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Y.

Zhang
Associate Professor e-mail: anding@umich.edu

X. Chen
Graduate Student Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of MichiganDearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Dual-Clutch Automated Lay-Shaft Transmission


This paper presents a systematic model for the simulation and analysis of a power-shift transmission that features a dual-clutch design. The paper models the kinematics, dynamics, and control of the transmission for the analysis of powertrain overall performance and shift transient characteristics. The model is implemented in an object-oriented software tool. Analytical formulations and look-up tables are both used for modeling of powertrain components. The vehicle system model is established by integrating the various components and subsystem models according to the transmission power ow and control logic. The input to the simulation model is the vehicle speed-time prole and the output provides the speed follow-up, engine, and clutch operation status for the drive range and shift processes involved. As a numerical example, the model is used for a vehicle equipped with the power-shift transmission to simulate the speed follow-up over a specied drive range and the dynamic transients during shifts. 2004 American Institute of Physics. DOI: 10.1115/1.1829069

X. Zhang H. Jiang W. Tobler


Scientific Laboratory, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48128

Introduction

Automatic transmissions in most passenger vehicles use planetary gear trains as the power transmitting units. In a planetary train transmission, different gear ratios are realized by coupling a planetary member to the input and grounding another to the housing alternatively. Although the planetary gear train design has been applied in transmissions since the early days of automatic cars, it has the intrinsic drawbacks in structure complexity and low efciency due to the nature of planetary gearing. As fuel economy improvement is becoming ever increasingly important, transmissions with lay-shaft gearing are gaining popularity in the automotive industry, especially so for applications in compact to midsize passenger vehicles. This is evidenced by the successful applications of lay-shaft transmissions in Saturn and Honda models 1 . In a lay-shaft transmission, all gear axes are xed with respect to each other. There are two technically feasible designs for layshaft gearing transmissions. One uses a torque converter for launch and hydraulically activated clutches for shift, while the other uses automated clutch and shift selector for launch and gear change operations. The later, termed in automotive industry as automated manual transmission AMT , is actually a manual transmission with an added-on control unit that automates the clutch and shift operations. Similar to manual transmissions, there is an interruption of torque transmission at a gear change since the engine is cut off by the clutch during shift. This torque interruption leads to unanticipated passenger feels on vehicle acceleration discontinuity and is highly uncharacteristic of conventional automatic transmissions. A dual-clutch transmission design was recently proposed to overcome this intrinsic drawback 2 . In this design, the two clutches are engaged alternatively in different speeds and power transmission continues during a shift through the control of clutch slips. A shift process involves the engagement of the oncoming clutch and the release of the offgoing
Contributed by the Design Automation Committee for publication in the JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL DESIGN. Manuscript received November 20, 2004; revised May 14, 2004. Associate Editor: A. A. Shabana.

clutch. This results in shift characteristics that are typical of clutch-to-clutch shifts commonly seen in conventional automatic transmissions 3 . As in any other control systems, the success of control depends on the analytical model that effectively describes the dynamics during system operation. Before a prototype is built, model simulation is the only tool for the analysis and evaluation on the performance of vehicle equipped with a dual-clutch lay-shaft gearing transmission. In recent years, the ever increasing demand on vehicle fuel economy and passenger comfort has led to the development of new types of transmissions and new control technologies for powertrain systems 4 6 . Model simulation plays an important role in the validation and calibration of such systems, and has therefore attracted the interests from both academic and industrial communities. Recent researches in powertrain modeling and simulation areas cover various types of powertrains currently in production or under development, including conventional automatic transmissions 7,8 , continuously variable transmissions 911 , and hybrid drivetrains 12,13 . As revealed by the literature search, the modeling and control of dual clutch AMT systems is still a new area contrary to the technology maturity of other type of transmissions. The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic model for the simulation and analysis of vehicle powertrains equipped with the dual-clutch transmissions. The model is implemented using the Modelica/Dymola programming language in an object-oriented environment. Standard component models available in the Modelica/Dymola library 14 are directly used for the avoidance of the lengthy derivations of mathematical equations governing component characteristics. Emphasis is placed on the development of nonlibrary models such as shift controller, clutch pressure control, etc., which are specic to the transmission system. All subsystem models, such as the driver, engine, gear pairs, clutches, etc., are integrated into an overall vehicle system model based on powertrain structure, kinematics and control logic. The control system for the dual-clutch AMT includes shift schedule control and shift process control. The shift schedule controller triggers an upshift or downshift based on engine throttle and vehicle speed feedback and signals the engaging or releasing of the involved clutches. State equations governing the system Transactions of the ASME

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Fig. 2 Engine torque output Fig. 1 Model structure for the dual clutch AMT system

dynamics caused by a gear change are automatically modied and reorganized by the Modelica/Dymola implemented system model according to the new power ow and gear mesh path. In this paper, the pressure proles for clutch torque control during a shift are modeled as look-up tables, which can be modied interactively so as to achieve shift quality improvement. The integrated dual-clutch AMT vehicle model enables the simulation of vehicle performance over specied drive ranges and the transmission shift processes occurring in a drive range. Based on model simulation, shift quality metrics, such as shift time, torque variations can be quantitatively analyzed and improved by adjusting clutch pressure control proles interactively. The simulation results in the example included in this paper demonstrate the effectiveness of the model as an analytical tool for the development of dual-clutch AMT systems.

moments of inertia of the engine output shaft, the input shaft and the output shaft are denoted by I e , I i , and I o . Similarly, I s , I h , I c1 , and I c2 denote the mass moments of inertia of the assemblies of the solid shaft, the hollow shaft, and the two counter shafts, respectively. For simplicity, gear backlash is neglected in the model and powertrain efciency is assumed to be a constant. As mentioned previously, synchronizer assemblies are modeled as switches for the power ow paths in different speeds since shift quality is independent of the synchronization of gears. Standard Modelica/Dymola library models are used for common powertrains components such as shafts, clutches, gears, spring-dampers, etc. Key powertrain models, such as engine, clutch, and vehicle, are described in the following. Engine. The engine transients are not considered in the model for simplicity. Engine map data are used to calculate the steadystate output torque, which is formulated as a bivariable third order polynomial function of the throttle angle T A and the engine speed e by the following equation Te f TA ,
e

Dual-Clutch AMT Structure and Kinematics

The structural layout of the dual-clutch AMT can be seen in Fig. 1. The transmission has six forward speeds and one reverse. There are two hydraulically activated clutches, CL1 and CL2, which are engaged alternatively. Clutch CL1 is engaged in the rst, third, fth and reverse speeds and CL2 in second, fourth, and sixth. A hollow shaft layout is used to provide a compact design for this multiple speed gearbox. The hollow shaft and the solid shaft through it are the inputs for odd and even speeds, respectively. Reverse gear is achieved by an idler on one of the two counter shafts. The nal drive has two pinions, one transmits torque for rst, second, third, and fourth gears, and the other for fth, sixth, and reverse gears. There are four synchronizers in the transmission, shown as switches in Fig. 1. The shift selector associated with each synchronizer assembly is activated by hydraulic piston or step motor. Gears for two adjacent speeds can be engaged at the same time since only one of the two clutches is engaged. The clutch that is not engaged free wheels with all gears in the mesh path that is not currently transmitting torque. For quick upshift responses, the next higher gear is engaged before the actual upshift occurs. The shift process therefore only involves the engaging of oncoming clutch and the releasing of the offgoing clutch. The synchronization of gears has no effect on shift quality since it does not occur during the shift. Because of this feature, the shift characteristics of the dual-clutch AMT is the same in nature as the clutch-to-clutch shift commonly applied in conventional automatic transmissions.

aij TA

j e

i 0,1,2,3; j

0,1,2,3 (1)

where a i j (i 0,1,2,3; j 0,1,2,3) are constants determined by the interpolation of the engine map data. The engine torque modeled by the above equation is shown in Fig. 2, with engine speed ranging from 0 to 6000 rpm and the throttle angle from 0 to 90 deg. Clutch. The clutch model in the integrated powertrain system not only formulates the clutch torque but also determines the system conguration and the change of dynamic status. A clutch has three operation states and the torque transmitted in each state is described by the following equation C Tc T 0 open P closed slipping (2)

Dynamic Model Structure

The schematic of the dynamic model for the dual-clutch AMT is shown in Fig. 1. The engine mount, input and output shafts are modeled as spring-dampers, whose stiffness and damping coefcients are denoted by k m , k i , k o , and c m , c i , c o , respectively. The shaft assemblies are modeled as lumped masses. The mass Journal of Mechanical Design

where C is a constant associated with clutch design parameters, is the friction coefcient that is a function of clutch slippage , and P is the hydraulic pressure in the clutch piston which must be controlled in order to complete a gear change with shift smoothness. T is the torque as determined by system dynamics when the clutch is fully closed. In this paper, clutch actuation control during shift process is realized by a normalized pressure prole as described in Sec. 4. The clutch model is also used for the synchronizer assembly, where the normalized pressure signal is either 1 or 0 to switch on or off a gear. Vehicle Equation of Motion. For powertrain performance and shifting dynamics simulation, only the longitudinal vehicle dynamics is incorporated into the vehicle system model. The torque T tire on the driving wheel generates the traction force F tr to MARCH 2005, Vol. 127 303

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Fig. 3 Transmission shift curves

overcome the road load and to move the vehicle. According to Newtons Second Law, the longitudinal vehicle dynamics is described by the following equation M v veh F tr B t v veh
2 dragv veh

M g sin

road

F brake

(3)

F tr

T tire r tire

where M is the vehicle mass, v veh is the vehicle speed, F tr is the traction force, B t is a constant reecting tire damping and miscellaneous frictional losses, drag is the air drag coefcient, road is the road slope angle, r tire is the tire radius, F brake is the brake force that is described in the following section.

System Control and Modeling

The control system of the dual clutch AMT powertrain consists several subsystems, namely, shift schedule, clutch pressure prole, synchronizer switch controller, and driver. Models for these subsystems have been developed and integrated into the vehicle powertrain model as described in the following. Shift Schedule Controller. The transmission control system controls the shift schedule based on current vehicle speed and throttle angle. As shown in Fig. 3, a buffer zone is designed be-

tween two adjacent shift curves to avoid shift hunting: the curve at the right represents the threshold for upshifts, and that on the left for downshifts. The current gear status is maintained within the area between the two curves. Based on current vehicle speed V and engine throttle angle T A , the controller makes the decision for upshift, downshift or gear position holding. The block diagram for shift scheduling and for the actuation of the clutches and synchronizers are shown in Fig. 4. As shown in this gure, the block for shift schedule control decides whether or not the current gear is to be changed or maintained based on the throttle position (TA) and vehicle speed (V). The gear position indicator block checks the status of the dual clutches based on the clutch slip signals ( CL) and determines whether a shift is in process or completed. The control signals for the two clutches, CL1 and CL2, are then determined based on the previous and next gear positions GP and PGP , the relative angular velocities of the clutches ( CL) and the relative angular velocities of the involved synchronizers ( SYN). The control logic for the shift schedule is implemented by the following steps. At every simulation time step, the threshold shift speeds on the six shift curves, which are predesigned for the six-speed dual clutch transmission, are calculated according to the current throttle angle. These speeds are then compared with the current vehicle speed The next gear status is determined based on the comparison mentioned above and the gear status at the current time step. For example, at a certain throttle angle value, if the current gear is the rst gear and the current vehicle speed is on the right side of the upshift curve VS12, then a 1 to 2 upshift should take place. If the current gear is the second gear and current vehicle speed is on the left side of the downshift curve VS21, then a 2 to 1 downshift should take place. If the current vehicle speed is between the upshift curve VS12 and the downshift curve VS21, then the gear status is maintained. If a shift is oncoming, the next gear position indicator GP is different from the current indicator PGP and remains so until the completion of the shift. During the shift process, the angular velocity differences on the two ends of the clutches and the synchronizers are fedback to the shift controller so as to monitor the status of the shift process. Control signals are sent to the clutches and synchronizers according to the gear position indicators and the

Fig. 4 Shift control block diagram

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synchronizer to function as a switch, the pressure signal sent to the synchronizer is either one or zero according to the gear position indicators and the angular velocity feedback. The conditions and logic sequence for the actuation of synchronizers have been implemented in Modelica programming language and imbedded in the synchronizer models. Driver. The driver model consists of two parts: throttle angle controller and brake normal force controller. The throttle angle controller is modeled as a standard PID controller with a saturation limit and rate limit on its output port. The PID controller adjusts the throttle angle based on the difference between the actual and the desired vehicle speeds and is formulated by the following equations
v v desired v actual v dt

Fig. 5 Clutch pressure proles

T A K pt v K it

K dt

d v dt

(4)

0 T A T A max feedback on the angular velocities. These signals trigger the clutch action and the synchronizer switching during powertrain operations. The logic statements used in the modeling of the shift controller are written using Modelica/Dymola programming language and are imbedded in the shift controller model. Look-up tables are used in the control model for the shift curves. Clutch Control. The shift process control for the dual clutches is implemented by controlling the hydraulic pressure applied to the clutch piston. For the dual clutch AMT, the shift process is similar to a clutch-to-clutch shift in a conventional automatic transmission 3 . During the shift process the hydraulic pressure in the oncoming clutch is gradually increased to the maximum value according to a calibrated pressure prole, while the pressure in the offgoing clutch is gradually decreased to zero. Since the pressure signal plays a very important role in shift smoothness, it is essential to create a component model to formulate the pressure control signals for the clutches. As shown in Fig. 4, the shift schedule controller sends out one of the four trigger signals 1,2,3,4 for clutch control. These four signals are respectively, engaging 1 , holding 2 , releasing 3 , and open 4 . Upon receiving the trigger signal, the two clutches will be actuated and controlled according to one of the pressure proles as shown in Fig. 5. The clutch control model developed in Modelica/Dymola environment works in the following logic. Upon receiving a shift signal from the shift schedule controller, the current time is recorded as the starting point for the shift and will be used as the reference for clutch pressure prole interpolation. During the shift process, the angular velocity differences associated with the dual clutches are fedback to the clutch controller at each simulation step so as to monitor the shift process. The pressure values interpolated from the pressure prole are sent to the dual clutches modeled using standard Modelica/ Dymola library as a normal force command signal. It should be pointed out that the clutch control model uses pressure proles that are modied interactively based on model simulation. Hardware calibrations have not been conducted for the pressure prole because of the lack of the dual clutch AMT hardware at this stage of research. Synchronizer Modeling. Synchronizers are modeled as power ow switches in the dual clutch AMT system for simplicity. This treatment does not affect the simulation delity of the shift process since the next gear to be shifted to is pre-engaged by the synchronizer assembly while the transmission is operating in the current gear, as mentioned in Sec. 2. Standard Modelica/Dymola library clutch models are adopted for the synchronizers. For a Journal of Mechanical Design where v desired and v actual are the desired and actual vehicle speeds, k pt ,k it ,k dt are the gains of the PID controller, T A is the throttle angle that is limited by the maximum throttle angle T A max . In the standard Modelica/Dymola brake model, the brake torque is formulated as a function of velocity depending friction coefcient and the external normal force. The normal force signal comes from the brake normal force controller, which is also modeled as a PID controller. For simplicity, the differences in the characteristics of the front brake and rear brake are not considered in the brake normal force controller model. Similar to the formulations on throttle control, the following equations are used to describe the brake normal force
v b max v desired v actual ,0

F brake K pb v b K ib

v b dt

K db

d vb dt

(5)

0 F brake F brake

max

where k pb ,k ib ,k db are the gains of the brake PID controller, F brake is the brake normal force limited by the maximum normal force F brake max .

Model Integration. The component models described above are integrated into an overall powertrain model with a structure shown in Fig. 6. This model consists of two major subsystem groups previously described: powertrain hardware component models and control system models. The integrated model implements the kinematics and dynamics described in Secs. 2 and 3 and the control logic described in this section for the dual clutch AMT system. The model is created in Dymola graphics edit window based on the powertrain structure and control logic. Compiled in Dymola environment, the model is translated into a system of differential and algebraic equations that are then solved to simulate powertrain dynamic performance under various driving conditions.

Numerical Example

As a numerical example, the developed powertrain model is used to simulate a vehicle equipped with the dual-clutch automated transmission. In the simulation, a standard EPA driving cycle is used as the input to the powertrain model. The vehicle speed in km/h is shown in Fig. 7 over 200 s of simulation time. MARCH 2005, Vol. 127 305

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Fig. 6 Structure of the integrated powertrain model

The gear positions and the engine output torque over the simula tion range are also shown in the gure. As shown in the gure, the vehicle speed from simulation coincides with the vehicle speed specied in the drive range, indicating the effectiveness of the driver controller to achieve the required speed prole. The clutch operation status over the simulated drive range is shown in Fig. 8, where the vertical coordinates indicate the relative angular velocities between the two ends of the dual clutches. As shown in the gure, the two clutches engage alternatively during in the drive range according to the shift schedule control. For a clear illustration of the clutch operation status during shifts, the angular velocity differences for the dual clutches are plotted against shift time during the process of a one-to-two shift in Fig. 9. As shown in the gure, the one-two shift occurs at roughly 24 s after the simulation starts and lasts for about half a second. As the shift starts, slippage in clutch CL1 occurs due to reduced clutch pressure as indicated by the nonzero angular velocity difference, shown in blue for clutch CL1. During the shift, the angular velocity difference for clutch CL1 is negative right after the shift starts and then gradually becomes positive as the angular velocity difference in clutch CL2 reduces to zero. The shift is completed when the angular velocity difference in clucth CL2 is zero and at this point a high pressure is applied to fully close clutch CL2. After the completion of the shift, synchronizer switch control will be actuated to engage the third gear to get ready for the next up-shift. As shown in the gure, the angular velocity difference in clutch CL1 becomes negative after the one-two shift since the clutch output end rotates with the third gear mesh path while the vehicle is being driven in the second gear. The clutch slippage characteristics obtained in the one-two shift process are similar to that of clutch-to-clutch shifts in automatic transmissions and validate the control algorithm integrated in the powertrain system model.

Summary

This paper presents a system model for the dynamic simulation of a vehicle equipped with a dual clutch lay shaft automated transmission. The model is implemented using the object-oriented software tool Modelica/Dymola. In the model development, efforts are mainly focused on the formulations of powertrain components such as shift controller, driver, and clutch control since these components are not in the standard Modelica/Dymola library. The overall system model is formed by assembling and integrating all component models based on the structure and the control system conguration. The vehicle performance for specied speed proles and transmission shift transients are quantitatively analyzed based on model simulation. The simulation results demonstrate close speed follow-up for given standard EPA speed proles. In addition, the model simulation also provides useful data on the dynamic transients, such as shift time, speed and torque varia 306 Vol. 127, MARCH 2005

Fig. 7 Vehicle speed, gear position and engine torque follow-up

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Acknowledgments
The nancial support for this work from the Ford University Research Program and from the Center for Engineering Research and Practice of the University of MichiganDearborn are gratefully acknowledged.

References
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Fig. 8 Operation status of the dual clutches

Fig. 9 Relative angular velocity of the dual clutches during a 1-2 shift

tions, associated with transmission shift process. These data allow for the objective judgment on transmission shift and the calibration of transmission control on an interactive basis prior to the development of dual clutch AMT prototypes.

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