phc v lu lng DCH v chi chi ph ti nguyn cng sut khng c S dng cho E-DCH. Ta c th so snh iu ny vi HSDPA, trong cc knh ring uc phc v trc tin v HS-DSCH s dng cng sut truyn dn cha c s dng. V th chn TFC c thc hin theo hai bc. Trc ht chn DCH TFC c thc hin nh trong

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

297

cc pht hnh trc ca WCDMA. Sau UE c tnh cng sut cn li v bc chn TFC th hai c thc hin trong E-DCH s dng cng sut cn li. Thu tc chn E-TFC c minh ha trn hnh 7.16.
Cho php Cho php tuyt i lng i Cng sut

Tc kh dng

E-TFC 6 (kch thc TB, gi tri l E-TFC 5 (kch (hc TB. gity( E-TFC 4 (kch thc TE. gi tri p E-TFC 3 (kch thc TB. gi tr p

Cho php phc v

Chn TFC

TFCchocc DCH

Cng sut d

Cho php phc v

TFC cno cc ChonTFC * E-OCH

E-TFC 2 (kch thc T8. gi tri p E-TFC 1 Cng sut kh n (kch thc TB. gi tr

Hnh 7.16. Minh ha qu trnh chn chn E-TFC Mi E-TFC lin quan n mt khong dch cng sut E-DPDCH so vi DPCCH. Tc cng cao th khong dch cng sut ny cng ln. Sau khi tnh ton song cng sut pht cn thit cho cc E-TFC khc nhau, t quan im cng sut E c th tnh ton cc E-TFC c th c s dng. Sau UE chn E-TFC da trn hai tiu ch: m bo pht khi lng s liu cc i khi cho trc gii hn cng sut v cho php lp biu. Cc kch thc khi truyn ti c php l mt b phn ca E-TFC c nh ngha trc trong tiu chun ging nh i vi HS-DSCH. iu ny gim bt khi lng bo hiu (chng hn ti chuyn giao gia cc ), v khng cn lp cu hnh tp E-TFC mi ti mi ln thay i . Ni chung cc kim tra hp chun m bo UE tun th tiu chun cng n gin hn khi khi lng lp cu hnh trong u cui nh hn.

298

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G m bo tnh linh hot trong cc kch thc k h i truyn ti

bn bng E-TFC c c t trong chun; m i T T I trong s hai Tri c c t c m t bng c t i u ha c h o cc kch thc R L C P D chung ny m t bng tng qut c ch ph bo hiu tung i cc i khng i. Vic U E s s dng bng no trong cc bng c nh ngha trc ni trn c quyt nh bi T T I v bo hiu RRC.

7.6. HARQ VI KT HP MM 7.6.1. Tng quan hot ng HARQ ca HSUPA


Trong HSUPA, H A R Q v i kt hp m m c m c ch ging nh H A R Q trong H S D P A - m bo bn vng chng li cc li truyn dn. T u y nhin H A R Q v i kt hp m m khng ch l cng c m bo bn v n g chng li cc li ngu nhin, m n c th c s dng tng dung lng nh xt trong phn tng quan. V cc pht li H A R Q x y ra nhanh, nhiu dch v cho php m t hoc hai pht li. Cng v i kt hp phn d tng, H A R hnh thnh m t c ch iu khin tc n tng. V th H A R Q v i kt hp m m c th c s dng theo m t s cch: - m bo tnh bn vng chng li cc thay i trong cht lng tn hiu thu - Tng hiu qu ng truyn bng tm cch pht li nhiu ln chng hn n nh s ln pht li cc i v khai thc iu khin vng ngoi da trn l i d sau kt hp mm. m c ln, cc yu cu i v i H A R Q ging nh trong H S D P A v th thit k H A R Q cho H S U P A kh ging thit k c s dng cho HSDPA, mc d vn c mt s im khc bit ch yu bt ngun t vic h tr chuyn giao m m trn ng ln. Ging nh HSDPA, HSUPA, H A R Q n m c lp M C v lp vt l. V i c s dng song song cc x l d n g v i cho H A R Q c chng m i n h l hiu qu i v i H S D P A v n cng c s

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

299

dng cho H S U P A v cc l do ging nhau - pht li nhanh v thng lng cao cng v i chi ph cho bo hiu A C K / N A K thp. K h i nhn c mt k h i truyn ti trong mt T T I i v i mt x l H A R Q no , nt B s gii m tp bt v kt qu gii m ( A C K / N A K ) c thng bo cho UE. gim thiu chi ph cho ACK/NAK, ch mt bt c s dng. R rng rng U E cn phi bit bt A C K / N A K thu c lin quan n x l H A R Q no. vn ny c gii quyt ging nh trong HSDPA, ngha l nh thi A C K / N A K c s dng lin kt ACK/NAK v i m t x l HARQ. Sau mt khong thi c quy nh r rng sau k h i thu c k h i truyn ti ng ln, nt B s to ra ACK/NAK. K h i nhn c N A K , U E thc hin pht li v nt B thc hin kt hp m m v i phn d tng. Qu trnh x l pht li (hay chnh xc hn l khi thc hin pht li) l mt trong cc khc bit gia H A R Q trn ng ln v ng xung (hnh 7.17). i v i HSDPA, cc pht li c lp biu ging nh m i s liu khc v nt B t do lp biu pht li cho U E ti m i thi im v s dng m t phin bn d theo la chn ca nt B. Nt B cng c th tin hnh cc x l H A R Q theo t h t bt k, ngha l n c th quyt nh thc hin cc pht li cho mt x l ny c h khng cho x l khc trong cng mt UE. K i u khai thc ny thng c gi l H A R Q khng ng b thch ng. Thch ng v nt B c th thay i khun dng truyn dn v khng ng b v cc pht li c th xy ra ti m i thi im sau k h i thu c ACK/NAK. Tri l i , i v i ng ln khai thc H A R Q ng b khng thch ng c s dng. N h c hot ng ng b, cc pht li xy ra ti mt thi im nh trc sau pht ln u, ngha l chng khng c lp biu r rng. K h a i thc khng thch n g ngha l khun dng truyn dn v phin bn d s dng cho m i ln pht li bit ngay t thi im pht ln u. V th khng cn lp biu r rng cho cc pht li v cng khng cn bo hiu v phin bn d m U E s s dng. y chnh l u im chnh ca khai thc H A R Q ng

300

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

b - gim thiu chi ph cho bo hiu. Tt nhin, kh nng thch ng khun dng truyn dn ca cc pht li i vi mi thay i iu kin knh s b mt, nhng v b lp biu ng ln ti nt B c thng t tin v trng thi my pht (thng tin ny nm ti UE v chi c cung cp cho nt B thng qua bo hiu trong bng sau khi s liu thu c HARQ gii m thnh cng) so vi b lp biu ng xung, v th tn tht ny hn li nhn c t vic gim chi ph cho bo t hiu iu khin ng ln.
Thi gian gia pht v pht li l c nh v bit trc i vi c UE v Nt B - Khng cn thng bo s th t x l HARQ

S th t x l HARQ

HARQ ng b

Pht li c th xy ra ti mi thi im -> Cn thng bo r rng s th t x l HARQ


'"A ""i

3 I ? HARQ khng ng b

? ? ?

Hnh 7.17, HARQ

ng b v HARQ khng ng b

Ngoi s khc nhau v hot ng ng b v khng ng b ca giao thc HARQ, mt khc bit chnh gia HARQ ng ln v ng xung l vic s dng chuyn giao mm cho ng ln. Trong chuyn giao mm gia cc nt B, giao thc HARQ kt cui ti nhiu nt B tham gia v chuyn giao mm. e: vi HSDPA, chi c mt im kt cui giao thc HARQ - UE. Trong IISUPA, UE thu ACK/NAK t tt c cc nt B tham gia vo chuyn giao mm. V th t quan im ca UE, ch cn mt trong s cc nt B ny thu ng khi truyn ti l v n coi rng s liu c truyn thnh cng n mng khi nhn c nht l mt A C K t mt nt B ni trn. t Quy tc ny i khi c gi l 'or-of-ACKs' (hoc mt trong s cc ACK). Pht li chi xy ra khi tt c cc nt B lin quan u pht NAK

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

301

ch th l khng nt no trong s chng c th gii m c s liu

pht.
N h bit t phn trnh by H S D P A , vic s dng song song nhiu x l H A R Q khng th m bo chuyn ng trnh t v cn c mt c ch sp t li t h t (hnh 7.18). i v i HSDPA, r rng rng sp t li t h t c t ti L E. Tnh trng truyn khng theo th t cng x y r a i v i ng ln, v th trong trng hp ny cng cn c m t c ch sp t li t h t. T u y nhin do h tr chuyn giao mm, sp t li t h t khng t h t ti nt B. s liu c pht trong mt x l H A R Q c th c g i i m thnh cng ti m t nt B, trong khi s l i u c pht trong x l H A R Q tip sau li c th c gii m ng t r o n g m t nt B khc. Ngoi ra trong m t s tnh trng, m t s nt B lin quan li c th ng thi thnh cng trong gii m cng m t k h i truyn ti. V cc l do ny, c ch sp t li th t cn c t h truy nhp n cc k h i truyn ti c truyn i t tt c cc nt B n R N C v v th n phi c t ti RNC. sp t li cng s loi b m i pht p cc k h i truyn t i c pht hin trong nhiu nt B.
n c h c nng s p xp li t r o n g RNC TrBlkl TrBlk2 TrlkS TrBlkl

Nt B

mrt^^- tjzs&W^^ % % \* _* H

V*

UE ^!Ezr"izzfc3Zi3rizr//.f.!:r.::zxiizo
c thng bo
RSND

RSN-0
Proc>1 RV-0

RSN-0

RSl-0 RSN-1 RSN-0


Proc-0 RV=1

RSN-0

RSN-1 Proc-3 RV=1

RSN-2 RSN-0 Proc=0 RV=2 Proc=1 RV=0

Buc fproc=0 l r RV-

Prec-2 Pro<=3 RV-0 RV=

Proc-1 Proe-2 RV-0 RV0

ipms r n :Ti><ng quan nh th! ti TrBlk: k h i t r u y n t i

Hnh 7.18. Nhiu x l HARQ cho HSUPA S t n ti ca chuyn giao m m trn ng ln cng nh hng n vic thit k bo hiu. Tng t v i HSDPA, cn ch th cho u

302

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cui thu rng c cn xa b m m m hay khng (nu y l ln pht u) hoc cn thc hin kt hp m m v i thng t i n c lu trong cc ln pht trc trong x l H A R Q ny. H S D P A s dng ch th s liu mi m t bt. N u nt B hiu n h m N A K l A C K v pht gi tip theo U E c th ha gii s k i n l i ny bng cch quan st "ch th s liu mi' m t bt (chi th ny tng i v i m i ln pht gi mi). N u ch th s liu m i m t bt tng, U E s xa b m mm, cho d n i dung ca n khng c gii m thnh cng v gii m ln pht mi. M c d k h i truyn ti b mt v phi c pht li bi giao thc RLC, U E cng khng thc hin kt h p m m cc bt c m ha t cc k h i truyn ti khc nhau v v th b m m m khng b sa i sai. N u c N A K v ch th s l i u m i u b hiu nhm (trng hp ny t k h i xy ra) th b m m m s b sa i sai. i v i HSUPA, ch th s l i u m i m t bt cng c th hot ng khi c chuyn giao mm. Ch k h i c N A K v bo hiu iu khin ng ln u b hiu sai th b m m m trong nt B m i b sa i sai. T u y nhin k h i c chuyn giao mm, phng php n gin ny l cha . Thay vo , m t s trnh t pht li hai bt (RSN: Retransmission Sequence N u m b e r ) c s dng cho HSPA. Truyn dn ln u t R S N vo khng v sau m i ln pht li RSN tng thm mt. N g a y c k h i R S N chi nhn gi tr t r o n g di t 0 n 3, vn c th p ng cho m i s ln pht li; ch cn duy tr R S N bng 3 cho ln pht li t h ba v sau . C n g v i khai thc giao thc ng b, nt B bit c k h i no x y ra pht li n h RSN. Hnh 7.19 cho thy m t v d n gin v khai thc; ny. V nt B t h nht cng nhn gi A, nn U E pht tip gi B mc d nt B t h hai khng gii m ng gi ny. T i thi im pht gi B, nt B t h hai i pht li gi A nhng do cc iu k i n knh t i thi im ny, nt B thm ch khng pht hin c m t pht m i . Nt B t h nht l i cng nhn pht v U E pht tip gi c. K h i ny nt B t h hai nhn c pht mi v n h khai thc H A R Q ng b n hiu rng y l pht gi mi.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA


NtB2
Thu c pht, giai m tht bi
mi

303

NAK, lu cc bt m m cho gi A

i pht li gi A vi RSN-1 nhng khng nhn c pht m i ^ Khng phn hi ACK/NAK Hai trng h p c th xy ra: - Pht li gi v i RSN=2 hay - Pht gi m i v i RSN=0 Vi nhn c RSN=0. nn s khng r rng c gii quyt

Hnh 7.19. Cc pht li trong chuyn giao mm

Trnh c sa b m sai

Nu y l pht li gi A, RSN s phi bng 2. V d ny minh ha vic ci thin tnh chc chn khi s dng RSN2 bt cng vi khai thc HARQ ng b. S s dng 'chi th s liu mi' (c th coi nh RSN mt bt) s khng c kh nng x l trng hp thng gp khi nt B th hai khng nhn c pht mi. Ch th s liu mi trong trng hp ny s bng khng, c trong trng hp pht li gi A v trng hp pht ln u gi c v th dn n sa i b m mm sai. Kt hp mm trong c ch HARQ i vi HSUPA c xy dng theo tng phn d. Vic to ra cc phin bn tng phn d c thc hin theo cch tng t nhu i vi HSDPA bng cc s dng cc mu c l cho cc phin bn d khc nhau. Phin bn d c iu khin bi RSN theo quy tc c c t trong chun s c xt trong mc 7.6.2. i vi cc m Turbo, cc bt h thng c tm quan trng cao hom cc bt chn l nh xt trong chng 5. V th cc bt h thng bt buc phi c trong ln pht u tng kh nng gii m ngay trong ln pht u. Ngoi ra nhn c li tt nht vi tng

304

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phn d, cc pht li phi cha cc chn l b sung. V th thit k phi cho php t gii m ngay ln pht u, ngha l ln pht u phi cha tt c cc bt h thng cng nh mt s bt chn l, cn cc ln pht li ch yu s chi cha cc bt chn l khng c pht trong cc ln trc. Tuy nhin trong chuyn giao mm, khng phi tt c cc nt B u c th thu tt c cc ln pht. C th xy ra trng hp trong mt nt B khng thu c pht ln u c cha cc bt h thng, m ch thu c cc bt chn l trong cc ln pht li. iu ny s dn n gim hiu nng, v th nn m bo rng tt c cc phin bn d c s dng trong chuyn giao mm u c th t gii m v cha cc bt h thng. Quy tc c s dng chuyn RSN vo cc phin d ni trn dn n vic s dng tt c cc phin bn d c kh nng t gii m cho cc tc s liu thp (thng c s dng trong chuyn giao mm ti bin ), trong khi ch s dng tng phn d y cho cc tc cao (khng ging nh c s dng trong chuyn giao mm). 7.6.2. Qu trnh x l HARQ ti lp vt l X l lp vt l h tr khai thc HARQ ging nh i vi HS-DSCH, tuy nhin chi s dng mt tng phi hp tc . L do i vi HS-DSCH phi s dng hai tng phi hp tc l x l cc gii hn b nh m trong UE, nhng i vi E-DCH, gii hn b nh trong nt B c th c lp cu hnh bi mng. Chng hn mng c th gii hn s lng cc E-TFC trong UE sao cho n khng th pht nhiu bt hn kh nng nh m ca Nt B. Phi hp tc i vi E-DCH (hnh 7.20) nhm hai mc ch: - phi hp s bt c m ha vi s bt kh dng trn knh vt l E-DPDCH i vi khun dng truyn ti E-DCH c chn

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln lc cao,

HSPA

305

- to ra cc tp bt c m ha khc nhau cho tng phn d theo iu khin ca hai thng s r v s s xt di y.


Cc bt h thng M ha turbo t l 1/3 Chn l 2 +| RM_S

Chn l 1

- RM_P1_2 H RM_P2 2

Chon bt

n phn on knh vt l v an xen

RM: phi hp tc

T~
v cc thng s r, s. Th tc chn cho HS-DSCH

Hnh 7.20. Phi hp tc E-DCH

bt cng ging nh chn bt QPSK

S lng cc bt knh ph thuc vo h s tri ph v s lng cc knh E-DPDCH c n nh cho mt khun dng knh truyn ti E-DCH. Ni mt cch khc, b phn chn E-TFC s quyt nh s lng knh E-DPDCH v cc h s tri ph ca chng. T quan im hiu nng, m ha knh lun tt hn tri ph v nn chn s m nh knh cng nhiu cng tt v h s tri ph tng ng ca chng cng nh cng tt. iu ny cho php trnh c vic c l v v th s dng c ht kh nng ca m Turbo m tc 1/3. Tuy nhin cng khng nn chn h s tri ph qu thp, v khi ny phi hp tc phi lp qu nhiu trong khi phi hp tc . Ngoi ra t quan im thc hin, s lng E-DPDCH cng cng tt gim thiu chi ph t trong my thu nt B v mi knh E-DPDCH cn mt tp b gii tri ph. thc hin iu ny cn a ra quy nh v gii hn c l (PL: Punturing Limit). PL c s dng iu khin s lng c l cc i m UE c php thc hin. UE s chn mt s lng cc m nh knh nh vi h s tri ph cao ti mc c th m khng vut qu cc gii hn c l, ngha l khng c c l ln hn mt phn (1-PL) ca cc bt c m ha. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh 7.21, trong c l c php tng cho n khi phi s dng cc

306

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

knh E-DPDCH b sung. Hai gii hn c l c nh ngha: PL v PLnon.max- Gii hn P L


m a x

max

c xc nh bi th loi UE v n c

s dng nu s lng knh E-DPDCH v h s tri ph ca chng bng kh nng UE v v th UE khng th tng s knh E-DPDCH. Tri li PL
non

max

c mng thng bo cho UE khi thit lp kt ni.

Vic s dng cc gii hn c l khc nhau thay v s dng mt t l c l nh i vi trng hp DCH, cho php t c tc s liu cc i cao hn v cng c l nhiu tc s liu cng cao. Thng thng, cc knh E-DPDCH b sung c s dng khi t l m ln hn khong 0,5. Tuy nhin, i vi cc tc s liu cao nht cn thc hin c l kh nhiu v khng th tng thm s m.
Xc nh bi PLmax
Q.
?

Xc dinh bi PL n n m x o-a

o
KI

" 8
0

*0

0 s
*

//
i

13 /

0*

2xSF2 2xSF2+2xSF4

r.."'!.""
1xSFi6 1xSF8
o

1xSF4 IM T77,

2xSF4
T*,

,..x* co c OI
K
T-

o 5 t ^ s to ( o d ) T~ oo O N n ^ a Si s 5? 2 * 0 s 8 3 U i n a r ^ - S o p 5 m i s TT^ r i !\ n s ^? IN [\ ri t Kch thc khi truyn ti in 2 r V d i *r $ N o CN ^ K . g >

mN m

*,* ,,,

Hnh 7.21. Khi lng c l ph thuc vo kch thc khi truyn ti c l (hay lp) c iu khin bi hai thng s r v s theo cch ging nh i vi tng phi hp tc th hai ca HS-DSCH (hnh 7.20). Nu s = , cc bt h thng c u tin v khi lng c l nhu nhau i vi hai lung bt chn l. N s = 0, trc h c l c p u t dng cho cc bt h thng. Mu c l c iu khin bi thng s r. i vi truyn dn th ln u, r c t bng khng v n c tng dn trong cc ln pht li. V th bng cch thay i r, nhiu ln

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

307

v phn no chng ln ln nhau, c th to ra cc tp bt c m ha th hin cc bt thng t i n . L u rng thay i s cng nh hng n mu c l ngay c k h i r khng thay i, v cc k h i lng cc bt h thng v cc bt chn l khc nhau s c c l i v i hai gi tr ca s. Lp c p dng nh nhau cho c ba lung, nu s lng bt knh kh dng l n h o n s lng- cc bt nhn c t b m ha Turbo, ngc li c l c p dng. Khc v i D C H , nhung ging nh HS-DSCH, qu trnh phi hp tc ca E-DCH c l c th p dng cho c cc bt h thng c h khng phi ch cho cc bt chn l. iu ny c s dng tng phn d, k h i mt s pht li cha ch yu cc bt chn l. Cc gi tr s v r c xc nh t phin bn phn d (RV: Redundancy Version), n lt m i n h R V li lin kt v i s t h t pht li (RSN: Retransmission Sequence Number). R S N c t bng khng cho ln pht u v tng thm m t cho m i ln pht li. So v i HS-DSCH, im khc bit chnh l s h t r chuyn giao mm trn knh E-DCH. Vkhng phi tt c cc lin quan u c th thu c truyn dn trong chuyn giao mm. N n trong trng hp ny truyn dn v i k h nng t gii m (s = ) l i hn v cc bt h thng quan trng hn cc bt chn l t c gii m thnh cng. Nu phn d tng ton b c s dng trong chuyn giao mm, th c th xy ra rng truyn dn ln u cha cc bt h thng (s = 1) khng c thu t i n cy trong m t , trong k h i truyn dn ln hai cha hu ht cc bt chn l (s = 0) c thu. iu ny c th dn n gim cp cht lng. T u y nhin tc s liu trong chuyn giao mm thng phn no thp hn (t l m thp hn) v trong hu ht cc trng hp U E x a nt B k h i chuyn vo chuyn giao mm. Vth cc phin bn d c nh ngha sao cho tt c cc truyn dn u c kh nng t gii m (s = ) cho cc khun dng truyn ti trong t

308

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

l m ban u thp hn 0,5, trong khi cc khun dng truyn ti cn li k c pht li u khng th t gii m. Bng cch thit k ny, khi chuyn giao mm, kh nng t gii m c t do hem. Thit k ny cng ph hp vi thc t l phn du tng (s = 0 cho mt s pht li) cho li nht khi t l m ban u cao. Chuyn i t RSN thng qua RV vo cc thng s r v s c minh ha trn hnh 7.22. y l chuyn i bt buc khng th lp cu hnh ngoi tr vic bo hiu lp cao hn c th c s dng bt buc E lun s dng RV = 0 khng l thuc vo RSN. Ngha l cc pht li c cng cc bt c m ha nh ln pht u (kt hp sn bt). RV = 0 c s dng khi kh nng nh ca nt B b hn ch. Lu rng i vi RSN = 3, RV lin kt vi s khung (khung con). L do l cho php thay i cc mu c l ngay c trong cc t n h trng khi s ln pht li ln hn ba c s dng.
RV RV T l ma cao > 0,5 0 3 2 0,1,2 hoc 3, lin kt V I s khung s 1 0 1 0 r 0 0 1 1

RSN

RSN

T l m ban au <0,5 0 2 0 0 hoc 2, lin kt vi s khung

RV

0 1 2 3

0 1 2 3

v~

s=0
C c truyn dn c kh nng t gii m

~w~ s = 0 hay s = 1

Hnh 7.22. Chuyn i RSN qua R V vo s, r

7.6.3. Hot ng ca giao thc HARQ Giao thc HARQ s dng nhiu x l HARQ dng - i ging nh HS-DSCH. Cch lm ny cho php pht lin tc (iu ny khng th t c bng s drng-i mt ln pht) vi vic s dng mt giao thc dng - i n gin.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

309

Nhu ni trn, h tr chuyn giao mm l s khc bit chnh gia ng ln v ng xung. iu ny cng nh hng ln s lng cc x l HARQ. i vi HSDPA, s lng ny c lp cu hnh ph hp cho cc thc hin nt B khc nhau. Mc d c th s dng cng mt cch tip cn nh vy cho HSUPA, nhng chuyn giao mm gia hai nt B ca hai nh bn my khc nhau s rt phc tp. Trong chuyn giao mm tt c cc nt B lin quan u phi s dng cng mt s lng cc x l HARQ nh nhau, iu ny phn no lm mt tnh linh hot i vi lp cu hnh s lng x l, v tt c cc nt t B bt buc phi c nht l mt cu hnh chung. om gin ha cu t tng th, s lng x l HARQ ca tt c cc nt B c quy rc nh c nh. s lng x l HARQ ph thuc rt nhiu vo vic nh thi pht ACK/NAK trn ng xung. i vi cc T r i c di 10 hoc 2ms, s lng x l (NHARQ) tng ng s l 4 v 8. Kt qu l thi gian truyn vng HARQ l 4x10 = 40 v 8x2 = 16ms. S dng HARQ ng b cng l im khc bit vi HSDPA. Trong s ng b, s lng x l HARQ c rt ra t s khung (khung con) v khng cn thng bo. iu ny c ngha l cc truyn dn trong mt x l HARQ c th c thc hin mt ln trong khong thi gian NHARQTTI. iu ny cng c ngha l pht li (nu cn) lun xy ra trong cc khong NHARTTI sau ln pht trc. Lu rng iu ny khng nh hng ln tr cho n khi pht ln u c th c thc hin v pht s liu c th khi u ti mi x l kh dng. Sau khi pht s liu trong mt x l bt u, cc pht li s c thc hin cho n khi thu c A C K hoc s ln pht li cc i (s ln pht li cc i c lp cu hnh bi RRC thng qua bo hiu RRC). Cc pht li c thc hin m khng cn cc cho php lp biu; ch cn lp biu cho ln pht u. V b lp biu trong nt B bit r s c pht li hay khng, nn n c th d tnh c nhiu t cc pht li (khng c lp biu) khi a ra quyt nh lp biu cho nhng ngi s dng khc.

310

Gio trnh L lnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

7.6.4. L do s dng hai di T T I Trong khi HSDPA chi h tr mt TTI (2ms), th HSUPA c th h tr hai di TTI (2ms v Oms). TTI 2ms c h tr gim tr cn TTI lOms c h tr m bo hot ng ti bin . i vi s liu c tc thp hn 2Mbit/s, dung lng khng ph thuc vo TTI. Tuy nhin khi tc s liu cao hn 2Mbis, kch thc khi s dng di Oms qu ln v v th chi c th m bo cc tc s liu cao hn 2Mbit/s bng cch s dng TTI 2ms. i vi cc v m, cc tc bt trn ng ln cng b gii hn do hn ch cng sut pht. iu ny c ngha l TTI lOms s l gi tr ban u khi mi trin khai h thng, iu ny cng c th hin cc kh nng ca UE (2ms TTI l ty chn cho hu ht cc loi UE). Nu khng xy ra qu nhiu pht li th vic s dng 2ms TTI rt c li v tr gia cc pht li s ngn hn so vi trng hp lOms. Tuy nhin s gp phi vn khi tin n gn bin , khi ny bo hiu s dng chu k 2ms bt u tiu th nhiu cng sut c bit l ti nt B. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh 7.23. Khc vi HSDPA, s ngi s dng c th tch cc ng thi ln hn nhiu v th m bo bo hiu ng xung cho s lng ln nhng ngi s dng vi vic s dng chu k 2ms l khng th.
I . 1 phc v E-DCH/HSDPA

2ms Tri ln 10ms TTI

Hnh 7.23. p dng 2ms TTI v lOms TT1 trong mt

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, 7.6.5. C h u y n theo t h t

HSUPA

311

Ging nh trng hp HS-DSCH, cc x l H A R Q ca E-DCH t mnh khng th m bo chuyn theo t h t v khng c tng tc gia cc x l ny. Ngoi ra, trong cc tnh trng chuyn giao mm, s liu c t h u t cc nt B mt cch c lp v v th c thu ti RNC theo t h t khc v i k h i pht. Ngoi ra cc khc nhau trong tr truyn ti Iub/Iur c th dn n vic chuyn khng ng t h t n RLC. V th cn thc hin chuyn theo t h t ti lp trn lp MAC-e v mt thc th sp t li (thc th M C ring bit) c nh ngha ti R N C cho mc ch ny: MAC-es. Trong E-DCH, sp t li lun lun c thc hin cho tng knh logic m bo tt c s liu i v i mt knh logic phi c truyn theo t h t n thc th RLC tng ng. C th so snh iu ny v i HS-DSCH trong sp xp li c thc hin trong cc hng i sp t li kh lp cu hnh. C ch thc t thc hin sp xp li trong RNC l thc hin c th v khng c chun ha, nhng s dng cc nguyn l ging nh c c t cho HS-DSCH. V th mi MAC-es P D U pht t UE cha mt so trnh t pht (TSN: Transmit Sequence Number), s ny c tng i v i m i ln pht trn mt knh logic. Bng cch sp t theo th t cc MAC-es P D da trn TSN, chuyn theo t h t n cc thc th R L C c m bo.
Thiu do mt trn lub hay li trong bo hiu HARQ

_3

2_
1

Tr do s ln pht li P D U 1 ln

Hnh 7.24. C ch sp t li minh ha c ch sp t li, ta xt tnh hung trn hnh 7.24. RNC nhn c cc MAC-es P D U 0, 2, 3 v 4, tuy nhin cc MAC-es

312

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

PDU v 4 vn cha nhn c. Trong trng hp ny RNC khng th bit c rng v sao cc PDU v 4 li thiu v n cn lu li cc PDU 2, 3 v 5 trong b m sp t li. Ngay khi nhn c PDU , cc P D , 2,3 c chuyn n RLC. C ch sp t li cng cn x l tnh trng trong cc PDU b mt vnh vin, chng hn mt trn Iub, cc sai li trong bo hiu HARQ hoc trong trng hp s ln pht li t n gi tr cc i m vn khng gii m thnh cng. Trong cc tnh hung ny, cn c c ch trnh ngng tr, ngha l c ch phng nga vic s sp t li i cc gi PDU khng bao gi n. Nu khng, PDU 5 trn hnh 7.24 s khng bao gi c chuyn n RLC. C ch trnh ngng tr c th t c bng cch s dng mt b nh thi ging nh nhng g c c t cho UE trong HS-DSCH. ng b trnh ngng tr chuyn cc gi n thc th RLC nu mt PDU b thiu trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Nu c ch trnh ngng tr chuyn cc gi n thc th RLC qu sm, th c th dn n cc pht li RLC khng cn thit khi PDU ny chi b tr, chng hn do c qu nhiu pht li HARQ. Tri li nu cc PDU b gi qu lu trong b m sp xp li, hiu nng s b gim cp do tr tng. ci thin c ch trnh ngng tr, nt B thng bo thi gian (s khung hay khung con) cho RNC khi mt PDU c gii m ng, cng nh s ln phi pht li trc khi PDU ny c gii m ng. RNC c th s dng thng tin ny ti u ha chc nng sp t li. Ta xt v d trn hnh 7.23. Nu PDU 5 trong v d trn cn 4 ln pht li v s ln pht li cc i c lp cu hnh bng 5, RNC bit rng PDU 4 chua n trong khong thi gian truyn vng ca HARQ (cng thm mt khong d tr do tr Iub) sau PDU 5, th n c ngha b mt vnh vin. Trong trng hp ny, RNC chi phi i mt khong thi gian truyn vng trc khi chuyn PDU 5 n RLC.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA


7 6 6 Cc tiu ca MAC-e v MAC-hs ...

313

h tr sp t li v phn knh cc PDU t cc lung MAC-d khc nhau. cn c bo hiu tng ng trong bng dng cc tiu MAC-d v MAC-es. c u trc ca cc tiu MAC-e/es c minh ha trn hnh 7.25.
Chi th s lng MAC-d POU v chng t h u c knh logic no S trnh t

\ /

S lng

N, MAC-d P D U Tiu MAC-e -|MAC-d P D U DOI 2 N

MAC-d P D U

MAC- PDU TSN|

MAC- PDU

P D ' i \ Ni p p i ; |

- - [ D D I | N n D D I o N |MAC-esPDU
n

MAC-e5PDU - MAC-esPDU m -
2 n

Tiu M C H Khi t r u y n ti

Hnh 7.25. cu trc khun dng ca MAC-e/es PD Mt s MAC-d PDU c cng kch thc v n t cng mt knh logic c mc ni vi nhau. Ch th m t s liu (DDI: Data Description Indicator) cung cp thng tin v vic cc P D ny thuc knh logic no cng nh kch thc cc PDU ca chng, s lng cc PDU c ch th bi N. s trnh t pht (TSN) c s dng h tr sp t li th t nhu trnh by trong phn trc, TSN c gn vo mt tp MAC-d PDU. Tiu MAC-e bao gm mt s cp DDI v N. RRC thc hin chuyn i trng D D I vo kch thc MAC-d PDU, nhn dng knh logic v nhn dng lung MAC-d. Knh logic cng nhn dng duy nhp hng i sp t li th t v sp t li th t trong E-DCH c thc hin cho tng knh logic. Chui cc trng D D I v N c kt thc bng mt gi tr quy nh trc ca D D I ch th kt thc tiu MAC-e. Sau tiu

314

Gio trnh L trnh phi Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

MAC-e l mt s MAC-es PDU, trong s lng cc MAC-es PD bng s lng cc cp DDI v N trong tiu MAC-e (khng k g i tr D D I quy nh trc ch th kt thc tiu MAC-e). Sau MAC-es PDU cui cng c th l phn m lp va vo kch thc khi truyn ti. Trong mt s trng hp, tiu MAC-e cth cha 18 bt thng tin lp biu bng cch s dng mt gi tr DDI c bit.

7.7. BO HIU IU KHIN


h tr truyn dn E-DCH trn ng ln, ba knh ng xung mang thng tin bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng di y c nh ngha: . E-HICH l knh vt l c pht t tng trong tp t c cc h v c s dng mang cc cng nhn HARQ. 2. E-AGCH l knh vt l chia s ch c pht t phc v v c s dng mang cc cho php tuyt i. 3. E-RGCH mang cc cho php tng i. Trong phc v, E-RGCH l knh vt l ring mang cc cho php tng i. Trong khng phc v, E-RGCH l knh vt l chung mang ch th qu ti Nh vy mt UE s nhn c nhiu knh iu khin vt l ng xung. T phc v, UE nhn E-HICH, E-AGCH v E-RGCH. T tng khng phc v UE nhn E-HICH v E-RGCH. Bo hiu iu khin ng ln ngoi bng cng cn thit ch th E-TFC m UE la chn, RSN v bt hnh phc. Thng tin ny c mang trn E-DPCCH ng ln. Ngoi bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng lin quan n E-DCH, cng cn c bo hiu iu khin ng xung truyn cc bt iu

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao. HSUPA

315

khin cng sut. Ni chung khng khc g vi WCDMA, bo hiu ny c mang trn (F-) DPCH. Tng t. DPCCH c mt trn ng ln cung cp tn s sng mang tham kho cho gii iu ch nht qun. Tng kt cc bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng lin quan n E-DCH c cho trn hnh 7.26.
phc v khng phc v

Hnh 7.26. Bo hiu ngoi bng lin quan n E-DCH

7.7.1. E-HCH
E-HICH l mt knh vt l dnh ring mang cc cng nhn HARQ thng bo cho UE v kt qu tch tn hiu E-DCH ti nt B. Nt B pht hoc A C K hoc N A K ty thuc v vic gii m khi truyn ti E-DCH thnh cng hay tht bi. N A K ng thi cng l yu cu pht li. khng lng ph cng sut pht ng xung nt B ch pht E-HICH khi n pht hin c pht t E, ngha l pht hin c nng lng trn E-DCCH hoc E-DPDCH. ACK/NAK c chuyn i vo cc gi tr ca knh E-HICH theo bng 7.4. Mc d ACK/NAK chi mang thng tin mt bt, nhng chng c pht trong thi gian 2 hoc 8ms ty thuc vo cu hnh TTI. iu ny m bo rng nng lng nhn c ln tha mn cc yu cu li kh cht ch ca bo hiu ACK/NAK m khng cn cng sut inh cao i vi E-HICH.

316

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Bng 7.4. Chuyn i ACK/NAK vo gi tr knh
Truyn dn trn E-HICH

Thu E-OCH Tri

p ng
logic ACK NAK

Cc trong cng mt RLS vi phc v HSUPA +1 -1 0 (DTX)

Cc khc +7 O(DTX) 0 (DTX)

Thu TTI ng Thu TTI sai Khng thu c T r i

tit kim m nh knh ng xung, nhiu ACK/NAK c pht trn cng mt m nh knh vi h s tri ph 128 (hnh 7.27). ACK/NAK mt bt c nhn vi chui ch k di 40 bt (c d i bng mt khe) ti h s tri ph quy nh 128. Th tc tng t c s dng cho 3 hoc 12 khe thi gian ty thuc vo E-DCH TTI t c khong thi gian bo hiu 2ms hoc 8ms. iu ny cho php cc UE chia s mt m nh knh v nh vy gim ng k khi lng m cn dng cho E-HICH.
Chui

UE,

1 bt ACK/NAK 1 bi

trc giao

3 khe (I20bit)

/
, <>>* Chui trc giao
v >

Upl. 0c4n

hoc 12 khe 7680 chip/2ms

Cho php i 1 b t

tng

K h u n g con 2ms M nh knh SF=128

Cho php tng i

bt Chui b c giao

Hnh 7.27. cu trc E-HICH v E-RGCH (t phc v) Tung quan tng h gia cc chui ch k khc nhau thay i theo ch s chui, nhy chui ch k c s dng trung bnh ha cc khc bit ny. S dng nhy cho php chui ch k ca mt UE

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

317

thay i t khe ny sang khe khc theo mu nhy nh minh ha trn hnh 7.28. C E-HICH v E-RGCH u s dng cng mt cu trc v em gin ha thc hin UE, E-RGCH v E-HICH i vi mt UE s c n nh cng mt m nh knh v cng mt m ngu nhin ha. V th V i 40 chui ch k. 20 ngi s dng, mi ngi c E-RGCH v E-HICH c th chia s mt m nh knh. Lu rng cng sut cho E-HICH v E-RGCH ca nhng ngi s dng khc nhau c th khc nhau mc d h chia s cng mt m nh knh.
s th t chui ch k Lp li chui

* S th t khe 0 1 2 3 4 5

Hnh 7.28. Minh ha nhy ch k Khi mt nt B x l nhiu (on ) v mt UE c ni n cc ny, ngha l UE ang chuyn giao mm hn gia cc ny, hp l hn c l nt B ny pht cng mt thng tin ACK/NAK n UE trong tt c cc ny. V th E s thc hin kt hp mm E-HICH trong trng hp ny v bo hiu nhn c trn tng E-HICH (thu c t cng mt nt B) s c cng nht qun vi nhau trc khi gii m. Phng php ny ging nh phng php kt hp bt iu khin cng sut c s dng trong pht hnh u tin ca WCDMA. S iu ch s dng cho E-HICH khc nhau i vi phc v v cc khng phc v. Trong tp cc ng truyn v tuyn phc v,

318

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

BPSK c s dng, cn trong cc tp ng truyn v t uyn khng phc v, OOK (On-Off Keying: kha bt tt) c s dng sao cho N A K c t v D T X (khng c nng lng pht). L do s dng cc sp xp khc nhau l gim thiu tiu th cng sut ng xung. Ni chung, BPSK nn dng hn nu A C K c pht cho hu ht cc trng hp, trong khi tiu th cng sut trung bnh thp hn i vi OOK khi N A K c pht nhiu hn 7 5 % thi gian v khng c nng lng cho pht NAK. Khi UE khng nm trong chuyn giao mm, ch c phc v nm trong tp tch cc v ny s pht hin s c mt ca pht ng ln trong hu ht thi gian.V th BPSK nn dng cho cc phc v. Tri li trong chuyn giao mm, thng thng nhiu nht chi c mt l c kh nng gii m c pht ng ln, v t hu ht cc s pht N A K dn n OOK hp dn h hon. Ngay c khi c pht ln, nu khng pht hin c s pht ny ti nt B, s khng c nng lng c pht xung (DTX) nh ni trn. V t my t E-HICH trong E phi c kh nng x l c h hu trng hp DTX, mc d t quan im giao thc ch c cc gi tr ACK v N A K l c c t. Cu trc khung v t uyn ca E-HICH c cho trn hnh 7.29.
bt thng tin 3 khe, 7680 chip, 120 bt knh ~ Chui ch k di 40 b t *. ;.. Khe#0 Khe#1 Khe #2 1 khe, 2560 chip, 40 bt ~ l E-HICH/E-RGCH

si
;

I Khe #i I
Khung v tuyn 10ms

|Khe#14|

Khung con 2ms

Hnh 7.29. cu trc khung v tuyn E-HICH

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

319

7 7 2 E-AGCH ...
E-AGCH l mt knh chia s mang thng tin cho php lp biu tuyt i bao gm: - T s cng sut E-DPDCH/DPCCH cc i m UE c php s dng cho E-DCH (5 bt) - C tch cc ( bt) c s dng tch cc (hoc khng tch cc) cc x l HARQ - Mt s nhn dng nhn dng UE (hay nhm E) m thng tin E-AGCH cn chuyn n (16 bt). s nhn dng ny khng c pht tng minh m n tng trong tnh ton CRC. UE pht hin nhn dng bng cch lc CRC ca P-AGCH bng mt mt n ly ra s nhn dng, nu trng nhau th c ngha l ng l nhn dng ca n. M i UE c th c n hai nhn dng, UE-id s cp/th cp hay nhn dng tm thi mng v tuyn E-DCH s cp/th cp (E-RNTI), nu n pht hin irc mt trong hai nhn dng ny th c ngha l truyn dn dnh cho n. Cu trc ca E-AGCH rt ging vi cu trc ca HS-SCCH ca HSDPA. 16 bt CRC c tnh ton da trn 6 bt thng tin v c lc qua mt mt n (thao tc and theo tng bt) l E-id s cp hay th cp. Vi cc nhn dng ny, UE bit c truyn dn E-AGCH c dnh cho n hay khng. M ha xon t l 1/3 c s dng cho E-AGCH v cc bt c m hoa c phi hp tc t n 60 bt tng ng vi thi gian 2ms ti h s tri ph 256 (hnh 7.30). Trong trng hp lOms E-DCH TTI, cu trc 2ms c lp 5 |ln. Lu rng mt m nh knh c th x l mt vi c hai TT v th khng cn dnh hai m nh knh trong mt trn cc TTI. Cc E c 2ms T T I s gii m tng khung con lOms E-AGCH m khng cn tm s nhn dng ca n. Tng t lOms T T I UE s kt hp nm khung con trc khi gii m v kim tra CRC s tht bi nu cho php khng di lOms. i vi

320

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

lp biu theo nhm, c l rng cng mt cho php s khng pht cho c hai loi 2ms UE v lOms UE (mc d c th s dng) m cho php tuyt i cho hai nhm UE ny c th c gi tch ring theo thi gian trn cng mt m nh knh.
s nhn dng (16 bt) Z tch cc 1 bt Ghp knh " s cng sut 5 bt

__

Gn CRC c h a ID

M ha xon r=1/3

c l

Lp nm ln H(chcho 10msTTI)"*

Hnh 7.30. cu trc m ha E-AGCH Mi UE c nng lc E-DCH s thu mt E-AGCH (mc d c th c mt hay nhiu E-AGCH c lp cu hnh trong mt ) t phc v. Mc d yu cu UE phi gim st E-AGCH cho thng tin hp l i vi tng TTI, nhng thng thng gii thut lp biu chi thinh thong gi E-AGCH n UE. E c th pht hin thng tin ny c hp l hay khng (c gi cho n hay khng) bng cch kim tra ID ci trong CRC. Hnh 7.31 cho thy cu trc khung v tuyn ca E-AGCH
6 bt thng tin + 16 bt CRC c lc mt n bi 16 bt id v c m ha thnh 60 bt knh 3 khe, 7680 bt thng tin E-AGCH

Khe#0

^ .

Khen 5

Khe #2 V

" k
J

Khe

#i I

Khe #14|

Khung con 2ms Khung v tuyn 10ms

Hnh 7.3. cu trc khung v tuyn ca E-AGCH


7.7.3. E-RGCH

Cc cho php tng i c pht trn E-RGCH v cu t rc truyn dn cho E-RGCH ging nh E-HICH. UE i nhn mt cho php tng i t tng trong tp tch cc trong tng T r i . V th cc

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

321

cho php tng i c th c pht t c phc v ln cc khng phc v. T phc v, E-RGCH l mt knh vt l dnh ring v gi tr bo hiu c th l mt trong ba gi tr sau: +1, DTX v - tng ng vi P (tng), H O L D (gi nguyn) v DOWN (gim). Ging nh E-HICH, thi gian ca E-RGCH bng 2 hoc 8ms ph thuc vo cu hnh E-DCH T r i . T cc khng phc v, E-RGCH l knh vt l chung, thc cht 'ch th qu ti' chung c s dng hn ch lng cng sut gia cc . Gi tr trn knh E-RGCH t cc khng phc v chi c th l: DTX v - , tng ng vi khng qu ti v DOWN. E-RGCH t cc khng phc v c thi gian l lOms khng ph thuc vo cu hnh E-DCH TTI. Lu rng hnh 7.27 th hin cho phc v v mi UE c n nh mt cho php tng i ring (t cc khng phc v, E-RGCH chung cho nhiu UE). Bng 7.5 cho thy chuyn i bn tin iu khin cng sut tng i vo gi tr truyn dn E-RGCH. Bng 7.5. Chuyn i bn tin iu khin cng sut tng i vo gi tr truyn dn E-RGCH
Truyn dn trn E-RGCH Quyt nh ca b lp biu Bng tin cn pht Cc trong cng mt RLS* vi phc v HSUPA +1 -1 0 (DTX)

Cc khc

Cp thm cho UE Gim cp cho UE Gi nguyn nh cp

P DOWN HOLD

Khng cho php 1 0 (DTX)

RLS: Radio Link St: tp ng truyn v tuyn; tp ng truyn pht t cng mt nt B v cng mt lnh iu khin cng sut (cng mt ni dung) cho php UE thc hin kt hp mm cc knh ny.

322

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Mi c th s dng 40 ch k (20 cho E-HICH v 20 cho

E-RGCH) ghp chung cc knh ny ln cng mt m nh knh. Hnh 7.32 cho thy ghp cc knh E-HICH v E-RGCH trn cng mt m.
Chui trc giao di 40 b t M ha knh bng m c SF=128

E-HICH (+1,0,-1) E-RGCH (+1,0,-1)

<>__ A?V*
k

_^

n b kt hp vi cc knh ng xung khc

, E

H|CH

*vy

J
w

(+1,0,-1)

Hnh 7.32. Ghp cc knh E-HCH v E-RGCH 7.7.4. nh thi Cu trc nh thi i vi cc knh iu khin ng xung (E-AGCH, E-RGCH, E-HICH) c thit k p ng mt s yu cu. T quan im mc phc tp, vic s dng cc c s nh thi b sung trong UE l khng nn v v th tng quan nh thi c th da trn hoa tiu chung hay DPCH ng xung v nh thi ca cc knh ny cng cn c E x l. Cc knh chung, E-RGCH t khng phc v v E-AGCH, c nhiu UE gim st v phi c nh thi chung. V th tng quan nh thi ca cc knh ny c nh ngha nh l khong dch so vi hoa tiu. Thi gian ca E-AGCH bng E-DCH Tri ty theo cu hnh ca UE. i vi E-RGCH t khng phc v, thi gian ny lun bng lOms khng ph thuc v TTI. Cch lm ny em gin ha vic cho php cc UE vi cc T T I khc nhau hot ng trong cng mt m vn m bo kim sot nhiu gia cc kh nhanh.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

323

Cc knh ring, E-RGCH t phc v v E-HICH, l duy nht i vi tng UE. duy t tr x l nh nhau trong UE v trong nt r B khng ph thuc vo khong dch nh thi UE so vi hoa tiu chung, nh thi ca chng uc quy nh tng i so vi DPCH ng xung. Cu trc ca E-HICH trong nhiu E-HICH chia s cng mt m nh knh chung, gy nh hng ln thit k cc quan h nh thi. e duy t tnh trc giao gia nhng ngi s dng dng chung mt r m nh knh, cu trc khung (khung con) ca cc E-HICH phi c ng b, V th nh thi E-HICH c rt ra t nh thi DPCH, c iu chinh n khung con 2ms gn nht m khng vi phm yu cu nh nht ca qu trnh x l ca E.
I0ms Hoa tu chung
l i

Khung
l i .

Prop: Iruyn lan

E-AGCH E-RGCH (cc UE m i vi chng ny khng phi phc v)

Lin kt vi

Lin k) vi khung , 5129 chip N.TTI =40ms

E-HICH@NutB In E-RGCH@NtB E-HICH@UE E-RGCH@UE

m\
lu
tn.DPCH

MI

I U

0PCH@NtB

0PCH@UE

E-DCH@UE 1024 chip.

H1 -

E-DCH@NIB,

u m m i u

Hnh 7.33. Tng quan thi gian oi vi cc knh ng xung, Oms Tri

324

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


10 ms

Hoa t chung iu E-AGCH E-RGCH (Cc UE m i vi chng ny khng phi phc v) E-HICH@NtB E-RGCH@Nt B E-HICH@UE E-RGCH@UE

Khung i

>
LU

prop: truyn lan

5120 chip Tn.HIXH

N-TTI i+1

prap_

' U E

T NtB

tn.lpPCH DPCH@NtB I

-*!

ft

1 1

i+1

DPCH@UE prop E-DCH@UE 41 1024 chip *

' '

i+1

E-DCH@NtB

prop

Hnh 7.34. Tng quan nh thi cho 2ms Tri S x l HARQ nh hng trc tip ln qu tr trong UE v nt B. S x l HARQ cng nh, thi gian quay vng cng tt nhng cc yu cu thc hin cng cht ch hn. s x l HARQ cho E-DCH c quy nh bng bn trong trng hp lOms v l o trong trng hp 2ms. Tng qu tr c phn chia gia UE v nt B v c cho bi cc biu thc lin h gia nh thi DPCH ng xung vi bn khung E-DCH tng ng. gim nh yu cu i vi UE, cho php tng thi gian x l ca nt B thm 2ms m khng tng thm cc yu cu i vi UE, thi gian E-HICH bng c quy nh 8ms thay v lOms trong trng hp lOms E-DCH TTI. Lu rng cc tr x l cho php trong UE v nt B thay i trong khong thi gian 2ms ph

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSUPA

325

thuc vo cu hnh nh thi ca DPCH ng xung. UE khng th khai thc c d tr ny v n khng th i khin cu hnh mng u v th thit k UE phi xt n trng hp ti nht. Tri li nt B c th khai thc c d tr ny nu mng c lp cu hnh nhn c thi gian x l ln nht. n gin, nh thi E-RGCH t phc v cng ging nh nh thi ca E-HICH. iu ny cng cho php ng b vic gii ngha cho php tng i trong UE so vi T T I trc trong cng mt x l HARQ, ngha l quan h ny cng ng i vi ACK/NAK. Cc quan h nh thi ng xung c minh ha trn hnh 7.33 cho lOms E-DCH T T I v hnh 7.34 cho 2ms T r i . Bng 7.6 cho thy tng quan vcc gi tr gn ng ca tr x l trong UE v nt B. Bng 7.6. Thi gian x l ti thiu ca VE v nt B.
Lu rng tr truyn lan phi c a vo qu nh thi ca nt B 10ms E-DCH Tri S lng x l HARQ Thi gian x l ti thiu ca UE Thi gian x l ti thiu ca nt B 4 5,56ms 14,1ms 2ms E-DCH TTI 8 3,56ms 6,1 ms

7.7.5. Bo hiu iu khin ng ln,

E-DPCCH

Bo hiu i khin ngoi bng ng ln lin quan n E-DCH u (c pht trn knh E-DPCCH) cha: - RSN 2 bt. - E-TFCI 7 bt ch th khun dng truyn ti. E-TCFI thng bo cho my thu vkch thc khi truyn ti c m ha trn E-DPDCH. T thng tin ny my thu rt ra s knh E-DPDCH c pht ng thi v h s tri ph c s dng. - Yu cu tc bt ( b t hnh phc'). '

326

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

E-DPCCH c pht ng thi vi DPCCH ng ln trn mt m nh knh ring c h s tri ph 256. Cch ny m bo tng thch ngc vi W C D M A theo DPCCH ng ln gi nguyn cu trc nh trong cc pht hnh trc y ca WCDMA. Mt li h c khc ca vic pht song song DPCCH v E-DPCCH l khng cn ghp chng theo thi gian v th c th thit lp cng sut c lp cho hai knh ny. iu ny rt hu ch v hiu nng hot ng ca nt B c th khc nhau gia cc thc hin. Ton b tp cc bt thng tin ca E-DPCCH c m ha bng m Reed-Muller bc hai vo 30 bt (ging nh m khi c s dng m ha thng tin iu khin trn DPCCH). 30 bt ny c pht trn ba khe E-DPCCH cho trng hp 2ms E-DCH TTI (hnh 7.35). Trong trng hp lOms E-DCH TTI, cu trc 2ms c lp 5 ln. nh thi E-DPCCH c ng b vi DPCCH (v v th ng b vi DPDCH v E-DPDCH).
RSN 2bil E-TPCI 7bit 1 bt 'hnh phc' Ghp knh M ha Reed Muller (30,10) Lp 5 ln (chi ch 10msTTI)

E-DPCCH, SF256

Hnh 7.35. M ha
3 khe, 7680 chip 10 b t thng tin c m ha thnh 30 b t knh

E-DPCCH
E-DPCCH

30 bt, 2ms

Khe#0

Khe #1

Khe #2

--

>

si

Khe #i

Khe #14

Khung con 2ms

Khung v tuyn 10ms

Hnh 7.36. cu trc khung v tuyn E-DPCCH

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

327

gim thiu nhiu to ra trong , E-DPCCH ch c pht khi E-DPDCH pht. V th, nt B phi pht hin c E-DPCCH c hay khng c trong mt khung con (pht hin DTX) v nu c, n gii m thng tin E-DPCCH. Tn ti mt s gii thut pht hin DTX, chng hn gii thut so snh nng lng E-DPCCH vi mt ngng c thit lp theo phng sai tp m. Bng 7.7 cho thy khun dng khe ca E-DPCCH
Bng 7.7. Khun dng khe ca
H s t ph ri Tc bt (kbit/s) S bit/khe

E-DPCCH

s bit/khung v tuyn S bit/khung con

256

15

10

150

30

Hnh 7.36 m t cu trc khung ca knh E-DPCCH. 7.8. TH TC LP VT L Th tc hot ng lp vt l ca HSUPA n gin hn HSDPA. 7.8.1. Th tc lp vt l cho HARQ Hnh 7.37 v 7.38 cho thy th tc lp vt l v nh thi u cui lin quan n mt x l HSUPA HARQ cho trng hp TTI=10msvTTI = 2ms.
E-HICH
ng xung

14-16ms

>

1 8ms

1 5,5-7.5ms

. ACK/NAK E-DPCCH

E-DPCCH

3
Dng ln E-DCH

E-DCH

30ms (3TTI)

Pht li ln th nht (nu NAK)

Hnh 7.37. nh thi x l HSUPA

vi ni = Oms

328

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


E-HICH 3,5-5,5ms

n g xung

6,1-8,1ms

n g ln

2ms

14ms (7TT1)

Pht li ln th nht (nu NAK)

Hnh 7.38. nh thi x l HSUPA vi ni = 2ms 7.8.2. Th tc lp vt l cho HARQ v chuyn giao mm Hot ng lp vt l vi tp tch cc c s ln hn t ra nhng yu cu b sung cho HARQ. Vi HSDPA ch mt nt B tham gia x l HARQ, vi H S P A tt c cc nt B trong tp tch cc u lin quan. Hot ng HARQ c thc hin bng cch s dng cc quy tc ging nh cc quy tc iu khin cng sut ng ln. Nu mt nt B ca tp tch cc pht ACK, th thng tin m lp M C nhn c l thu c A C K v lp M C s coi rng truyn dn thnh cng v chuyn sang gi sau. Nguyn l hot ng HARQ trong chuyn giao mm c minh ha trn hnh 7.39. V cc nt B x l qu trnh ny mt cch c lp, nn th t gi khng c m bo v th t ny phi c iu chnh ti RNC. y cng chnh l l do m kin trc giao thc phi c thm mt thc th MAC-hs. i vi N A K t cc khng phc v, gi tr truyn dn l chui s khng y v th thc cht N A K chi c truyn dn t phc v. Nu phc v trong chuyn giao mm hn vi cc khc c nh ngha l thuc cng mt tp ng truyn v tuyn, th cc N A K c pht t tt c cc ny c th kt hp mm trong my thu ging nh kt hp cc lnh iu khin cng sut trong trng hp chuyn giao mm hn.

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSUPA

329

Hnh 7.39. Hot ng HARQ

trong chuyn giao mm

7.9. DI NG HSUPA c th hot ng trong chuyn giao mm. Qun l tp t c cc cho E-DCH s dng c ch ging nh R3 cho DCH, ngha l h UE o cht lng ng truyn t cc ln cn v thng bo cho RNC. Sau RNC c th thc hin quyt nh cp nht tp tch cc. Lu rng tp tch cc ca E-DCH l mt tp con ca tp tch cc DCH. Trong phn ln cc trng hp, hai tp tch cc ging nhau, nhng trong trng hp ch mt b phn mng h tr E-DCH, tp tch cc E-DCH c th nh hn tp tch cc DCH v tp th nht ch cha cc c kh nng thu E-DCH.

Nt B ca tp tch cc E-DCH

Hnh 7.40. Cc tp tch cc ca DCH v

E-DCH

330

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Thay i phc v c thc hin theo cch ging nh i vi

HSDPA v cng mt c nhim v phc v cho c E-DCH v HS-DSCH. V d v chuyn giao mm hn hp cho DCH v E-DCH c minh ha trn hnh 7.40. i vi HSUPA, chuyn giao mm ng ln nh hng ln hot ng lp biu. Trong khi HSDPA ch pht s liu t mt nt B, th vi HSUPA tt c cc trm gc trong tp tch cc ca E-DCH u thu s liu t UE. V th tt c cc nt B ny u b nh hng ca truyn dn ny (tng tp m) xt t quan im my thu. Ngay c khi c nhiu nt B thu s liu, cng ch c mt nt B ng vai tr phc v E-DCH. phc v E-DCH s dng tt c cc phng php lp biu kh dng bao gm c cho php tng i ln tuyt i. Cc nt B khc thuc tp tch cc ch s dng cho php tng i ngha l ch pht cc lnh hoc 'HOLD' hoc *DOWN' (hnh 7.41).

Nt B trong tp tch cc

Hnh 7.4. Lp biu HSPA trong chuyn giao mm Hot ng lp biu ca cc khng phi phc v c th c coi nh l c ch iu khin qu ti i vi h thng. V vic pht cc lnh ng xung cn tiu th ti nguyn, nn h thng c th lp cu hnh cho cc u cui chng 'nghe' cng mt chui t cc khng phc v HSUPA. iu ny cho php gim chi ph bo hiu v phn

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao,

HSPA

331

ng nhanh hn t r o n g iu kin qu ti. u cui chi c th tng tc s liu k h i c lnh 'P' t phc v H S U P A v khng c lnh 'DOWN' t cc khc trong tp tch cc E-DCH.

7.10. CC TH LOI UE
Tng t nh HSDPA, cc kh nng lp vt l ca U E c phn nhm thnh su loi. v cn bn, s hng th loi c xc nh bi hai thng s lp vt l chnh: s m nh knh v gi tr T T I c th h tr. Cc th loi E-DCH U E c cho trong bng 7.8. H tr E-DCH lOms T T I l bt buc cho cho tt c cc loi UE, trong k h i ch c mt tp con ca cc th loi l h tr 2ms T T I . Ngoi ra, cn lu rng tc s liu cao nht c th h tr c v i lOms TO l 2Mbis. L do v g i i hn dung lng nh m trong nt B cho kt hp mm; kch thc k h i truyn ti cng ln th cng cn dung lng nh m ln cho cc pht li. M t U E h t r H S U P A bt buc phi h tr HS-DSCH. Bng 7.8. Cc loi E-DCH Th loi E-DCH 2 3 4 5 6 Max #E-DPDCH, min SF 1xSF4 2xSF4 2xSF4 2xSF2 2xSF2 2xSF4+2xSF2 H tr 2ms Tri
-

VE

Kch thc khi truyn ti cc i 10ms

Tri
-

2ms

Tri

7110(0,7Mbit/s)

C
-

14484 (1,4Mbit/s) 2798 (1,4Mbit/s) 14484 (1,4Mbit/s) 20000 (2Mbit/s) 20000 (2Mbit/s) 20000 (2Mbit/s)
-

C
-

5772 (2.8Mbit/s)
-

11484(5,74Mbit/s)

7.11. T N G K T
Chng ny trnh by cu trc cc knh s liu v bo hiu s dng cho H S P A .

332

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G E-DCH (Enhanced Dedicated Channel) l mt kiu knh truyn

ti mi, c a ra trong R truyn dn s liu gi tc cao cho HSUPA. E-DCH c lp cu hnh ng thi vi mt hay nhiu knh DCH khc. Ngoi knh s liu, HSUPA cn h tr cc knh bo hiu nh: E-AGCH, E-RGCH, E-HICH, E-DCCH. E-AGCH l mt knh chia s mang thng tin cho php lp biu tuyt i bao gm: - T s cng sut E-DPDCH/DPCCH cc i m UE c php s dng cho E-DCH (5 bt). - C tch cc ( bt) c s dng tch cc (hoc thi tch cc) cc x l HARQ. - Mt s nhn dng nhn dng UE (hay nhm UE) m thng tin E-AGCH cn chuyn n (16 b s nhn dng ny khng t), c pht tng minh m n tng trong tnh ton CRC. E-RGCH l mt knh vt l dnh ring. Trong phc v n cha mt trong ba gi tr bo hiu sau: +1, D T X v - tng ng vi P (tng), H O L D (gi nguyn) v D O W N (gim) v trong chuyn giao mm hai gi tr D T X v - (DOWN) trong cc khng phc v 'ch th qu ti' nhm hn ch lng cng sut gia cc . Lnh 'P' ('DOWN') ch th UE tng (gim) cho php phc v, ngha l tng (gim) t s cng sut E-DPCH trn DPCCH so vi t s cng sut c s dng cui cng trong T T I trc trong cng mt x l HARQ. Lnh 'HOLD' chi th UE khng thay i cho php tng i. E-HICH l mt knh vt l dnhringvi SF = 128 mang cc cng nhn HARQ thng bo cho UE v kt qu tch t n hiu E-DCH ti nt B (ACK/NAK). E-DPCCH l knh bo hiu ng ln c pht ng thi vi DPCCH ng ln trn mt m nh knh ring c h s tri ph 256,

Chng 7: Truy nhp gi ng ln tc cao, HSPA

333

n mang thng tin v cn thit sp t li th t (RSN: s trnh t pht li), ch th t hp khun dng truyn ti cho E-DCH (E-TFCI) v b t yu cu tc (bt hnh phc) UE thng bo yu cu cho php tng tc s liu hoc duy tr tc hin c. Chng ny cng xt chi tit vic p dng cc cng ngh tin tin cho HSUPA n t c dung lng cao nh: - Lp biu knh v thch ng ng truyn - iu khin tc v iu ch bc cao - HARQ Cui cng cc vn lin quan n di ng v th loi UE cng c xt trong chng ny. 7 1 . CU HI .2 1. Trinh by cu trc knh E-DCH 2. Trnh by cu trc MAC-e 3. Trnh by x l lp vt l ca HSUPA 4. Trnh by t chc lung s liu trong HSUPA 5. Trinh by nguyn l lp biu HSUPA 6. Trnh by nguyn l HARQ vi kt hp mm trong HSUPA 7. Trnh by cu trc cc knh bo hiu v iu khin ca HSUPA 8. Trnh by cc th tc lp vt l ca HSUPA 9. Trinh by qun l di ng trong HSUPA lo. Trnh by cc th loi HSUPA E

Chng 8

QUN L TI NGUYN V TUYN

Cc gii thut qun l t i nguyn v tuyn (RRM: Radio Resource Management) chu trch nhim chuyn i cc tng cng lp vt l ca HSDPA v HSUPA thnh li dung lng trong khi vn m bo hiu nng ngi s dng u cui v tnh n nh ca h thng. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bc gom: - Tng quan qun l ti nguyn v tuyn ca HSDPA - Cc gii thut RNC cho HSDPA - Cc gii thut nt B cho HSDPA - Tng quan qun l ti nguyn v tuyn HSUPA - Cc gii thut RNC cho HSUPA - Cc gii thut nt B cho HSUPA Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc v cc gii thut qun l ti nguyn cho HSDPA v HSUPA bao gm cc gii thut da trn RNC (Radio Netvvork Controller) v da trn nt B. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k t liu c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [1], [9], [10], [ 1], [14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

336

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

8.1. T N G QUAN Q U N L TI N G U Y N V T U Y N CA HSDPA RNC Nt B


\ \ / /

c
^

n nh ti nguyn
X X \ \

'Thch ng n g truyn HS-DSCH V )


>

f f
V.

iu khin cho php Qun l di ng

r
Lp biu gi

>

J
\

(
V.

[ V

iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH

>

Hnh 8. . Tng quan cc gii thut HSDPA

RRM

Hnh 8.1 trnh by tng quan cc gii thut HSDPA RRM quan trng nht ti RNC v nt B. Ti RNC, cc gii thut HSDPA mi bao gm n nh t i nguyn, iu khin cho php v qun l di ng. Trong ng cnh ny, n nh t i nguyn l chc nng n nh cng sut v cc m nh knh cho nt B truyn dn HSDPA trong tng . iu khin cho php ca HSDPA khc vi iu khin cho php ca R3 DCH v HSDPA da trn khi nim knh chia s. Qun l di ng cho HSDPA cng l mt chc nng mi, v s liu chi c pht trong mt n UE ti mt thi im v cn c qun l b m hiu dng ca nt B trong cc chuyn giao do kin trc phn b. Cc gii thut HSDPA RRM s c trnh by k hom trong mc 8.1.1. Ti nt B, cn c mt chc nng thch ng ng truyn HS-DSCH mi iu chinh tc bt ca HS-DSCH trong tng T T I ph thuc vo cht lng thu ca ngi s dng. iu khin cng sut knh HS-SCCH cn thit gim thiu chi ph cng sut trong khi vn m bo thu tin cy. Cui cng, b lp biu gi ca MAC-hs trong nt B iu khin tn sut phc v nhng ngi s dng dc php trn knh HS-DSCH. Mt b lp biu gi MAC-hs c thit k tt c kh nng

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

337

cc i ha dung lng h thng trong khi vn m bo tri nghim th v ca ngi s dng u cui. Cc gii thut HSDPA RRM mi ti nt B c trnh by trong mc 8.1.2. Lu rng 3GPP chi nh ngha cc giao din v cc yu cu hiu nng ti thiu ca E. V th cc nh sn xut thit b mng c th t mnh thit k cc nt B v cc gii thut R R M da trn nt B v da trn RRC theo yu cu th trng. 8.2. CC GII THUT RNC CHO HSDPA 8.2.1. n nh ti nguyn Trc khi nt B c th truyn dn s liu trn HS-DSCH, RNC iu khin cn n nh cc m iu khin v cng sut cho truyn dn HSDPA. t nht, mt m HS-SCCH vi h s tri ph SF=128 v mt m HS-DPSCH vi h s tri ph SF=16 phi c n nh cho nt B. S dng giao thc N B A P (Node B Application Part) c nh ngha trong 3GPP, RNC v n B thng bo cho nhau. Cc ti nguyn c t n nh bng cc gi i mt bn tin 'NBAP: yu cu lp li cu hnh knh chia s vt l' t RNC iu khin n nt B (hnh 8.2). V th vic n nh cc m nh knh cho truyn dn HSDPA ch yu cu bo hiu gia RNC v nt B. Ni chung nn n nh cng nhiu m HS-DSCH cho nt B cng tt v iu ny cho php ci thin hiu sut s dng ph tn ca HS-DSCH. Tuy nhin vic n nh qu nhiu m HS-DSCH c th dn n chn nhng ngi s dng R3 DCH v khng cn m truyn ng thi cc knh R3 DCH. Rt may l nu nghn m nh knh b pht hin, RNC iu khin c th nhanh chng gii phng mt s m n nh cho HS-DSCH ngn chn nghn cc kt ni thoi hay video R3.
RNC iu khin NBAP: Yu cu lp li cu hnh knh chia s vt l Nt B

Hnh 8.2. Bo hiu n nh ti nguyn HSDPA

338

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G T r u y n dn HS-DSCH n nhiu ngi s dng ng thi trong

mt T T I i h i nhiu m HS-SCCH v nhiu m HS-PDSCH. Thng thng ghp knh m l gii php hu ch i v i cc kch bn trong mt nt B n nh nhiu m HS-PDSCH hn so v i s m c h t r b i cc u cui HSDPA. Nt B c t h h t r 10-15 m HS-PDSCH t r o n g k h i u cui H S D P A thng ch c th h tr 5 m HS-PDSCH. G i i thut n nh cc m HS-SCCH cho nt B v th c th c rt ra nh l mt h m ph thuc vo cc m HS-PDSCH c n nh v cc loi H S D P A U E trong . T r o n g hu ht cc trng hp, t i nguyn ng xung khan him nht l cng sut. Hnh 8.3 cho thy qu cng sut ng xung cho mt c c truyn dn H S D P A ln cc knh R3. Qu cng sut bao g m cng sut cn cho cc knh chung nh P-CPICH, cng sut cho cc truyn dn R3 D C H v cng sut cho truyn dn HSDPA. Cng sut cho cc D C H thi gian thc c qun l b i iu khin cho php ca R N C cn cng sut D C H phi thi gian thc c iu khin b i b lp biu gi ca RNC. Cng sut cho D C H phi thi gian thc c c trng nh l cng sut kh iu khin, ngha l c th c iu chinh thng qua thay i tc bt, t r o n g k h i cng sut cho cc knh chung v cho D C H thi gian thc c c o i l khng th iu khin. V d v trng hp n nh cng sut c minh ha trn hnh 8.3. Gi thit l m hnh R R M theo cng sut, gii thut R N C RRM c nhim v duy t tng cng sut cho tt c cc knh R3 thp hem r PtxTarget (ch cng sut pht). c th thc hin cc s ny vi c HSDPA, nt B c th c lp cu hnh bo co cc kt qu o cng sut trung bnh trn m t sng mang khng dng cho HSDPA (nh m i n h ha trn hnh 8.3). D a trn cc k t qu o ny, RNC c th tin hnh iu khin cho php v lp biu cho cc knh R3 vi truyn dn H S D P A ng thi.

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn


Cng sut pht sng mang Cng sut cc i

339

Tng cng sut

HSDPA

PtxTarget

Cng sut khng do HSDPA pht

R3 phi thi gian thc

R3 thi gian thc Cc knh chung

Hnh 8.3. Minh ha qu cng sut ng xung C hai ty chn chnh n nh cng sut cho tng nt B: - Ty chn : RNC iu khin n nh mt khi lng c nh cng sut truyn dn HSDPA cho tng . Sau nt B c th s dng cng sut ny truyn dn HS-SCCH v HS-PDSCH. Sau ny RNC c th cp nht n nh cng sut truyn dn HSDPA ti mi thi im. - Ty chn 2: Nu RNC khng n nh tng minh cng sut truyn dn HSDPA cho nt B, nt B c php s dng ton b cng sut tha trong cho truyn dn HSDPA. Ngha l nt B c th iu chinh cng sut truyn dn HSDPA sao cho n bng cng sut pht cc i tr i cng sut c s dng cho cc knh khng phi HSDPA. Hnh v i c
a ty chn v ty chn 2 c minh ha trn hnh 8 4 Lu rng cng sut khng phi HSDPA thay i theo thi gian .. do (1) iu khin cng sut nhanh c
a cc DCH, (2) xy ra cc cuc

340

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gi thi gian thc mi, (3) kt thc cc cuc g i D C H v (4) thay i tc bt ca cc cuc gi gi trn DCH.

Cng sut

, Cng sut nt B cc i

Cng sut z

Cng sut nt B cc i Cng sut HSDPA

Cng sut khng phi HSDPA Ty chn 1 Thi gian

Cng sut khng phi HSDPA Ty chn 2 Thi gian

Ty chn 1 n nh cng sut HSDPA tng minh t RNC, ty chn 2 n nh cng sut nhanh da trn nt B. * i chnh cng sut bi RNC. u

Hnh 8.4. Cc nguyn l n nh cng sut V i s dng ty chn 2, tng cng sut kh dng c th c s dng tt hem, v nt B c th nhanh chng iu chnh cng sut truy n dn H S D P A da trn cc kt qu o ngn hn cng sut hin ang c s dng cho cc knh khng phi HSDPA. V th ty chn 2 c coi l hp dn hn ty chn . c bit l trong cc kch bn khi tng tng cng sut sng mang dn n tng trc tip dung lng . Tuy nhin trong cc kch bn hn ch dung lng, s khng nhn c l i dung lng k h i tng cng sut pht nt B cho tt c cc trong mng. Khng ph thuc vo ty chn hoc ty chn 2 c chn cho n nh cng sut HSDPA, R N C lun lun iu k h i n chia s tng cng sut gia cc knh H S D P A v cc knh khc. N u RNC cho php tng cng sut trong cc knh khng phi HSDPA, chng hn n tng PtxTarget, th cng sut kh dng cho truy dn H S D P A s thp

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

341

hn. V th gii php tin tin l s dng gii thut ng ti RNC, gii thut ny c th iu chnh chia s cng sut gia cc knh HSDPA v cc knh khng phi HSDPA da trn cc thng s cht lng dch v (QoS) i vi cc cuc gi ang din ra trn hai kiu knh ny. 8.2.2. Thng s QoS QoS cho cc knh R3 DCH l mt hm ph thuc vo loi lu lng (TC: Traffc Class) ca ngi s dng, u tin s hu n nh (ALC Allocation Retention Priority) v ngoi ra cn c cc thng s knh mang khc ca UMTS. Cc thng s QoS t giao din Iu khng kh dng cho nt B lp biu gi MAC-hs. Cc thng s mi c nh ngha cho giao din Iub gia RNC v nt B. Cc thng s QoS ca HSDPA trong Iub l: - Tc bt m bo (GBR: Guaranteed Bt Rate) - Ch th u tin lp biu (SPI: Scheduling Priority Indicator) - B nh thi xa (DT: Discard Timer) Hnh 8.5 minh ha cc thng s QoS ca 3GPP v cc giao din ca chng. 3GPP khng nh ngha cch chuyn i cc thng s ny trong RNC cng nh cch s dng cc thng s QoS ny bi b lp biu gi MAC-hs.
- Loi lu lng TC - Chi th u tin lp biu SPI . u tin x l lu lng T H P - Tc bt m bo GBR RNC _ ." | j hu n nh ARP - B nh thi xa D q - Tc bt m bo GPR lu
ns S G S N

t B

lub

lu-ps

Hnh 8.5. Cc thng s QoS ca 3GPP trong cc giao din Iu-ps v Iub Chi th u tin lp biu (SPI) nhn cc gi tr trong di [0,1,. ..,15], trong s ln chi th u tin cao hn cn s nh ch th u tin thp hn. DT c t thi gian cc i m gi c php nh m trong

342

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

MAC-hs ca nt B trc k h i b xa. i v i cc loi lu lng lung v hi thoi, thng s H S D P A G B R c th c thit lp ty theo yu cu tc bt c c t trong thuc n g U M T S cho loi lu lng ny. M t SPI cao c th c n nh cho dch v lung video hay cc dch v thi gian thc, trong khi cc ng dng truy nhp Internet ni chung c th c n nh gi tr SPI thp. Cc c t 3GPP cng cho php thc hin cc ty chn tin tin trong SPI c iu chnh ng trong m t phin gi. N h s xt di y, gi tr ca GBR v SPI cho nhng ngi s dng H S D P A m i k h i h ang yu cu truy nhp cng c th c s dng cho quyt nh iu khin cho php.

8.2.3. iu khin cho php


iu khin cho php l chc nng quyt nh c cho php cc u cui H S D P A truy nhp hay khng v cc u cui ny s c phc v bi H S D P A hay DCH. Quyt nh cho php truy nhp dc thc hin ti RNC. T r o n g trng hp cc dch v chuyn mch knh (thoi A M R hoc video) quyt nh lin quan n DCH. i vi cc dch v chuyn mch gi, gii thut trong R N C cn x e m xt cc thng s c m bo bi mng li cng nh tnh trng ti nguyn ni chung trong mng. N u ch l u n lng n lc nht v i cc yu cu QoS khng cht ch c truyn trn HSDPA, th gii thut iu khin cng sut c th c thc hin ch n gin bng cch kim t r a s k h dng trong R N C v cc ti nguyn phn cng ca nt B phc v ngi s dng H S D P A mi. N u cc dch v i hi cao hn vi cc yu cu QoS cht ch hn th phi cn n gii thut iu khin cho php tin tin hn m bo cc yu cu QoS cho nhng ngi s dng H S D P A hin h u trong cng nh cc yu cu ca ngi s dng mi sau k h i cho php. Hnh 8.6 cho thy v d cc cc kt qu o v cc thng s s dng cho iu khin cho php H S D P A trong RNC: nt B bo co tng cng sut pht sng mang trung bnh v cng sut pht khng phi HSDPA. V i hai kt qu o ny, R N C c th tnh

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguy SI v tuyn

343

ton khi lng cng sut pht HSDPA kh dng trong . Nt B bo co cng sut HSDPA cn thit phc v nhng ngi s dng HSDPA hin hu vi tc bt m bo ca h. Cui cng, ngi s dng yu cu truy nhp HSDPA s gi bo co o E /N(, ca knh hoa
c

t chung (CPICH) n RNC. RNC c th s dng kt qu o ny iu nh gi cht lng tn hiu HS-DSCH ca ngi s dng ny. Da t cc kt qu o cng vi cc thuc ng (cc thng s) QoS ca rn ngi s dng, RNC c th c tnh liu c dung lng HSDPA cho php ngi s dng mi truy nhp m khng vi phm cc yu cu QoS ca nhng ngi s dng hin c trong hay khng. Cc nghin cu cho thy gii thut iu khin cho php ny h tr hiu qu cc dch v lung cht lng cao v cc dch v VoIP trn HSDPA. Cui cng cn lu rng kt qu o cng sut khng phi HSDPA t nt B cng c th c s dng cho iu khin cho php thng thng i vi cc knh R3 ng tn ti trn cng mt sng mang.
UE 1 Nt B iu k h i n c h o php t r o n g RNC Tng cng sut sng mang Cng sut khng phi HSDPA^ Cng sut yu cu ca HS-DSH I ' Cc kt qu o cng sut hoa tiu :
1

r I |
u

Hnh 8.6. M t cc kt qu o v cc thng s p dng cho iu khin cho php HSDPA 8.2.4. Qun l di ng HSDPA khng s dng chuyn mch mm, v truyn dn HS-DSCH v HS-SCCH chi xy ra trong mt c gi l ' phc v HS-DSCH'. RNC quyt nh phc v HS-DSCH cho HSDPA UE. phc v l mt trong tp tch cc ca UE. Thay i phc v mt cch ng b c h tr gia UTRAN v UE. Tnh nng ny cho php m bo ph hon ton v di ng hon ton cho HSDPA.

344

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phc v c th thay i m khng cn cp nht tp tch cc ca ngi s dng i vi cc knh ring R3 hoc kt hp vi thit lp, gii phng hay lp li cu hnh cc knh DCH. Thng thng vic thay i phc v HSDPA c thc hin da trn bo co kt qu o t UE. 3GPP R5 cha mt th tc o mi thng bo cho RNC v phc v HS-DSCH tt nht. Trong mc di y ta s xt ngn gn cc s kin o mi ca UE h tr di ng cho nhng ngui s dng HSDPA cng nh cc th tc chuyn giao ni nt B v gia cc nt B i vi HS-DSCH. Cui cng ta s xt chuyn giao t HS-DSCH n R3 DCH. Chuyn giao vi ch nn cng c h tr cho nhng ngi s dng HSDPA nhng khng xt trong mc ny. 8.2.4.1. S kin o cho phc v HS-DSCH tt nht RNC quyt nh cc no s c mt trong tp tch cc truyn dn cc DCH. RNC phc v a ra quyt nh chuyn giao da t rn cc bo co o knh CPCH t UE. S kin o ' l d ' c nh ngha cho HSDPA, ngha l thay i phc v HS-DSCH tt nht. Bo co kt qu o v CPICH E /N ca tt nht c khi ng khi tt
c 0

nht thay i (hnh 8.7). C th lp cu hnh s kin o ny sao cho tt c cc trong tp ng c ca ngi s dng u c xt hay ch gii hn s kin o sao cho chi c cc trong tp tch cc i vi cc DCH ca ngi s dng l c xt. Cng-c th s dng ngng tr trnh thay i nhanh trong phc v HS-DSCH i vi s kin o ny, cng nh c t dch u tin cho mt s chng hn m rng vng ph HSDPA ca cc ny. Mc d cc thay i phc v HS-DSCH thng c khi ng bi cc kt qu o ng xung ca UE, nhng chng cng c th c khi ng bi cc kt qu o ng ln ca nt B. Cc kt qu o ng ln ca nt B cng c th c s dng m bo rng s liu khng b mt do ph sng ng ln cho phc v qu ti. 0

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v luyn

345

phc v phi nhn c knh iu khin vt l ring tc cao v n mang thng t i n cht lng knh (CQI) v cc ban t i n ACK/NAK. HS-PDCCH khng th s dng phn tp v m v v th mc cng sut cao hn cng nh lp c s dng trn HS-DPCCH trong chuyn giao m m ci thin tin cy ca bo hiu. Nu cht lng kt ni ng ln n phc v tr nn ti. th cn thay i phc v HS-DSCH duy t bo hiu ng ln tin cy. K t qu o SIReor r c chun ha ca nt B l mt v d o ng ln c th s dng khi ng cc thay i phc v HS-DSCH. SIReor l o hiu s gia t s tn hiu trn nhiu (SIR) trn v SIR ch s dng cho iu khin cng sut vng kn. V th nu SIRerror qu cao, th c ngha l cht lng bo hiu ng ln qu km trong c xt.
C P I C H c/lo T = thi gian khi n g

A D = tr c h u y n giao H = tr m c E

d\ c a

E c/l 0 ca 2

T h i gian

H S - D S C H t 1

H S - D S C H t 2

Hnh 8.7. Minh ha o HS-DSCH

tt nht t VE

8.2.4.2. Chuyn giao t HS-DSCH n HS-DSCHgia cc nt B


HSDPA h tr di dng c gia cc on ca cng mt nt B v gia hai nt B khc nhau. Chuyn giao gia cc nt B c minh ha

346

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

trn hnh 8.8, trong E chun b thay i phc v HS-DSCH t mt ngun sang m t ch. Th tc v tr chuyn giao i v i trng h p gia cc nt B c m i n h ha trn hnh 8.9.
T Nt B #1 Nt B #2

ngun ti nt B #1

ch ti nt B # 2

UE chuyn t nt B #1 sang nt B #2

Hnh 8.8. Chuyn giao t HS-DSCH

sang HS-DSCH

gia cc nt B

Phn tch tr g i thit rng knh mang bo hiu (SRB) c chuyn i vo HS-DSCH v knh ring tng cng (E-DCH) cho ng ln v i T T I = Oms. Trc ht, U E gi bo co o trn SRB khi khi ng s k i n o t h nht hon thnh. T r u y n dn bt u ti thi im t| v R N C nhn c bn t i n ti t . Tip theo R N C dnh trc
2

cc ti nguyn trm gc v cc ti nguyn I u b cho nt B ch. Dnh trc ti nguyn c th c thc hin nhanh hn bng cch lp cu hnh trc nu cc ti nguyn ny c t trc. Sau k h i cc t i nguyn ny sn sng ti thi im t , R N C s g i bn t i n lp cu
3

hnh knh mang v tuyn n UE. K h i U E ny vn t h u s liu t nt B ngun. K h i U E gii m bn t i n lp li cu hnh v thi gian tch

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

347

cc ht ti thi im t , UE s chuyn t ngun sang thu t ch. UE bt u nghe HS-SCCH t ch mi. N cng o cht lng
4

knh ca mi ny v gi cc bo co CQI n mi. MAC-hs i vi ngi s dng trong mi c khi to li ti thi im thay i v cc n v s liu ti tin (PDU) c nh m s b xa. ng thi n v iu khin lung trong MAC-hs trong ch bt u yu cu cc PDU t RNC phc v c th bt u pht s liu trn HS-DSCH n ngi s dng. i vi RNC cng c th pht kp gi n c hai nt B trong qu trnh chuyn . Khi RNC nhn c bn tin 'hon thnh lp li cu hnh' t E, n c th gii phng cc ti nguyn t ngun.

Nt B #1

Nt B #2

RNC

roi

un

ni

* ,

"Bo co o"

Lp li cu hnh ng truyn v tuyn v thit lp AAL2 n nt B #2 "Lp li cu hnh knh mang v tuyn" "RLC ACK" HS-DSCH t nt B #1
'

1
B

. B #2 Y ''HS-DSCH t nt'"" ''" knh mang v cu "Hon thnh lo laituyn hnh

'

inh li tuyn s liu t nt B #1 * sang nt B #2

Hnh 8.9. Th tc chuyn giao tHS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH gia cc nt B Khong trng truyn dn c k hiu l thi gian B trn hnh 8.9 l rt nh v UE thc hin thay i ng b vi vic mng chuyn mch truyn dn t ngun sang ch. iu ny m bo di ng m cho dch v thi gian thc tr thp nh VoIP.

348

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Tr A ca th tc c nh ngha l tr t thi im t| (khi UE

gi bo co kt quo) n thi im t ( k h i U E nhn s liu t


4

mi). Tr ny lin quan n s kin rng cc iu kin knh v phainh thay i rt nhanh. V i gi thit l xc sut pht li RLC thp, tr ny l 200-250ms. Tr t - t i v i dnh trc ti nguyn mng
3 2

ph thuc vo s s dng cu hnh c lp trc v vo cu hnh mng v tuyn. M t cch gn ng qu tr bng: + t - t | = 50ms
2

+ t - t = 50ms
3 2

+ t - t = 50ms
4 3

+ tng cng: 200-250ms Trc k h i thay i phc v HS-DSCH, c th c mt s PDU i v i ngi s dng c nh m trong MAC-hs ngun, y l cc P D U cha tng c pht n ngi s dng v cc P D U treo trong b qun l H A R Q hoc ang i A C K / N A C K trn HS-DPCCH ng ln hoc ang i pht li. Cc P D U c n h m trong ngun s b xa v chng c th c phc hi bi cc pht li RLC (iu khin lin kt v tuyn) nu R L C ch c cng nhn c s dng. K h i giao thc R L C nhn thy rng cc P D U gc c gi n ngun nhng khng c cng nhn, n s k h i u pht li v cc pht li ny s chuyn chng n ch mi. gim tr truyn dn P D U trong giai on khi phc ny, giao thc R L C ti UE c th c lp cu hnh gi trng thi R L C n R N C ngay sau khi phc v HS-DSCH thay i. iu ny c ngha l giao thc RLC trong R N C c th ngay lp tc bt u chuyn cc P D U b xa trong ngun trc k h i thay i phc v HA-DSCH. C cc ng dng khng s dng cc pht li lp cao, chng hn cc ng dng s dng giao thc b s liu ( U D P ) v s dng ch R L C trong sut hay khng cng nhn. Cc ng dng chy trn ch R L C trong sut v khng cng nhn nh vy thng l cc ng dng

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

349

tr thp, nh V o I P v chng chi s dng nh m rt ngn trong nt B. V th, s lng cc P D U b xa rt nh hoc bng khng. Cc c t 3GPP cng cho php truyn kp cc P D U t RNC n c hai nt B trong thi gian thay i m bo khng b mt gi.

8.14.3. Chuyn giao t HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH ni nt B


Chuyn giao t HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH ni nt B gia hai on cng c h tr (hnh 8.10). Th tc chuyn giao ny cng ging nh chuyn giao gia cc nt B, ngoi tr vic chuyn cc gi c nh m v vic thu HS-DPCCH ng ln. RNC phc v

Hnh 8.10. Chuyn giao HS-DSCH

sang

HS-DSCH

gia cc on trong nt B Gi thit rng nt B h tr duy t MAC-hs. tt c cc gi P D U r cho ngi s dng c chuyn t MAC-hs trong ngun n MAC-hs trong ch trong k h i chuyn giao HS-DSCH. iu ny c

350

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ngha l trng thi ca b qun l H A R cng c gi nguyn khng khi ng bt k pht li no trong khi chuyn giao t HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH ni nt B. DPCH ng ln s dng chuyn giao mm khi chuyn giao HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH ni nt B. Trong cc iu kin ny, cng c th coi HS-DPCCH ng ln ang chuyn giao mm hn hai ng, v th cc ngn RAKE gii iu ch HS-DPCCH c t ti c hai trong tp tch cc ca ngi S dng. iu ny c ngha l ph sng ng ln ca HS-DPCCH c ci thin i vi nhng ngi s dng trong chuyn giao mm hn. 8.2.4.4. Chuyn giao HS-DSCHsang DCH Chuyn giao t HS-DSCH sang DCH c th cn cho nhng ngi s dng HSDPA khi h chuyn dch t mt c HSDPA sang mt khng c HSDPA (hnh 8.11).
Nt B #1 c kh nng HSDPA Nt B #2 khng c kh nng HSDPA

UE chuyn t nt B #1 sang nt B #2

Hnh 8. . Vi d v chuyn giao HS-DSCH sang R3 DCH

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

351

Sau khi RNC phc v quyt nh khi xng chuyn giao ny, bn tin chun b lp li cu hnh ng truyn v tuyn c gi n cc nt B tham gia, ng thi bn tin lp li cu hnh knh vt l RRC c gi n ngi s dng. Tng t nh i vi chuyn giao HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH gia cc nt B, chuyn giao HS-DSCH sang DCH dn n khi to li cc PDU trong MAC-hs trong ngun, sau cc PDU ny c khi phc li thng qua pht li ca cc lp cao hom, chng hn cc pht li RLC. R5 cng h tr thc hin chuyn giao t DCH sang HS-DSCH. Kiu chuyn giao ny cng c th c s dng trong trng hp khi ngi s dng chuyn dch t mt khng c kh nng HSDPA sang mt c kh nng HSDPA. Bng 8. tng kt cc kiu chuyn giao v cc c tnh ca chng. Bng 8. . Cc kiu chuyn giao HSDPA
HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH ni nt B o cho chuyn giao Quyt nh chuyn giao

v cc c tnh ca chng
HS-OSCH sang DCH

HS-DSCH sang HS-DSCH gia cc nt B

Thng l UE nhng cng c th nt B Bi RNC phc v Cc gi c chuyn t MAC-hs ngun sang MAC-hs ch Cc gi khng c chuyn. Cc pht li RLC t SRNC c s dng Khng, khi ch RLC c cng nhn c s dng ho
c khi pht kp gi trn ch RLC khng cng nhn HS-DPCCH ch c thu bi mt Cc pht li RLC t SRNC c s dng

Cc pht li gi

Cc mt gi

Khng

Khng, khi ch RLC cng nhn c s dng

HS-DPCCH ng ln

HS-DPCCH c th s dng chuyn giao mm hn

352

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

8.3. C C GII T H U T N T B CHO HSDPA 8.3.1. Cc k thut thch ng ng truyn Gii thut thch ng ng truyn ti nt B iu chnh tc bt pht trn HS-DSCH trong tng TTI cho truyn dn ca ngi s dng c lp biu. Trng hp l tng, tc bt pht ca HS-DSCH phi c iu chnh nh mt hm ph thuc vo t s tn hiu t rn nhiu cng tp m ca HS-DSCH trn mt T r i m ngi s dng u cui tri nghim. Nguyn l thch ng ng truyn ca HS-DSCH c minh ha trn hnh 8.12.

T h i gian

*
(T) UE bo co cht lng knh thp v nt B n nh tc bt thp. d)uE bo co cht lng knh cao v nt B n nh tc bt cao

Hnh 8.12. Nguyn l thch ng ng truyn

Cc ngun khc nhau gy ra thay i HS-DSCH SINR c minh ha trn hnh 8.13. Tng cng sut t phc v HS-DSCH thay i theo thi gian do truyn dn ca cc knh DCH c iu khin cng sut, knh v tuyn ng xung ph thuc thi gian nu ngi s dng chuyn

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

353

ng v nhiu t khc ti u cui ca ngi s dng cng thay i theo thi gian. thch n g ng truyn HS-DSCH, U E nh k pht CQI n phc v HS-DSCH trn HS-DPCCH ng ln (xem chng 6). C Q I ch th kch thc khi truyn ti cc i m E c th thu v i xc sut t i thiu 9 0 % . Thng t i n ny c thng bo qua chi s C Q I nm trong di t 0 n 31, trong mi bc tng ng vi mt nc l d B trong HS-DSCH SINR.
Tng cng sut pht thay i theo thi gian phc v HS-DSCH

Nhiu t khc thay i theo thi gian Knh v tuyn thay i theo thi gian y \ ~~ Ngi s dng HSDPA

Tp m nhit

Tr bo hiu HS-DPCCH v cc l

Hnh 8.13. S khi cho thy tn hiu thu ti u cui HSDPA v bo co CQI cho phc v HS-DSCH
Gii thut thch ng ng truyn n gin s tun theo cc gi tr CQI c bo co b i UE. T u y nhin c th cn phi iu chnh CQI do U E bo co b sung mt khong dch v cc l do sau. Cng sut pht HS-DSCH t nt B cho ngi s dng c th khc vi cng sut pht HS-DSCH m U E tha nhn ti thi im n rt ra bo co CQI. U E tha nhn rng cng sut pht HS-DSCH bng cng sut knh hoa tiu chung s cp (P-CPICH) cng r, trong r l thng s khong dch cng sut c thng bo cho U E thng qua bo hiu

RRC t RNC.

354

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Cc nghin cu v nh hng tr phn hi ln hiu nng thch ng ng truyn cho thy cn s dng gii thut thch ng ng truyn vng ngoi iu chnh thm chi s CQI t ngi s dng trc khi p dng n iu chinh khun dng truyn dn HS-DSCH. Gii thut vng ngoi c th da trn ACK/NAK t cc ln truyn qu kh. Gii thut ny iu chnh cc gi tr khong dch t c xc sut pht li trung bnh ch. Qu nhiu pht li s b sung thm tr khng cn thit trong khi qu t li biu th rng cc kch thc khi truyn khng ln dn n gim thng lng mt cch khng cn thit. Th ng ng truyn HS-DSCH vng ngoi ch c th da trn cng mt nguyn l nhu cc gii thut iu khin cng sut vng ngoi ca R3. Gii thut thch ng HS-DSCH vng ngoi c tng kt trong s khi trn hnh 8.14.
RNC NuB Bn tin NBAP: cng sut P-CPICH+r ch BLER Thch ng ngXThch ng ng^ truyn HS-DSCH truyn HS-DSCH vng ngo^/\^vog trong ACK/NAK/DTX cai Bn tin: HS-DPCCH Ngi s dng HSOPA UE

HS-DSCH

Hnh 8.15. S khi thch ng ng truyn ti nt B

8.3.2. iu khin cng sut


Cht lng thu HS-SCCH tin cy l quan trng v khi truyn ti trn HS-DSCH ch c th c gii m nu trc ht HS-SCCH c thu ng. V th cn n nh cng sut cho truyn dn HS-SCCH m bo thu tin cy. Mt khc, cng cn gim cng sut truyn dan HS-SCCH gim nhiu trong mng. V th cn iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH trong tng Tri, theo cng sut pht HS-SCCH c

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

355

diu chinh sao cho ngi s dng mong mun c xc sut gii m knh ng cao (hnh 8.15). Khi lng cng sut HS-SCCH ln c s dng E1 ti bin , trong khi khi lng nh hn c th c s dng cho ngi s dng E 3 gn trm gc. Tri li v phn HSDSCH, n s dng thch ng ng truyn ch khng phi iu khin cng sut nhanh. Cc c t 3GPP khng nh ngha tng minh c ch iu khin cng sut cho HS-SCCH. iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH c th da t cc u vo sau: rn Cc lnh iu khin cng sut ca knh DPCCH lin kt. Cng sut pht HS-SCCH c iu chnh tng i vi cng sut pht ca DPCCH ng xung lin kt. iu ny c th thc hin v DPCCH c iu chnh cng sut vng kn v khong dch cng sut gia HS-SCCH v DPCCH c th c thit lp khi bit trc hiu nng SINR tng i gia hai knh Cc bo co CQ. Cng sut pht c iu chinh nh l mt hm ca bo co CQI nhn c t ngi s dng. iu ny c th thc hin nu c mt bng ti nt B biu th khong dch cng sut gia ch s CQI v cng sut HS-SCCH yu cu. Nh vy trong c hai trng hp, u c th thc hin mt s iu khin cng sut ta nh vng kn cho HS-SCCH da trn thng tin phn hi t ngi s dng v hoc cht lng thu DPCCH lin kt hoc HS-DSCH (CQI). Chung cho c hai cch tip cn l Nt B cn thng s khong dch cng sut trc khi n c th iu chinh cng sut pht HS-SCCH nh mt hm ph thuc hoc vo cng sut DPCCH hoc CQI. ln khong dch cng sut quyt nh xc sut li khi d (BLEP) trn knh HS-SCCH. V th cng cn s dng gii thut iu khin cng sut vng ngoi ti nt B tinh chnh khong

356

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng (in di ng 3G ln 4G

dch cng sut ni trn nhm p ng BLEP ch trn HS-SCCH. Nh vy ta c th p dng y gii thut vng ngoi tng t nh thch ng ng truyn HS-DSCH.

UE1
HS-SCCH vi iu khin cng sut HS-DSCH vi thch ng ng truyn v cng sut c nh
U E 1

Hnh 8.15. Nguyn l iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH Nt B bit c HS-SCCH c c thu thnh cng hay khng nu n lin tc nhn c ACK hay NAK. Nu nt B khng thu c ACK/NAK (UE khng pht HS-DPCCH: DTX), ngha l UE khng pht hin truyn dn HS-SCCH. Thng tin ny c th c s dng iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH. Bo co ACK/NAK c tng cng hem trong 3GPP R, trong UE trc ht pht mt bn tin tin t
c bit cho ACK/NAK nt B phn bit c DTX.

Nt B
ch BLER

UE

_
HS-DSCH N g i s dng HSDPA

iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH vng ngoi ACK/NAK/DTX

CI

HS-DPCCH

Hnh 8.16. S khi gii thut iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

357

Hnh 8.16 cho thy s khi tng kt gii thut iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH ti nt B. Gii thut iu khin cng sut HS-SCCH l gii thut c th kt ni. 8.3.3. B lp biu gi Phn ny trinh by chc nng ca b lp biu gi v a ra cc kiu gii thut lp biu khc nhau cng nh gii thch cch cn i gia tc bt ca ngi s dng v dung lng . 8.3.3.1. L thuyt c s Vn c s m mt b lp biu gi phi gii quyt l lm cch no chia s cc ti nguyn cho tp hp nhng ngi s dng c iu kin nhn s liu. Kely xut mt cch trnh by vn ny. Kelly s dng khi nim hm tin ch, u ( r ) , trong n k hiu
n n

cho ngi s dng HSDPA th n v r l thng lng trung bnh cho


n

ngi s dng th n ny. Nu coi hm tin ch l s o "mc tha mn hay hnh phc" nhn c t vic c lp biu. Th gii php lp biu tt nht l gii php cc i ha tng cc hm tin ch cho tt c nhng ngi s dng ti mi thi im cho trc. Tng cc hm ny c gi l "'hm i tng". Gi s mt hm tin ch (r ) hp l c nh ngha, khi ny
n n

s xut hin mt vn khc l hnh vi ph thuc thi gian ca h thng t bo. Dung lng knh ca tng ngi s dng cng nh dung lng ca ton b thay i theo thi gian. Nghin cu cho thy rng tt nht l s dng gii thut tm kim gradient , gii thut ny cho php cc i ha hn na hm i tng cho tng quyt nh lp biu. Nh vy, h thng cn lp biu ngi s dng HSDPA trong Tri tip theo tha mn: n* = argmax{M}, trong M = d.
n

""
r

(8.)

358 Trong : -M
n

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

k hiu cho s o lp biu,

- d l tc s liu tc thi m ngi s dng n c th h tr


n

trong T T I tip theo. Lu d


n

nhn c bng cch tham vn gii thut thch ng

ng tru yn H S D P A ( xt trong mc 8.1.2.1). Thng lng c chuyn cho nhng ngi s dng trong qu k h c th c cp nht trong tng T T I cho tt c nhng ngi s dng bng biu thc quy, ngha l: f(\-a)r .+ad
n

n ngi s dung n c phc vu u (8 2) u khc n

0- ) H.*
fl r

T r o n g :
- n.c l gi tr c ca r ,
r n

- a l h s qun (Forgetting Factor). V th a" bng c h u k trung bnh tng ng c o bng s lng cc T T I i v i b lc lm nhn h m m. Tnh ton thng lng cho m t ngi s dng chi c th c thc hin cho cc chu k thi gian k h i ngi s dng c s liu trong b m nt B. iu ny l qu trng m bo n nh cc phng php lp biu gi an nhn thc QoS, nu khng n s tm cch n b cho nhng ngi s dng khng tch cc khng c s liu truyn.

8.3.3.2. Cc gii thut lp biu gi


Cc b lp biu gi k i n h in khc nhau c lit k trong bng 8.2 theo tin ch ca chng v theo chc nng gim st lp biu. B lp biu qu ay vng (RR: Round R o b i n ) l m t b lp biu tham chun p h bin, trong nhng ngi s dng c lp biu vi xc sut nh nhau khng p h thuc vo iu kin knh.

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v tuyn l lp biu gi


S o lp biu 0 d

359

Bng 8.2. Cc nguyn


B lp biu Quay vng (RR) c/l hay thng lng cc i 1 H m tin ch, Un(r)

(max-c/l)
Cng bng t l (PF) Lp biu tc bt cc tiu (minGBR) Lp biu tc bt cc tiu vi cng bng t l (min-GBR+PF) Lp biu tr cc i (max-Del) -log(<y)log(r )2ti
n

log(r)

r +[1-exp(-P(r -r ,n))]
n n m

dn{1+[1-exp(-P(r-r ))}
m

log(rn)+[1-exp(-P(r -r ,n))]
n m

texp(-/?(r -r J) d l _ 'n
+ y n m

'-log(<U<WJ

r ,n l ch tc bt cc tiu chng hn tc bt m bo (GBR: Guaranteed


m

Bt Rate) p l hng s iu khin tnh nng n ca b lp biu (gi tr khuyn ngh p=0,5)
CHOL n l tr g i u hng dro n l yu cu tr gi cc i

n l xc sut vi phm (hay h s nng n) i vi gii thut.

B lp biu t s sng mang trn nhiu cc i (max C/I) hay ni chnh xc hn b lp biu thng lng cc i c thit k cc i ha thng lng HSDPA. B lp biu max-C/I tp trung cc ti nguyn cho mt tp con nh nhng ngi s dng v c th c mt s ngi s dng ti bin s chng bao gi c lp biu. m bo phn chia cng bng ti nguyn gia nhng ngi s dng, b lp biu "cng bng t l " (PF: Propotional Fair) thng c xem xt. B lp biu PF m bo cn i gia tnh cng bng v thng lng HSDPA c th t c v m bo m rng vng ph ng k. Cch

360

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gii thch p h bin cho quan h ny l nhng ngi s dng c lp biu trn "inh phainh ca h", chng hn khi tc s liu tc thi ca h vt qu gi tr trung bnh (hnh 8.17). M u s trong s o lp biu m bo s bn chc v ngi s dng nhn c ti nguyn lp biu s tng tnh u tin ca mnh t theo thi gian. B lp biu ny c nghin cu v phn tch rt nhiu trong cc ti liu. Cc nghin cu cng cho thy rng c th ci tin b lp biu m bo thng lng trung bnh n h u nhau cho tt c m i ngi s dng H S D P A chi n gin bng cch thay i chin lc lp biu. Cc thc th iu khin ti v iu khin cho php khi ny c th iu chnh s ngi s dng c n nh cng nh cc ti nguyn H S D P A sao cho t c thng lng trung bnh ti mc dch v ch.
Ngi s dng c lp biu

Phainh UE1

Phainh UE2

Hnh 8. 7. Nguyn l lp biu cng bng t l vi tr 3 Tri gii quyt yu cu phn bit QoS tin tin, cc nh nghin cu a b lp biu tc bt m bo cc tiu (min-GRB: minGuaranteed Bt Rate) trong h m tin ch tr thnh gi tr kh thp

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

361

i v i cc trng h p k h i thng lng tri n g h i m c a n g i s d n g thp hn G B R , tri l i lm h m t i n ch c h i tng v a phi k h i thng lng tri n g h i m c a o h n G B R . B n g cch iu c h i n h gi tr p ( x e m bng 8.2) c t h iu c h i n h c m c nng n c a b l p b i u MAC-hs n u n g i s d n g H S D P A x u n g t h p hn G B R . T r o n g

bng 8.2, b i n t h hai c n g c a vo b s u n g c h o nguyn l lp biu cng b n g t l c s. M t k h nng nh ngha h m t i n ch na trong b n g 8.2 l t h c h i n cc yu c u v tr gi bng cch tng mc u tin k h i t r gi u hng t i n g n n yu c u tr cc i. H m ny c n g d a trn nguyn l PF. B lp b i u gi M A C - h s c n g p h i x l lp b i u c h o cc pht l i lp m t ang t r e o (ang c h ) t r o n g b q u n l H A R Q . y c hai cch tip c n c s: - Lun c h n n h n g n g i s d n g c cc pht L I l i ang treo v i m c u tin c a o nht c h o T T I tip theo. N u c n h i u ngi s d n g ang c h pht l i L I th m t t r o n g s cc g i i thut t r o n g bng 8.2 c t h c s d n g c h n n g i no s c lp biu. - Lun lun c h n n h n g n g i s d n g s c l p b i u t r o n g Tri t i p t h e o d a trn m t t r o n g cc g i i thut t r o n g bng 8.2. N u n g i s d n g c c h n c h o lp b i u c cc pht l i L I ang t r e o th cc pht l i ny s c pht trc k h i k h i u cc pht l i m i . N h v y cc pht l i c u tin so v i t n g lung s l i u . Cn lu rng cch t i p c n t h hai c c o i l g i i php hp d n nht t quan im d u n g lng, v n c h o b lp b i u gi cc m c t do cao h n lp b i u trc ht c h o n h n g n g i s d n g c iu kin v t u y n t t , ngha l h s c h n g l i t phn tp a n g i s dng. Tri l i , g i i php t h nht h p d n hn t q u a n im Jitter tr gi, v cc pht l i L i ang treo c trao ngay lp t c u tin cao

362

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hn khng ph thuc vo cc iu kin knh v tuyn ca ngi s dng v vo cc thng s khc tham gia vo s o lp biu. Tuy nhin trong cc kch bn thc t vi BLER t lo n 2 0 % trong cc ln truyn dn th nht, khc bit hiu nng gia hai cch tip cn ny l khng ln. B lp biu gi hot ng da trn thng tin v cht lng knh thng lin quan n khi nim "phn tp a ngi s dng'. Nu s ngi s dng trong tp ng c lp biu ln, th s c mt s ngi c n nh tc s liu kh cao v c iu kin knh tt. y cng l nguyn tc ghp knh a ngi s dng. 8.3.3.3. Ghp knh theo m Ghp knh theo m l trng hp trong c nhiu ngui s dng HSDPA c lp biu trong mt TTI. Ghp knh theo m c th c thc hin theo hai kch bn c s sau: - C th s dng n 15 HS-PDSCH trong nt B. Tuy nhin, thng thng cc UE chi h tr thu ng thi 5 HS-DPSCH. V th c kh nng cc i ha hiu sut s dng ph tn, lp biu s dng ghp knh theo m cho ba ngi s dng ng thi vi mi ngi 5 m. - Cng cn ghp knh theo m ti u hiu nng nu c nhiu ngi s dng HSDPA trn mt c n nh tc s liu thp v cc yu cu tr cao. Chng hn, VoIP trn HSDPA thng i hi s dng ghp knh theo m t c hiu nng tt. Tuy nhin s xy ra mt s chi ph lin quan n s dng ghp knh theo m: (1) chi ph cho truyn dn HS-SCCH tng, v mi ngi s dng c ghp knh theo m i hi mt HS-SCCH, (2) bc phn tp a ngi s dng gim v nhiu hn mt ngi s dng c lp biu trong mt T r i . V th ch nn s dng ghp knh theo

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v tuyn

363

m khi tha m n m t trong s cc iukin ni trn. N u dng s ghp knh theo m cho N ngi s dng, th b lp biu gi trc ht chn N ngi s dng c u tin cao. Chng hn n gin nht l chia cc ti nguyn cng sut v m gia nhng ngi s dng ng thi bng cch p dng chin lc m nh nhau v cng sut nh nhau trong nhng ngi s dng nhn c khi lng cng sut HS-DSCH v m nh nhau.

8.3.3.4. Lp biu mt phang iu khin trn knh HS-DSCH


R a ra F-DPCH ring cho iu khin cng sut, v th knh yn bo hiu cho lp 3 t R N C n U E s c pht trn mang v tu HS-DSCH. Ngha l b lp biu MAC-hs trong nt B s c thit k x l lp biu lin kt mt phang ngi s dng v mt phang iu khin trn knh chia s HS-DSCH (hnh 8.18). Bo hiu iu khin bao gm cc bn t i n RRC v bo hiu mng li. M t trong cc li ch ca vic pht cc bn t i n ny trn HS-DSCH thay v s dng D C H tiu chun lin kt nh R5 l gim t i a tr bo hiu do tc s liu trn knh HS-DSCH cao. V i mt s bn t i n RRC c coi l nhy cm tr, b lp biu gi MAC-hs phi pht cc bn t i n RRC ngay sau khi chng n nt B. iuny c bit quan trng i vi cc bn tin RRC trong qu trnh chuyn phc v HS-DSCH. thc hin iu ny, mt gi tr SPI (chi th mc un tin) cao c gn cho cc lung s liu ca mt phng iu khin trn H S D P A nt B bit c rng cc lung ny c mc u tin lp biu cao. V th m i khi mt P D U mi n nt B v i ch th SPI rng n l mt bn tin RRC. n s c lp biu ngay ti T U tip theo. V kch thc bn t i n RRC thng c gii hn vi trm bt, nn cc bn t i n ny c th c s dng vi mt m HS-PDSCH. V th trc ht b lp biu MAC-hs phi tham vn chc nng thch ng ng truyn v tnh ton cng sut cn thit cho truyn dn bn t i n RRC, sau cng sut v cc m

364

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

P D S C H cn li m i c s dng cho lp biu thng thng cho lu lng mt phang ngi s dng theo cc gii thut c xt trong cc phn trc. Cch lm ny cho php thc hin d rng lp biu hiu qu ln mt phang iu khin v lu lng, mt phang ngi s dng trn HS-DSCH bng cch s dng phn bit QoS theo cc thit lp mc u tin v ghp knh theo m. RNC Nt B UE
Mt phng ngi s dng Mt phng iu khin MAC-hs

Hnh 8.18. Lp biu MAC-hs cho c lu lng mt phang iu khi v mt phang ngiri s dng ln HS-DSCH 8.3.3.5. Lp biu thc t theo cc thng s 3GPP
Phn trc xt tng quan cc gii thut lp biu khc nhau v mt s iu k i n khai thc chng thnh cng. T r o n g phn ny mt s cc kha cnh thc t ca lp biu s c cp ngn gn. Cc s o lp biu c xt trc y cho thy rng tt c nhng ngi s dng c cng m t h m tin ch v v th cng m t cc trnh by s o lp biu. T u y nhin, trong m t mng nh khai thc c th mun phn bit gia nhng ngi s dng v cc dch v khc nhau, chng hn nhm u tin ha qu trnh lp biu cho cc mc u tin khc nhau. N h ni trong mc 8.1.1.2, 3GPP cung cp cc thng s khc nhau iu khin QoS m t cch chnh xc hn. Hnh 8.19 cho thy cc u vo c th c do chng trnh khung 3GPP cung cp. y cha phi l y , nhng n cho thy mt s thng s ch cht. V th s o lp biu cui cng s da trn cc nguyn tc c s c trnh by ni trn v c cai bin cho ph hp v i dch v chin lc khai thc ca nh khai thc.

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

365

Cc thng s c th 0 - Cc m HS-SCH c n nh Cc m HS-PDSCH c n dinh Cng sut HSDPA c n nh

Nguyn l lp biu

Cc tinh ton s o ca b lp biu gi Cc thng s c th ngi s dng - Chi th u tin lp biu (SPI) - Tc b t m bo (QBR) -Bnh thi xa (D)
Kh nng/th loi UE

Quyt nh lp biu

- Khi lng s liu nh m trong nt B

Chin lc dch v ca nh khai thc

Hnh 8. 9. Nguyn l lp biu theo cc thng s u vo v cc nh hng ln chin lc tng th c la chn 8.4. TNG Q U A N Q U N L TI N G U Y N V T U Y N HSUPA
Nt B 1
Nt B 1

UNG
iu khin cho php iu khin chuyn giao Qun l ti nguyn iu khin cng sut vng trong MAC-e

Nt B
UAC-e/es E-HICH Lp biu gi E-AGCH E-RGCH Qun l nghn E-DPDCH HAR Q
(

UE

Lp biu gi

iu Khin ti nguyn iu khin cng sut vng ngoi

St t li th t gi

iu khin cng sut E-DPCCH DPCCH

iu khin nghn

HAR Q

Hnh 8.20. Tng quan cc khi chc nng RRM khc nhau cho HSUPA trong RNC, nt B v VE

Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn cho HSUPA bao gm cc chc nng c t trong RNC, nt B v UE. Hnh 8.20 cho thy cc chc nng ca RRM. RNC chu trch nhim n nh cc ti nguyn v tuyn cho HSUPA, iu khin cho php v iu khin chuyn giao.

366

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

R N C cng ng vai tr iu khin R3 D C H v v th n iu khin vic cn i gia R3 D C H v HSUPA. Nt B chia s cc ti nguyn gia cc UE. U E chu trch nhim chn k h i truyn ti da trn cng sut pht kh dng v trn s liu kh dng trong b m. Trong cc phn sau, ta s xt cc k h i chc nng khc nhau trong R N C v nt B.

8.5. CC GII THUT RNC CHO HSUPA


Phn ny s xt n nh ti nguyn, thng s ha QoS (chuyn i QoS vo cc thng s), iu khin cho php v qun l ti nguyn. Cc chc nng khc ca R N C nh: sp t li th t trong lp MAC-es v iu khin cng sut vng kn c xt trong chng 7.

8.5.1. n nh ti nguyn
R N C thit lp gi tr ch cho cng sut thu bng rng cc i (hay tng tp m ) cho nt B. Cng sut thu bao g m tp m nhit, nhiu gia cc . nhiu ni t cc kt ni D C H v nhiu ni t cc kt ni E-DCH ( H S U P A ) . Cc kt ni D C H c iu khin hoc bi k h i iu khin cho php hoc bi k h i lp biu gi trong RNC. Cc kt ni E-DCH c iu khin bi b iu khin gi H S U P A trong nt B. B lp biu H S U P A c th n nh cng sut cho nhng ngi s dng E-DCH da trn thng lng cng sut khng b cc kt ni D C H s dng v vn cn thp hn mc cng sut bng rng cc i. iu khin n nh ti nguyn trn ng ln c minh ha trn hnh 8.21. B lp biu H S U P A c thng t i n tc thi v tnh trng nhiu ng ln v n c t ngay ti nt B. B lp biu ny cng c cc phng tin iu khin nhiu t cc U E tch cc nhanh hn so vi b lp biu t ti RNC. Hnh 8.22 cho thy nhiu ng ln l mt hm ph thuc vo thng lng . R N C c th thit lp m t gi tr ch cao hom cho cc mc nhiu k h i H S U P A c s dng v cc thay i nhiu nh hn so v i trng hp W C D M A . Cc mc nhiu cng cao th thng lng cng ln.

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v luyn


Cng sut thu bng rng ti nt B ch

367

Cc kt ni c c lp biu nhanh trn E-DCH (iu khin gi HSUPA ca nt B) Cc kt ni c lp biu trn DCH (iu khin gi ca RNC) Cc kt ni khng lp biu trn DCH (iu khin cho php ca RNC) Tp m nhit + H s tp m my thu Nhiu gia cc

Hnh 8.21. iu khin n nh ti nguyn vi HSUPA


Nhiu ng ln

HSUPA

VVCDMA

L.

'

Thng lng

Hnh 8.22. ng cong ti ng ln v nh hng ca lp biu nhanh RNC phc v cng pht ch th nghn n nt B. y l mt thng s c th UE chi th nghn trong mng truyn ti v n c th nhn ba gi tr sau: 1. Khng nghn. 2. Tr tng (Delay build-up): Ch th rng tr cc gi trong mng truyn ti ang tng.

368

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G 3. Cc gi b mt: Biu th rng mt s lng gi nht nh trong mng truyn ti b mt. Sau khi nhn c ch th nghn i vi mt UE no , nt B c

th h thp tc bt ca ngi s dng ny gii quyt t n h trng nghn. 8.5.2. Thng s ha QoS RNC a cho nt B mt s thng s QoS n s dng cc thng s ny cho lp biu gi: Chi th u tin lp biu chi th mc u tin tng i ca cc lung MAC-e bng cch s dng 16 gi tr khc nhau. Gi tr 15 ch th mc u tin cao nht v gi tr 0 chi th mc u t in thp nht. Tc bt m bo ca MAC-es ch th s lng bt trn mt giy m bo c chuyn trn giao din v tuyn trong cc iu kin hot ng bnh thng m nt B s m bo cung cp cc ti nguyn ng ln. S lng cc ln truyn cc i cho HARQ nh ngha s

lng cc truyn dn HARQ lp cho tng lung MAC-d. Chuyn i cc thng s t giao din I u vo giao din IuB c xt trong mc 8. . .2 cng vi thng s hoa HSDPA QoS. 8.5.3. iu khin cho php iu khin cho php quyt nh c cho php hay khng mt ngi s dng mi truy nhp n HSUPA. Cc thng s di y c s dng cho quyt nh ny: S lng nhng ngi s dng HSUPA tch cc - RNC c th mun gii hn s lng ngi s dng HSUPA tch cc

Chng 8: Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn

369

cc i. Kch thc phn cng ca mng cng c th hn ch s lng ngi s dng tch cc. Mc nhiu ng ln - mc nhiu ng ln c th nhn c t cng sut bng rng thu c o (RTWP: Receive Total Wideband Power). Nu mc nhiu qu ln so vi ch c quy nh trc v nu cc tc s liu ca nhng ngi s dng hin hu khng gim, ngi s dng mi c th b chn. Chi th u tin lp biu - ch th mc u tin ca cuc gi mi so vi cc SPI ca cc cuc gi hin hu. Nu cuc gi mi c mc u tin cao v cc cuc gi hin hu c mc u tin thp, iu khin cho php c th cho php cuc gi mi dn n kh nng gim cht lng cc cuc gi hin c. Tc bt m bo - iu khin cho php cn c GBR xem xt xem c t i nguyn cho mt cuc gi GBR mi hay khng, trong khi vn cn m bo GBR cho nhng ngi s dng hin c trong mng. Tc bt c cung cp trn E-DCH - Nt B bo co tc bt c cung cp trn knh E-DCH cho tng loi u tin. Tc bt ny c th c so snh vi cc tc bt ch cho cc loi SPI khc nhau khi ua ra quyt nh iu khin cho php cho mt ngi s dng no . Tc bt c cung cp trn DCH - RNC bit c cc tc bt c cung cp trn DCH. Tc bt ny c th c so snh vi mt tc bt ch ca nhng ngi s dng DCH khi a ra quyt nh c cho php mt ngi s dng DCH mi hay khng Cc hn ch ng xung - khi mt ngi s dng H S P A mi c cho php, ngui ny cng yu cu HSDPA cho

370

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ng xung. Nu khng c t i nguyn cho HSDPA, thi cn chn ngi s dng ny ngay c khi c t i nguyn cho ng ln. 8.5.4. Qun l di ng iu khin chuyn giao trong RNC quyt nh, (1) cc no s c trong tp tch cc, (2) no s l phc v HSUPA. Quyt nh th nht rt ging vi iu khin chuyn giao W C D M A R3, ngoi tr vic s cc i trong tp tch cc ch bng 4 i vi HSUPA, cn s cc i trong tp tch cc i vi WCDMA c th bng 6. Gii thut phc v quyt nh no s l iu khin ngi s dng HSUPA. phc v i vi HSUPA c th khc vi phc v i vi HSDPA, nhng thng thng phc v cho HSUPA v HSDPA nh nhau v thay i phc v xy ra ng thi. 8.6. CC GII THUT NT B CHO HSUPA Trong nt B, cc chc nng chnh lin quan n H S P A l lp biu gi v HARQ, HARQ c trnh by chi tit trong chng 7, cn phn sau ta s xt chi tit lp biu gi. Hai ch lp biu khc nhau c nh ngha cho HSUPA: Ch lp biu nt B vi bo hiu iu khin LI/MC trn ng ln v ng xung v ch khng lp biu c iu khin bi RNC. Phng php iu khin bi RNC c th c s dng cho cc knh mang GBR chng hn cho VoIP. Ch khng lp biu c iu khin bi RNC ging nh n nh W C D M A DCH, nhng s dng pht li L I nhanh. Phn ny s xt lp biu gi da trn nt B. HSUPA c hai u im chnh so vi W C D M A R3: L I HARQ v lp biu da trn nt B. u im th nht c li v mt hiu sut s dng ph tn, v n cho php hot ng vi BLEP cao hn m khng

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v tuyn

371

tng tr. u im th hai cho php lp biu gi nhanh hn nh vy cho php lm vic ti cc h s ti cao hn v thng lng cao hn. Hnh 8.23 cho thy mi trng lp biu nt B. Hnh ny cho thy rng b lp biu gi c ni n mt s MAC-e. M i HSUPA UE c thc th MAC-e ring trong nt B. Chc nng quan trng nht ca MAC-e l chu trch nhim thu v cng nhn qu trnh HARQ.
RNC
Cc l i nguyn Thng tin QoS Thng tin nghn Cc cho php dung lng Cc yu cu c s l iu , S liu Cc cho php dung ln' Cc yu cu tc d s l iu

Nt B

UE

UE

Hnh 8.23. Mi trng lp biu gi HSUPA da trn nt B Nt B c th nng cp n nh dung lng UE da trn bt hnh phc hay thng tin v trng thi b m UE. UE cng bo co cng sut truyn dn kh dng chi th vic n cn c th h tr s liu ng ln cao t quan im cng sut hay khng. Nt B c th h cp n nh dung lng UE nu cc cho php dung lng c n nh khng s dng ht v mc s dng knh thp. Nt B c th a ra hai kiu cho php dung lng cho UE khi n mun thay i n nh: cc cho php tuyt i cung cp t s cng sut tuyt i gia E-DPDCH v DPCCH cho E v cc cho php tng i (P, DOWN hay HOLD). Khi UE nhn c lnh P hay DOWN n s iu chinh n nh tng hoc gim mt nc so vi n nh c chn trong TTI cui cng ca qu trnh HARQ. Cc cho php tng i c gi i trong knh E-RGCH, cn cc cho php

372

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

tuyt i c gi i trong knh E-AGCH. Cc cho php tuyt i chi c gi i bi phc v HSUPA cn cc cho php tng i cng c th c gi bi cc khng phc v nhung ch cho lnh i DOWN gii quyt vn qu ti. 8.7. TNG KT Chng ny xt cc vn v qun l t i nguyn v tuy cho n HSPA bao gm qun l t i nguyn v tuyn cho HSDPA v qun l t i nguyn v tuy cho HSPA. Cc vn lin quan n qun l ti n nguyn v tuy c HSDPA v H S P A c xt trong chng ny n bao gm: Cc gii thut RNC v cc gii thut lp biu nt B. im mnh ca qun l t i nguyn v tuy HSPA so vi WCDMA R3 l n HARQ lp v lp biu gi c t ti nt B. u im ca LI HARQ l n cho php tit kim ph tn, v n cho php hot ng vi BLEP cao hn m khng tng tr. u im t lp biu gi ti nt B cho php lp biu gi nhanh hn nh vy cho php lm vic ti cc h s ti cao hn v thng lng cao hn. 8.8. CU HI . Ti nguyn v tuy trong HSPA l cc ti nguy no n n 2. Trnh by nguy l chung ca qun l ti nguyn v tuyn trong n HSDPA 3. Trnh bycc gii thut RNC cho HSDPA 4. Trnh by cc gii thut nt B cho HSDPA 5. Trnh by nguyn l qun l t i nguyn v tuy HSUPA n 6. Trnh bycc gii thut RNC cho HSUPA 7. Trnh by cc gii thut nt B cho HSUPA 8. Ti sao lp biu ph thuc knh li cho php tng dung lng

Chng 8: Quan l ti nguyn v tuyn

373

9. Bn hy a r a m t kch bn lp biu ph thuc knh trong ti tng khong t h i gian truyn dn bn thc hin phn chia ti nguyn cho n h n g ngi s dng 10. Bn cht ca nguyn tc lp biu ph thuc knh cng bng l g, ti sao cn lp biu p h thuc knh cng bng li. S lp biu quay vng l mt s hon ton cng bng. phn tch u v nhc ca s no, lin h s ny v i cc s iu khin ti nguyn trong cc h thng thng tin di ng m bn c hc.

Chng 9

VoIP TRONG HSPA

VoIP ( V o i c e over IP: Thoi trn IP) tr thnh m t gii php hp dn mang thoi trn m i n chuyn mch gi trong mng c nh. S lng khch hng V o I P da trn m y tnh ngy cng tng. Cc dch v V o I P ny cho php thc hin cc cuc g i chuyn mch gi gia cc m y tnh v cc thit b cm tay trn mng Intemet cng cng. V o I P cng n i ln nh l m t tnh nng b sung cho cc n g dng Internet nh nhn t i n v gp nhau trn mng. W C D M A v H S P A cng cho php mang V o I P cht lng tt trn cc mng t ong din rng. Thc hin V o I P trong trng hp ny i hi hiu bit hiu nng v tuyn ca VoIP. ngoi ra cng cn xt n cc kha cnh V o I P k c cc tha thun dch v gia nhiu nh khai thc, chuyn mng quc t, l ph kt cui v cc kha cnh php lut. Chng ny tp trung ln hiu nng v tuyn ca VoIP. Chng cng s xt cc ng lc chnh cho vic khai thc V o I P trn cc mng t ong, nn tiu v s trnh by cc kt qu dung lng h thng

t c.
Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - n g lc V o I P - Nn tiu - VoIP trong HSPA

376

Gio trnh L trnh phi Irin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho sinh vin cc kin thc v dch v VoIP p dng trong HSPA. hiu c chng ny sinh vin cn c k t liu c t h rn by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [ l i ] , [14] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng. 9.1. NG Lc VQIP Thoi chuyn mch knh l ngun li nhun chnh cho cc nh khai thc mng di ng v vn chim trn 7 0 % li nhun ca h. Cho n nay cc mng di ng cha c kh nng h tr thoi cht lng tt trn cc knh chuyn mch gi, nhng hiu nng v tuyn c a WCDMA/HSPA s tt cho VoIP. VoIP c th h tr dch v cuc gi phong ph (gm nhiu dch v) hoc chi thoi thng thng nhng gi thnh thp hn thoi chuyn mch knh. Phn ny s gii thiu cc ng lc khc nhau cn thit khai thc VoIP t rn WCDMA/HSPA, ta s phn bit ba trng hp sau: . Cc cuc gi a ch v ca khch hng, trong thoi l mt phn t ca mt phin a phng tin chng hn video hay t r chi ng cp. 2. Cc cuc gi a dch v ca hng, trong mng s liu a dch v ring ca hng c m rng bao ph c cc mang truy nhp v tuyn. 3. Thoi tun ty. Cc mng tc s liu tng cng cho pht trin GSM (EDGE) ca 2G pht trin v cc mng 3G W C D M A cho php ng thi thoi chuyn mch knh v kt ni s liu chuyn mch gi. cu hnh ny ph hp tt cho cc dch v ni dung - ngi dng (chuyn ni dung n ngi s dng), nh duyt WAP v ti xung e-mail, trong ni nhn cuc gi thoi v kt ni chuyn mch knh khc nhau. Cng c th khai thc cc dch v gi ngi dng - ngi dng, nh chia s

Chng 9: VoIP trong HSPA

377

video thi gian thc cng vi cc cuc thoi chuyn mch knh. Tuy nhin VoIP c th thc hin cc cuc gi phong ph mt cch n gin hom v c thoi v dch v s liu u c th c mang qua cc mng chuyn mch gi n cng mt ni nhn. C th coi y l mt nt rt quan trng, c bit l trong cc trng hp trong u cui i tc c kt ni phong ph khng phi l u cui di ng m l mt my tnh c kt ni ADSL/WiFi bang mt VoIP client tng t. Kch bn VoIP vi cc dch v gi phong ph c minh ha trn hnh 9.1.
u cui di ng c VolP client + kh nng cuc gi phong ph
Nt B RNC SGSN/

IMS

VVLAN

Chuyn

PC c VolP client + kh nng cuc gi phong ph

Hnh 9. . VoIP vi cc kh nng cuc gi phong ph Nhng ngi s dng kinh doanh c th truy nhp mng Intranet ca hng h bng cch s dng cc mng ring o (VPN: Virtual Private Network). Cc dch v Intranet k c gp nhau trn mng (netmeeting) cng mang thoi. s dng cc dch v Intranet da trn VoIP ny bn ngoi cng s, gii php di ng vng rng phi c kh nng h tr VoIP. Trong trng hp ny, VoIP di ng cn thit m rng vng ph cho cc dch v hng. VoIP thoi thng thng gy p lc rt ln ln hiu sut s dng tn s, v vic s dng n phi hiu qu hn thoi chuyn mch knh.

378

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

M t s h thng v tuyn da trn chuyn mch gi khc k c W L A N hoc W i M A X khng c kh nng mang thoi chuyn mch gi. N u cn thit dch v thoi trn cc h thng ny, V o I P chi l ty chn. ngay c i v i dch v thoi em gin.

9.2. NN TIU
Kch thc ca ton b tiu IPv6 cng v i tiu giao thc thi gian thc/ giao thc b s liu ca ngui s dng (RTP/DP) l 60 byte, t r o n g k h i kch thc ca mt gi thoi thng thng l 30 byte. N ukhng nn tiu th hai phn truyn dn s ch l tiu . C th s dng nn tiu ci thin ng k hiu sut ca lu lng V o I P trong HSPA. G i s ta s dng nn tiu bn chc (ROHC: Robust Header Compression) gim kch thc cc tiu xung cn vi byte ( R O H C trong 3GPP l b phn ca R4). Hnh 9 2 . m i n h ha tc s liu cn thit v i tiu y v v i cc tiu nn. Tc s liu gim t 40kbis xung cn vo khong 15kbit/s.
100 90 eo 70 60 5040 3020 10 0 Cc tiu khng nn ROHC 1S.2kbiVs 37.6 kbt/s D TiuRLC Tiu RTP/UDP/IPV6

E3 Ti tin RTP AMR 12.2kbis

Hnh 9.2. Li ch nhn c t nn tiu trong J2,2kbit/s VoP

ROHC

N n tiu cho H S P A c thc hin ti giao thc hi t s liu gi (PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol) ca lp 2 trong E v trong RNC. V th nn tiu khng chi tit k i m dung lng giao

Chng 9: VoP trong HSPA

379

din v tuyn m c dung lng truyn dn Iub. V t nn tiu r c minh ha trn hnh 9.3.
Cc tiu IP nn Cc tiu IP y

<
Nt B lub

><^
RNC SGSN/ GGSN

>

Nn tiu ti lp PDCH

Hnh 9.3. Nn tiu IP vi VoP 9.3. VOIP TRONG HSPA H S D P A / H S P A lc u c thit k cho cc dch v phi thi gian thc tc cao trong khi VoIP l dch v tc thp vi cc yu cu cht ch. Cc kt qu m phng trong chng ny s cho thy 3GPP HSPA vn c th cung cp hiu nng hp dn cho VoIP. 9.3.1. HSDPA VoIP 9.3.1.1. Lp biu gi v qu tr Cc m phng u gi thit s dng lp biu gi cng bng t l (xem chng 8). Gi thit s dng ghp knh nhng ngi s dng theo m (s ngi s dng M ). B lp biu chn M
u u

ngi s dng

c mc un tin cao nht t tp ng c lp biu truyn dn trong 2ms T r i tip theo. Tp ng c lp biu bao gm nhng ngi s dng tha mn cc tiu chun sau: 1. Nhng ngi s dng c nht Mp t ti nt B. Gi tr Mp
kls kls

gi VoIP c nh m

ph thuc vo tr VoIP cho php cc i

v v c s dng gia 3 v 4 trong cc m phng di y. . Nhng ngi s dng c tr u hng bng hoc ln hn (Mp -l)x20ms.
kts

380

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin d ng 3G ln 4G 3. N h n g ngi s dng c cc pht li ang treo trong b qun l H A R . Bng cch s dng cc tiu chun trn, ta trnh c lp biu

nhng ngi s dng c khi lng s liu c n h m trong nt B thp v n c th gy ra tn tht dung lng. Lu rng mt gi VoIP vi R O H C thng l 38 byte hay 304 bt trong k h i kch thc khi truyn ti H S D P A (chng hn vi ba m HS-DSCH) c th ln hn 1500 bt. V th m t k h i truyn ti c th mang nhiu gi VoIP. Theo m hnh I T U , tr mt chiu t ming n tai phi nh hn 250ms m bo cht lng ting. T a c tnh rng qu tr gi V o I P kh dng cho lp biu nt B, truyn dn giao din v tuyn v thu ti U E vo khong 80-150ms ty thuc v vic cuc gi VoIP l gia hai u cui di ng hay gia mng c nh v u cui di ng.

9.3.1.2. Cc m nh knh v n nh cng sut


Cc m phng gi thit s dng gii php 3GPP R5 trong knh vt l ring lin kt ( D P C H ) c s dng mang bo hiu. H s tri ph (SF) cho D P C H lin kt gi thit l SF = 512. D P C H lin kt c th nm trong ch chuyn giao mm. G i thit rng chi ph trung bnh cho chuyn giao m m l 3 0 % , trong m i ngi s dng chim trung bnh ,3 m nh knh DPCH. Ngoi ra cc m nh knh cho truyn dn cc knh chung dc dnh trc. G i thit s dng ghp knh theo m cho M ngi s dng trn mt T T I , cc m nh knh HS-SCCH c h s tri ph SF = 28 cng c n nh. Cc m nh knh cn li c th c s dng cho HS-PDSCH vi SF = 16. Hnh 9.4 cho thy s lng cc m HS-PDSCH kh dng trn m t nh l h m ph thuc v s ngi s dng vi gi thit M
u

= 4 cho cc trng hp c nhiu hon 60 ngi s dng VoIP trn

mt . i v i trng hp hom 60 ngi s dng VoIP, gi thit t rng mt m HS-SCCH c n nh cho mt n h m 15 ngi s dng VoIP. S lng cc m HS-PDSCH gim ph thuc v s ngi s

Chng 9: VolP trong HSPA

381

dng do chi ph m nh knh cho DPCH lin kt i vi tng ngi s dng. Chng hn i vi chi ph chuyn giao mm 3 0 % , DPCH lin kt c SF = 512 v 100 ngi s dng, th ch cn 10 m HS-DPSCH kh dng trong tng s 15 m truyn dn VoIP cho nhng ngi s dng. 3GPP R cho php s dng F-DPCH theo nhiu ngi s dng (c th n 10 ngi) c th chia s mt DPCH, v th cho php n nh nhiu m hn cho HS-DSCH. Hnh 9.4 cng cho thy cc m HS-PDSCH kh dng trong trng hp s dng F-DPCH. V i 100 ngi s dng, ta vn c th n nh 14 m HS-PDSCH cho truyn dn, r rng rng ci thin rt nhiu so vi chi c lo m kh dng trong trng hp 3GPP R5 vi knh D C H lin kt. K h i s m HS-PDSCH kh dng nhiu hn, ta c th p dng m ha knh mnh hem v iu ch bn chc hn v v th ci thin hiu sut s dng

F-DPCH: DPCH mt phn (R6) A-DPCH. DPCH lin kt (R5)

20

40

60

80

100

S n g i s dng V o l P trn mt

Hnh 9.4. S lng m nh knh HS-PDSCH

kh dng ph thuc

v s ngi s dng VoIP trn mt

Lin quan n cc n nh cng sut. cc m phng gi thit rng cc knh chung nhn cng sut 3W, cc knh D C H lin kt w, cc

382

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

HS-SCCH 2W v HS-DSCH 10W dn n cng sut trung bnh ca nt B l 16W v vn cn mt lng cng sut nht nh cho cc thay i mc cng sut ca D C H lin kt.

9.3.1.3. Cc kt qu dung lng


M phng mng ng xung c s dng kho st hiu nng ca V o I P trn HSDPA. M i gi V o I P m i n nt B s lin kt vi mt b nh thi xa. M i k h i mt gi n h m c pht, n s c chuyn vo b qun l HARQ, v b nh thi xa ca n ngng hot ng. V th m i k h i m t gi c truyn n ch c th b rt nu n khng c thu thnh cng sau m t s ln pht cho php cc i.
0,08

/
0,07
/Qu tr:

\
/ Q u tr;


\ Qu tr 150 ms

< o
3 0,06

80 ms

0,05
en

y
c

0,04

0,03

/I I
85 90 95

100 ma

0,02 65 70 75 80 100 105 110

S ngi s dng trung bnh trn

Hnh 9.5. Xc sut mt ca i vi VoIP cho cc qu tr khc nhau


Hnh 9.5 cho thy cc kt qu m phng v m v i cc gi tr tr khc nhau i v i truyn dn t R N C n b m UE. Dung lng cc i v i tr cc i 80ms, lOOms v 150ms l 73, 87 v 105 ngi

Chng 9: VoIP trong HSPA

383

s dng vi xc sut mt ca l 5%. R rng rng cn cn i gia tr v dung lng i vi VoIP; tr cng ln th dung lng cng cao. C th so snh cc con s dung lng VoIP trn vi dung lng thoi R3 c tnh l 64 ngi s dng. HSDPA c th ci thin dung lng thoi nh cc tnh nng tin tin ca L I nh: Cc pht li HARQ. thch ng ng truyn v m ha turbo so vi R3 DCH chi s dng m ha xon v khng c thch ng ng truyn ln HARQ. 9.3.2. HSUPA VoIP 9.3.2.1. Cc gii thut VoIP trn HSUPA c th c thc hin theo nhiu cch. c t HSUPA quy nh hai di TTI cho E-DCH: lOms v 2ms. T r i lOms l bt buc cho tt c cc UE v h tr TTI 2ms ph thuc vo kh nng ca UE. Ngoi ra cc ch lp biu khc nhau cng c quy nh cho H S P A : (1) ch lp biu nt B vi bo hiu L I M C t ng ln v ng xung v (2) ch khng lp biu c rn RNC iu khin. i vi lOms TTI, bn x l HARQ c t tng ng vi thi gian truyn vng 40ms i vi HARQ nhanh. Hnh 9.6 minh ha truyn dn cc gi VoIP trn E-DCH. Mt gi VoIP mi nhn c t b m ha v gii m (codec) ting trong vi 20ms mt ln. V th TTI th hai c s dng truyn dn VoIP mi. Nu cn pht li, truyn dn gi VoIP tip theo b tr lOms v tr truy dn xu nht n c th n 60ms.
Cc gi VolP n t ng dng 20 ms mt ln

)f 1

1*3 1*4

#5 #3

#4 #6

2 3

<-0- - ^ -2-K-3-<-O--1-K-2-K-3-^-0-K-1 - X - 2 - K - 3 - X - -*- ~ * " - * ~ ~ *

lo x l HARQ

5j
lOms

[12] #1 tr 50ms

#i

ni

[W}

#3 tr 60 ms

Hnh 9.6. VoIP trn E-DCH vi Oms 777 (Mi gi VoIP c truyn 20ms mi lan)

384

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G i v i 2ms T T I , tm x l H A R c c t v thi gian

truyn vng l 16ms. G i i hn tr 80ms cho php s dng n 4 ln pht li. Hnh 9.7 m i n h ha truyn dn V o I P v i cc i ba ln pht li v th tr x u nht l 50ms. i v i 2ms T T I c th hn ch s lng x l H A R Q ca mt ngi s dng. iu ny c th c s dng ghp theo thi gian nhng ngi s dng vo cc x l H A R Q ring bit. T u y nhin nu cho php ba ln pht li cho mt gi v khng c tr b sung do n nh x l H A R Q . th cn n nh bn x l H A R Q (trong s 8 x l) cho m i ngi s dng.
Cc gi VolP en t ng ng 20 ms mt ln

^ 10 ms

C tu O
* tr 50 ms

3 s

ID x l HARQ

01235-67^)1-2-3-45-6-7-0-1-23-4-5-6-7-01-234-5-6-7-

G O

Hnh 9.7. VoIP trn

E-DCH vi 2ms ni

(Mi gi VoP c truyn 20ms moi ln)


u im ca lOms T T I l tt c cc U E u h t r n, i hi tc nh thp hn, hot ng tt hn ti bin v nm trong chuyn giao m m so v i trng hp 2ms T T I . 2ms T T I cho php t c dung lng cao hn v c th pht li nhiu hn. Ngoi ra c th s dng ghp knh theo thi gian cho nhiu ngi s dng. T r u y n dn khng lp biu ca E-DCH c c t cho cc dch v tc bt m bo v v th n thch hp cho VoIP. s lng b t cc i trn m t n v s liu ti t i n ( P D U ) ca MAC-e trn mt lung MAC-e c lp cu hnh bi R N C phc v ( S N R C ) thng qua bo hiu R R C (Radio Resource Control). Tc bt cho php phi xt n tc bt ca codec thoi, hiu sut nn tiu , cc thay i v s t n ti ca cc gi R T C P (Real T i m e Control Protocol: giao thc iu khin thi gian thc). Tc s liu khng lp biu c th c thay i thng qua bo hiu RRC.

Chng 9: VoP trong HSPA

385

Lp biu nt B theo cc yu cu tc ng ln v cc cho php tc ng xung cng c th c thc hin cho VoIP. Nt B gi mt cho php tuyt i n UE v chi tch cc m t s x l HARQ (cho 2ms Tri). iu ny cho php s dng ghp knh cc ngi s dng theo thi gian. u im ca truyn dn lp biu l UE c th yu cu cho php cao hn nu cn, chng hn do cc gi RTCP. Tuy nhin cho php c lp biu ch l mt n nh cng sut, n khng m bo tc bt ti thiu v trong chuyn giao mm cc nt B khc c th h thp cho php ca nt phc v i vi E . V th truyn dn khng lp biu c iu khin bi RNC hp dn hn i vi dch v VoIP. 9.3.2.2. Cc kt qu dung lng H S P A c k vng l s cung cp li dung lng nht nh so vi D C H i v i nhiu dch v nh L I H A R nhanh v lp biu nhanh . T u y nhin c h i ph cho knh iu khin ring tng cng (E-DPCCH) "tiu t n " mt phn l i dung lng, nht l i v i cc dch v tc thp nh VoIP. Phn ny s cung cp v d v cc kt qu dung lng H S U P A V o I P da trn cc m phng mc lin kt v cc phng trnh ti mc h thng. Thng lng mc h thng cho c lOms T T I v 2ms T T I c cho trn hnh 9.8. i v i lOms T T I , tc s liu nh l 32kbit/s v i vi 2ms T T I tc ny l 160kbis. C hai ng cong u gi t i t s dng s ln pht cc i bng 4. Do cc hn ch v tr v mc h s dng knh, ch hai ln pht c s dng cho V o I P vi lOms TTI, ngha l t l li k h i cc i i vi ln pht th nht l 5 0 - 7 0 % v thng lng lin kt on vo khong 6 0 % ca gi tr cc i. i vi 2ms T r i , cho php s dng s ln pht nhiu hn v dung lng c tnh ton cho 5 0 % v 3 0 % thng lng ngi s dng n, tng ng v i trung bnh hai hoc ba ln pht li trn mt gi VoIP.

386

Gio trnh L lnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Dung trng ng ln c th c c tnh bng cc s dng cng thc ti sau y:


\ N.v. + a)

A t t ^ - l O l g l O b

R/R

(9.1)

Trong : p l E /No ch, Re l tc chip, R l tc bt ca E-DPDCH, N l s lng ngi s dung, V l tha s tch cc ting tng ng, oe l t s nhi
u ni vi nhi
u ca cc khc v NR<j chi
B

l tng tp m tnh bng dB. Khi s dng cng thc ti ng ln, cc ph b sung (nhi
u b sung) cho DPCCH, E-DPCCH v HS-DPCCH v cc pht li trn E-DPDCH c xt trong tha s t c h cc ting tng ng.

-30

-28

-26

-24

-22 -20 -18 E /N , dB


c 0

16

-12

Hnh 9.8. Thng lng lin kt n ca 32kbit/s vi truyn dn lOms ni v I60kbit/s vi truyn dn 2ms ni ph thuc vo tng Et/No trong knh xe t A

Chng 9: VolP (rong HSPA

387

Cc tnh ton dung lng ng ln gi thit l a = 0,65 v tch cc ting bng 5 0 % . Ch th cht lng knh ( C I ) i v i ng xung gi thit l c pht trn HS-DPCCH mt ln trong lOms. E-DPCCH ch c truyn cng v i E-DPDCH. D P C C H c pht thng xuyn v n mang cc bt hoa tiu bt buc v cc bt iu khin cng sut.
VA3 vi HS-DPCCH 8

60 70 80 90 S ngi s dng VolP

Hnh 9.9. Tng tp m ng ln ph thuc vo s lng ngi s dng VoIP i vi cc di Tri khc nhau v thng lng mt ngi s dng khc nhau trong knh xe c A, km/h (lu : knh xe c y biu th l lch knh ch khng c ngha l i trn xe) Tng tp m c cho trn hnh 9.9 nh mt h m ph thuc vo s lng ngi s
dng VoIP. Hai ng cong biu th cho hai di n i Cc ng cong cho thy rng sc mnh ca H A R: C th tng s ngi s
dng V o I P nu cho php pht li nhiu hn, bng cch

388

Gio trnh L trnh pht /riu thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

pht i lc u mc cng sut thp. i vi Oms TTI, vic gii hn chi hai ln pht trn mt gi VoIP s hn ch dung lng. Vi 2ms TTI dung lng t c cao hom v c th cho php s ln pht li nhiu hn. Cc kt qu c a ra cho trng hp thng lng mt ngi s dng 5 0 % (trung bnh hai ln pht trn mt gi VoIP) v thng lng 3 0 % (ba ln pht trn mt gi VoIP). Do lp biu nt B nhanh hn v HARQ, c th cho php tng tp m trong HSUPA cao hn so vi R3. Ta gi thit l tng tp m cc i trong HSUPA l 6dB. Truyn dn DPCCH lin tc i hi chi ph kh cao i vi cc lu lng VoIP. Mt gi mi chi xut hin 20ms mt ln, mc d truyn dn c th nhanh (trong 2msTTI). DPCCH mang cc bt hoa tiu c tnh knh v cc bt iu khin cng sut iu khin cng sut ng xung. 3GPP R7 nghin cu kh nng bt tt pht DPCCH ty theo vic c hay khng c cc truyn dn ng ln khc. Mc ch ca gii php ny l gim nhiu v ci thin dung lng. C th t c li hiu sut ph tn t HSUPA bng cch pht li nhiu ln. M i pht li cn c gii m bi my thu nt B v bng gc nt B cn c thit k vi cng sut x l gp hai hoc ba ln so trng hp khi s ln pht li thp. 9.4. TNG KT Cc kt qu m phng HSDPA v HSUPA VoIP c tng kt trn hnh 9.10. Cc kt qu HSDPA da trn 3GPP R5 v DCH l in kt, my thu Rake anten em v tr truyn dn cc i l 80ms. Dung lng ng xung v ng ln tng t nh dung lng chuyn mch knh WCDMA. C th tng dung lng HSDPA bng cch s dng F-DPCH v cc my thu tin tin ti u cui (3GPP R). C th tng dung lng HSUPA bng cch bt tt truyn dn DPCCH ty theo vic c truyn

Chng 9: VoIP trong HSPA

389

dn ng ln hay khng (3GPP R7). K h i tt c cc tng cng ny c p dng. dung lng VoIP c th vt qu 120 ngi s dng vi codec A M R (Adaptive Multi-Rate: a tc thch ng) 12,2kbit/s.
160 140 UE tin tin v F-DPCH (3GPP R6) Bt tt ng ln (3GPP R7) Bt tt ng ln (3GPP R7)

120 100 80 60

40 20

n g xung 1-Rake (3GPP R5)

n g ln 10ms T r i (3GPP R6)

ng ln 2ms TTI (3GPP R6)

Hnh 9. l. Tng kt cc kt qu m phng dung lng cho AMR 12,2kbit/s

9.5. CU HI
V sao cn pht trin dch v VoIP trong HSPA? . 2. L do cn nn tiu cho VoIP trong HSPA? 3. Nguyn l nn tiu cho VoIP trong HSPA? 3. Trnh by lp biu gi v qu tr trong HSDPA VoIP? 4. Trnh by nguyn l s dng cc m nh knh v n nh cng sut trong HSDPA VoIP. 5. Trnh by cc kt qu dung lng
t c trong HSDPA VoIP. 6. Trnh by cc gii thut cho HSPA VoIP. 7. Trnh by cc kt qu dung lng
t c trong HSUPA VoIP.

Chng 10

CC DCH V QUNG B/ A PHNG, A PHNG TIN V KT NI GI LIN TC

Trong chng ny ta s xt hai dch v c pht trin v tng cng cho HSPA l dch v qung b v a phng a phng tin (MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast) v dch v kt ni gi l tc. in Trc y. cc h thng tin di ng t ong ch yu tp trung ln truyn dn s liu dnh cho mt ngi s dng ch khng cho cc dch v qung b. Cc mng qung b (cc mng truyn hnh qung b chng hn) t li ch tp trung ph ln cc vng rng ln v ri khng cung cp hoc cung cp hn ch truyn dn s liu cho mt ngi s dng. Cc dch v qung b v a phng a phng tin (MBMS: Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast), uc a vo WCDMA trong R, h tr cc dch v a phng/qung b trong h thng thng tin di dng t ong bng cch kt hp truyn dn a phng v n phng trong mt mng u cui. Vi MBMS, cng mt ni dung c pht n nhiu ngi s dng ti mt vng c th (vng dch v MBMS) theo cch pht v hng. Vng dch v M B M S thng thng bao ph nhiu .

392

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Mc ch ca dch v kt ni gi lin tc (CPC: Continuous

Packet Connectivity) l m bo cm nhn "lun lun" c kt ni ('Always-on') cho ngi s dng bng cch duy tr UE trong trng thi CELL-DCH lu hn v trnh thng xuyn thay i trng thi vo cc trng thi tch cc thp, ng thi ci thin dung lng cho cc dch v nh VoIP. V dch v ny ch yu lin quan n h tr s liu gi, nn n ch c'h tr khi kt hp vi HSPA. Cc tnh nng CPC khng c s dng khi DCH c lp cu hnh. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Tng quan MBMS - Cc knh cho MBMS - Kt ni gi lin tc Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc kin thc v hai dch v c bit ca HSPA l MBMS v kt ni gi lin tc. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k t liu c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [ 1], [14] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.
10.1. TNG QUAN MBMS 10.1.1. Nguyn l chung

Qung b v a phng th hin cc kch bn khc nhau mc d chng lin quan mt thit: Trong qung b, ti nguyn v tuyn im a im c thit lp trong tng nm trong vng qung b MBMS v tt c nhng ngi s dng ng k dch v qung b u ng thi thu cng mt tn hiu c pht ny. Mng truy nhp v tuyn khng thc hin theo di chuyn ng ca ngi S dng v nhng ngi s dng c th thu ni dung m khng cn thng

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

393

bo cho mng. T r u y n hnh di ng l mt v d v dch v c th c cung cp bi qung b M B M S . T r o n g a phng, nhng ngi s dng yu cu tham gia mt n h m a phng trc k h i thu s liu. Chuyn ng ca ngi s dng c theo di v cc ti nguyn v tuyn c lp cu hnh ph hp v i s ngi s dng trong . M i trong vng a phng ca M B M S c th c lp cu hnh truyn dn im n dim hay im a im. T r o n g cc t ngi s dng (ch c mt hoc vi ngi s dng ng k dch v M B M S ) , truyn dn im n im c th thch hp hn, cn trong cc c s ngi s dng l n hn truyn dn im a im thch h p hom. V th, a phng cho php mng t i u ha kiu truyn dn trong tng . Ch y u M B M S nh hng n cc nt nm pha trn mng truy nhp v tuyn. M t nt m i v i tn gi trung tm dch v qung ba a phng (BM-SC: Broadcast Multicast Service Centrer) c a vo h thng (hnh 10.1). BM-SC chu trch nhim trao quyn v nhn thc ca nh cun - cp n i dung, tnh cc v lp cu hnh tng th lung s liu qua mng li. N cng chu trch nhim m ha mc ng dng s c xt di y. Cc dch v khc nhau c cung cp b i cc vng khc nhau: Qung b trong cc n 4, n phng trong 5 v ch c mt ngi s dng. V ta ch tp u n g ln mng truy nhp v tuyn, nn cc th tc cho M B M S s chi c trnh by ngn gn. Hnh 10.2 m t cc giai on in hnh ca m t phin M B M S . Trc tin, dch v c cng b. Trong trng hp qung b, ngi s dng khng phi thc hin bt c hnh ng no, ngi s dng ch on gin iu chinh' n knh quan tm.

394

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 10. . V d v cc dch v

MBMS

T r o n g trng hp a phng, ngi s dng cn phi pht mt yu cu tham g i a phin c th tr thnh thnh vin ca nhm dch v M B M S tng ng v t h u s liu. Trc k h i bt u pht MBMS, BM-SC g i yu cu bt u phin n mng li mng li n nh cc ti nguyn bn trong cn thit v yu cu ti nguyn v tuyn cn thit t mng truy nhp v tuyn. Tt c cc u cui ca nhm dch v M B M S tng ng cng c thng bo rng bt u truyn ni dung dch v. Sau s liu c pht t server n i dung n nhng ngi s dng u cui. K h i pht s liu dng, server g i thng bo dng pht. Ngoi ra ngi s dng m u n r i k h i dch v a phng M B M S c th yu cu c xa k h i n h m dch v M B M S . M t trong cc l i ch chnh ca M B M S l tit k i m ti nguyn trong mng v m t lung s liu c th phc v nhiu ngi s dng.

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b'a phng.

395

iu ny c th thy c trn hnh 10.1, trong ba dch v khc nhau c cung cp cho cc vng khc nhau. T BM-SC, cc lung s liu c a n tng Nt B tham gia vo qu trnh cung cp cc dch v M B M S . T hnh v ta thy, lung s liu d nh cung cp cho nhiu ngi s dng khng c chia cho n khi cn thit. Chng hn ch c mt lung s liu c pht trong 3. iu ny khc hn vi cc pht hnh trc y ca UTRAN. trong mt lung trn mt ngi s dng phi c lp cu hnh qua c mng li ln mng truy nhp v tuyn.
Server Thng bo dch v v cch truy nhp n Cc giai on MBMS Thng bo dch v Client (UE) Nhn c thng bo ch v

/ / '/

/ / / / , 1 1 1 J J > > > 1 1 i \

> 1 > 1 1 /\

T h a m gia

/ / / / / Quyt inh tch c c ch v A


,,,,,,,,,,, ,,, ,,,,,/

//////////////////,

Bt u phin 1 1

Thng bo M B M S Pht s liu Chuyn s liu s liu

T^

" .e
,

1 1
Dng dch v Dng phin

Ri V Kt thc ch V' 7///////////////////////////////////////)

(Cc giai on gch cho ch c s dng cho a phng, khng s dng cho qung b)

Hnh 10.2. V d v cc giai on in hnh trong mt phin MBMS Trong phn di y trnh by cc nguyn l ca MBMS trong mng truy nhp v tuyn v vic a cc nguyn l ny vo WCDMA. Tiu im xt s l truyn dn im a im v n i hi mt s tnh nng mi trong giao din v tuyn. Truyn dn im n im s

396

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

dng hoc cc knh ring hoc HS-DSCH v t gc giao din v tuyn chng khng khc vi cc truyn dn khc. Nh xt trn, mt trong cc li ch chnh ca MBMS l tit kim t i nguyn mng v nhiu ngi s dng c th chia s cng mt lung s liu. T gc giao din v tuyn iu ny cng ng v mt tn hiu pht c th phc v nhiu ngi s dng. Tt nhin truyn dn im - a im s t ra nhiu yu cu i vi giao din v tuyn rt khc vi truyn n phng im n im. Vic thch ng cc thng s v tuyn cho tng ngi s dng nh lp biu ph thuc knh hay iu khin tc khng th s dng v tn hiu. Cc thng s truyn dn nh cng sut pht phi c thit lp cho ngi s dng ti nht v n quyt nh vng ph ca dch v. Phn hi thng xuyn t nhng ngi s dng chng hn dng cc bo co CQI hay cc bo co ARQ cng s tiu th khi lng dung lng trong ng ln lm khi s lng ngi s dng ng thi thu cng mt ni dung ln. Th tng tng mt trn u bng vi hng nghn c ng vin xem i nh choi bng, tt c trong s h u mun thu xem kt qu cc trn u ca cc i khc v cc kt qu ny c th nh hng ln i nh. R rng rng phn hi c th ngi s dng s tiu th khi lng ln dung lng trong trng hp ny. T trnh by trn, r rng rng cc dch v MBMS b gii hn cng sut v vic m bo phn tp cc i khi khng s dng phn hi l ht sc quan trng. Hai k thut m bo phn tp cho cc dch v M B M S : . Phn tp v m bng cch kt hp truyn dn t nhiu . 2. Phn tp thi gian chng phainh nhanh trong TTI di 80ms v m ha knh lp ng dng. May mn l cc dch v MBMS khng nhy cm tr v vic s dng T T I di khng phi l vn nhn t gc ngi s dng u cui. Cng c th p dng cc phng tin b sung cung cp phn

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

397

tp, chng hn s dng phn tp pht vng h. Phn tp thu ti my u cui cng ci thin hiu nng, tuy nhin chun 3GPP cho UE trong R li a ra cc UE anten n, v th kh p dng kiu phn tp ny trong quy hoch vng ph MBMS. Ngoi ra, cn lu rng m ha lp ng dng cng cung cp cc li ch b sung khng lin quan trc tip n phn tp. 10.1.2. Phn tp v m Kt hp nhiu truyn dn ca cng mt ni dung t nhiu (phn tp v m) cho li phn tp kh ln. vo khong 4-6dB gim cng sut so vi thu on nh minh ha trn hnh 10.3. Hai chin lc kt hp c h tr cho MBMS, kt hp mm v kt hp chn lc (hnh 10.4).

Phn cng sut (dB) (m hnh i b A 3km/gi, 80TTI, anten thu n, khng phn tp pht, BLER 1%)

Hnh 0.3. li s dng kt hp mm v thu nhiu xt theo vn ph ph thuc cng sut i vi dch v MBMS 64kbit/s

398

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Kt hp m m thc hin kt hp cc bt m m t h u c t cc

ng truyn v tuyn khc nhau trc k h i gii m (turbo). Trc ht U E gii ngu nhin ha v R A K E kt hp cc truyn dn t cc , sau kt hp mm. L u rng khc v i n phng, li phn tp nhn c m khng cn chi ph thm v tn hiu n t cc ln cn lun lun c. V th nh xt trong chng 5, tt nht l tn dng cc tn hiu n t cc khc c h khng coi chng l nhiu. Tuy nhin v W C D M A s dng ngu nhin ha c th , nn kt hp cn c thc hin bng x l ph hp ca E . X l ny cng chu trch nhim trit nhiu gy ra do hot ng truyn dn (khng phi M B M S ) trong cc ln cn. i v i M B M S , iu ny c ngha l cn s dng cng m t n i dung v cu trc knh vt l cho cc c truyn v tuyn tham gia vo kt hp mm.
RAKE
b

> RKE Giai m Turbo B m

B m mm v b , kt hp

S
Giai m turbo RKE

RAKE n

Gii m Turbo

B n-

Hnh 10.4. Minh ha nguyn l: (a) kt hp mm, (b) kt hp chn lc


Khc v i kt h p mm. kt hp la chn gii m tn hiu thu c t tng v i v i tng T T I chn ra m t (nu c) trong cc khi s liu c gii m ng x l tip theo trn cc lp cao hem. T gc hiu nng, kt hp m m c u im hn v n khng ch cung cp l i phn tp m cn c l i cng sut do tn dng cng sut thu c t nhiu . So v i kt hp chn la. li ny vo khong t 2 n 3dB. L do d h t r cc chin lc kt hp khc nhau l x l cc mc d b khc nhau ca mng. i v i kt hp mm, cc bt mm t tng ng truyn v tuyn phi c n h m cho n k h i thu c

Chng 10: Cc dch v quang b/a phng.

399

ton b T T I t cc ng truyn v tuyn v ch khi ny kt hp m m mi bt u, trong k h i i v i kt hp chn lc m i ng truyn v tuyn c gii m ring v ch cn nh m cc bt thng tin sau gii m t tng ng truyn. V th k h i mc d b cao. kt hp chn lc i h i n h m trong U E hom v i tr gi tng x l gii t m turbo v thit hiu nng. U E c thng bo v mc ng b v da trn thng t i n ny cng nh thc hin bn trong ca mnh, U E c th quyt nh s dng s kt hp bt k chng no cn thc hin c cc yu cu hiu nng ti thiu bt buc ca tiu chun. V i cc yu cu n h m tng t nh i v i u cui HSPA 3,6Mbis (y l c s quy nh cc yu cu M B M S cho UE), kt hp mm c th c m bo nu pht t cc khc nhau c ng b trong khong thi gian 80ms v iu ny l hin thc trong hu ht cc t n hung. h

Bng lo. . Yu cu ve x l ca VE thu


Kt hp mm Tc s liu trn MTCH
S iPTig

MBMS

Kt hp chn lc
S n g

truyn v tuyn cc
i

Tri, ms

truyn v tuyn cc
i

Tri, ms

3 256 kbis <2

40 80

2 1 3

40 80 40 80 80 80

128 kbit/s

<3

80

2 1

<64 kbit/s

<3

80

<3

N h ni trn. Cc kh nng ca U E c thit lp v i g i thit l cc yu cu n h m ging n h u yu cu i v i u cui

400

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

HSDPA 3,6Mbit/s. V th cn hn chs lng cc ng truyn v tuyn m mt u cui di ng phi c kh nng kt hp mm i vi cc gi tr T T I khc nhau v i vi cc tc s liu khc nhau. iu ny c minh ha trong bng 10.1. T bng ny ta cng thy rng cc UE c kh nng MBMS c th h tr tc s liu ln n 256kbis. Cn lu rng y l kh nng ca mt MBMS UE cho d n c h tr MBMS hay khng. V quy hoch mng phi c thc hin vi gi thit mt tp nht nh cc kh nng UE (cc kh nng lin quan n kt hp m m . . v th nh khai thc khng c khai ,.) thc vt qu cc kh nng ny. Tt nhin ngi s dng u cui c th hng li t mt u cui tin ti hn, chng hn thng qua kh n nng thu nhiu dch v ng thi. 10.1.3. M ha mc ng dng Rt nhiu ng dng i hi m ha xc sut li rt thp, vo khong 10" . m bo xc sut li bt thp ny trn knh truyn ti
6

bng cng sut c th rt tn km. Trong thng tin im im, v n th HARQ c s dng pht li cc gi b li. Chng hn HSDPA s dng c HARQ (xem chng 6) ln cc pht li RLC. Ngoi ra bn thn giao thc TCP cng thc hin pht li m bo chuyn gi hu nh khng mc li. Tuy nhin nh xt trn, qung b khng th da trn phn hi thng tin v v th cn s dng cc chin lc khc. i vi MBMS, m ha sa li mc ng dng c s dng gii quyt vn ny. M ha mc ng dng c t trong BM-SC v v thkhng phi l b phn ca mng truy nhp v tuyn, nhng rt cn phi xem xt khi thit kmng truy nhp v tuy Vi m ha n. mc ng dng, h thng c th hot ng khi t s li knh truyn ti vo khong -10% thay v vi phn ca phn trm v th gim ng k yu cu cng sut pht. V m ha mc ng dng c t trong BM-SC, nn n cng hiu qu chng cc mt gi ngu nhin trong mng truyn ti, chng hn do cc iu kin qu ti tm thi.

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

401

M h thng Raptor c chn cho m ha mc ng dng trong M B M S lm vic v i cc gi c kch thc c nh (48-512 byte). Cc m Raptor thuc loi cc m Fountain, v c th to ra nhiu gi m ha theo yu cu trn mt on s liu ngun. b gii m c th khi phc li thng tin, chi cn thu nhiu cc ci c m ha. Khng quan trng cc gi no thu c, t h t thu hoc mt s gi nht nh c b mt hay khng (hnh 10.5).
<=> UE1

-aThng tin
Cc gi c m ha Ph thuc v cc iu kin v tuyn khc nhau, s cc gi cn thit UE c kh nng khi phc li thng tin ban u c th khc nhau

Hnh 0.5. Minh ha m ha lp ng dng


Ngoi vic cung cp bo v b sung chng li mt gi, v gim cng sut pht cn thit, s dng m ha mc ng dng cng n gin ha cc th tc o ca UE. i v i HSDPA, b lp biu c th trnh lp biu cho U E trong mt s khong thi gian. iu ny cho php UE s dng m y t h u cho cc mc ch o, chng hn my thu c th iu chnh n mt tn s khc thm ch n mt cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc. K h i thit lp qung b, lp biu cho cc khong trng o rt phc tp v cc UE c th c cc yu cu khc nhau i v i tn s v di cc khong trng o. Ngoi ra cc UE cng phi c thng bo k h i no c cc khong trng o ny. V th mt chin lc o khc c tip nhn cho MBMS. o UE c thc hin t quyt, ngha l thinh thong UE mt mt (hoc mt phn) khi truyn ti trn knh vt l. Trong mt s trng hp, m turbo bn trong vn c th gii m s liu knh truyn ti, tuy nhin nu khng l cc trng hp ny th m mc ng dng ngoi s m bo khng mt thng tin.

402

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

10.2. CC KNH CHO MBMS Mt yu cu trong thit k MBMS l ti s dng cc knh c mc c th. V th knh truyn ti FACH v knh vt l S-CCPCH c ti s dng v khng thay i. mang s liu MBMS v bo hiu, ba knh logic mi c b sung cho R: . Knh lu lng MBMS 2. Knh iu khin MBMS 3. Knh lp biu MBMS (MTCH) mang s liu ng dng. (MCCH) mang thng tin iu khin.

(MSCH), mang thng tin lp biu h

tr thu khng lin tc trong E. Tt c cc knh ny s dng FACH lm knh truyn ti v S CCPCH lm knh vt l. Ngoi ba knh logic mi, mt knh vt l mi c a ra h tr M B M S - knh ch th M B M S (MCH) c s dng thng bo cho UE v thay i s xy ra trong cc ni dung MCCH. 10.2.1. MTCH M T C H l mt knh logic mang s liu ng dng trong trng hp truyn dn im a im (i vi truyn dn im im, DTCH c sp xp ln D C H hay HS-DSCH). M t M T C H c lp cu hnh cho tng dch v M B M S v tng knh M T C H c sp xp ln mt knh truyn ti FACH. Knh vt l S-CCPCH c s dng mang mt 'hay mt s) knh truyn ti FACH. RLC cho M T C H c lp cu hnh s dng ch khng cng nhn v trong truyn dn im a im khng s dng cc bo co trng thi RLC. h tr kt hp chn lc, RLC c tng cng thm h tr chuyn theo th t bng cch s dng cc s trnh t RLC PDU v cng mt kiu c ch ging nh c ch c p dng trong MAC-hs (xem chng 6). iu ny cho php E sp t li th t n su c thit lp bi khng gian s trnh t RLC P D trong trng hp kt hp chn la.

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

403

Hnh 10.6 cho thy v d v lung s liu ng dng i qua RLC. M C v l p vt l. Phn ngoi cng bn tri ca hnh v m i n h ha trng hp truyn dn im en im, cn phn gia v ngoi cng bn phi m i n h ha trng hp truyn dn im a im s dng MTCH. Trn phn gia ca hnh v, mt thc th R L C c s dng cng vi nhiu thc th M C . Phn ny ny m i n h ha mt tnh hung in hnh trong kt h p chn lc m m c s dng v nhiu c ng b thi gian lng cng nh cng mt s liu c pht trn nhiu T r i trong cc khc nhau. Cui cng, phn ngoi cng bn phi ca hnh v m i n h ha trng hp in hnh k h i kt hp mm c s dng. M t thc th R L C v M C c s dng cho truyn dn trong nhiu . c th kt hp mm, pht t cc khc nhau phi c ng b t r o n g 80,67ms ( v i gi thit T T I 80ms).
T mng l i - Cc knh mang Cc knh mang v tuyn RLC RLC MTCH MC FACH LI Cc knh vt l Truyn dn im n im HS-PDSCH S-CCPCH Truyn n dim a im. UE thc hin kt hp chn lc gia cc LI S-CCPCH Truyn dn dim a im, UE thc hin kt hp mm gia cc FACH MTCH MC RLC im n im

C c knh mang im a im

Cc knh
logc Cc knh truyn ti

DTCH

MC HS-DSCH

LI

Hnh 4.6. Minh ha lung s liu qua RLC, MC v LI ti pha mng cho cc kch bn truyn dn khc nhau 10.2.2. MCCH v MCH
M C C H l m t k i u knh logic c s dng mang bo hiu iu khin cn thit t h u M T C H . Trong m i c k h nng M B M S ,

404

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mt MCCH c s dng v n c th mang thng tin iu khin cho nhiu MTCH, MCCH c sp xp ln FACH (lu FACH ny khc vi FACH c s dng cho MTCH), n lt mnh FACH c pht trn knh vt l S-CCPCH. Cng mt knh S-CCPCH ging nh knh cho M T C H c th c s dng, nhng nu kt hp mm c cho php i vi MTCH, t phi s dng cc knh S-CCPCH khc h nhau cho M T C H v MCCH. L do phi s dng cc knh S-CCPCH khc nhau trong trng hp ny l v khng s dng kt hp chn lc v kt hp mm cho MCCH v UE ch thu M C C H t mt duy nht. BCCH (l knh logic s dng pht qung b thng tin v cu hnh h thng) s thng bo vic tm MCCH u. Truyn dn MCCH tun theo mt lp biu c nh nh minh ha trn hnh 10.7. Thng tin MCCH c pht bng cch s dng mt s lng kh bin cc T r i lin tip. Trong tng chu k thay oi, thng tin ny c gi nguyn v n c pht tun hon theo chu theo chu k lp. iu ny l hu ch h tr di ng gia cc ; mt UE khi i vo mt mi hay mt UE mt thng tin u tin khng cn i thu thng tin MCCH cho n khi bt u mt chu k thay i mi.
7680 chip Khung v tuyn 10ms

i i i i i l H M H i l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l
IU I 1111 li I [ I li li 11111 a i i m i i i N i i i m i i N M L H I U
Chu k lp Mt hoc vi Tri Chu k thay i

Hnh 10.7. Lp biu truyn dn

MCCH khc nhau,

(Cc c t khc nhau biu th ni dung MCCH

ngha l t hp khc nhau ca cc dch v) Thng tin M C C H cha c thng tin v cc dch v c cung cp trong chu k thay i v cch thc ghp cc M T C H trong . N cng cha c thng tin v cu hnh M T C H trong cc ln cn h tr kt

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

405

hp mm v kt hp chn lc nhiu truyn dn. Cui cng, n cng cha thng tin iu khin phn hi t UE trong trng hp s dng m. ong cc UE ni n mng biu th rng m l mt c ch tr chng c quan tm n mt dch v c th hay khng v n hu ch xc nh c ch truyn dn tt nht i vi mt dch v cho trc. Chng hn, nu c mt s lng nh ngi s dng trong quan tm n mt dch v c th, th tr uyn dn im n im s c li hn truyn dn im a im. e trnh h thng b ti nng trn ng ln do cc tr li m, chi mt b phn cc UE pht thng tin m n mng. Thng tin m ca M C C H iu khin xc sut m cc UE ni n mng pht thng tin m. V th m c th cung cp thng tin phn hi gi tr v vic ni no v khi no mt dch v c th c nhiu ngi quan tm, y l mt li ch khng c c trong cc mng qung b tr uyn thng. gim tiu th cng sut ca UE v trnh cho UE phi thng xuyn thu MCCH, mt knh vt l mi, knh M C H (knh ch th MBMS) c a ra h tr MBMS. Mc ch ca knh ny l thng bo cho cc UE v cc thay i s xy ra trong thng tin ca knh MCCH v n c cu trc ging nh knh ch th tm gi. Trong tng khung v tuyn lOms, 18, 36, 72 hay 144 ch th MBMS c th c pht. Ch th c di mt bt, c pht bng kha ng m v l quan n mt nhm cc dch v c th. in Vi s c mt ca M C H , cc UE c th ng v ch thc gic trong mt khong thi gian ngn ti cc khong thi gian quy nh trc kim tra xem ch th M B M S c c pht hay khng. Nu UE pht hin chi th M B M S cho mt dch v m n quan tm, n c MCCH tm thng tin iu khin lin quan, chng hn khi no dch v ny s c pht trn MTCH. Nu khng c ch th M T C H lin quan no c pht hin, UE c th ng n ln xut hin M C H sau.

406

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

1 . . . MSCH 023
Mc ch ca MSCH l cho php UE thc hin thu khng lin tc knh MTCH. Ni dung ca n thng bo cho UE v vic mt dch v c th s c pht trong cc T T I no. Mt MSCH c pht trong tng knh S-CCPCH mang MTCH. Ni dung MSCH lin quan n mt dch v v mt S-CCPCH.

10.3. KT NI GI LIN TC
Lu lng gi thng xuyn c tnh cm rt cao vi chu k t c h cc pht ch thinh thong xy ra. R rng rng, t quan im ngi s dng, rt c li khi duy tr cu hnh HS-DSCH v E-DCH m bo pht nhanh s liu ca ngi s dng. Tuy nhin duy tr kt ni ng ln v ng xung li i hi chi ph. T quan im mng, phi mt chi ph cho nhiu ng ln do truyn dn DPCCH thm ch khng truyn dn s liu. i vi UE th vn ch yu l tiu th cng sut; ngay c khi khng thu s liu, UE vn cn pht DPCCH v gim st HS-SCCH. gim bt tiu th cng sut ca UE, W C D M A v hu ht cc h thng thng tin di ng khc u c ba trng thi: URA_PCH, CELL_PCH; CELL_FACH v CELL DCH. Cc trng thi khc nhau ny c minh ha trn hnh 10.8. Tiu th cng sut thp nht t c khi UE nm trong mt trong hai trng thi ca WCDMA: CELL-PCH v UTRA_PCH. Trong cc trng thi ny, UE chi thnh thong thc gic kim tra cc bn tin tm gi. C ch tm gi ch yu c thit k cho cc chu k khng tch cc di hn. trao i s liu, UE cn c chuyn vo CELL_FACH hay CELL_DCH. Trong CELL_FACH, UE c th pht cc khi lng nh s liu nh l mt b phn ca th tc truy nhp ngu nhin. UE gim s t knh ng xung chung cho cc khi lng s liu nh ca ngi s

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung bi'a phng.

407

dng v bo hiu R R C (Radi Resource Control: iu khin t i nguyn v tuyn) t mng.

Gim tr truyn dn

Hnh 0.8. M hnh trng thi WCDMA


Trng thi tch cc truyn dn cao chnh l C E L L DCH. Trong trng thi ny, U E c th s dng HS-DCH v E-DCH trao i s liu vi mng nh xt trong cc chng 6 v 7. Trng thi ny cho php truyn dn nhanh mt khi lng lm s liu ca ngi s dng, nhng cng tiu t h cng sut E cao nht. Bo hiu R R C c s dng chuyn U E vo cc trng thi khc nhau. V th, nh xt trn, t quan im tr tt nht l g i UE trng thi C E L L DCH, trong khi t quan im nhiu v tiu th cng sut, tt nht l a n vo trng thi tm gi (PCH). ci thin h t r s liu gi trong HSPA, mt tp cc tnh nng vi tn gi CPC (Continuous Packet Connectivity: kt ni gi lin tc) c a vo R7. CPC bao g m cc chc nng sau: 1. Pht khng lin tc ( D T X : Discontinuous Transmission), gim nhiu ng ln v v th tng dung lng ng ln cng nh tit k i m cng sut c quy.

408

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G 2. Thu khng lin tc (DRX: Discontinuous Reception), UE nh k tt mch thu v tit kim ngun. 3. Khai thc HS-SCCH t hn, gim chi ph bo hiu iu

khin cho cc khi lng s liu nh chng hn VoIP. Mc ch ca cc tnh nng ni trn l m bo cm nhn "lun lun" c kt ni ("Always-on") cho ngi s dng bng cch duy t UE trong trng thi CELL-DCH lu hn v trnh thng r xuyn thay i trng thi vo cc trng thi tch cc thp, ng thi ci thin dung lng cho cc dch v nh VoIP. V dch v ny ch yu lin quan n h tr s liu gi, nn n ch c h tr khi kt hp vi HSPA. Cc tnh nng CPC khng c s dng khi DCH c lp cu hnh.
10.3.1. DTX- Gim chi ph ng ln

Ti nguyn chia s trn ng ln c xt trong chng 7, mc nhiu trn trong . Trong cc chu k khi s liu khng c pht trn ng ln, nhiu do UE to ra do pht knh DPCCH ng ln. Knh ny c pht lin tc chng no E-DCH cn c lp cu hnh. V th mi s gim hot ng khng cn thit ca DPCCH u trc tip dn n gim nhiu ng ln, v v th gim chi ph dung lng h thng cn thit duy t kt ni UE. R rng rng, t quan im r gim nhiu, gii php tt nht l tt hon ton DPCCH khi khng xy ra truyn dn s liu. Tuy nhin, iu ny s dn n nh hng nghim trng ln kh nng duy t ng b ng ln cng nh nh r hng xu ln hot ng iu khin cng sut. V th thinh thong cn phi c cc khe tch cc DPCCH thm ch c khi s liu khng c pht duy t ng b ng ln v duy t iu khin cng sut r r chnh xc mt cch hp l. y l tng c s ca DTX. R rng rng lu lng s liu mang tin cm cng cao, th li ch ca pht khng lin tc cng ln.

Chng l: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

409

v nguyn tc. nu khng c truvn dn E-DCH trn ng ln, UE t ng dng pht D P C C H lin tc v nh k pht tng cm DPCCH theo chu k U E DTX. Chu k U E D T X c lp cu hnh ong UE v trong nt B bi RNC. Chu k ny quy nh khi no pht DPCCH ngay c k h i E-DCH khng tch cc. iu ny c minh ha trn hnh 10.9. di c m D P C C H c th c lp cu hnh. Lu rng DPCCH s c pht ngay khi E-DPDCH tch cc khng ph thuc vo chu k U E DTX. Lu rng cng c kh nng thit lp cc dch thi c th U E m rng cc trng hp truyn dn D P C C H theo thi gian t cc U E khc nhau.
Khe Ngng chuyn mch sang chu k 2

EDDH -PC DCH -PC DPCCH


j Tin t r Chu k UE"DTX Chu k UE DTX 2 c s dng

Hu t c s dng Chuyn mch t chu k UE DTX sang chu k UE DTX 2

Kinh 10.9. V d v DTX ng ln e thch ng chu k U E D T X i vi cc tnh cht lu lng, hai chu k khc nhau c nh ngha, chu k U E D T X v chu k UE DTX 2, trong chu k th hai l mt bi s nguyn ca chu k th nht. Sau mt khong thi gian khng tch cc trn knh E-DCH kh lp cu hnh no , U E chuyn mch t chu k U E D T X sang UE DTX 2. Trong chu k hai ny truyn dn D P C C H tha hn. Thu khng lin tc trong nt B c th thc hin c nh s dng DTX ng ln v c th hu ch tit kim ti nguyn x l trong nt B v n khng phi x l lin tc tn hiu thu t tt c nhng ngi s dng. m bo kh nng ny, mng c th lp cu hnh UE n chi bt u truyn dn E-DCH ti cc khung (khung con) quy nh. M t khong thi gian nht nh sau truyn dn E-DCH cui cng, quy nh ny m i c hiu lc v U E ch c th pht trn ng ln theo chu k M C D T X .

410

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Trong cc khe khng pht DPCCH, nt B khng th tnh t s tn hiu trn nhiu ng ln iu khin cng sut v v th khng cn truyn bt iu khin cng sut trn ng xung. H qu l UE khng th nhn c cc lnh iu khin cng sut trn F-DCH trong cc khe ng xung tng ng vi cc khe DPCCH ng l n khng tch cc. ci thin hiu nng c tnh knh v iu khin cng sut chnh xc hn, cc tin t v hu t c s dng. i vi chu k UE D T X , E bt u pht DPCCH vi hai khe trc khi bt u pht E-DPDCH. Ta c th thy iu ny trn hnh 9.9. i vi chu k UE DTX 2, tin t c th ko di n 15 khe. Tin t v hu t cng c s dng cho cc cm DPCCH do truyn dn s liu cng nh do tch cc truyn dn HS-DPCCH (xt di y). Cho n nay ta mi ch xt n cc vn lin quan n truyn dn s liu trn E-DCH ch cha cp n bo hiu iu khin trn HS-DPCCH, bo hiu ny cng i hi mt s chi ph. Khi cho php CPC, hot ng HARQ gi nguyn khng i v UE pht cng nhn HARQ sau khi thu c HS-DSCH khng ph thuc vo chu k UE DTX. R rng rng iu ny l d hiu v bo hiu ACK/NAK quan trng cho hot ng ca HS-DSCH. iu ny cng khng mu thun vi cc kh nng thu khng lin tc ca nt B v nt B bit c cn i cng nhn khi no. i vi cc bo co CQI, truyn dn cc bo co ny ph thuc vo vic xy ra truyn dn HS-DSCH mi y hay khng. Nu truyn dn HS-DSCH gn nht n E xy ra trong phm vi cc khung con ca b nh thi CQI DTX (b nh thi CQI c lp cu hnh bi bo hiu RRC), th cc bo co CQI c pht theo chu k phn hi theo cch c trnh by R i v R6. Tuy nhin nu khng xy ra truyn dn HS-DSCH mi y, cc bo co CQI ch c th c pht nu chng trng vi cc cm DPCCH. Hay ni mt cch khc, trong trng hp ny mu DTX ng ln trng vi mu bo co C I (hnh 10.10).

Chng 10: Cc dch v quang b/a phng.

411

Khng (rung V I c h u k D T X ^ khng pht

Tch cc HS-DSCH cui cng

inh t h i C O I DTX c h m t

Hnh 10.10. Bo co CQI kt hp vi DTX ng ln


10.3.2. DRX - Gim tiu th cng sut E Trong hot ng H S D P A 'bnh thng', U E cn gim st n bn HS-SCCH trong tng k h u n g con. M c d iu ny m bo hon ton tnh linh hot, nhng n cng yu cu mch thu E lin tc bt v dn n vic tiu t h m t lng cng sut khng nh. V th gim tiu th cng sut, CPC a ra k h nng thu khng lin tc ng xung (DRX: Discontinuous Reception). V i D R X (lun lun hot ng kt hp vi D T X : Discontinuous Transmission: Pht khng lin tc), mng c th hn ch cc k h u n g m U E cn gim st cho HS-SCCH, E-AGCH v E-RGCH ng xung bng cch lp cu hnh chu k UE D R X cn s dng sau m t thi gian khng tch cc HS-DSCH. Lu rng t r o n g trng hp ny, U E chi c th c lp biu trong mt tp con ca tt c cc k h u n g con v iu ny s hn ch phn no tnh linh hot ca lp biu, nhng i v i nhiu dch v nh V o I P v i cc gi c t r u y n nh k vo khong 20ms m t ln th iu ny khng phi l vn quan trng. E-HICH khng b D R X v i p dng D R X cho n l v ngh V th a. mi khi U E pht s liu ln ng ln, n s gim st E-HICH trong khung con ng xung tng ng nhn cng nhn (hay ph nhn). m bo hot ng iu khin cng sut bnh thng, U E cn nhn c cc bt iu khin cng sut trn F-DPDCH trn tt c cc

412

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

khe ng xung tng ng vi cc khe ng ln m UE pht. cn duy t iu ny khng ph thuc vo chu k E DRX trn ng r xung. V th t c li ch y nht ca khai thc DRX ng xung, mng cn kt hp DTX ng ln vi DRX ng xung v lp cu hnh UE DTX v cc chu k UE DRX ph hp vi nhau. V d v s dng ng thi DTX v DRX c minh ha trn hnh 10.11.
Tch cc E-DCH DPCCH

1 1 III I I 1 li I I
Chu k UE DTX 1 .Chu k UE DRX,

HI I li li I Ili H i m liI I li I im

Chu k UE DTX 2

nI I I u I I I I II

Cc knh ng xung Thu do tch cc ng ln Thu o chu k UE DRX

Hnh 10. . V d v ng thi s dng DTX ng ln v DRX ng xung.


10.3.3. Khai thc HS-SCCH t hn: Gim chi ph ng xung

Trn ng xung mt ngi s dng tiu ph mt s ti nguyn mng bao gm: S dng m v cng sut pht. Vic a F-DPCH vo R gim ng k chi ph cho m. Mt ngun tiu ph na l HS-SCCH c s dng cho lp biu ng xung. Trong trng hp ti tin trn HS-DSCH c kch thc t trung bnh tr ln, chi ph HS-SCCH l nh so vi ti tin; tuy nhin i vi cc dch v nh VoIP thng xuyn truyn dn cc ti tin nh, th chi ph ny so vi ti tin thc t l ng k. V th gii quyt vn n ny v tng dung lng cho VoIP, kh nng s dng khai thc HS-SCCH hn t c a vo R7. tng c bn ca khai thc HS-SCCH hn l t thc hin truyn dn HS-DSCH m khng cn HS-SCCH i km. V trong trng hp ny UE khng c thng bo v khun dng truyn

Chng 10: Cc dch v quang b/a phng.

413

dn nn n phi quay li gii m m khun dng truyn ti c s dng trn HS-DSCH. Khi khai thc HS-SCCH hon c cho php, mng lp cu hnh t cho mt tp cc khun dng quy nh trc s s dng cho HS-DSCH. hn ch s phc tp ca gi m m trong UE, s khun dng ny c gii hn l bn v tt c cc khun dng ny gii hn QPSK v nhi nht l hai m nh knh. i ny l hon ton ph hp vi u u cc kch thc khi truyn ti nh (vo khong vi trm bt) m khai thc HS-SCCH hn s p dng. Ngoi ra UE cng bit c m t (cc m) nh knh no c th c s dng cho truyn dn ca khai thc HS-SCCH hem. t Trong m i khung con, m ti U E khng thu c bo hiu iu khin HS-SCCH, U E c gng gii m tn hiu thu theo tng khun dng trong s cc khun dng c lp cu hnh trc. N u gii m thnh cng, U E pht A C K trn HS-DPCCH v chuyn khun dng truyn ti ln lp cao hn. N u gii m khng thnh cng, U E lu li cc bt thu m vo b nh m cho cc pht li sau ny. Lu m rng trong trng hp ny N A K khng c pht tng minh. i u ny l r rng, v k h i ny E khng th bit rng nguyn nhn gii m khng thnh cng l do bn t i n khng ch nh gi cho U E hay do truyn dn b l i . T r o n g hot ng "bnh thng", c th phn bit c hai trng hp ny, nhng trong khai thc HS-SCCH hn i t u ny l khng th. Bnh thng, HS-SCCH mang s nhn dng ca UE c lp biu. Tuy nhin trong trng hp khai thc HS-SCCH hon, iu ny t l khng th v s nhn dng ca U E c lp biu phi c chuyn n ti mt ni khc. i ny c gii quyt bng cch s dng mt u n lc 24-bit C R C trn knh HS-DSCH bng E I D ging n h u th tc chung cho HS-SCCH. V U E bit c nhn dng ( I D ) ca mnh, nn n c th s dng iu ny k h i kim tra CRC v nh vy n s loi b cc truyn dn dnh cho cc U E khc.

414

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G C th pha trn khai thc HS-SCCH h o n v i cc truyn dn t

'bnh thng'. N u U E thu c HS-SCCH trong m t khung con cho ln truyn dn u tin, th n s tun theo HS-SCCH ny v s khng thc hin gii m m . C h i k h i U E pht hin khng c HS-SCCH no c gi n n, th ni s tm cch gii m s liu m. m bo tng thch ngc, th tc ny cng ging nh cc th tc trong cc pht hnh trc y; ngoi tr i v i khai thc HS-SCCH hom, t HS-DSCH C R C c lc mt n bng U E ID. Khng ging nh cc truyn dn pht u tin c xt trc y, cc pht li H A R Q u c HS-SCCH i km. HS-SCCH c pht bng cch s dng cng cu trc nh i v i cc truyn dn HS-DSCH "bnh thng"; tuy nhin cc bt c trnh by li cung cp cho UE: - M t ch th rng y l pht li ca truyn dn HS-SCCH hn t trc . - y l pht li ln t h nht hay pht li ln hai. - Tp m nh knh v kch thc k h i truyn ti. - M t con t r ch ra ln pht trc m ln pht li ny cn kt hp m m v i n. L do cn cc thng t i n ny l d hng dn U E cc thc hin kt hp mm; nu khng cung cp cc thng t i n ny cho UE, U E s buc phi d t h cc chin lc kt hp mm khc nhau v lm tng thm phc tp. Ngoi ra gim phc tp, nhiu nht l hai pht li c h t r v phin bn d s s dng cho tng pht li ny c lp cu hnh trc. e c th thc hin kt hp mm, E phi lu cc bt mm t cc ln pht trc. V i ba ln pht (mt pht u tin v hai pht li), cn nh m m m cho tt c l 13 khung con. D u y tr k h i lng nh m m m ti m t kch thc hp l l l do v sao phi g i i hn s ln pht

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung bi'a phng.

415

li cc i bng hai v hn ch cc kch thc ti trng cho khai thc HS-SCCH hn. t Khai thc HS-SCCH hn kt hp v i cc pht li c minh t ha trn hnh 10.12.
Con tr n ln pht trc S th t pht li () Khun dang truyn ti, cc li nguyn HS-SCCH Con tr n ln pht trc S th t pht li (2) Khun dang truyn ti, cc ti nguyn

HS-DSCH"

ti- ^ *

Kt hp mm.

Gii m m

Si

-^y*

khun dng theo HS-SCCH Cn nh m mm cho 13 khung con

Kt hp m m , khun dng theo HS-SCCH

' /

Hnh 10.12. V d v cc pht li vi khai thc Hit-SCCH t hn


10.3.4. Bo hiu iu khin

Bo hiu lp cao hn l cch u tin thit lp v iu khin cc tnh nng CPC. Cc c h u k E D T X v U E D R X c lp cu hnh v c tch cc b i bo hiu RRC. T u y nhin chng khng c tch cc nga) lp tc, m chi sau mt thi gian kh lp cu hnh (c gi l Enabling Delay - tr cho php) m bo n nh ng b v cc vng iu khin cng sut. Tri li khai thc HS-SCCH t hn c th c tch cc ngay khi thit lp cuc gi. Ngoi bo hiu RRC, cn c th s dng cc mu bt dnh trc ca HS-SCCH tt bt D T X ng ln v D R X ng xung (c ch ny khng s dng cho lp biu bnh thng). Mc d c ch ny thng khng c s dng, nhng n cho php b lp biu thay th khai thc D T X / D R X tng thm tnh linh hot. N u U E nhn c

416

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

lnh tch cc hay khng tch cc DTX/DRX trn HS-SCCH, n s tr li bng mt cng nhn trn HS-DPCCH. 10.3.5. Khai thc CELL-FACH tng cng Mc ch ca CPC l m bo tri nghim Mun lun c kt ni' bng cch duy t UE trong trng thi tch cc (trng t r hi CELL_DCH trong WCDMA), trong khi vn m bo c ch gim tiu th cng sut. Tuy nhin UE s phi chuyn vo trng t hi CELL_FACH nu khng xy ra truyn dn trong mt khong thi gian nht nh. Khi UE nm trong trng thi CELL_FACH, cn c bo hiu trn knh truy nhp ng xung (F C H ) chuyn UE tr li CELL DCH trc khi thc hin trao i s liu trn HS-DSCH v E-DCH. FACH l mt knh truyn ti ng xung cng tc thp. Cc t i nguyn vt l mang knh FACH c lp cu hnh bn vnh cu bi RNC v cc i ha cc t i nguyn kh dng cho HS-DSCH v cc knh khc ng xung, khi lng ti nguyn cho FACH (v tc s liu FACH tng ng) thng l nh, vo khong vi chc kbis. gim tr lin quan n cc thay i trng thi, R7 ci thin hiu nng bng cch cho php s dng c HS-DSCH cho trng t hi CELL_FACH. Tnh nng ny thng c gi l khai thc CELL-FACH tng cng. S dng c HS-DSCH trong CELL-FACH cho php gim ng k tr lin quan n chuyn vo trng t hi CELL-FACH. Thay v s dng FACH tc thp, bo hiu t mng n E c th c mang trn HS-DSCH tc cao. V th tr thit lp cuc gi s gim ng k v cm nhn ca ngi s dng s c ci thin. Trong khai thc CELL_FACH, UE gim st HS-SCCH nhn thng tin lp biu theo cc nguyn l c xt trong chng 6. Tuy nhin mt khc bit ch yu so vi cc th tc HS-DSCH trong chng 6 l khng c knh ring ng ln trong trng t hi

Chng 10: Cc dch v qung b/a phng.

417

CELL_FACH. V th s khng c cc bo co C Q I cho thch ng tc v lp biu ph thuc knh cng nh khng th truyn phn hi HARQ. V th, thch ng tc v lp biu ph thuc knh phi da trn cc kt qu o di hn c pht trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin c s dng khi u thay i trng thi. V khng c phn hi HARQ, nn mng c th pht li m s liu ng xung trong mt s ln c lp cu hnh trc m bo thu t i n cy ti UE.

10.4. TNG KT
Chung ny xt hai dch v c pht trin v tng cng cho HSPA l dch v qung b v a phng a phng tin ( M B M S : Multimedia Broadcast and Multicast) v dch v kt ni gi lin tc. V i M B M S , cng mt ni dung c pht n nhiu ngi s dng ti mt vng c th {vng dch v MBMS) theo cch pht v hng. Vng dch v M B M S thng thng bao ph nhiu Trong qung b. ti nguyn v tuyn im a im dc thit lp trong tng nm trong vng qung b M B M S v tt c nhng ngi s dng ng k dch v qung b u ng thi thu cng mt tn hiu c pht ny. Mng truy nhp v tuyn khng thc hin theo di chuyn ng ca ngi s dng v nhng ngi s dng c th thu ni dung m khng cn thng bo cho mng. Truyn hnh di ng l mt v d v dch v c th c cung cp bi qung b M B M S Trong a phng, nhng ngi s dng yu cu tham gia mt nhm a phng trc k h i thu s liu. Chuyn ng ca ngi s dng c theo di v cc ti nguyn v tuyn c lp cu hnh ph hp vi s ngi S dng trong . M i trong vng a phng ca MBMS c th c lp cu hnh truyn dn im n im hay im a im. Trong cc ngi s dng (chi c mt hoc vi ngi s t dng ng k dch v M B M S ) , truyn dn im n im c th thch hp hn, cn trong cc c s ngi s dng ln hn truyn dn im a im thch hp hn. V th, a phng cho php mng ti u ha kiu truyn dn trong tng .

418

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Cc k thut tng cng hiu nng cho M B M S nh phn tp v m ha lp ng dng cng nh cc knh lin quan n dch v MBMS cng c xt trong chng ny. R7 a ra dch v CPC (Continous Packet Connectivity: Kt ni gi lin tc) vi cc tnh nng nh: DTX, DRX, khai thc HS-SCCH hn. Cc tnh nng ny cho php tng cng cm nhn Mun lun* t c kt ni ('Always-on') cho ngi s dng bng cch duy t UE r trong trng thi CELL-DCH lu hn v trnh thng xuyn thay i trng thi vo cc trng thi tch cc thp, ng thi ci thin dung lng cho cc dch v nh VoIP. Ngoi ra R7 cng a ra khai thc CELL_FACH tng cng c th chuyn UE t trng t hi CELL-FACH vo CELL DCH nhanh hn. 10.5. CU HI . Trnh by nguyn l tng qut ca MBMS 2. Trnh by nguyn l phn tp v m p dng cho M B M S 3. Trinh by khi nim m ha lp ng dng 4. Trnh by cu trc knh M T C H 5. Trnh by t chc knh MCCH v M C H 6. Vai tr ca knh MSCH 7. Trnh by ngha ca kt ni gi lin tc 8. Trnh by m hnh trng thi ca W C D M A 9. Trnh by cc chc nng DTX trong kt ni gi lin tc 10. Trnh by DRX trong kt ni gi lin tc 11. Trnh by khai thc HS-SCCH hn trong kt ni gi lin tc t 12. Trnh by bo hiu trong kt ni gi lin tc 13. Trnh by khai thc ch CELL-FACH tng cng trong kt ni gi lin tc

Chong l i

CC MC TIU THIT K LTE V SAE

Trong cc chng 6,7, HSPA c trnh by. Nh gii thch trong cc chng ny, HSPA l pht trin ca 3G W C D M A c xy dng trn cu trc c s ca W C D M A cng vi yu cu cht ch v tng thch ngc n cc mng hin trin khai. Song song vi vic pht trin HSPA, 3GPP cng c t mt cng ngh v tuyn mi c gi l LTE. Mc tiu ca LTE l s dng cc tnh trng ph phc tp hom v yu cu tng thch ngc hn. Nh vy pht trin t 3G i theo hai hng song song pht trin truy nhp v tuyn v c hai u c nhng phm cht ring. Quan h gia HSPA v LTE c xt trong chng u. h tr cc kh nng s liu gi mi m cc giao din v tuyn ca LTE cung cp, mt mng li pht trin mi cng c nghin cu. Cng tc c t mng li ny c gi l SAE (System Architectue Evolution: Pht trin kin trc h thng). Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Cc mc tiu thit k L T E - Cc mc tiu thit k SAE Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c cc tiu ch c bn trong thit k L T E v SAE.

420

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k t liu c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [ l i ] , [14] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng. 11.1 CC MC TIU THIT K LTE Nh xt trong chng , hot ng 3GPP vo u nm 2005 t ra cc tiu ch, cc yu cu v cc mc tiu cho LTE. Cc mc tiu v cc yu cu ny c ghi li trong 3GPP T R 25.91. Cc yu cu cho L T E ny c chia thnh by lnh vc khc nhau: - Cc kh nng - Hiu nng h thng - Cc kha cnh lin quan n trin khai - Kin trc v pht trin - Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn - Mc phc tp - Cc kha cnh chung Di y ta s xem xt tng nhm ni trn. 11.1.1. Cc kh nng Mc tiu cho cc yu cu tc s liu nh ng xung v ng ln l lOOMbit/s v 50Mbit/s, khi lm vic trong bng thng 20MHz. Nh vy ta c th biu din cc yu cu ny l 5bis/Hz cho ng xung v 2,5bis/Hz cho ng ln. N h s trnh by di y. LTE h tr c FDD (Frequency Division Duplex: ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s) v T D D (Time Division Duplex: ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian). Trong trng hp TDD, c ng xung v ng ln u s dng chung mt bng tn, v th khng th p ng ng thi yu cu tc nh. i vi FDD, ng xung v ng ln s dng hai bng tn khc nhau v th ng thi pht thu u t c cc tc s liu nh c t trn.

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE

421

Cc yu cu tr c chia thnh cc yu cu cho mt phng iu khin v cc yu cu cho mt phang ngui s dng. Cc yu cu tr mt phang iu k h i n cp n tr chuyn t cc trng thi khng t c cc khc nhau ca m y u cui sang trng thi tch cc k h i u h cui c th pht v (hoc) thu s liu. T n ti hai s o: 1. S o c biu th nh thi gian chuyn t trng thi r i (trng thi r i t r o n g R l trng thi trong mng truy nhp v tuyn khng bit U E v n khng c context (ng cnh), ca U E cng nh khng n nh ti nguyn cho UE. U E c th ng v nh k thc gic nghe thng t i n t mng trong cc on t h i gian quy nh), yu cu ny l lOOms. 2. S o khc biu th thi gian chuyn t trng thi ng (dormant) (trng thi Cell P C H trong R, trong trng thi ny mng truy nhp v tuyn bit U E v bit n no nhng khng n nh ti nguyn cho n. U E c th n g v nh k thc gic nghe thng t i n t mng trong cc on thi gian quy nh), yu cu ny l 50ms. Yu cu tr mt phang ngi s dng c biu din nh l thi gian cn thit pht m t gi IP nh t u cui n nt bin ca RAN hoc ngc l i ti lp IP. T h i gian truyn dn m t chiu khng c vt qu 5ms t r o n g mng khng ti, ngha l khng c cc u cui khc trong . i v i c hai yu cu, tr ch n g v bo hiu khng phi R A N c loi tr. Mt yu cu b sung i v i yu cu tr mt phang iu khin l LTE phi h t r t nht 200 u cui di ng trong trng thi tch cc trong bng thng 5 M H z . i v i bng thng rng hn 5MHz, t nht 400 u cui phi c h tr. s u cui khng tch cc khng c cng b r rng, nhng phi cao hn ng k.

422

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

11.1.2. Hiu nng h thng Cc mc tiu thit k hiu nng h thng ca L T E cp n thng lng ca ngi s dng, hiu sut s dng ph tn, vng ph v M B M S tng cng hn. Ni chung, cc yu cu hiu nng ca L T E c biu din tng i so vi h thng tham kho s dng R6 HSPA nh trnh by trong cc chng trc. i vi trm gc, gi thit l mt anten pht v mt anten thu, trong khi u cui c cc i mt anten pht v hai anten thu. Tuy nhin cn nhn mnh rng mt s tnh nng t in tin ca HSPA khng c a ra trong m hnh tham kho. V th u cui trong h thng tham kho c hai anten thu, mt my thu R A K E n gin. Tng t ghp knh khng gian khng c trong h thng tham kho. Yu cu thng lng ca ngi s dng ca L T E c c t hai im: Vng ph v 5 % ca phn b ngi s dng ( 9 5 % ngi s dng c hiu nng tt hom). Mc tiu hiu sut s dng ph tn cng c c t, trong hiu sut s dng ph tn c nh ngha nh l thng lng h thng trong c o bng bis/MHz. Cc mc tiu thit k ni trn c cho trong bng 11.1. Bng li. . Cc yu cu thng lng ca ngi s dng v hiu sut s dng pho tn
S o hiu nng Thng lng trung binh ca ngi s dng ( r n MHz) t Thng lng ti bin ca ngi s dng ( r n MHz, nm phn trm) t Hiu sut s dng ph tn (i//z btsH/) 3x-4x 2x-3x Mc tiu ng xung so vi tham kho* 3x-4x Mc tiu ng l n so vi tham kho** 2x-3x

2x-3x

2x-3x

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE * Tham kho c chn l hiu nng ca HSDPA 1.2 chng 1) ** Tham kho c chn l hiu nng HSUPA chng )

423 R (xem bng

R (xem bng 1.3

Cc yu cu v tnh di ng tp trung ln tc ca cc u cui di ng. Mc tiu ra phi t hiu nng cc i ti cc tc thp ca u cui di ng, 0-15km/gi, hiu nng c th gim mt cht ti cc u cui tc cao hn. i vi cc tc ln n 120km/gi, LTE phi m bo hiu nng cao duy t kt ni trn ton mng t r ong. H thng L T E c th qun l tc n 350km/gi (hay thm ch 500km/gi ph thuc vo bng tn). LTE phi m bo dch v thoi ngang bng vi WCDMA/HSPA. Cc yu cu v v ph tp trung ln vng ph (bn knh) , ng ngha l khong cch cc i t trm n mt thit b u cui trong . Yu cu i vi cc kch bn khng b gii hn nhiu l phi p ng cc yu cu v thng lng ca ngi s dng, hiu sut s dng ph tn v di ng cho cc c bn knh n 5km. i vi cc c vng ph ln n 30km, cho php gim nh thng lng v cho php gim kh ln hiu sut s dng ph. Tuy nhin vn phi p ng tnh di ng. Tiu chun cng khng c cn tr cc vng ph n 100 km, tuy nhin cc yu cu v hiu nng trong trng hp ny khng c cng b. Cc yu cu M B M S tng cng cp n ch qung b v ch pht n phng. Tng qut, LTE phi m bo cc dch v MBMS tt hn cc dch v m R cung cp. Yu cu cho trng hp qung b l hiu sut s dng ph tn lbit/s/Hz, tng ng vi 16 knh truyn hnh, trong mi knh s dng 300kbps trong bng t g 5MHz. Ngoi ra phi c th cung cp dch v M B M S nh l hn

424

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

dch v duy nht trn m t sng mang, ng thi cng c th cung cp dch v ny trn ln v i cc dch v khc khng phi M B M S . Tt nhin chun L T E phi m bo cung cp ng thi cc dch v thoi v cc dch v M B M S . 11.1.3. Cc kha cnh lin quan n trin khai Cc yu cu lin quan n trin khai bao g m cc kch bn trin khai, tnh l i n h hot p h tn, trin khai ph v ng t n ti cng nh tng tc v i cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn ca 3GPP khc chng hn GSM, WCDMA/HSPA. Y u cu v kch bn trin khai bao g m c trng hp h thng L T E c trin khai c lp ln trng hp n c trin khai cng vi W C D M A / H S P A v (hoc) GSM. N h vy trong thc t yu cu ny khng g i i hn cc tiu ch thit k. Cc yu cu v tnh linh hot ph tn c trnh by c th hn trong mc 11.1.3.1. S ng t n ti v tng tc v i cc h thng 3GPP khc v cc yu cu tng n g t ra yu cu v tnh d i ng gia L T E v GSM, gia L T E v W C D M A / H S P A cho cc u cui h tr cc cng ngh ny. Bng 11.2 lit k cc yu cu v gin on, ngha l gin on cho php cc i trn ng truyn v tuyn k h i chuyn ng gia hai cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau, cho cc dch v thi gian thc v phi thi gian thc. cn l u n rng cc yu cu ny l rt nh i v i t h i gian gin on chuyn giao v c th k vng l cc gi tr ny tt hn nhiu trong cc trin khai thc t. Y u cu ng t n ti v tng tc cng cp n chuyn mch lu lng truyn a phng c L T E cung cp theo kiu qung b n lu lng om phng c G S M hoc W C D M A cung cp. Mc d khng con s no c a ra.

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE Bng 11.2. Cc yu cu thi gian gin on, L TE-GSM v L TEWCDMA

425

Phi thi gian thc (ms) LTE sang WCDMA LTE sang GSM 500ms 500ms

Thi gian thc (ms) 300ms 300ms

11.1.3.1. Tnh l i n h hot p h v t r i n k h a i C s i v i cc yu cu v tnh linh hot ph l yu cu i v i h thng L T E c trin khai trong cc bng tn c ca IMT-2000, c ngha l s ng tn ti gia cc h thng trin khai trong cc bng ny bao g m G S M v WCDMA/HSPA. Yu cu tnh linh hot ph ca L T E l phi c kh nng trin khai truy nhp v tuyn da trn L T E trong c cc n nh bng kp v bng n, ngha l L T E phi h tr c ghp song cng phn cia theo tn s ( F D D ) v ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD). S ghp song cng hay sp xp ghp song cng l mt thuc tnh ca cng ngh v tuyn. T u y nhin mt cp pht ph tn cho trc thng lin kt v i mt cch sp xp song cng c th. Cc h thng F D D c trin khai trong cc n nh kp v i mt bng cho truyn dn ng xung v mt bng khc cho truyn dn ng ln. Cc h thng T D D c trin khai trong cc n nh bng n. Ta xt th d p h tn IMT-2000 ti 2 G H z (c th coi nh "bng gc" ca IMT-2000). N h thy trn hnh 11.1, ph ny g m mt cp bng tn 1920-1980MHz v 21lO-2170MHz dnh cho truy nhp v tuyn theo FDD, v hai bng tn 1910-1920MHz v 2010-2025MHz dnh cho truy nhp v tuyn TDD. L u rng cc quy nh a phng v vng c th s dng ph IMT-2000 khc v i ph c chi

ra y.

426

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


Truy nhp theo TDD Truy nhp theo FDD

1910 1920

1980

2010 2025 Tn s (MHz)

2110

'2170

Hnh . . Cp pht ph bng 'li' IMT-2000 ti 2GHz Cp pht bng kp cho FDD trn hnh 11.1 l 2x60MHz, nhng ph kh dng cho mt nh khai thc c th l 2x20MHz hay thm ch 2x10MHz. Trong cc bng tn khc thm ch ph kh dng c th t hn. Ngoi ra vic chuyn dch vo ph hin ang c s dng cho cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc phi c thc hin t t m bo lng ph cn li cho h tr cc ngi s dng hin c. Nh vy lng ph chuyn cho LTE lc u c th kh nh, nhng s tng dn (hnh 11.2). S thay i cc kch bn ph c th c cho thy cn c mt yu cu v tnh linh hot ph i vi LTE h tr cc bng thng truyn dn.
15 MHz ph Trin khai gc

A B Khai thc LTE 5MHz , Dch chuyn ban u

A Khai thc LTE 10MHz Bc 2

iiilii
A K Khai thc LTE 15MHz

Dch chuyn hon ton

hin trin khai

Hnh 1.2. V d v qu trnh chuyn dch tng bc ca LTE vo vng ph ca WCDMA

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE

427

Yu cu tnh linh hot ph ca L T E chi ra rng L T E phi c kh nng nh li kch c trong min tn s v hot ng trong cc bng tn khc nhau. Y u cu tnh linh hot a ra danh sch cc n nh ph ca L T E (1,25; 1,6; 2,5; 5; 15 v 2 0 M H z ) . Ngoi ra L T E cng phi c kh nng lm vic trong ph on cng nh ph kp. L T E phi c th c trin khai trong cc bng tn khc nhau. Cc bng tn c h t r phi c c t da trn "tnh c lp v i pht hnh". ngha l pht hnh u ca L T E khng cn phi h tr tt c cc bng ngay t u. Ngoi ra tiu chun cng cp n ng t n ti v i G S M v

W C D M A trn cc tn s ln cn cng nh ng t n ti gia cc nh khai thc trn cc tn s ln cn v cc mng trong cc nc khc nhau s dng p h chng ln nhau. Ngoi ra cng yu cu rng khng cn c thm h thng no khc mt u cui c th truy nhp LTE, c ngha l L T E phi c tt c cc bo hiu iu khin cn thit cho truy nhp. li.1.4. Kin trc v chuyn dch 3GPP cng b m t s nguyn tc mang tnh hng dn cho thit k kin trc L T E R A N nh sau: - K i n trc L T E R A N n nht phi c ng thun. - K i n trc L T E R A N phi da trn gi, mc d lu lng thi

gian thc v hi thoi c h tr. - K i n trc L T E R A N phi gim thiu s tn ti "mt im s c' m khng lm tng gi thnh ng trc. - K i n trc L T E R A N din c a ra. - Tng tc g i a l p mng v tuyn ( R N L : Radio N e t w o r k Layer) v l p mng truyn ti ( T N L : Transport N e t w o r k Layer) phi khng b cm nu cn ci thin hiu nng h thng. phi n gin ha v gim thiu s giao

428

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G - L T E R A N phi h t r QoS u cui u cui. T N L phi m bo o S tng ng do R N L yu cu. - Cc c ch QoS phi xt n cc kiu l u n lng khc nhau m bo s dng bng thng hiu qu: L u n lng mt phng iu khin, lu lng mt phng ngi s dng, lu lng khai thc v bo dng... - L T E R A N phi c thit k gim thiu thay i tr (Jitter), chng hn cho TCP/IP. - K i n trc phang. T r o n g pht trin kin trc, trm gc c b sung thm t tu, tng t nh x u th i v i HSPA. Lc u r k i n trc U M T S c nh ngha theo phn cp, trong cc chc nng lin quan n v tuyn c t trong RNC. Trong kin trc phang cc chc nng lin quan n v tu yn c t trong trm gc. K h i lp biu gi c t t r o n g trm gc, qu trnh lp biu s nhanh hn k c lp biu min tn s. 3GPP quyt nh t ton b chc nng v tu yn trong trm gc

(hnh 11.4). Cc chc nng v tu yn m i trong B T S so v i HSPA l: iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC), iu khin ti nguyn v tu yn ( R R C ) v giao thc h i t s liu gi PDCP. K i n trc trn hnh 11.4 cho thy s phn chia chc nng gia mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li. T r o n g k h i mng truy nhp v tu yn chi cn m t phn t duy nht l e N o d e B th nhiu phn t hn c s dng trong mng li. T quan im mng truy nhp v tuyn, x uth quan trng l khng cn chuyn giao m m trong h thng. y cng l x u th c thc h i n t r o n g HSDPA. T r o n g H S D P A ch thng t i n iu khin lp vt l l vn c phn tp v m , cn s liu ca ngi s dng khng c. y l m t trong cc l do cho php t tt c cc chc nng v tu yn vo m t e N o d e B nh vy c th h t r k i n trc phng d hn. Cng c th h t r phn tp v m t r o n g kin trc phng,

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE

429

nhng cn c cc yu cu b sung i vi cc lin kt truyn dn gia cc trm gc.


Mm nao di dng ti ch 5 5 j Khin RB"| iu khin cho php v tuyn RRM gia cic 6 cho chuyn gio LTE Neo di ng cho di dng GSMVCDMA Chn theo lut p t chnh sch

S1-U
iu khin di ng

L c gi

An inh MI nguyn ng (B lp biu)

Lp cu hnh v m bo o eNodeB

cing SAE phc v


iu khin knh mang SAE Qun l di ng

Cng PON SAE

S1-MME
PHY

X l ch d ri

eNod B RB (Radio Bearer): Knh mang v t uyn MME

MME

(Mobilit y Management Entity): T h c th qun l di ng

SAE (System Architecture Evolution): Pht trin kin trc h thng PDN (Packet Data Netvvork): Mng s liu gi

Hnh 1.4. Phn chia chc nng gia mng truy nhp v mng li 11.1.5. Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn Cc yu cu qun l ti nguyn v tuyn c chia thnh: (1) h tr tng cng cho QoS u cui u cui, (2) h tr hiu qu cho truyn dn cc lp cao hn, (3) h tr chia s ti v qun l chnh sch trn cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau. H tr tng cng cho QoS u cui u cui yu cu mt "dch v phi hp ci ti n " v cc yu cu v giao thc (bao hm c bo hiu lp cao hn) cho cc ti nguyn R A N v cc c tnh RAN. H tr hiu qu cho truyn dn cc lp cao hn yu cu rng L T E RAN phi cung cp cc c ch h tr truyn dn v khai thc hiu qu

430

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cc giao thc lp cao hn trn giao din v tuyn, chng hn nn tiu IP. H t r chia s ti v qun l chnh sch trn cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau yu cu xem xt cc c ch la chn li hng dn cc u cui d i ng chuyn n cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn tng ng trong tt c cc kiu trng thi cng nh h tr QoS u c u i - u cui trong qu trnh chuyn giao gia cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn.

. 1.6. Mc phc tp
Cc yu cu vmc phc tp ca L T E cp n phc tp ca ton b h thng cng nh phc tp ca m y d i ng u cui. Thc cht, cc yu cu ny c ngha l phi g i m thiu cc ty chn v m bo cc tnh nng bt buc khng b tha. Ngoi ra i ny u cng dn n g i m thiu s lng cc trng hp t h nghim cn thit.

11.1.7. Cc khiu cnh chung


Cc yu cu chung i v i L T E cp n cc kha cnh lin quan n gi thnh v dch v. R rng rng cn gim thiu gi thnh trong k h i vn m bo hiu nng mong m u n cho cc dch v d kin. i v i gi thnh, cc vn v ng trc, bo dng v khai thc c cp. N h vy khng chi giao din v tuyn m c truyn ti n cc trm BS v h thng qun l cng phi c cp trong LTE. T r o n g s cc yu cu ny cng c m t yu cu rt mnh i vi giao din gia cc nh cung cp thit b. Ngoi r a cng yu cu u cui phi c gi thp v tiu t h cng sut. t

11.2. CC MC TIU THIT K SAE


Cc mc tiu ca S A E c m t trong cc danh mc nghin cu S A E v m t s mc tiu mc cao c T S G SA W G 1 Cc mc tiu S A E c chia thnh m t s lnh vc: khi tho.

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE - Cc kha cnh khai thc v ngi s dng mc cao. - Cc kh nng c s. - a truy nhp v di ng. - Cc kha cnh giao din ngi my. - Cc yu cu hiu nng i vi h thng 3GPP pht trin. - An ninh v ring t. - Cc kha cnh tnh cc.

431

Mc d cc yu cu SAE c nhiu v c chia thnh cc phn nhm nh trn, nhng cc yu cu SAE ch yu khng lin quan n truy nhp v tuyn. V th phn ny s tng kt cc yu cu SAE quan trng nht c nh hng ln hoc mng truy nhp v tuyn hoc kin t SAE. rc H thng SAE phi c kh nng hot ng vi cc mng truy nhp v tuyn khc vi L T E v phi c cc chc nng di ng cho php mt u cui di ng chuyn dch gia cc h thng truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau. Thc t, cc yu cu ny khng gii hn di ng gia cc mng truy nhp v tuyn m cn m rng di ng n mng truy nhp c nh. cn xt n c cc mng truy nhp khng do 3GPP trin khai. Chuyn mng cng l mt yu cu quan trng i vi SAE bao gm c chuyn mng n cc mng SAE khc cng nh n cc mng hin c. Ngoi ra tng tc vi cc dch v chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi hin c cng l mt yu cu. Tuy nhin khng i hi phi h tr cc dch v chuyn mch knh t min chuyn mch knh ca cc mng hin c. Cc yu cu SAE cng ua ra mt danh sch hiu nng nh l mt yu cu quan trng nhng khng chi tit nh cc yu cu ca LTE. Cc kch bn v mc s dng lu lng khc nhau cng c xem xt, chng hn thng tin t ngi s dng n ngi s

432

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

dng v thng tin t ngi s dng n nhm. Ngoi ra cng c yu cu v hiu sut s dng t i nguyn nht l hiu sut s dng t i nguyn v tuy (ging nh yu cu hiu sut ph i vi LTE). Hiu n sut s dng t i nguyn v tuyn khng c yu cu phc tp nh i vi LTE. V thchnh yu cu ny ca LTE l yu cu thit k . Tt nhin cc yu cu SAE cp cc kha cnh dch v khc n nhau v i hi cc dch v truyn thng nh thoi, video, nhn tin v chuyn l phi c h tr v thm vo l cc dch qung b v ie a phng. Thc t, cng vi yu cu h tr kt ni IPv4 v IPv6 (bao gm c di ng gia cc mng h tr cc phin bn IP khc nhau cng nh kt ni gia cc u cui s dng cc phin bn khc nhau), mi dch v IP u s c h tr, tuy nhin vi cht lng dch v khng phi ti u. Yu cu v cht lng dch v ca SAE cng c son tho chi tit. Chng hn h thng SAE phi m bo gim cp cht lng m thanh cuc gi mc khng cm nhn c trong khi v sau chuyn giao gia cc mng chuyn mch knh v mng chuyn mch gi khc bit. Ngoi ra SAE phi m bo rng khng mt gi s liu do chuyn giao gia cc h thng truy nhp di ng v c nh. Mt yu cu quan trng i vi khi nim QoS l khi nim QoS phi tng thch ngc vi cc khi nim QoS trc y trong 3GPP. iu ny m bo di ng m gia cc cng ngh truy nhp khc nhau ca 3GPP (LTE, V/CDMA/HSPA v GSM). H thng SAE phi cung cp cc c ch an ninh tin tin tng ng hoc tt hn an ninh i vi WCDMA/HSPA v GSM. Ngha l vic bo v chng li cc e da v tn cng bao gm c cc e da v tn cng trn Internet v c chbo v ny phi l mt b phn ca SAE. Ngoi ra h thng SAE phi m bo nhn thc thng tin gia u cui di ng v mng, nhng ng Jhi cho php chn bt lu lng theo lut.

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE

433

H thng S A E cng c cc yu cu cao v tnh ring t ca ngi s dng. Cn m bo m t s mc ring t ca ngi s dng, chng hn bo mt thng tin, bo mt v t v bo v nhn dng. V r th, cc h thng S A E s g i kn nhn dng ca ngi s dng i v i nhng ngi t h ba khng c php, bo v n i dung, ni pht v ni nhn ca cuc t r u y n t i n i v i cc bn khng c php v bo v v t ca ngi s dng i v i nhng ngi ny. Cc bn c r php thng l cc c quan chnh ph, nhng ngi s dng c th cho php m t s bn no bit c v t ca u cui d i ng. r Chng hn qun l on xe iu hnh xe ti. SAE h t r m t s m hnh tnh cc bao g m tr cc t pha ch gi, cc c nh v cc trn c s QoS. Cc kha cnh tnh cc i k h i c t h nhn c trong mng v tuyn, nht l cc m hnh tnh cc d a trn QoS v k h i lng s liu c chuyn. T u y nhin hu ht cc m hnh tnh cc ch cho php r l i thy thng tin .n cc trong mng li. K i n trc S A E v i cc cng kt hp c cho trn hnh 11.5.
S liu iu khin

Cc mng IP

eNodeB S1-U

Cng S A E phc v

Cng S A E PDN

'cc dch v ca^


SGI nh khai thc (IMS, . ) .

PCRF (Policy and Charying Rules Function): chc nng cc quy tc tinh cc v chnh sch

Hnh 1.5. Kin trc SAE vi cc cng kt hp

434

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Trong mng li trn hnh 11.2 ca kin trc SAE ta thy cc thc th sau: - Cng SAE phc v v cng SAE mng s liu gi (PDN SAE) x l s liu ca mt phang ngi s dng. Cc nhim v x l ny lin quan n qun l di ng bn trong LTE cng nh gia cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc ca 3GPP. Nh thy trn hnh 11.2, SGSN ca W C D M A c th ni n cc cng ni trn v cc cng ny s x l cc chc nng ca GGSN trong mng WCDMA. - Phn t qun l di ng (MME) x l bo hiu mt phng i u khin, nht l i vi qun l di ng v x l ch ri. Khi ny giao din s u kt ni M M E vi cc cng SAE/PDN nu chng c thc hin trong cc phn t vt l ring bit. - Server thu bao nh (HSS: Home Subscriber Server) thc hin cc chc nng nh HLR, cha cc thng tin c th thu bao nh cc mc u tin, tc s liu... - Chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch (PCRP) l in quan n chnh sch cht lng dch v v chnh sch tnh cc c p dng. Vic s dng kin trc phng c ngha l tnh kh nh c cao khi tng th tch s liu cng vi vic ph thuc vo bn thn th tch s t liu ny. Nh vy t c hiu qu kinh t cao khi trin khai mng v khi m rng dung lng mng do tng lu lng. 11.3. TNG KT Chng ny trc ht xt cc mc tiu ra cho thit k LTE theo by kha cnh: - Cc kh nng - Hiu nng h thng

Chng li: Cc mc tiu thit k LTE v SAE - Cc kha cnh lin quan n trin khai - K i n trc v pht trin - Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn - M c phc tp - Cc kha cnh chung

435

Tip theo chng ny xt cc mc tiu ra cho thit k SAE theo cc lnh vc: - Cc kha cnh khai thc v ngi s dng mc cao - Cc k h nng c s - a truy nhp v di ng - Cc kha cnh giao din ngi my - Cc yu cu hiu nng i v i h thng 3GPP pht trin - A n ninh v ring t - Cc kha cnh tnh cc Ngoi ra chng ny cng xt vic phn chia cc chc nng gia mng truy nhp ( L T E ) v mng li ( S A E ) ca LTE. S phn chia ny m bo kin trc phang tt nht. im c bit trong s phn chia ny l ton b chc nng x l lin quan n v tuyn c t trong trm gc (e Node B ) v khng s dng cp trung gian nh RNC ca WCDMA. 11.4. C U H I 1. Trnh by cc kh nng ca L T E 2. Trnh by'hiu nng h thng ca L T E 3. Trnh by cc kha cnh lin quan n trin khai L T E 4. Trnh by kin trc v pht trin L T E 5. Trnh by mc tiu qun l ti nguyn v tuyn trong L T E

436

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

6. Trnh by tiu ch v mc phc tp trong thit k L T E 7. Trnh by kin trc v chuyn dch trong LTE 8. Trnh by cc kha cnh khai thc v ngi s dng mc cao trong SAE 9. Trnh by cc kh nng c s ca SAE. 10. Trnh by a truy nhp v di ng m ca SAE. 11. Trnh by cc kha cnh giao din ngi my ca SAE. 12. Trnh by cc yu cu hiu nng i vi h thng 3GPP pht trin. 13. Trnh by an ninh v ring t ca SAE. 14. Trnh by cc kha cnh tnh cc ca SAE.

Chng 12

TRUY NHP V TUYN V KIN TRC GIAO DIN V TUYN LTE

Cc chng trc xt cc mc tiu ca L T E v t x e m xt ny ta thy r rng L T E c pht trin v i cc mc tiu hiu nng rt t tin. Trc ht t r o n g chng ny ta s xt mt s phn t v tnh in nng quan trng nht ca L T E . Sau ta s xt chi tit hom giao din v tuyn v cc tnh nng then cht ca L T E . Ging nh W C D M A / H S P A v hu ht cc h thng thng t i n d i ng hin i khc, cc c t chun L T E c cu trc thnh cc lp giao thc khc nhau. M c d m t s trong cc lp ny ging v i cc lp c s dng t r o n g WCDMA/HSPA, nhung cng c mt s khc bit do cc khc bit k i n trc tng th gia W C D M A / H S P A v LTE. Chng ny s m t cc lp giao thc trn lp vt l, tng tc gia chng v giao din v i lp vt l. e h i u c k i n trc giao din v tuyn L T E t a ch cn xt m t nt: nt B v i k h i u m i cho LTE l e N o d e B (nt B tng cng). Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Tng quan truy nhp v tuyn L T E - Kin trc giao thc L T E - iu k h i n lin kt v tuyn, R L C

438

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

- iukhin truy nhp mi trng, M C Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c hiu c nguyn tc truy nhp v tu yn LTE v kin trc giao din v tuyn. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k t liu c t h rn by trong chng, tham kho thm cc ti liu [3], [4], [5], [6], [ l i ] , [14] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng. 12.1. TNG QUAN TRUY NHP V TUYN LTE 12.1.1. Cc s truyn dn S truyn dn ng xung ca LTE da trn OFDM. Nh xt trong chng 3, OFDM l mt s truyn dn hp dn v mt s l do. Do thi gian k hiu OFDM kt hp vi tin t chu trnh kh di, OFDM m bo bn chc chng li chn lc tn s ca knh v tu yn cao hn. Mc d v ngu yn tc c th x l s mo dng tn hiu do knh chn lc tn s gy ra bng cch cn bng ti pha thu, nhng phc tp ca cn bng tr nn qu cao i vi thc hin u cui ti cc bng thng ln hn 5MHz. V th OFDM vi kh nng khng phainh chn lc sn c l mt k thut hp dn cho ng xung c bit khi c kt hp vi ghp knh khng gian.
Mt s li ch khc ca OFDM l:

- OFDM cung cp truy nhp n min tn s, v th cho php m rng mc t do cho b lp biu ph thuc knh so vi HSPA. - OFDM d dng h tr n nh bng thng linh hot ( t nht t quan im bng gc) bng cch thay i s lng cc sng mang con s dng cho tru yn dn. Tuy nhin cng cn ni rng h tr n nh nhiu ph cng i hi b lc RF linh hot v mt khai thc chnh xc vi s truyn dn lin quan. Mc d vy, vic gi nguyn cu t rc x l bng gc khng ph thuc vo bng thng cng cho php thc hin u cui d rng.

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

439

- O F D M cho php thc hin n gin truyn dn qung b/a phng, trong cng m t thng t i n c pht i t nhiu trm gc i v i ng ln ca L T E , truyn dn n sng mang da trn OFDM tri p h D F T c s dng ( x e m chng 3). S dng iu ch n sng mang cho php gim t s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh P A P R (Peak to Average Power Radio) so v i truyn dn a sng mang nh O F D M . P A P R cng nh, th cng sut pht trung bnh cng cao i v i m t b khuch i cng sut cho trc. V th truyn dn n sng mang cho php t c hiu sut s dng b khuch i cng sut cao hn v iu ny dn n tng vng ph. iu ny thc s quan trng i v i u cui d i ng c cng sut hn ch. ng thi vn x l m o tn hiu n sng mang do phainh chn lc tn s gy ra trn ng ln cng khng phi l quan trng v n c thc hin ti trm gc ni c kh nng x l tn hiu mnh hn. Khc v i ng ln ca W C D M A / H S P A cng da trn truyn dn on sng mang, ng ln ca L T E da trn phn cch trc giao nhng ngi s dng trong min thi gian v min tn s. Trong nhiu trng hp, phn cch trc giao nhng ngi s dng rt c l i vi n trnh c nhiu n i . T u y nhin nh cp trong chng 3, cp pht ng t h i ti nguyn bng thng rt rng cho m t ngi s dng l mt chin lc khng hiu qu trong cc tnh trng m tc s liu ch y u b hn ch bi cng sut truyn dn c h khng phi bng thng truyn dn. T r o n g cc tnh trng ny, m t u cui thng c cp pht m t b phn trong bng thng truyn- dn tng, cn cc u cui khc c th pht song song trong phn ph cn li. V th ng ln L T E cha m t phn t a truy nhp m i n tn s, v s truyn d n ng ln ca L T E cng c g i l F D M A n sng mang ( S C - F D M A ) . 12.1.2. Lp biu ph thuc knh v thch ng tc Ct li ca s truyn dn L T E l s dng truyn dn knh chia s, trong ti nguyn t h i gian - tn s c chia s gia nhng

440

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ngi s dng. iu ny cng ging nh cch x l trong HSPA, mc d vic thc hin t i nguyn chia s gia hai cng ngh ny khc nhau: trong L T E l thi gian v tn s cn trong H S P A l thi gian v m nh knh. V i c s dng truyn dn knh chia s l hon ton ph hp v i cc yu cu ti nguyn thay i rt nhanh do truyn dn gi gy ra v n cng cho php L T E s dng cc cng ngh then cht khc. i v i tng thi im, b lp biu iu khin vic ngi s dng no c n nh ti nguyn chia s. N cng quyt nh tc s liu s c s dng cho tng lin kt v thch ng ng truyn cng c th c coi nh l mt b phn ca b lp biu. B lp biu l phn t then cht v mc rt ln n quyt nh hiu nng tng th ca ng xung, c bit l trong mng c ti cao. C ng xung v ng ln u chu s iu khin cht ch ca lp biu. T chng 5 ta thy rng c th t c l i dung lng h thng ng k, nu xt n cc iu kin knh trong quyt nh lp biu, hay cn g i l lp biu p h thuc knh. iu ny c khai thc trong HSPA, trong b lp biu ng xung cho php pht n ngi s dng c iu kin knh u vit t c tc s liu cc i. mc no iu ny cng c thc hin trn ng ln cho HSUPA. T u y nhin ngoi m i n thi gian, L T E cng c th truy nhp n m i n t n s n h vic s dng O F D M cho ng xung v D F T S - O F D M cho ng ln. V th, i v i tng m i n tn s, b lp biu c th chn ngi s dng c iu kin knh tt nht. Ni mt cch khc, lp biu trong L T E c th xt n cc thay i iu kin knh khng ch trong m i n thi gian nh H S P A m c trong min tn s. iu ny c m i n h ha trn hnh 12.1. K h nng lp biu p h thuc knh trong m i n tn s c bit hu ch t i cc tc s liu thp, ni m t cch khc k h i knh thay i chm theo t h i gian. N h xt trong chng 5, lp biu ph thuc knh da trn cc thay i cht lng knh nhn c li trong dung lng h thng. i v i cc dch v nhy cm tr, b lp biu

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din

441

chi cho min t h i gian c th b buc phi lp biu cho mt ngi s dng cho d cht lng knh ca ngi ny khng tt lm. Trong trng hp ny, vic khai thc c cc thay i cht lng knh trong min tn s s h t r ci thin tng hiu nng h thng. i v i L T E , cc quyt nh lp biu c thc hin mt ln trong l m s v tnh ht trong min tn s l 180kHz. iu ny cho php b lp biu bm theo cc thay i knh kh nhanh.

Pha inh t n s t h i gian. N g i S dng #1 Pha inh t n s t h i gian. N g i s d n g #2

Ngi S d n g # 1

N g i s dng # 2

n \

Ngi s dungtI Ngi s dung 82

180kHz

Hnh 12. . lp biu ph thuc knh ng xung trong min thi gian v min tn s

2.1.2.1. Lp biu ng xung


Trn ng xung, mi u cui bo co c tnh cht lng knh tc thi cho trm gc. Cc c tnh ny nhn c bng cch o

442

Gio (rnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

mt tn hiu tham kho c pht i t trm gc v cng c s dng cho c mc ch gii iu ch. D a trn c tnh cht lng knh, b lp biu ng xung n nh cc ti nguyn cho nhng ngi s dng. v nguyn tc u cui c lp biu c th c n nh m t to hp bt k g m cc khi ti nguyn rng 180kHz trong mi khong thi gian lp biu ms.

12.1.2.2. Lp biu ng ln
n g ln ca L T E c xy dng trn c s phn tch trc giao ngi s dng v y l nhim v ca b lp biu ng ln. B lp biu ng ln n nh cc ti nguyn cho nhng ngi s dng khc nhau ( T D M A / F D M A ) trong c min thi gian v m i n tn s. Quyt nh lp biu c a ra m i l m s m t ln iu khin vic cc u cui no c quyn pht trong trong khong thi gian cho trc v trn cc ti nguyn tn s no cng nh tc s liu ng ln l bao nhiu (khun dng truyn ti). Lu rng u cui c n nh mt vng tn s lin tc do truyn dn n sng mang c s dng cho ng ln ca L T E . Cc iu k i n knh cng c xt trong qu trnh lp biu ng ln ging nh trong lp biu ng xung. T u y nhin nhn c thng t i n v cc iu k i n knh ng ln khng phi l mt nhim v d dng. V th cn b sung thm cc phng tin t c phn tp ng in trong trng hp khng s dng lp biu ng ln ph thuc knh.

12.1.2.3. iu phi nhiu gia cc


L T m bo tnh trc giao gia nhng ngi s dng trong mt cho c ng ln v ng xung. V th c th ni rng hiu nng lin quan n hiu sut s dng p h ca L T E b g i i hn nhiu hn bi nhiu n t cc khc (nhiu gia cc ) so v i WCDMA/HSPA

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

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V th phng tin gim nhiu hay iu khin nhiu gia cc s em li li ch rt ln cho hiu nng lin quan LTE (tc s liu chng hn) nht l i vi nhng ngi s dng ti bin . iu phoi nhiu gia cc l mt chin lc trong cc tc s liu ti bin c tng nh xt n nhiu gia nhng ngi s dng. v c bn, iu phi nhiu gia cc c ngha l a ra cc hn ch nht nh (min thi gian) cho cc b lp biu ng ln v ng xung iu khin nhiu gia cc . Bng cch hn ch cng sut ca mt s b phn ph trong mt , nhiu trong cc ln cn trong phn ph ny s gim. Phn ph ny c th c s dng cung cp tc s liu cao hn cho nhng ngi s dng trong cc ln cn. v thc cht, h s ti s dng tn s trn cc phn khc nhau ca s khc nhau (hnh 12.2).
Cc u cui ti tm , 1

Hnh 12.2. V d v iu phi nhiu gia cc , trong mt so phn ph b hn ch cng sut Lu rng iu phi nhiu gia cc ch yu l mt chin lc lp biu xt n tnh trng trong cc ln cn. Nh vy, iu phi nhiu ln cn l mt vn ca thc hin v c l kh c a vo cc c t. iu ny cng c ngha l iu phi nhiu gia cc c th c p dng ch cho mt tp cc c chn ph thuc vo cc yu cu ca mt trin khai c th.

444

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

12.1.3. H A R Q vi kt hp mm Cng ging nh HSPA, HARQ nhanh vi kt hp mm c s dng u cui c th yu cu pht li nhanh cc khi truyn ti b mc li v cung cp mt cng c cho thch ng tc s liu n tng. Cc giao thc y cng ging nh cc giao thc c p dng cho HSPA: Nhiu x l HARQ dng v i. gim thiu nh hng ln hiu nng ca ngi s dng u cui, cc pht li c yu cu nhanh sau mi ln pht gi. Tng phn d c s dng nhu l mt chin lc kt hp mm v my thu nh m cc bt mm c th thc hin kt hp mm gia cc ln pht. 12.1.4. H tr a anten Ngay t lc u, L T E h tr a anten ti c trm gc v u cui v y l mt b phn ca cc c t trong chun. Xt v nhiu kha cnh, s dng a anten l cng ngh then cht t c cc mc tiu tng cng mnh m hiu nng ca LTE. Nh xt trong chng 4, a anten c th c s dng theo cc cch khc nhau cho cc mc ch khc nhau: - a anten c th c s dng cho phn tp thu. i vi truyn dn ng ln, k thut ny c s dng trong nhiu nm. Tuy nhin, v hai anten thu l mc tiu cho tt c cc u cui ca LTE, nn hiu nng ng xung s c ci thin. Cc s dng nhiu anten thu n gin nht l phn tp thu kinh in trit phainh. Tuy nhin cng c th s dng nhiu anten thu trit nhiu t c li trong cc kch bn b hn ch bi nhiu nh xt trong chng 4. - Ghp knh khng gian (i khi cn gi l M I M O ) s dng nhiu anten c hai pha thu v pht cng c h tr trong LTE. Ghp knh khng gian cho php tng tc s liu khi cc iu kin

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

445

knh cho php trong cc kch bn b hn ch bng thng nh xt trong chng 4. Ni chung cc k thut a anten khc nhau c li trong cc kch bn khc nhau. Chng hn, ti SNR v SIR thp (ti cao hoc ti bin ), ghp knh khng gian chi e m li l i ch. T r o n g khi ti cc t kch bn ny, k thut a anten da trn to bp ti pha pht cn c s dng tng SNR/SIR. Tri li trong cc kch bn khi SNR v SIR kh cao, chng hn trong cc nh, vic tng thm cht lng tn hiu ch em li l i ch khng cao v tc s liu c th t c ch yu b hn ch b i bng thng c h khng bi SIR/SNR. T r o n g cc kch bn ny tt nht l s dng phn tp khng gian thay v s dng k thut a anten khai thc ton b cc iu kin knh tt. Trm gc iu khin s a anten cn s dng, n chn s ph hp cho mi cuc truyn dn.

12,1.5. H tr qung b v a phng


Qung b a thc hin pht cng mt thng t i n t nhiu nh xt trong chng 10. K h a i thc dch v ny ti u cui v s dng hiu qu cng sut tn hiu t nhiu trm cho php ci thin c ng k vng p h (hay cc tc s liu cao hn). Dch v ny c khai thc trong W C D M A , trong trng hp qung b/a phng ao, u cui d i ng c th nhn tn hiu t nhiu v kt hp mm
rin tn hin nv tai m y thu.

LTE ci tin thm dch v ny cung cp qung b a phng hiu qu cao. Bng cch khng chi pht cc tn hiu ging nhau t nhiu trm ( v i m ha v iu ch nh nhau), m cn ng b thi gian gia cc , tn hiu ti u cui s th hin ging nh tn hiu c pht i t m t . D o O F D M c kh nng chng phainh a ng tt, pht a cng cn c g i l pht ca mng phng qung b n sng mang a ( M B S F N : Multicast - Broadcast

446

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Single - Frequency Network). Cch pht ny khng ch ci thin c cng tn hiu thu m cn hn ch c nhiu gia cc (chng 3). Nh vy i vi OFDM, thng lng qung b/a phng a c th ch b gii hn bi tp m v v th trong trng hp cc nh c th t c thng lng ny rt cao. Cn nhn mnh rng vic s dng pht MBSFN cho qung b/a phng a i hi s dng ng b cht v ng chinh thi gian cho cc tn hiu c pht i t cc trm khc nhau. 12.1.6. Linh hot ph Nh xt trong chng li, mc linh hot ph cao l mt trong cc c tnh ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE. Mc ch ca linh hot ph l cho php trin khai truy nhp LTE trong cc dng ph khc nhau, cc sp xp song cng khc nhau, hot ng ti cc bng tn khc nhau v cc kch thc ph kh dng khc nhau.

2.1.6.1. Linh hot trong sp xp song cng


Mt trong cc tnh nng quan trng ca L T E lin quan n linh hot ph l kh nng trin khai LTE trong ph kp v ph n, ngha l L T E phi h tr c s ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD) v ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD). Trong ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s (FDD) truyn dn ng xung v ng ln xy ra trong cc bng tn khc nhau (12.3a). Trong ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD) truyn dn ng xung v ng ln xy ra trong cng mt bng tn nhng lun phin theo thi gian (hnh 12.3b). V th T D D c th hot ng trong ph n cn FDD i hi ph kp. H tr c ph kp ln ph n c trong c t ca 3GPP ngay t pht hnh R3, mc d hin nay mi trin khai FDD cho WCDMA v HSPA. Tuy nhin chi tit cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn FDD v T T D cho W C D M A l khc nhau. Tri li L T E h tr c FDD v

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

447

TDD trong cng m t cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn, do s khc nhau gia F D D v T D D i v i truy nhp v tuyn L T E l rt t. V th truy nhp v tuyn c trnh by trong cc chng sau s ng cho c F D D v TDD. Trng hp xy ra khc bit s c gii thch ring.

a)

FDD

b)

TDD

i>

-ty t

(=f^

DL: ng xung UL: ng ln

Hnh 12.3. FDD v TDD


12.1.6.2. L i n h h o t t r o n g k h a i thc bng t n L T E c thit k trin khai theo nhu cu, trong ph kh dng c th l p h c n nh m i cho thng t i n d i ng (bng 2,6GHz chng hn) hay chuyn dch n L T E t ph hin ang s dng cho cc cng ngh thng t i n d i ng khc, nh h thng GSM hay thm. ch khng phi l cc cng ngh thng t i n d i ng. V th truy nhp v tuyn L T E phi hot ng trong di cc bng tn rng t tn s thp 4 5 0 M H z n nht l 2,6GHz. t K h nng hot ng trong mt cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn trong cc bng tn khc nhau thc ra khng phi l mi. Chng hn cc u cui G S M ba bng hin rt ph bin c kh nng hot ng trong cc bng 900, 1800 v 1900MHz. T quan im hot ng truy

448

Gio trnh L trnh pht

trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nhp v tuyn, s khng c g cn tr vic cc c t lp vt l L T E s bao trm m i bng c th. iu khc bit g i a c t cho cc bng tn khc nhau ch y u lcc yu cu v tuyn c th hn nh: Cng sut pht cho php cc i, cc hn ch pht x ngoi bng... S d nh vy v cc quy nh bn ngoi do cc c quan quy nh t ra c th khc nhau gia cc bng tn khc nhau.

12.1.6.3. Linh hot bng thng


K h nng trin khai truy nhp v tuyn L T E trong cc bng khc nhau p h thuc v kh nng L T E hot ng v i cc bng thng truyn dn khc nhau trn c ng ln ln ng xung. L do chnh l lng p h k h dng cho L T E c th thay i rt ln gia cc bng tn khc nhau v cng cn ph thuc vo tnh trng ca nh khai thc. Ngoi ra kh nng hot ng trong cc n nh p h khc nhau cho php chuyn dch t t ph t cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc sang LTE. L T E h t r hot ng trong di rng cc n nh tn s. h tr hiu qu cc tc s liu cao k h i c ph k h dng cn c bng thng truyn dn rng. T u y nhin khng phi bao g i cng c khi lng ph cn thit, m t mt l do bng tn khai thc mt khc l do vic chuyn dn m t cng ngh khc m ti y L T E c th hot ng vi bng thng nh hn. R rng rng trong cc trng h p ny tc s liu s b gim tng ng. Cc c t lp vt l L T E theo trit l khng th bit bng thng v khng a ra quy nh c th bt k no v vic h tr cc bng thng truyn dn ngoi m t gi tr t i thiu. T r o n g cc chng sau ta s thy, c t truy nhp v tuyn c s bao g m cc c t lp vt l v giao thc, cho php m i bng thng truyn dn trong di t 1MHz n 2 0 M H z v i bc nhy 180kHz. n g thi, ti giai on u, cc yu cu tn s v tuyn ch c c t cho m t tp hn ch bng thng truyn dn tng ng v i d bo lin quan n cc kch thc

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

449

n nh p h v cc kch bn chuyn dch tng ng. V th, trong thc t truy nhp v t u y n L T E h t r tp hn ch cc bng thng, nhng c th d dng h t r b sung cc bng thng truyn dn bng cc cp nht cc c t v tuyn. 12.2. K I N T R C G I A O T H C L T E Tng quan k i n trc giao thc L T E cho ng xung c m i n h ha trn hnh 12.4. T r o n g cc phn trnh by di y ta s hiu rng khng phi tt c cc thc th c m i n h ha trn hnh 12.4 l u c p dng t r o n g tt c cc tnh hung. Chng hn c lp biu M C ln H A R Q v i kt hp m m u khng c s dng cho qung b thng tin h thng. Ngoi ra, cu trc giao thc L T E lin quan n truyn dn ng ln cng ging v i cu trc ng xung trn hnh 12.4, mc d c mt s im khc bit lin quan n chn khun dng truyn ti v truyn dn a anten.
L
Ngiri S dng 1 \ | S; IP Q I M ^^/

J
Ng-1 s dng B) " ^ e i l t l r:.-!'

_GI IP_

BU c u i i d i 1

NoeB PDCP: Packet D u Covrgnce P r o t o c o l : Giao t h c h i t s Hn g i RLC: Ra d l o Linh C o n t r o l : O i i u k h i n Hn kt v t u y n M C : M e i u m A c c c s s C o n t r o l : iu khUn t r u y nhp m i trng PH Lo vt t

Hnh 2.4. Kin trc giao thc LTE (ngxung)

450

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G S liu cn pht trn ng xung s c a vo cc gi IP

trn cc knh mang SAE. Trc khi c pht trn giao din v tuyn cc gi IP c a qua nhiu thc th giao thc. Di y ta s xt tng quan cc giao thc ny (chi tit s xt trong cc phn sau): Giao thc hi t s liu gi (PDCP: Packet Data Convergence Protocol) thc hin nn tiu gim s bt cn thit pht trn giao din v tuyn. Nguy l nn tiu da trn ROHC, n l gii thut nn tiu chun c s dng trong WCDMA cng nh trong nhiu tiu chun thng tin di ng khc. PDCP cng chu trch nhim mt m ha v bo v ton vn s liu pht. Ti pha thu, PDCP thc hin gii mt m v gii nn. M i u cui di ng c lp cu hnh mt thc th PDCP trn mt knh mang v tuyn. iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC: Radio link Control) chu trch nhim phn on/mc ni, x l pht li v chuyn theo th t n lp cao hn. Khc vi WCDMA, giao thc RLC c t trong e NodeB v ch c mt kiu nt duy nht trong kin trc mng truy nhp v tuyn ca LTE. RLC cung cp cc dch v cho PDCP dng cc knh mang v tuyn. Mi u cui c lp cu hnh mt thc th RLC trn mt knh mang v tuyn. iu khin truy nhp mi trng (MC: Medium Acccess Control) x l cc pht li HARQ lp biu ng ln v ng xung. Chc nng lp biu c t ti e NodeB, mi nt ny c mt thc th M C cho mt , cho c ng ln v ng xung. Mt b phn ca giao thc HARQ c t trong u pht v u thu ca giao thc M C . M C cung cp cc dch v cho RLC trong dng cc knh logic. Lp vt l (PHY) x l m ha/gii m, iu ch/gii iu ch, sp xp a anten v cc chc nng in hnh khc ca lp vt

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

451

l. L p vt l cung cp cc dch v cho l p M C trong dng cc knh vt l. Cc phn di y s trnh by chi tit hn cc giao thc L T E RLC v M C .

12.3. IU KHIN LIN KT V TUYN (RLC)


Ging nh W C D M A / H S P A , L T E R L C chu trch n h i m phn on cc gi I P (c nn tiu ), cc gi IP ny nhn c t PDCP v c g i l cc R L C S D U (Service Data Unit: n v s liu dch v), thnh cc n v n h hn c g i l cc R L C P D U (Packet Data Unit: n v s liu gi). N cng x l vic pht li cc P D U t h u b li cng nh loi b t h u kp v m c n i cc P D U thu. C u i cng R L C m bo vic c h u y n cc R L C S D U theo ng trnh t ln cc lp trn. C ch pht li R L C chu trch nhim m bo chuyn s liu ln cc lp cao hn khng b l i . thc hin iu ny, giao thc pht li lm vic g i a cc thc th R L C pha pht v pha thu. Bng cch gim s t cc s t h t thu, R L C thu c th nhn ra cc P D U b mt. Bo co trng thi c phn h i n R L C pht yu cu pht li cc P D U b mt. Thi im phn h i trng thi c th lp cu hnh c, tuy nhin bo co thng thng cha thng t i n v nhiu P D U v v th c pht khng thng xuyn. D a trn bo co trng thi t h u c, thc th RLC ti m y pht c th a ra cc hnh ng thch hp v pht lai cc P D U b mt theo yu cu. Khi R L C c lp cu hnh yu cu pht li cc gi b mt nh ni trn, t a ni n hot ng trong ch c cng nhn (AM: A c k n o w l e d g e d Mode). iu ny cng ging nh trong

WCDMA/HSPA. A M thng c s dng cho cc dch v da trn TCP nh chuyn file k h i m chuyn s liu khng b l i l m i quan tm u tin.

452

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Ging nh WCDMA/HSPA, RLC cng c th c lp cu hnh

trong ch khng cng nhn (UM: Unacknowledged Mode) v ch trong sut (TM: Transparent Mode). Trong UM, chuyn theo trnh t ln cc lp cao hn vn c m bo, nhng khng yu cu pht li cc PDU b mt. Mc d T M c h tr, nhng n ch c s dng cho cc mc ch c bit nh truy nhp ngu nhin. Mc d RLC c th x l cc li truyn dn do tp m, cc thay i knh khng th d bo,..., nhng cc nh hng ny ch yu c x l bi giao thc M C HARQ. V th c v nh s dng pht li RLC l tha. Tuy nhin trong mc 12.4.4 ta s thy khng phi nh vy, vic s dng c pht li RLC v M C trong thc t xut pht t cc khc nhau trong bo hiu phn hi.
RLCSDU < RLCSD * n+1 RLC SDU * r li RLC SDU Tn^3 Tiu PLC RLC PDU 4 li

r i Tiu PLC
Hnh 12.5. Phn on v mc ni RLC

Ngoi x l pht li v chuyn theo th t, RLC cn chu trch nhim phn on v mc ni nhu minh ha trn hnh 12.5. Ph thuc vo quyt nh ca b lp biu, mt khi lng s liu nht nh c chn phttb m RLC SDU v cc SDU c phn on/c mc ni to ra cc RLC PDU. Nh vy i vi LTE, kch thc RLC PDU thay i ng, trong khi WCDMA/HSPA trc R7 s dng kch thc PRU bn tnh. i vi cc tc s liu cao, PDU c kch thc cao dn n chi ph thm (tiu chng hn) tng i nh, t ri li i vi cc tc s liu thp, yu cu kch thc PDU phi nh nu khng ti trng s qu ln. V th, do cc tc s liu ca LTE c th thay i t vi kbis n ln hom lOOMbis, nn cn c cc kch thc PDU ng cho LTE. V RLC, b lp biu v cc c ch

Chng l: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

453

thch ng tc u c t trong e NodeB, nn d dng h tr cc kch thc P D U ng cho LTE.

12.4. IU KHIN TRUY NHP MI TRNG (MC)


Lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng ( M C ) x l ghp knh logic, cc pht li H A R Q , lp biu ng ln v ng xung. Khc vi HSPA, trong s dng phn tp v m v th phi nh ngha c phc v v cc khng phc v, L T E chi nh ngha phc v v khng c phn tp v m ng ln. phc v l m u cui di ng ni n v chu trch nhim lp biu v hot ng HARQ.

12.4.1. Cc knh logic v cc knh truyn ti


M C cung cp dch v cho R L C trong dng cc knh ogic. Knh logic c nh ngha bi kiu thng t i n m n mang. Ni chung cc knh ny c phn thnh cc knh iu khin (c s dng truyn dn thng t i n iu khin v cu hnh cn thit vn hnh h thng L T E ) v cc knh lu lng truyn dn s liu ca ngi s dng. Tp cc knh logic ca L T E bao gm: Knh iu khin qung b (BCCH: Broadcast Control

Channel) c s dng truyn thng t i n iu khin h thng t mng n tt c cc my di ng trong . Trc khi truy nhp h thng, u cui di ng phi c thng t i n pht trn B C C H bit c h thng c lp cu hnh nh th no, chng hn bng thng h thng. Knh iu khin tm gi (PCCH: Paging Control Channel)

c s dng' tm gi cc u cui di ng v mng khng th bit c v tr ca chng cp v v th cn pht cc bn t i n tm gi trong nhiu (vng nh v). Knh iu khin ring (DCCH: Dedicated Control Channel)

c s dng truyn cc thng t i n iu khin ti/t mt

454

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G u cui di ng. Knh ny c s dng cho cu hnh ring ca cc u cui di ng chng hn cc bn tin chuyn giao khc nhau. Knh iu khin a phng(MCCH: thit thu knh MTCH. Multicast Control

Channel) c s dng truyn thng tin iu khin cn

Knh lu lng ring (DTCH: Dedicated Traffic Channel) c s dng truyn s liu ca ngi s dng n/t mt u cui di ng. y l kiu knh logic c s dng truyn tt c s liu ng ln ca ngi s dng v s liu ng xung ca ngi s dng khng phi MBMS.

Knh lu lng a phng (MTCH: Multicast Trffc Channel) c s dng pht cc dch v MBMS.

Cc knh logic c cu trc nh cc knh c s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA. Tuy nhin so vi WCDMA/HSPA, cu trc knh lgic ca LTE phn no n gin hon vi s lng kiu knh hn. t T lp vt l, lp M C s dng cc dch v trong dng cc knh truyn ti. Knh truyn ti c nh ngha bi cch thc v cc c tnh m thng tin c pht trn giao din v tuyn. Cng ging nh HSPA, s liu trn mt knh truyn ti c t chc thnh cc khi truyn ti. Trong mi khong thi gian truyn dn (Tri: Transmission Time Interval) ti a mt khi truyn ti vi mt kch thc nht nh c pht trn giao din v tuy khi khng c ghp knh khng gian. n Trong trng hp c ghp knh khng gian ("MIMO") c th c n hai khi truyn ti trn mt TTI. Lin kt vi mi khi truyn ti l khun dng truyn ti (TF: Transport Identity) c t cch thc s truyn khi truyn t i ny trn giao din v tuyn. Khun dng truyn ti bao gm thng tin v kch thc khi truyn ti, s iu chv cch sp x anten. Cng p

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din...

455

vi n nh ti nguyn, t l m cng c th c rt ra t khun d truyn ti. Bng cch thay i khun dng truyn ti, lp M C c th thc hin cc tc s liu khc nhau. V th iu khin tc cng c coi l chn la khi truyn ti. Tp cc knh truyn ti c nh ngha trong L T E bao gm: Knh qung b (BCH: Broadcast Channel) c khun dng truyn ti c nh do chun cung cp. N c s dng pht thng tin trn knh logic BCCH. Knh tm gi (PCH: Pagng Channel) c s dng pht thng tin tm gi trn knh PCCH, PCH h tr thu khng lin tc (DRX: Discontinous Reception ) cho php u cui tit kim cng sut c quy bng cch ng v ch thc thu PCH ti cc thi im quy nh trc. Knh chia s ng xung (DL-SCH: Down Linh - Shared Channel) l knh truyn ti c s dng pht s liu ng xung trong LTE. N h tr cc tnh nng ca LTE nh thch ng tc ng v lp biu ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v min tn s. N cng h tr DRX gim tiu th cng sut ca u cui di ng m vn m bo cm gic lun kt ni ging nh c ch CPC (Continous Packet Connectivity: Kt ni gi lin tc) trong HSPA. DL-SCH T T I l lms. Knh a phng (MCH: Multicast Channel) c s dng h tr MBMS. N c c trng bi khun dng truyn ti bn tnh v lp biu bn tnh. Trong trng hp pht a s dng MBSFN, lp biu v lp cu hnh khun dng truyn ti c iu phi gia cc tham gia pht MBSFN. Knh cha s ng ln (UL-SCH) l i tc ng ln ca DL-SCH.

456

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Mt b phn ca chc nng M C l ghp cc knh logic v sp xp chng ln cc knh truyn ti tng ng. Khc vi MAC-hs trong HSDPA. M C trong LTE h tr ghp cc RLC PDU t cc knh mang v tuyn khc nhau vo cng mt khi truyn ti. V kiu thng tin v cch phi pht n c mi quan h nht nh, nn s c cc quy nh v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti. V d sp xp cc logic ln cc knh truyn ti c cho trn hnh 12.6.

Ch ng xung ho^u Cc knh PCCH

XUOr

' ' 9
Ch n

"Ung

BCCH

r < DTCH

DCCH

*1

MTCH

MCCH

truyn ti

PCH

BCH

DL-SCH UL-SCH

MCH

Hnh 12.6. V d v sp xp cc knh logic ln cc knh truyn ti 12.4.2. L p biu n g xung

Mt trong cc nguyn l c bn ca truy nhp v tuyn LTE l truyn dn knh chia s trn DL-SCH v UL-SCH, ngha l ti nguyn thi gian - tn s c chia s ng gia nhng ngi s dng t c rn ng ln v ng xung. B lp biu l mt b phn ca lp MC, n iu khin n nh t i nguyn ng ln v ng xung. Trong LTE, lp biu ng ln v ng xung c tch ring v cc quyt nh lp biu ng ln v c xung c th c a ra c lp (trong cc gii hn c t ra bi vic phn chia ng ln/ung xung trong trng hp khai thc TDD). Phn cn li ca phn ny s xt lp biu ng xung cn lp biu ng ln s c xt trong 12.4.3. Nguyn tc chung ca b lp biu ng ln l quyt nh ng (trong tng khong thi gian lms) u cui no s c thu t u ryn

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

457

dn DL-SCH v trn cc ti nguyn no. N h i u u cui c th c lp biu ng t h i , t r o n g trng hp ny m t DL-SCH c dnh cho mt u cui c lp biu, m i DL-SCH c sp xp n m t tp cc ti nguyn tn s. n v thi gian-tn s c s trong b lp biu c gi l k h i ti nguyn. Cc k h i ti nguyn s c trnh by chi tit trong chng 15 cng v i sp xp s liu ln cc ti nguyn vt l, nhng v nguyn tc m t k h i ti nguyn l m t n v rng 180kHz trong min tn s. T r o n g m i khong lp biu lms. b lp biu n nh cc k h i ti nguyn cho m t u cui t h u truyn dn DL-SCH. B lp biu cng chu trch nhim chn kch thc k h i truyn ti, s iu ch v cc sp x p anten (trong trng hp pht nhiu anten). Nh vy thc cht b lp biu iu chinh tc , v th phn on RLC v ghp knh M C cng chu nh hng ca quyt nh lp biu. Cc u ra ca b lp biu c m i n h ha trn hnh 12.4. Mc d chin lc lp biu l m t thc hin c th v khng c 3GPP c t, nhng mc ch chung ca hu ht cc b lp biu l li dng cc thay i knh gia cc u cui v lp biu u tin truyn dn n u cui c cc iu k i n knh u vit. V th hot ng b lp biu L T E v nguyn l ging nh b lp biu trong HSPA. T u y nhin do s dng O F D M lm s truyn dn ng xung, nn L T E c th khai thc c cc thay i knh c trong min thi gian v m i n tn s, trong k h i lp biu H S P A ch c th khai thc cc thay i m i n thi gian. i v i cc bng thng l n hn c L T E h tr, k h i m phainh chn lc tn s xy ra kh ln, kh nng b lp biu khai thc cc thay i knh min tn s s cng tr nn quan trng so v i chi khai thc thay i knh m i n thi gian. Nht l ti cc tc thp, k h i thay i knh trong m i n thi gian kh chm so vi cc yu cu tr c t ra b i nhiu dch v, k h nng khai thc c c cc thay i m i n tn s li cng c l i . Thng t i n v cc iu k i n knh ng xung cn thit lp biu ph thuc knh c phn h i t u cui di ng n e NodeB

458

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

thng qua cc bo hiu cht lng knh. Bo co cht lng knh (cn c gi l ch th cht lng knh: CQI) khng ch cha thng tin v cht lng knh tc thi trong min tn s m cn thng tin cn thit quyt nh x l anten ph hp trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian. C s ca cc bo co CQI l cc kt qu o cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung. Tuy nhin, cc ngun thng tin knh b sung, nh tnh o ln knh trong trng hp khai thc TDD, cng c th c khai thc bi mt thc hin c bit ca b lp biu nh l mt thng tin b sung thm cho cc bo co CQI. Ngoi cht lng knh, b lp biu hiu nng cao cng phi xt n trng thi b m v cc mc u tin trong cc quyt nh lp biu. Ngoi ra cc khc bit v kiu dch v v kiu ng k cng c th nh hng ln mc u tin lp biu. Chng hn, mt ngi s dng VoIP vi ng k t tin s c m bo cht lng dch v ca mnh ngay c khi ti h thng cao, trong khi mt ngi s dng ti le xung v c ng k gi r c th phi tha mn vi cc t i nguyn khng-dng cho nhng ngi s dng khc. iu phi nhiu cng l mt b phn ca b lp biu. V chun khng quy nh chin lc lp biu ny, nn s iu phi nhiu (nu c s dng) l c th ca nh cung cp thit b v chng c th n gin hoc phc tp. 12.4.3. Lp biu ng ln S c s ca b lp biu ng ln cng ging nh ng xung, ngha l n quyt nh trong tng khong lms cc u cui no s c pht trn cc DL-SCH ca chng v pht trn cc t i nguyn ng ln no. Lp biu ng ln cng c s dng cho HSUPA, nhng do cc s a truy nhp khc nhau c s dng, nn gia cc s ny c cc khc bit ng k.

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

459

Trong H S U P A , ti nguyn ng ln chia s trc ht l nhiu cho php ti trm gc nh xt ti chng 7. B lp biu ng ln HSPA chi thit lp m t g i i hn v lung nhiu ng ln m m t u cui d i ng c php to ra. D a trn g i i hn ny, u cui di ng t quyt c h n khun dng truyn ti ph hp. Chin lc ny ch c ngha cho ng ln khng trc giao nh trng hp HSPA. Mt u cui n u khng s dng ton b ti nguyn c cho php s pht cng sut thp hn v v th gim nhiu gia cc . D o t i nguyn chia s khng c s dng ht bi m t u cui di ng c th c m t u cui d i ng khc s dng thng qua ghp knh thng k. V c h n la khun dng truyn ti c t trong u cui di ng i v i n g ln ca HSPA, nn cn c bo hiu ngoi bng thng bo c h o nt B v chn la ny. i v i L T E , ng ln l trc giao v ti nguyn chia s c iu khin b i b lp biu e NodeB l cc n v t i nguyn thi gian-tn s. V th k h i m t ti nguyn khng c s dng ht b i mt u cui d i ng, phn tha ca ti nguyn ny khng th c s dng cho m t thit b d i ng khc, nn rt t l i ch nhn c khi u cui d i ng t chn khun dng truyn ti nh trong HSPA. Vi th ngoi vic n nh ti nguyn thi gian tn s cho u cui d i ng, b lp biu ca e N o d e B cng chu trch nhim iu khin khun dng truyn ti (kch thc ti tin, s iu ch) m u cui di ng cn s dng. V b lp biu bit c khun dng truyn ti m u c u i d i ng s s dng pht, nn khng cn bo hiu iu khin ngoi bng t u cui di ng n e NodeB. Xt t gc vng ph cch lm ny l c l i v nu xt gi thnh trn m t bt cho pht thng t i n bo h i u ngoi bng so v i gi truyn dn s liu, th gi cho trng h p u cao hn nhiu v thng t i n bo hiu phi c thu vi t i n cy cao hon.

460

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Ngoi vic b lp biu e NodeB quyt nh khun dng truyn ti

cho u cui d i ng, cn nhn mnh rng quyt nh ng ln c a ra cho m t u cui di ng c h khng phi cho m t knh mang v tuyn. N h vy, mc d b lp biu e N o d e B iu khin ti tin ca u cui d i ng c lp biu, u cui ny vn chu trch nhim chn knh mang (cc knh mang) v tuyn no m t s liu c ly ra. V th u cui d i ng t quyt x l ghp knh logic. iu ny c m i n h ha trn phn phi ca hnh 12.7, trong b lp biu e N o d e B iu khin khun dng truyn ti v u cui d i ng iu khin ghp knh logic. e so snh, phn tri ca hnh 12.7 minh ha tnh trng trong e N o d e B iu khin c khun dng truyn ti v ghp knh logic.
e NodeB B m Blpbiu~"{ |B m]
B lp biu

e NodeB

Ghp knh

Cht lng knh ng ln

ET iu ch, m ha

UE

UE X l u
tin

r! li ch^m hoa Ghp knh

Cht lng knh ng xung

TI

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ng xung

Hnh 12.7. Chn khun dng truyn ti trn ng xung (tri), trn ng ln (phi) Ghp knh mang v tuyn trong u cui d i ng c thc hin theo cc quy tc, trong cc thng s ca cc quy tc ny c lp cu hnh b i bo hiu RRC t e NodeB. N i knh mang v tuyn c n nh m t mc u tin v mt tc bt u tin. u cui di

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

461

ng s chn ghp knh mang v tuyn sao cho cc knh mang ny c phc v theo t h t u tin cho tc s liu u tin. Cc ti nguyn cn li, nu cn sau k h i phc v tc bt u tin, s c trao cho cc knh mang theo t h t u tin. h tr lp biu ng ln khi ua ra cc quyt nh, u cui di ng c th pht thng t i n lp biu n e NodeB bng mt bn t i n M C . R rng rng thng t i n ny ch c th pht nu u cui di ng c cp m t cho php lp biu hp l. N u khng c cho php lp biu, u cui s pht i mt ch th rng n cn ti nguyn cho ng ln v ch th ny c cung cp bi mt b phn ca cu trc bo hiu i khin L1/L2 (s xt trong chng 13). u Lp biu p h thuc knh thng c s dng cho ng xung. v nguyn tc, n cng c th c s dng cho ng ln. T u y nhin, nh gi cht lng knh ng ln khng n gin nh trong trng hp ng xung: Cc i kin knh ng xung c o u bi tt c cc u cui di ng trong ch n gin bng cch quan trc cc tn hiu tham kho pht i t e NodeB v tt c cc u cui c th chia s cng m t tn hiu tham kho cho mc ch c tnh cht lng knh. T u y nhin c tnh cht lng knh ng ln i h i pht tn hiu chun thm d t tng u cui di ng m e NodeB mun c tnh cht lng knh. L T E h tr tn hiu tham kho thm d ny ( x e m chng 13), tuy nhin phi tr gi bng chi ph thng tin b sung. V th cn c thm phng tin d cung cp phn tp ng ln ph tr cho lp biu ng ln.

12.4.4. HARQ
L T E H A R Q v i k t h p m phc v mc tiu ging nh m HARQ cho H S P A - m bo tnh bn vng chng li cc l i truyn dn. y cng l cng c tng cng dung lng. V pht li H A R Q x y ra nhanh, nn y cng l c ch i khin tc n u tng (vng kn) i v i nhi u dch v. Cng nh HSPA, giao thc

462

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

HARQ l mt b phn ca lp M C , trong khi hot ng kt hp mm c thc hin ti lp vt l. R rng rng HARQ khng th p dng c vi tt c cc kiu lu lng. Chng hn, pht qung b trong cng mt thng tin c pht cho nhiu ngi s dng. V th HARQ ch c h tr cho DL-SCH v UL-SCH. Giao thc LTE HARQ cng ging nh giao thc tng ng c s dng cho HSPA, ngha l nhiu x l dng v i song song c s dng. K h i thu c mt khi truyn ti, my thu gii m khi ny v thng bo my pht v kt qu gii m thng qua mt b t ACK/NAK ch th rng gii m thnh cng hay cn pht li khi truyn ti ny. gim thiu chi ph, chi mt bt ACK/NAK c s dng. Tt nhin my thu cn bit bt ACK/NAK thu c ny thuc v x l HARQ no. Qu trnh ny c minh ha trn hnh 12.8. Lu rng trong trng hp khai thc TDD, quan h gia thu s liu trong mt x l H A R Q v pht ACK/NAK cng chu nh hng ca n nh ng ln/ng xung.
Thi gian gia pht v pht li l c nh v c UE ln eNode u bit trc Khng cn thng bo s th t x l HARQ

li

S th t x l HARQ

HARQ ng b

Pht li c th xy ra ti mi thi dim

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HARQ khng ng b

Hnh 12.8. Giao thc HARQ

ng b v khng ng b

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

463

Ging nh HSPA, giao thc khng ng b l c s cho hot ng H A R Q ng xung. V th cc pht li ng xung c th xy ra ti m i thi im sau ln pht u v mt s t h t H A R Q tng m i n h c s dng c h i ra x l no c cp. Tri l i , cc pht li ng ln da trn giao thc ng b v cc pht li xy ra ti mt thi im quy nh trc sau pht ln u v s t h t x l c th rt ra n tng. C hai trng hp ny c m i n h ha trn hnh 12.8. Trong giao thc H A R Q khng ng b, cc pht li v nguyn tc c lp b i u ging nh cc pht ln u. T r o n g giao thc ng b thi im pht li l c nh mt k h i pht ln u c lp biu v cn xt iu ny t r o n g hot ng lp biu. T u y nhin cn lu rng t thc th H A R Q trong e NodeB, b lp biu bit rng u cui s pht li hay khng pht li.
n c h c nng s p x p li t r o n g TrBlkl TrBk2 RNC f8m5 TrSlk3

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Hnh 2.9. Nhiu x l HA RQ


S dng nhiu x l H A R Q song song (hnh 12.9) i v i tng ngi s dng c th dn n vic s liu c chuyn n pha thu khng theo t h t. Chng hn k h i truyn ti 5 trn hnh v c gii m thnh cng trc k h i 3 v k h i ny i h i pht li. V th cn c c ch sp t li. Sau k h i gii m thnh cng, k h i truyn ti c phn knh vo cc knh logic tng ng v sp t li c thc hin theo tng knh logic bng cch s dng s trnh t. H S P A s dng s trinh t M C sp x p li. S d nh vy v i H S P A c xy dng t W C D M A v v l do tng thch ngc, kin trc R L C hay M C rn

464

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

g i nguyn khng i k h i a ra H S P A ( x e m chng 6). Tri li i v i L T E , cc l p giao thc u c thit k ng thi t c t cc quy nh hn trong thit k. T u y nhin nguyn tc sp t li l ging nhau trong c hai h thng, ch c cc s trnh t l khc nhau. C ch H A R Q s hiu chnh cc l i truyn dn do tp m v cc thay i khng d bo c ca knh. N h xt trc y, RLC cng c k h nng yu cu pht l i , thot nhn c v nh iu n l y khng cn thit. T u y nhin, mc d cc pht li R L C k h i cn thit vi t H A R Q d a trn M C c kh nng sa hu ht l i truyn dn, H A R Q c th i k h i tht bi k h i truyn cc k h i s liu khng mc li n R L C v gy ra khong trng trong chui cc k h i l i s liu khng mc l i c chuyn n RLC. iu ny thng xy ra do bo hiu phn h i b l i , chng hn N A K b m y pht nhn nhm l A C K dn n mt s liu. Xc sut ca vic xy r a iu ny c th khong 1 % ; y l m t xc sut l i qu cao i v i cc dch v da trn TCP i hi chuyn cc gi T C P hu nh khng mc l i . c bit hn na, i v i cc tc s liu cao vt qu lOOMbis, yu cu xc sut mt gi thp hn 10" . v cn bn, T C P nhn nhn tt c cc li gi
5

nh l do nghn. V th cc l i gi s khi ng c ch loi b nghn bng cch g i m tc s liu v duy t hiu nng tt ti cc tc s r liu cao, R L C - A M phc v mc ch quan trng ny m bo (hu nh) chuyn s liu khng mc l i n TCP. T phn tch trn ta thy, nguyn nhn cn c hai c ch pht li chng ln nhau l bo hiu phn hi. V mc ch ca c ch HARQ l pht li nhanh, nn cn g i bt bo co trng thi A C K / N A K n m y pht cng nhanh cng tt trong m t T T I . M c d v nguyn tc c th t c m t xc sut l i thp bt k ca phn hi ACK/NAK, tuy nhin iu ny phi tr gi b i cng sut truyn dn ACK/NAK. Gi thnh ny s c duy t hp l nu t s l i h i tip vo khong r 1 % v iu ny quyt nh t l l i bt "d ca HARQ. V cc bo co

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

465

trng thi R L C c pht tha hn nhiu so v i A C K / N A K nn gi thnh nhn c t i n cy <10" l kh thp. V th, kt hp
5

HARQ v R L C c h o php nhn c kt h p gia thi gian truyn vng nh v c h i ph h i tip khim tn trong hai phn t ny b sung cho nhau. V R L C v H A R Q c t trong cng m t nt, nn c th m bo tng tc cht ch gia hai giao thc v v th vic pht li cc PD b mt ca R L C nhanh hn. Chng hn nu c ch H A R Q pht hin mt l i khng th khi phc c, th pht bo cc trng thi RLC c k h i ng tc th v khng cn c h pht bo co trng thi nh k. m c nht nh, kt hp H A R Q v R L C c th c coi nhu l mt c ch v i hai c ch bo hiu phn hi trng thi. v nguyn tc, cng c th p dng phng php ni trn cho trng hp HSPA. T u y nhin R L C v H A R Q c t ti cc nt khc nhau i v i HSPA, nn ni chung khng th m bo tung tc cht ch. 12.5. LP VT L (PHY) Lp vt l chu trch nhim m ha, x l H A R Q lp vt l,

iu ch, x l a aiiten v sp xp tn hiu n cc ti nguyn thi gian-tn s vt l tng ng. Hnh 12.10 m t tng quan qu trnh x l DL-SCH. Trn hnh 12.10, cc k h i lp vt l c iu khin ng bi lp M C c m u xm, cn cc k h i vt l c lp cu hnh bn tnh c m u trng. K h i m t u cui d i ng c lp biu trong m t T T I ln DL-SCH, l p vt l nhn c k h i truyn ti (hai trong trng hp
e

hp knh khng gian) ca s liu cn pht. i v i m i k h i truyn

ti, CRC c g n thm v m i k h i truyn ti v i C R C gn thm ny c m ha ring. T l m ha bao g m c thch ng tc nu cn, c xc nh tng b i kch thc k h i truyn ti, s iu ch n

466

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

v khi lng ti nguyn c n nh cho b lp biu ng xung. Tt c cc i lng ny c la chn bi b lp biu ng xung. Phin bn d s s dng c i khin bi giao thc HARQ v n u s nh hng ln x l phi hp tc to ra tp cc bt c m ha ng. Cui cng trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian, sp xp anten cng c i khin bi b lp biu ng xung. u
Mt (hoc hai) khi truyn ti kch thc ng trn mt TTI

*
HARQ MC PHY HARQ MC

PHY
S.

CRC

M ha, phi hp tc ]

3X

Kim tra CRC

Gii m

34

S iu ch
An nh anten n nh ti nguyn

iu ch s i liu

S iu ch

Gii diu ch si liu

.-.-.
sp xp anten Gii sp xp-anten

Sp xp ti nguyn

Su

Gii sp xp ti nguyn

Sc
(UE)

e NodeB

Xi
u cui di ng

Hnh 12.10. M t n gin cu trc v x l lp vt l cho DL-SCH u cui di ng thu tn hiu c pht v thc hin x l lp vt l ngc vi pha pht. Lp vt l ti u cui di ng cng thng bo cho giao thc HARQ v vic truyn dn c c gii m thnh cng hay khng. Thng tin ny c phn chc nng HARQ ca M C trong u cui di ng s dng quyt nh c nn yu cu pht li hay khng.

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din

467

X l l p vt l cho UL-SCH gn ging v i x l DL-SCH. T u y nhin, cn l u n rng b lp biu trong e NodeB chu trch nhim chn ra khun dng truyn ti ca u cui di ng v cc ti nguyn s s dng cho ng ln nh trnh by trong 12.3.3. X l lp vt l UL-SCH c m i n h ha dng c n gin ha trn hnh 12.11. Cc knh truyn ti ng xung cn li da trn qu trnh u x l tng qut nh DL-SC, mc d c m t s quy nh trong tp cc tnh nng s S dng trong tng lai. i v i pht qung b thng t i n h thng trn B C H , u cui d i ng phi c k h nng thu c knh thng t i n ny nh l m t trong cc bc u tin truy nhp h thng. V th khun dng truyn dn knh ny phi c u cui bit trc v khng c bt k i khin ng no ca lp M C i v i u n cc thng s truy dn trong trng hp ny.
Mt khi truyn t i kch thc ng trn mt T r i

-~ HARQ

MC PHY

HARQ

MC PHY

Kim tra CRC

CRC

S Gii m a

u
S u ch

M ha
iu Ch S liu

iu ch J S, rh s

A n nh

An inh

ti nguyn

Gii sp xp ti nguyn

ti nguyn

Sp xp ti nguyn

e NodeB

X]
u cui di ng (UE)

Hnh 12. . X l lp vt l dng c om gin ha cho UL-SCH


i v i pht cc bn t i n tm g i trn PCH, mc nht nh thch ng ng cc thng s truyn dn cng c th c s dng. Tng qut, qu trnh x l trong trng hp ny cng ging nh qu

468

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

trnh x l chung ca DL-SCH. M C c th iu khin iu ch, khi lng ti nguyn v sp xp anten. Tuy nhi v ng ln vn cha n c thit lp khi u cui di ng ang c tm gi, nn khng th s dng HARQ v u cui di ng khng th pht ACK/NAK. M C H c s dng pht MBMS, thng thng bng khai thc mng mt tn s (nh xt trong chng 3) vi pht i t nhiu trn cng mt ti nguyn vi cng mt khun dng trong cng mt thi gian. V th, lp biu cc ti nguyn phi c phi kt hp gia cc tham gia v M C khng th chn lc ng cc thng s truyn dn.

12.6. C C TRNG THI CA LTE


Trong LTE, u cui c th nm trong mt s trng thi nhu minh ha trn hnh 12.12. Khi bt ngun, u cui di ng nhp vo trng thi LTE-DETACHED. Trong trng thi ny mng khng bit u cui. Trc khi c th thc hin bt k mt cuc truyn tin no gia u cui di ng v mng, u cui di ng phi ng k vi mng bng cch s dng th tc truy nhp ngu nhin vo trng thi LTE-ACTIVE. LTE-DETACHED ch yu l trng thi c s dng khi bt ngun, sau khi u cui ng k vi mng, thng n vo mt trong hai trng thi sau: LTE-ACTIVE hoc LTE-IDLE.
Bt ngun

LTE-DETACHED - Khng a chi IP - Khng bit vi tri

LTE-ACTIVE a chi IP c n inh - Ni n mt bit trc OUT_ OF-SYNC IN-SYNC - Khng th thu ng xung : - C th thu ng xung Khng J h l na ln j li- C th pht ng ln , !

LTE-IDLE a Chi IP dc n dinh Bit mt phn vi tri

-ChukDLDRX

t
OUT-OF-SYNC: mt ng b IN-SYNC: c ng b D L DRX thu khng lin lc dng xung

Hnh 12.12. Cc trng thi ca LTE

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

469

L T E A C T I V E l trng thi c s dng k h i u cui di ng ang tch cc pht s liu v thu s liu. Trong trng hp ny, u cui di ng c n i n mt trong mng. M t a ch IP c gn cho u cui d i ng cng vi m t s nhn dng (C-RNTI: Cell Radio-Network Temporary Indentier: s nhn dng mng v tuyn tm thi) c s dng cho cc mc ch bo hiu gia u cui d i ng v mng. C th c o i L T E A C T V E c hai trng thi con, IN_SYNC (ng b) v OUT_OF_SYNC (khng ng b) ph thuc vo vic ng ln c ng b hay khng ng b. V L T E s dng ng ln da trn F D M A / T D M A trc giao, nn cn ng b truyn dn ng ln t cc u cui d i ng. Th tc t c ng b v duy tr ng b c xt trong chng 14, nhng c th ni ngn gn l e NodeB o thi gian t i ca cc truyn dn t tng u cui di ng pht tch cc v gi lnh hiu chinh thi gian xung ng xung. Chng no cn trong trng thi IN_SYNC, truyn dn s liu ngi s dng ng ln vn tn ti v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 c m bo. T r o n g trng hp truyn dn ng ln khng xy ra trong mt ca s t h i gian cho trc, ng b thi gian khng c m bo v ng ln c thng bo l OUT_OF_SYNC. Trong trng hp ny, u cui di ng cn thc hin th tc truy nhp ngu nhin khi phc ng b. L T E - I D L E l trng thi tch cc thp trong u cui di ng ng hu ht thi gian gim tiu th c quy. n g b ng ln khng c d u y tr v v th ch c th tch cc truyn dn ng ln dng truy nhp ngu nhin l c th thc hin chuyn vo LTE A C T I V E . Trn ng xung, u cui di ng c th nh k tinh gic nghe tm g i cho cc cuc g i v (xem chng 14). u cui di ng g i a ch (cc a chi) IP v cc thng t i n ni b khc c th chuyn nhanh vo L T E - A C T V E khi cn. M n g ch bit mt phn v t ca u cui d i ng, chng hn mng bit nhm cc r trong s thc hin tm gi u cui di ng.

470

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

12.7. L U N G S L I U e tng kt qu trnh chuyn lung s liu qua tt c cc lp giao thc, v d minh ha cho trng hp ba gi IP, hai trn mt knh mang v tuyn v mt trn knh mt mang v tuyn khc c cho trn hnh 12.13. Lung s liu trong trng hp truyn dn ng ln cng tng t. PDCP thc hin (ty chn) nn tiu IP v sau l mt m ha. Tiu PDCP c b sung mang thng tin cn thit cho gii mt m trong u cui di ng. u ra ca PDCP l RLC. Giao thc RLC thc hin mc ni v (hoc) phn on cc PDCP PDU v b sung tiu RLC. Tiu ny c s dng chuyn theo ng th t (trn mt knh logic) trong u cui di ng v nhn dng cc PLC PDU trong trng hp pht li. Cc RLC PDU c chuyn n lp M C , lp ny ly ra s th t ca RLC PDU, lp rp cc RLC PDU vo mt M C SDU v gn tiu M C to nn mt khi truyn ti. Kch thc khi truyn ti ph thuc vo tc s liu tc thi do c ch thch ng ng truyn chn. V th thch ng ng truyn nh hng c x l M C ln x l RLC. Cui cng lp vt k gn thm CRC cho khi truyn ti pht hin li, thc hin m ha iu ch v pht tn hiu tng vo khng gian.
Knh nung SAE 1 \mu<*{ Nin l iu PDCP. m* m ha Knh nung SAE1 Ti n" jat[ THih -rau*! Ti
Knh mang SAE 2

Tt t* nurt
T i tin

Tiu

Phn on RLC, mc ni
[Tiu * I

RLCSOO

msm
I2C

--]f'WHA..'[

Ghp knh MC

HE
CRC

ITidiT
MC

MACPDU KBIIniyntir

Hnh l. 13. v d v lung s liu

Chng 12: Truy nhp v tuyn v kin trc giao din.

471

1 . . TNG KT 28
Chng ny trc ht xt tng quan cc vn lin quan n truy nhp v tuyn ca LTE. T r u y nhp v tuyn s dng truyn dn OFDM cng v i m t s cng ngh v tuyn tin tin nh: Thch ng ng truyn vlp biu theo knh, cc k thut a anten v HARQ. Cc cng ngh m i c p dng cho truy nhp v tuyn cho php tng hiu nng truyn dn v tuyn ca L T E c bit l dung lng h thng mt cch ng k. L T E ci tin thm qung b a phng tng thm tnh hiu qu cho dch v ny. Bng cch khng chi pht cc tn hiu ging nhau t nhiu trm ( v i m ha v iu ch nh nhau), m cn ng b thi gian gia cc , tn hiu ti u cui s th hin ht nh tn hiu c pht i t mt . D o O F D M c kh nng chng phainh a ng tt, pht a cng cn c gi l pht ca mng a phng qung b n sng mang ( M B S F N : MulticastBroadcast Single- Frequency Network). Cch pht ny khng chi ci thin c cng tn hiu thu m cn hn ch c nhiu gia cc . Nh vy i v i O F D M , thng lng qung b/a phng a c th ch b g i i hn bi tp m v v th trong trng hp cc nh c th t c thng lng ny rt cao. L T E h tr c s ghp song cng phn chia theo tn s ( F D D ) v ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian ( T D D ) v cho php s dng a dng bng thng tng thm tnh l i n h hot ph. Tip theo chng ny xt kin trc phn lp tng qut ca giao din v tuyn. Sau xt c th cu trc ca cc lp ca kin trc n y nh: cu trc v x l lp iu khin lin kt v tuyn (RLC), cu t v x l lp iu khin truy nhp mi trng, cu trc v x l rc lp vt l. Ngoi ra chng ny cng xt mt s vn c th ca giao din v tuyn nh: H A R Q , cc trng thi L T E v cu trc lung s liu ca LTE.

472

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

12.9. C U H I . Trnh by tng quan truyn dn LTE. 2. Trnh by kin tr ngn xp giao thc ca giao din v tuyn LTE. c 3. Trnh by RLC. 4. Trnh by M C . 5. Trnh by lp vt l LTE. 6. Trnh by cc trng thi ca LTE. 7. Trnh, by t chc lung s liu ca LTE.

C h n g 13

LP VT L LTE

Trong chng trc, k i n trc giao din v tuyn L T E c trnh by, trong cc chc nng v cc c tnh ca cc lp khc nhau c xt tng quan. Chng ny s trnh by chi tit hn v trng thi hin thi ca lp thp nht ca cc lp ny, lp vt l. Chng sau s xt chi tit m t s t h tc truy nhp L T E c th bao g m th tc truy nhp ngu nhin v tm . Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Cu trc tng th m i n thi gian ca L T E - S truyn dn ng xung ca L T E - S truyn dn ng ln ca L T E Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c hiu chi tit hom v t chc hin t h i ca lp vt l l lp thp nht trong m hnh giao thc LTE. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k n i dung c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [ 3 ] , [ 4 ] , [ 5 ] , [ 6 ] , [14], [15] v tr l i cc cu h i cui chng.

13.1. CU TRC TNG TH MIN THI GIAN


Hnh 13.1 m i n h ha cu trc min thi gian mc cao cho truyn dn L T E v i m i k h u n g (v tuyn) di T = lOms bao g m lo khung con di bng nhau T
s u b

= ms.

474

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G cung cp quy nh thi gian chnh xc v nht qun, c th

biu din cc khong thi gian khc nhau trong quy nh truy nhp v tuyn LTE l cc bi s ca mt n v thi gian gc T = 1/30720000
s

(gi tr chnh xc s c xt trong mc sau). Cc on thi gian trn' hnh 13.1 v th c th c biu din nhu sau: T f = 307200.T v
S

T =30720T .
sub s

Mt khung v tuyn (T = 10ms)


'

'

Mt khung con (Tsut, = 1ms) " #1


#2 #3

#9

Hnh 3.1. Cu trc min thi gian LTE Trong mt sng mang con, cc khung con khc nhau ca mt khung c th c s dng hoc cho ng xung hoc cho ng ln. Nh minh ha trn hnh 13.2a, trong trng hp FDD (khai thc trong ph kp), tt c cc khung con ca mt sng mang con hoc c s dng cho truyn dn ng xung (sng mang con ng xung) hoc cho truyn dn ng ln (sng mang con ng ln). Tri li trong trng hp khai thc TDD trong ph n (hnh 13.2b), khung con th nht v th su ca mi khung (khung con 0 v 5) lun lun c n nh cho truyn dn ng xung trong khi cc khung con cn li c n nh linh hot cho c ng xung v ng ln. L do quy nh trc n nh khung con u tin v th su cho ng xung v cc khung con ny cha c cc tn hiu ng b LTE. Cc tn hiu ng b c pht trn ng xung ca mi v c s dng cho tm ln u cng nhu tm ln cn. Nguyn l tm ca LTE bao gm c cc tn hiu ng b s c xt chi t it trong chng 15.

Chng 13: Lp vi l LTE


Ghp song cng phan chia theo tn s (FDD) M t k h u n g v t u y n (Ti = 1 0 m s ) Sng mang Sng mang dng ln |p L

475

nq xung L

| | * | * I * I * I I - 1
t
*
s u 0

Mt khung con( T a) Ghp song cng phn chia theo thi gian (TDD)

= 1ms)

Gn nh i x n g Khng i x n g ( t p trung c h o n g x u n g ) ; Khng i x n g ( t p trung cho n g l n )

I I I

* *

l
l *

* I I * * I I

* I

I
I

1 * 1 4 1 *

1 1 1 1
t1 t1

X
I

I * I

* 1 4.
*

li

I ** I* 1

K h u n g c o n th nh! v th s u c n nh c nh c h o ng xung

Truyn d nng xung

T r u y n d n ng ln

Hnh 3.2. Cc vi d v n nh cc khung con ng xung /ng ln trong trng hp FDD (a) v TDD (b) N h thy trn hnh 13.2, n nh cc khung con trong trng hp TDD cho php n nh linh hot cc k h i lng ti nguyn khc nhau (hay t l ti nguyn) cho ng xung v cho ng ln. V cn n nh khung con nh nhau cho cc ln cn trnh nhiu gia truyn dn ng xung v ng ln gia cc , nn khng th thay i ng n nh t l ti nguyn ng xung ng ln, chng hn theo tng khung. T u y nhin c th thay i t l ny chm hn, chng hn thch ng cc c tnh lu lng khc nhau (cc thay i lu lng <tne.xun/ng ln). Cu trc m i n thi gian c m i n h ha trn hnh 13.1 i k h i c gi l cu trc khung L T E kiu hay tng qut. c u trc khung ny c th p dng cho c F D D v TDD. Ngoi cu trc khung tng qut, i v i L T E hot ng v i T D D cn c cu trc khung L T E kiu 2. Cu trc ny c thit k cho ng t n ti v i cc h thng c xy dng trn c s 3GPP TD-SCDMA. D i y, ta chi xt n cu trc k h u n g k i u .

476

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

13.2. S T R U Y N N N G X U N G 13.2.1. Ti nguyn vt l ng xung Nh trnh by trong chng 12, LTE ng xung da trn OFDM. Ti nguyn vt l ng xung ca LTE c th xem nh l li tn s-thi gian (hnh 13.3), trong mi phn t t i nguyn tng ng vi mt sng mang con OFDM trong khong thi gian mt k hiu.

Hnh 13.3. Ti nguyn vt l ng xung ca LTE i vi ng xung LTE, khong cch gia cc sng mang c chn vi A f = 15kHz. Vi thc hin my pht/my thu da trn FFT, tc ly mu tng ng s l f = 15000.N, trong N l kch
s

thc FFT. V th n v thi gian T c nh ngha trong mc


s

trc c th coi l thi gian ly mu ca thc hin my pht/my thu da trn FFT vi N = 2048. cn nhn mnh rng mc d n v thi gian T c a vo chun truy nhp v tuyn ch lm cng c
s

cho nh ngha cc khong thi gian khc nhau v khng t ra bt c quy nh no i vi thc hin my pht v (hoc) my thu, ngha l tc ly mu. Trong thc t, mt thc hin my pht/my thu vi N = 2048 v tc ly mu tng ng f = 30,72MHz s thch hp
s

cho cc bng thng LTE rng hn c gi tr 15MHz v cao hn. Tuy nhin i vi cc bng thng truyn dn nh hn, kch thc FFT nh

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

477

hom v tc ly mu tng ng thp hn cng c th s dng rt thch hp. V d, i v i truyn dn bng thng 5MHz, kch thc FFT N = 512 v tc ly mu tng ng f = 7.68MHz c th l .
s

L do tip nhn khong cch gia cc sng mang con bng 15kHz cho L T E l on gin ha thc hin cc u cui a ch WCDMA/HSPA/LTE. S dng kch thc F F T ly tha hai v khong cch gia cc sng mang con A f = 15kHz, tc ly mu f = Af.N s l bi s hoc c s ca tc chip YVCDMA/HSPA
s

3,84Mchip/s. Cc u cui a mode WCDMA/HSPA/LTE c th c thc hin d dng bng mt mch ng h. Ngoi khong cch gia cc sng mang con 15MHz, khong cch gia cc sng mang con rt ngn A f
t h

= 7.5kHz cng c nh ngha

cho LTE. M c ch s dng khong cch gia cc sng mang con rt ngn l thc hin cc truyn dn a phng/qung b da trn MBSFN (s xt trong mc 13.2.6). Trong mc cn li ca mc ny v cc chng sau ta s coi rng khong cch gia cc sng mang con l 15kHz nu khng c gii thch g thm. T minh ha trn hnh 13.4, trong min tn s cc sng mang con c nhm thnh cc k h i ti nguyn tng ng vi bng thng khi t i nguyn chun 180kHz. Ngoi ra sng mang con DC (mt chiu) ti tm ca ph ng xung s khng c s dng. S d khng s dng sng mang con D C l v n c th trng vi tn s ca b dao ng ni ti m y pht trm gc v (hoc) m y thu u cui di ng. Hu qu l c th b nhiu cao do r b dao ng ni. Tng s cc sng mang con trn mt sng mang ng xung, k c sng mang con DC, v th s bng Nsc = 12.NRB+1 , trong N
R B

s lng cc k h i ti nguyn. c t lp vt l L T E cho php ng xung c th c s lng khi ti nguyn bt k trong di t 6 khi t i

478

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nguyn cho n hn 100 khi t i nguyn. iu ny tng ng vi bng thng truyn dn trong di t 1MHz n 20MHz vi tnh ht mn. iu ny m bo tnh linh hot bng thng/ph ca LTE rt cao, nht l t gc c t lp vt l. Tuy nhin cc yu cu tn s t v tuyn ca LTE ch c c t cho tp c hn cc bng thng tng ng vi tp c hn s lng cc khi ti nguyn N .
RB

Mt khi ti nguyn (12 sng mang con, 180kHz)

Af=15kHz Sng mang con DC "-. *. /

.
4

'

HZ

- T :r=

. NRB khi ti nguyn, Nsc = (12.NRB + 1) Mt khung con = hai khe (T ub= 1ms)
S

Hnh 13.4. Cu trc min thi gian-tn s ng xung ca L TE


<

(F=7-J
Tsiot = 0,5ms

CP binh thng p l[ li H li li ggg&

Tp
C

f
TFFT 66,7ns CP m rng

h..^^m jpHBHia Bimmm


Tcp-e TFFT ~ 66,7nS

timmm uummnr-is^Ma

T P = 160.Ts 5,2jiS (k hiu OFDM th nht),


C

144.T a; 4,7ns (cc k hiu OFDM cn li).


s

T P < = 5 1 2 T a 16,7ns.
C s

Hnh 3.5. Cu trc khung con v khe ng xung

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

479

Hnh 13.5 cho thy cu trc m i n thi gian cho truyn dn ng xung ca L T E . M i k h u n g con l m s g m hai khe ng kch thc c di
Tsiot =

0,5ms (15360.T ). M i khe g m m t s k hiu O F D M .


S

Mt khung bao g m hai khe ng kch thc. M i khe g m by hoc su k hiu O F D M t r o n g trng hp CP bnh thng v trong trng hp CP m rng. Theo chng 3, khong cch gia cc sng mang con Af=15kHz tng ng vi thi gian hiu dng ca k hiu TFFT=1/Af66,7^is (2046.T ). T n g t h i gian ca k hiu O F D M k h i ny s l tng thi
S

gian hiu dng ca k hiu v di tin t chu trnh TCP. N h thy trn hnh 13.5, L T E nh ngha hai di CP, CP bnh thng v CP m rng cho cc trng h p by v su k hiu trn m t khe. Cc di chnh xc ca CP c biu din theo n v thi gian c s T v
s

c cho trn hnh 13.5. cn lu rng trong trng hp CP bnh thng, di CP cho k hiu O F D M u tin ca Vhc hi ln hn so vi di CP ca cc k hiu O F D M cn li. L do l lp y khe 0,5ms v s n v t h i gian T trn khe (15360) khng chia ht cho 7. C hai l do cho vic quy nh hai di CP: - di CP ln hn (i hi chi ph nhiu hn) c l i trong cc mi trng tri tr ln, chng hn trong cc rt ln. cn l u n rng mc d di C P ln hn khng nht thit c l i trong trng hp cc ln, thm ch tri tr rt ln trong cc trng hp ny. K h i trong trong cc ln, hiu nng ng truyn b g i i hn bi tp m c h khng phi m o tn hiu do tri thi d v di CP khng ln, nn bn v n g b sung cho tri thi knh v tuyn m CP di h o n em li c th khng b li c t n hao nng lng ca tn hiu thu. - N h cp trong chng 3, trong trng h p pht a phng/qung b d a trn M B S F N , CP khng ch ph ht phn l n tn thi thc t m c phn chnh ca s khc nhau v nh thi gia cc truyn dn t h u c t cc tham gia vo pht M B S F N . V th

480

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

thng thng trong trng hp khai thc M B S F N tin t chu trnh m rng l cn thit. N h vy ng dng ch yu ca CP m rng ca L T E c l l pht MBSFN. Cn lu rng cc di CP khc nhau c th c s dng cho cc khung con khc nhau trong mt khung. V d, pht a phng/qung b da trn MBSFN c th gii hn trong mt s khung nht nh v ch trong cc khung con ny cn s dng CP di m rng. Khi xt n cu trc min thi gian ng xung, cc khi t i nguyn ni trn bao gm 12 sng mang con trong thi gian 0,5ms (hnh 13.6). V th mi khi cha 12x7 = 84 phn t trong trng

hp CP bnh thng v 12x6 = 72 trong trng hp CP m rng. C ngha l trng hp CP bnh thng gm 7 k hiu O F D M trong mt khe tng ng vi 84 phn t t i nguyn. Trong trng hp CP m rng, mt khi ti nguyn gm 6 k hiu O F D M trong mt khe tng ng vi 72 phn t ti nguyn.
A f =15kHz

Hnh 3.6. Mt khi ti nguyn

13.2.2. Cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung Chc nng ca tn hiu tham kho ng xung nh sau: - o cht lng knh ng xung. - c tnh knh ng xung gii iu ch ti UE. - Tm v bt ban u.

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

481

thc hin gii iu ch nht qun ng xung, u cui di ng cn c tnh knh ng xung. N h xt trong chng 3, cch trc tip c tnh knh ng xung trong trng hp truyn dn O F D M l chn cc k hiu tham kho bit trc vo li thi gian-tn s. Trong LTE, cc tn hiu tham kho ny c gi chung l cc tn hiu thm kho ng xung. Nh minh ha trn hnh 13.7, cc k hiu tham kho ng xung c chn vo k hiu O F D M u v k hiu th ba trc cui ca mi khe v i khong cch l su sng mang trong min tn s. Ngoi ra khong dch gia k hiu tham kho th nht v th hai l ba sng mang. N h vy trong mi khi ti nguyn vi 12 sng mang trong mt khe s c bn k hiu tham kho. iu ny ng cho tt c cc khung con tr cc khung con c s dng cho truyn dn da trnMBSFN (xem mc 13.2.6). c tnh knh trn ton b li thi gian-tn s ng thi gim tp m trong c tnh knh, u cui di ng phi thc hin ni suy/ly trung bnh trn nhiu k hiu tham kho. V th, khi c tnh knh cho mt khi ti nguyn, u cui di ng c th khng ch s dng cc k hiu tham kho trong khi ti nguyn ny, m cn c cc khi ti nguyn ln cn trong min tn s, cng nh cc k hiu tham kho ca cc khe/cc khung con c thu trc . Tuy nhin phm vi cc khi ti nguyn trong min tn s v (hoc) trong min thi gian m u cui d i dng c th thc hin trung bnh ha ph thuc vo c tnh knh. Trong trng hp chn lc tn s ca knh cao, kh nng trung bnh ha trong min tn s b hn ch. Tng t, kh nng trung bnh hoa trong min thi gian (kh nng s dng cc k hiu tham kho trong cc khe/cc khung con c thu trc ) cng b hn ch trong trng hp cc thay i knh nhanh, chng hn do tc chuyn ng ca u cui d i ng cao. Cng cn lu rng trong trng hp TDD, kh nng trung bnh ha theo thi gian c th

482

Gio trnh L (rnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 41

b hn ch v cc khung con trc c th khng c n nh ch ng xung.

Hnh 13.7. Cu trc tin hiu tham kho ng xung trong trng hp CP bnh thng (7 k hiu OFDM trong mt khe)

13.2.2.1. Chui cc k hiu tham kho v nhn dng lp vt l Tng qut, cc gi tr phc ca cc k hiu tham kho s thay ' i gia cc v t k hiu tham kho khc nhau v gia cc khc nhau. r V th k hiu tham kho ca mt c th c coi nh l mt chui hai chiu, trong cc c t ca LTE chui ny c gi l chui k hiu tham kho hai chiu. Ging nh m ngu nhin ha ca WCDMA/HSPA, c th coi chui k hiu tham kho L T E nh l mt ch th ca nhn dng lp vt l ca LTE. LTE nh ngha 510 chui k hiu tham kho tng ng vi 510 nhn dng khc nhau. Xt chi tit hon, mi chui k hiu tham kho c th c coi nh tch ca chui gi ngu nhin hai chiu vi chui trc giao hai chiu. Tng cng c 170 chui gi ngu nhin khc nhau c nh ngha trong c t ca L T E tng ng vi 170 nhm nhn dng . Cc chui k hiu tham kho v cu trc ca n (tch ca chui gi ngu nhin v chui trc giao) c th c s dng trong qu trnh tm (s xt trong chng 15). Nn p dng cc chui tn hiu tham kho cho cc sao cho cc thuc cng mt eNodeB s c n nh cc nhn dng lp vt l

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE nm trong cng mt nhn dng , ngha cc tn hiu tham kho c n nh theo cng mt chui gi ngu nhin nhng v i cc chui trc giao khc nhau. Cc p dng ny cho php gim thiu nhiu gia cc t n hiu tham kho ca cc khc nhau thuc cng mt eNodeB.

3.2.2.2. Nhy tn tn hiu tham kho


Trong cu trc tn hiu tham kho trn hnh 13.7, cc v t trong r
* \ r

min tn s ca cc k hiu tham kho l nh nhau gia cc khung con. Tuy nhin cng c th thay i cc v t ca cc k hiu tham r kho trong min tn s gia cc khung con lin tip, cch lm ny c gi l nhy tn k hiu tham kho. Trong trng hp nhy tn k hiu tham kho, cc v t tng r i ca cc k hiu tham kho trong mt khung con vn ging nh hnh 13.7. N h vy, nhy tn c th c coi nh l b sung thm mt chui dch tn cho mu k hiu tham kho c s trn hnh 13.7 v i dch tn nh nhau cho tt c cc k hiu trong cng mt khung con, nhng thay i gia cc khung con lin tip. V th ta c th biu din cc v tr p ca k hiu tham kho trong khung k nh sau: Cc k hiu tham kho th nht: p(k)=(po+6.i+dch(k))mod(12) Cc k hiu tham kho th hai: p(k)=(po+6.i+3+dch(k))mod(12) trong i l s nguyn. Chui dch tn ca mu nhy tn c chu k l o , ngha l mu nhy tn lp li gia cc khung con lin tip. Tng s c 170 mu nhy tn c nh ngha, trong m i chui tng ng vi mt nhm nhn dng . p dng mu nhy tn khc nhau cho cc cnh nhau, ta c th trnh c s va chm lin tc cc chui k hiu tham kho gia cc cnh nhau. iu ny c bit quan trng khi cc k hiu tham kho c pht v i cng sut cao hn so vi cc phn t ti nguyn cn li (pht tng cng sut tn hiu tham kho).

484

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

13.2.2.3. Cc tn hiu tham kho cho truyn dn nhiu an


T r o n g trng hp pht ng xung nhiu anten, u cui di ng phi c k h nng c tnh knh ng xung tng ng v i tng anten pht. lm c iu ny, s c m t tn h i u tham kho pht t t n g anten. c n lu rng thay v ni v anten, cc c t truy nhp v tuyn ca L T E thng ni v ca anten nhn mnh rng c t khng nht thit ch tng n g v i m t anten. Thc cht, mt ca anten c nh ngha b i s t n ti m t tn h i u tham kho c th ca anten. V th nu cc tn hiu tham kho nh nhau c pht i t m t s anten, u cui d i ng khng th phn gii c cc anten ny v cc anten ny c th c coi nh m t ca anten. Tuy nhin n gin ha y ta vn s dng thut n g anten. T r o n g trng hp hai anten pht (hnh 13.8a), cc k hiu tham kho ca anten t h hai c ghp tn s v i cc k h i u tham kho ca anten t h nht v i dch tn ng m i n tn s l ba sng mang. - T r o n g trng h p b n anten pht (hnh 13.8b), cc k hiu tham kho cho anten t h ba v anten t h t c ghp tn s v i k hiu O F D M t h hai trong khe thi gian. L u rng cc k h i u tham kho cho anten ba hay anten b n c h i c pht trong m t k hiu O F D M ca tng khe. Cng cn nhn mnh rng, nu m t phn t ti nguyn mang k hiu tham kho cho m t anten no , th phn t ti nguyn ny s khng c pht ti cc anten khc. V th, cc k h i u tham kho ca anten ny s khng b nhiu b i pht t cc anten khc trong cng mt . R rng rng trong trng hp b n anten, mt k hiu tham kho trong m i n thi gian ca anten t h ba v t h t gim so vi anten t h nht v t h hai. L do g i m l hn ch c h i ph tn hiu tham kho trong trng h p b n anten. n g thi iu ny cng s nh hung tiu cc ln k h nng theo di cc b i n i knh nhanh.

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE Tuy nhin c th k vng rng ghp knh khng gian bn anten ch yu c p dng cho cc kch bn c tc thp. L do duy t mt r k hiu cao hom cho anten th nht v th hai trong trng hp bn anten l cc tn hiu tham kho ny s c s dng nh l mt b phn ca tm ban u, v trong qu trnh ny u cui di ng vn cha nhn c thng tin y v s lng anten pht trong mt . V th cu hnh ca cc tn hiu tham kho ca anten th nht v anten t h hai phi nh nhau khng ph thuc vo s anten.
a) 2 anten pht Anten #1 Anten #1 b) 4 anten pht

Anten #2

Anten #2

Anten #3

Anten #4 Tn s

Hnh 13.8. Cu trc tin hiu tham kho trong trng hp pht ng xung nhiu anten

13.2.3. X l knh truyn ti ng xung


Nh xt trong chng 12, lp vt l giao tip v i cc lp cao hn c bit l v i lp M C thng qua cc knh truyn ti. L T E tha hng nguyn l c s ca WCDMA/HSPA rng s liu c chuyn n knh vt l trong dng cc khi truyn ti c kch thc nht nh. v cu trc chi tit knh truyn ti, L T E tip nhn gii php ging nh HSPA:

486

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Trong trng hp pht mt anten, nhiu nht ch c mt khi

truyn ti v i kch thc ng cho tng T U . - Trong trng hp truyn dn nhi anten, c th c n hai khi u truyn ti kch thc ng cho t T T I , trong m i khi truyn ti tng ng v i m t t m trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian ng xung. Ngha l mc L T E h t r ghp knh khng gian ng xung v i bn anten, nhng s t m vn g i i hn bng hai. Chi tit v truyn dn nhiu anten ng xung ca L T E c xt trong mc 13.2.5.
Khi (cc khi) truyn ti c chuyn n t lp M C

n iu c h O F D M cho tng anten RM: Resource Mapping: sp xp ti nguyn Phn ng t nt ch c khi s ng ghp knh khng gian, trong hai khi truyn ti c truyn song song trong mt TTI

Hnh 3.9. X l khi truyn ti ng xung

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE


'

T<J I

X l. knh truyn ti ng xung, c bit l x l DL-SCH c minh ha trn hnh 13.9 vi hai chui x l ring bit, trong mi chui tng ng v i x l mt khi truyn ti. Chui x l th h a i tng ng v i khi truyn ti th hai ch tn ti trong trng hp ghp knh khng gian. Trong trng hp ny, hai khi truyn ti c kch thc khc nhau (trong trng hp tng qut) c kt hp nh l mt phn ca sp xp anten phn di ca hnh 13.9. 13.2.3.1. Chn CRC Trong bc x l knh truyn ti u tin, CRC c tnh ton v c gn vo khi truyn ti (hnh 13.10). CRC cho php pha thu pht hin li d trong khi truyn ti c gii m knh. Chi th li tng ng sau c th c s dng bi giao thc H A R Q (lng xung.
Tnh ton, chn CRC kT**bit

Hnh 13.10. Tnh ton v chn CRC g xung vo khi truyn ti 13.2.3.2. M ha knh Cc pht hnh u tin ca chun truy nhp v tuyn W C D M A (tnrc HSPA) cho php p dng c m ha xon v m ha Turbo cho cc knh truyn ti. i v i HSPA, m ha knh c n gin v ch s dng m ha Turbo cho cc knh truyn ti lin quan n HSPA (HS-DSCH cho ng xung v E-DCH cho ng ln). iu ny cng ng i vi knh chia s ng xung LTE, ngha l ch c m Turbo c p dng trong trng hp truyn dn DL-SCH. c u trc tng th ca m ha Turbo L T E c minh ha trn hnh 13.11. M a
lia

Turbo s dng cc b m ha thnh phn tm trng thi ca

WCDMA/HSPA t l M ngha l tng t l m bng ]/3. Tuy nhin

488

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G l

b m an xen bn trong ca b m ha Turbo WCDMA/HSPA c thay th bng an xen da trn QPP (Quadratic Polynomial Permutation: hon v a thc cu phng). Khc v i b an xen WCDMA/HSPA hin thi, b an xen da trn QPP l mt an xen trnh va chm ti a, ngha l gii m c th c thc hin song song m khng b va chm khi truy nhp b nh ca b an xen. V LTE h tr cc tc s liu rt cao, nn s dng an xen da trn p p cho php gim ng k phc tp ca b m ha/gii m Turbo.
Ti s dng t VVCDMA/HSPA

Khi truyn ti
VI

CRC

0 H H h m
QPP B an xen bn trong Nng cp t WCDMA/HSPA

_z_
D

Cc bt m , Cc bt h thng

Cc bt chn l th nht

KJ T

EP H H

i Cc bt chn l th hai

Hnh 13.11. B m ha Turbo

13.2.3.3. Chc nng HARQ ca lp vt l


Cc bt h thng S lng bt ph thuc vo kch thc c a ti nguyn c n nh, s diu c h v bc C c bt c h n l t h nht ghp knh khng gian

('hng 13: Lp vt l LTE Nhim v ca chc nng H A R Q lp vt l l ly ra t cc bt c m ha sau b m ha knh tp cc bt s pht trong mt T T I cho trc (hnh 13.12). Tp bt ny c xc nh bi cc khi ti nguyn c n nh, s iu ch v bc ghp knh khng gian. Cn lu rng mt s phn t ti nguyn trong khi c n nh s b chim bi cc k hiu tham kho nh trnh by trn v b chim bi bo hiu iu khin (s xt trong mc 13.2.4). Nu tng s bt sau m ha knh ln hn s bt c th c pht chc nng H A R Q s ly ra tp con ca cc bt ny v th t l m ln r ff>l/3. Tri li nu tng s bt sau m ha nh hn s bt cn pht
C

chc nng H A R Q s lp tt c hay tp con ca cc bt sau m ha, v th t l m hiu dng r < l / 3 .


ef

Trong trng hp pht li, chc nng H A R Q trong trng hp tng qut s cho ra cc tp bt sau m ha khc nhau cn pht, ngha l HARQ cho php kt hp phn d tng. 13.2.3.4. Ngu nhin ha mc bt Trong qu trnh ngu nhin ha ng xung, cc bt sau chc nng H A R Q c trn (thao tc hoc loi tr) bi chui ngu nhin ha mc bt (hnh 13.13). Ni chung, ngu nhin ha s liu m ha cho php m bo rng gii m pha thu c th tn dng c ton b li x l do m knh cung cp. Nu khng ngu nhin ha (lng xung, b gii m ha knh ti u cui di ng c th ( t nht v nguyn l) nhm ln tn hiu gy nhiu v i tn hiu ch, v th khng th trit nhiu. Bng cch p dng cc chui ngu nhin ha cho cc ln cn, tn hiu (cc tn hiu) nhiu sau gii ngu nhin b ngu nhin ha v th m bo tn dng ht li x l do m ha knh cung cp. Khc vi HSPA, trong ngu nhin ha ng xung c p dng cho cc chip phc sau k h i tri ph (ngu nhin ha mc cbip),

490

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4

LTE p dng ngu nhin ha ng xung mc bt sau m ha ca tng khi truyn ti (ngu nhin ha mc bt). Ngu nhin ha mc chip cn thit i v i HSPA m bo rng li x l do tri ph cung cp c th c tn dng mt cch hiu qu. Tri li, ngu nhin ha bt sau m ha ch khng phi cc k hiu iu ch phc cho php mc nht nh gim phc tp thc hin v khng nh hng tiu cc hiu nng trong trng hp LTE.
Chui ngu nhin ha

Hnh 13.13. Ngu nhin ha ng xung Trong LTE, ngu nhin ha ng xung c p dng cho tt c cc knh truyn ti. Ngu nhin ha cng c p dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung (xem mc 13.2.4). i vi tt c cc knh truyn ti ng xung ngoi tr M C H cng nh bo hiu iu khin L1/L2, cc chui ngu nhin ha phi khc nhau i vi cc khc nhau (ngu nhin ha c th ) m bo ngu nhin ha nhiu gia cc . Tri li ng trng hp truyn dn MBSFN s dng knh truyn ti MCH, ngu nhin ha nh nhau c p dng cho tt c cc tham gia v mt truyn dn MBSFN (ngu nhin ha hung cc ) (xem mc 13.2.6).

13.2.3.5. iu ch s liu
iu ch s liu ng xung chuyn i khi bt sau ngu nhin ha vo cc k hiu iu ch phc (hnh 13.14). Tp cc s iu ch c L T E h tr cho ng xung gm QPSK, 16QAM v 64QAM, tng ng vi hai, bon v su bt trn mt k hiu iu ch.

Chng 13: Lp vt ly LTE


Tt c cc s iu ch ny u c th p dng cho trng hp truyn dn DL-SCH. i v i cc knh truyn ti khc c th c mt s quy nh hn ch. Chng hn, chi iu ch QPSK l c th c p dng cho truyn dn BCH.
B iu ch
s liu

n/L k hiu iu ch

nh 13.14. iu ch s liu chuyn i n bu vo n/L k hiu iu ch phc QPSK: 1=2, 16QAM: L=4 v 64QAM: L=6 13.2.3.6. Sp xp anten
Sp xp anten thc hin x l kt hp cc k hiu iu ch, trong trng hp tng qut, tng ng v i hai khi truyn ti v sp xp kt qu nhn c n cc anten khc nhau. T hnh 13.9 ta thy, L T E h tr ti bn anten pht. sp xp an ten c th c lp cu hnh theo cc cch khc nhau cung cp cc s a anten khc nhau bao gm c phn tp pht, to bp v ghp knh khng gian. Chi tit hn v sp xp anten v v truyn dn a anten ng xung ca L T E s c xt ng mc 13.2.5.

13.2.3.7. Sp xp khi ti nguyn


Sp xp khi ti nguyn thc hin sp xp cc k hiu s pht t tng anten n cc phn t ti nguyn ca tp khi ti nguyn rn c n nh bi b lp biu M C truyn dn khi (cc khi) truyn ti (hnh 13.15). N h xt trong chng 13, vic chn la khi ti nguyn da trn c tnh cht lng knh ca cc khi ti nguyn khc nhau nhn t u cui di ng ch. Nh cp trong chng 13, lp biu ng xung c thc hin trn c s mt khung con ( ms). Do mt khi ti nguyn ng xung bao g m mt s cc sng mang con trong thi gian 0,5ms, nn n nh khi ti nguyn ng xung lun lun c thc hin cho

492

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

cc cp khi ti nguyn, trong mi cp, trong min thi gian, bao gm hai khi ti nguyn lin tip trong mt khung con. Tng s, mi khi ti nguyn cha 84 phn t (12 sng mang con trong by k hiu OFDM). Tuy nhin, nh nhc trn, mt s phn t ti nguyn trong mt khi truyn ti khng c dng cho sp
t \ ,

xp knh truyn ti v chng b chim bi: - Cc k hiu tham kho ng xung bao gm cc phn t t i nguyn khng c s dng tng ng vi cc k hiu tham kho ca cc anten khc nhau xt trong mc trc. - Bo hiu iu khin ng xung L1/L2 (s xt trong mc sau). V trm gc c y thng tin v cc khi t i nguyn no c s dng cho cc tn hiu ng xung cng nh bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 v v th chng khng kh dng cho sp xp knh truyn ti, nn c th d dng sp xp knh truyn ti ln cc phn t ti nguyn kh dng cn li. Tng t, ti thi im thu, u cui di ng bit c cc phn t ti nguyn no iic s dng cho cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung v bo hiu L1/L2 nn n c th d dng ly ra s liu knh truyn ti t tp phn t ti nguyn dnh cho knh ny.

Lu : Trong trng hp tng qut, s c mt tp cc t i nguyn v mt sp x p t i nguyn tng ng cho tng anten

Hnh 13.15. Sp xp khi ti nguyn ng xung

( hng 13: Lp vt l LTE

Trong chun LTE, ti nguyn vt l m ti DL-SCH c xp ln c gi l knh vt l chia s ng xung (PDSCH). 13.2.4. Bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung h tr truy dn cc knh truyn ti ng xung v ng n l n (cc knh DL-SCH v UL-SCH), cn c bo hiu iu khin ng xung i km. Bo hiu iu khin ng xung ny thng c gi l bo hiu iu khin ng xung L1/L2 ch th rng thng tin tng ng mt phn bt ngun t lp vt l (lp 1) v mt phn t M C lp 2. - Bo hiu iu khin ng xung L1/L2 lin quan n DL-SCH v UL-SCH bao gm: - Cc bn tin lp biu lin quan n DL-SCH cn thit cho u cui di ng c lp biu n c th thu, iu ch v gii m DL-SCH. Cc bn tin ny cha thng tin v n nh t i nguyn DL-SCH (tp cc khi ti nguyn), khun dng truyn ti v thng tin l quan n DL-SCH HARQ. Bo hiu ny cng ging nh in HS-SCCH c nh ngha cho HSPA. - Cc bn tin lp biu lin quan n L-SCH, chng hn cc cho php lp biu thng bo cho u cui di ng c lp biu v t i nguyn v khun dng no s s dng truy dn UL-SCH. Bo n hiu ny cng ging vi E-AGCH ca HSPA. V cc u cui di ng c th c lp biu ng thi, nn phi c kh nng pht i nhiu bn tin lp biu cho tng TT1. M i bn tin ny c pht nh mt knh iu khin ng xung L1/L2. Nh im inh ha trn hnh 13.16, mi knh iu khin tng ng vi mt bn tin lp biu trc ht c x l ring bao gm chn CRC, m ha knh, ngu nhin ha bt v iu ch QPSK. Sau cc k hiu iu ch c sp xp ln ti nguyn vt l ng xung, ngha l ln li

thi gian-tn s OFDM. Trong LTE, ti nguyn vt l m bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 c sp xp ln c gi l knh iu khin vt l ng xung (PDCCH).
iu khin L1/L2 lin quan n truyn n DL-SCH hng tin khun lng truyn ti Thng tin lin quan n HARQ iu khin L1/L2 Hn quan n truyn dn U I SCH

Cho php lp biu ng ln

Ngu nhin ha Cc knh iu khin L1/L2 b sung (iu khin DL-SCH hoc UL-SCH)

iu ch

Sp xp ln ti ngu yn vt l

n iu ch OFDM

Hnh 13.16. Chui x l cho bo hiu iu khin g xung L/L Nh minh ha trn hnh 13.17, cc knh iu khin L1/L2 c sp xp ln cc k hiu u tin (n 3 k hiu) O F D M trong tng khung con. Bng cch sp xp cc knh iu khin L1/L2 ln u khung con, thng tin iu khin L1/L2 (bao gm n nh t i nguyn DL-SCH v khun dng truyn ti) c th nhn c trc khi kt thc khu con. V th c th bt u thc hin gii m DL-SCH ngay ng sau khi kt thc khung con m khng cn i gii m thng tin iu khin L1/L2. iu ny gim thiu tr khi gii m DL-SCH v v the gim thiu tng tr truyn dn ng xung.

I 'hng 13: Lp vt l LTE Ngoi ra, bng cch pht knh iu khin .L1/L2 ti u khung con, ngha l cho php gii m thng tin iu khin L1/L2 sm, cc u cui d i ng khng c lp biu c th tt cc mch in ca my thu trong phn ln khung con, v vy gim tiu th cng sut.

Hnh 13.17. Li thi gian-tn s ca LTE trong mt s phn t ti nguyn c dnh cho cc k hiu tham kho v iu khin bo hiu ng xung LI/L2 Xt mt cch chi tit hn, ti nguyn vt l c s dng mang bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 bao gm mt s cc phn t knh iu khin, trong m i phn t knh iu khin gm mt s phn t t i nguyn quy nh trc. K h i ny cc k hiu c iu ch ca m i knh iu khin c sp xp ln mt hoc nhiu phn t knh iu khin ty theo kch thc (s cc k hiu iu ch) ca m i knh iu khin L1/L2. Lu rng kch thc ny c th khc nhau i vi cc knh iu khin L1/L2 khc nhau. Mng thng bo tng m i n h s lng cc phn t knh iu khin chung mt khung con. V cc phn t knh iu khin c kch thc nh trc v c t ti u khung con, nn u cui c lp biu s bit c cc knh iu khin L1/L2 chim cc phn t ti nguyn no v nh vy DL-SCH c sp xp ln cc phn t ti nguyn no (cc phn t ti nguyn cn li). Tuy nhin u cui d i ng khng c thng bo tng minh v chi tit cu trc iu khin L1/L2 v s lng chnh xc cc phn t

496

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G l

knh iu khin m knh iu khin c sp xp ln. Nn u cui di ng phi t tm cch gii m nhiu ng c knh iu khin tm
K

'

ra knh iu khin mang thng tin lp biu cho u cui di ng ny. Hnh 13.18 minh ha mt v d trong c su phn r knh iu
t ? r \ /

khin v c th sp xp cc knh iu khin L1/L2 n mt, hai hay bn phn t knh iu khin. Ta thy, trong trng hp c bit ny, c 10 ng c knh iu khin khc nhau. u cui di ng gii m tng ng c mt sau kim tra CRC tm ra knh iu khin ng.

Phn t knh iu khin 1 Phn t knh iu khin 2 Phn t knh iu khin 3 Phn t knh iu khin 4 Phn t knh iu khin 5 Phn t knh iu khin 6 Cc ng c knh iu khin m UE phi tim cch gii m thng tin (10 ln t h gii m trong v d ny)

Tp ng c knh V iu khin

Hnh 13.18. Cc phn t knh iu khin v cc ng c knh iu khi 13.2.5. Truyn dn a anten ng xung Qu trnh x l knh truyn ti ng xung c trnh by trong mc 13.2.3 bao gm sp xp anten, mc ny m t x l hai khi k hiu iu ch nhn c t hai khi truyn ti c m ha v sp xp n cc anten pht (cao nht 4 anten). Nh minh ha trn hnh 13.19, sp xp anten ca LTE thc t bao gm hai bc, sp xp lp v tin m ha. Sp xp lp m bo phn knh cc k hiu iu ch ca tng t
/ \ \

m (khi truyn ti c m ha v c iu ch) thnh nhiu lp. V th s lp lun lun bng so khi truyn ti cn pht.

('hng 13: Lp vt l LTE


s p xp anten Cc i hai l m Cc i n N lp
L

"
I
~
1n

nnr-;

, a

NA anlen

gnv v

nnn
1

Mi hnh vung tng n g v i m t k hiu iu c h

Hnh 13.19. Sp xp anten LTE bao gm sp xp lp v sau l tin m ha


Tin m ha ly ra mt k hiu iu ch t mi lp, x l kt hp cc k hiu iu ch ny v sp xp kt qu ln min tn s v anten. T minh ha trn hnh 11.19, ta thy tin m ha tc ng ln cc \ ct V kch thc N , trong m i vct bao gm mt k hiu t
L

mi lp. Phn tch sp xp anten thnh hai chc nng ring bit, sp xp lp v tin m ha trong c t L T E cho php nh ngha v m t d dng cc s truyn dn a anten khc nhau gm c phn tp pht vng h, to bp v ghp knh khng gian trong cng mt chng t h khung a anten ca LTE. D i y ta s xt mt s v d v cc rn s truyn dn a anten c kt hp trong cng mt thc hin ca chng trnh khung a anten LTE.

3.2.5.1. M ha khi khng gian-tn s (SFBQ hai anten


Trong trng hp SFBC (Space Frequency Block Code: M khi khng gian tn s) hai anten (hnh 13.20), ch c mt t m (khng ghp knh khng gian) v hai lp. s p xp lp thc hin phn knh cc k hiu iu ch ca t m ln hai lp. Sau b tin ma ha p dng m khng gian-tn s cho tng vct lp V.

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

499

N h vy s lng cc k hiu iu ch ca t m th hai s gp i t m t h nht m bo s lng t m nh nhau trong mi lp. Sau tin m ha p dng ma trn w kch thc N x N cho tng vct
A L

lp

V .

NLIP

N anten
A

Xi

X, ....

Xi

"xi" yz y* Tin m ha

D p

Sp xp lp
yi y2 y3 y4

yi

!n
p
ni
' *

Z j = w. X i

ys

ri
'

Vi

V2

Hnh 13.22. Ghp knh khng gian trong chng trnh khung LTE (N =3, N =4)
L A

Tng qut, ghp knh khng gian LTE da trn tin m ha theo bng m, ngha l i vi mi t hp s lng anten N
L A

v s lng

lp N , mt tp cc ma trn ca b tin m ha c nh ngha bi c t chun. Da trn o tn hiu tham kho ng xung ca cc anten khc nhau, u cui di ng quyt nh mt hng (Rank) ph hp (s lng cc lp) v ma trn tin m ha tng ng. Sau thng tin ny c bo co cho mng. Trong khi chi mt hng n c bo co (p dng cho ton mng), th nhiu ma trn khc nhau (p dng c h o cc phn khc nhau ca bng thng h thng) c th c bo co. Mng xem xt thng tin ny nhng khng nht thit phi lm theo n khi a ra quyt nh hng v tp cc ma trn tin m ha s s dng cho truyn dn ng xung. V mng c th quyt nh cc tp ma trn tin m ha khc vi thng tin m u cui di ng bo co, mng phi thng bo tng minh cc ma trn tin m ha no cn s dng thng qua bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng xung. Cch lm tng t c s dng cho to bp a anten ng xung, da trn cc kt qu o cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung

500

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ca cc anten khc nhau, u cui di ng quyt nh vct tin m ha (to bp) thch hp v bo co n cho mng. Mng xem xt thng tin ny, nhng khng lm theo n khi quyt nh vct tin m ha no s s dng thc t cho truyn dn ng xung. Tng t nh trng hp ghp knh khng gian, mng phi thng bo tng minh vct tin m ha no cn s dng cho u cui di ng. V th tin m ha ch s dng cho truyn dn DL-SCH ch khng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. 13.2.6. a phong/qung b s dng MBSFN Nh xt trong chng 3, truyn dn O F D M c li khi cung cp cc dch v a phung/qung ba a , nht l kh nng thc hin pht a phng qung b ng b a ging nh truyn dn n nht trn knh a ng. Nh cp trong chng 12, i vi LTE loi truyn dn ny c gi l a phng/qung b trn mng n tn (MBSFN: Multicast Broadcast Single Frequency Netvvork). LTE h tr truyn dn a phng qung b MBSFN thng qua knh truyn ti M C H (knh a phng). Qu trnh x l knh truyn ti i vi M C H c nhiu nt ging nh DL-SCH (hnh 10.9) vi mt s ngoi l: - Trong trng hp truyn dn MBSFN, cng mt s liu c pht vi cng mt khun dng trn c s cng mt ti nguyn vt l t nhiu trc thuc cc eNodeB khc nhau. N h vy eNodeB khng th la chn ng khun dng truyn ti v n nh ti nguyn MCH. - V truyn dn NCH hng ng thi n nhiu u cui di ng, nn khng th p dng HARQ cho truyn dn MCH. Ngoi ra nh cp trong mc 13.2.3, ngu nhin ha MCH phi nh nhau i vi tt c cc tham gia vo truyn dn MBSFN (ngu nhin ha chung cho cc i).

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

501

c tnh knh cho gii iu ch nht qun ca truyn dn MBSFN cng khng th da trn cc t n hiu tham kho 'bnh thng' c th nh xt trong mc 13.2.2, v cc tn hiu tham kho ny khng c pht bi M B S F N v v th khng phn nh knh MBSFN tng th. Thay vo . cc tn hiu tham kho b sung c chn vo cc khung con M B S F N nh minh ha trn hnh 13.23. Cc tn hiu tham kho ny c M B S F N pht, ngha l cc tn hiu tham kho ng dng (cng mt gi tr phc trong cng mt phn t t i nguyn) c pht bi tt c cc tham gia truyn dn MBSFN. Cc t n hiu tham kho thu tng ng c th c s dng nh gi knh MBSFN tng hp gii iu ch nht qun truyn dn MBSFN.

Cc k hiu tham kho c th Cc k hiu tham kho chung cc cho MBSFN

Hnh s dng CP m rng tng ng vi 12 k hiu OFDM trn mt khung con

Hnh 13.23. Cc k hiu tham kho chung cc trong cc khung con MBSFN
Truyn dn M C H s dng M B S F N khng th ghp knh chung vi truyn dn ca cc knh truyn ti khc nh DL-SCH trong cng mt khung con. V th s khng c bo hiu iu khin ng xung L1/L2 lin quan n truyn dn DL-SCH (khun dng truyn ti, ch th t i nguyn v thng t i n lin quan H A R Q ) trong cc khung con MBSFN. Tuy nhin c th c bo hiu iu khin ng xung L1/L2 khc c pht trong cc khung con MBSFN, chng hn cc cho php lp biu cho truyn dn UL-SCH ng ln. V th cc tn hiu tham kho bnh thng 'c th cng cn c pht trong cc khung con

502

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4C

MBSFN ng thi vi t n hiu tham kho da trn MBSFN. T nhin v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 b gii hn trong phn u c
k h u n g con, nn t r o n g k hiu O F D M u tin c a k h u n g c o n s ch C(

cc k hiu tham kho c th (cng nh trong k hiu th hai ci khung con trong trng hp bn anten pht) l c pht trong c i khung con O F D M (xem hnh 13.23). 13.3. S TRUYN N NG LN 13.3.1. Ti nguyn vt l ng ln Nh cp trong chng 12, truyn dn ng ln ca LTE da trn truyn dn DFTS-OFDM hay SC-OFDMA. N h trnh by trong chng 3, DTFS-OFDM l s truyn dn n sng mang c PAPR thp vi th cho php n nh bng thng linh hot v a truy nhp trc giao khng ch trong min thi gian m c trong min tn s. Hnh 13.24 nhc li cu trc c s ca truyn dn DTFS-OFDM vi DFT kch thc N
T x

p dng cho N

T x

k hiu iu ch. u ra ca

DFT sau c sp xp ln cc u vo c la chn ca IFFT kch thc N. Kch thc DFT xc nh bng thng tc thi ca t n hiu pht, trong khi sp xp tn s quyt nh v t ca t n hiu r pht trong tng ph kh dng ng ln. Cui cng CP c chn cho tng khi x l. N h trnh by trong chng 3, vic s dng CP trong trng hp truyn dn om sng mang cho php s dng cn bng tn s hiu nng cao vi phc tp thp hn ti u thu.
Tin hiu tng ng vi mt khi DFT
DFT

Khi gm NTX k hiu iu ch


(kch thc
NTX)

Sp xp tn s

(kch thc N) - Chn CP

IFFT

Hnh 13.24. cu trc c s ca truyn dn DTFS-OFDM hay SC-OFDMA

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

503

Nh trnh by trong chng 3, trong trng hp tng qut c hai dng truyn dn DTFS-OFDM chia l v phn b u c s dng. Tuy nhin truyn dn dng ln L T E gii hn truyn dn khoanh vng, ngha l qu trnh sp xp tn s (hnh 13.24) s sp xp u ra ca D F T ln cc u vo lin tip ca IFFT. T quan im thc hin DFT, DFT kch thc N
T x

phi gii hn

ly tha ca hai. Tuy nhin hn ch ny mu thun trc tip vi mong mun c linh hot cao c th n nh ng t i nguyn (bng thng truyn dn tc thi) cho cc u cui di ng khc nhau. T quan im linh hot cao, phi cho php tt c cc gi tr c th c ca N . i vi LTE, gii php trung gian c tip nhn trong
Tx

kch thc DFT gii hn tch ca cc s nguyn hai, ba v nm. Chng hn cc kch thuc DFF 15, 16 v 18 c php nhng N = 17 th khng. Bng cch ny DTF c th c thc hin bi cc
Tx

t FFT c s 2, c s 3 v c s 5 phc tp. Nh cp trong chng 3, cng nh c th thy trn hnh 13.24. DTFS-OFDM cng c th c coi nh l truyn dn OFDM thng thng kt hp vi tin m ha da trn DFT. V th ta cng c th ni v khong cch gia cc sng mang con cho trng hp ny. Ngoi ra ging nh OFDM, ti nguyn vt l ca DTFS-OFDM c th c xt dng li thi gian-tn s vi hn ch b sung l ton b ti nguyn thi gian-tn s n nh cho mt u cui di ng phi l lun gm cc sng mang con lin tip. un Cc thng s c s ca s truyn dn ng ln L T E c chn ng b tt nht vi cc thng s tng ng ca ng xung LTE da trn OFDM. N h minh ha trn hnh 13.25, khong cch g'a cc sng mang con ng ln DTFS-OFDM bng A f = 15kHz v cc khi ti nguyn gm 12 sng mang con cng c nh ngha cho ng ln. Tuy nhin khc vi ng xung, i vi ng ln khng quy nh khng s dng sng mang con DC. L do v s c mt ca sng mang con DC trong tm ph cho php n nh ton b

504

Gio trnh L (rnh pht trin thng Un di ng 3G ln 4G

bng thng cho mt u cui di ng v vn duy t c tnh cht r PAPR thp ca n sng mang i vi truyn dn ng ln. Ngoi ra do tin m ha da trn DFT, nh hng nhiu DC s tri rng trn N
tx

k hiu iu ch v th n hi hon so vi truyn dn t

O F D M bnh thng.
Mt khi t i nguyn (12 'sng mang con', 180MHz)

rrrmTTTi
Af=15kHz NRB khi t i nguyn (12.N
RE

'sng mang con'),

Hnh 3.25. cu trc min tn s ng ln ca LTE V th tng s cc sng mang con ng ln bng Nsc - 12.N .
RB

Tng t nh ng xung, i vi ng ln c t lp vt l LTE cng cho php linh hot tng bng thng h thng rt cao: Mi s khi t i nguyn t su khi t i nguyn tr ln. Tuy nhin cng ging nh ng xung, do cc yu cu v tn s v tuyn nn s c mt s gii hn v trong giai on u s ch quy nh mt tp hn ch cc bng thng ng ln. Ngoi ra v chi tit cu trc thi gian-khng gian, ng ln LTE rt ging vi ng xung (hnh 13.26). M i khung con lms ng ln bao gm hai khe c di bng nhau
Tsiot =

0,5ms. M i khe gm

mt s khi DFT k c CP. Ngoi ra cng ging nh ng ln, di hai CP c nh ngha cho ng ln, CP bnh thng v CP m rng. Mt khung con bao gm hai khe di bng nhau. M i khe bao gm su hoc by khi DFTS-OFDM cho trng hp CP bnh thng v CP m rng. Khc vi ng xung, khi ti nguyn ng ln c n nh cho u cui di ng phi lun lun lin tip trong min thi gian (hnh 13.27). Lu rng ging nh ng xung, khi t i nguyn ng ln l 12 sng mang DFTS-OFDM trong mt khe 0,5ms. V

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

505

th, tng t nh ng xung, n nh ti nguyn ng ln trong min thi gian c thc hin trong hai k h i ti nguyn lin tip.
Mt khung con = hai khe (T.UO = 1 ms)

= >- .=
Tsiot
=

0,5ms u l i l i l i " '

CP bnh thng i

w=
CP m rng

Zz
TP

==3
<

TFFT ~ 66,7S

Tcp-e

TFFT SS 66,7tis

'"""""'-

TCP=160.TS=5,2MS (khi DFT th nht), 144.T ~4,7ns (cc khi DFT cn li).
s

T p-e=512T 16,7ns.
C s

Hnh 13.26. Khung con LTE ng ln v cu trc khe


Trn hnh 13.27, ti nguyn ng ln c n nh tng n g vi cng m t tp sng mang con trong hai khe. M t cch khc, nhy tn gia cc khe cng c th c p dng cho ng ln LTE. Nhy tn gia cc khe c ngha l cc ti nguyn vt l c s dng cho truyn dn n g ln trong hai khe ca m t khung con khng chim cng tp sng mang con (hnh 13.28). Lu rng v bng thng truyn dn v tuyn ca u cui di ng bao ph ton b ph ng ln, nn nhy tn thun ty l hot ng bng gc, n gin chi l thay i sp xp DFT n I F F T ca qu trnh x l D T F S - O F D M trn hnh 13.24. C hai ch li nhn c t nhy tn ng ln: - N h y t n n g ln c u n g cp phn tp tn s b sung v i g i thit rng nhy cng i lng hay l n hn bng thng nht qun ca knh.

506

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G - Nhy tn cung cp phn tp nhiu (trung bnh ha nhiu) vi gi

thit l mu nhy tn khc nhau trong cc khc nhau.


Ngi s dng #1 Ngi s dng #2 Ngi s dng #3

1RB " * 3RB (12 sng mang con) (36 sng mang con)

Hnh 13.27. n nh ti nguyn ng ln LTE


Ngi s dng #1 Ngi s dng #2 Ngi s dng #3

Hnh 3.28. Nhy tn ng ln LTE 3.3.2. Cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln Tng t nh ng xung cc tn hiu tham kho c tnh knh cng cn cho ng ln L T E c th gii iu ch nht qun ti trm gc. Do s khc nhau gia cc s truyn dn ng xung v ng ln ( O F D M v SC-FDMA da trn DFTS-OFDM) v tm quan trng ca vic thay i cng sut thp i vi truyn dn ng ln, nn nguyn l cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln s khc vi cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung. Thc ra, i vi ng ln khng th ghp tn hiu tham kho theo tn s vi truyn dn s liu t cng mt u cui d i ng. Thay vo , tn hiu tham kho c ghp knh theo thi gian vi s liu ng ln. Ngoi ra (hnh 13.29) t n hiu tham kho c pht trong khi th t ca tng khe v vi bng thng tc thi bng bng thng truyn dn s liu. Lun rng trong trng hp tng qut, c th s dng nhy tn trong hai khe ca hnh 13.29 c pht trn cc tn s khc nhau. Trong trng hp ny, ni suy gia hai khi tn hiu tham kho ca mt khung l khng th v knh do s khc nhau v tn s c th rt khc nhau gia hai khi.

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

507

Mt cch thc hin cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln l to ra mt tn hiu tham kho min tn s X ( k ) di M
R S R S

tng ng vi

bng thng c n nh (s lng cc 'sng mang con' DFTS-OFDM hay kch thc DFT tc thi) v a n vo u vo ca IFFT nh minh ha trn hnh 13.30. Chn CP c thc hin ging nh i v i cc khi ng ln khc. mt kha cnh no c th coi iu ny nh l nh ngha tn hiu tham kho ng ln ging nh tn hiu OFDM. Tuy nhin ta cng c th m t tn hiu tham kho nh l mt tn hiu DFTS-OFDM nhn c bng cch thc hin I D F T kch thc M
R S

cho chui min tn s X ( k ) . Chui


RS

nhn c sau c a n x l DFTS-OFDM nhu hnh 13.24.


Ngi s dng #1 Ngi s dng #2

* khe

S liu

Tn hiu tham kho

Hnh s d n g C P b i n h thing, ngha l by khi trn m t k h e v khng c nhy tn s

Hnh 3.29. Cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln c chn vo khi th t ca tng khe ng ln

X (k)
R S

C h u i tn h i u t h a m

IFFT

kho min thi g i a n

( h thc N) kc

Chn CP

X
Tp 2048.T
S

Khi tn hiu tham kho

Hnh 13.30. To tn hiu tham kho min tn s

508

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln cn c cc thuc tnh sau: - Bin khng i hoc hu nh khng i ging nh c tnh ca s truyn dn ng ln L T E ('sng mang n' PAPR thp). - Cc thuc tnh t tung quan min thi gian tt cho php c tnh knh ng ln chnh xc. Cc chui c cc thuc tnh ny i khi c gi l CAZAC (Constant Amplitude Zero-Auto-Correlation). M t trong cc chui c thuc tnh C A Z A C l tp chui Zadoff-Chu. Trong min tn s, chui Zaoff-Chu di M C c
Z

th biu din nh sau: (+) **!


- /xu-

x%}(k) = e (13.1) trong u l ch s ca chui Zadoff-Chu trong tp cc chui


Zadoff-Chu di M
z c

S lng cc chui Zadoff-Chu kh dng (s lng gi tr c th c ca u) bng s lng cc s nguyn t tng i ca di chui M . Ngha l cc i ha s lng cc chui Zadoff-Chu v nh
zc

vy cc i ha s lng cc chui tham kho c th c, cn s dng cc chui Zadoff-Chu di nguyn t. Tuy nhin, di min tn s M
R C

ca cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln phi bng bng thng c

n nh, ngha l bi s ca 12 (kch thc khi ti nguyn) v r rng y khng phi l s nguyn t. V ii cc chui Zadoff-Chu khng th s dng trc tip cho cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln ca LTE. N n cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln c rt ra t cc chui Zadoff-Chu. Hai phng php rt ra cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln di M
z c

t cc chui Zadoff-Chu di nguyn t c nh ngha

cho chun lp vt l ca LTE:

Chng 13: Lp vi l LTE - Phng php (ct ngn): cc chui Zadoff-Chu di trong M
z c

509 M ,
zc

l s nguyn t nh nht ln hn hoc bng MRS c


RS

ct ngn c di M . - Phng php 2 (m rng vng): cc chui Zadoff-Chu di Mzc trong M


Z C

l s nguyn t ln nht nh hn hoc bng MRS M .


RS

c m rng nh k c di bng
Phng php 1 (ct ngn) Chui zc X (k)
RS

Phng php 2 (m rng vng) Chui zc X (k)


RS

en u vo IFFT

n u vo IFFT

Lu : Trng hp tng qut, ct ngn (phng php 1) hay m rng vng (phng php 2) c th cho nhiu hn mt k hiu.

Hnh 3.3 . Phng php to ra cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln t cc chui nguyn t Zadoff-Chu Hai phng php ny c m t trn hnh 13.31. c n lu rng hnh v ny g i thit l ct ngn hay m rng vng v i chi mt k hiu v y khng phi l trng hp lun lun xy ra. Chng hn, nu cn di tn hiu tham kho MRS = 96, tng ng v i tm khi t i nguyn, phng php c th s dng chui Zadoff-Chu c di M
zc

= 97 ( m t s nguyn t ) nh l im khi u. T u y nhin s

nguyn t l n nht n h hn hay bng 96 l 89, v th cn s dng phng php 2 cho chui Zadoff-Chu di M
z c

= 89 nh l im

khi u v s dng m rng vng by k hiu c di tn hiu tham kho l 96.

510

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

R rng rng c hai phng php ny phn no gim cp thuc tnh C A Z A C ca cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln. Phng php no tt hn (xt v thuc tnh C A Z A C ) ph thuc vo di chui t n hiu tham kho hay kch thc ca ti nguyn c n nh.

13.3.2.1. Nhiu tn hiu tham kho


Trong trng hp in hnh, mt u cui di ng s pht trong mt ti nguyn cho trc (mt tp cho trc cc sng mang trong mt khung con cho trc) trong mt . Tuy nhin trong cc ln cn, thng thng cng xy ra truyn dn ng thi ng ln trong cng mt ti nguyn. Trong trng hp ny cn trnh trng hp trong hai u cui di ng trong cc cnh nhau s dng cng mt tn hiu tham kho ng ln, v iu ny c th dn n nhiu cao gia cc truyn dn tn hiu tham kho. V th trong cc ln cn, cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln cn c xy dng trn cc chui Zadoff-Chu khc nhau (t cng mt tp cc chui Zadoff-Chu), ngha l cc gi tr khc nhau i vi ch s u trong phng trnh (13.1). trnh vic quy hoch qu phc tp, cn m bo rng s lng cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln vi di nht nh khng qu nh. y l l do v sao cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln c xy dng trn c s cc chui Zadoff-Chu di nguyn t cho php cc i ha s lng cc chui i vi di chui cho trc. Mt cch khc to lp cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln l s dng thuc tnh t tng quan bng khng ca cc chui Zadoff-Chu. Thuc tnh ny c ngha l dch vng mt chui Zadoff-Chu s trc giao vi chnh n. V th nhiu tn hiu tham kho c th c to ra t cc dch vng cng mt tn hiu tham kho gc. Phng php ny c th c s dng khi hai ng b vi nhau. y thng l trng hp khi cc trc thuc cng mt eNodeB. Phng php ny cng c th c s dng nu hai u cui di ng pht trong cng mt t i

Chng 13- Lp vt l LTE

511

nguyn trong cng mt , chng hn trong trng hp SDMA (a truy nhp khng gian) ng ln.

13.3.2.2. Cc tn hiu tham kho thm d knh


Lp biu ph thuc knh ng xung (c trong min thi gian v min tn s) l mt cng ngh then cht ca LTE. Nh xt trong chng trc, lp biu ph thuc knh ng ln (n nh ti nguyn cho mt u cui di ng ph thuc vo cht lng tc thi ca knh) cng c th c s dng. Lp biu ph thuc knh ng ln c th tng cc tc s liu kh dng v gim nhiu n cc khc bng cch lp biu u cui di ng pht trong cc bng tn tc thi c cht lng tt. thc hin lp biu ph thuc knh trong min thi gian v min tn s, cn thc hin cc c tnh cht lng knh min thi gian-tn s. i vi ng xung, iu ny c thc hin bi u cui di ng bng cch o cht lng tn hiu tham kho c th c pht trn ton b bng thng v bo co kt qu nh gi cht lng knh cho mng thng qua ch th cht lng khung (CQI: Channel uality Indicaior). T hnh 13.29 ta c th thy rng cc tn hiu tham kho s dng cho gii iu ch nht qun ng ln ch c pht trn bng thng c n nh ng cho tng u cui di ng. V th mng khng th s dng cc tn hiu tham kho ny c tnh cht lng knh ng ln cho bt k cc tn s khc vi cc tn s hin ang c n nh cho u cui di ng ny v v th chng khng cung cp thng tin cn thit cho lp biu ng ln ph thuc knh trong min tn s. h tr lp biu ph thuc knh min tn s ng ln cn c thm cc tn hiu tham kho bng rng pht trn ng ln LTE. Cc tn hiu ny c gi l cc tn hiu thm d knh phn bit vi cc tn hiu tham kho cho gii iu ch nht qun c minh ha trn hnh 13.29.

512

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Cc nguyn l c s ca cc tn hiu tham kho thm d knh cng ging nh cc nguyn l ca cc tn hiu tham kho gii iu ch. Cc tn hiu thm d knh c xy dng trn c s cc chui Zadoff-Chu v c pht trong mt khi DFTS-OFDM hon thin. Tuy nhin c mt s khc bit quan trng gia cc tn hiu thm d knh v cc tn hiu tham kho gii iu ch: - N h ni trn, cc tn hiu tham kho thm d knh thng c bng thng ln hn, c th ln hom nhiu so vi t i nguyn ng ln c n nh cho mt u cui di ng. Cc tn hiu thm d knh thm ch c th c pht t cc my u cui di ng khng c n nh bt k mt ti nguyn no cho truyn dn UL-SCH. - Thng khng cn thit pht cc tn hiu thm d knh thng xuyn nh cc tn hiu tham kho iu ch. Trong nhiu trng hp cc tn hiu thm d knh c pht khng phi c mt khung con mt ln. - Phi c kh nng pht tn hiu thm d knh t nhiu u cui di ng trong cng mt bng tn. Nu tn hiu thm knh c s dng trong mt , mng n nh tng minh cc khi trong cu trc khung con ng ln truyn dn cc tn hiu thm d knh nh minh ha trn hnh 13.32. Cc khi ny s khng c s dng truyn dn s liu (UL-SCH).
Ngi s dng #1 Ngi s dng #2

gi

S liu

!5EE^I Tin hiu tham kho gii iu ch Tin hiu tham kho thm d knh

Hnh 13.32. Truyn dn cc tin hiu tham kho thm d knh

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

513

Cc khi c n nh truyn dn cc tn hiu tham kho thm d knh l mt ti nguyn chia s, ngha l nhiu u cui di ng c th pht cc tn hiu tham kho trong cc t i nguyn mng. iu ny c th c thc hin theo nhiu cch khc nhau: - C th n nh mt khi cho cc tn hiu tham kho trong mi khung. Tuy nhin mi u cui di ng ch c th pht mt tn hiu thm d knh chng hn c N khung con mt ln, ngha l N u cui di ng c th chia s ti nguyn ny trong min thi gian. Cng c th phn tn cc tn hiu tham kho, ngha l ch truyn dn trn mt sng mang con trong s N sng mang con (xem truyn dn DTFS-OFDM chng 3). Vi cch ny, cc u cui di ng pht t tp cc sng mang con khc nhau v t i nguyn thm d knh rn c chia s trong min tn s. - Cc u cui di ng c th pht cng mt tn hiu tham kho nhng vi dch vng khc nhau. Nh cp tn.rc y, cc dch vng khc nhau ca cng mt chui Zadoff-Chu u trc giao vi nhau vi iu kin l cc dch vng ny ln hn phn tn thi gian ca knh. Trong thc t, mt t hp cc phng php c th c s dng chia s ti nguyn c n nh truyn dn cc tn hiu thm d knh gia cc u cui di ng trong cng mt . 13.3.3. X l knh truyn ti ng ln X l knh truyn ti ng ln c minh ha trn hnh 13.33. V khng c ghp knh khng gian LTE, nn ch c mt khi truyn ti vi kch thc ng c pht trong tng TTI. - Chn CRCI. Ging nh ng xung, CRC c tnh ton v c gn vo tng khi truyn ti. - M ha knh. M ha knh ng ln s dng m Turbo vi b an xen ni da trn QPP ging nh ng xung.

514

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Khi truyn ti c kch thc ng c chuyn n t lp M C

Chn CRC

CRC

M ha knh

M ha

Chc nng HARQ lp vt l

HARQ

Ngu nhin ha mc bt

Ngu nhin hoa

iu ch s liu

Z5ZZ
iu ch

iu ch DFTS-OFDM gm c sp xp ln t i nguyn tn s c n nh

Hnh 13.33. X l knh truyn ti ne ln - Chc nng HARQ lp vt l. Cc kha cnh lp vt l ca

H A R Q ng ln L T E cng ging nh chc nng ng xung tng ng, ngha l chc nng lp vt l H A R Q ly ra t khi cc bt u ra b m ha knh tp bt s pht ti mi thi im pht/pht li. Lu rng mt s kha cnh, tn ti mt s khc bit r rng gia cc giao thc H A R Q ng xung v ng ln, nh khai thc ng b v khng ng b. Tuy nhin cc khc bit ny khng c phn nh trong cc Ma cnh lp vt l ca HARQ. - Ngu nhin ha mc bt. Tng t nh ng xung, ngu nhin ha mc bt c c th c p dng cho cc bt sau m hoa ng trn ng ln LTE. M c ch ca ngu nhin ha mc bt ng ln cng ging nh ng xung l ngu nhin ha nhiu v v th

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

515

m bo t c li x l y ca m ha knh. t c iu ny, ngu nhin hoa ng ln phi c th u cui di ng, ngha l cc u cui di ng s dng cc chui ngu nhin khc nhau. - iu ch s liu. Tng t nhu ng xung, iu ch s liu ng ln chuyn i mt khi cc bt nhn c sau m ha knh/ngu nhin ha vo mt khi cc k hiu iu ch phc. Tp cc s iu ch c s dng cho ng ln L T E cng ging nh i vi ng xung, QPSK, 16QAM v 6 4 Q A M tng ng vi hai, bn v su bt trn mt k hiu iu ch. Khi cc k hiu iu ch sau c a n x l DFTS-OFDM nh minh ha trn hnh 13.24. X l ny ng thi cnR sp xp tn hiu ln bng tn c n nh.

13.3.4. Bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2


Ging nh ng xung LTE, cng cn c mt dng bo hiu iu khin ng ln (iu khin ng ln L1/L2) no h tr truyn dn cc knh truyn ti ng xung (DL-SCH) v ng ln (UL-SCH). Bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 bao gm: - Cc cng nhn H A R i vi cc khi truyn ti DL-SCH thu c. - CQI (ch th cht lng knh) ch th cht lng knh ng xung da trn c tnh bi u cui di ng. Tng t nh HSPA, cc bo co C Q I c th c mng s dng lp biu ph thuc knh ng xung v iu khin tc . Tuy nhin, khc vi HSPA v do lp biu ng xung ca L T E c th c thc hin c trong min thi gian v tn s, nn cc bo co L T E CQI chi th cht lng knh c trong min thi gian v min tn s. - Cc yu cu lp biu ch th rng mt u cui di ng cn t i nguyn cho truyn dn UL-SCH.

516

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Khc vi ng xung, y khng c bo hiu ng ln chi

th khun dng truyn ti cho mng. V cc u cui di ng lun lun phi tun theo cc cho php lp biu nhn c t mng trong khun dng truyn ti UL-SCH c c t (xem mc 13.2.3). V th mng bit t trc khun dng truyn ti c s dng cho truyn dn UL-SCH v khng c l do g phi bo hiu tng minh n trn ng ln V i l do tng t, cng s khng c thng bo tng minh v thng tin lin quan n H A R Q ca UL-SCH. Bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 ni trn cn c pht trn ng ln khng ph thuc vo vic u cui di ng c s liu knh truyn ti ng ln (UL-SCH) pht hay khng v v th khng ph thuc vo vic u cui di ng c c n nh ti nguyn ng ln truyn dn UL-SCH hay khng. V l do ni trn, tn ti hai phng php khc nhau truyn dn bo hiu ng ln L1/L2 ph thuc vo vic u cui di ng c c hay khng c n nh ti nguyn truyn dn UL-SCH. 1. Ti nguyn ng ln c n nh (truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH): iu khin L1/L2 ghp chung vi UL-SCH trc khi x l DFTS-OFDM. 2. Ti nguyn ng ln khng c n nh (khng truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH): iu khin L1/L2 c pht trong cc ti nguyn tn s c n nh c bit cho bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2. Nu u cui di ng c n nh mt ti nguyn ng ln truyn dn UL-SCH, bo hiu iu khin c ghp chung vi s liu knh truyn ti iu ch trc khi x l DFTS-OFDM (hnh 13.34). Ta c th coi y l ghp knh thi gian gia s liu knh truyn ti v bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 v vn g i nguyn tnh cht 'mt sng mang' ca truyn dn ng ln. c n lu rng, nh

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

517

xt ngn g n t r o n g chng 13, k h i m t u cui di ng c mt ti nguyn ng ln, th khng cn pht yu cu lp biu tng minh trong bo h i u iu k h i n L1/L2. V th, iu khin L1/L2 chi cha CQI v cng nhn H A R Q .
DFTS-OFDM UL-SCH M ha,... Ghp knh M ha,... DFT

t si

in

IFFT - Chn CP

Hnh 13.34. Ghp s liu v bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 trong trng hp truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH v iu khin L/L
Cng cn lu rng mng hon ton bit c truyn dn ca bo hiu iu k h i n L1/L2 t m t u cui di ng: - C Q I c pht nh k, trong cc thi im quy nh trc v mng bit c iu ny. - Cc cng nhn H A R Q c pht ti cc thi im c c t r rng so v i pht ng xung (DL-SCH) tng ng. V th mng c th ly ra ng phn knh truyn ti v phn iu khin L1/L2 ti pha t h u trc k h i gii m ring cho tng phn. Nu u cui d i ng khng c n nh ti nguyn ng ln cho truyn dn UL-SCH, th thng t i n iu khin L1/L2 (CQI, cc cng nhn H A R Q v cc yu cu lp biu) s c pht trn cc t i nguyn c n nh c bit cho iu khin ng ln L1/L2. N h minh ha trn hnh 13.35, cc ti nguyn ny c t ti bin ca tng bng thng h thng k h dng. M i ti nguyn nh vy bao g m 12 sng mang c o n ( m t k h i t i nguyn) trong tng khe ca m t khung con ng ln. e m bo phn tp tn s, cc ti nguyn tn s c th nhy tn trn bin khe, ngha l m t ti nguyn iu khin L1/L2 g m 12 sng m a n g con ti bin trn ca p h trong khe t h nht

518

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ca mt bn khung v mt ti nguyn cng kch c c t ti phn thp ca ph trong khe th hai ca khung con hoc ngc li. Nu cn nhiu ti nguyn hom cho bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2 chng hn trong trng hp tng bng thng ln h tr s ngi s dng ln, cc khi ti nguyn b sung c th c n nh ngay cnh cc khi ti nguyn c n nh trc .
Tng bng thng kh dng

RB (12 'sng mang con') Cc ti nguyn c n nh cho bo hiu L1/L2

Hnh 13.35. cu trc ti nguyn s dng cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ng ln trong trng hp khng truyn dn ng thi UL-SCH C hai l do cho vic t cc ti nguyn cho iu khin L1/L2 ti bin ca tng ti nguyn kh dng: - Cng vi nhy tn s nh trnh by trn, iu ny cc i ha phn tp tn s cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. - n nh ti nguyn ng ln cho bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ti cc v t khc ca ph tn (khng ti bin) s phn khc ph v th r khng th n nh bng thng truyn dn rng cho mt u cui di ng v duy tr thuc tnh n sng mang PAPR thp ca truyn dn ng ln.

13.3.5. nh thi pht trc ng ln


S truyn dn ng ln L T E da trn DFTS-OFDM m bo tnh trc giao ni , ngha l truyn dn ng ln thu c t cc u cui di ng khc nhau khng gy nhiu cho nhau ti my thu. Yu cu c bn m bo trc giao ng ln l cc tn hiu pht i t

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

519

cc u cui di ng khc nhau phi ti trm gc gn nh ng b thi gian, hay mt ng b thi gian ch cho php nhiu nht l mt phn ca CP. m bo iu ny, L T E c c ch nh thi pht trc, v nguyn l c ch ny cng ging nh iu khin nh thi ng ln cho O F D M ng ln xt trong chng 3. v bn cht, nh thi pht trc l mt on dch m ti u cui di ng gia u khung con thu ng xung v khung con pht ng ln. Bng cch t khong dch thch hp cho tng u cui di ng, mng c th iu khin nh thi cc tn hiu thu c ti trm gc t cc u cui di ng. Cc u cui di ng xa so vi trm gc b tr truyn sng ln hn v v th cn bt u pht ng ln hi sm hn so vi cc u cui di ng gn trm gc hn nh minh ha trn hnh 13.36. Trong v d ny, u cui di ng th nht (MT-1) nm gn trm gc hn v c tr truyn sng nh, T | V th i vi .
P

u cui di ng ny, mt gi tr nh thi pht trcT I nh l


A

b tr tr truyn sng v m bo nh thi ng ti trm gc. Tri li, u cui di ng th hai (MT-2) do t xa trm gc hn nn tr truyn sng Tp 2 ln hn v th i vi n cn c gi tr dch nh thi pht trc TA 2 ln hn. Gi tr nh thi pht trc cho tng u cui di ng c mng xc nh da trn o truyn dn ng ln tng ng. V th chng no u cui di ng cn tin hnh truyn dn ng ln, truyn dn ny cn c trm gc thu s dng c tnh nh thi thu ng ln v y s l c s cho cc lnh nh thi pht trc. Lu rng mi truyn dn ng ln u c th c s dng c tnh nh thi. Chng hn mng c th s dng cc truyn dn nh k ca cc bo co cht lng knh trn ng ln c tnh nh thi khi khng xy ra truyn n s liu t u cui di ng. Bng cch ny, u cui di ng c th khi ng li tc th truyn dn s liu trc giao ng ln m khng cn giai on ng b li.

520

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


1ms

Pht ng xung Thu ng ln t MT-1 Thu ng ln t MT-2 Trm gc Tp.1

Thu ng xung MT-1 (gn trm gc) Pht ng ln

2XiJ
T

li

P,2 !

Thu ng xung MT-1 (xa trm gc)

Pht ng ln

'A.2

Hnh

13.36. nh thi pht trc riy ln

D a trn cc o c ng ln, mng quyt nh hiu chinh nh t h i cn thit cho tng u cui. N u nh t h i ca m t u cui di ng cn hiu chinh, mng pht i lnh nh t h i pht trc cho u cui d i ng ny. Thng thng, cc lnh nh t h i pht trc cho mt u cui di ng c pht kh tha, ngha l ch vi ln trong mt giy. N u u cui d i ng khng pht bt c t h g trn ng ln trong m t t h i gian di, s khng th thc hin c truyn dn ng ln. T r o n g trng hp ny, ng b thi gian ng ln c th b mt, khi ny k h i ng li truyn dn s liu n g ln, trc tin cn thc hin giai on ng b li thi gian bng cch s dng truy nhp ngu nhin khi phc li ng b thi gian ng ln (s xt trong chng sau).

Chng 13: Lp vt l LTE

521

13.4. TNG KT
Chng ny xt c th cc vn lin quan n lp vt l. Trc ht cu trc tng th m i n thi gian c xt. Tip theo cc s truyn dn ng xung v ng ln c xt. i v i truyn dn ng xung, cc vn nh: Ti nguyn ng xung, cc tn hiu tham kho, x l tn hiu knh truyn ti, bo hiu lp /lp 2, truyn dn a anten v M B M S F N c xt. i v i ng ln cc vn nh: Ti nguyn ng ln, cc tn hiu tham kho, x l tn hiu knh truyn ti, bo hiu lp /lp 2 v nh thi pht trc ng ln c xt. Cc thng s c bn cho cc bng thng khc nhau ca L T E c tng kt trong bng 13.1.

Bng 13.1. Cc thng s c bn ca LTE cho cc bng thng khc nhau


1,4MHz Khung con (Tri) (ms) Khong cch gia cc sng mang con (kHz) Tn s ly mu (MHz)* Kch thc F F T S sng mang con S k hiu trn mt khung Tin t chu trinh 3,0MHz 5MHz 10MHz 15MHz 20MHz

15

1,92 128 72+1

3,84 256 180+1

7,68 512 300+1

15,36 1024 600+1

23,04 1536 900+1

30,72 2048 1200+1

4 vi C P ngn v 6 vi C P di 5,21 ns vi C P ngn v 16,67ns vi C P di

* Tn s ly mu c rt ra t tc chip ca VVCDMA: 3,84Mchip/s

522

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

13.5. C U HI
. Trnh by cu trc tng th min thi gian LTE. 2. Trnh by ti nguyn vt l ng xung LTE. 3. Trnh by vai tr v t chc cc tn hiu tham kho ng xung LTE. 4. Trnh by qu trnh x l knh truyn ti ng xung LTE. 5. Trnh by truyn dn a anten ng xung LTE. 6. Trnh by truyn dn a phng/qung b s dng MBSFN trong LTE. 7. Trnh by ti nguyn vt l ng ln LTE. 8. Trnh by vai tr v t chc cc tn hiu tham kho ng ln LTE. 9. Trnh by qu trnh x l knh truyn ti ng ln LTE. 10. Trnh by bo hiu iu khin ng ln L1/L2. 11. Trnh by nh thi pht trc ng ln.

Chng 14

CC TH TC TRUY NHP LTE

Cc chng trc m t cc s truyn ng ln v ng xung LTE. Tuy nhin trc khi truyn dn s liu, u cui di ng cn kt ni vi mng. Trong chng ny ta s xt cc th tc cn thit cho mt u cui di ng n c th truy nhp mng LTE. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - Tm - Truy nhp ngu nhin - Tm gi Mc ch chng nhm cung cp cho bn c kin thc v cc th tc cn thit mt u cui c th truy nhp mng LTE. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

14.1. TM
Tm l th tc m mt u cui di ng tm mt tim nng kt ni. M t phn ca th tc tm l u cui nhn c s nhn dng v c tnh nh thi khung ca c nhn dng. Ngoi ra th tc tm cng cung cp cc c tnh cc thng s cn thit thu thng tin h thng trn knh qung b. Thng tin h thng cha cc thng s cn thit truy nhp h thng.

524

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G e khng lm phc tp qu trnh quy hoch , s lng cc nhn

dng lp vt l phi ln. N h cp trong chng 13, LTE h tr 510 nhn dng khc nhau. Cc nhn dng ny c chia thnh 170 nhm nhn dng vi ba nhn dng trong mi nhm gim phc tp tm , tm trong L T E thng c thc hin theo mt s bc ging nh th tc tm ba bc ca WCDMA. h tr u cui trong th tc ny, L T E cung cp tin hiu ng b s cp v tin hiu ng b th cp trn ng xung. Cc tn hiu ng b s cp v ng b th cp l cc chui c bit c chn vo hai k hiu O F D M cui cng trong khe u tin ca khung con khng v nm nh minh ha trn hnh 14.1. Ngoi cc tn hiu ng b, th tc tm cng c th s dng cc tn hiu tham kho.
Khung v tuyn 10ms

X
Khung con 1ms TT

-*
#5

#s

#7

#8

Khe . 0,5ms *

Khe. 0,5ms

, Khe ' ti 0,5ms

0,5ms

S
12 456

CA

K hiu OFDM* Tn hiu ng Tn hiu ng b b th cp sd cp

s to* 5 "
c
ro <. <)

l en.
9 'P E
ro

a o

Hnh 14. . Cc tn hiu ng b s cp v th cp (gi thit di CP bnh thng) 14.1.1. Th tc tm Trong bc u tin ca th tc tm , u cui di ng s dng tn hiu ng b s cp nh thi theo 5ms. Lu rng tn hiu

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

525

ng b c pht hai ln trong mt khung. L do l n gin chuyn giao t cc cng ngh truy nhp khc nh GSM khng r rng 5ms. Thc hin gii thut c tnh l c th ca nh khai thc, nhng mt gii php l s dng lc phi hp gia tn hiu thu c v cc chui c c t cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Khi u ra ca b lc phi hp t gi tr cc i, th c ngha l u cui tm c nh thi theo 5ms. Bc th nht cng c th c s dng kha tn s b dao ng ni ca u cui di ng n tn s sng mang ca trm gc. Kha tn s ca b dao ng ni n tn s sng mang trm gc cho php gim bt yu cu chnh xc i vi b dao ng ni ca u cui di ng v nh vy gim gi thnh. V cc l do s xt di y, ba chui khc nhau c th c s dng cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Tn ti nh x (chuyn i) mt mt gia tng chui ca ba chui ny v nhn dng trong nhm nhn dng . V th sau bc th nht, u cui tm c nhn dng ny trong nhm nhn dng . Ngoi ra do c s chuyn i mt mt gia tng nhn dng trong nhm nhn dng v tng chui trong s ba chui trc giao c s dng khi to ra tn hiu tham kho (xem chung 13). u cui di ng cng s bit c mt phn thng tin v cu trc tn hiu tham kho trong bc ny. Tuy nhin sau bc ny, u cui vn cha bit nhm nhn dng . Trong bc tip theo, u cui tm nhm nhn dng v xc nh ng b khung. iu ny c thc hin bng cch quan st cc cp khe ni m tn hiu ng b th cp c pht. v nguyn l, nu (S|, s ) l cp chui c php, trong Si, s th hin tn hiu ng b
2 2

n LTE. V

th tn hiu ng b s cp chi c th m bo ng b khung vi s

th cp trong khung con khng v nm, th cp o (s , S|) khng phi


2

l cp chui hp l. Khai thc thuc tnh ny, u cui di ng cng gii quyt c s khng r rng nh thi 5ms t bc th nht trong

526

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

th tc tm v xc nh c nh thi khung. Ngoi ra mi t hp (S!,s) th hin mt trong s cc nhm nhn dng , v th t bc tm


2

th hai nhm nhn dng cng c tim thy. T nhm nhn dng , u cui cng nhn c thng tin v chui gi ngu nhin c s dng to ra tn hiu tham kho trong . Sau khi hon thnh th tc tm , u cui di ng nhn c thng tin h thng pht qung b v t nhn c cc thng s cn li nh bng thng c s dng trong . 4.1.2. Cu trc thi gian/tn s ca cc tn hiu ng b Cu trc thi gian-tn s tng qut c trnh by s b trc y v c minh ha trn hnh 14. . T hnh ny ta thy cc tn hiu ng b s v th cp c pht trong hai k hiu O F D M ni tip. Cu trc ny cng c chn c th x l nht qun tn hiu ng b th cp ti u cui di ng. Sau bc th nht, tn hiu ng b s cp bit v v th c th s dng n c tnh knh. c tnh knh ny s c s dng tip theo x l nht qun tn hiu thu trc bc th hai ci thin hiu nng, tuy nhin vic t cc t n hiu ng b s cp v th cp cnh nhau cng c ngha l trong bc th hai u cui phi c tnh m di CP. Tuy nhin y l khai thc phc tp. t Trong nhiu trng hp, nh thi trong nhiu c ng b sao cho khi u khung trong cc cang nhau trng nhau v thi gian. L do l cho php khai thc MBSFN. Tuy nhin khai thc ng b cng c ngha l pht cc tn hiu ng b s cp trong cc khc nhau phi xy ra ti cng mt thi im. V th c tnh knh da trn tn hiu ng b s cp s phn nh knh tng hp cho tt c cc nu cng mt tn hiu ng b s cp c s dng trong tt c cc . R rng rng, gii iu ch nht qun tn hiu ng b th cp (cc tn hiu ny khc nhau trong cc khc nhau) c tnh knh xt t quan im l cn thit v khng cn thit c tnh knh tng

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

527

hp t tt c cc . V th L T E h tr nhiu chui cho tn hiu ng b s cp. Trong trng hp thu nht qun c trin khai cng vi vic cc c ng b theo thi gian, cc ln cn c th s dng cc chui ng b s cp khc nhau gim nh vn c tnh knh c trnh by trn. Ngoi ra tn hiu ng b s cp cng mang mt phn nhn dng . T quan im TDD, t tn hiu ng b ti cui khe th nht ca khung con thay v khe th hai l c li v s gim bt cc hn ch lin quan n vic to ra cc khong thi gian bo v gia ng ln v ng xung. Ni mt cch khc, nu cc tn hiu ng b c t ti khe cui cng ca khung con, s khng c kh nng nhn c thi gian bo v cn thit cho T D D bng cch loi b cc k hiu OFDM nhu xt trong chng 13. Ngoi ra, cn lu rng i vi khai thc TDD, v t cc tn hiu ng b trong cc khung con khng v r nm l cc khung con ng xung. Ti thi im u ca tm , bng thng cha cn bit. v nguyn tc, tm bng thng truyn dn c th c thc hin nh l mt phn ca tm . Tuy nhin iu ny s lm phc tp ha ton b th tc tm , v th nn duy t th tc tm nh nhau khng ph r thuc vo tng bng thng truyn dn ca . Sau u cui c th c thng bo v bng thng ca trong knh qung b. duy t r cu trc min tn s ca cc tn hiu ng b ging nhau khng ph thuc vo bng thng , cc tn hiu ng b lun lun c pht trn 72 sng mang con trung tm tng ng vi bng thng 1MHz. Hnh 14.2 minh ha mt kh nng thc hin to ra cc tn hiu ng b. 36 sng mang con ti hai pha ca sng mang con DC trong min tn s c dnh ring cho tn hiu ng b. S dng IFFT, tn hiu min thi gian tng ng c th c to ra. Kch thc IFFT cng nh s cc sng mang con c t bng khng trn hnh 14.2 ph thuc vo bng thng h thng. Cc sng mang con khng s

528

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

dng cho truyn dn cc tn hiu ng b c s dng truyn dn s liu.


Tin hiu ng b, trinh by trong min tn s Tn hiu ng b, Trnh by trong min thi gian - tn s

36 sng mang con ii 36 sng mang con " * DC

Hnh 14.2. To tn hiu ng b trong min tn s 14.1.3. Tm ban u v tm ln cn Tm kt ni sau khi u cui bt ngun l mt trng hp rt quan trng. Tuy nhin kh nng nhn dng cc ng c chuyn giao cho h tr di ng khi u cui chuyn t kt ni ny sang kt ni khc cng khng km phn quan trng. Hai tnh hung ny thng c gi l tm ban u v tm ln cn. e tm ban u, u cui di ng thng khng bit c tn s sng mang ca cc m n ang tm. x l trng hp ny, u cui cn tm mt sng mang thch hp bng cch lp th tc ni trn nhiu ln cho tt c cc sng mang c th c c cho trong li tn s. R rng rng cch lm ny thng lm tng thi gian cn thit tm , nhng yu cu v thi gian i vi tm ban u l kh d dng. Cc phng php c th thc hin cng c th c s dng gim thi gian t lc bt ngun n lc tm c . Chng hn, u cui c th s dng mi thng tin m n c v bt u tm trn cng mt tn s m n kt ni n ln cui. Mt khc, tm ln cn li c cc yu cu nh thi cht ch hn. Tm ln cn cng chm th u cui cng mt nhiu thi gian c chuyn giao n c cht lng knh v tuyn trung bnh tt hn. R rng rng iu ny s lm gim hiu sut s dng ph tn tng th. Tuy nhin trong trng hp chuyn giao cng tn s, r rng

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

529

rng u cui di ng khng cn thit phi tm sng mang trong ln cn. V khng phi tm kim trn nhiu sng mang, nn tm ln cn cng tn s c th s dng cng th tc nh tm ban u. Khi u cui thu s liu ng xung t mng, n cng cn o c cho mc ch chuyn giao. V th u cui phi c kh nng thc hin tm ln cn trong cc trng hp ny. i vi tm ln cn trong cng tn s, y khng phi l vn ln v cc ln cn ng c pht cng tn s ging nh tn s m t u cui thu s liu. Thu s liu v tm ln cn l hai chc nng bng gc tch bit hot ng trn cng mt tn hiu thu. Tuy nhin trng hp chuyn giao gia cc tn s phc tp hn v thu s liu v tm ln cn cn c thc hin trn cc tn s khc nhau. v nguyn l c th trang b cho u cui di ng mt mch thu v tuyn ring cho vic tm ln cn, tuy nhin iu ny lm tng tnh phc tp ca thc hin. V th c th to ra cc khong; trng trong truyn dn s liu trong khong thi gian ny u cui c th chnh sng n tn s khc cho mc ch o c. iu ny c thc hin theo cch ging nh i vi HSPA, bng cch trnh lp biu u cui trong mt hoc vi khung con.

14.2. TRUY NHP NGU NHIN


Yu cu cn bn i vi mi h thng t ong l kh nng u cui c th yu cu thit lp kt ni. iu ny thng c gi l truy nhp ngu nhin v n phc v hai mc ch chnh trong LTE, l thit lp ng b ng ln v thit lp mt nhn dng u cui duy nht (C-RNTI), trong mng v u cui u bit nhn dng ny. V th truy nhp ngu nhin khng ch c s dng cho truy nhp ln u, k h i chuyn t LTE DETACHED hay LTE-IDLE vo LTE A C T I V E (xem chng 12 cho cc trng hp ny) m cn c sau cc chu k khng tch cc khi ng b ng ln b mt trong

LTEACTIVE.

530

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Tng th th tc truy nhp ngu nhin (minh ha trn hnh 14.3)

bao gm 4 bc:

UE
ng b theo nh thi ng xung

eNodeB

AGW

~7~

(t lm ) BC 1: Tin t truy nhp ngu nhin Bc 2: Tr li truy nhp ngu nhin iu chinh dinh thi ng ln Bc 3: Bo hiu RRC Chi khi eNode cha bit UE (truy nhp ngu nhin)

BC 4: Bo hiu RRC

S liu ngi s dng

Hnh 14.3. Tng quan th tc truy nhp ngu nhin . Bc mt gm truyn dn mt tin t truy nhp ngu nhin cho php eNodeB c tnh nh thi truyn dn ca u cui. ng b ng ln cn thit v khng c'n u cui khng th pht s liu ng ln. 2. Bc th hai bao gm pht lnh nh thi pht trc iu chinh nh thi pht ca u cui da trn cc kt qu o nh thi ca bc mt. Ngoi vic thit lp ng b ng ln, bc hai cn n nh cc ti nguyn cho u cui di ng n s dng trong bc ba ca th tc truy nhp ngu nhin. 3. Bc ba bao gm truyn dn nhn dang u cui di ng n mng bng knh L - S C H ging nh s liu c lp biu thng thng.

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

531

Ni dung chnh xc ca bo hiu ph thuc vo trng thi ca u cui, chng hn mng c bit n trc y hay khng. 4. Bc th t v l bc cui cng bao gm truyn dn mt bn tin phn gii xung t t mng n u cui trn DL-SCH. Bc ny cng phn gii mi xung t do nhiu u cui tm cch truy nhp mng bng cch s dng cng mt ti nguyn truy nhp ngu nhin. Ch bc th nht s dng x l lp vt l c thit k c bit cho truy nhp ngu nhin. Tt c ba bc cn li s dng cng mt x l lp vt l ging nh cho truyn dn s liu ng ln v ng xung thng thng. D i y ta s xt chi tit cc bc ny. 14.2.1. Bc 1: Truyn dn tin t truy nhp Bc th nht trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin l truyn dn mt tin t truy nhp ngu nhin. Mc ch chnh ca tin t ny l thng tin cho mng v c mt nh truy nhp v nhn c ng b thi gian ng ln trong gii hn mt phn nh ca CP ng ln. v tng qut, cc truyn dn tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c th hoc trc giao hoc khng trc giao i vi s liu ca ngi s dng. Trong WCDMA, tin t l khng trc giao i vi truyn dn s liu ng ln. iu ny l c li v khng cn phi n nh bn c nh ti nguyn cho truy nhp ngu nhin. Tuy nhin iu khin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin i vi s liu, cng sut pht ca tin t truy nhp ngu nhin phi c iu khin cn thn. Trong WCDMA, iu ny c gii quyt bng th tc tng cng sut tng nc, trong u cui tng dn cng sut theo tng nc quy nh trc cho n khi trm di ng pht hin c truy nhp ngu nhin. Mc d y l mt gii php thch hp cho vn nhiu, nhng th tc tng tng nc dn n tr tng th th tc truy nhp ngu nhin. V th t quan im tr, th tc truy nhp ngu nhin khng i hi tng tng nc s c li hn.

532

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Trong LTE, truyn dn tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c th c

thc hin trc giao vi cc truyn dn s liu ca ngi s dng v kt qu l khng cn tng cng sut tng nc (mc d c t t iu chun cho php tng tng nc). Trc giao gia s liu ca ngi s dng c pht i t cc u cui khc v cc truy nhp t c c trong min thi gian v mi tn s. Mng pht qung b thng tin n n tt c cc u cui v t i nguyn thi gian-tn s dnh cho truyn dn ti n t truy nhp ngu nhin. trnh nhiu gia s liu v cc tin t truy nhp ngu nhin, mng trnh lp biu cho cc truyn dn ng ln trong cc t i nguyn thi gian-tn s ny. i ny c u minh ha trn hnh 14.4. V n v thi gian c bn truyn dn s liu trong L T E l lms, mt khung con c dnh trc cho truyn n dn ti n to. Ti t truy nhp ngu nhin s c pht trong cc t i nguyn dnh trc ny. Trong min tn s, tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c bng thng tng ng vi su khi ti nguyn (1,08MHz). i ny hon ton u ph hp vi bng thng nh nht m LTE c th hot ng (su khi ti nguyn) nh xt trong chng 13. V th, cng mt cu trc tin t truy nhp c th c s dng khng ph thuc vo bng thng truyn dn ca . i vi cc trin khai s dng cc n nh bng thng ln hn, nhiu t i nguyn truy nhp ngu nhin c th c nh ngha trong mi tn s m bo dung lng truy nhp ln hn. n
Ti nguyn ng ln dnh trc cho truyn dn tin t Cc ti nguyn ng ln c S dng cho

^^to^

Hnh 4.4. Minh ha nguyn l truyn dn tin t ngu nhin

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

533

thc hin truy nhp nhu nhin, u cui di ng phi nhn c ng b ng xung trong th tc tm trc khi pht tin t. Tuy nhin nh thi ng ln vn cha c thit lp. Khi u khung ng ln ti u cui c nh ngha tng i so vi khi u khung ng xung ti u cui di ng. Do tr truyn sng gia trm gc v u cui, nn pht ng ln s tr tng i so vi nh thi pht ng xung ti trm gc. Do khong cch gia trm gc v u cui d i ng khng bit, nn s c s khng r rng trong nh thi ng ln tng ng vi hai ln khong cch gia trm gc v u cui, gii quyt s khng r rng ny v trnh nhiu giao thoa vi cc khung con tip theo, cn s dng mt khong bo v, ngha l di tin t thc t ngn hn lms, hnh 14.5 minh ha di tin t v thi gian bo v. V i di tin t vo khong 0,9ms, thi gian bo v l 0,1 i m s cho php cc kch thc n 15km. Trong cc ln hom, trong s khng r rng c th ln hn thi gian bo v, c th to ra thi gian bo v b sung bng cch khng lp biu cc truyn dn trong khung con tip sau ti nguyn truy nhp ngu nhin.
Tin t 0,9ms
Thi gian bo v

Ngi s ng gn

Nhng ngUdi S dng khc Nhng ngi s dng khc Nhng ngi s ng khc
Khung con truy nhp

"---li

ngi si/dng khc Nhng "n'gi

Ngi s dng x trung binh


Ngi s

HE
ngu nhin 1ms

\ i( Nhng ngi s dng khc Nhng ngi s dng khc

dng xa

Hnh 4.5. nh thi tin t ti eNodeB cho nhng ngi s dng truy nhp ngu nhin khc nhau
Tin t da trn cc chui Zadoff-Chu v l cc chui dch vng. Cc chui Zadoff-Chu cng c s dng to ra cc tn hiu tham

534

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

kho ng ln nh trnh by ti chng 13. T tng chui Zadoff-Chu X!(k), c th nhn c m-1 cc chui dch vng bng cch dch vng \_M lm\ trong M
7C z c

l di ca chui

Zadoff-Chu gc v L x J l s nguyn ln nht nh hn hoc bng X. Cc chui zc dch vng c mt s tnh cht hp dn. Bin chui khng i, v th m bo s dng hiu qu b khuch i cng sut v duy t cc thuc tnh PAPR thp ca ng ln n sng r mang. Cc chui ny cng c t tng quan dch vng l tng cho php c tnh nh thi chnh xc ti eNodeB. Cui cng tng quan cho gia cc tin t khc nhau c xy dng da trn dch vng ca cng mt chui zc bng khng khi dch vng thi gian |_N/mJ c s dng khi to ra cc tin t ti my thu khng ln hn thi gian truyn vng cc i cng vi tri tr cc i knh. N h tnh cht tng quan cho l tng ny, nn khng xy ra nhiu ni do nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin s dng cc tin t c rt ra t cng mt chui Zadoff-Chu gc. Vic to ra tin t truy nhp ngu nhin c minh ha trn hnh 14.6. Mc d hnh v minh ha qu trnh ny trong min thi gian, nhng cng c th thc hin to tin t truy nhp ngu nhin trong min tn s. Ngoi ra x l min tn s ti trm gc (s xt di y), CP c chn vo trong qu trnh to tin t.

Chui Zadoff-Chu gc M im

Dch vng

Chn C P

( ^ ^ C h u i Zadoff-Chu M im 0,1 ms 0,8ms

Bi

0 1 ms .

Hnh 4.6. To tin t truy nhp ngu nhin Cc chui tin t c chia thnh cc nhm 64 chui. Sau khi lp cu hnh h thng, mi c n nh mt nhm ni trn bng cch nh ngha mt hay nhiu chui Zadoff-Chu gc v cc dch vng cn

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

535

thit to ra tp cc tin t. n gin vic quy hoch chui gia cc , s nhm phi ln. Khi thc hin truy nhp ngu nhin, u cui chn ngu nhin mt chui t tp chui c n nh cho m n ang tm cch truy nhp. Nu khng c u cui no cng tm cch truy nhp ti cng mt thi im bng cng mt chui, th khng c va chm v truy nhp ny s c mng pht hin vi xc sut cao. X l trm gc l mt thc hin c th, nhng nh gn CP vo tin t, nn x l min tn s s phc tp hn. V d v x l ny t c cho trn hnh 14.7, cc mu trn mt ca s c thu thp v c chuyn i vo th hin min tn s bng FFT. Ca s di 0,8ms bng di chui z c khng c CP. iu ny cho php x l s khng r rng n 0,lms v thch ng vi thi gian bo v c nh ngha.
ti-*-

i+1 on

i+2

Chui i c pht hin, T h h i n m i n t n s c a c h u i Zadoff-Chu c tnh tr T

Hnh 14.7. Pht hin tin t truy nhp trong min tn s u ra ca FFT th hin tn hiu trong min tn s c nhn vi th hin min tn s lin hip phc ca chui Zadoff-Chu gc v kt qu nhn c c a n IFFT. Bng cch quan trc u ra, c th pht hin c dch vng no ca chui Zadoff-Chu gc c pht v tr ca n. nh ca u IFFT ra trong on i tng ng vi chui
dch vng t h i v tr X c xc nh theo v tr inh t r o n g on ny.

Thc hin min tn s cho php tnh ton n gin hn v cho php pht hin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin s dng cc chui dch vng khc nhau t cng mt chui Zadoff-Chu; trong trng hp nhiu ch cn tm c inh ca tng on tng ng.

536

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

14.2.2. Bc 2: Tr li truy nhp ngu nhin


tr li truy nhp ngu nhin (bc hai ca th tc truy nhp ngu nhin), mng s pht mt bn tin trn DL-SCH cha: - Ch s tin t truy nhp ngu nhin m mng pht hin v i vi tin t ny tr li l hp l. - Hiu chnh thi gian c tnh ton bi my thu tin t truy nhp ngu nhin. - Cho php lp biu ch th cc ti nguyn m u cui s s dng cho truyn dn bn tin trong bc ba. - M t nhn dng tm thi s dng cho thng tin tip theo gia u cui v mng. Trong trng hp mng pht hin nhiu truy nhp ngu nhin (t cc u cui khc nhau), nhiu bn tin tr li cho cc u cui di ng c th c kt hp trong mt truyn dn duy nht. V th, bn tin tr li c lp biu trn DL-SCH v c chi th trn knh iu khin L1/L2 bng mt nhn dng dnh ring cho tr li truy nhp ngu nhin. Tt c cc u cui truyn tin t s gim st cc knh iu khin L1/L2 nhn tr li truy nhp ngu nhin. nh thi ca bn t i n tr li khng c quy nh trong c t c th tr li nhiu truy nhp ng thi. iu ny cng m bo mc linh hot nht nh trong thc hin trm gc. Nu cc u cui di ng thc hin truy nhp ngu nhin trong cng mt ti nguyn s dng cc tin t khc nhau th s khng xy ra va chm v t bo hiu ng xung cc u cui s nhn bit c r rng thng tin no dnh cho n. Tuy nhin s c mt xc sut va chm nht nh trong nhiu u cui s dng cng mt tin t ti cng mt thi im. Trong trng hp ny nhiu u cui s phn ng ln cng mt tr li ng xung v va chm xy ra. Phn gii cc va chm l b phn ca bc tip theo (s xt di y). Va chm

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

537

l l do v sao H A R Q khng c s dng truyn dn tr li truy nhp ngu nhin. u cui nhn c tr li truy nhp ngu nhin dnh cho u cui khc s khng c nh thi ng ln ng. Nu HARQ c s dng, nh thi ACK/NAK cho u cui ny s khng ng v c th gy nhiu cho bo hiu iu khin ng ln t nhng ngi s dng khc. Khi nhn c tr li truy nhp ngu nhin trong bc th hai u cui s i chnh nh thi pht ng ln v tip tc bc ba. u 14.2.3. Bc 3: Nhn dng u cui Sau bc hai, ng ln ca u cui c ng b. Tuy nhin trc khi c th truyn s liu ngi s dng n/t u cui di ng, cn n nh cho u cui di ng mt s nhn dng duy nht trong (C-RNTI). Ph thuc vo trng thi u cui, c th cn thm cc trao i bn tin. Trong bc ba, u cui pht cc bn tin cn thit n mng bng cch s dng cc ti nguyn c n nh trong tr li truy nhp ngu nhin ca bc hai. Cc bn tin ng ln ny c pht ging nh s liu ng ln c lp biu m khng cn phi gn vo tin t nh trong bc mt. Cch lm ny em li mt s li ch sau. Th nht, khi lng thng tin c pht khi khng c ng b ng ln b gim thiu do phi cn mt khong thi gian bo v ln v iu ny lm tng chi ph cho truyn dn. Th hai, s dng s truyn dn ng ln 'bnh thng' cho php iu chnh kch thc cho php v s i ch theo cc i kin v tuyn khc nhau. Cui cng, cho u u php s dng H A R Q vi kt hp m cho bn tin ng ln. Li ch m cui cng l mt nt quan trng nht l i vi cc kch bn gii hn vng ph, v n cho php s dng nhin ln pht li thu thp nng lng cho bo hiu ng ln m bo xc sut truyn dn thnh cng cao. Lu rng cc pht li R L C khng c s dng cho bo hiu RRC ng ln trong bc 3.

538

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Mt b phn quan trng ca bn tin ng ln l b phn cha

nhn dng u cui v nhn dng ny c s dng nh l mt phn ca c ch phn gii xung t trong bc bn. Trng hp u cui nm trong trng thi LTE_ACTIVE, ngha l n c ni n mt bit trc v v th C-RNTI c n nh, C-RNTI ny c s dng lm nhn dng trong bn tin ng ln. Tri li, mt nhn dng u cui ca mng li c s dng v mng truy nhp v tuyn cn yu cu s tham gia ca mng li trc khi tr li bn tin ng ln trong bc 3. 14.2.4. Bc 4: Phn gii va chm Bc cui cng trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin gm mt bn tin cho phn gii xung t. Lu rng t bc th hai, nhiu u cui thc hin truy nhp v tuyn ng thi s dng cng mt chui tin t trong bc th nht nghe cng mt bn tin tr li trong bc th hai v do c cng mt nhn dng tm thi. V th, trong bc bn, mi u cui di ng nhn c bn tin ng xung s so snh s nhn dng trong bn tin ny vi s nhn dng bn tin c pht trong bc ba. Ch mt u cui quan trc c s ph hp gia nhn dng nhn c trong bn tin th t vi nhn dng c pht trong bc ba vi thng bo rng th tc truy nhp ngu nhin thnh cng. Nu u cui cha c n nh C-RNTI, s nhn dng tm thi trong bc hai c chuyn thnh C-RNTI, tri li u cui g i nguyn C-RNTI c n nh. Bn tin phn gii va chm c pht trn DL-SCH s dng nhn dng tm thi t bc hai trao i thng tin vi u cui trn knh iu khin L1/L2. V ng b ng ln c thit lp, HARQ c p dng cho ng xung trong bc ny. u cui c s ph hp gia nhn dng c pht trong bc ba v nhn dng trong bn tin nhn c trong bc bn s pht cng nhn H A R Q ng ln.

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

539

u cui khng tm c s ph hp gia nhn dng nhn c trong bc bn v nhn dng c pht trong bc ba s c coi l b tht bi trong th tc truy nhp ngu nhin v cn phi khi ng li th tc truy nhp ngu nhin t bc th nht. Tt nhin khng c phn hi H A R Q t cc u cui ny.

14.3. TM GI
Tm gi c s dng thit lp mt kt ni c khi u bi mng. M t th tc tm gi hiu qu phi cho php u cui ng my thu khng phi thc hin x l trong hu ht thi gian v ch thc gic trong cc khong thi gian ngn quy nh trc gim st thng tin tm gi t mng. Trong W C D M A , mt knh ch th tm gi ring c s dng ch th cho u cui rng thng tin tm gi s c pht v u cui phi gim st knh ny ti cc thi im quy nh trc. V ch th tm gi rt ngn so vi thi gian truyn thng tin tm gi, nn cch lm ny gim thiu thi gian m u cui phi thc gic. Trong LTE, khng s dng knh ch th tm gi ring v tit kim cng sut theo cch ny khng ng k do thi gian ca bo hiu iu khin L1/L2 ngn, nhiu nht l ba k hiu nh trnh by trong chng 13. Thay vo c ch ging nh truyn dn s liu ng xung 'bnh thng' trn knh DL-SCH c s dng v u cui di ng gim st bo hiu iu khin ng xung cho cc n nh lp biu ng xung. Cc chu k DRX c nh ngha, v th u cui c th ng hu ht thi gian v chi tnh gic trong khong thi gian ngn gim st bo hiu iu khin L1/L2. Nu u cui di ng pht hin nhn dng nhm c s dng tm gi khi n thc gic, n s x l bn tin tng ng c pht trn ng xung ny. Bn tin tm gi bao gm nhn dng u cui (cc u cui) ang c tm

540

Gio lnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gi v u cui khng tm thy nhn dng ca mnh s xoa thng tin nhn c v ng theo chu k DRX. R rng rng, v nh thi ng ln khng c bit trong cc chu k DRX, nn khng th thc hin bo hiu ACK/NAK v v th khng th s dng H A R Q vi kt hp mm cho cc bn tin tm gi. Do , tr li tm gi u cui phi thc hin th tc truy nhp ngu nhin nh xt trn. Chu k DRX cho tm gi c minh ha trn hnh 14.8.
C th tim gi u cui

* Mthuat C_EZ M~huufK T "


Khung con Chu k DRX
<

Hnh 14.8. Thu khng lin tc (DRX) i vi tm gi

14.4. TNG KT
Chng ny xt cc th tc cn thit cho mt u cui di ng n c th truy nhp mng LTE. Hai th tc c xt trong chng ny l: Tm v truy nhp ngu nhin. Tm l th tc m mt u cui di ng tm mt tim nng kt ni. Kt qu ca th tc ny l u cui nhn c s nhn dng v c tm nh thi khung ca c nhn dng. Ngoi ra th tc tm cng cung cp cc c tnh cc thng s cn thit thu thng tin h thng trn knh qung b, qua knh ny u cui nhn c cc thng s cn thit truy nhp h thng. Truy nhp ngu nhin cho php u cui gi yu cu thit lp kt ni n mng. Kt qu ca truy nhp ny l thit lp ng b ng ln v thit lp mt nhn dng u cui duy nht (C-RNTI), trong mng v u cui u bit nhn dng ny. V th truy nhp ngu nhin

Chng 14: Cc th tc truy nhp LTE

541

khng ch c s dng cho truy nhp ln u, khi chuyn t LTE D E T A C H E D hay LTE-IDLE vo LTE A C T I V E (xem chng 13 cho cc trng hp ny) m cn c sau cc chu k khng tch cc khi ng b ng ln b mt trong LTE ACTIVE.

14.5. CU HI
1. Trnh by ngha ca tm . . Trnh by vai tr tn hiu ng b s cp v tn hiu ng b th cp trn ng xung v t chc ca cc tn hiu ny i vi th tc tm . 3. Trnh by th tc tm . 4. Trnh by th tc truy nhp ngu nhiu. 5. Trnh by th tc tm gi.

Chng 15

PHT TRIN KIN TRC H THONG, SAE

Chng ny s xt tng quan cng vic pht trin kin trc h thng (SAE: System Architecture Evolution) trong 3GPP. Ngoi ra hiu c xut x ca SAE, mng li ca WCDMA/HSPA cng c trnh by. N h vy chng ny s trnh by kin trc h thng ca WCDMA/HSPA, LTE, kt ni gia chng, cc im ging nhau v cc khc bit gia chng. Thut ng kin trc h thng m t vic n nh cc chc nng cn thit cho cc nt logic, v cc giao din cn thit gia cc nt ny. Trong h thng thng t i n d i ng nh WCDMA/HSPA v LTE/SAE, hu ht cc chc nng cn thit cho giao din v tuyn c trnh by trong cc chng trc. Cc chc nng ny thng dc gi l cc chc nng mng truy nhp v tuyn. Tuy nhin mt mng di ng cn cn mt s cc chc nng b sung cung cp cc dch v: Nh khai thc cn chc nng tnh cc tnh cc cho ngi s dng; nhn thc cng cn m bo rng ngi s dng l hp l; thit lp dch v cn m bo rng c mt kt ni u cui u cui. Cc chc nng ny khng lin quan trc tip n cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn, nhng chng cn thit i vi mi cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn (v cc chc nng ny thc t cng cn cho cc truy nhp c nh). Cc chc nng ny thng c gi l cc chc nng mng li. Do c nhi kiu chc nng khc nhau u nh vy trong mt h thng thng tin di ng t ong, nn kin trc h thng c chia thnh phn mng truy nhp v tuyn v phn mng li (hnh 15.1)

544

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 15.1. Mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li

Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - nh gi hiu nng - nh gi hiu nng ca pht trin 3G v LTE da trn m phng tnh. - nh gi LTE trong 3GPP da trn m phng ng - Qu ng truyn HSPA - Qu ng truyn LTE Mc ch chng gip cho cho bn c hiu tng quan v cng vic pht trin kin trc h thng (SAE: System Architecture Evolution) trong 3GPP. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung c t h rn by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng. 15.1. PHN CHIA CHC NNG GIA MNG TRUY NHP V T U Y N V M N G LI Trong qu trnh c t chun WCDMA/HSPA v LTE/SAE, nhim v u tin cho c hai trng hp l phn chia cc chc nng

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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cho mng truy nhp v tuyn (RAN: Radio Access Network) v mng l i (Core Netvvork). Thot nhn c v nh y l mt nhim v n gin, nhng trong thc t n kh phc tp. Phn ln cc chc nng ny c th d dng t trong R A N hoc mng li, nhng mt s chc nng i hi cn nhc thn trng.

15.1.1. Phn chia chc nng gia mng truy nhp v tuyn v mng li ca WCDMA/HSPA
i vi WCDMA/HSPA, trit l ng sau vic phn chia ny l gi cho mng li khng bit c cng ngh v tuyn v cu trc ca n. C ngha l R A N phi iu khin tt c cc chc nng ti u ha giao din v tuyn v cc c du kn i vi mng li. V th mng li c th s dng c cho mi cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn v tipnhn cng mt phn chia chc nng. hiu c ngun gc ca trit l ng sau vic phn chia chc nng ca WCDMA/HSPA, ta cn ngc tr li xt kin trc h thng GSM c thit k vo nhng nm 1980. Mt trong cc vn ca kin trc G S M l mng li hon ton nhn bit cc trong h thng. V th mi khi b sung thm mt , cc nt mng li cng phi c cp nht. i v i WCDMA/HSPA, mng l i khng bit cc . Tuy nhin mng li bit cc vng phc v v RA (Routing Area: vng nh tuyn) chuyn i cc vng phc v ny vo cc . V th khi b sung thm mt mi vo mt vng dch v, mng li khng cn cp nht. Mt im khc nhau chnh so vi GSM l v t ca cc giao thc r pht li v cc b m s liu trong mng li i vi GSM. V cc giao thc pht li c ti u ha cho giao din v tuyn GSM, nn cc giao thc ny l c th giao din v tuyn v v th khng ph hp cho giao din v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA. y c coi l im yu ca mng li v v th tt c cc b m v cc giao thc pht li trong W C D M A u c chuyn di vo RAN. N h vy chng no mng truy nhp v tuyn cn s dng cng mt giao din vi mng li,

546

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

giao din u, mng li c th kt ni c vi cc mng truy nhp v tuyn s dng cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau. Hn na cn c cc phn chia chc nng WCDMA/HSPA m ta khng th ch gii thch bng trit l mng li c lp vi cc cng ngh v tuyn. Cc chc nng an ninh l mt v d r nht. Mt ln na ta li tr li vi GSM, GSM c cc chc nng an ninh t ti cc v t khc nhau i vi cc kt ni chuyn mch knh v cc kt ni r chuyn mch gi (GPRS chng hn). i vi cc kt ni chuyn mch knh cc chc nng an ninh c t trong GSM RAN, trong khi i vi cc kt ni chuyn mch gi, cc chc nng an ninh c t trong mng li G S M (trong SGSN). i v i WCDMA/HSPA iu ny b coi l qu phc tp v cn c mt v t an ninh chung. V t r r ny c quyt nh t trong RAN, v cn m bo an ninh cho bo hiu v iu khin qun l ti nguyn v tuyn. N h vy cc chc nng R A N ca WCDMA/HSPA l: - M ha, an xen, iu ch v cc chc nng lp vt l in hnh khc - ARQ, nn tiu v cc chc nng lp lin kt in hnh khc - Qun l ti nguyn v tuyn, chuyn giao v cc chc nng iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh khc - Cc chc nng an ninh (mt m ha v bo v tnh ton vn) Cc chc nng cn thit cho mi h thng di ng nhng khng c th cho mng truy nhp v tuyn v khng tng cng hiu nng c t trong mng li. Cc chc nng ny l: - Tnh cc - Qun l thu bao - Qun l di ng (theo di di chuyn ca nhng ngi s dng trong mng nh v trong cc mng khc)

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE - Qun l knh mang v x l cht lng dch v

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- iu khin chnh sch cho cc lung s liu ca ngi s dng - Kt ni v i cc mng ngoi 15.1.2. Phn chia chc nng gia L T E R A N v mng li Phn chia chc nng gia L T E R A N (cn gi l E-RAN) v mng li cng ging nhu phn chia chc nng ca WCDMA\HSPA. Tuy nhin trit l thit k then cht ca L T E R A N l gim thiu s lng cc nt v tm ra mt gii php trong R A N ch c mt kiu nt. Ngoi ra, trit l ng sau mng li LTE l lm cho n cng c lp vi cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn cng tt. V th hu ht cc chc nng R A N ca WCDMA/HSPA vn gi nguyn trong L T E RAN. N h vy cc chc nng LTE R A N l : M ha, an xeo, iu ch v cc chc nng lp vt l in hnh khc ARQ, nn tiu v cc chc nng lp lin kt in hnh khc Cc chc nng an ninh (mt m ha v bo v tnh ton vn) Cc chc nng qun l ti nguyn, chuyn giao v cc chc nng iu khin ti nguyn v tuyn in hnh khc. Cc chc nng mng li L T E l: - Tnh cc - Qun l thu bao - Qun l di ng (theo di chuyn ng ca nhng ngi s dng trong mng nh v cc mng khc) - Qun l knh mang v x l cht lng dch v - iu khin chnh sch cho cc lung s liu ca nhng ngi s dng - Kt ni vi mng ngoi

548

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

15.2. M N G TRUY NHP V T U Y N HSPAAVCDMA V LTE


Ngoi vic phn chia cc chc nng gia R A N v mng li, cn phi c t kin trc bn trong ca RAN. Trong khi R A N ca mt cng ngh v tuyn bt k i hi nht mt nt ni n anten ca t mt , th cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn khc nhau c cc gii php khc nhau v i s kiu nt v cc giao din cn c. Kin trc R A N ca HSPA/WCDMA v L T E khc nhau. v cn bn, l do khc nhau ny khng chi v s khc nhau trong trit l thit k phn chia RAN/mng li m c s khc nhau v cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn v cc chc nng c tip nhn ca chng. Cc chng sau s m t HSPA/WCDMA R A N v L T E R A N vi nhn mnh cc khc bit crtg nh cc s ging nhau ca chng v cung cp cc chi tit b sung so vi cc chng trc.

15.2.1. Mng truy nhp v tuyn ca HSPAAVCDMA


v bn cht nhn t quan trng cho kin trc HSPA/WCDMA l chc nng phn tp v m c s dng cho cc knh truyn ti DCH. Phn tp v m i hi mt im neo trong R A N phn chia v kt hp cc lung s liu n v i t cc m u cui hin ang s dng. Cc ny c gi l tp tch cc ca u cui. Trong khi hon ton c th c c neo ny trong nt ktni n anten ca mt v cc lung s liu ca cc khc i qua nt ny, th iu ny li khng c li xt t quan im mng truyn ti. Hu ht cc mng truy nhp v tuyn c cc gii hn v mng truyn ti, ch yu chng cui cng, ngha l chng cui cng ni n trm t anten. Ngoi ra cc trm t anten ny thng l cc l trong cc cnh cy v v th neo trong mt l thng c ngha l phi t ruyn qua chng cui nhiu ln nh minh ha trn hnh 15.2. V th dim neo c c t l mt im tch ring so vi nt ni n ant en.

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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Phn tp v m trong mt nt l

Hnh 5.2. Cu hnh truyn ti nh hng n vic n nh chc n V vic t kt hp phn tp v m pha trn nt ni n anten, nn lp lin kt cn kt cui ti cng mt nt nh phn tp v m hay ti mt nt cao hn trong phn cp ca RAN. Vic kt cui lp lin kt ti mt nt khc vi nt kt hp phn tp v m l tit kim t i nguyn truyn ti. Tuy nhin vic tch ring chng dn n tng phc tp, nn ngi ta quyt nh t kt cui lp lin kt v kt hp phn tp v m trong cng mt nt. Cng v l do nh vy, bo hiu mt phang iu khin ca R A N c t trong nt thc hin phn tp vm. Nt ny c gi l B iu khin mng v tuyn (RNC: RadioNetvvo Controller), v n ch yu iu khin RAN. rk Mc d phn tp vm khng c s dng cho ng xung ca HSPA nhng n c s dng cho ng ln ca HSPA. Thc t ny cng vi nguyn tc trong kin trc ny cng phi h tr WCDMA R3 vi thay i nht nn RNC cng c mt trong kin t t WCDMA/HSPA. rc Hnh 15.3 cho thy tng quan mng truy nhp v tuyn

WCDMA/HSPA. T hnh ny ta c th thy R A N bao gm hai nt chc nng c bn: RNC v nt ni n anten ca cc , nt B.

550

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thngtndi ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 5.3. Mng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA: Cc nt v cc giao din

RNC l nt ni R A N n mng li qua giao din Iu. Nguyn tc ca giao din I u l phi c th s dng n cho cc R A N khc nhau ch khng ch cho WCDMA/HSPA RAN. M i RNC trong mng c th ni n mi RNC khc trong cng mng thng qua giao din Iur. V th giao din Iur l mt giao din rng ca mng cho php s dng RNC nh mt im neo cho u cui v che du s di ng ca u cui i vi mng li. Ngoi ra giao din Iur cn thit thc hin phn tp v m gia cc trc thuc cc RNC khc nhau. N h thy t hnh 15.3, mt RNC ni n mt hay nhiu nt B s dng giao din Iub. Tuy nhin khng nh RNC c th ni n RNC khc, mt nt B chi c th ni n mt RNC. V th ch mt RNC iu khin nt B. Ngha l RNC qun l cc ti nguyn ca nt B ny.

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

551

Trong trng hp kt ni phn tp vm qua hai RNC, hai RNC ny tha thun v i nhau v vic s dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn. Nt B l mt nt logic x l pht v thu mt tp . v logic, cc anten ca cc thuc nt B ny, tuy nhin chng khng nht thit phi c t trn cng mt trm anten. Chng hn, trong mi trng trong nh, nhiu nh c th c x l bi cng mt nt B t tng hm v i cc anten t trong cc hnh lang khc nhau trn cc tng khc nhau. Chnh kh nng phc v cc khng pht t cng mt trm anten lm cho nt B khc vi BTS (trm thu pht gc), BS (trm gc hay RBS (trm gc v tuyn) v y chnh l l do ny sinh ra tn mi: nt B. Nt B s hu phn cng ca mnh nhng khng s hu cc ti nguyn v tuyn ca cc thuc n. V th nt B c th t chi mt kt ni do hn ch phn cng ch khng do thiu ti nguyn v tuyn. Bng phn cng ca mnh, nt B thc hin cc chc nng lp vt l ngoi tr phn tp vm. i vi HSPA, nt B cng thc hin lp biu v cc giao thc H A R Q trong cc giao thc MAC-hs v MAC-e nh xt trong cc chng trc. 15.2.1.1. RNC phc v v RNC tri Khi c t cc chc nng ca RAN, tnh cht ca giao din v tuyn dn n s cn thit phi c mt nt tp trung x l kt hp phn tp v m v phn chia phn tp v m cng nh iu khin cc t i nguyn v tuyn trong nhiu . Trong khi nt B iu khin mt tp , th RNC iu khin nhiu nt B v v th mt vng rng hn. Ngoi ra giao din Iur cng cho php cch tip cn kt hp trong ton b vng ph ca mng. Ch mt RNC, RNC iu khin (CRNC), l ch ca nt B. RNC iu khin thit lp cc tn s m nt B s s dng trong cc ca minh; n n nh cng sut v lp biu cho cc knh chung cc ca

552

Gio t: inh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

nt B. N cng lp cu hnh nh: Cc m no s c s dng cho HS-SCH v cng sut cc i c s dng. Ngoi ra RNC iu khin l RNC quyt nh vic mt ngi s dng c c php s dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn trong mt trc thuc mt trong s cc nt B ca n hay khng v ti nguyn v tuyn c s dng s l t i nguyn no. y l cc nhim v khng lin quan trc tip n bt k ngi s dng no, nhung lin quan n c cu hnh ca cc . c Khi mt ngi s dng thc hin truy nhp n WCDMA/HSPA RAN, ngi ny truy nhp n mt di quyn iu khin ca mt nt B. n lt mnh, nt B ny li chu s iu khin ca mt RNC, RNC iu khin ca nt B v ny. RNC iu khin ny s l RNC kt cui cc mt phang ngi s dng v mt phang iu khin lin quan n RNC. RNC ny s tr thnh RNC phc v (SRNC) cho ngi s dng. RNC phc v l RNC nh gi cc bo co kt qu o t u cui v da trn cc bo co kt qu o ny a ra quyt nh (cc ) no s l mt b phn ca tp tch cc ca u cui. Ngoi ra RNC phc v thit lp cc mc tiu cht lng ca u cui v n cng l RNC ni ngi s dng n mng li. Ngoi ra chnh RNC phc v s lp cu hnh cho u cui vi cc cu hnh knh mang khc nhau m bo cc dch v khc nhau theo yu cu ca ngi s dng. Trong thi gian kt ni, u cui c th di chuyn v ti mt s im n c th cn kt ni n mt khc thuc mt RNC khc. Trong trng hp ny, RNC phc v u cui cn tip xc vi RNC s hu m n c nh s dng v yu cu c php b sung mi ny vo tp tch cc. Nu RNC iu khin s hu ch ng , RNC phc v s thng bo u cui rng n c th b sung ny vo tp tch cc. K h i ny RNC iu khin s hu ch s tr thnh RNC tri (DRNC). Cn lu rng phc v v tri l hai vai tr khc nhau, m mt RNC c th thc hin khi kt ni n mt u cui. Cc vai

Chng 15: Pht trin kin (rc h thng, SAE

553

tr phc v v tri c minh ha trn hnh 15.4. K h i mt u cui c mt kt ni kh lu, c th xy ra rng RNC phc v khng iu khin bt k no m u cui hin dang s dng. Trong trng hp ny c th xy ra thay i phc v. iu ny c thc hin bi th tc n nh li SRNS. RNC1 l RNC phc v cho u cui ngoi cng bn i v u cui gia. RNC2 l RNC iu khin cho cc nt B v cc ni n n qua cc giao din Iub, RNC2 l RNC phc v cho u cui ngoi cng bn phi v ng thi cng l RNC tri cho u cui gia.

Hnh 15.4. Cc vai tr ca RNC. RNC1 l RNC iu khin ca cc nt B v cc ni n n qua cc giao din Iub i vi dch v MBMS, RNC ng vai tr c bit. Chnh RNC quyt nh vic s dng cc knh qung b trong hay cc knh n

554

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

phng. K h i s dng cc knh n phng, khai thc c tin hnh cho lu lng n phng thng thng, cn khi s dng knh qung b, RNC c ty chn ny m bo cng mt s liu c pht trong cc ln cn trc thuc cng mt RNC. Bang cch ny u cui c th thc hin kt hp phn tp v m cc lung n t cc khc nhau v thng lng h thng c th c tng. Vic s dng truyn n phng hay qung b cho M B M S trong mt thng da trn s lng cc u cui di ng c cho rng s thu cng mt ni dung trong cng mt . Nu ch c ngi s dng t trong mt , phng php n phng s hiu qu hn, nhng nu s ngi s dng trong nhiu (hoc trong cc xung quanh ny) th s dng knh qung b hiu qu hn. 15.2.1.2. Kin trc pht trin ca HSPA 3GPP ang xem xt cc bc chuyn kin trc R A N sang mt kin trc bng phang hn. c nhiu xut. M t xut n gin l chuyn hon ton RNC vo nt B. v nguyn tc c th p dng iu ny trong kin t R3', nhng gp phi mt s vn : rc S lng cc RNC c gii hn n 4096 t mt giao din Iu. rn
] \

iu ny s c m rng v khng phi l vn ln. Mt vn ln hn l v t ca cc chc nng an ninh ti trm r nt B. Trm nt B thng c coi l trm t xa khng an ninh. C cc chc nng an ninh trong nt B c ngha l cc kha mt m quan trng v b mt cn c truyn n nt B. Do iu ny c thc hin chng cui cng nn c th d dng b xem trm. V th chng cui cng ny cng phi c m bo bi mt c ch an ninh chng hn IPsec. Tuy nhin iu ny khng m bo kt ni an ninh v bn thn thit b cng cn c m bo khng b can thip. iu ny lm cho gii php ny tr nn phc tp v tn km. V th nu nh khai thc bit c rng nt B c t ti mt trm an ninh th nh

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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khai thc c th trin khai mng vi cc nt B v R N C t cng mt ch (hay v i cc sn phm cho php thc hin chng trong cng mt thit b vt l). i v i cc trm khng an ninh, nh khai thc c th s dng gii php thng thng vi R N C t ti trm c an ninh gn pha mng hn v nt B t ti trm t an ninh. Vn t h b a v i chc nng R N C t ti nt B l chc nng phn tp v m cn thit cho ng ln ca HSPA t c cht lng v dung lng tt. N h xt trong mc 15.2.1, chc nng phn tp v m thng tt hn l c t ti v t cng gn mng h r tng cng tt. Trong m i trng hp, yu cu quan trng nht i vi kin trc RAN cho pht trin H S P A l c kh nng phc v lu lng hin c v kt hp v i cc nt hin c (cc R N C v cc nt B). V th kin trc R3 cng l k i n trc hp l cho pht trin HSPA. Ngoi ra, nh cp trn, k h nng trin khai phang hn cng c trong kin trc ny. 15.2.2. Mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE Ti thi im thng qua kin trc mt nt cho LTE, chc nng phn tp v m c bn nhiu trong 3GPP. Mc d v mt k thut, c th t chc nng phn tp v m trong nt L T E tng ng vi nt B ca WCDMA/HSPA, eNodeB, v s dng mt nt ny lm neo, nhng n h u cu i vi phn tp v m cho L T E c bn ci. Rt nhanh chng ngi ta quyt nh rng phn tp v m ng xung khng cn thit cho lu lng om phng, nhng vn lin quan n ng ln th c tranh ci kh nhiu. Cui cng cng i n quyt nh l phn tp v m ng ln cng khng cho cc l i ch ng k i v i L T E nhng li tng thm phc tp. V th phn tp v m g i a cc eNodeB khng c h tr trong LTE.

556

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

i vi lun lng qung b v a phng, sm i n quyt nh l eNodeB cn c kh nng pht cng mt s liu theo cch ng b h tr khai thc MBSFN. ng b ny cn c m bo trong vi micro giy. Trc ht, r rng rng vic chuyn tt c cc chc nng RAN vo nt B v khng h tr phn tp v m. Tuy nhin cng cn xem xt c tnh di ng ca u cui. v cn bn c hai vn lin quan n di ng cn luti : m bo khng mt s liu khi thay i v gim thiu nh hng ln mng li khi thay i . i vi LTE, vn th hai khng c coi l vn chnh; vic thit k hp l mng li s gii quyt c vn ny. Tuy nhin vn th nht l mt vn kh gii quyt. Trong thc t mi ngi u ng rng vic c mt neo tp trung vi mt lp pht li bn ngoi eNodeB s thun tin hn cho di ng. Tuy nhin 3GPP quyt nh rng th tng thm phc tp v khng c neo cn hn i hi mt nt vi chc nng R A N bn ngoi eNodeB. Hnh 15.5 cho thay tng quan mng truy nhp v t uyn LTE vi cc nt v cc giao din. Khc vi WCDMA/HSPA RAN, LTE RAN chi c mt kiu nt. N h vy trong L T E khng c nt tng ng vi RNC. L do ch yu l khng c h tr phn tp v m ng l n v ng xung cho lu lng ring ca ngi s dng v tritl thit k l gim thiu s lng nt. eNodeB chu trch nhim cho mt tp cc . Tng t nh nt B trong kin t rc WCDMA/HSPA, cc ca mt eNocB khng cn s dng cng mt trm anten. V eNodeB tha hng hu ht cc chc nng ca RNC, eNodeB phc tp hn nt B. eNodeB chu trch nhim cho cc quyt nh R U M (qun l ti nguyn v tuyn) ca mt , cc quyt nh chuyn giao, lp biu nhng ngi s dng trn c ng ln ln ng xung trong cc ca mnh, . . .

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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Hnh 5.5. Mng truy nhp LTE: cc nt v cc giao din eNodeB c ni n mng li qua giao din s . Giao din s giong nh giao din Iu. Ngoi ra cn c mt giao din na ging nh giao din Iur ca WCDMA/HSPA, l giao din XI. Giao din X2 ni mt eNodeB trong mng vi mt eNodeB khc. Tuy nhin v c ch di ng cho LTE hi khc so vi WCDMA/HSPA (khng c im neo trong LTE RAN), giao din X2 ch c s dng gia cc eNodeB c cc ln cn. Giao din XI ch yu c s dng h tr di ng ch tch cc. Giao din ny cng c s dng cho cc chc nng qun l t i nguyn v tuyn (RRM) nhiu . Giao din mt phang iu khin X2 ging nh ng nhim ca n trong WCDMA/HSPA (giao din Iur), nhng khng c chc nng h tr t ca RNC. Giao din ny h tr ri chc nng n nh li eNodeB. Giao din mt phang ngi s dng X2 c s dng h tr di ng mt hn (khi chuyn gi). t

558

Gio (rnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

15.2.2.1. Cc vai tr v chc nng ca eNodeB eNodeB c cng chc nng nh nt B v ngoi ra n c hu ht cc chc nng RNC ca WCDMA/HSPA. N h vy, eNodeB chu trch nhim v cc ti nguyn v tuyn trong cc ca mnh, n quyt nh chuyn giao, thc hin cc quyt nh lp biu cho c ng l n v ng xung. N cng thc hin cc chc nng lp vt l thng thng nh m ha, gii m, iu ch, gii iu ch, an xen, gii an xen,... Ngoi ra eNodeB c cc c ch pht li hai lp; HARQ v ARQ ngoi nh xt trong chng 12. V c ch chuyn giao ca L T E khc vi WCDMA/HSPA, eNodeB ch c mt vai tr l eNodeB phc v. eNodeB phc v l eNodeB ang phc v u cui. Khi nim iu khin v t khng ri tn ti. Chuyn giao c thc hin bng cch n nh li eNodeB. i vi kiu lu lng MBMS, L T E R A N quyt nh vic s dng knh n phng hay knh qung b. Trong trng hp cc knh qung b, vng ph sng v dung lng cc knh ny tng ng k nu khai thc MBSFN c s dng. eNodeB c th pht lung s liu ng thi, thc th iu phi MBMS (MCE: MBMS Coordination Entity) m bo ng b cc truyn dn ca eNodeB v cc lung s. ng b c thc hin bng mt ng h ton cu, GPS chng hn. 15.3. KIN TRC MNG LI Nh xt trong cc mc trc ca chng ny, h thng di ng cn mt mng li thc hin chc nng mng li. Trong 3GPP ng thi vi bn lun v kin trc bn trong ca RAN, kin t rc mng l i cng c bn lun. Mng l i c s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA v LTE c xy dng trn s pht trin mng l i GSM/GPRS. Mng li s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA rt gn vi mng l i gc ca GSM/GPRS ngoi tr s khc nhau trong vic phn chia

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chc nng vi RAN. Tuy nhin mng l i c s dng ni vi LTE RAN l s pht trin trit hn ca mng li GSM/GPRS. V th n c tn l: Li gi pht trin (EPC: Evolved Packet Core). 1 . . . Mng li GSM s dng cho NVCDMA/HSPA 531

Hnh 15.6. Tng quan mng li GSM v (hnh v c n gin)

WCDMA/HSPA

i vi WCDMA/HSPA, mng l i c xy dng trn c s mng li ca GSM vi cng cc nt nh GSM. Nh trnh by trong mc 15.1.1, phn chia chc nng ca GSM v WCDMA/HSPA khc nhau. iu ny dn n vic s dng giao din gia mng l i v WCDMA/HSPA RAN khc so vi giao din gia mng li v GSM RAN. i vi WCDMA/HSPA, giao din Iu c s dng cn i vi GSM giao din A v giao din G c s dng.
b

560

Gio trinh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Hnh 15.6 xt tng quan kin trc mng l i c s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA. Hnh ny cho thy cc thc th logic, v thng thng khi xt kin trc khng nht thit phi xt cc thc th vt l . Mng li bao gm hai min khc nhau: . Min chuyn mch knh (CS) vi trung tm chuyn mch di ng (MSC) 2. Min chuyn mch gi (PS) vi nt h tr GPRS phc v (SGSN) v nt h tr GPRS cng (GGSN). Chung cho c hai min l H L R (b ghi nh v thng tr), l c s d liu trong mng nh ca nh khai thc theo di thu bao. T hnh v ta thy giao din Iu ni WCDMA/HSPA R A N n MSC qua giao din Iu-cs v n SGSN qua giao din Iu-ps. Trn hnh v giao din A v giao din G ni MSC v SGSN n GSM RAN. Iu-cs c s dng ni RNC ca WCDMA/HSPA n min chuyn mch knh ca mng li, ngha l n MSC. MSC c s dng kt ni cc cuc thoi n PSTN. MSC v min chuyn mch knh s dng cc chc nng t ISDN lm ca ch chuyn mch. Bo hiu MSC-da trn IDSN (bo kiu knh chung s 7). Giao din Iu-ps ni RNC n min chuyn mch gi ca mng li, n SGSN. n lt mnh SGSN c ni n GGSN qua giao din Gn hay Gp. GGSN c giao din Gi ni n cc mng gi ngoi (internet), n min dch v ca nh khai thc hay n IMS (phn h a phng tin IP). Min chuyn mch gi s dng nh tuyn IP. Chung cho c hai min l HLR, l c s d liu trong mng nh khai thc theo di thu bao (v t v l lch). H L R cha thng tin r v cc dch v m thu bao ng k, v t hin thi ca thu bao r (chnh xc hn l v t ca SIM hay USIM). H L R c ni l MSC qua r cc giao din c v D, cn SGSN c ni n HLR qua giao din Gr.

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE 15.3.1.1. Iu ex

561

Giao din Iu h tr mt chc nng c gi l Iu flex. Chc nng ny cho php RNC ni n nhiu SGSN hoc MSC v ngc li. Chc nng ny cho php gim cc nh hng khi mt nt mng li khng kh dng, ngha l khi mt SGSN hay MSC khng lm vic tt. C ch I u lex c s dng phn b cc kt ni u cui n nhiu SGSN v MSC. Nu mt SGSN hay MSC khng kh dng, cc SGSN v cc MSC khc s duy t lu lng c n nh ca r chng v c th nhn cc yu cu cuc gi vo hoc thit lp phin (c th xy ra nhiu cuc gi vo khi mng khng sn sng, v hu ht cc u cui u tm cch kt ni li khi b mt kt ni m khng c cnh bo). 15.3.1.2. MBMS v qung b khc

i vi MBMS, min chuyn mch gi ca mng l i c s ng. V th giao din Iu-ps c s dng ni n VVCDMA/RAN. i vi MBMS, chnh mng li quyt nh vic s dng knh mang qung b hay knh mang a phng. Trong trng hp knh mang qung b, mng li khng bit nhn dng cc u cui di ng s nhn thng tin, cn trong trng hp cc knh mang a phng mng l i bit c nhn dng cc u cui. V th cc u cui khng cn thng bo cho mng nh thu dch v s dng knh mang qung b. Tuy nhin khi s dng dch v s dng knh mang a phng, cc u cui phi thng bo cho mng v nh s dng dch v ny. i vi c cc knh mang a phng v cc knh mang qung b, RAN c th quyt nh vic nn s dng cc knh truyn ti n phng hay mt knh truyn ti qung b. Trong trng hp ny RAN yu cu nhng ngi s dng trong thng bo cho n rng h c quan tm n mt dch v c th hay khng. Sau nu s lng ngi s dng quan tm ln th knh truyn ti qung b c s dng, t li knh truyn ti n phng c s dng. ri

562

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

15.3.1.3.Chuyn mng

Hnh 15.7. Chuyn mng trong

WCDMA/HSPA

Chnh n h cc chc nng chuyn mng ca mng li m ngui s dng c th s dng m t mng ca nh khai thc khc. Chuyn mng c h tr bi c min chuyn mch knh v m i n chuyn mch gi. i v i c hai min, tn ti cc k h nng khc nhau, nhng trong thc t, lu lng c nh tuyn qua G G S N ca mng nh i vi min chuyn mch gi. i v i min chuyn mch knh, trng hp chung cho cc cuc g i khi xng t u cui (cuc g i ra) l thc hin chuyn mch trong mng khch. i v i cc cuc g i kt cui ti u cui (cuc g i vo), cuc g i lun lun c nh tuyn qua mng nh. iu ny c m i n h ha trn hnh 15.7. Trn hnh ny, hai u cui thuc hai' nh khai thc khc nhau ( A v B ) c th hin. Cc

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u cui chuyn mng t mng nh sang mng khch (cc mng sng v ti trn hnh 15.7) v c hai u cui u c kt ni chuyn mch gi. Ngoi ra u cui A gi u cui B qua min chuyn mch knh. T hnh 15.7 ta thy, cc kt ni chuyn mch gi c nh tuyn t SGSN trong mng khch n GGSN trong mng nh s dng giao din Gp (giao din Gn c s dng gia SGSN v GGSN trong "cng mt mng). i vi cuc gi chuyn mch knh, u cui A (u cui khi xng cuc gi) ni n MSC (mng sng) ca mng khch. MSC bit rng u cui b gi thuc mng ca mnh v v th n giao tip vi HLR. H L R sng tr li vi thng tin rng u cui B c phc v bi MSC ti trong mng ti. Khi ny MSC sng giao tip vi MSC ti v MSC ti s thit lp kt ni n u cui B. 15.3.1.4. Tnh cc v iu khin chnh sch

Hnh 5.8. Tng quan mng li SAE (hnh v c n gin) Tnh cc, mt chc nng quan trng i vi nh khai thc, c t trong mng li. i vi min chuyn mch knh tnh cc nm trong MSC, cn i vi min chuyn mch gi tnh cc c x l trong SGSN hoc trong GGSN. Theo truyn thng tnh cc c th theo pht hoc theo khi lng. Cch th nht c s dng cho min

64

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

chuyn mch knh, cn cch t h hai p h bin hn c s dng trong m i n chuyn mch gi. T u y nhin cng c th c cc nguyn tc tnh cc khc chng hn tnh cc c nh hay khng lp biu cc. Cc biu cc khc nhau c s dng ty thuc vo ng k ca thu bao v vo vic ngi s dng c chuyn mng hay khng. K h i cc c x l b i GGSN, nhiu s tnh cc tin tin c h tr cho vic tnh cc cc dch v chuyn mch gi, chng hn tnh cc theo ni dung hay theo s kin. V th nh khai thc c th tnh cc ngi s dng p h thuc vo dch v c s dng. iu khin chnh sch l mt chc nng trong mng li c s dng iu khin mc s dng cc dch v chuyn mch gi, ngha l m bo rng ngi s dng khng s dng vt qu bng thng cho php hay m bo rng ngi s dng c h i truy nhp cc dch v hay cc web site c "chp thun'. iu khin chnh sch c thc hin trong G G S N v n ch tn ti trong min chuyn mch gi.

15.3.2. Mng li 'SAE': Li gi pht trin (EPC)


K h i bt y xy dng tiu chun L T E R A N , cng tc chun hoa mng li cng c bt u. Cng tc ny c g i l pht trin kin trc h thng ( S A E : System Architecturre Evolution). Mng l i c nh ngha trong cng tc S A E l s pht trin trit t mng l i GSM/GPRS v v th c tn mi, Li gi pht trin (EPC: Elvolved Packet Core). Phm v i S A E ch bao ph min chuyn mch gi, khng c m i n chuyn mch knh. Nhn li qu trnh tiu chun hoa xt trc y ta thy, trit l gim thiu s lng cc nt thng tr trong qu trnh xy dng chun mng li. V th, mng EPC, bt u t m t k i n trc n n v i tt c cc chc nng c t trong t mt nt t r server thu bao nh (HSS: H o m e Subcriber Server) l nt nm ngoi nt n ny. HSS l m t nt (c s d liu) tng ng vi H L R t r o n g mng li GSM/WCDMA. Hnh 15.8 m i n h ha EPC trong tng th k i n trc. T r o n g hnh 15.8, EPC c m t nh l mt thc

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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th logic. iu ny cho php om gin ha minh ha v d hiu kt ni n LTE R A N v W C D M A /HSPA. EPC ni n LTE R A N qua giao din SI v n internet qua giao din SGi. Ngoi ra EPC ni n HSS qua giao din S6. S I l g i a o din gia eNodeB v EPC. Giao din SI rt ging vi giao din Iu-ps. Cc mt phang ngi s dng ca SI v Iu-ps l cc ng (tunnel) truyn ti c xy dng trn c s IP. Cc gi IP ca ngi s dng u cui c EPC hay eNode t vo tunnel IP ca SI v c l y ra ti u kia bi cc nt tng ng (eNodeB v EPC). i vi mt phng iu khin, s khc nhau gia SI v Iu khng ln. Thc t, y ch l chi tit ca thit lp knh mang. Khc bit ny l cch thc ch th cht lng dch v c n nh ca mt lung c th ca ngi s dng. i vi WCDAM/HSPA, iu ny c thc hin bi cc thng s ca knh mang truy nhp v tuyn (RAB) cn i vi L T E iu ny c thc hin bng cch chi ra loi u tin

c th.
C l im khc nhau ln nht gia WCDMA/HSPA v LTE l vic x l di ng. Trong LTE, EPC ng vai tr l mt neo trong mng l i S A E cho di ng, ngha l nt EPC x l mt phng ngi s dng c a u cui khng b thay i trong thi gian kt ni. y EPC ng vai tr GGSN c s dng cho GSM/GPRS v rc phang, nt EPC x l mt phang ngi WCDMA/HSPA. Do kin t s dng ca u cui cn c kh nng kt ni vi mi eNodeB trong mng. V EPC l neo v L T E R A N ch gm eNodeB, nn EPC cn c cp nht thng tin rng n s nh tuyn gi s liu ca ngi s dng en eNodeB no. y l im khc bit ln nht so v i WCDMA/HSPA, trong RNC che du kiu di ng ny i vi
manp l i .

Giao din S6 trn hnh 15.8 l giao din ni EPC n HSS. y l pht trin ca giao din Gr c s dng cho mng li WCDMA/HSPA

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Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

ni n HLR. V th, mt HLR/HSS kt hp cho EPC c th ging nh HLR i vi GSM v WCDMA/HSPA hin ti. 15.3.2.1. SI flex v cc EPC trong cc nhm Ging nh Iu flex, s flex lm cho mng li bn vng hn. Nu mt nt EPC tr nn khng kh dng, mt nt EPC khc c th m nhim lu lng b mt ny. Ngoi ra vic nh c mng cng d hn v c th b sung thm cc EPC khi cn m rng mng do yu cu lu lng. 15.3.2.2. Chuyn mng, iu khin chnh sch v tinh cc trongSAE Chuyn mng c h tr bi EPC. N c thc hin gia cc nt EPC: Mt nm trong mng nh v mt nm trong mng khch. Ph thuc vo chnh sch ca nh khai thc, a chi IP c th c n nh hoc bi EPC nh hoc bi EPC khch. 15.3.3. Kt ni WCDMA/HSPA vi EPC

Khi cng ngh LTE/SAE c a vo mng, cn c chuyn giao n WCDMA/HSPA. Gii php c la chn l cho php WCDMA/HSPA ni n mng EPC. Thc t, SGSN ca mng l i c s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA c ni n EPC. EPC ng vai tr nh mt GGSN khi lu lng nh tuyn qua WCDMA/HSPA bng cch s dng giao din S4 (c xy dng da trn giao din G /Gp gia SGSN v GGSN) v nh mt EPC bnh thng khi lu
n

lng c nh tuyn qua LTE RAN. iu ny c th thc hin c l v kt cui mt phang ngi s dng trong EPC c gi nguyn v v th a ch IP ca u cui cng c gi nguyn. Cc phn ca mt phang iu khin ca EPC khng c s dng khi u cui c ni n WCDMA/HSPA. Thay vo cc giao thc SGSN ca mng li c s dng. Bng cch tip cn ny, ch cn thay i ti t i u h i vi mng li gi s dng cho WCDMA/HSPA, trong khi vn c th m bo chuyn giao nhanh v m n v t L T E (hnh 15.9).

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng, SAE

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Hnh 15.9. WCDMA/HSPA

ni n LTE/SAE

Khi chuyn giao t W C D M A n LTE, EPC nhn kt ni t SGSN. iu ny c thc hin qua giao din S3, giao din ny c xy dng trn c s giao din Gn c s dng cho cc SGSN n nh li SGSN. V th chuyn giao ny cng gn ging nh n nh li SGSN bng cch chuyn mch mt phng ngi s dng vo EPC thay v vo GGSN. Hnh 15.10 th hin kin trc theo TR 23.882 trong cc giao din c c t chi tit. Trn hnh 15.10, PCRF1 (PCRF: Policy and Char ging Rules Function: Chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch) th hin chc nng cc quy tc tnh cc v chnh sch pht trin. Cc ng ni v cc vng trn khng lin tc th hin cc phn t v cc giao din mi ca kin tr LTE. c

568

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

EPC: Li gi pht trin MME: Mobility Management Entity: Thc th qun l di ng UPE: User Plane Entity: Thc th mt phang ngi s dng 3GPP Anchor: Neo 3GPP SAE Anchor: Neo di ng gia cc h thng truy nhp 3GPP (2G/3G/LTE) v cc h thng truy nhp khng phi 3GPP (WLAN, WiMAX) SAE: System Architecture Evolution: Pht trin kin trc h thng

Hnh 15.10. Kin trc m hnh LTE/SAE theo TR 23.822

15.4. TNG KT
Chng ny xt tng quan cng vic pht trin kin trc h thng (SAE: System Architecture Evolution) trong 3GPP. Chng ny cng xt tng quan kin trc h thng ca WCDMA/HSPA, LTE, kt ni gia chng, cc im ging nhau v cc khc bit gia chng. Chng ny phn tch m hnh LTE/SAE theo TR 23.822.

15.5. CU HI
tuyn ca WCDMA/HSPA.

1. Trnh by nguyn tc phn chia mng li v mng truy nhp v

Chng 15: Pht trin kin trc h thng. SAE

5b9

2. Trnh by nguyn tc phn chia mng truy nhp v tuyn LTE v mng li LTE. 3. So snh s khc bit gia hai nguyn tc phn chia mng truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA/HSPA v LTE. 4. Trnh by kin trc mng li GSM/GPRS. 5. Trnh by kin trc mng li WCDMA/HSPA. 6. Trnh by kin trc mng li LTE (SAE) hay li gi (EPC). 7. So snh cc kin trc mng li GSM/GPRS, WCDMA/HSPA v EPC? 8. Trnh by khi nim Iu flex v SI flex. 9. Trnh by kt ni WCDMA/HSPA vi EPC.

Chng 16

HIU NNG V QU NG TRUYN CA HSPA V LTE

e so snh cc h thng thng tin di ng bng rng cn nh gi hiu nng ca cc h thng ny. Ngoi ra thit k nh c cho cc mng thng t i n d i ng cn bit cch tnh ton qu ng truyn v tuyn. Cc ch c trnh by trong chng ny bao gm: - nh gi hiu nng - nh gi hiu nng ca pht trin 3G v LTE da trn m phng tnh - nh gi L T E trong 3GPP da trn m phng ng - Qu ng truyn HSPA - Qu ng truyn L T E Mc ch chng cung cp cho bn c kin thc v cc phng php nh gi hiu nng bng m phng cho 3G HSPA v LTE. Ngoi ra chng ny cng gip cho bn c hiu c cch tnh ton qu ng truyn HSPA v LTE. hiu c chng ny bn c cn c k ni dung c trnh by trong chng, tham kho thm cc gio trnh [14], [15] v tr li cc cu hi cui chng.

16.1. NH GI HIU NNG


M phng cc h thng thng tin di ng trn my tnh l mt cng c mnh nh gi hiu nng h thng. Tt nhin hiu nng

572

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

thc t phi c o v nh gi ti hin trng cho h thng trin khai v cc gi tr ny th hin hiu nng thc s ca mt cu hnh h thng c th. Nhng m phng bng my tnh c mt s u im sau: - C th thc hin c tnh cc khi nim h thng cha c trin khai hoc vn cn trong qu trnh trin khai nh LTE. - K i m sot hon ton mi trng bao gm cc thng s truyn sng, lu lng, cu trc h thng,..., v c kh nng theo di y tt c cc thng s nh hng ln kt qu. - C th thc hin cc th nghim c iu khin tt so snh vi cc khi nim h thng tng t hoc cc b phn ca cc khi nim trong cc iu kin lp li nhiu ln. Mc d c cc u im ni trn, cc kt qu m phng khng cho c bc tranh y v hiu nng h thng. Khng th lp m hnh cho mi kha cnh ca mi trng di ng v lp m hnh chnh xc cho hnh v i ca tt c cc phn t trong mt h thng. Tuy nhin c th t c mt bc tranh rt tt v hiu nng h thng v bc tranh ny thng c s dng tm ra cc gii hn tim nng i vi hiu nng. Do rt kh lp m hnh cho tt c cc kha cnh lin quan, nn cc kt qu o c dung lng tng i a ra cc tnh nng s chnh xc hn cc con s dung lng tuyt i, nu a ra c m hnh tt cho tnh nng cn xt. Rt kh nh gi dung lng h thng nu khng so snh, v mi con s v dung lng h thng t n khng cung cp nhiu thng tin. Ch khi thit lp quan h vi hiu nng ca cc h thng khc nhau, con s ny mi tr nn ng quan tm. Nhng v SG snh l mt phn quan trng ca nh gi hiu nng, nn cc con s ny cng tr thnh vn gy tranh ci do hiu nng h thng ph thuc vo qu nhiu thng s. Nu khng chn hp l cc thng s a ra cc iu kin c th so snh cho hai h thng, th cc con s hiu nng cng khng th so snh c. Trong ng cnh ny, cn lu l hiu nng h thng v dung lng s l tnh nng ph thuc. Nhiu tnh nng nh M I M O v cc

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

573

k thut anten tin tin c a vo cc h thng 3G rt ging nhau gia cc h thng. Nu mt tnh nng no l ty chn kh thi vi nhiu h thng th cn a tnh nng ny vo nh gi cho mi h thng. Mi con s hiu nng c nh gi phi c xem xt trong ng cnh l hiu nng mng v tuyn thc t s ph thuc vo nhiu thng s v kh kim sot c nhiu thng s ny. Cc thng s ny gm: - Mi trng di ng bao gm cc iu kin knh, tri gc, kiu cm, tc my di ng, s dng trong nh/ngoi tri v cc l hng ph sng. - Hnh v i lin quan n ngi s dng nh tch cc ting, phn b lu lng v phn b dch v. - iu chnh cht lng dch v v cht lng mng ca h thng. - Cc kha cnh trin khai nh cc kiu i trm, cc chiu cao anten v k hoch ti s dng tn s. - Mt s cc thng s thng khng c lp m hnh nh dung lng, hiu nng bo hiu v cht lng o. Khng tn ti tiu chun nh gi vn nng cho mt h thng thng tin. Tt nhin ngi s dng u cui v nh khai thc mng nh ngha hiu nng tt hon ton khc nhau. Mt mt ngi s dng u cui mun nhn c mc cht lng cao nht c th. Mt khc, cc nh khai thc mun t c li nhun cao nht chng hn p cng nhiu ngi s dng vo h thng cng tt. Cc tnh nng tng cng hiu nng c th ci thin cht lng dch v cm nhn (t quan im ngi s dng) hay hiu nng h thng (t quan im nh khai thc). HSPA v L T E u c tim nng lm c c hai iu ny. So vi cc pht hnh W C D M A trc y, cc bc pht trin ny cho tc s liu tt hn v tr nh hn. V th chng c th ci thin ng k c tri nghim dch v (t quan im ngi s dng) v dung lng h thng (t quan im nh khai thc).

574

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

6.1.. Hiu nng t gc ngi s dng


Nhng ngi s dng cc dch v chuyn mch knh c m bo tc s liu c nh. Cht lng dch v trong ng cnh cc dch
9 r

v thoi v thoi c hnh c nh ngha bi cht lng ting v hnh theo th cm. Tri li nhng ngi s dng ti xung mt trang web hay mt video clip li tri nghim thi gian m h bt u ti n khi m trang web ny hay video clip c hin th. Cc dch v n lc nht khng m bo tc s liu c nh. M tri li, ngi s dng ch c n nh ti nguyn khi c tc s liu kh dng trong cc iu kin hin ti. y l tnh cht chung ca cc mng chuyn mch gi, cc ti nguyn khng c dnh trc cho bt k ngi s dng no. Gi s rng tr tng cng vi kch thc ca i tng cn ti xung, tr tuyt i s khng phi l s o cht lng tt. Mt ngi s dng duy nht trong mt mng v tuyn c cc iu
w f *

kin knh v tuyn tt c th c hng tc s liu nh (hnh 16.1). Tuy nhin thng thng ngi s dng ny chia s ti nguyn
\ f

vi nhng ngi s dng khc. Nu cc iu kin v tuyn km hn ti u, s c nhiu t nhng ngi s dng khc, tc s liu ca
9 9

giao din v tuyn s thp hn tc s liu nh. Ngoi ra mt s gi c th b mt v trong trng hp ny s liu mt phi c pht li v th tc s liu hiu dng li b gim hn na (nhn t cc lp cao hn). Ngoi ra tc s liu hiu dng thm ch gim hn khi khong cch t u cui n trm gc tng (do cc iu kin truyn dn xu hn ti bin ). Tc s liu t c bn trn lp M C sau khi chia s knh v i nhng ngi s dng khc c gi l thng lng ngi s dng. Giao thc iu khin truyn dn (TCP: Giao thc ti lp truyn ti) l giao thc thng c s dng cng v i lu lng IP. Tuy nhin do gii thut khi u nhy cm vi tr mng, nn n d gy t

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

575

ra tr i vi cc fle nh. Gii thut khi u t m bo rng tc truyn dn t ngun khng vt qu kh nng ca cc nt v cc giao din mng.

Thng lng ngi s dng

Tr vng

Hnh 16. . nh ngha cc thng s hiu nng


_ *

'

'

- Tc s liu giao din v tuyn: Tc s liu lp vt l t c trong cc iu kin v tuyn nht nh vi m ha v iu ch c th - Toe s liu nh: Tc s liu nh ca giao din v tuyn trong cc iu kin v tuyn l tng - Thng lng ngi s dng: Tc s liu nhn c bn trn lp M C ^rong cc diu kin knh thc t v sau khi chia s knh vi nhng ngi s dng khc - Tr vng: thi gian truyn vng u cui - u cui ca mt gi nh - Thng lng h thng: Tng s bt c pht trong thi gian n mt giy trn giao din v tuyn (tr mt on ) - Tr vng mng l thi gian cn thit mt gi truyn t client n server v ngc li. Tr ny nh hng trc tip ln hiu nng l quan n TCP. V th mc tiu thit k quan trng trong c HSPA in

576

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

v L T E l gim tr vng mng. Mt tiu chun khc lin quan n cht lng (xt t gc ngi s dng) l thit lp khi u, chng hn phin trnh duyt web. 16.1.2. Hiu nng t gc nh khai thc Ti nguyn v tuyn phi c chia s gia nhiu ngi s ng trong mng. V th tt c s liu phi xp hng trc khi c th c truyn v iu ny hn ch tc s liu hiu dng ca tng ngi s dng. Bng lp biu, nh khai thc c th ci thin thng lng h thng hay tng s cc bt trn mt giy c pht trn giao din v tuyn. Mt s o ph bin ca hiu nng h thng l "hiu sut ph tn ", y l thng lng h thng trn MHz ph trong tng on ca h thng. C HSPA v L T E u s dng cc phng php lp biu thng minh ti un ha hiu nng (t quan im ngi s dng v t quan im mng). Mt tiu chun nh gi quan trng i vi nh khai thc l s lng nhng ngi s dng tch cc c th c kt ni ng thi. Nu cc ti nguyn h thng b hn ch th cn cn i gia s lng nhng ngi s dng tch cc v cht lng dch v cm nhn (thng lng ngi s dng). 16.1.3. Cu hnh v cc tiu ch thc hin m phng nh gi Chng ny ch yu s xt nh gi cc yu cu v hiu sut s dng ph tn v thng lng cho cc cng ngh a truy nhp HSPA v LTE. nh gi c thc hin cho cc ch hot ng trong cc bng tn di bng tn rng ln n 20MHz. Cc nh gi ban u c thc hin trn m hnh tham chun sau: - W C D M A R - Mt anten pht ti nt B

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE 577 - Hai anten thu ti UE - My thu R A K E - Bng thng 5MHz Cc kt qu c chun ha theo bis/Hz. Cc nh gi c thc hin da trn m phng cho cc trng hp c cho trong bng 16.1 vi cc ct sau: - CF (Carrier Frequency): Tn s sng mang - ISD (Inter-site Distance): Khong cch gia cc m - BW (Band Width): Bng thng - PLoss: Penetration Loss: Suy hao thm nhp - Speed: Tc Bng 16. . Tp cc trng hp ti thiu m phng WCDMA/HSPA
M phng em v CF (GHz) ISD (mi BW (MHz)

v LTE
Speed (Tc ) (km/h)

PLoss (dB)

2.0

500

10

20

2 3 4

2,0 2,0 0.9

500 1732 1000

10 10 1,25

10 20 10

30 3 3

Cc thng s tham kho m phng h thng cho m hnh v m c cho trong bng 16.2.

578

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Bng 16.2. Cc thng s tham kho m phng h thng v m


Thng s Gi thit

M hnh t ong Khong cch gia cc trm (Inter-site Distance) Tn hao ng truyn ph thuc khong cch Che ti chun log Dch chun che ti Khong cch tng quan ca che ti Tng quan che ti Gia cc Gia cc on

Lc gic u, 19 im t trm, 3 on trn mt trm Xem bng 16.1 L = I + 37,6logio(R), R [km] 1 = 128,1 -2GHz, I = 120,9 - 900MHz hoc 35,5 cho m phng tnh Tng t nh UMTS 30.03, B 1.4.1.4 8dB 50m (xem D.4 trong UMTS 30.03) 0,5 1.0 Xem bng 7.1

Tn hao thm nhp Mu pht x anten (mt nm ngang) (i vi 3 on vi mu anten c nh) Tn s sng mang/Bng thng M hnh knh

A(e) = -min I2-5- ,A


V3dB

3 d B

= 70, An=20dB

Xem bng 16.1 th in hnh (TU) hoc m hnh knh khng gian (SCM) 3km/h, 30km/h, 120km/h, 350km/h (Okm/h cho m phng tnh) 43dBm (20W) - sng mang 1,25; 5MHz, 46dBm - sng mang 10MHz 21dBm (125mW), 24dBm (250mW)

Tc UE cn xt

Tng cng sut my pht (BS) Loi cng sut (UE )

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE


UL: M hnh tng minh (Tt c cc u b chim bi cc UE), DL: M hnh tng minh cng sut = P i o i a l Khong cch ti thiu gia UE v trm gc > 35m

579

M hnh nhiu gia cc

1 . . N H GI HIU N N G CA PHT TRIN 3G V LTE 62 DA TRN M PHNG TNH


Nh gii thch trn, rt kh nh gi mt h thng hot ng tt nh th no nu khng so snh. nh gi cn bao gm c WCDMA (HSPA) v L T E xt trong cc chng trc. Ngoi ra WCDMA (HSPA) R s c s dng lm tham chun so snh. Di y s trnh by nh gi so snh ba h thng ni trn. nh gi c xy dng trn cc m phng tnh (u cui di ng khng chuyn ng) v m phng ng (u cui di ng chuyn ng). Trong mc ny ta s xt nh gi da trn cc kt qu m phng tnh. Cc con s hiu nng s gm cc gi tr hiu nng cho h thng R tham chun, h thng HSPA pht trin v cho LTE. H thng HSPA pht trin c cc my thu tin tin, ng xung vi 2x2MIMO v ng ln vi 16QAM. Cc kt qu tng hp s cho php nh gi tng i li lin quan n O F D M v MIMO, v cc tnh nng khc i vi h thng L T E da trn O F D M v h thng HSPA tin tin rt ging nhau. Vi mc chi tit c p dng cho cc giao thc i vi L T E v i vi HSPA pht trin cng nh cc gi thit m phng c s dng cho nh gi di y, ta s thy c tim nng cng ngh ca LTE v HSPA pht trin . L mt phn cng vic ca 3GPP v lp vt l ca LTE, hiu nng h thng ca L T E c nh gi vi tp cc

580

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

gi thit tng t nhng s dng cc m phng ng. Cc kt qu v cc kt lun ca nh gi 3GPP c trnh by trong mc 16.3. 16.2.1. Cc m hnh v cc gi thit Mc ny s trnh by cc m hnh v cc gi thit c s dng nh gi. Tng kt cc m hnh v cc gi thit c phn nhm theo lu lng, mng v tuyn v cc m hnh h thng c cho trong bng 16.3. Ba h thng khc nhau c nghin cu: - H thng tham chun VCDMA R c m t trong cc yu cu ca 3GPP s dng truyn dn n lung v my thu da trn RAKE tham chun. - H thng HSPA pht trin c cc my thu tin tin hn, 2 x 2 M I M O cho ng xung v 16QAM cho ng ln. - H thng LTE c lp cu hnh theo cc yu cu ca 3GPP, vi 2x2 M I M O cho ng xung. Bng 16.3. Cc m hnh v gi thit cho nh gi
Cc m hnh lu lng Phn b ngi s dng Tc u cui To s liu Cc m hnh mng v tuyn Suy hao theo khong cch Phainh che ti Phainh a ng S L = 35,5 + 37,6 X log(R), R c o bng m Chun log, lch chun 8dB 3GPP th in hnh v ngi i b A Li lc gic u, mi trm ba on , tng s 57 on u, trung binh 10 ngi s dng trn mt on Okm/h Tt bt vi tha s tch cc: 5%, 10%, 2 0 % 40%, 60%, 80%, 1 0 0 %

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE


Bn kinh
Cc m hnh h thng

581

167m (khong cch gia cc 500m)

n nh ph Cng sut u ra trm gc v UE li anten cc i Cc s iu ch v m ha Lp biu

5MHz cho DL v 5MHz cho UL (FDD) 20W v 125mW vo anten 15dBi QPSK v 16QAM, m ha Turbo theo VVCDMAR6. Ch s dng QPSK cho WCDMA ng ln Quay vng theo thi gian

Cc dc tinh c s c a VVCDMA

S pht

Mt lung trn DL v UL Phn tp anten hai nhnh vi my thu RAKE, kt hp t l cc i tt c cc nhnh knh, h s tp m 9dB trong UE, 5dB trong nt B

My thu

Cc c tnh VVCDMA t i n tin

S pht

DL: 2 lung PARC UL: 1 lung DL: GRAKE vi loi nhiu ln lt

My thu

UL: GRAKE vi phn tp thu hai nhnh, chuyn giao mm vi kt hp la chn gia cc trm

Cc c tnh L T E

S truyn dn

DL: 2 lung PARC UL: Lung n DL: MMSE vi loi nhiu ln lt

My thu

UL: MMSE vi phn tp thu hai nhnh, chuyn giao mm vi kt hp chn lc gia cc

Cng cn lu rng n h i u kha cnh giao thc pha trn l p vt l ca mt p h a n g iu k h i n v mt phng ngi s dng b b qua trong cc m p h n g ny v t h cc gi tr nhn c rt k h quan. i vi L T E , thch n g m i n t n s v cc ci thin lp,cao khc khng

c xt.

582

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G Phng php m phng l 'tnh', trong cc u cui di ng

c phn b ngu nhin trn mng v tuyn v knh v tuyn gia cp anten trm gc v UE c tnh ton theo cc m hnh truyn sng v phainh. Cc gi tr thng k c ghi li sau cc u cui di ng mi c phn b ngu nhin cho bc lp tip theo. Cc mc ti h thng khc nhau c m phng bng cch thit lp tch cc ngu nhin cho tng trm gc t 5 % n 100%. Lp biu min thi gian khng ph thuc knh c s dng, tng ng vi lp biu quay vng. T so tn hiu trn nhiu cng tp m (SINR: Signal to Interferrence plus Noise Ratio) c tnh ton cho tng anten thu ca UE (hay trm gc) da trn cc thc hin knh (cc mu knh) v cc ngun nhiu tch cc. Sau cc gi tr SINR c chuyn i thnh tc s liu ng truyn v tuyn tch cc Ru cho tng ngi s dng u khi ngi ny c lp biu. Trong trng hp MIMO, Ru c lp m hnh nh l tng cc tc s liu t c trn mt lung MIMO. Tc s liu t c pha trn lp M C (sau khi chia s knh vi nhng ngi s dng khc) c biu th l thng lng s v c tnh ton da trn tha s tch cc. Cc trm gc tch cc v nhng ngi s dng tch cc khc nhau gia cc ln lp v cc gi tr thng k ny c thu thp trn mt s lng lp ln.
u

Lim lng c phc v trn mt on T c tnh ton nh l tng cc tc s liu ca ng truyn v tuyn tch cc cho nhng ngi s dng tch cc trong on vi gi thit rng nhng ngi s dng ny c lp biu vi cng mt khong thi gian. Cc gi tr thng k v cht lng ngi s dng c ly ra t phn b thng lng ngui s dng nhu l gi tr trung bnh (cht lng trung bnh) v 5 phn trm (cht lng bin ). K h i tng tha s tch cc, lu lng phc v trn mt on s tng, trong khi tc s liu c nhn (cht lng ca ngi s dng) s gim do gim t s SINR v truy nhp tha hn n knh chia s cho tng ngi s dng.

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

583

16.2.2. C c gi tr hiu nng i vi L T E s dng cc sng mang 5MHz F D D

Hnh 16.2 cho thy thng lng ngi s dng ng xung trung bnh v 5 phn trm (bin ) ng xung Su ph thuc vo thng lng phc v (T) i vi cc iu kin truyn sng thnh ph. Cc kt qu m phng c so snh vi h thng WCDMA. LTE nhn c s ci thin thng lng ng k cho c ngi s dng trung bnh v ti bin . Tuy nhin h thng HSPA pht trin cho hiu nng gn ging nh h thng LTE. Cc ci thin tng i v thng lng trung bnh v thng lng bin c th c nh gi bng cch so snh cc thng lng t c bi cc h thng khc nhau ti cng mt ti lu lng. li thng lng trung bnh vt qu h s 3x c th t c trn di rng ti. V d, ti lu lng phc v 2Mbit/s trn on WCDMA c s t c thng lng ngi s dng trung bnh khong 2,5Mbit/s so vi 18Mbis i vi LTE. Lu rng h thng HSPA pht trin t c 15Mbit/s ti ti ny. Cc ng truyn v tuy nhanh hn ca c h thng LTE v n HSPA tin tin s nh hng ln thng lng theo hai cch: 1. i vi SINR cho trc, cho php t c thng lng cao hn. 2. i vi cng mt lu lng phc v, cho php gim mc s dng ng truyn v tuy v v thnhiu gim dn SINR n n cao hom. Ngoi ra li thng lng bin vt qu h s 2x cho di rng t i nh hnh 16.2. C th nh gi cc li s dng ph tn bng cch so snh lu lng c phc v i vi mt yu cu cho trc v thng lng bin . Chng hn, i vi yu cu thng lng bin lMbit/s, W C D M A c th phc v 2,5Mbit/s trn mt on , gi tr tng ng i vi L T E l 8Mbit/s ngha l li trong trng hp ny ln hn 3x. Tuy nhin i vi cc yu cu thng lng thp hn, yu cu 3GPP L T E khng c p ng. Trong mt mng y ti, lu

584

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

lng c phc v vo khong 4 n 9Mbis i vi WCDMA c s v LTE, nh vy li t c vi h s 2,25x.


ng xung, thnh ph in hnh, ISD = 500m, tn hao thm nhp = 20dB j 20 15
\ ^Sv \ \ \ \ \ ! \

s
c n
5

2 5

3 OI

LTE VVCDMA tin tin VVCDMA c sd

l
li
c

-.-->LX.

1 0

2 4 6 8 Lu lng c phc v (Mbis) ng xung, thnh ph in hnh, ISD = 500m, tn hao thm nhp = 20dB . '

141

LU lng c phc v (Mbit/s) ISD: khong cch gia cc

Hnh 16.2. Thng lng ngi s dng ng xung trung bnh v bin ph thuc vo lim lng c phc v (Truyn sng thnh ph in hnh)

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

585

Hnh 16.3 cho thy cc kt qu tng t i vi knh ngi i b phn tn thi gian hn. T r o n g knh tn thi hn, W C D M A hot t t ng tt hn, nht l h thng W C D M A c s khng s dng cc my thu tin tin. Cc l i hiu nng cao i v i L T E so v i W C D M A vn t c, l i cho thng lng trung bnh ca ngi s dng l 3x cn cho thng lng ngi s dng bin l 2x. Cc l i hiu sut ph cng vt qu 3x i v i cc yu cu thng lng ngi s dng bin l n hn 2Mbit/s. Cc kt qu tng ng cho truyn sng thnh ph in hnh c th hin trn hnh 16.4 v cho truyn sng ngi i b A trn hnh 16.5. Cc kt qu ny cho thy li ln hn 2x cho cc yu cu v thng thng trung bnh v thng lng bin ca ngi s dng so vi chun tham kho W C D M A . i v i thng lng bin li nh hn thng lng trung bnh. ng xung, ngi i b A,

10

LU lng c phc v (Mbit/s)

586

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


ng xung, ngi i b A, ISD = 500m, tn hao thm nhp = 20dB 14,

Lu lng c phc v (Mbit/s)

Hnh 16.3. Thng lng ngi s dng ng xung trung bnh v bin ph thuc lu lng c phc v (Truyn sng ngi i b A)
ng ln, thnh ph in hnh, ISD = 500m, ton hao thm nhp = 20dB -

10 I

Lu lng c phc v (Mbit/s)

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE


ng ln, thnh ph din hnh,

587

Lu lng c phc v (Mbis) ISD: khong cch gia cc

Hnh 16.4. Thng lng ngi s dng ng ln trung bnh v bin ph thuc lu lng c phc v (Truyn sng thnh ph in hnh)
ng ln, ngi i b A, ISD = 500m, tn hao thm nhp = 20dB 1 : r

10 I

Lu lng c phc v (Mbit/s)

588

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


ng ln, ngi i b A, ISD = 500m, tn hao thm nhp = 20dB i i r

Lu lng c phc v (Mbis) ISD: khong cch gia cc

Hnh 16.5. Thng lng ngi s dng ng ln trung bnh v bin ph thuc lu lng c phc v (Truyn sng ngi i b A)

16.3. NH GI LTE TRONG 3GPP DA TRN M PHNG N G 16.3.1. Cc yu cu hiu nng ca LTE
Cc mc tiu hiu nng h thng ca L T E c nh ngha trong 3GPP trong nm 2005 v c trnh by trong 3GPP TR25.913 cng vi cc mc tiu lin quan n cc kh nng, tnh phc tp v cu trc (xem chng 11). Cc tiu chun nh gi i vi hiu nng h thng l: - Thng lng ngi s dng trung bnh: c o bng gi tr trung bnh tng thng lng trn tt c nhng ngi s dng t rn

1MHz.

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

589

- "Thng lng ngi s dng bin ": c o bng 5 % phn b ngi s dng trn MHz ( 9 5 % s ngi s dng c hiu nng tt hem). - Hiu sut pho tn: Thng lng h thng trn mt on o bng bit/s/MHz/mt trm. - Vng ph: Hiu nng trong cc ln. Trong khi cc gii php cng ngh chi tit i vi LTE khng phi l c s cho cc yu cu hiu nng, th s lng cc anten Tx v Rx c lp cu hnh cho BS v UE phi c chp nhn l cc iu kin tin quyt cho cc mc tiu hiu nng. L do v phi gii hn mc tng s lng anten i vi gii php c la chn do tng mc phc tp. v mt l thuyt c th nhn c cc li rt ln phi thc t khi s dng s lng anten phi thc t. V th di y l cc cu hnh ng xung v ng ln c chn cho cc mc tiu LTE: - ng xung LTE c cc i 2 anten pht ti eNodeB v hai anten thu ti Rx. - ng ln LTE c cc i mt anten pht ti UE v hai anten thu ti eNodeB. Hiu nng c nh gi ring r cho ng ln v cho ng xung v cc mc tiu c thit lp tng i so vi hiu nng tham chun ca h thng tham chun R. H thng tham chun gm: - ng xung tham chun R da trn HSDPA vi mt anten pht ti nt B vi my thu kiu c hiu nng tng cng (cc yu cu da trn phn tp anten kp). - ng ln tham chun R da trn ng ln tng cng (HSUPA) vi mt anten pht ti UE v hai anten thu ti nt B. Cc tiu ch hiu nng LTE chp thun c cho trong bng 16.4. V k vng rng c thng lng trung bnh ngi s dng ln

590

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

hiu sut ph tn u hng li t vic tng ln 2 anten pht t rn ng xung, nn tng mc tiu thng lng ngi s dng bin s c th l ch tiu mi trn ng xung. Bng 16.4. Mc tiu hiu nngLTE trong TR25.913
Tiu chun nh gi hiu nng Thng lng ngi s dng trung binh (trn mt MHz) Thng lng ngi s dng bin 0 (trn 1MHz, 5%) Hiu sut ph tn bis/Hz/trm ch n g xung so v i tham chun R6 HSDPA 3-4x 2-3x 3-4x p ng cc yu cu trn cho vng ph ln n 5km ch ng ln so vi tham chun R6 HSUPA

2-3x 2-3x 2-3x p ng cc yu cu trn cho vng ph ln n 5km

Vng ph

16.3.2. nh gi hiu nng L T E Khi nghin cu tnh kh thi ca 3GPP cho LTE, mt s khi nim knh vt l ng xung v ng ln L T E c nghin cu v c bo co trong TR25.814. Cc khi nim c chn cng c nh gi theo thng lng ngi s dng, hiu sut ph tn, vng ph v cc thng s khc. Cc gi thit v cc cng ngh c thit lp cho nh gi 3GPP cng c bo co cng vi cc tng kt v cc kt qu (xem mc di). nh gi L T E c thc hin cho 3GPP da trn phn b ngu nhin nhng ngi s dng trn m hnh mng v tuyn v sau nhng ngi s dng ny chuyn dch theo m hnh di ng. Truyn sng v phainh c m hnh ha cc gi tr thng k c thu thp cho tng bc m phng ca mt TTI. Tt c cc s liu nhn c trong nh gi ca 3GPP da t rn LTE s dng cc sng mang bng thng 5MHz, cc gi tr ny c

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng, truyn ca HSPA v LTE 591 t trong quan h vi chun tham kho R nh ni trn. Cc kt qu c nh gi cng trnh by cho cc kch thc thay i, cc phng php lp biu khc nhau (quay vng v cng bng t l), cc m hnh a knh v cc bng thng khc nhau. To s liu lu lng v lp biu c s dng khc vi xt trong mc 16.2 (da t m phng tnh). Ngoi ra cng c mt s khc bit nh cc kch rn thc v cc m hnh truyn sng. Cng c th s dng cu hnh 2x2 nh gi LTE to bp mt lung ng xung. Kt qu cho thy rng thng lng trung bnh ca ngi s dng i vi ti lu lng cao v thng lng ngi s dng bin i vi tt c cc ti c ci thin so vi cc kt qu cho 2x2MIMO, tt c cc mc tiu u p ng khi s dng cu hnh anten trong bng 16.2. Cc kt qu nh gi cng cho thy cu hnh to bp nhiu lung 4x2 cng vt tri 2x2MIMO v cu hnh to bp mt lung ti tt c cc ti. Kt lun nghin cu tnh kh thi, hiu nng LTE c bo co v c so snh vi chun tham kho W C D M A trong TR25.912 v bo cc ny kt lun rng cc tiu ch c p ng. 16.3.3. Hiu nng LTE vi sng mang FDD bng thng 20MHz nh gi c trnh by trong mc 16.2 da trn m phng tnh v nh gi ca 3GPP da trn m phng ng u da trn sng mang bng thng 5MHz. L T E h tr di rng cc bng thng sng mang ln n 20MHz. Bng thng cao hn cho cc tc s liu nh cao hn cho nhng ngi s dng v thng lng trung bnh ngi s dng cng cao hn. Cc con s nhn c da trn m phng ng cng vi cc gi thit cng ging nh trong nh gi ca 3GPP, ngoi tr cc thng s c ch ra trong bng 16.5. Cc gi tr hiu nng trn hnh 16.6 cho thy thng lng trung bnh ngi s dng i vi sng mang bng thng 20MHz vo

592

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

khong 4 ln, ln hn sng mang bng thorig~5MHz i vi c cc ti lu lng cao v thp. Mc d sng mang bng thng 20MHz tng tc s liu bn ln, hiu sut ph tn (Mbis/MHz) cc i hu nh khng i. Cc gi tr cho 4x4MIMO cho php tng hiu sut ph tn hai ln so vi 2x2MIMO. Bng 16.5. Cc gi thit cho cc kt qu trn hnh 16.6
Cng sut trm gc M hnh truyn sng Khong cch gia cc trm Lp biu 40W (20MHz) v 20W (5MHz) V m ngoi (m hnh knh khng gian) 500m Cng b
ng t l trong min thi gian v min tn s

Hiu sut ph tn (Mbis/MHz)

Hnh 16.6. Thng lng trung bnh ngi s dng ph thuc hiu sut pho tn i vi cc sng mang bng thng 5MHz v 20MHz

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

593

16.4. Q U N G TRUYN HSPA


Mc ny s trnh by tnh ton qu ng truyn HSDPA v HSUPA. Qu ng truyn c s dng trong giai on nh c mng vi cc m hnh truyn sng ph hp c tnh s i trm cn thit. Qu ng truyn tng i ny cng c th c s dng xc nh kh nng ti s dng trm gc bng cch tnh qu ng truyn tng i gia GSM v HSPA.

16.4.1. Qu ng truyn HSUPA


Tng cng sut tp m nhit c tnh theo cng thc sau: N = (Ni xNF)[dB] = 101g(290xl,38xl0' ) + NF + 30 + 101gB dBm/Hz
23 w

(16.1)

trong Ni l tp m nhit u vo my thu; NF l h s tp m ca my thu; B


w

l bng thng knh.

nhy cn thit ca my thu m bo t s tn hiu trn nhiu cng tp m SINR = (Eb/N')req yu cu c xc nh nhu sau:
0

Pmi/(N+I) = (l/Gp)x(E /(N +Io))


b 0

req

= (l/G )x(E /N ')re


p b 0

(16.2)
b 0 req

trong p

m i n

l nhy my thu cn thit m bo t s (E /N )

yu cu, Gp l li x l, N v l tp m nhit v nhiu t nhng ngi s dng khc, No v lo l mt tp m nhit v nhiu t nhng ngi s dng khc, No' = N +Io l mt ph cng sut tp
0

m cng nhiu. T phng trnh (16.2) ta c: Pmin = (N+I)[dBm] - Gp[dB] + (E,/No )r [dB],
, eq

(16.3) (16.4)

N+I = N x M , hay (N+I)[dB] = N[dB] + M, [dB]

594

Gio trnh L trnh phi trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G


6

trong : N = 30 +101gk + 101g290K + 101g3,8410 chip/s,dBm v k = l,38.10" WK"'Hz' l hng s Bolzmann


23 1

M| l d tr nhiu giao thoa ca nhng ngi s dng khc c tnh theo h s ti ng ln nh sau: M, = - l g ( l - T i ) [ d B ]
UL

(16.5)

Tn hao cc i cho php ng ln khi s dng b khuch i trn thp anten ( M H A ) b tr tn hao cp c tnh nh sau: L
m a x

= EIRP -P +G -L -M . +G HA+G o [dB]


m min b f f F M H b

(16.6)

trong Pmin l nhy hiu dng my thu, G tr phainh nhanh


H

l li anten thu
F

trm gc, Mf. l d trm gc, Lf l tn hao kt ni v tuyn v cp


G HA
M

l khuch i ca b khuch i t trn


m

thp anten, G o l li chuyn giao mm, v E I R P l cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng ca u cui di ng c xc nh nh sau: E I R P = P -L +G -L
m tx fm m body

[dB]

(16.7)

V d qu ng truyn HSUPA c tnh ton theo bng 16.6. Qu ng truyn c tnh ton cho tc s liu 64kbit/s ti bin . Gi thit cng sut pht u cui c gi thit bng 24dBm, khng xt n tn hao c th i vi kt ni s liu, khuch i anten u cui di ng, tn hao cp v connect, v th cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (EIRP) bng 24dBm. Gi thit my thu trm gc c h s tp m NF = 2dB, v v th tp m nn my thu l 106,2dBm. nhy my thu hiu dng c xt nhiu khi h s ti bng 50% (tng ng vi d tr nhiu 3dB) vi gi thit Eb/NO bng 0,0dB i vi B L E R l 1 0 % bao gm c li x l 17,8dB s l -121dBm. Gi thit tn hao cp c b tr bi b khuch i t ti thp anten MHA, h s khuch i anten trm gc 18dBi (anten c rng bp sng l 65) v li chuyn giao mm 2dB, cui cng ta c tn hao ng truyn cc i cho php l 163dB.

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

595

Bng 16.6. V d tnh qu ng truyn HSUPA cho 64kbit/s


My pht (du cui di ng) Cng sut my pht (dBm) Khuch i anten (dBi) Tn hao phi +connect(dB) Tn hao c th (dB) Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (dBm) My thu (Trm gc) H s tp m my thu (dB) Cng sut tp m nhit u vo my thu (dBm) Cng sut tp m nn my thu (Bm) H s ti ng ln (%) D tr nhiu giao thoa (dB) Tng tp m + nhiu giao thoa (dBm) li x l (dB) T s SNR yu cu (dB) nhy my thu hiu dng (dBm) Khuch i anten trm (Bi) Tn hao connect v phi (dB) D tr phadinh nhanh (dB) Khuch i MHA* (dB) li chuyn giao mm (dB) Tn hao ng truyn cc i cho php (dB) 2,0 -108,2 -106,2 50 3,0 -103,2
17,8

" 24,0 0,0 0,0 0,0 24,0


Pxm Gn Lfm Lbody

E I R P = Ptxm-Lfm Gm-Lbody
+ m

NF Ni = 30+10lgK+10lg290K+10lg3,8410 chip/s
6

N = N+NF
*1UL

Mi = -10lg(1-nu0 (N+l)[dBm] = N+M| G p = 10log(3.840.000/64.000)


(Eb/No')rBq,

0,0 -121,0 18,0 2,0 2.0 2,0 2,0 163,0

BLER 1 0 % t m phng
, b req

Pm,n= (N+l)[dBm] -Gp[dB]+(E /No ) [B],


Gb

M-F. c d tr cho iu khin cng sut vng kin


GMHA GHO

Lmax = EIRPm-Pmin+Gb-Lf -M(-F+GMHA+GHO

' H : Mast Head Amplitier: b khuch i trn thp anten MA

596

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

Tn hao ng truyn c th c o theo mc cng sut thu ca knh hoa tiu, CPICH RSCP (Received Signal Code Power: cng sut m t n hiu thu). Tn hao ng truyn 163dBm tng ng vi mc tn hiu CPICH RSCPdBm sau: RSCP[dBm] = PCPICH-IX [dBm]-L G-L
R max

= 33dBm-2dB+18dBi-163dB = -114dBm 16.4.2. Qu ng truyn HSDPA Tng t nh cng thc (16.6) cho ng truyn HSUPA, ta c th tnh ton suy hao cc i cho php cho ng truyn HSDPA nh sau: L gc, G
m a x

(16.8)

= EIRP -P +G -L
b mjn m b

body

-L

fm

-Mf_F+Gno [dB]

(16.9)

trong : EIRP l cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng trm


m

l h s khuch i anten u cui di ng, L


b o d y

f m

l suy hao cp
F

ni v connect u cui di ng, L

suy hao c th, Mf. l d tr

phainh nhanh, GHO li chuyn giao mm (tro ng trng hp ny bng khng v HSDPA khng s dng chuyn giao mm) v Pin l nhy hiu dng my thu trm gc tnh theo cng thc sau:
Pmin=

(N+I)[dBm] -G [dB]+(E /N ') [dB]


p b 0 req b 0

(16.10)

trong N l tp m nn, (E /N ') l t s tn hiu trn tp m cng nhiu yu cu ly theo kt qu m phng v Gp l li x l dch v tnh nh sau: Gp= 101gSF [dB] (16.11)

trong SF l h s tri ph bng 16 i vi HS-DSCH v 128 i viHS-SCCH. Qu ng xung c tnh ton theo bng 16.7. Tnh ton c s dng cho tc s liu 512kbit/s cho mt ngi s dng om t rn

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE

597

knh HS-DSCH. Cng sut trm gc c gi thit bng 40W v 8 c 0/ cng sut ny c dnh cho HS-DSCH, v t cng sut phi h HS-DSCH s l 45dBm. Trc khi n ant tn hao cp s gim en cng sut ny 2dB. H s tp m c gi thit bng 7dB (2dB cao hn yu cu ca 3GPP). li x l c nh bng 16 (bng 12dB). H s ti c gi thit bng 7 0 % (kh cao so vi ti ca cc khc). Gi thit SINR yu cu bng 6,0dB i vi u cui mt anten. Nu u cui s dng phn tp thu vi hai anten, tc s liu s tng gp i ln lMbit/s vi ti cng gi tr SINR. Tn hao ng truyn ly bng 163dB ging nh tn hao ng truyn thoi GSM hay WCDMA, v t HSDPA c th m bo dch h v bng rng bng cch s dng cng trm hin c ong cng bng tn ang s dng cho GSM. Bng l. 7. V d tnh qu ng truyn DL HSDPA cho 512kbit/s, u cui 3,6Mbt/s
My pht (trm gc) HS-DSCH HS-SCCH Pixb 46dBm (39,8W), Cng sut HS-SCH (dBm) 45 37,7 8 0 % cho HS-DSCH (31,85W->45dBm) Khuch i anten (dBi) Tn hao connect v phi (dB) Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (dBm) My thu (u cui di ng) HS-DSCH H s tp m m y thu (dB) Cng sut tp m nhit u vo m y thu ( B m ) Cng sut tp m nn my thu (dBm) 7,0 -108,2 -101,2 HS-SCCH 7,0 -108,2 -101,2 NF Ni = 30+ 10lgk+10lg290K+ 10lg3,8410 chip/s
6

18,0 2,0

18,0 2,0

Gb Lia

61.0

47,7

EIRPi,= PTxb+Gb-Le

N = Ni+NF

598

Gio trnh L trnh pht trin thng tin di ng 3G ln 4G

H s ti ng xung (%) D tr nhiu giao thoa (dB) Tng nhiu+giao thoa (dBm) li x l (dB) SINR yu cu (dB) nhy mu thu hiu dng (dBm) D tr phainh nhanh (dB) Khuch i anten (dBi) Tn hao c th (dB) Tn hao connect v phi (dB) li chuyn giao mm (dB)

70

70

1DL

5,2

5,2

M, = -10lg(1-nuL) (N+l)[dBm] = N+M| Gp= 10logSF, vi SF cho HS-DSCH v SF =128 cho HS-SCCH (Eb/No')req. t m phng
Pm,n= (N+l)[dBm] Gp[dB]+(Eb/No')re [dB],
q

-96

-96

12 60 , -102

21 1,6 -115,4

0,0 0,0 0.0 0,0 0,0

0,0 0.0 0,0 0,0 0,0 163,1

Mf-F. o khng iu khin cng sut vng kn cho


HSDPA GHI Lbod

Um

GHO do khng chuyn giao mm cho HSDPA


Lmax= EIRPb-Pmin+Gm-LboirLlm -M(-F+GHO

Tn hao ng truyn cc 163 i cho php (dB)

16.5. QU N G TRUYN L T E
Trong mc ny ta s xt qu ng ln v qu ng xung cho LTE.

16.5.1. Qu ng ln LTE
Tng t nh suy hao cc i cho php ng ln HSUPA xc nh theo cng thc (16.6), ta c th tnh suy hao cc i cho php ng ln L T E nh sau:

Chng 16: Hiu nng v qu ng truyn ca HSPA v LTE L = EIRP -P +G -Lf+G HA


m min b M m m

59S

m a x

(16.12)

trong E I R P

l cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng ca


b

u cui di ng, G l khuch i anten trm gc, Lf l tn hao phi v connect trm gc, G dng tnh nh sau: Pmin=(N+I)[dBm]+(E/N )[<iB]
, b 0 I l H M A

l khuch i ca b khuch i M H A
m i n

c tnh ging nh trong mc 16.4 cn p

l nhy my thu hiu (16.13)

V d tnh ton qu ng ln LTE c trnh by trong bng 16.8, trong (Eb/TVXeq uc xc nh theo m phng cho trng hp my thu trm gc s dng hai anten cho phn tp thu. Gi thit u cui di ng c n nh hai khi t i nguyn vi bng thng 360 kHz. Cng sut u cui l 24dBm, khng tn hao c th i vi kt ni s liu. Gi thit my thu trm gc c h s tp m bng 2dB. T m phng nhn c t s tn hiu trn nhiu cng tp m yu cu bng 7dB. BS s dng b khuch i M H A b tr tn hao cp. H s khuch i anten trm gc l 18dBi. Kt qu tnh ton: cho ta tn hao cc i cho php ng ln LTE bng 163,4dB. Bng 6,8. V d tnh qu ng ln LTE cho 64kbit/s vi my thu trm gc hai anten
My pht (u cui di ng)
Cng sut my pht (dBm) Khuch i anten (dBi) Tn hao phi +connect(dB) Tn hao c th (dB) Cng sut pht x ng hng tng ng (dBm) 24,0 0