COMMUTATOR MOTOR.
AND
RUDOLF GOLDSCHMIDT,
Dr.Ing.,
COPYRIGHT.
LONDON
And
all Bookatllers at
1909.
LONDON
PRINTED BY GEORGE TUCKER, SALISBLRY COURT, FLEET STREET, E.G.
inscribed to
my venerated teacher
Dr. E.
KITTLER
Corporation
http://www.archive.org/details/alternatingcurreOOgolduoft
PREFACE,
When, some years
mutator made
practical
its
successful designs,
class
the attention
of
all
machines.
A
man
great
many new
it
was impossible
to follow
and
principle."
may,
by
therefore,
One way
their names.
is
:
Another method,
to
different principles
suitable
for
Direct current
machines,
made
alternating
current
by laminating the
field,
inserting resistance
between
in a
way.
2. Repulsion motors (I retain this name, which appears to be very popular, in spite of the fact that the word " repul
sion"
is
The quality
of alternating cur
vi.
PREFACE.
made use
of
in the
there.
the most important being the use of the armature as an exciting winding (La tour, WinterEichberg), a
power factor
is
who has
for
of
alternating current
machines,
and
also
the
specialist,
who
will find
some
and
I
different firms
who have
kindly sup
plied
me
R.
GOLDSCHMIDT.
CONTENTS,
SECTION.
PAGE.
1
CHAPTER L INTRODUCTION
,1.
2. 3.
4. 5.
Elementary ElectroDynamic Laws The Introduction of the Commutator Counter E.M.F. and Torque The Production of the Magnetic Field The Simplest Forms of Excitation Shunt and Series Motor
:
3 5
11
18
23 23
33
39
8.
9.
Commutation
Circulating
Currents
in
the
Short44
59
circuited Coils
10.
11.
12. 13.
68
72
14.
74
......
82
89
16.
The Induction of the Current in the Armature The Repulsion Motor of Elihu Thomson
89
92
viii.
COiiTEI^fS.
SECTION.
17.
PAGE*
E.M.F.s,
18. 19.
Thomson Motor
and Repulsion
102 105
Circulating Currents
20.
Motor
107
MOTOR
OF
109
24.
The Armature Winding as an Exciting Winding The Compensation E.M.F.s, Currents and Fluxes in the L.W.E. Motor The Circle Diagram of the L.W.E. Motor ...
109
112
114
117
121 121
122
127 127
Series Motors
142
ERRATA.
The
Motors
Commutator
Page 26
Equation
(10),
1
2nd
line,
1
should read
/
1
= I90X
Page 114: 14th
line,
n.p
X^cos^V^15th
line,
(^^)
Fig.
124;
Fig.
125;
21st
page 124
11th
line,
Section
5,
instead of
Chapter V.
COMMUTATOR MOTOR.
CHAPTER
I.
INTKODUCTION.
1.
To study thoroughly
is
fundamental electrodynamic laws relating to a single conductor in a magnetic field. Every alternating current and
every alternating
field are,
and a constant
equivalent,
lines
the
production of
SI
I
I
pT
i
D
I I
Magnetic Field
Fig.
1.
be produced by some large coil ; it The may be a portion of the field in the airgap of an electromotor
may
it
it.
Looking at
from
If
we
the latter
heavy
curtain.
The curtain of lines tending to go back moves the conductor along in the direc.
i
!
t t t
\
\
\
^H^
!
I i i i
Fig.
in
Fig.
lifts
the curtain
left,
The
the rotation of the machine will be counterclockwise. well known backward movement of the neutral magnetic
is
quite obvious,
as,
drawn
forward.
If
work
is
The
electrical energy,
E x I,
is
the electrical
We
The
object of mentioning
do not want to go further into these elementary details. them at all was to come into touch
With
their help
we can
decide
In the case of
two or more
fields
more
armature currents being in a field, we shall be able to determine whether the actions add together or subtract from each
other, &c.
Furthermore,
it is
well to
remember
in complicated
motor
it is
by the current.
2.
The Introduction
of the
Commutator.
conductor at the surface of an armature carrying a certain current produces a torque, say,
in
counterclockwise
direction
when moving in
from which the magnetic lines enter the armature (Fig. 5).
If
mag
we
This
FiCx.
5.
.^^hort
interval of time.
To make
B2
of current
zone A, B. changes
zone.
sign
when
commutation.
As the frequency
fixed,
is
of an
alternating current
something absolutely
adapt
itself to
it.
the
must
this is
There
cannot
important
itself
the
work
and
i.e., it
cannot start by
work requiring a
certain
amount
of
torque at starting.
the com
4,
and
as universally
the
commu
every conductor
zone.
reversed as soon as
it
of the commutator
is
method
of re
may
be,
Whatever the working conditions and whatever speed the machine may run at, indeits
pendently of
current, the
commutator does
duty
therefore, the
from the region of one pole into that of the next. working conditions of armature and field
under the first pole have been satisfactory, they will be so under the next one following. It is this quality which makes the commutator motor desirable and which has contributed to make
COUNTER
E.M.F.
AND TORQUE.
the leading engineers work out alternating current commutator motors for application to railway work and general industrial
use, in spite of the
be overcome. mention that in the case of polyphase induction motors (asynchronous motors) the change
difiSculties to
enormous
will
i.e.,
takes
I.e.,
armature current
is
and that
its
periodicity
way
passes out of the range of one pole into that of the next.
starting of the polyphase
it
The
back that
efficient
motor is good, but working can only take place very near
synchronous speed.
3.
We
will
now
and
armatures built exactly as those in use with continuous current machines i.e., drum winding closed in itself and arranged
in slots at the outer circumference of the laminated cylindrical
The ends of the single armature coils are connected commutator segments. Assuming we have a twopolar machine, two brushes diametrically opposite one another slide on the commutator and conduct the current into the armature, dividing at the same time the armature winding into two Fig. 4 halves, which carry current in opposite directions.
iron core.
to
marked
from
us, in
one marked
To
above, to use the law for the E.M.F. induced in the armature
<5
through
motion
in the
magnetic
field,
the speed.
We
assume the magnetic flux issuing from one pole and entering the other to have the value N expressed in C.G.S. lines.
If
we
call
further
of conductors all round the armature, n the speed in revs, per niin., then the E.M.F. induced in the armature through rotation is, according to the wellknown formula in use for directcurrent
Sa the
number
machines,
x flux x 10~^
(1)
u u u o
uu
u u uu
uuuuul uuou
Fig. 6a.
Fig. 6b.
been spread out in a straight line and the distribution of the shown by a diagram. At the "neutral" the
is
zero, rising
up
to a certain
maximum under
(Curve
I.)
COUNTER
E.M.F.
AND TORQUE.
and transfer
amount we reduced
it
on ab (Fig. 6b).
The
The
result
between c from ab receive less. The total be exactly the same as with the distribution in
The law that the form of the flux curve has no influence whatever on the E.M.F., and that the total flux N fixes the
value
of
the latter,
is
motors,
because widely
flux
distributions are
in
machine we generally few recent constructions (turbogenerators) excepted have one field coil per pole surrounding the latter, and the pole itself ends in a poleshoe with a face giving an even airgap between pole
practical use.
With a
direct current
and armature.
is
Sometimes a
in Fig.
used.
Our curve
6a
is
With alternating current commutator motors, too, this form is much used, but one finds also machines which have no projecting poles at all. The stationary
portion
is
Fig.
Fig.
and the field winding consists of several concentric coils embedded in slots on the inner surface of the cylinder. The whole arrangement resembles that of an induction motor very With such a machine the flux assumes the closely (Fig, 7). iorm of Fig. 8. We have taken the number of slots per pole
from winding, as here the opening of the coils would become too small to be effective. It will be our task presently to find the most economical way of excitation for the present we shall disregard the method of producing the flux altogether. At every moment theJ^.M.F. is fixed by formula (1) therefore,
free
;
;
if the flux
is
an alternating
one, the
E.M.F., followiny
it
very
is
always propor
tional to
time
N, has the same form expressed as a function of the and the same periodicity, regardless of the speed. Taking the exciting current to alternate sinusoidally, and dis
same law
as the current.
At
have
the
moment where
X
N
'
has
its
maximum
xlO^
value
N,n,ix.,
we
En,ax.=^',^
60
xN
n
60
volts.
'"""
V2
maximum
S "
Nn,ax.
X 10 volts.
(2)
and the core loss, and is limited by the tiuxcarrying capacity of the iron and by heating.
Fig.
9.
the effective
I
We
will further
assume that
and
shall
(Fig. 9).
Then
the
COUNTER
electrical
E.M.F.
AND TORQUE.
is
H.P.
...
(3)
T=5,2oOx
Introducing the value for
ho^^^PP^^^^
revs, per
mm.
(4)
E we
find
P=7 X 5
sl'2
^ oU
X
=C'y^7^n ^
N,n^,.
X 10 H.P.
Torque
...
(5)
The torque
and
friction
calculated
is
We
momentum, amounting
total.
With
mula for P would drop out, so that with the same N^ax. and the same R.M.S. value for the current, the output of an alternating current commutator motor is 29 J per cent, less than that
of a directcurrent machine.
Our assumption
E.M.F.
of the
motor
is
in
that
motor
free
are in phase.
As a
put
we have
to
P=E X I X
where a
is
cos a,
(6)
(Fig. 10).
The same
T=: jL X
I
factor, cos a,
the torque
lb. ft.
If
is
produced.
We
more
in detail.
10
shows the two sine curves of field N and armature I in the case of 90 deg. phase displacement. Consider a quarter period AB during which the flux is positive, the current is negative, and the torque exercised on the conductor
current
FluxN
E.M.F.
Fig. 10.
Fig
11.
Fig. 11a.
Flnx
N/
Current I
When
the flux
is
is
we
to be a sine curve
11
zero.
and current.
of the Magnetic Field.
The Production
The general behaviour of the alternating current commutator motor would be very much the same as that of a direct current machine if an alternating current magnetic field could be produced as simply and inexpensively as a directcurrent
field.
In both
through
field, airgap
and
armature a certain number of ampereturns in the field coils are required; the same with alternating and direct current
motors.
There
is
some
due to our
calculations being
made with
must flow
Zf,
the
maximum
flux Nmax.
Suppose
that, to
direct current, i^
turns being
excitation
%x
produce a constant flux equal to N^ax.* ^ in the Z/ fieldturns. The amperethen the maximum alternating current
to 4
must be equal
is
is only due to our using N^^x. InE.M.F. induced in the armature, the the
as
fixed
and we can say that, to produce in a given armature at a speed a certain E.M.F. (B.M.S.), the same exciting current
its
With
direct
ing through the field coils causes the same ohmic losses in
resistance and the
same ohmic drop, provided the coils are otherwise the same. But the flux has ceased to be constant, and the wellknown effect of the alternating flux makes itself
felt
i.e.,
teresis
and eddycurrent
of.
This necessitates
(2)
lamination
The
alter
12
induces an E.M.F.
all
The question
wellknown way.
quality of
with in the
Knowing
the
the latter,
the field does not offer greater difficulty than, for instance, in
an induction motor.
ture
is
To
latter,
more complex, because of the rotation of the making it worth while to go more carefully into this
slightly
question.
We
shall,
In doing so
we
the losses and drops caused through hysteresis and the ohmic
resistance of the coils.
We
shall
assume ideal
field coils
with
questions, to
omitting comparatively
minor quantities which do not materially affect the problem in question. They would only blur the clear picture of the
principal subject
if
we took account
of
first.
very easy to
corrections afterwards.
field turns, v
the frequency in
periods per second of the supply, and naturally also the fre
quency of flux and field current, further N/^ax. the amplitude of the magnetic flux, then the formula for the E.M.F. induced
in the field coil
is
El=444 X ZfX V X
This
with
is
^fma..
X 10"^
volts.
(3)
alternating apparatus.
we have
if is
equal and
opposite in phase to
flowing
Cl
and
TTIE
13
the product e^ x
is
wattless, the
stored in fields
does not represent any energy. The current same as with a choking coil. The energy and field coils during the period of creating
the flux
appears.
is
given back a
moment
later
when the
field dis
curve
and,
if is
N^
created by
the sine
wave
E.M.F.
El
E.M.F.
and current by 90 deg. To overcome Ei^, the must be equal and opposite to E^. Fig. 14 repre sents the same phase relation in a vector diagram.
follows flux
e^^
^
Et
aN'
>^lf
cl
Fig. 14.
FiCx.
15
The
losses in resistance
and core
affect this
diagram only to
They reduce the phase displacement between the terminal voltage of the field coil, which we will call Cf, to distinguish it from its inductive component e^ (Fig. 1 .5). With practical motors the cosine of the angle between e^ and
a very small degree.
iy is
14
Though, except for the comparatively small losses, actually no power is consumed, the ivattless voltage and current must
he taken
from
the line,
e^
if
Calling this
it
Pl^=:444 X ifX
or wattless
Zf
JS^max.
XVX
lO"' voltamperes,
(4)
power consumed by
to
field =:4'44
x 10"^ x ampere
produce
N^^^gx. are
propor
and
to the reluctance
of the
magnetic
path.
Putting
4??
Ampereturns X \/2
^ X K X N^
we can say
10
and
N^,^^.
RX
i;,
p^_7.8^(V^^J!xt'xlO
X 103 X
(ampereturns)^
,
= 78
The
tell
x periodicity.
(5)
These formula3
field
is
us that
the wattless
to the
power
to
proportional
periodicity
and
and
small airgap
therefore,
are,
Our
flux
Nf would be
field coils.
the ratio
N^/N
is
we can
El and
= 444xcx0;XvxN^^,. xlO'.
c
(6)
F^f= 444 X
X (v X
z^)
'N^^^_
xvx
10"'^.
(7)
FIELD.
15
an arrangement as
magnetic
the
field
winding is
Fig. 16.
coils.
It is
not
over that with concentrated coils i.e., if, to produce a certain flux, less wattless power is necessary in one case or the other.
We
Fiu.
17.
Fig. 17a.
Fig. 18.
Fig. 18a.
(Fig. 17)
placing
it
in
two
slots, c
Both
than
Qoil 1,
2)/2 is tliQ
10
number
total
The
power
of
ampereturns
, I
^ ^ 2
"max. '^max.
"^ >^ ^.
y'
^^ 'max./ 2~ \^
,
'
"^
yj'
To
proportion
2
For xly=\ the ratio is 133, and 33 per cent, more amperes would be required to produce the same flux. But in spite of
the increase in ampereturns, the watts
may be
less, as
they
depend on
Ej^ also.
We
thatB^a^.is
l+xly
 higher than
2
Ei^.,=
1
Jyjx xEi, +
Ej^j
The
Ej^
"+
For
is
a:/?/
E.=(Hj^>.
theE.M.F.
of induction
J,
E^ iEl2=083 x El i.e.,
18,
we
Vj^f is a
_l^^xxly
energy
coils
is
ee.,
were concentrated.
ideal limiting case
of
The curve
is
12 per cent, higher than if the Fig. 19 shows the ratio
An
worth considering
is
viz.,
the uni
form distribution
surface of the
field.
This case
the armature
itself, as will
The curve
for the
17
flux,
and, therefore,
as fixed, Bm^x.
2 x B^,,
is,
The
exciting
number
of turns
therefore, double
The
flux
comprised by
in
a measure of the
E.M.F. induced
or
I'l
10
^^^^
<
^
1
Ea:OcB^a,.xa;(l^J.
2r
'
^~
a
g
09 08
: 
07
8
0*6
05
04
03
02
01
,.
02
l_l
05
06
L^^
07
U_l
0'9
01
03
04
O'S
X
2/
Span
of inner co il,
"span
of outer coil.
Fig. 19.
Fig. 20.
therefore,
\
7
xy. 3 2yJ y In the same measure the average E.M.F. for the turn
..II Jo\
'*'
Umov
of a
concentrated
coil
would be
55
y.
by a
certain flux
therefore, only
IS
onethird
is
duced leakage.
more
turns,
the field
As
a general
conclusion
we may
is
say the
a certain flux
smaller the
winding
is
concentrated.
The ohmic
and the
with
the
ampere
increase of
mean length
of turn.
The
more
of Excitation
of a direct current
call it
machine
is
the
We
might almost
way
from
most suitable
Let us
Terminal Tolta^e
hi
Armatare Coirent
i
Exciting Current
Flux
E.M.E
Fig. 22.
Fig. 21
The terminal
field^
the exciting current ij.and the flux N^will be displaced in phase from e by almost 90 deg. This phase relation is borne out
by
Figs.
13,
14
and
15,
and
also
by diagram
Fig.
22;
r/
19
00
behind
e.
The armais
revolving in
N
is
counter
E.M.F. E, which, as
seen,
exactly in
e.
On
the other
supplied as
it
e,
must be
but both
cannot have a
component
We
of N, with its
E and e,
closer together.
Fig. 23.
the
if,
N and therewith
closer to
At
possibly
the
would consume an enormous amount As stated above, the power factor of the field
circuit is ordinarily
within 45 deg. of e i.e., to produce a power factor of the field equal to 0*71, the losses in the field circuit must be about six
To
0?
"
20
In trying to
e
make up
deg.
and
E 45
an E.M.F.
must be introduced
in the arma
itself.
The power
We
shall see
characteristics,
struction,
from that
shunt motor.
,
>Flux
D E
^Current I
7
j
erminal Voltage
E.M.E
of Field
Pia.
Fia.
We
is the same as if must have a component in phase with the flux as already explained. The motor best suited for alternatingcurrent work is a machine whose flux and armature current are in phase, i.e.^ whose counter E.M.F. and terminal voltage of the armature
must have a component in make the motor work. This we had said that the current
it
coincidence.
series motor.
This condition
Fig. 25
is
shows diagrammatically such a motor. The current naturally is the same in field and armature, and
21
field coil and the from hysteretic lag in phase. Due to the hysteresis component of the current, and other causes which we shall consider later, some slight phase displacement between flux and current exists. For the present
apart
we
amount.
Diagram
OA
is
the
and in phase with the flux the counter E.M.F. 00 = E. If we have as we will assume for the present no selfinduction in the armature and no resistance, the terminal voltage of the armature would have only to balance E, and would present itself as a vector OD =  E. We find from diagram Fig. 14 the terminal voltage of the field ^l to be 90 deg. in advance of the current, and represented by the vector OF
OB = N,
these E.M.Fs.,
of the
E
e.
and
ej^,
machine
We see that the difference between the series and shunt motor consists in the latter working with a wattless component of the armature current. The plain shunt motor works, thereThe series motor, fore the better the lower the power factor. in a way, is working with the useful component of the E.M.F., and its working ability improves with the power factor.
CHAPTER
IL
The Ideal
Series Motor.
now
treat
and then provide the ideal machine, with the comparatively minor difficulties and complications.
ideal series
Our
motor
is
without core
loss
and
armature.
The diagram Fig. 26 is that of our machine. The magnetic flux has hitherto been the only interconfield, as,
field
flux
were
identical.
machine has a second important item common to the stationary and revolving parts i.^., the current. The formula for the useful power is
Our
series
P = ExI = 4X*aX^xIxN^ax.XlO
and
for the wattless
watts,
power consumed
factor
I.
in the field
Pl/ =
ElX I =
a/2
X T X I X 0/X w X N^ax. X c X
10"^ voltamperes.
^.=  = 2.X.xl^XJ,,
power
to
a\s,
...
(8)
i.e.,
MU^
armature conductors
and
flfS!^.
speed
The lower
24
the
power which must be spent to produce the field. With a certain motor with fixed ay, and v, k is inversely proportional to the speed. Fig. 27 shows that the ratio k has a direct bearing upon the power factor ?'.e., the cosine of the angle <^, between the phases of the voltage e and current I tan <^ = A;=El/E = ^l/E, or the power factor
.<?^,
cos
If
(/)
1 / v/ I
+ k\
desire to obtain a certain
t
we wish
to design a
at a given speed,
ana
if
we further
cos
<^,
we can
turns to
the
Flux
V terminal Voltage
Fig. 27.
The
latter
may
conveniently be written
or
2r
A h =
for
V
c
1,
COS"^
(\i
1 V
27r
^;
cos(^
a motor, for
/t
= 25
cycles per
:
second,
= l12,
representative
It
will
be
26
In both cases the field ampereturns must be kept low, because the exciting energy must be supplied with alternating current, and is, therefore, expensive.
To obtain a power factor of 70 with our ideal twopole motor the ratio of armature conductors to the field turns of a motor must be 0'117.
As the turns of the armature are onehalf of the conductors and the conductors carry only onehalf of the total current, we
can say that, to obtain the power factor of 0*70, the
field
= 47 per
cent, of
The
ratio
Jeld
ampereturns
and
where
it is
of chief influence
on the reactive
Fig. 28.
Multipolar Motor.
alternating current
With
commutator
motors
factor.
it
Through these elementary considerations such an imIt is portant " constant " as the ratio of turns can be fixed.
very easy to extend our study to multipolar machines (say,
4 poles, Fig. 28), bearing in
of convenience
So,
investigation refers
wound armature the same meaning as hitherto i.e., the total numGiving ber of conductors on the circumference of the armature, we find
we
P = _L X 7^ X ^a X I X N,,. X
V'2,
10 watts,
bO
26
voltamperes.
must be taken
\/2
is
as the
number
X
Putting ^/2
pL/=i?/2
.
= number
.
of pairs of poles,
I
^^
we have
10~^
generally
TT
?;
N ^^x. x
x c voltamperes.
The
ratio k
now
and
Sa
!r=xi^xixJ.x\/4iri. ^
2 V
C
ZTT
COS^
(fi
A
&
series
a series armature
^
p/2
= 27rX^/X_L^Xc.
Sa
n/60
of the
number
of poles.
we
any armature,
series or parallel,
/qv
field
n/60
It is often
total
armature ampereturns
field
ampereturns per
field
ampereturns
i
armature ampereturns
=
The greater the number of
the frequency, the greater
to obtain
1,900'> .v"c
xiLxV.4
"
cos^cfi
'
'
and
the lower
armature ampereturns
a given power factor.
is
A
speed
certain speed
specially significant,
the synchronous
that
is,
would run. For a fourpolar motor, supplied with alternating current at 25 periods, the synchronous speed would be Ug = 750 revs, per
poles
min.
27
we
C0S2
find
IT
Hg
</)
[3^""=
n^
actual ^peed
synchronous speed
and
cos
<^:
10
Ratio
Field 'at
7^045,^
7
v^Hia'
^
^^
09
/I
/
Vh^ ^
y^"
'
^07
?,
y
y
^ ^
C03 9>
n.>7R
06
to
05
// / /
/
/
04
03
02
^ K.
XK
r"'
^
^
01
20 30
0*5
I'O
Speed.
7=
c
and
1.
We
have assumed
To
armature ampereturns not exceed 1. With a directcurrent machine 7 is about sometimes more, up to about 2, but very rarely less than
at double the synchronous speed (say, four poles, 25 cycles, field ampere turns , ^rt \ Xi.u imust 1,500 revs, per mm.), the ratio ^
1, 1.
28
If
motor on similar
principles,
making 7 =
1,
obtained at about 2*90 x synchronous speed. Assuming we have to deal with a large railway motor where the speed
may
be fixed
at,
say,
725
synchronous
periods
= 250
If
With 25
120x25/250 = 12
poles;
with
16f
periods, 8 poles.
we keep the
airgap small
and
make y = 0'5, the speed need only be 2*2 x synchronous speed, and the number of poles can be reduced to 8 or 6 respectively. A very large number of poles is undesirable for many reasons among others, it increases the number of commutator bars, makes the brushes come very close together, and
;
Fig. 30.
if
is
a con
power
factor.
unknown with
directcurrent machines,
to
unless
artificial
improve the
power
factor.
ment
of the
power
later.
factor.
Both these
with in detail
To study
different
(Fig. 30).
loads
we
will
build
up a simple
circle
diagram
OAB
between
e
E and E^
terminal voltage
at difi'erent loads
moves on a
circle
with
OB = e
as diameter.
El
is
proportional
29
motor
is
AB
is
If
we have
of
ampere equal to a certain number of millimetres or inches we can take the absolute value the
.
.
AB, the phase naturally remaining in the direction OA. The useful power is P = e I cos As g is a constant, the watt component of the current I cos <^ is a measure of P. Drawing (Fig. 31) AC vertical on OB, AC is I.cos<^, and
</>.
To
is
we remember that El is
is
OA = E
propor
equiva
FiG. 31.
OA/AB.
line
in the
diagram
is
easily found.
We
draw
lar to
OB and DF parallel to OB, then the triangle O AB and DF/OD = OA/AB. As OD is a " constant " determined by convenience of scale only, DF is a measure of the
on
It is convenient to
<^,
but also
cos
</)
given as a
line.
We
can take
OA
for
it,
OB
being put
equal to unity.
It only
is
The
i.e.,
latter
propor
tional to (AB)2.
As AB/OB = BC/AB
would be
AB2 = BC x OB. OB
is
BC
a measure of the
torque.
OB itself
with
full
voltage
30
BC
also
(I
.
proportional
sin
c{>),
to the wattless
is
component
is
of the
current
proportional to this
proportional to
The preference
tation
is
many
people will
agree with
will lead
me
more quickly
easily be
complicated formula.
From our diagram we see how at starting (speed F falls into D, cos <^ being also zero, as
is
DF
equal
the whole
AC
becomes
zero.
it
The
can
current
BA
is
assume. As
customary,
we
taken by the
motor
at standstill
under
full
CB
becoming
DF
OF
The torque BC gradually is The current likewise reduced, reaching zero at infinite speed. becomes smaller and smaller with increasing speed. Cos <^ (OA) grows and approaches 1 asymtotically. The useful energy
towards OB.
AC
grows at
first as
is
mum
when A
<^
on the top
45 deg. (cos
= 0*705).
Then the
useful
The
linear
diagram
different dimensions
from Fig.
in these
31.
rents as abscissae.
diagrams are: (1) The point of starting (2) the point where the maximum electrical energy We is reached (3) the normal load whatever it may be.
Prominent points
;
shall
If
have to study these three conditions separately. we switch the full voltage on to a stationary motor, we
produce the starting condition as represented in the circle Our ideal machine diagram, when the point A falls into 0.
has no drop in the armature, and therefore the latter does not consume any voltage at the speed zero, no E.M.F. being induced.
31
The whole voltage, therefore, is used up in the field winding. The current produced by this voltage is a good measure of the
quality of the machine.
full
If,
under
In this
from
the voltage at full load (Figs. 27 and 30) is sin and consequently cos <^= y/ 1  sin^ <^ 0'868.
<^
= EJe = ^^
So we see that an
Amperes.
Shortcircuit
Current.
Fia.
is b
then cos
<tinorm.=
a/I 1/6".
is
As
the torque
normal has a starting torque equal to b^ times the torque of the machine under normal conditions of load if under full voltage at
starting.
We
torque grows with the second power, so that the starting torque per kilovoltampere input at starting is bigger the higher the
shortcircuit current of the machine.
If
32
we can
A motor,
it is
where the
in the field
under
fullload working.
We can
OB =
from
tests,
and that
machine.
of the
whole
watt
is
maximum
component
the
current
AC, which,
stated above,
The maximum
AC is
i.e.,
one
and, therefore,
the
maximum
overload capacity of
the energy
an
consumed at
is
We
of a
the
maximum
overload capacity
1
of 0*85
The diagram
and
We
of
draw a
is
semicircle,
AO
which
085.
maximum
that
if
to the
normal output
127.
is
The diagram
us
We
05
</)
.
Overload capacity
=
sin
cos
cos
<f).
Ji
cos'^
</>
Fig. 32,
which
is
available for
remains to
fix
moment
maximum
circle).
Then
OA
is
33
AB
and
E = El;
therefore,
A;
= EJE:=1.
Formulae
and
n
the sj)eed
Al
field
armature
DF,
XTi,.
AT
Ai
Speed
at
.
armature
''^
maximum
field
coeincient x
If the
x leakage
armature ampereturns
^^^^ ampereturns armature amp.turns X 075 x synchronous speed = 130
is
leakage coefficient
M, the ratio
= 05.
DF'is=^x
I'l
X synchronous speed.
This settles the scale for the speed.
for a certain output
scale
is is
Naturally,
if
one speed
known from
The study
remains
now
to con
and
difficulties
motor.
7.
The Selfinduction
of the Armature.
portion of which passes through the pole shoe and twice through
With
Sn
Fig.
Fig. 34.
we have With
34
an alternating one,
it
surrounds
in
passing through the pole shoe, some lines do not reach the
latter at
slots.
all.
They
using partly
bearings, &c.
As
the pole shoe in the regular way, finding here the shortest path
in the biggest section
saturated
by the main flux, which increases the reluctance of the path very much. Setting aside saturation for a moment,
and taking the conductors as uniformly distributed over the
circumference of the armature, then at a distance x (Fig. 35) Irom the centre of the pole the maximum flux density is
B.=
TT
^^
10
l^.S A
r
j
^
1
/^
{})
OOIO
1^
\^
H
^
>)
Fig. 35.
slots,
in the
^ x = x
Ji
 conductors
t
by the
E,= ^2".7rXs^X^XVxB,x^a;
x ?x 10"^
Z=length
total
of
E.M.F.
of selfinduction in the
armature
/a~r'2
E 2
^La = ~Q
^
^
.
(9t
10
lO^Xs\xIaXVX(bltyX^^.
(11)
35
armature
is
The
= &/^
is
The expression
same reluctance
E governing
Pl/=78x&^'xvx10,
PWPl/= (1/475) X (I
Since in the series motor I
.
sjl,
Zffx{hltf.
= ly,
X {sjz.fxm^
/ pole width \^
Pl./Pl/=(1/475)
or,
by introducing the
1
ratio of ampereturns,
/,2^
Pl^ Pl/
/3
/"
ampereturns
\pole pitch/
This ratio
is
poles.
So we
the
consumed in the
consumed in
cent, of the
79
when
If,
further, the
pole width
in the
90 per cent,
is
drop
armature
is
winding.
This ratio
pole corners (Fig. 36), the spreading affecting field and arma
D2
3G
teeth,
affects
same degree.
We may
ampereturns.
For
results.
practical
We
selfif
induction
the same as
c
if
it
were in the
^ ^o
field,
or as
of
If
the ratio
^
i.
mductive
IS
0'53, as in
a.x,
drop
in field
coefficient is 1*1, all the formulae
calculated,
we developed
we count
= 153
11
= 1*69.
Fig.
in
Middle of Pole.
As the
ratio of
armature selfinduction to
field selfinduction
is re
is fixed, it is
duced proportionately
we
increase the
number
of
poles.
for reducing
gap
is
big enough.
More
in slots
efTectual
is
embedded
on the face
main current, and is so dimensioned that it has practically the same ampereturns as the armature itself, but acts in the opposite direction, and thus stops the cross flux to a very great
37
extent {see Figs. 38 and 39). What cannot be stopped by the compensating ampereturns is the magnetic leakage across the armature slots and the ends of the armature windino'. In o fact, this flux will ba doubled, because the newly added com
'
Compensating
\^
>/
Winding
Fig. 38.
^^
.
Magnetisation of
<^^^Compensating Winding
Fig. 39.
its
own
it
About 75 per cent, of the cross flux can be nullified by the method described. The armature inductive energy, which for AT,,/ATy=: 140
coil ends.
amounted
would
latter.
We
winding plus
compensating winding
when
compared with the selfinduction of the field winding proper. The method described last is very good, but it is rather expensive, as we have to provide a winding in the poles carrying as many ampereturns as in the armature and containing more
copper than the main
field
winding.
38
may
when
is
is
only apparently
each
when passing
of
40 and 40a.)
'\rt
/rjCompenoating Condactor
\ Armature /Conductor
Armature Conductor
Liine of Force
without Compensation.
Fig. 40a.
Instead of sending the main current through the compensating winding, use can be
is
made
an alternating one.
If
simply
shortcircuited in itself
(Fig. 41)
current in
which
is
opposing
re
itself.
This
means, naturally,
the
is
not quite
compensating
ampere
Compensating Wind
ing Shoetcircuited.
The
latter
must be
to
so
much
certain
bigger as
make
amount
of
compensating
winding.
We
may
Fig. ai
60 per
can
be
is
compensated
fashion.
If
this
some advantage, as the number of turns is independent of the main current, and instead of a proper winding with several
THE COMMUTATION.
39
turns, each slot need only contain a solid copper rod connected
Fig. 42 shows this arrangement in diagrammatic form, when looking down at the
face of the pole.
8.
The Commutation.
With when
space.
directcurrent
commutator
of
segment
when
entering the
in the coils
Thus in
and 44
^wrfM'
Fig. 43.
Fig. 44.
is
inverse,
under a north pole and the latter under a south pole produce a torque in the same direction.
so that the former
When the armature revolves counter clockwise the coils at the righthand side pass to the left of the brush, and in passing
the brush the current
is
reversed
i.e.,
mutation.
This process of commutation consists of shortcircuiting the coil, the brush touching for a short time two commutator segments, and of releasing the shortcircuit when
the brush slips off a segment, at the same time embodying the coil into the winding branch carrying reversed current. With
a directcurrent machine the wellknown difficulty arises that during the short time of the coil being under shortcircuit the
process of commutation has not been finished, and that a spark
40
ensues
that
in
the very
moment
at the
moment
of releasing
commutate too quickly the current lengthens the commutation by means of a spark. The reason for this reluctance to change is that every contry to
we
field
which
if
we make
must
disappear
together
with it and, in doing so, induces in the conductor itself an E.M.F. tending to keep the current flowing in the once
established direction
and
at the
old value.
This E.M.F. of
If,
reactance
is
for instance,
finitely short
we
change
its
direction in in
infinite.
The time
of shortcircuiting
is
longer
the brush in " required " is larger the higher the reactance of the shortcircuited coil and the higher the current.
commutator bars and the broader tangential direction. The time of commutation
Apparently we ought to
if
if
number
we
could only
make
we
increase
it
will short
coil at
a time.
If
broad indeed
circuited, including a
pole,
induced in them.
On
the other
hand,
if
is
unfavourably.
Generally speaking,
brush
surface
thin, as long as
is
Another means
of checkis
the
is
THE COMMUTATION.
very high.
41
The
latter
have a more or
less
of the current
when leaving
the
shows
Through
segment 2
movement
area of
brush
diminishes more and more, half the current which was passing straight from the brush to segment 2 gradually finding less
resistance in passing to
1,
we know
,
time
01
commutation
The reactance
field is
magnetic reluctance.
by the
As
generally small
we can put
Reactance
field
= constant x
core width
x current.
where the
The constant
coils lie,
is
of the slot
much with
of
the slots
is
now
in
The time
commutation
smaller the
number
of
commutator
So we obtain a formula
(turns per
6^= Constant x
rent per coil
e^
It
i
x commutator bars
m x
cur
core width
I
;
or
zJ27n = tv.
we
mind that the voltage does not actually exist, it being partly used up by producing a current. At any rate,
must bear
the product
[nxmxixio']
= Cj,
(13)
aflfords a means of judging the sparking conditions of a machine, and actual experience has taught us the limits we have to The coeffikeep for obtaining satisfactory commutation.
cient
is
about 2*5 to 3 x
10**
for
must remain
in such a position
afi"ect
the sparking in
42
only.
any way. The constant 2*5 to 3x10^ refers to direct current For alternating currents we should have to introduce
the
maximum
the root
mean square
1
:
J2
i.e.,
becomes
X 101 On account
worse,
we shall see presently) which make the commutation we ought to choose the constant not higher than 2 x 10^. Now, it is a wellknown fact that the neutral position of
is
With
better
if
the
due
to the
1)
it
also
lets
is
when the
shortcircuited coil
under the trailingpole corner. An E.M.F. is then induced in the coil during shortcircuit, which has the direction of the
counter E.M.F. of the armature winding (opposite to that of the
Fia. 45.
is
required to be reversible.
On
if
we
shift
They would counteract the field ampereturns, and therefore a larger number of the latter would be required to create a certain flux. This is a more serious matter with alternatingcurrent machines than with directcurrent ones, as the armature
field
amperetells
than in the
latter.
glance
at
Fig.
45
us
THE COMMUTATION,
43
If,
for instance,
coil is
more field ampereturns, the span of the armature coils being assumed equal to full pole pitch. With a noncompensated machine, brush shifting would make little improvement in
sparking, because the comparatively high armature ampereturns,
by
in the field
power at the exact place where the commutation goes on, would actually
we
should not obtain the expected benefit from the brush shifting.
Further,
it is
why
brush shifting
is
Fig. 46.
With
use,
which are placed between the main poles and are excited by the
main current in
Their
effect
is
series
(Fig.
46)
which the brushes are shifted, in order to facilitate commutation by means of the flux of the main pole. The auxiliary pole produces such a flux, but with the advantages (1) that the
brushes can remain in the neutral position, the flux being shifted to the brushes, whereby reversibility is ensured
now
;
(2)
current increases.
poles
it
nothing but a continuation of the compensating winding, except that it contains a few more turns than the remain
44
ing single
that
many
voltage
in a
if all
very easy to apply formula (13) for the reactance the required data are given, but for application
combining
will put it into a different form, with the formula for the E.M.F. of the armature. Taking a serieswound armature as basis, we have
it
E = s, x^ X ^^ X N X
Combined with formula (13) we
Total flux from
i^
><
10 volts.
find, after
some transformation.
all
poles together
.
Njax.
(14)
Formula
sparJdessly
(14)
is
in
words
The minimum
is
total
loith so as to
proportional
to the
horsepower, the
per
section,
and
With
1,
number
is
so for these
we can put
=
11 2
XIO^^X horsepower.
(15)
possible, so as to
reduce the number of turns per section to a minimum, say, commutator diameter = 085 x armature diameter, and applying
as high a
XT ^ X'xJN
number
4.
,
of
commutator bars
,
as practicable,
y^f
we can put
armature
armature'
revs.
lensfth / ~^
of
diameter
of
In this general form the formula will do good service in forming a general idea of the amount of flux required without our knowing anything but horsepower, speed, voltage and approxi
The
Looking at
we notice
that the
coil,
shortcircuited
is
by
under
"
46
The
coil
under shortcircuit actually surrounds the and in our case this flux being an
If
rent in this
resistance
coil.
of
the
this
current
would not only be sufficient to but would also load up the contact surface of the brush, in most cases up to the glowing point and, besides, its demagnetising action on the field itself would be seriously felt. If there was practically no leakage and resistance, the current in the single armature coil would assume
Resistance Lugs
it
the field coils and prevent any flux from passing through
The amount
The
effect
on the
must be checked. It must be reduced to a reasonable amount, say less than normal current, to prevent any of its bad effects. The most natural way to do this is the introduction of ohmic resistance in the circuit formed by the brush, commutator
46
segments, and
the
comcalled
they are
generally
47,
47a and
48).
used as a resistance, either by having a great length or by being made out of a metal of low conductivity. It
would be
undesirable
to
give
the
coils
or
the
brush a
we can
help, as these
parts have to
The
main
when
;
for a
due to
Brush
rafSZTutator
^
J
Brush
Fig. 48.
We will call the voltage induced under commutation by the alternations of the main the resistance of each connector s, and assume that 9 is
main
coil is practically negliit.
compared with
In
shall
when
brush to the segment, due account being taken as far as of the contact resistance being smaller the higher possible
compara
the normal*
if s is
zero.
We
will
* Thinking of an alternator with a shortcircuit current equal to 10 times the normal current, one will understand this statement.
47
only one
be
The circulating current would then a time. and would cause a loss, Pc = 72?, in the lugs under one brush, or p^=^/s for a pair of (plus and minus) brushes. The main current I flowing through the lugs in parallel causes
coil at
ic
= /2s,
the loss p^
=P
? X
=PX
Therefore,
the total loss in the lugs through circulating and main current
is
the
smallest
i.e., if
7?
=P
Smm.
= /Ii
TT
If
^
^
Fig. 49.
is
equal to that of
two commutator
time
;
segments,
shortcircuits mostly
two
coils at a
then
^c = 4
?^
= P
.
The minimum
of the
total
reached
if
Pc=Vm
or
4.^=.P.s;
that
is,
W=
245.'j,
X I
ieirc.
= 041
I.
coils,
we
find
Pc^X^. c7sj
of loss
2*82
48
the losses
in the
and
current.
These calculations are naturally only approximate, the distribution of the main current over the segments being made
nonuniform by the commutation process
tending to pass chiefly
the brush.
itself,
the current
more
correct.
We
have found in a general way the condition for making Naturally this
does not entirely settle the amount of lug and brush
;
minimum
resistance
for instance,
The
two segments, the circulating current is only 35 to 41 percent, of the main current, if we comply with the condition for the
minimum
somewhat
far
losses.
We
can,
however,
make
up
the resistance
to a certain point
from
s^j^
If s^^ 175
Smin.
is
only
theoretical
minimum.
This will be seen from Fig. 50, representing the losses and the
^^^i^
circulating current
j^^
^jg.^^^^^
j^^
resistances,
the
main current
brushes being taken as covering two segments.
We
P = E x I.
With
two
325
X P X ^.
the total cur
number
rent,
by introducing
I,
the
number
40
of the
between
arma
we put
{see
formula 2)
E = ;^XXg^xNax.xlO.
m = number
Sa/'2m
of
commutator segments,
= number
..
^
10
M nimum
Actual Losses
1
Losses/'
\
S
08
06
n \P rcu
^
oi
Total Current
'
R
^X
1
"^ .^^
02
14
16
18 2J
Resistance of Lugs.
FiQ. 50.
sj^m
turns
an armature
e
coil is
2m
***^l^^])^?'^^^i""
and consequently
E
or, if
=  ^^ x'xp
X number
of
of poles
number
commutator segments
50
lugs
and brushes, if only speed, number of poles, frequency and number of segments are given. A motor for 15 cycles, four poles
(synchronous speed 300 revs, per min.), 750 revolutions and
400 commutator segments has a minimum loss in the resistance lugs and brushes equal to ^q x ^JJ x 100 = 3 per cent, of the
useful energy of the machine.
loss
The condition
for the
minimum
was equality of losses due to equalising current and main current. The main current, therefore, must cause IJ per cent, loss in other words, the drop in voltage over brush and resistance must be about 1 per cent, of the voltage in the armature. If the latter is 200 volts, and we have selected brushes
;
giving
2x1
x 200] 2 =
1 volt.
Allowing for
minimum,
to about 3J per cent, and the drop in the lugs alone to about 2 volts. If the machine has approxi
up
3 J x 080
= 2f
per cent.
fact
this
down
is
to a
moderate amount.
brush
Though through
this
not to use
is
resis
concerned.
The
full
load
Therefore, there
is
is
some danger of their burning out when the motor or moving slowly.
stationary
its
resistance
minimum
loss
has, as
we found,
51
we were
would spark.
15 periods the
The
In the example
we
mioimum
it is
number
commutator
seg
14
1^
1
10
il
s
k
\\
X f^
^ ^ ^ ^^ ^ U
.
*~.
1

20
40
GO
80
I'JO
140
180
B.H.P.
Output of Motor.
Fig. 51.
This can be done by going into the design in a general way, determining the armature diameter from the output, and
large,
and the
number
of
commutator segments
as high, as practicable.
Plotting the loss in the lugs and brushes for the ratio
synchronous speedy
^^
(Fig. 51),
running speed
E2
52
giving the loss in the lugs as the percentage of the output. These synchronous speed 4.c r. li.T J v <ti, *^ figures are to be multiplied by the ratio ^ normal speed Our formulae, developed for macliines with parallel armai.
.^
tures,
must be
slightly modified
series armatures.
question.
We
only.
{Pc\Pm)mm.
= 2.6X1;
9,in.
==
X"^.
With down
series
armatures
to a single pair.
of
brush sets
Pc
= j ;
= I X e' X p
j
Pm = ^S,ni.
'
^^
(Pc,+Pm)mm.
= X
];
Apparently the
kept so small
as
with a parallel armature we have j?/2 times the number of conductors than in the equivalent series armature, and therefore
if
the motor
is
e'
=2
e/^?,
and for
series
and
fe^c+i?>)min.
= 2xlxe.
becomes
:
The
ratio
ill
;
= X ^
m
n
and
for brush
useful energy
5 ^ = m
w^
"
^.
number
of poles
j^o:
(fc+Pm)min.'=l'>'XP;
Pm =
5min.
.P!
V
xf
53
that there was some resistance or inductance between the brushes of equal polarity so that only a small current could flow from one to the other. If this is not
we assumed
the case the losses will be higher, with four and six polar machines about 25 to 80 per cent.
If
the resistance
is
not altered
i.e.,
increased
with the
number
of the brushes
and
it
the minimum losses with two brush sets, then the putting down of more brushes increases the losses in the resistance
connectors.
To show how
commutation
is
Up
Fig. 52.
Fig. 53.
to
the
has
coil is shortcircuited
it
the current
is
current
reversed to 
I''.
Without the
effect of selfinduction
;
The
is
practi
(Fig. 53).
The
54
by the main
(2, Fig. 54),
when
is
maximum
mutation of the
initial
maximum
of this current.
It
is
opposing the
help
latter rises
(12) and
Flux
\ Circulating
\V
Carrat
/
,
X~X
ing the
initial
it falls
(2
3).
In Fig. 55,
drawn
curve,
for the
2, B
is
23.
We
is
more
Fig. 55.
Fig. 56.
circuited
coil.
The
by
55
looking at Fig. 57, direction of rotation and current having been found by applying the curtain rule. have to re
We
member
tries to
when
the flux
if).
disappear (direction of
Fig. 57.
The
2 the circulating
The
current
artificially
make
must
opposite
The
circulating current
is
This can be
coil) across
Fig. 59.
This causes a current, %, to flow in besides the armature current, thus shifting the field
it
and with
and
59).
5G
attained
b}'^
placing a
noninductive
of
if
and
is
being
shifted as
method
of the
On
depends on the
is
time of commutation
on the speed
whilst C
almost
independent of
it,
good to some extent at a certain speed only. The advantage obtained must be bought by either making the machine worse through the selfinduction in parallel with the armature or by
the reduction in efficiency through the watts consumed in the
resistance across the field terminals,
though
this
amounts
to
There is one item that helps the effect of both these expedients ie., the hysteresis, which makes the main flux lag somewhat behind the exciting current, and in this way shifts
the phase of the circulating current in the right direction.
The
hysteresis lag
amounts
to lOdeg. or 15 deg.
Also the
which
Zpirc.
is,
however,
current
tends
to
the
phase of
so that
it
helps
commutation.
We
shall
when
67
There are
elec
two
trical connection,
being sandwiched between two of the others (Fig. 62). If, futhermore, the brush is not broader than one segment it can
not shortcircuit a
into the
coil.
Uyo windings
in parallel.
The current branches from the brush With this method the
may
flow from
It is
that there
is
between them.
we connect
the windings
Fig. 62.
by the brushes, heavy currents pass (the windings being nearly and having small selfinduction) and sparking and pitting of the commutator ensues. This method has, therefore, found practically no application. Ihere are altogether three ways of checking an undesirable
bi filar
current
tive.
(1)
on account
(3)
Introducing an E. M.F. of such a value that the E.M.F., tending to produce the undesirable current,
counterbalanced.
58
The
method would be
ideal,
mean applying
impossible, because
we should not
fluxes.
Thera
We
flux
main
Ng when moving (Fig. 63). The E.M.F. induced in this way can be made equal and opposite to that producing the cirIt will
be easily
a phase displacement
tensity, its
90 deg. between Nj and N2, Ni inducing by change of ineff'ect being zero when it passes over its maximum,
its lines
N2 inducing by
being at
its
its
effect
height
when N2
There can exist only one speed at which the E.M.F. induced by cutting Ng is equal to that induced by the fluctuation of N
at a certain fixed frequency.
The conditions we
are fulfilled in
shall deal
with motor an
of for
made use
damping the
A
coil
special winding,
(Fig.
64), has
commutating
(y^k\ W being excited from the main voltage or a voltage proportional to it. Sometimes the armature, or some mixed
voltage,
is
the flux
N5S
used for excitation in order to correct the phase of produced by W^. If the power factor were unity,
total voltage would be correct, because then there would be 90 deg. phase displacement, as required,
rent.
between Ng and Ni, the latter being created by the main curAs the power factor is actually smaller than 1, W^ might with advantage be excited from the armature terminals only,
more nearly
current.
made to counteract the mutual induction between W^ and W, either by inserting a choking
provision has to be
coil in
Some
or
THE GORE
LOSS.
59
%
is
(Fig. 67),
about
only.
Instead of a resistance
in parallel with
coil in parallel
W^
a choking
ture
may
be used.
tiQrz
Fig. 64.
Fig. 65.
^N,
Fig. 67.
10.
It
not our
intention
to
eddy
currents,
its
dependency
on
filing
the slots of the machine and other causes, which tend to increase the core losses in any machine, alternator, induction
We
take
it
to be a wellif
known
fact that
we cannot
we
are to
60
come out
The actual losses and even three or four times, as much as found by simply multiplying the volume of the iron by the loss per unit at the working density taken from the abovementioned curve. It is only the special behaviour of
to be double,
the
alternatingcurrent
to
motor
with
regard
to
core
loss
we wish
point
out.
In the stationary
part the
flux
There
are losses in the pole face due to the armature reaction sending
it and increasing the density at certain places, weakening it. If the machine is compensated, this
flux from the armature will disappear, but in place of it quite an appreciable leakage flux around the slots, which carry the compensating winding, will establish itself and increase the
J
Fig. 68.
losses.
with
of
eddy
This
;
ment
of the
issues.
loss aff'ects
not uniform
it
The
is
caused by the flux having an alternating character to start with, and at the same time the iron revolving relative to it.
The
hysteresis
loss,
say in a tooth
of
the armature,
is
dependent only on the number of cycles of magnetisation it The passes through and on the maximum density obtained. difficulty lies in the fact that neither one nor the other is
strictly
Supposing a motor runs at half its synchronous speed, and consider a certain tooth which is exactly in
defined.
THE CORE
LOSS.
61
moment
when
the flux
is
zero
is
rising to its
maximum
During the
Fig. 70.
Fig. 71.
Fig. 72.
falls to
70 and 71.
We
would be
62
is
moment when the flux is zero, will be in the neutral position when the flux is zero again. Then the magnetisation changes
the
its sign,
is
moving
lowing
pole.
Through
this
again a magnetisation in the same direction, so that two halfloops of hysteresis are formed instead of a complete loop, as
Figs. 70
first
(curve
II,
and
72).
If
we were to
we should
which the
from one
is
have to undergo
differ vastly
another.
To come
to a practical result
we
make
its
use of a
method
An
defined
by
change of
This
dis
from a regular revolving field, which remains conAn stant in intensity but revolves at a constant velocity. alternating field can be replaced by two revolving fields rotating synchronously in opposite directions, both equal in
tinguishes
it
fields is correct
is
correct only
if
we wish
to study
The first of these conditions is not fulfilled by introducing a correction we may put up with The inductive effect in our case is reprethis inaccuracy. sented by the eddy current loss which, as pointed out, is larger than the hysteresis loss in practice, and we might, therefore, consider the whole of the core loss as following the same law as that of the eddy currents. Actually the hysteresis is proportional to the frequency and to (density) the eddy currents to the (frequency)^ and (density), but as a whole the results obtained by considering the total loss as eddy current los
inductive effects.
in our case, but
^'^,
THE CORE
only will give us an idea of what
will not
LOSS.
63
correct,
but
we can
period later,
when
ones come into opposition, cancelling one another (Fig. 75). When the armature is stationary (speed zero) only the teeth
of the
We
which
>f
73
74
Figs. 7375.
75
here
stands
and back.
'B\
or
B^
Therefore
armature
Flux
2.
64
between the
latter
= 050xCoX(0)^xB2 = 0.
is
On
double
Therefore
;
= 050 X Co X {"Ivf X B^
Vcs
total
= 2 X Co X ^^ X B^ = 2 X Po.
loss is
is
It follows that at
double
the same in
both cases.
If
the speed
is
P, = PoX(ft^+l)
five
find
Pc= 1'25 x
Pc5
Pq.
times
,,
= 26xPo.
With
with
the flux
1
a?
same direction
much
different
(directcurrent excitation)
we could put
P^^
= Cx^'^xB2Xft^=2xPoX<
maximum
density
The
B were the same in both same armature with directwith the same maximum
therefore
^^ d^ ^= 2 X
1 >td^
:
The following
05
1
!
04
1
2 3
lO
18
J
15
138
1
"
THE CORE
Above synchronism the core
equal flux densities.
LOSS.
65
to alternating
loss
due
exci
the figure
2.
We
very
we can
consider,
which the armature revolves to be constant, the being at every moment C^ X (v ay x (B^,o^^eDtary)^ ^^
.
therefore
xCoXv^xa^
we
x B'^.
Now we know
flux being the
obtain a voltage
maximum
same in both cases. If we compare the losses caused by direct current and alternating fluxes, which are producing a given eflective voltage in a certain armature,
find
we
g'=
:^
g=
^,
and consequently
is
We
could split up
though
the
losses
:
caused by the alternatingcurrent flux into two portions one caused by the alternation of the flux, which is independent of
the speed, Po, and the other part caused by the revolution of
the armature, Pq X a^. The former is made up for electrically by the magnetisation through the field coils, and causes a phase displacement between current and voltage in the latter the part PoXa^is overcome mechanically, and is felt as a reduction
;
P^rf.
We may
therefore
compare
effective voltages,
the
PoXa^, and we find that^ for equal losses are equal. For the same maxicaused by revolving in an
direct current
mum
density,
This result gives the simplest way of calculating the core loss in an alternating current commutator motor where the
maximum
A.C.C.M,
66
and armature as
ivith
a transformer
and
The
core
losses
caused
by the
armature reaction
may
if
the main flux was not there, adding about 50 per cent, for the
of the
We have developed general formulae for the flux dependent on the output of the machine, utilising these formulae in
laying out a line of machines, providing sufficient section for
the flux to
pass,
fixing
approximate
general
dimensions
in accordance with the output, and estimating from these the mean length of magnetic path. This can be done very
closely
if
and number
of poles. I
have carried
out this investigation for machines from 3 b.h.p. to 300 b.h.p. and found that, given the number of poles and frequency, the
core loss, taken as thej^ercentage of the output,
is
almost independent
Speaking in a very broad way, the condition that, to obtain must not fall below a certain The core loss of the machine figure can be expressed in this form
:
must not
machine
poles,
be less
to
is
than a certain percentage of the output if the run simrUessly. Naturally by saturating teeth,
back of armature and yoke very little indeed i.e., by making the dimensions very much larger than necessary, or by using specially good iron and by not filing the slots smaller
figures for the percentage core loss can be obtained than those
I
poles, the core loss may also be kept smaller, the losses in the copper rising at the same time. For obtaining practical average figures, however, our data are
near enough. Fig. 76 represents the "alternating " core loss only as a percentage of the output of the machine for different numbers of poles
and
its
We realise
THE CORE
At the
first
LOSS.
67
rises if the
is
glance to what enormous figures the core loss frequency exceeds 25 to 30 per second. This fact easily understood, for to obtain sparkless commutation a cer
tain flux
of the frequency,
and
armature and
the frequency
The high
core loss
unimportant one
limiting
and
and not
the most
very interesting
to see that the limit is about the same as that imposed, for i7istance,
by the
;poioer factor
15
/ /
J'
/
9>y
/
,
^y
y
^ f
10
^ ^ ^
y.
'
!
y y. '''C^
y y <A
y^ x^
20
33
Cycles per second.
40
50
Tig. 76.
Core Loss with Stationary Armature (Alternating Core Loss) AS Percentage of Output.
"
To calculate the total core loss we must first divide the alternating " core loss, as given by our curves in Fig. 76, into
portions, that in the stationary
I
two
and that
in the revolving
loss in
indeed with a
normal design.
say, 25 per cent.
to
30 per
cent.,
at synchronous
speed
is
core loss
revs,
P2
68
7 per
At synchronous speed the revolving core = 1*75 percent., the total 7 + 1*75 = 875 per cent.,
tips,
say
&c.
With 80 per cent, total efficiency the core to 9*5 X 080 = 7^ per cent, of the input.
7
loss
would amount
syn
With twice
+ (l'75
X 4)
= 14 per cent,
of the output, or 16
built for
min. 25 cycles, but having eight poles, would have an "alteri.e., nating " core loss of 43 per cent, at 750 revs, per min.
twice synchronous speed.
would be
loss,
is
4*3
therefore, 4*3
= 86
say
9 J per cent.
The
for 4
750
revs, per
min.
same
750
revs, per min. (half nating" core loss 17*5 per cent., " revolving" core loss 11 per
cent.,
750
revs,
At 50 periods, 8 poles, " per min. (synchronous speed), the " alternating
115 per cent., the "revolving " core loss
core loss
cent.,
is
29
per
11.
The friction losses of an alternatmotor are naturally to be calculated in exactly ing current the same way as those of any other machine. They consist of
A. The Friction Losses.
1.
Bearing
friction.
2. 3.
friction
on the commutator.
of this treatise if
It
is,
We
we
we should have some basis for taking of the friction losses when making out diagrams and account For this purpose we will use the estimates of the efficiency.
THE REMAINING
curve Fig. 77.
This curve
is
LOSSES.
69
way
it
and wind
The commutator friction naturally cannot be made dependent on these two factors alone, as the number of brushes and the brush pressure have the greatest
age at different speeds.
influence;
and
this
the currentdensity.
class
it.
Assuming
metre,
a coefficient
friction of
0*30,
and a pressure
3^5
of
we
obtain
ampere.
With
commutator
The
latter, again, is
by
20
^^
a 15
^^

05
250
600
750
1,000
1,250
1,500
1,750
2,000
!FiG.
77.
width
of the
armature
if
varied moderately.
Resorting to
practical experience
set of
the brush friction loss per hundred amperes taken as a percentage of the output of the machine for different speeds and
They refer to machines for continuous rating horsepower. machines with intermittent rating have about 25 per cent,
;
less losses
gained from the curves (Fig. 79), which have been drawn up for 200 volts, the power factor and the efficiency having been
70
assumed
and power
Thus a 250
motor
1
\
\{
48 \
A
V
\ %^ ^
N
c
V)
^ ^
50
^ ^^
TT^
I :1
25
75
100
125
150
175
200
B.H.P. Output.
Fig. 78.
oOi
S
PJI
J
^
/ ^/
z'
^^ /^
25
^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ "^ 
^
151
i
_12
5
30RM:
)OR:E^
_
""""
"^
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
BJI.P. Output.
Fig. 79.
volts.,
apparent efficiency
PER cent.
THE REMAINING
750
revs, per min.,
LOSSES.
71
and an
loss of
efficiency of
about
^
2.04x?59x ^^^"^
184X
....
1 = 2
15 per cent.
yJ'oD
The copper
losses consist of
2. 3.
Copper
way by
somewhat complicated
10
\ \
V
p
V
1C
u. tM,
__
^5 \
2
UL
150
lOtf
mm
75
100
125
LMT
15j
175
26
6U
2u0
B.U.P. Output.
Fig. 80.
sign, the
amount
of copper to be
by the cooling surface. Though the method is crude it is good enough to show the law which connects the copper losses with the output, the more as I have kept sufficiently in touch with completely designed machines. The curves, Fig. 80,
fixed
are the result of my investigation, giving the copper loss in the armature as a percentage of the output of the machine for
different capacities
72
For a
stant,
i.e.f
number
of poles
we have
to multiply
by a conThis
which
is
is
number
of poles
constant
For
The
losses in the
We may say,
approximately, that
The
losses in the
main
field coils
we saw from our former investigations on the power factor, the field ampereturns must not be excesairgap, but,
as
compared with the armature ampereturns, and, theresome relation to the armaWith small machines the airgap must ture copper losses. be comparatively larger. We for mechanical considerations may say that with 5 H.p. to IOh.p. machines the field loss is about 80 per cent, of the armature copper loss ; with 100 HP. to 200 H p. machines it is only about 60 per cent.
sive
fore, the loss in the field coils has
12.
The
Efficiency.
the
which
permits
to be expressed
by simple mathematical
mula
tance
or
is
by diagrams.
Of equal
if
not greater
impor
would have
if
going into the law of heating and other questions which might
way
eflQciencies other
sufficient to
form a general
how
these figures
We
will
come out with the machines in question. show the application of our tables and curves by
an example.
THE EFFICIENCY.
73
What is the efficiency of a singlephase commutator motor for SO h.p. 200 volts 25 cycles 750 revs, per min.y having four poles and four brush arms, the power factor being approxinuitely 0'90 ?
We
find
7*00 per cent. 1*75 ,, 1*15 ,, 1*95 ,, 3*35 ,, 3'50 ,, 2"50 ,, 210 ,,
Bearing friction
Brush friction Commutator connections and brush drop Armature copper loss Compensating copper loss
Field copper loss
...
Total losses
Output
Input
Efficiency
2330 10000
12330 8110
,,
of a direct current
at the
Brush friction Commutator connection Brush drop. Armature copper loss Compensating copper loss
Field copper loss
Total losses
Output
Input
Efficiency
1460 lOO'OO
.
11460 8720
As another example we may consider a very small machine, ay a 5 h.p. motor for 25 cycles 1,500 revs, per min. 100 volts, with four poles and two brush arms, the power factor being
assumed
as 082.
The
losses are
.........
........^..^....
..... ... Commutator connections and brush drop .... ......... Armature copper loss ..... Compensating copper loss ...... . Field copper loss ...
Brush
friction
70 per cent. 68 ,, 1'7 ,, 26 ,, 67 ,, 40 ,, 3*0 ., 35 ,, 353 740
,,
Total losses
Efficiency
.......
74
machine would be
...
Brush
friction
Commutator connections
Brush drop Armature copper loss Compensating copper
Field copper loss
loss
0*00 per cent. 8*00 170 2*50 0"05 0*45 4*00 0*00 7'00
Total losses
Efficiency
2370 8100
We
motor the
about 6 or 7 per cent, lower and the 50 per cent, higher than with a corresponding
This
is chiefly due to the alternating commutator connections.
The Diagram
of the real motor distinguishes itself from that machine by taking account of the losses, but it has one weakness in common with the latter the saturation of the magnetic path is supposed to be so low that the flux
of the ideal
The diagram
We
must
2.
the current.
The
first class
comprises
all
field,
arma
We may
latter
is
One might
mean misunderstanding the charand the eddy current loss. They can;
75
repre
with an
the re
ohmic resistance in
sistance in the
in
main circuit would produce a watt component Both make the angle between volts and the voltage.
field coils,
machine,
the armature.
The
is
alternating
by the
of the
under commutation, in fact it can be treated as part of and together with the core loss. The revolving core loss and the friction loss tend to prevent the
armature from revolving; they diminish the useful torque. These losses are, therefore, covered mechanically and do not
affect the
ful load
phase of the current in any other way than the useon the pulley or pinion of the motor. As a funda
way
We
second
than
a correction.
it
would be
Then we can put in these losses more exactly possible if we should attempt to find an
loss
and current so as to
embody them in the diagram. In the linear diagram which we may draw up for a certain working condition, the effect of
hysteresis,
eddy and
may
easily
be
We
OA
it
driving
magnetic
eddy OC, and circulating currents lagging behind the flux by about 90 deg., which will be represented in the main circuit, together with the hysteresis losses, by the component BD vertical to OB (parallel to OC). OB and BD together give the main current OD, which flows through field and armature in series. The flux produces in the field coils an E.M.F. vertical
path in phase with the flux
The
flux produces
currents,
76
to
which
is
 E^) = 0F
vertical
to the current
and leading the latter by 90 deg. In phase with the current an E.M.F., OG, is required equal to current
is the vector sum of OGr and OF i.e., OH. The armature revolving in the flux O A generates an E.M.F., OK, in phase with OA. We add to this KL=E.M.F. of selfinduction in armature and compensating winding plus watt
IT"
i sec. of
eddy
currfints
Fig. 81.
losses caused
is,
crossflux.
KL
due to
this
Adding further
77
OM
and
OH
One
eddy and
circu
is
slightly reduced,
but there
is
way by
to the fact that the harmful on the phase of the flux are circulating currents reacting quite useful, and for this reason they have sometimes been suppressed to a smaller degree than one might expect. Tests
Special attention
must be drawn
have been carried out by the SiemensSchuckert Co. (Kichter) to show that the power factor can be made equal to unity
checked.
through allowing circulating currents to flow more or less unNaturally the heating of the brushes and the commutator prevent the actual practical application of this expedient.
by
be
will
Fig. 82.
OKDAL
78
is
If
now
xp
the flux
is
made
by an
angle,
(the hysteretic
eddy current
OK'L'
will
lag), it will
will follow it to
OK'
be
identical
OKL,
the
The angle of the new phase displacement being eddycurrent lag subtracts directly from the hysteretic and Asoriginal angle betiveen current and terminal voltage. and sin ip i.e., <^ = 37 deg. for instance, cos <^ = 080 suming, =010, i/' being 6 deg. we find <^' = 37 6 = 31 deg., and the new power factor cos c^' = 086. Supposing we had a cos <^ = 0*705 only, being 45 deg. and sin = 010, is 6 deg. and = 0*78. This is only the improvement due to the shiftcos ing of the phase of the flux, a further increase of the power
\^.
=6
</>
il/
r/'
</)'
<
ea
^a^Cr >J
of the current for
Fig. 83.
by the wattcomponent
still
covering the
loss.
clearer
if
we add
together
all
comfield
all resis
and adding
it
separately, as
At
is
we
combine
age
''magn.
ej^f
and
e^^^
Diagram Fig. 84
combined.
We
find,
again,
the
currenttriangle
" ^ ^^ phasc with imagn. wc draw the flux and the voltage induced in the armature by rotation e. Vertical to it
^core loss
79
i"
the
+ ^La) and
effect in
in our
diagram the
is
felt in * x r only,
this factor
its
phase
Except for this small defect we are able to construct a diagram completely neglecting i,^ and to add this current component afterwards in a convenient way. The advantage of neglecting ?, at first lies in the fact that the E.M.F.s of selfinduction of field, compensating winding and armature are
90deg. displaced against
i^,
and that
E ( = e)
is
in phase
with i^ only.
ixr
Fig. 84.
Fig. 85.
Except for the component ixr we could use our ideal diagram exactly, and it is clear that the presence of the resistance can involve only a minor modification. Drawing again the circle and the triangle of voltages OAB (Fig. 86), AB now represents the E.M.F. of selfinduction in
field
is
no longer
=E
alone,
but
e plus i
X ^.
The phase
of the current
i
remains exactly
its
the same
i.e,,
that of e^ and
r,
and, as before,
intensity
can be represented by AB. Erecting again AC vertical to OB, BC is the torque and AC the watt component of the current,
but no longer the useful energy, as it includes a component for the ohmic loss. When the motor is stationary e^ becomes zero
80
cal with 0, OA' being the drop in the ohmic resistance which cannot be eliminated. BA' is the maximum current
The
triangle
is
starting
to the
this
Draw A'C vertical to OB; BC is the and A'C the watt component of the current
losses in the motor.
If the current is
torque at
ohmic
watt component goes down to HC, as it can easily be proved that the amount HC, cut off from the vertical AC by
Fig. 86.
is
AB.
Drawing
lengthened
DF in
Fig. 86 parallel to
OB, similar to the diagram amount cut off on this line by the
the speed.
It is smaller
A i.e., DF represents
DM,
form
Compare Electrotecliiiische Zeitschrift, 1900, the Author's of the Heyland diagram for induction motors.
simplified
81
component
so as to fix
FiG. 87.
component
tional to e^,
retic
i.e.,
proportionate to
xj/
i,,^
itself
the angle
of hyste
phase displacement
between i^ and
being assumed
Fia.
to be constant.
Then
equal to constant
so that
it is
diagram
Also the influence the component i direct. on the power factor can be easily shown. AB i^, being i (Fig. 88), we add z,p=AG at right angles (OA
A.C.C.M.
82
lengthened)
BGr
is
in proper phase,
and
for
OH is the power factor if 0B=1. The geometrical locus G is a circle which passes through O and B and the centre
which
is
of
main
circle,
the angle
14.
PBO = ^.
To draw up the diagram and determine the performance of an actual machine the following tests are required 1. The resistance of field, compensating winding, armature^
:
(N.B.
The
The
test
can
(field
resistance
of the resistance
measured should
be used.
2.
and measurement of losses in armature plus compensating The armature and compensating winding should be winding.
excited in series with alternating current, the field being left
Find the
approximate laws
stray flux
3.
winding=constantx amperes.
The noload
test.
by the
= constant x(current)2.
Excite the
field
Measure
lifted, if it is
energy consumed by circulating currents from hysteresis and eddy current loss. Repeat the test at a very slow speed indeed,
and currents.
Try
to
on
field
armature
compensating
winding)
equal
to
constant x
amperes
(as a
TESTS,
(b) Volts
83
on armature
field
stant
(c)
X volts on
Core
or
= con
Fig. 89.
ohmic
= function
of current.
Obtain an
\^,
sm w =
/
field,
Friction and
Hysteresis Watts
Amperes
Fig. 90,
When
may be
plotted, unless
G2
84
it is
draw
friction loss
To
may
ning
light,
ijej's
2?i'^ii.
Amperes
Fig. 91.
by a
(Fig.
The inexactness
is
armature, being due to a very small current only, and therefore the losses are
value.
Ammeter
r~lWattmeter
Voltmeter
Comp. Winding
Fig. 92.
No
results obtained
by means
of a
cannot be determined
TESTS,
S6
by anything
else
but the
full load
run
(Fig. 92).
If it is
question of guarantees,
I should not
a diagram similar
to Fig. 82 for every point of the working range, taking account of even the slightest saturation and the core losses exactly as measured. There is still a wide
field for
i.e.,
and
to obtain, quickly,
We will
min.
1.
construct the diagram for a definite example 50 H.P. motor, 25 periods, 200 volts at about 800 revs, per
:
Resistances
Field
Comp. winding Armature
Brushes
...
001 2 ohm.
0*014 0*018
0*010
...
0*054
2.
Alternatingcore
loss,
ing currents under the brushes and volts on field (ohmic drop
in field deducted)
:
Amperes.
100 150 200 255 350 500
...
... ...
... ... ... ... ... ...
Watts. 900
1,600 2,500 3,400 5,200 8,600
... ...
0137
0132 0134
3. Friction loss
loss at
Amperes.
150 200 255 300 400 500
Watts.
3,100 2,350 1,800 1,600 1,400 1,450
Revs.
1,280
86
amperes, we
may
put roughly
Inductive volts
_ ^.07
Current
'
Sin ^=0148.
Total impedance = J^'dV
Shortcircuit current
+ 00542=0872.
Sin
V'
= 0146.
\
\
\
Power
LUU
facto
/
1.000
00
90 80
70
^ \^ ^ /7
\

X
/
60 50 40 30
BHP
V^ ^ / s K^
Sr
pi^
iS^
Footlbs.
800
s vsTorque
I/
N^
Effic
Al paren
enoy
00008
400
20
10
/
f
/
/
Ld
100
200
200
400
500
Amperes.
Fig. 93.
Draw
OBN
so
that cos
OBN=0146
make
BN=540
to suitable scale.
and N.
PK
Draw from centre on OB a circle through vertical on OB; sin BPK = 0148. From P
circle
as centre
draw second
line>
say
BG=255
amperes, has
its
being given
TESTS.
87
by
OA
(B0 = 1).
The curves
as obtained
(Fig.
power
factor,
If
The improvement
is
losses"
power factor " through the quite remarkable, and enables us to obtain power
is
worth noting
that,
with about
100 amperes, the power factor reaches unity, aadi with still smaller currents, the machine supplies leading current to the
line.
This
is
CHAPTER
III.
The Induction
as a matter of
We
fact,
some disadvantages with it, such as xeduction of output, power factor and efficiency. We have not utilised, however.
Fig
94.
without any
electrical
connection.
made
We
may,
for instance,
wind the
down
to a lower figure
It
is
This
is
evident
that tte behaviour of such a motor would be exactly the same as that of an ordinary series machine, primary and secondary
90
Assuming
for a
moment
its
transformation 1:1,
slightest effect
Hardly of the machine. any advantage could be claimed for this arrangement, except that the heavy armature current need not be handled in the control apparatus, or that the voltage and current of the armature may be chosen as is most convenient, the field
on the behaviour
Compared with the transformation of the whole energy supplied shown in Fig. 95, the former method would have the advantage of requiring a somewhat smaller transformer, but, on the other hand, the field winding must be a high
to the motor, as
voltage one.
Fig. 95.
circuit of Fig.
94 we find that
it is
Now,
it is
itself
main
;
the transformation
which produces the torque, for we could, as it were, combine motor and
flux,
transformer.
out,
and we should
arrive at a
commutator motor
of the
commutation and shortcircuited by the brushes touching same time, the field has no inducing
91
its
intensity.
Even
if
we
up
armature would not have any current induced in it. The conductors from a to 6 (Fig. 96) receive E.M.F.s in opposite directions to those induced in the conductors from h to c, and both cancel one another. Matters would be different if the
brushes were shifted
90 deg.
c
(Fig.
97).
would add up, and the alternating flux would induce a very heavy current in the shortcircuited armature. But under these conditions no torque whatever would be developed, as the dynamic actions between the flux
issuing
ato d would
from the poles and the conductors from a to 6 and cancel one another.
Fig. 96.
Fig. 97.
With the
field shifted
90 deg. from the brush line (Fig. 96), field can only exercise torque
on the armature winding, but no induction of current through can take i.e., no transformer action place. In the case of coincidence of the field line and brush The arrangement we should have line it is just the reverse.
and
shortcircuited,
we provide a second
first
from the
pair
and excited
with the
latter.
Pair
cur
92
rent in the armature and this current would create a torque with
number
1,
Compared with
Fig. 94
the
field
of the trans
former T, and flux N2 the transflux, and the armature would be equivalent to the seconS.
dary
16.
The
Thomson.
The practical form of such a machine would naturally be different from that shown diagrammatically in Fig. 98,
first
of all
because
it
would be
difficult to
by
side.
Fig. 99.
will,
the current in
2, more or less must be used for the flux Ng, inducing the armature. The form of the stator would
motor with a
shown in Fig. 99. Going still a step further, we any moment under consideration in a certain stator it is only in imagination that there can be two magnetisIn reality we can join the two windings into one. ing forces. The resultant winding A will have a position somewhere between windings Aj and Ag according to the strength of either.
90
deg., as
recognise that at
we
arrangement
is
and that the brushes are shifted from the neutral position. We have now developed the repulsion motor in its original form, as invented by Elihu Thomson. For theoretical consideration, and to understand its action, it is by far the most convenient way to remember that the sinsrle winding on the stator can be split up into two components, the centre line of the first Aj being shifted 90 deg. from the brush line and producing the flux The centre line for exerting the torque. component Ag coincides of the second Fig 100. with the brush line, and A, serves to
induce a current in the shortcircuited
armature.
If the field
winding
is
displaced
by a
deg.
from
and
A is thenumber of ampere
A
.
deg., r
These are approximate only, and have by hypothesis a " sinusoidal " distribution of the field winding, a condition which is nearly fulfilled if the winding is distributed over
several slots, similar to
This
arrangement
series motors,
is
not
it
but
94
current
by means
of
transformation
is
important.
For
many slots on
Fig. 99
on conductors close to it (2), and only with great loss of lines on those closer to the brushes (1). From this point of view it
would be best to provide two primary windings, one
the main
flux.
distri
nary
In fact, the compensating winding of an ordimotor might be used as an induction winding. A method has been described (page 36) in which the compensating winding did not carry the main current at all, but was shortseries
circuited in itself
and a current produced by mutual induction from the armature. In our case, compensating and armature windings would simply exchange roles, the latter being shortcircuited
current.
There
is,
when
as a matter of fact,
In
in Fig.
91
trans
17.
The electrical energy P^ equivalent to the mechanical power is: Current X E.M.F., E^, in the armature conductors produced by these conductors cutting the flux Nj. This will be so in whatever way the energy has been transmitted to the armature if by conduction (series motor) or induction (repulsion motor). The energy transmitted to the armature con
96
veyed by the flux Ng is P2 = Current xE.M.F., Eg, induced in the armature by flux Ng. Pj is (apart from losses) equal to Pg, and therefore the E.M.F. induced in the armature by the
" alternation " of the flux Ng is equal to the counter E.M.F. due to the armature " moving in " N^.
^1 = ^2Actually
E2=Ei+ohmic and
inductive drop.
For both E.M.F.s the number of conductors is the same that of the armature the number of cycles at which Ng alternates is fixed by the supply frequency, whilst the relative speed between armature and flux N^ is fixed by the number of
revolutions.
Fig. 101.
its
conductors,
The calculation
of
We find
E.
1
.
?;
V2
.
No
10*^ volts.
Ni=v
N2,
actual speed synchronous speed
N2_i/60 Nj V
N2_w _
J
Ni
n^
fields
would be equal.
If the
The
speed were to
alter inversely as
N^ (terminal voltage constant and small field), Ng would be constant. Apart from the fact that N^ and Ng are contained in the same body, and the peculiarity that both act on the same winding, the characteristic of the repulsion motor ought to be the same as that of the series motor with transformer for the
armature
(Fig. 94)
^.e., if
without leakage and magnetising current) the same as in an ordinary series motor, because, " after the transformation,'^
current and flux N^ work together in the same
stated in
full detail
way
as
we have But
not perfect, as
it
has to be
We
might
simplify
the
investigation,
replacing
our
(Fig. 102),
motor
Fiff.
102.
with the ampere turns A^^A cos a and flux N^; motor II carrying Wg, with the ampereturns A2=A sin a and Ng. The
the ordinary series motor, while the latter may be looked upon as stationary as it does nothing but transmit
former
is
energy.
is
It
is
common knowledge
a matter of indifference to the supply circuit whether the energy is supplied to an apparatus through a transformer or direct, provided we take care of the magnetising current and
97
shown by Steinmetz,
choking
this
Ng through airgap and iron. L^ and Lg act just as an increase of the field and armature leakage of an
ordinary motor, so that we can include them in these figures. Its effect is an increase of Ej and consequently a reduction of
,
the power factor and overload capacity, but not any principal
alteration in the performance of the machine.
rent
ia,
flowing in Za turns,
transformation zjz^^ to obtain its primary equivalent, which is to be introduced into the diagram. Therefore the repulsion motor
Choking
Coil
Fio. 103.
Fm.
series
104.
is equivalent to
an ordinary
coil
coil in
N2
num
by the
sine of the
show us how large is i,^. At synchronous speed the two fluxes Nj and Ng are equal. The reluctances of their paths being the
same, the
Therefore
wattless energy to
E^x^>Ex^,,
.
or
t,=ii
A.C,C.M
g^
for
t,,
= 'W\n)'
ij^
98
In Fig. 105 we draw \. In phase with it the flux N^ and the E.M.F., E, induced by the armature revolving in Nj. At right
*\ we draw the E.M.F. of selfinduction of winding Wj, E/ (inclusive drop in L^ and Lg, Fig. 103), which is to be added to E in order to obtain the terminal voltage e. So far we have drawn the diagram of the primary circuit, which is exactly the same as that of the series motor. If there is only very little ohmic and inductive drop in the armature, E^ is its terminal voltage and that of the choking coil. So we find the current t^ in the latter 90 deg. behind E^. The armature current ia (actually multiplied by zjz^ assumes such a value that
angles to
L and
*'
combine to the
total current L.
Fig. 105.
Fig. 106.
tween
i^ and i^ is the same as beand E or i^ that is, the angle itself, generally tan p As Ey.=^^mL it represents t^, the same as in tan <^. (n/n^)^. the circle diagram for the series motor. For the sake of comparison, side by side with this diagram the diagram of the series motor has been drawn (Fig. 106). Starting again from the same
(/>
value of ^=^\
we
find
N=Ni,
same E.
So
If we wdsh to study the performance of a repulsion motor we can use the same linear diagram and also the circle diagram
99
Let us assume that we have a series motor, say without compensating winding, but with distributed primary coils.
Referring
to
Fig. 105,
we

will
(*J
This motor may, as an example, run under a load corresponding to the current I. Transforming this machine into a
repulsion motor,
we
shortcircuit the
armature and
shift the
brushes from the neutral by a certain angle, a (Fig. 100). Ohmic drop may again be neglected. Fig. 98 represents the equivalent
repulsion motor, Aj having S
cos a turns
S X sin a turns,
field
if
is
the
number
winding.
I as before, the
now be
E/^
smaller
E.M.F.
of the field
now
which
Eyj,
is
of
the
series
r
motor xcos^a.
repulsion motor.
series,
index
to
refers
to
shifting
the
since part of
we have reduced the fluxproducing portion of S, it, namely S x sin a, is split off for transmitting the energy to the armature. Now, since e, E^ and E^, (Fig. 105)
brushes
triangle,
and
E,,.
E^^ {i.e.,
sin a turns)
and approaches the terminal voltage e, the latter being kept constant E rises and N^ falls with increasing a. Therefore the speed will go up the more the brushes are shifted from the neutral position. This affords a very convenient means to regulate the speed and even to reverse the motor by shifting the brushes forward instead of backward. Applying the curtain rule to Figs. 107 and 108 the law can be easily deduced that the brushes of the repulsion
larger,
;
ynotor
it
(secondary of transformer).
H2
100
The
XS X
will
sin a
winding
current.
of the
a.
armature
Therefore
The
ratio
040 X sm
armature turns
i=IxO40xsina.
The
ia is
if
reaches
its
namely 040x1. It will be checked still more in a real machine containing So we find that selfinduction and resistance in the armature.
maximum
for.
current
it
xSx
Nj^
would be
left,
would be actually
less
FiG. 107.
Fm.
108.
it is
capable of carrying.
Without pro
compared with
armature winding,
ampereturns
is
field
We
ampereturns/arma
To produce the same flux Ni=N and to obtain the same speed and power factor aa with the series motor A/i = A^x cos a = 040 X A, Af =sta torampereturns,
ture ampereturns, will be in our case.
Furthei
101
A is the useful ampereturns not including the magnetising component i,. One might for a moment assume that the airgap was so small that *,^0, then
A,=
Even
if
VV+V=l08xA.
A,
kj^
very
bad power
factor,
so
we
may
ampereturns are
is
we must assume to be a
and the
useful ampereturns
series
on the
motor.
We
fix
from the
^^n
of
a=
=25;
04
*,
= 68 deg.
current
A/2
the
armature
at synchronous speed,
= watt
component
The
total
armature current
component.
24 per
cent.,
^1 +073 x watt component= 124 x watt The armature current is at synchronous speed and the ohmic loss about 50 per cent, more than
motor, these relations being
still
with the
series
may
naturally be
section of copper
by making
brush shifting.
is
Even a switch
in the
primary
make
we
have only to
102
be no
by
the brushes touching two segments, these coils not being ex
flux.
in the
Thomson Motor.
Ng has on the core loss and the coils under commutation. N^ and Ng are displaced 90 deg. locally and in phase relation. If Nj and Ng are equal (synchronous speed) they would compound to form a proper revolving field of constant intensity, as in a twophase induction motor (Figs. 109 and 110). If
flux
field is
"elliptical"
i.e.,
when
i.e.,
From Nj, one with the intensity Bj^//2 revolving forward and
a second one 6^,72 revolving backward and from Ng one with the intensity 6,^/2 revolving forward and a second one ^2'J^ revolving backward.
;
Now
ward
the two
fields
fields
Figs. 112
and
at the
moment when N^
zero,
is
has reached
its
maximum
By
value and
Ng
is
and
at
when Ng
Figs.
its
studying further
will
direction
when
i,n='^mm&x.
We
either
obtain a
revolving forward,
B^ B2/2,
revolving backward.
n^.
The speed
of
The speeds
relative to the
103
Na
>Time
or
Circumference
^Nrl^r
"
'
H.
HN:
Fig. 111.
fNiNi,
Ni=0
Ni
Urjj^ Nj forward
r*N2
forwvd
43 Lf.
Nl backward
iiwm *i
lj
^2 backward
^J^2'
'^a forward
/Wl forward
Na backward
Fig. 112.
Fig. 113.
104
or,
putting again
n=axn,
fields are
w,<(a
1)
The core
losses
currents) caused
by the two
and
f total=:^/+;?^ = constantx
2(Bi2B22)
x(a2+l)8a.Bi.
The
stator naturally has zero speed
is
Bo.
exists
core loss is higher than that in a series motor, the transformer flux
Ng and
same as
if
the
vS^Ni=Ni
ii=ii
Fig. 114.
Fig. 115.
other
losses will be
somewhat smaller
loss
than this amount because we have assumed the whole core to be due to eddy currents.
As
we
actual^speed
^^
synchronous speed
stant
With the
motor
it
would be con
we may put
n = axng, neglect
ing saturation
= constant X 2 x B^^ ^ (^2 _ 1^2^ With the series motor, = constant X 2 x B^^ x {a^ + 1) The ratio of the rotor core losses in a repulsion motor to those in a series motor = J a^ +
2?tot.
.
105
At very
is
much
Fig. 116).
/
i
1 1
/
/
/
1
!
1
/
/
1
1
f
/ /
^ ;;^iL
1
/
2
25
Eotor Core Loss of I eries Motor iting Ciu rent Losi ofSerie
"//
..:^
/'/
"^'^=^i
^
125
1*5
025
05
075
Synchronous Speed.
1.
of Repulsion
Motor
II.
Fig. 116.
19.
Circulating Currents.
The most
brushes.
interesting effect of
Ng
is
hy the
same position as was the interpolar space and therefore its lines are cut by the coil under shortcircuit, and an E.M.F. induced in it. Moreover, the phase displacement between N^ and Ng is 90 deg.
is
Ng
in the
that
is,
current
induced by
to
the
alternation
field
of
N^.
It
singly but to
is most combine
Nj and Ng
form two
fields
revolving backwards and forwards same way as we did just now when
106
two revolving ones with the series motor where the polar space makes the existence of proper revolving
impossible.
interfields
first,
is
with the
re
and the
field
no circulating current
by the brushes. With the series motor the E.M.F. induced by the forward and backward component of the field is in each case constant x B^. Therefore
coils shortcircuited
induced in the
as
if it
stator.
No
is
no
the neutral.
the
same way
x{a^ l)^.
as with the
eddy current
series
losses,
namely, 2x6^2
The
and
motor
is
"2
this relation being represented
'
by Curve
speeds
The
commutation with
the
for
in
proximity of
synchronism, either
15
x synchronism
are 4J
enormous values.
With the
fully this
are double.
To understand
important difference in
we have to bear mind that with the series motor, with rising speed, the field becomes weaker and the circulating currents fall. With the
107
which is very useful at synchronous speed, as we have seen, but causes very considerable current to flow when the speed
goes up, N2 remaining nearly constant.
the
field,
giving
it
improved.
not quite
the same, as the circulating currents are not induced altogether " through the transformer action of Nj^ but through " cutting
Ng mechanically
i.e.,
coils,
primary
circuit in the
form of
transmitted
coil
and the primary field winding. In the way that we considered the magnetic condition we had two fields, one revolving backwards with the intensity (B^ Bg) and one forward with the intensity (B^+Bg). The armature coils, when running beyond synchronism, rotate more quickly than the latter field and
therefore are giving energy back to the stator, thus giving the primary current a negative watt component in regard to the field voltage. Consequently the phase displacement between
flux
is
unfavourably.
20. Comparison
of Series
Summing up
and
series
motor we may say 1. The speed and power factor characteristic of the repulsion motor is the same as that of the series motor, except for the reaction of the circulating currents in the coils under commutation.
armature and the core loss in the and the core loss in the rotor and the losses in the connections between armature and commutator are, in the
2.
The copper
loss in the
108
ing series motor, the total losses being as a rule higher with the
repulsion motor.
If
way
3.
regulation
shifting.
4.
The repulsion motor offers certain advantages as to speed and reversing which can be effected by brush
of the repulsion
ing will be
wound
for such a
down
rents to a small
p. 50).
amount
{see
CHAPTER
IV.
The
magnetising current
has
its
i,n
itself,
winding
flux
W^
of the repulsion
in the
motor
(Fig. 117)
Ni by a current
armature
(see Figs.
dynamic
flux,
can be reproduced.
110
(Fig. 120)
with
its line
at right
must be used
Fig. 114
is
to the armature.
or Latour, motor,
briefly the
L.W.E. motor.
In our new
Fig. 118.
Fig, 119.
the
character of
At first sight we may predict that the general such a machine is not verv different from that of
What
armature
itself is
Ill
amounting to 10 to 15 per cent, of the total when the excitation is on the field separated from the armature by an airgap. What happens if The second question to ask would be two currents flow through the same armature winding, the brushes being displaced 90 deg. from one another ? Calling (Fig. 121) I the current entering the armature through the brushes 1 1 and I^ the current conducted by 2 2, branches h c and a d will carry the current Ii/2 + I/2, the branches a h and d c the current 1^/2 1/2, as can be read off directly
:
from Fig. 121. Calling r the resistance of onequarter of the armature and also the resistance of the total armature measured
between
1
and 2
2,
we
2x( + ^)'xr+2(^2i)'xr=P.r+V.r,
Fig. 121.
i.e.,
is
just as large as
if
the
was flowing through the armature regardless of a current being conducted also by the brushes 2 2. In the ordinary way, if a resistance, r, carries two currents, I^ and I, the losses would be larger, for \ = 1 double as large as if I^ and I were flowing each by itself. Thus we can produce the field in the proposed fashion withexciting current
out extra
loss,
smaller.
112
of in the field.
motor will, as a rule, have a larger diameter than that of the series
naturally com
pensated by the dropping out of the exciting ampereturns from the stator more copper losses in the rotor, less in the stator.
;
With the ordinary repulsion motor we had compared with the more copper losses in the rotor, but not less in series motor
the stator.
Special conditions are created
by the
in fact,
fieldturns as well as
number
dis
m^ J\
i^r
Il+im
hi H ^2
laL.
_J
Fig. 122.
Now we have
which can be so easily transformed, and a transformer, T (Fig. 122), may be introduced, the ratio of transformation of
case.
is
arranged
by
alter
ing the
22.
The
Compensation.
We might have dismissed the Latour WinterEichberg motor as a special case of the repulsion motor, having no particularly new features, if there were not a new element
113
We know
flux
that under
the
transformation
Ng induces
an
E.M.F. (Eg) in the armature winding through the latter cutting its lines and that a torque may be exercised by
this flux
To Ng and
I.
with,
will
be zero, because I
Ng is 90 deg. behind Nj^, have a phase displacement of 90 deg. Naturally, if through hysteresis lag and other reasons, the angle between I and Ng
A^IuxNi
>
Current
FluxNa
<
E.M.F.ofS.1. Ef
Compensating
caused through
"alternation" of
E.M.F.
E2 caused
Nj
through "cutting" N2
Fig. 123.
The E.M.F.
E.^
11
through
as
it
" exciter
circuit,"
the brushes
representing only
its
is
in phase with
I.
Ng
(Fig. 123)
and therefore Eg
Further we
I,
may
say that as
Ng
and
Eg
is
we
include
armature leakage) caused by the alternation of N^ which was by 90 deg. and Eg lagging.
Thus Eg tends
to compensate E/.
We may
say
Through
the
114
E.M.F.
of selfinduction,
a new E.M.F.
is
circuit,
may
which tends to reduce the former. be called the " compensating E.M.F."
is running at synchronous speed, the two Nj and Ng have equal intensity and the speed of cutting the lines is the same as the speed of alternation ^ so that at synchronism, E., is equal to E^ and compensates it entirely. Consequently there is no wattless E.M.F.
When
the motor
fields
necessary to produce a
current motor.
field just as
with the
field of
a direct
At synchronism
equal to unity.
the
power factor
of the
L.W.E.
motor
is practically
in the
L.W.E. Motor.
ordinary repulsion
in their simplest
series or
forms, the only difference being the E.M.F., Eg, which reduces the
il
'
I2
Im
Fm.
125.
Fig. 124.
Fig. 125a.
4>.
The diagram
of the secondary
drawn separately
and 125
116)
referring to the
When Ni=N2
I'g (Fig.
i^_,
(at
synchronism)
becomes equal
of turns for
the
number
Generally
115
n the
actual speed,
The
relations
two transformers
i.e.,
that in
and
Then
The
field
1^1=^
1'='^
; ;
V. = l\.'^K
I'g
X armature turns,
(rotor ampereturns
I'^
minus
magnetising ampereturns)
x armatureturns
ampereturns
is
by that
of the
motor transformer.
ampere
However we
and
I'g having
to pro
duce N2 and Nj
will
With
the
L.W.E.
motor
the
armature
copper
losses
as well as
i,,,
would
I'^.
12
116
Consequently, flux and body of the motor being the same, the
much
as with the plain series motor, and one and ahalf times as
would be hardly enormous number of ampereturns. Consequently, the airgap, and with it the magnetising ampereturns, must be kept as small as
as with the plain repulsion motor.
It
much
possible to provide
for this
commutator motors
for
With the plain series motor, to improve the power factor With the plain repulsion motor, to improve the power factor and to reduce the armature copper losses With the L.W.E. motor, to reduce the armature copper
;
losses.
The
ratio of ampereturns
must be kept
As a
xi,
X
magnetising ampereturns
^ 2
.
will
n
not
also tt'=05.
r= 717^*7= M2xl'i
1\
flowing
= 224 xl'^.
the brushes
1
The
exciting
current
through
1 is
(Fig. 122).
usually done
way
motor four
brush arms are provided for the working current (brushes 22), but only two brush arms for the exciter brushes 1^1,
opposite segments being connected together.
A
E^
(Fig. 125)
may
be developed.
We can put
1 1 ^ XT E=constant x n X JNi x  =constant x w, X No X
,
and
^.r
No = n
.
117
E/== constant x w^ x N^
,
2= constant x w x Ng X .
Consequently
^,^n
N^^/^y2
self
TAe
raiio between
^. At synchronous speed ^=^=1, as we have synchronous speed E^ already found from general considerations. We see that Eg
changes very quickly with the speed, and that at, say, 25 per
cent,
below synchronism
52=0.752=056,
so that
E^E2=044 x E^,
is
compen
2=4
Ey E2= 3xEy
The motor would be very much overcompensated, and the power factor become very small. Naturally E^ only represents the E.M.F. of selfinduction in
the exciter circuit, not including leakage of any sort. Complete
compensation
synchronism.
will therefore
The latter speed may artificially be raised to a certain degree by inserting induction coils in the exciter
circuit.
E2_n
E,
n,
q^,
q^'
E,_n, %, n
q^
q^'
>
^^ _^ Eo=E.
E,
^2
'
E1/*
WJ
At synchronism
24. The
Circle
2=
E
_f=?i^
i^a
%
circle
Eg the
diagram
will
have to
circle
Fig. 126
shows the
diagram for a motor where the influence of the resistances and core losses has not been taken account of.
118
"We
draw the
circle
with
is
OA
the
Again
OB
but
E AB is the wattless E.M.F., now no longer AB=Ef Eg, or rather E^ E.^, if the whole selfinducis
combined.
itself,
I,
In order to find E^
measure
gives us a
to
OA
and
make AC
=
and
^^xOA.
The
mav have
find
been found
experimentally or by calculation.
Draw OC,
Where
D by making
GF
OD=DC,
DF
vertical
on OC.
DF
cuts a line
Fig. 126.
45 deg. inclined to OA i.e., at the point F second circle which we draw through and
vector
is
the centre of a
C.
Producing the
have
AB = E^ Eg, so that it cuts the new circle in H, we AH=E/ and BH=E2, AH being at the same time a mea
H is not acircle.
all.
not be used at
*'
We
still
" or
AO
is
AK, where AK passes due to the choking effect of the field (E^) being reduced by Eg which grows as the speed increases. Eg subtracting directly from E^, whilst the counter E.M.F. E is
previous diagrams, but the current
This
is
through F.
it.
AC=?ix AO,
Q2
or
^
92
(of
119
factor
OB
{see
previous circle
diagrams)
unity.
Above synchronism the current becomes a leading one, and falls off more and more until at very high speeds it approaches zero (in the diagram thevalue AL), and leads The wattcomin respect to the terminal voltage hij 90 deg.
at the same time
is, just as in ponent of the current i.e., the vertical line our previous diagrams, a measure of the output of the machine.
HM
Its
series
With the is reached if HM 'passes through F. motor the maximum output was GN,on exactly the same Thus, with the same shortscale, and was considerably less. i.e., the same ratio of field ampere turns to circuit current armature ampereturns the overload capacity of the L.W.E.
maximum
motor is larger than that of the series motor. But with all motors equally, series, repulsion and L.W.E. motors, the shortcircuit current ought to be as large as possible, to give good starting conditions, there being practically no difference whatever in the behaviour at starting, the faculty of compensating
not desirable to
E
E^
q.
OB
q^
q^
AH
q^
or
n=n.x^~^x^''=n.x'^^x^=n.x'^''xUnILOB,
or
OB /HB ^ n = n.Xyyg^=n.x^
Qi qi
^ /Eo
^.
by
so
We may calculate the speed from the amount AP cut off OB from the vertical AC where AP=OAx^x f^'**^),
;
that
AP
is
" 
\n
nj
from which
n^
must be
calculated.
is
When AP becomes
identical with
It
is
AC,
the speed
necessary
AP
if it is
given.
120
The rotor current passing through the brushes 1 1 naturally ri=AH. The working component in the portion of the rotor shortcircuited by means of the brushes 2 2 is
is
I'2=I'i
X ^,
whilst its
magnetising component
^'^
i^,
can be
=
^
1^2
of
that
It
is
an ordinary
series
of the
Thomson
or LatourWinterEichberg type,
used in
all
normal fluxes are the same, the ratio field ampereturns/working armature ampereturns being assumed as 04 or 05 or on similar lines. In dealing with a
that the
'particular case
it
is,
as already explained,
for
preferable to conthe
load,
struct
a linear diagram
every point of
taking
account, as
much
and
circle
diagram more or
less futile
SPECIAL TYPES.
If
we had
and the
formation of the armature energy, the L.W.E. motor ought to have been treated as a " special type," because nothing distinguishes
it
field
being
pairs
The two
of the
it
however, make
new
features.
CHAPTER
V.
SPECIAL TYPES.
25. Modifications
of the Series Motor.
is
The
series
motor
The compensation
as
of the
arma
means to improve
special wind
the power factor, by shifting the phase of the flux, and means
to suppress sparking
ings on the
The
series
some
special designs.
The
German
silver) so as to
obtain the
by
As an example
of a different arrange
of the SiemensSchuckert
Company
made
considerable
number
of turns
tips instead of the " neutral " so that the current flowing
it produces some torque (Fig. 130). The SiemensSchuckert Company have combined the main field winding, the compensating winding and the windings of
through
the compensating poles into a uniform resultant winding with identical formerwound coils, the whole " splitting " off of the
122
is
sum
of its
components.
::::
:.
Gennan
Silver Strip
itor
Fig. 127.
Fig. 128.
Fig.
129.
Commutator^.^'
^>\Winding
Fig.
130.
26.
Modifications
of the
Repulsion Motors.
to great perfection
by
SPECIAL TYPES.
123
The motor has two pairs of brushes, which are shortcircuited shown in Fig. 131. Brushes 1 and 2 are fixed, whilst 3 and 4 can be shifted in order to effect speed regulation. The two pairs of brushes are equivalent to a single set 5 6. If a is the angle by which the brushes 3 4 have been shifted out of the pole line the effect is the same as if the resultant brush had only been moved by a/2 deg., so that there is very much less sensitiveness as to brush position. With a small fourpole machine the whole of the regulation would have to be effected with the original repulsion motor by shifting the brushes over a quarter of the commutator circumference, i.e., a few inches. With the Dery motor 180 deg. of the commutator are available for regulation. One further peculiarity resulting through the
in pairs, as
Fig. 131.
Fig. 132.
may
be mentioned.
Fig.
131
of a
Dery motor, where the stator winding the exciter and transformer winding Aj
It
between and 4 do not carry any Therefore the armature winding becomes more
is
between
Other methods to improve the rotor winding in this respect have been suggested by Latour and Panielson (Fig. 132) who.
124
with an ordinary series motor, apply four brushes for each pair
The principle made use of is the same as that just Here the angle between the brushes is 90 deg., so that they may be connected also in the L.W.E. fashion, in order to utilise the good qualities of this motor when running in the proximity of synchronism. As a disadvantage must be considered the broad neutral zone of 90 deg. as far as commutation and utilisation of armature winding is concerned for the same reason great difficulties result when commutating poles
of poles.
developed.
are used.
difficulties in
building an
Fig, 133.
field
winding
is
if
exciting current
an inductive resistance and therefore the and the flux N lag nearly 90 deg. behind the
terminal voltage. Now, we saw in the sections on the L.W.E. motor that the exciter circuit, placed on the armature in this case, has, when revolving at synchronous speed, no longer any inductive resistance, its E.M.F. of selfinduction E^ being
balanced by the compensating E.M.F. Eg. Therefore, if a L.W.E, has reached synchronism the exciter brushes 1 might be switched over on the main voltage naturally,
,
using a transformer as
the
SPECIAL TYPES.
125
Such a motor must be started as a series motor. The small may be embodied in the motor itself by (Fig. 134) a small windproviding coaxial with the winding ing w oidi. few turns, which are connected to the brushes 1
exciter transformer
(Fynn's motor).
In order to
facilitate the
switching over
from the starting to the running arrangement, a scheme has been devised by Osnos which allows this to be effected by
simply closing a singlepole switch.
is
As the
starting conneccir
tion
is
cuit 1
excited both
by the main current and by the curShould the speed rise, the main current
is
always the
supply of current by w.
Fig. 134.
Fig. 135,
Arnold and Lacour have devised a method to regulate, to a certain degree, the speed of such a " shunt type" motor.
excite the
rotor,
series
but also
with the
1) and
Both
circuits
may
Nj and with
it
circuit (E^)
induction coils
possible.
speed
is
CHAPTER
VI.
Series Motors.
series
The
motor
and 121)
Commutating
and
series winding.
Combination of
coils.
Fig. 136.
Fig. 136
compound winding
(K), shunt
and
series coils
on
wound
separately.
is the diagram of connections, where and T the main transformer. A stator with formerwound coils is shown in
A = armature
Fig. 139, Fig.
it.
These
128
EXAMPLES OF COMMUTATOR MOTORS.
129
vmimmim
O^O^i^ci
k2> OAi
A2<rjNiiN2
WW
Fig. 137.
s^
S,a
0;o
Fia. 140.
Fig. 143.
A.C.C.M.
Siemens Motor.
130
stator of a machine for 175 h.p., 700 revs, per min. and 25 periods
is
reproduced.
Fig. 142
143 a view
Fig. 141.
Fig. 142.
131
slots).
so that
fi
Hi
fW
Fig. 147.
either
by means
of resistance (W),
in Figs. 145 to 147.
shown
S = Choking
coil.
AT = Autotransformer.
is
shortcircuited in
itself.
No
K2
132
sixpolar railway
The motor, including gear, has a weight of The gear ratio is 1 515. The motor may be used
:
133
134
FiQ. 150.
Fig. 151.
Fig. 152.
Fig. 153.
40
10
05
200
400
Fig. 154. 60h.p. Oerlikon Motor. = Current in amperesJ=Speed in kilometers per hour at circumference
of wheel.
135
main
field
Performance curves
Amp
30O
60
y^

40
100
>^
iOO
K(j,
j/^
V at
200
vat
my
V
^
__
ecu
soo
Torque
at Circumference of Wheel,
Fig. 155.
60H.i'.
Oerlikon Motur.
(.Sec Fig.
154.)
V.
Amp.
30O
300
200
200
y
Volt
100
/^ /
500
05
Power
factor
^Volt
iUOO
Fig, 156.
Startimq Torque of 60
h.p.
Oerlikon Motor.
for starting
direct current
136
Fig. 157 shows a 200 h.p. motor for 15 periods, 220 volts, 650 revs, per min., the weight of the motor without gear being
Fig.
157. 200
H.r.
Oerlikon Motor.
/'
^/
]
y
>ov
L"
200
180
1,000
900
ki

s
140
j^
800
700
600
1
y'
"^
'^
^X
">
,p6
Facto
?^
100
90
/
/
1 ^
100
500
1
i
If
80
60 40 20
400
300 200
/ ,y ^^ ^ /
^ ^y
JH
^' ^
''
^ ^^
^^
70
.S
50
^
f
i
/
1
100
^"
25
^^ ^ _ __
50
75
^^
3a
20
__ _
175
__
200
__
250
225
about 7,0001b.
Fig. 158
is
motor
Curve I
is
137
motor
shown
in Fig. 159.
It
is
for 10 h.p.,
220
volts,
50 periods, 1,000
The commutating
is
wound
can be connected direct to the supply voltage. The armature is series wound and has resistance connectors
so that
it
wound
bifilar
and placed
in the
When
is
When
used as
71 per cent.
Fig.
159. 10
h.p.
Kolben Motor.
Fig.
160. AutoTransformer.
The
exciting winding
is
it
is
the motor.
first
is
is
138
Fig. 161.
Wbstinqhouse Motor.
Fig.
162.Wbstinqhouse Motor.
139
coils
(p.
15),
no
Fig. 163.
Fig. 164.
Fig. 165
is
The weight
case.
of this
motor
is
5,200
lb.,
and gear
140
\
109
53
r.nnn
1
\
H'
k^^t f
r
40
/
30
V A
\
Rcienc
S^
y/
'
!^
Lbs.
in
1
S 1
40
Effort
120
"^
\
20
Tractive
'\/ yr
/
80
A. ^e.
"
^^
Ar
20
10
40
?
1
200
400
600
800
Amperes.
Fig. 165.
Volts.
25 Periods.
18
66 Gear Ratio.
36 in. Wheels.
The machines
on similar
Company.
167.
Their motor
GEA
605
is
shown
in Figs. 166
and
Fig. 166.,
141
and is rated at 75 h.p., 250 volts, 25 periods, 750 revs, per min. The weight of the motor is 4,200 lb. net, that of the armature alone 1,2001b. Performance curves for this machine when
Fig. 167.
40
38
;\
7
/
1,600 1,500
36
34
1,400
\
\
32
/
1
1,300
1,200
,600
~A
30
^'
28
26 24
J\
"
'~^
/
ilciencj,
1,100^
100
90
/I
50 45 40
,400
Pov,2rwtorl 1,000:1
900
^
?;
=^
^
f
800
etEff.
^ ^80
I
'^^
^ /
\^
Ss
/
c ien
/ Lj
S/Jpcd
/
1
200
'22
20
18
700
<^
S35
[i
.^7
J
i
400
X^
"v.
%
^.
60
50
^30
Iro
200^
000
800,
16
14 12
>^^
I
;
40 30 20 10
20 ^ 15
10
5
f >^ <
f/
600
10
/
140
100
/ _ _ _ ___ _
50
400 200
180
22
300
100
150
200
250
300
Amperes.
Amperes,
Fig. 168.
Fig. 169.
and
169.
connected in
series, ordinarily
they are in
parallel,
142
28.
^:
tlie
Fig.
Fig.
171. we
JVIotok of
the A.E.G.
Figs. 170
WE 80,
for
of the sixpolar motor, 25 periods, 350 h.p., 450 revs, per min!
143
70
1
1
r; N
/.
1=1
A
/
Tfciues
^1:2 mean
/obUined
.?i^
50
^
/
for thre
brush positions
/ (/
^f
/
;i
,/
/
Jl
AV il
/
^
i
^
Ai^ ^
^>
^H
'j\
30
/
/
/
.<!
r/
.^ /
Kf^
/^
/
10
f/ V
/
y
100
//.
200
300
400
350 b.h.p.
500
600
Amperes.
Hour Rating:
Fig. 172.
500
860 V'
\
^^o
400
70
5=^
60
50
1 300
k
w
3f]
c?/
'
k
40
I
200
80
20
10
100
H.P.,
"^
0*
j.
N^
yc/
x/^Ca
;^,
^
fe^ \
4:
"^
1
100
200
300
400
500
600
Amperei.
80. Hour rating, 350B.TI,P, at 860 volts, 450 revs, per min. (900 rovs. i)er miii. max. ). 2") cycles, 6 poles. NOTE. Friction of axle bearings and gear not incluile<l.
Fig. 173.
144
External views of a
WE 42 for 80 h.p., 25
per min, (1,300 max.) and 650 volts are given in Figs. 174 and
Fig. 174.
Fig. 175.
175.
The number
ventilating system
The motors
WE
The pictures show the of poles is four. employed with these machines. 51 V (Figs. 17 and 177) are those of the
Suburban Eailways.
Hamburg
City
and
The output
is
145
number
of
coils
can be distinguished
on two of the four poles (that in front and the upper pole). Figs. 178 to 180 show diagrams of the voltages of this motor.
Main magnetising
coils.
Commutating
coil.
Fig. 177.
figures, 181 and 182, represent smaller motors, Fig. 181 a sixpolar 40 h.p. machine for 40 periods and 600/1,000 revs, per min. Fig. 182 is a lift motor with six poles for 5 h.p.,
The two
800
01 Back E.M.F. in stator (Ea). Drop in stator and shortcircuited l2 0hmic armature circuit (22) Fig. 120. 23 Inductive /
tt IMui?ive 1 ^^P i^ *^
56 Ohmic 67 Inductive
27 Total
)
transformer.
Drop
in the exciter
armature
circuit
E^
Fig. 179.
247
^i^3
249
147
Fig. 180. WiNTEREiCHBKRa Motor, 115 P.S., 25 Cycles, 900 R.P.M., 760 Volts, 4 Poles.
190
427
Fia. 181.
148
The Fynn motor, manufactured by Messrs. Alioth in Bale, shown in Fig. 183. This class of motor is standardised especially for lifts. As a rule they are supplied for 50 periods as a
is
%
^x
Fia, 182.
maximum,
starting
Fig. 183.
performances of an
IMF
six poles.
140
~
100
RJM ~
JS^ri ^^
/^
L
_lOi
^ = "^
__;_
'=
^
1 :
"* ^^
^
"^
800
80
600
60
/
/ /
400
40
t y P\
^g]
J.
i
'~"
i
;^
yoo
20
\l __ __ __ __
0'2
04
_ _^
0*6
^_^
08 1*0
_ __
14
16 18
12
H.F.
Fig.
R.P.M.
200
400
eOO
800
1000
Fio. 185.
Starting Torqub op FfnnAlioth Senglrphase Motor JMFa. poles, 1'2") B.H.p 250 volts, 66 amperes, 50 cycles, 1,000 B.P.M
,
150
120 110
12 11
100
10
9
 zJ
/
90
80
T'
iJOS
""
1 ^
7 60
6
5 4
50
40
30 20 10
3 2
1
&>
^ ^' ^ ^^
y^ ^ ^ x^ ^ J^ ^ " .^ ukj :^ ,^
K^^
St
rac tor
b =^ =
"^
Z ^ 7^ ^ 2<
i
7^
/
izl
loot)
i
900 800
700^
600 500
Ji
^ .^
I
1^
^^%
i
300
I
* i*S5
i
200
I
100
1
~Iorspoicer,
Fig. 187.
55
1
liiO
12 11 10
9 8 7 6
no
100 90 80
r^ ^tesT ^ ^i y^ ^
,l
r
Bto ever
y*
^^
70
60
50
40 30
20 10
5
4
^^
X"^
3 2
1
#^
:::>
^^
:^ >
i:^
i
>^ '^
^ ^
/y ^
^
,
^y
/ /
10
09
1000
900
800 700
600
500
08
07
06
05
04
400
300
03
02
01
200 100
___
_ ___
5
6
L _
8
9
10 Horsepoicer,
Fig. 188.
151
A
built
by Messrs. Lahmeyer in Frankfort, is shown in Fig. 186. The performance curves Figs. 187 and 188 refer both to the same motor, type DGVI for 6J h.p., 120 volts, 45 periods,
1'"
20
n ^ p ^
J
Vi^'fX a.
1
^
_
100
16
o6
8
1
r
'1f\
p>
RPA =" ri ^ ^ v = ^ A i
,
80
'>
60
/
1^
2
'^
'^'
1^ V
1 1 1
QvJ:^
^02
/^
/
_ _ _ __
4
__
12
__
14
10
jBorsepower,
Fig. 189.
Mkgs Amp^
50
200
40
160
/n f
30
120
/
//
/
/
,/^
20
80
10
40
/
160
//
40
80
120
Volts.
200
240
Fig. 190.
Figs. 189
starting performances of a
DG IX for
INDEX TO
Core Loss,
under the Brushes, 45 Constant Speed Motor by Fynn, 125 by Osnos, 125 Constant Speed Motors, Difficulty to
build, 18
Influence of, on Power Fac77 of Repulsion Motors, 102 of Series Motors, 61, 67 of Series Motors, Influence of Speed on, 65 Counter E.M.F., Calculation of, 6 Counter E.M.F., Production of, 3 Danielson, Repulsion Motor of, 124 FJery, Repulsion Motor of, 123 Double Armature Winding, Suppressing of Circulating Ciirrents b\% 57 Efficiency, Estimation of, 73 E.M.F., Calculation of, 6, 8, 16 Excitation of Field Winding, 1 Excitation through Armature, 16, 110 Field, E.M.F of Selfinduction, 12 Wattless Power of, 14, 23 Winding, Distributed and Concentrated, 7, 16 Flux, Distribution of, 6, 16 Frequency, Influence of, on Core Loss, 67 Influence of, on Power Factor, 26 Influence on Losses through Circulating Currents, 51 Friction of Bearings, 69 Friction of Brushes, 70
L.W.E. Motor
as,
124
Fynn, Constant Speed Motor by, 125, 148 General Electric Company, Series Motor
by, 140 Hysteresis, Calculation of, 61, 67 Induction of Armature Current, 90, 96 Kolben, Series Motor by, 137
Commutator, Advantages
of
Motors with,
4 Compensating Winding, 37
A.C.C.M.
Lacour, Regulation of Constant Speed Motors, 125 Lahmeyer Osnos Motor, 125, 141 Latour and Danielson, Repulsion Motor of, 123
154
INDEX.
Selfinduction of Armature, 34 of Armature, Compensation of, 37 of Armature, Formula, 35
Shortcircuit Current, 30 Shortcircuit Test, 82
LatourWiiiterEichberg Motor, 110 Linear Diagram of Seiies Motor, 76 L4W.E. Motor, Compensation of E.M..r. of vSelfinduction, 118 Diagram, 114, 118 rj Formulae, 116 Influence of Speed, 117 No Load Test, 82, 84
Oerlikon, Series Motor of, J 31 Osnos, Constant Speed Motor by, 125, 141
Shunt for Compensating Winding, 59, 131 Shunt Motor, 18 Shunts for Field and Armature, Improvement of Commutation through, 55
Siemens Schuckert,
tors of
Resistance
Connec
Overload Capacity, 32 Overload Capacity of L.W.E, Motors, 119 Performance Curves of Series Motors, 86 Poles, Number of. Influence on Power Factor, 25 Power Factor, Compensation of, in L.W.E. Motors, 113, 114 Dependent on Wattless Power of Field, 24 Formulae for, 24, 27
Influence of Losses on, 56, 77
Armature, 121
Reactance Voltage at Commutation, 41 REruLSioJsr Motor, Ampereturns of Field and Armature, 100
Atkinson's, 92
Diagram of, 98 Equivalent Diagram of, 97 Formulae, 95 Thomson's, 93 Kepulsion Motors, Comparison with Series Motors, 107 Resistance Lugs between Armature and Commutator, 46 Resistance Lugs, Material of, and Arrangement, 122
Siemens, Series Motor of, 121, 127 Speed, Influence of, on Circulating Currents (Repulsion Motor), 106 Influence of, on Core Loss (Repulsion Motors), 104 Influejice of, on Power Factor, 26 Influence on Circulating Currents, 51 Influence on Core Loss, 65 Regulation, 117, 125 Regulation by Arnold and Lacour, 125 Regulation by Brush Shifting, 123 Starting Torque, 31 Synchnmous Speed, Definition of, 26 Tests, 82 Thomson Repnldon Motor, 93 Torque at Starting, 31 Calculation of, 9 Elementary Considerations on, 2 Influence of Phase Displacement on, 9 Transformer Flux in Repulsion Motors, 96 Wattless Power of Field, 14, 23 Westinghouse, Series Motor by, 137 WinterEichberg Motor, 110, 142
THE
LEAKAGE OF INDUCTION
MOTORS.
PREFACE.
Previous to the appearance of the series of Articles on
Com
contained
many
tables
for the
handy use
and from
several quarters
was expressed.
Publication in book
the
matter
it
attach
it
to the
GOLDSCHMIDT.
M2
CONTENTS.
PAGE.
Introduction
I.
159
161
II.
164
176
177 187
SlotLeakage
195
202
207
General Example
THE
LEAKAGE OF INDUCTION
MOTORS.
An
is
so complicated
numerous approximate
has been so
almost excluded.
The importance
fact that the
of
starting torque
depend on
in
fact,
it.
entirely influenced
by
it,
methods was a necessity. Of the methods published, only those more recent ones need be considered which more or less take account of the leakage We will mention of the coil ends. 1. BeJmEschenburg, who gives a formula consisting of three parts, the three coefficients of which have been found
entirely empirically.
2.
and
in his
160
3. Adams' method, which is based partly on calculation and partly on test. The methods 1 and 2 are excellent for quick and approximate calculations. They are, however, not generally applicable, One is not as only a few dimensions are taken into account.
We
which
shall
is
of
so tempting
by
its
simplicity,
it is
which
based.
The method
rather, further results
of
correct to carry
no doubt,
it,
has done
or
might perhaps be more compact, as long formulae containing the smallest dimensions are very difficult to handle,
calculation clear.
coil
end
leakage has been recognised, the latter being often greater than
that of the slot leakage.
However, up
to
now no
practical
how
depends on the
class of
and
view the best results can be obtained. Furthermore, nothing has been published as to how the leakage conditions are arrived at with twophase and singlephase
of
machines.
This treatise has
been prepared ivith the object
of developing
methods for the calculations of the noload current and the leakage
all infiuences as far as possible.
of threephase, twophase and singlephase motors, taking account of The preservation of simplicity in
= Minimum width
i
c,
of teeth in centimetres.
= Width
C,
h,
of slots in centimetres.
K = Constants.
of rotor in centimetres.
d = Diameter
= Voltage.
"iron."
of slots in centimetres.
/= Index for
^ = Opening
161
G = Lengths of the
h
= Height of slots. i = Current. ^,K = Constants and index for "shortcircuit." I = Length of iron in axial direction (core length), m = Total number of slots. n = Number of slots per phase per pole. N = Number of lines of force. jo = Number of poles. r = Radius. R = Magnetic resistance, reluctance. S = Total number of conductors per phase. s = Number of conductors per slot.
i=Slot
pitch.
T = Permeability
2;
'
= Number of slots per phase. = Index for no load." 1 = Index for stator. 2 = Index for rotor. A = Airgap. V = Frequency per second.
'
I.
The
If
Circle
Diagram.
the
electrical
and
magnetic
conditions
of
electrical
machines
induction motors
are
:
of a
comload,
plicated nature
full load,
the in
vestigation
is
usually split
" is "
two portions
(1)
No
{2) Shortcircuit.
its
conditions
A source of
mistakes
and
at
For
practical application
advan
practical cases
ready application.
162
We
1.
The
age at different
2.
by tables two relations between power factor and coefficient of leakloads. (Tables I. and II.)
:
by the motor at
(Table III.)
We
put
= power
factor at shortcircuit.
The
ratio iJi\^
=T
is
coefficient.
It fixes the
main dimensions
of the diagram.
Table
Leakage factor
r'.
Degree
J
085 074 066 0565 0505 046 042 0385
of load.
i
093 0865 081 073 066 0615 055
051
H
0945 092 0905 087 083 080 076 072
li
1^
0925 0905 089 0865 084 081 0785 0755
''
'^k
020 025
0805
79
078 077 075 0735 072 070
Table
Leakage factor
r'.
II.
Degree
1
of load.
li
0955 093 091 087 0835 080 076 072
095 093 091 088 085 082 079 075
2J
925 0905 895
087 085 083 0805 0775
086
845
0835 0815 080 0785 077 075
855
083 080 077
Table
Cos<^
III.
Shortcircuit Energy.
0295 0285
163
certain magnetising
component (about
ij'!)
ought to be
Our i\ does
it is
Cos </)k is of small influence z'k and to calculate with T'=i'o/%. on the power factors, especially so on those at normal load and
small overloads.
and
at
we can give
normal and smaller loads an error of about J per the relations between cos <^ and t' in the form The two groups of machines represented by these
Machines with
slipring rotors.
(Table
I.)
Machines
11.)
with
shortcircuit
high  resistance
rotors.
(Table
Cos
</>
= 045
to 065.
These tables have been worked out for machines with 125 per
cent, overload capacity.
They
naturally can be
made
use of
maximum
is
machine having a
maximum
The
The value 21 has been chosen with overload capacity to 2 J. a view to normal conditions with polyphase motors.
As
maximum
maximum
output
to the energy
consumption in
we multiply by a
<^k
* See the Author's article deaUng with this subject in the ElektrO'
technischo Zeitschrift for 1900.
164
If e is the voltage
we
.
can
put:
Maximum
horsepower = A x m x
x iJ74:Q.
(1)
A
with 0*32
is
to be taken
rings,
the
slip
i.e. J
from Table III. A averages, for motors ; for motors with shortcircuit rotors, maximum output of a motor is 32 to 39 per cent,
039
hilovolt amperes it
locked.
To obtain an overload capacity of 125 per cent, the machine he built so that the apparent shortcircuit energy is equal to
Fig.
1.
to
7 times the
is
normal
output, or if the
power
factor at
normal
load
circuit current
must be 4*3 to 5*2 times the normal current. These figures can easily be corrected. They must be changed
of
by
far
165
The power
factor
watt component to the total current is rarely larger than 0*25. The magnetising current is, therefore, Vl 0*25^ = 097
Practically both are equal. That we are justified in neglecting the small difference is shown by the following consideration A machine with a rotor diameter of 30 cm. has an airgap of about 1 mm. If the radius
:
i.e.,
too large, the airgap becomes inexact within 5 per cent., and the error in the noload current
practical
is
With
vary
We
Magnetising Component
Fig. 2.
If a
given winding
is
of a certain alter
number
produced, the
equation
maximum
of
e=222xSxvxNxlO
e
= Rootmeansquare
With an induction motor we have to put e = Voltage per phase. S = Total number of wires of all coils which
:
are connected
N = The maximum
netic flux
is
This formula holds good only in the case where the magfully enclosed
by the windings
i.e.y
only in the
166
If
the winding
is
for instance,
Fig.
3.
we have
were
if
four
slot
different windings
there, each
1802.,^
Fig.
4.
With
all
revolving field
produced.
This
is
effected
by the cooperation
167
in the four
and
slots (pole
=180
If e is the voltage in
S' ^
'
the
number
we
find
= 222xS'xvxNxlO^
for
The four
different
e' must be added graphically (Fig. 5). Carrying out this addition for different angles, a
i.e.,
numbers
e
of slots
we can put
.
= 222xA;oXSxvxNxlO
(2a)
With one
slot
Uq is
equal to unity.
For two and more slots per phase and pole we may introduce an average figure for ^o and put
,,
/i;o
twophase onephase
/(;o
= 0'96 = 0*91
= 084
I
I
(2b)
A;o
With
singlephase current
we assume
find
is
distributed over
two thirds
we
,,
twophase onephase
,,
(2c)
A special
correction
is
necessary
if
is
This
is
a usual arrangeFig. 6
slots
and machinewound
slot.
coils.
shows
easily
the coils of one phase with three slots per phase per pole and
The
correction
is
of Coil
Span
Fig,
6.
if we consider that the two sides of the coil which embedded in the iron have E.M.F.s induced in them which have no longer the same phase, but are displaced from each other by an angle jS. The tension per coil is (Fig. 7)
calculated
are
<?
/? = e'xcos.
Fig.
7.
ki
being introduced at
The reduction
90 deg. and
of
less if it is desirable to
169
A
P
/fi
coils,
field.
is
The
about 60 deg.
put as a practical average ,^ = 45 deg. and find (22J deg.) =0*92, and our formulae for reduced span
We may
= cos
become
,,
= l95xSxvxNx = 1 85 x S x v x N x
6=1*71 x S x vx
/2d)
have to deal with a very short span in the case where the speed of the induction motor is to be altered by altering the number of poles. Figs. 8 and 9 show diagrammatically the
We
Fig. 8.
Fig.
9.
The signs + and connections for y poles and 7:>/2 poles. indicate the direction of the current in the embedded portions
of the coils.
effected
The
j?>pole
(180 deg.)
double
Therefore,
coefficient ki
= 0*70.
total
number
and
N, we
mean density
in the air
in the teeth
by dividing
A.C.C.M.
170
by the
This
mean value
maximum
density, which,
flux, is 7r/2
times the
mean
We put
Q^ = Minimum of the total section of all teeth. p = Number of poles. ^' = Minimum of the tooth section per pole.
Q/= Total
B^
air section.
= Maximum
^'^'~:m,
The constant becomes
For threephase Co=0"74. twophase Co=0*78.
,,
<^^>
onephase
Oo
= 085.
(4)
The path
of the
path in the yoke of stator and rotor and that in the teeth.
The ampereturns
the wellknown
AW^
way by means of a saturation curve for the Q^r^yoke iron after finding the mean density B^=N/2Qy. section. The mean length of the magnetic path for the yoke
can be put equal to the arc over one pole.
frequenc3^
AW^,
is
usually
171
for
the teeth,
AW^,
evidently depend
maximum
Constructing
a curve for the density in a tooth, and starting from the section a with the
we
is
constant.
We
G = the
j
we
find for
o:
= one
1
centimetre
^icmj^t
+ 27r/a7i*i
Fig. 10.
This expression
length of tooth,
is
it
the
and
i.e.,
the
curve
is fixed.
Besides the
curve. Fig. 10
AW
of
N2
172
AW curve in
little
n^y.a<10 centimetres)
is
We
of
Tij
X a which make
B^.
pendent on
tions inexact.
maximum
teeth take
field
up a
number
distribution ceases to
maximum
of
Another source
due
when
If the
is
approxi
mately the same, Table IV. can be used with advantage. This table gives average figures for the ampereturns required to
magnetise two stator teeth plus two rotor teeth made dependent on B^ only, and without regard to the length of the
teeth and the radius of the rotor.
figures
of
machines.
cases
it
At any
rate,
for calculation.
Table IV.
Bt Max.
toothdensity.
Total
Bf max.
toothdensity.
Total
B^ max.
toothdensity.
Total
amp. turns
for teeth.
amp. turns
for teeth.
amp. turns
for teeth.
(Formulas)
15,000 16,000 17,000
(Formula 3)
18,000 19,000 20,000
(Formulas)
21,000 22,000 23,000
60 90 125
maximum
density
points of
h,
one p jlepitch. Therefore, the whole of the ampereturns per pole are utilised for the production of the magnetic lines (Fig. 11).
173
threepJiase
is
the density
therefore, in the
dis
middle of the
coil
tribution of current
viz.,
every 60 deg.,
AW = 2X^o^xax.X
If the field
has
moved 30
deg. forward
AW=2XO87Xoma:
We put
or,
AW=l94X?0max.X
io
AW
b
With twophase current
= pXio, v2
(5A)
we
find
^o=065x^XJp.
AW
(5b)
?olePitch_
Fio. 11.
With
is
as large as
This relation
prac
amply confirmed by
tical experience.
*>1.30x^Xi?.
If
AW
(5c)
we
airgap
and that
for iron
(t'l^),
4 into two parts, that for the we can calculate the former
174
by means
tions 3, 4
and
5.
We
i,
find
= C'ox'x?^,x^xlO.
C'o C'o
....
(6)
= 0'43.
= 0'88.
C'o
= l*76.
to take account
When
we have
sum of
g^^/t^)
all
openings in the
and multiply
this value
by the
coefficient (1
0*85 x
?iin2
= number
of slots in
^1^2  slot
pitch.
^j^2
= openings
of slots
V
1
Fig. 12.
''.''
Fig. 13.
By
To
we have
to multiply
by the
actual
in the rotor,
With perfectly open slots in the stator, and partly closed ones we have to go into the calculation of the spread
We
utilise
the small
found hydraulically by Prof. ITeleShaw. With we have to deal with in induction motors we can form the magnetic lines of quarter circles
after those
airgaps
175
and
of
gap A
(Fig. 13).
The length
therefore, generally
from
its
corner
is,
therefore,
"^(A+l56x^')'
If
we
to i/2
and multiply by 2
we
permeance per
slot
= 128
X Z</h
+ 156
M.
The magnetic
is
equal to
128 X
If
lxlg(\ +
l56xA^
oijhl
we
amount
viz.,
the resistance
path where the lines are practically parallel (Fig. 13) we find that the remaining portion is a constant amount within
of the
practical limits.
is
we can put
+^
(7)
R'o=p^
The value 0*25 agrees very
dently direct from actual machines.
We carry out our calculation in such a way that we first deduct from the rotor circumference the sum of all slot openings, and then multiply this amount by (1 0*85. ^2/^2) and /.
This
is
the section for the magnetic lines under the teeth them
selves.
we
find the
under the
teeth.
R'o, E'o
^^d
Il"i,
the value
io?,
'^^
in formula (6)
for air
t^
The
on
R'o has
very small.
176
a current
component
is
is
netic flux
through the
rotor.
The
primary ones minus the noload can never quite disappear, as they have to produce the magnetic flux interlinking rotor and stator. For the purpose of the calculation of leakage, however, we have to disregard them altogether. We replace them by connecting rotor and stator winding in series, both being
turns are equal to
the
ampereturns.
The
latter
Fig. 14.
given equal numbers of turns i.e.y we send the energy into the rotor direct instead of transmitting it with the help of a
transformation flux.
Fig. 14
coil
way
no magnetic flux can be produced. All magnetic lines created by the two coils have to take the following "leakage paths"
:
AB
The path
The
(HK,
Fig. 16).
We
slot,
path (B)
THE LEAKAGE.
only on the relation between primary and secondary path (C) only on the form of the coil ends.
slots,
177
and
There
refer to
is
we
shall
when
j^H
H^
..%<
K *
[ID
Fig. 15.
Fig. 16.
and the
slots of the
machine
&c.,
may
and
be considered
further, I
their
way from a
is
to 6 or
from
h to
^,
if,
is
the
number
round
have
6,
every slot
M=
I/?.
The
c,
We
or
hchfh^
&c.
The
teeth
to
one another
i.e.^
is
really
zero.
!._
ji_
1
o L a CP
WO
flux.
'~c
C/^r
OJ
o
i
Fig. 17.
wound
ae^
we
M =  4X
^.
178
It must be clearly understood that the condition for the phenomenon that only the first and the last tooth conduct tJie leakage flux is That the resistance of the iron is practically zero. If
:
d begin
to con
duct
lines.
In spite of widely open slots in stator and rotor we obtain in such cases bent shortcircuit curves, the bending being far less
pronounced than we are used to with saturation curves. This is due to the teeth b and d only gradually coming into use as the teeth a and e get saturated. With machines having only small leakage in the coil ends this phenomenon is particularly noticeable.
Fig. 18
Amps.
NoLoad Current
Volts
Fig. 18.
We notice that with a voltage where curve II. does not show any bend at all a distinct bend shows up in curve I. Bent shortcircuit curves can naturally also have their cause
in other circumstances
for instance,
in closed slots.
With
machines having much leakage and a high rotor resistance, the magnetising component at shortcircuit is considerable, so that
the saturation of the noload current may
circuit current.
show up
in the short
We
will
assume that at
Then we may put the slot leakage number of slots, entirely indepen
THE LEAKAGE.
induction from one slot to the other.
wires per
slot,
179
If s is
the
number
of
and pole
instance, 4
for
equal to a constant
X 4 X si number
If
equal to
a constant X 5
s'^
i.e., it is
We
will
now
may be noted
consider,
first,
number
4x7r/10=l25 ampereturns.
slots.
We
will
partlyclosed
Two
of the
classes
may
The form
if
the leakage
at
any
rate,
we do not make
a great mistake
12
\
we
replace the
^2 S
3^ 6
''4
Fig. 19.
in
Fig. 19a.
of only
secondary influence
altogether
We will disregard
its
slot.
Regardless of
being closed by a
line,
789 (Fig.
on the form
we
shall base
all
in Fig. 19b.
(Fig.
19c)
is
generally about
0*5
However, we must not load up our calculaand therefore we put m = 0'65 mm. Calculation shows that the error caused through our simto
1
mm.
mm.
plification is
180
we only need knoiv the slot height and the slot opening g. Usually the winding The number of fills a portion of the narrow part of the slots. ampereturns, however, which can be placed in this portion is too small to have a considerable influence on the distribution of lines. We therefore consider the narrow portion of the
To fix
h, the slot
width
6,
slot as free
from winding.
Part 1 (Fig. 20), with parallel sides, is filled uniformly with simple integration shows that the perwinding (Fig. 21).
meance
Tki = o ^
3
= height of the
straight
part=A .
4
'^
4) H
1
t
I
V ;< ,K ,\ \>'^T^^"
>',
[
1
;V.
X ''<y^>''/>
v< ;c
,\
h'
1 1
:
x^or^^
.X ,v y^
/^
iJ
*
'''
I;i^''''^'''w'^'
^lllF
p
Fig. 21.
Fig. 22.
Fig. 20.
lines^
ten
dency to bend
into a
back
more or
of the
ampereturns in part
1 (Fig. 23b).
The length
opening g
is
of the
D
and the permeance
0ii5x6J025
T ki =
X log
{hjg).
THE LEAKAGE,
181
For the third portion of the leakage in the slot opening (Fig. 24) we have to take account of the spreading of the lines right into the airgap. We draw diagrams of the magnetic lines on a large scale for part 3 and calculate the permeance by
splitting
up the
We find
for
5r=lmm.,T'K3 = 083, ^ = 2 mm., T'k3 = 044. ^ = 3 mm., T'k3 = 030, //=4mm., T'k3 = 025.
The
T'x3,
formulae for T'^i and T'^a, together with this table for
The
calculation,
however,
still too complicated. is together as " horn leakage," we can draw for the latter curves,
making T'^a + T'^s dependent on h for diflferent values of g. If we carry this out for ^ = 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm., we find that within
practical limits the difference in the permeances for the dif
ferent values of g
is
065mnJ
Fig. 23.
Fig. 24.
we are able to base our calculation on which we consider as " normal," and to take account of other values of g by adding or subtracting a small correction. We choose g 2 mm. as normal value and take account of the following corrections, which are to be added to the permeance calculated when g has other values than 2 mm.
width
h.
Consequently
Table V.
g.
Correction.
g.
Correction.
1Omm
15
mm
=+0*53 =+022
2Omm 25mm
=
=0'10
018
mm
With
182
for
slot length
dependent on the
and for
If,
i
35
h2
\\
h15
\
25
h1
15
h06
10
w w Vv v v\ ^ ^^ V y :^ K A V <: ^^ ^ ^^ \ \ ^^ rr ^ V, ^ ^
\v
v\^ N.
t\c
<C
ht
:::~^
,^
rr
:=^
__^
,.0..
^ y^
'r
05
C5
10
15
Slot width
b.
Fig. 25.
Slot opening 2
mm.
we take from
According to Table V., the correction for length T'k = 1*75. = 325 mm. is 020 ; therefore, T'k = 1 '75  0*20 = 155. g
THE LEAKAGE.
It is easiest for calculation to join the
slots,
183
slots, in
such a
way that,
the primary
necessary.
If n^
number of slots n^ and the core length is = 7i^ we can simply add the secondary perIn a case where
is
meance
Wi/?ia
to be multiplied
before adding
it
to the
primary
T'k.
we found
= 72
and
= 48,
we
find the
+ 180
:350.
48
WMWM/A
t
*
1
b
I
>
i
>
'~z~^H':'jil
5inm
vt
.^^
^m^y^yv.^
'"f^P
Fig. 26.
Fio. 27.
With
wound
or squirrelcage rotors
as
n.^^.
must be introduced
With open
05 cm.
slot
slots
we assume
slot corner.
winding begins
from the
2)
We
(part
(part 1).
For part
we can put
^'''
again
3xF*
as
a bridge, whichever
tance.
way
off'ers
The
permeance
is
181
and the
up
Bearing in mind
that the magnetic lines have the tendency to take the shortest
^^<i<^
^
'A
'.\
'.
/ / / / / /. <
\ \
nnaiiiiii
nS"
\\\
mmm
\im'
,:/:::
Fig. 28.
assumed too
large,
meance
of
THE LEAKAGE.
185
which differed considerably one from the other, and I found only very small diflferences in the total permeance.
As an example
and
1
b, c, d, e,
the
mm.
airgap (A).
\\\
...
35
l\
h
30
1
b
\\
!\
2*5
20
\\
v<?.
h
"v
l\
\
15
y .V Vl^^\ y x\ ^^^^ \y X
^v ^iJ'^ 
,
f^V
^""^
C!^
10
^
15
^ ^ =
05
i
0
ro Fig.
20
25
cm.
Slot width b.
slot length
cm. length of
slot
and
an airgap
A.C.C.M.
of 1
mm.
as derived
186
The
found that 100 per cent, alteration in A about 010 in accordance with Table VI.
Table VI.
Airgap.
permeance
Correction.
050mm 10 mm
15 20
mm mm
Joining together again T'ki and T'k2 to form the total value
of the slot leakage per centimetre slot length
T k, we
A
is
find the
equal to
mm.
in these curves.
will
;
As an example we
slot width, 6
assume a
slot height,
^ = 32mm.
= 12 mm.
airgap,
A=
15
mm.
7 V^
Fig. 30.
From
Fig. 29
we take
T'k
= 1*60.
Taking account
of the
A=l5
mm.viz.,
0*05,
we
find
The secondary slot leakage is to be joined with primary one in the same way as we have done for partly the
closed
slots.
T'k = 1*o5.
"l^When calculating the leakage of the stator slots we have taken the rotor iron as free from slots. We ought, however, to
have considered that the path of the leakage lines going from one side of the slot through the rotor to the other side is interrupted as soon as a rotor slot is opposite a stator slot
(Fig. 30).
On
which tends
THE LEAKAGE.
187
very small, ai^d our curves give values which check very well with actual tests.
If
bars,
slot
opening (B)
The
cal
simple.
most
practical cases
is
The
on
the selfinduction
as
itself is
by
the copper
slots
losses
can
of leakage the
To
start with,
we
will
the same in the primary and secondary, and that the openings
of the slots are very small indeed.
Fig. 32.
If stator
and rotor
slots
round the
slots
For their calculation we assume, as before, magnetic circuits closed round the slots, either one half round the primary slot and the other round the secondary, or only round the primary, as indicated in Fig. 32 with slot A. Both
02
\m
modes
close
Fig. 33.
ti
UWW u
t2=^^
xyuaa^
Fig. 34.
t,^, A
(jmwmju
'i
Fig. 35.
ti
^,
Fig. 36.
THE LEAKAOE.
In the position Fig. 32 the permeance
is
189
largest
T"Kmax.=
length.
viz,,
025
^/A.
P6i^
slot
zero.
In an
The
average value
//
tJie
the
stator the
number of slots in the rotor is double as large as that of former contains in each slot only half as many
latter, as
ampereturns as the
are equal.
the total
number
of ampereturns
is
maximum,
0'125 x
t^fX.
it is
a mini
mum.
in
than in a
larger.
We
mind that the zigzag lines surround onehalf of the secondary and induce in them an electromotive force which is oppoThe permeance in Fig. 34b has the site to the primary one. As an average we find for a equivalent value 0*062 x^i/A.
slots
ratio of slots of 1 to 2,
If the
ratio of
is
to 3, the
maxi
The minimum of the permeance 0074 X ti/X (Fig. 35b). The average is T"k = 0*08 x tj\ The calculation is somewhat more complicated if primary
is
mum
and secondary
1 to 1*5, Figs.
slots
ratio.
If this ratio is
of lines in the
minimum and maximum positions. The maximum of permeance is 0*13 X ti/A, the minimum 0102 x t^/X, the average 0*120 x ti/X. Generally we find, for a ratio of slots 1 to y.
Maximum
permeance
x
J.
Minimum permeance
y
^^
^ x
^.
X

Average value
of the
permeance T"k = ^ x
+
we
X ^
will apply
T"k = (o*038
H
0*127
X ^] X trjX.
Ida
For further
we put
T\ = C\xh/X.
C"_K
.......
/
(8)
/
030
/ /
0*25
/
020
/
/ /
/
015
/ /'
010
/
005
/
/
05
10
15
2
112
25
For the
it
is
very im
slots,
which we
B
rY^i
t
ti
^1
gl+g2
Vj^ ^.
Fig. 38.
have neglected in our calculation hitherto. From Figs. 38a and 38b we deduce 1. That the section for the zigzag lines has been reduced by an amount corresponding to the sum of primary and secondary
:
slot openings.
THE LEAKAGE.
2.
191
ceased to be a
That the time during which the zigzag leakage is zero has moment only {see Fig. 33a). It is an amoun
the
zigzag
= l, we
of the
permeance
(.<7i
is
reduced by the
^^^.j^
Q'85 x
<y2)i^^
^Ig^^
^^^^^
only minimum values, but does not become zero. The latter can be caused by the slot openings only. With sufficient
exactitude
we can
T/
by
. .
fl085x^^^!^^'^ v.
Continuing our example of
Airgap
p. 183,
(8a)
we put
A=
15
mm. Wi = 72,
slot pitches
^i
= 2'5cm.
slot
192
We find the permeance of zigzag leakage as follows C/ (from Fig. 37) =0228, and, therefore, from formula (8) T/ = 0228 X 25/015 = 380, uncorrected. Correction for the
slot
openings (8a),
fl085x05
V
Q'^^
X (25
Correct value of
T/ = 071
x 38= 2*70.
The permeance
was (p. 183) Tk' = 350, and zigzag leakage together give a total
slot length of Tx^
= Tk'T/ = 3'5
of wires
+ 27 = 62.
If
we put
the frequency
that
we
have to deal with three phase current, we can calculate the E.M.F. of selfinduction e/ f or 10 amperes shortcircuit current
= 72/3 = 24.
Total permeance per phase 24 x 20 x 6*25 = 3,000. Maximum number of lines of force of leakage with 10 amperes,
125
x 10 x
141
x 3,000
volts.
= 0475 x 10,
was not
necessar}^ to
number
from a
of leakage lines.
We
single formula
e\
= 1'1 xixvx^xT^,xlxlQ^wo\U,
is
(9)
With
somewhat
smaller than formula (8) gives. Considering the case where ^1/^2 1/2, and giving stator and rotor slots the relative position
(Fig. 40),
we
AA, which
are
self
In
BB
is
pre
valent.
Therefore,
we may assume
all,
AA
is
carry
almost no current at
and that
BB
Thereprac
THE LEAKAGE,
If in Fig.
103
41 curve
1.
wound
and
for ^1/^0
= 1/2,
The
0*80.
We
and
(8).
<''
^...
^^^_ ^j^
\
V"
Fig. 40.
Fig. 41.
Fig. 42.
Also with
wound
values for the relative position of rotor and stator in which the
phases of both parts are exactly opposite one another (Fig. 42a).
194
is
somewhat
With
class of induction
by 2
to 5 per cent,
motor, the permeance diflfers from the average value, according to the
rotor position.
It remains to refer to the special conditions in the case that
is
number
slots
number
of slots. Fig. 43
shows
per phase per pole, and a coil span which differs from the
slots per fill only 52 = 3 2x2 = 4 slots only half (Nos.
pole pitch
pole
1, 2,
(Nos.
4 and 5) completely,
6 and 7) ; the latter contain also wires of the two other phases. At the moment when the current in the phase under consideration has attained
its
in the
two others
12
is
Fig. 43.
flux in the slots 3, 4 and 5 would be if coil span and polepitch were equal. In the slots 1, 2, 6 and 7 the leakage is less in the ratio l5/2 = 075. The E.M.F. of selfinduction for the three
The leakage
is
exactly as large as
it
centre slots
may be
called
is
e^
j4x0375xe, = 45xe,.
By
Generally speak
motor with
(1
n' slots
is
slots.
by these
factors,
THE Leakage.
a
is
195
smaller than
n'.
The
carried
similar way.
The
leakage
coil
lines
passing
through the
Fig. 44.
44)
the
larger
from the stator and rotor teeth and closes through the end
brackets
or
in
air.
large
circle
through the
of
Fig. 45.
calculation
is
the
coil
end leakage
but
very
in
not
impossible
especially
difficult,
when
The
phases
planes.
situated
selfinduction
can be measured
coils.
on
test
Giving
these
coils
different
forms
we
the
may
Fia. 46.
leakage
On
other hand,
we
tions
good constants for our calculaby comparing test results on machines with the same
but
or
different
winding
lengths
core
by
calculating
the
body and
test
ends which I
:
Two
same section and equal number of diameter were introduced between the
196
metre average circumference was found to be 0*58 C.G.S. This value is of the same order as with the coil ends of completely
wound
section
motors.
The
proportional to the
mean
propor
is
depen
winding (Fig. 47). With the same class of winding there is very little difference in this amount from one machine to another, but the type of the winding itself has a considerable
and
circumference.
coil
ends
some groups
up and
5 and
(a)
The
coils of
the different
and
9,
The number of coil groups per phase number of poles (Fig. 48).
(b)
The number
of
is
equal to the
number
The
singlephase winding
with
concentric
flat
coils.
Number
3.
of groups equal to
number
way
is
perfectly symmetrical.
of coils
number
half or a multiple of
(a)
The
coil
ends are
THE LEAKAGE.
"
Ph. I
197
P hi l
Ph. Ill
10
Fin. 48.
prM^"7^
'
^
r^^
ZD S
_}dsv^
V^
Fig. 49.
_J
J
Fig. 50.
v
Fig. 51.
198
(b)
diamond
coils.
The
(Fig. 52).
The
coil
ends
occupy the smallest possible space (Fig. 53). 4. For the rotor we have to add The shortcircuit rotor
:
with
its different
forms
(Figs.
54a
to 54e).
Fig. 52.
Fig. 53.
nrr
^
With
for this part
Fig. 54.
^/ = Ck"
xdxirxixvx
of slots per
(IOa)
%i'=Number
c?=: Rotor
diameter in centimetres.
of wires per slot.
s= Number
Putting S=^i
xs and Zi=pXni\
eJ'=Cj,"'
xdX7rxixvx,X lO'^
volts.
(IOb)
THE LEAKAGE.
199
We
i.e.,
regardless of
it,
its
being
of
and regardless
our dealing with a three, two or onephase winding. The constant Ck" which I have developed for the different types of
winding
the
is
of the ratio
number
between the number of wires in the of wires per phase and pole.
the coil ends is to
coil
ends to
the
be taken
from
Table VI]
'..
Leakage
Ck
II
Winding Winding
of the rotor.
of the Stator.
No.
1, cllain
w
la&
lb.
ndin glb.
lb
(2).
No. 3b, cylin No. 3c, short drical type winding. winding.
3pli.
No. la
chain
&
lb,
60 60
...
31
...
...
...
31
...
90
61
...
46
...
60
35
26
type No. 4a
short
...
58
40
29
&

4b,
cir
42
25
45
32
25
25
21
15
415 29
23
The values
These values have been obtained from and reliable test results with the various classes of machines and types of windings. It w;ould be of little use to the reader if I gave a table of all these test results ; a general survey of the results will suffice.
several hundreds of picked
We notice first of
shortcircuit rotors.
all
how
is ivith
In some cases
is
only half as
much
as
between rotor and stator windings at the coil ends {d in Fig. 47). Those types of shortcircuit rotors where the bars are not shortcircuited by simple rings, and where the distance between
200
much
larger,
which have zigzag form for the purpose of increasing their resistance, show, with threephase cylindrical winding in the stator, a coilFig. 54c, for instance, the rings of
The type
5, compared with 17 with the types 50a and 50b. Type 54d has with threephase chain wind
"
= 9*4
instead of 6*1.
A special class of
formed by type Fig. 54e having a proper winding on one end, all bars being shortcircuited by a ring on the other end. With threephase chain winding in the stator
"^
lt'
Fig. 55.
the
number
of
is
double
however,
we
calculate
we conthe mean
coil
number
phase
is
of ampereturns
which produce
lines
round the
moment when
at its maximum, the two others being half as large, we same average ampereturns in both cases. The constants for threephase current are about 40 to 50 per This is due to cent, higher than those for twophase current. the mutual induction between the three phases in the case of
a threephase winding.
THE LEAKAGE.
As
201
the most favourable class oj wiiiding for the staior the cylinis
drical winding
prominent.
The leakage
of the coilends is
We
can,
still
more
if
we reduce
coils.
If
approximately cos ^/2. For instance, with threephase cylindrical winding and ^ = 60 deg. and shortcircuit rotor we obtain
C/' = 25 X cos (30 deg.) = 25 x 086 = 2"15. The constants given in Table VII. naturally represent only average values. With machines with the same class of windings which are also otherwise identical, Ck'" varies from 10 to
due to differences in workmanship. With the winding but with different numbers of poles and diflferent arrangements Ck'" varies about 25 per cent. If there is no exceptional arrangement of the coil ends the mistake we can
15 per
cent.,
same type
of
Fig. 56.
make
As an
when
we may menby the end brackets. With a completely enclosed coalcutter motor with chain winding and wound rotor, where the unusually thick end
instance of an " exceptional arrangement,"
tion the very tight enclosure of the coilend
all
round (Fig.
= 13
The
large
diameter of the bearing shells almost touching the rotor winding also contributed to increase Ck'".
By
going a
little
more
meant
Of
is
to
show what
that one
factors
may
increase
the
coilend
leakage,
so
far
may
the
202
ing.
rotor
To
pro
shown by Fig. 57, was fitted. Through its influence Ck'" became 7 i.e., the coilend leakage had been increased 55 per cent. This meant actually about
25 per cent, reduction of the starting torque of the machine,
together with 2 or 3 per cent, reduction in the power factor.
On
if
is
is
experienced
given a high
resistance.
The Ck'"=8*5
of a three
to 68
Fig. 57.
IV.
The
Leakage Factor.
put the leakage factor
i^
,
We have
T=:io/iK', and will now introand %' which have been developed in
According to formula
is
= Co'xlxf^x^xlO.
partlyclosed slots, the noload current
is about 20 per cent., with open about 10 per cent, of the magnetising current for air only.
We
will intro
duce an
make
a corresponding
correction
if
We
then find
io=MxCo'xlxg^x^xlO.
203
Introducing the value for Q^ and putting in round figures = <Z ttx ?X 085 2*67 Xf^X^ (the coefficient 0*85 has been introduced with regard to the slot openings, and may be
Q,;5
corrected
if
necessary),
*o
we
find
= 0'40 X
and
Co' X
xg
Lx 10.
we can put,
according
to
Adding
formula
zigzag leakage,
^; = 77xiK'xvXxTK<x 2x108.
According to formula (10b),
the coilend leakage
TT
E.M.F.
is
e/= C/'
6^
X ^V X
1/
pi
'x lO'^
;
We
= ej + e"
thus
=VXVX
S2 x 10^ X f
I2iii^ + C/' X
Zl
^V
p"
or
exW
vxSxr^^^^^^^ + C/'x^)
= KiX^'x^ + K2X^
Zi
(llB)
With
this
iron resistance has been introduced with 10 per cent, of the air
resistance,
air section
and
the
If these
t changes proportionately.
is
From
two parts
dependent on the
leakage in the
the coil ends.
To
tical
we
An
Tk loitli partly closed slots of 25 mm. to 35 mm. height and 9 mm. to 12 mm. width is about 55 {see p. 192 and Fig. 25).
If
many
slots,
and
if the stator
slots
are broad
and
204
riarrow
go up
to 6*5,
With few rotor dots ami and with very small airgap, Tk< can When first in very favourable cases even to 8.
to
about 45.
slots
slots,
&c.,
known, we may start with Tk< = 55 and correct it afterwards. With open slots Tk varies between 35 and 45. Tj^t = 4: is a
good average for a preliminary calculation.
With rotor we
put Ck'" =
(p. 174).
87.
Cq'
for
Introducing
these
values
we
find
(formula
11)
that
Kj = 305 X 0*43 X 55 = 72. K^ varies ivith partly closed slots hetweeji 6 and 85 ; with entirely open slots between 4*5 and 6. We find further that K3 = 040x7rx043 x 87 = 51, say
5*0.
Therefore, as an average,
T=75x^'x + 50xi
Zi
(He)
Twophase current
Kj ^^
12
Ck'",
6^
= 50 cm.,
a core length
= 20cm.,
an airgap X =
mm.
We
Zi
50
20
'
T = 0015x^V 0025.
^^
= 48,
we
find
.2
^=3iro^2^
205
of slots
numbers
T
same number
t//?
t//)
we may
it>=
2
4
i?= jp 6
_p= 8
p = l2
find that
4, 6,
= 00013 + 0025 = 026 = 0005 +0025 = 0030 T = 011 +0 025 = 0036 T = 0020 +0025 = 045 T = 0045 +0025 = 0070
T
= 00130
14 per cent,
or, as
average for
8 and 12
poles, T
= 00058
which claims that t reverses proportional to the polepitch i.e., with the same motor proportional to the number of poles. The formula (11) which we developed shows that Behrendfs
formula
is
not correct^ hut the fact that the formula for a given car
makes r appear
account of
core width
of
Behrendt
dependent on the
may
T
if
^ constant x
this
one
is
prepared to allow
40
constant.
Applying
dXTT
i^.
given by Behrendt.
To study the influence of an alteration of the number of slots we have to look at the complete formula (11a). If with one and the same motor we increase Cj we have to make the slots
Zi
narrower.
will
Consequently, the permeance for the slot leakage be increased, but the permeance of the zigzag leakage will
be reduced.
of
The
ratio T^fjzi
first
part
Naturally the
only.
number
by the leakage
206
would lead
to intro
us
much
too far
object
if
we were
and
We
motors.
will
now compare
threephase, twophase
singlephase
number
number
and pole
15. increased in the ratio 3/2 Co' becomes 0'88 instead of 0*43 {see p. 174) ^.e., the first part of formula (11b),
slot and zigzag leakage only, becomes 0*88 TTR^ ^r7^=l'4 times as large as with the threephase motor. 1*0 U'4t)
1
which depends on
Kg
0^8
043
i.e., ivith
C/'
for twophase
_ 088 ^^
043
.^_,
.
'
the
40 per
Tables
cent, larger
I.
Utilising
and
II.
we
between the
the
power factor of a
singlephase motors
006 lower
With
threephase motors.
Ki becomes twice as large as with same ratio, except the stator and with machines with
any other winding in the stator but with a rotor of the squirrelcage type. With singlephase winding in the stator
the bent coils do not
,
.,
come m,
so that here
.,
Uk
lor twophase
viz.,
87/31
= 28.
winding in the
With
The
class of
GENERAL EXAMPLE
207
j^^j.
^Jjq
...
we nnd
as
*'k
oiie
phase
r
= 0'81.
number
if
These
figures
of practical observations.
They
As an
averaare value ^
we put
^
T for onephase
*
=I
70
=2*1.
j.
T for threephase
0*8
Then we may give the approximate relations between the maximum power factor of a singlephase motor and a threephase motor in form of a table
Cos0,nax.
:
normal load
is
maximum power
factor, and,
General
1,000/173
Example.
Threephase Motor.
star connected.
50
Phases
= 578
Slipring rotor.
rotor.
Chain winding in
stator, disc
winding in
Dimensions
Rotor diameter,
Core length,
Airgap
(Z
= 40 cm.
circumference
40X7r=126cm.
^
= 1 6 cm.
;
A = 0*10 cm.
2:1
= 325 cm.
1 05 cm.
;
h^
= 2*5 cm.
b.^O'S cm.
Slot ratio,
208
Sum
X5'2= 16 cm.
Eotor circumference
slot
openings
= (126 
12)
x 110/126
= 100 cm.
(sgep. 191).
Air section 100 x 16 = 1,600 cm.= Tooth section Stator 730 cm.^ rotor 680 Wires per stator slot 8 = 9.
:
cm.^
r.
From formula
(lie)
= 75 x
^'
24
we
Noload Current.
Formula
..
,
(3b)
..
Air density
24x16x50x1,600
Ampereturns for
air
yokes
= =
200
801,600
9*5 amperes.
^
 =
3.
Leakage Permeances.
(a) Slot leakage.
Primary
slots
=1*95
Secondary
slots
l85x^
Tk'
=170
Permeance
(b)
of slot leakage
= 365
Zigzag leakage.
C/
=165
^Iq^^^.^^^^^
TKi=530 cm.
530
X 24 x
16
= 2,050 cm.
GENERAL EXAMPLE.
Slot
209
Leakage
+ Zigzag
Leakage.
Voltage
per phase
:
2,050x8x50x16'
Coil
= 210 volts
1
End Leakage.
ampere
volts
shortcircuit current
(C/'= 87 from Table VI F.) = 225 x 126 x 16^X 50x 10
per phase per 1 ampere
...
Voltage
shortcircuit current
=435
volts
the.
Table VIII.
Slot opening
E.M. F.
for 1
of leakage per
phase
Shortcir
amp. shortcircuit
current.
Noload
Zigzag Coil end Total Stator Rotor leakge leakge leakge leakge Amps. Amps. Volts. Volts Volts. Volts.
feloD
cuit current.
curfactor. rent.
t'.
Leakage CO8
0.
max.
Prac]
ticallyiQ.25
open
slots
p^
^^
'
136
016
225
377 268
0083
i
Do.
Do.* 136
016
116
2150
127
0059
1
090
^^ ~
0*2
V = 578/435
5.
volts
x 1 = 133 amperes.
Leakage factor t =
yV = 95/133 = 0071.
factor,
Maximum poioer
If circuit.
from Table
I.
0875.
we
on short
In our
133
0*94
= 125 amps.
t'
cos<jf)
= 95/125 = 0076.
motor (formula
1).
Maximum
1,000x173x125x037 =
746
108b.h.p.
INDEX TO
No Load
Current,
162 Partly Closed Slots, Leakage of, 182 Phases, Number of. Influence on Leakage,
206
Pole Changing, 169 Poles, Number of. Influence
age, 205
of,
on Leak
Coil
End Leakage, Direct Measurement of, 195 E.M.F., Formula for, 165 Flux Density, 170 Flux, Formula for, 165 Grouping of Coils, 190 Hevland's Leakage Coefficient, 162 Hobart, 159 Iron, Influence of, on Coil End Leakage, 201 Leakage Coefficient, Heyland's, 162 Coil End, 195 Definition of, 176 Factor. Formulae for, 203 Slot, 177 Zigzag, 187 No Load Current, Calculation of, 173, 174
Open
Slots, Influence Current, 174
of,
Power Factor Tables, 162 Reduced Span of Winding (No Load), 168 Rotors, Shortcircuit, Different Forms of,
198 Saturation of Teeth, 178 Shortcircuit Rotors, Different Forms of, 198 Shortcircuit Rotors, Reduced Leakage of, 193 Short Span, Influence on Leakage, 194 Slot Leakage, 177 Slot Width, Influence of, on Leakage, 182, 185 Slots, Number of. Influence on Flux, 167 Slots, Number of. Influence on leakage,
205
of Coils, 16S Symbols, Table of, 160 Teeth, Ampereturas for, 171, 172 Winding Arrangement, Influence Coil End Leakage, 196 Winding Coefficient for No Load, 167 Zigzag Leakage, 187 Constants, 190 Correction for Slot Opening, 191
Span
on No Load
on
Open Slots, Leakage of, 185 Opening of Slots, Influence of, on Leakage,
181
of,
64
April, 1911.
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CABLE TESTING.
Subject.
No.
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Subject.
3.
4.
5.
The Exploration of Magnetic Fields. The Magnetic Field of a Circular Current. The Standardization of a Tangent Galvanometer by the Water Voltameter.
The
27.
28.
The Measurement of Electrical Resistance by the Divided Wire Bridge. Ihe Calibration of the Ballistic Galvanometer.
Standardization of an Ammeter by the Potentiometer. The Determination of the Magnetic Permeability of a Sample of Iron. The .Standardization of a High Tension.
Voltmeter.
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30.
6.
7.
8.
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of Alternating Current
Experiments with
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31.
FieHs
32.
3;^.
The Determination
in the
9.
10.
11.
of the Magnetic Field Air Gap of an Electromagnet. determination of Resistance with the The Post Office Pattern Wheatstone Bridge. The Determination of Poteniial Diffi^rence by the Potentiomettr. The Measurement of a Current by the
The Efficiency Test of a Transformer. The Efficiency Test of an Alternator. The Photometric Examination cf an Arc
Lamp
34.
35.
35.
The Complete
Efficiency
Test
of
Secondary Battery
37.
38. 39.
Potentiometer.
12. 13. 14.
The The
Iron.
The Examination
Sample of Iron
for
A Photometric
The
Kxamination of an Incanof
the
descent Lamp.
15.
16.
The Determination
I
Absorptive
40. 41.
42.
17.
Method.
i8.
19. 20. 21.
22.
43.
Efficiency of an Electromotor by the Brake M ethod. The Efficiency Test of a Combined MotorGenerator Plant. Test of a Gas Engine and Dynamo Plant. The Determination of the Electrical Resistivity of a Sample of Metallic Wire. The Measurement of Low Resistances by the Potentiometer. The Measurement of Armatur^ Resistances The Standardization of an Ammeter by Copper Deposit. The Standardization of a Voltmeter by the Potentiometer.
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