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MATH 121

and

on the set

M. r1 , r2 R

and

m M,

we

have

Problem (10.1.4). Let

be the module

(a) Call the set for

Solution.

r R

and

N . We have to check that N is a subgroup, and that x N , rx N . Let x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) N . x + y = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ) N

Then since the Ii 's are ideals and hence closed under sums. Now, let

x = (x1 , . . . , xn )

and

r R.

Then

rx = (rx1 , . . . , rxn ) N,

again because the (b) Call this set

Ii 's

is a submodule.

P.

r R.

Then

x + y = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ). From the above, we know that this is in N , so we need to check that (x1 + y1 ) + + (xn + yn ) = 0. This is true because x1 + + xn = y1 + + yn = 0.

Similarly,

rx = (rx1 , . . . , rxn ) N,

and

so

1

Date

: 10 January, 2011.

2

Problem (10.1.9). If

MATH 121

is a submodule of

M,

the annihilator of

{r R | rn = 0 ideal of R.

be

Solution. Let

for all

n N }.

N in R is dened to N in R is a 2-sided

ann(N )

be the annihilator of

and

n N.

(ar)(n) = a(rn) = 0

because

rn = 0,

and

for some

n N.

Hence

of

Problem (10.1.10). If

is a right ideal of and

Solution. Let

r R,

so

Furthermore,

of

in

M.

Suppose that

m, m ann(I),

for some Hence

rm ann(I). M

Thus

ann(I)

is a submodule of

M.

Z/50Z.

(a) Find the annihilator of (b) Let

in

I = 2Z.

in

groups.

Solution.

a Z annihilates M if and only if am = 0 for all m in a set of generators of M . One choice of generators of M is (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1). Hence, ann(M ) is the intersection of the annihilators

(a) An element of the submodules generated by these elements. Clearly, the annihilators of these submodules are

(b)

(24), (15), and (50), respectively, so their intersection is (lcm(24, 15, 50)) = (600). An element m = (m1 , m2 , m3 ) of M is annihilated by I if and only if (2m1 , 2m2 , 2m3 ) = 0.

This happens if and only if

50Z/50Z, 25Z/50Z.

HOMEWORK 1 SOLUTIONS

Problem (10.2.5). Exhibit all

Z-module

homomorphisms from

Z/30Z

to

Z/21Z.

Z-module homomorphism from a cyclic module to any module is determined by where a generator is sent. (See Problem 10.2.9 below.) Let : Z/30Z Z/21Z be a Z-module homomorphism. Then we must have 30(1) = 0. The elements y Z/21Z so that 30y = 0 are y = 7k (mod 21) for k = 0, 1, 2, so there are three such homomorphisms, given by 1 7, 1 14, and 1 0.

Problem (10.2.9). Let

Solution. A

HomR (R, M ) and M are isomorphic as left R-modules. [Show that each element of HomR (R, M ) is determined by its value on the identity of R.]

be a commutative ring. Prove that

: HomR (R, M ) M given by (1). Let's show R-modules. For 1 , 2 HomR (R, M ), we have r R,

we have

and for

HomR (R, M )

and

as desired. Now let's show that that is injective. Suppose that

() = 0.

This means

(1) = 0.

Now, let

r R.

We have

(r) = r(1) = r0 = 0

since that

is an R-module homomorphism. Hence = 0, as desired. Finally, we show is surjective. Pick m M . We need to nd HomR (R, M ) so that (1) = m. We dene (r) = rm, but we need to check that this is actually an R-module homomorphism. Let r1 , r2 R. We have (r1 + r2 ) = (r1 + r2 )m = r1 m + r2 m = (r1 ) + (r2 )

and

Hence

is indeed an

be a commutative ring. Prove that

isomorphism. and

HomR (R, R)

are

isomorphic as rings.

HomR (R, R) and R are isomorphic as R-modules, so it suces to check that our map from that problem is in fact a ring map. Hence, we have to check that (1 2 ) = (1 )(2 ) and (1) = 1. For the

Solution. We showed in Problem 10.2.9 that

For the second, we have

(id) = id(1) = 1,

as desired. Thus

is a ring isomorphism.

4

Problem (10.2.11). Let

MATH 121

A1 , A2 , . . . , An

Prove that

be

be a submodule of

Ai

for each

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

[Recall Exercise 14 in Section 5.1.]

Solution. In Problem 5.1.4, we showed that there is an isomorphism

of groups. We must now show that it is compatible with the

R-module

structure.

((a1 , . . . , an )

Now, let

mod B1 , . . . , an

We have

mod Bn ).

rR

and

(r(a1 , . . . , an )

= r((a1 , . . . , an )

Problem (10.2.13). Let

mod B1 Bn )

and

be

R-modules

and let

so that

is surjective.

Solution. Let

n N.

(m) = n +

where

ai ni , mi

so that

ai I

and

ni N .

For each

i,

(mi ) = ni +

Hence

i,j

ai mi = n

M N/I 2 N

is surjective. Continuing in

the same manner, we can see that all the induced maps r Since some I = 0, this shows that the original map : Note that we didn't use the fact that

R = Z, M = N = Z, I = (3), and suppose that : M N is multiplication by 5. Now, the induced map M/IM N/IN is surjective, which means that every integer is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 3. For example, if n = 4, then n is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 3 because 4 + 2 3 = 10 is a multiple of 5. The argument above shows that we

HOMEWORK 1 SOLUTIONS

can improve the situation to saying that 4 is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 9, which is true because up to a multiple of no power of

is 0.

Problem (10.3.4). An

there is a nonzero

R-module M is called a torsion module if for each m M element r R such that rm = 0, where r may depend on m (i.e.,

Prove that every nite Give an example of an innite abelian group

M = Tor(M )

Z-module. Z-module. A

a A, na = 0.

Hence

is

Z-module

(Z/2Z).

i=1

Problem (10.3.9). An

R-module M is called irreducible if M = 0 and if 0 and M are the only submodules of M . Show that M is irreducible if and only if M = 0 and M is

a cyclic module with any nonzero element as its generator. Determine all irreducible

Z-modules.

Solution. Suppose that

is an irreducible

R-module. M

Let

be a nonzero element

of

M.

Then

Rm

is a submodule of

M,

M = Rm.

Hence,

contains

M is a cyclic module, and that any nonzero element is a generator. N is a nonzero submodule of M . Then for any nonzero n N , Rn of M , because n is also a nonzero element of M . As any submodule of some Rn, M must be irreducible. The irreducible Z-modules, then, are M1

and

Problem (10.3.11). Show that if

M2

are irreducible

R-modules,

then any

nonzero

is irreducible then

R-module homomorphism from M1 to M2 is an isomorphism. Deduce that if EndR (M ) is a division ring (this result is called Schur's Lemma.) : M1 M2

be a nonzero

Solution. Let

R-module

irreducible

Then ker and im are submodules of M1 and M2 , respecker = 0 and im = M2 . Hence is an isomorphism. Now, let EndR (M ) be nonzero. By the previous argument, is an automorphism, so it has an inverse. Since was arbitrary, every nonzero element of EndR (M ) is invertible, so EndR (M ) is a division ring. tively, so we must have

R-modules.

6

Problem (10.3.20). Let

MATH 121

iI

let

Mi

be an

R-module.

Mi

as abelian groups (cf. Exercise 15 in Section 5.1) with the action of multiplication. The direct sum of the modules product of the abelian groups

Mi

(cf. Exercise 17 in Section 5.1) with the action of which consists of the elements

prodiI Mi ,

that only nitely many of the components direct product or direct sum is given by denoted by

mi

r iI mi = ii rmi (cf. Appendix I for the denition of Cartesian products of innitely many sets). The direct sum will be

ii

Mi . Mi 's

is an

R-module

Mi 's

for each

i,

Mi 's

[Look at torsion.]

Solution.

(a) We have

and

Mi

so

we then this

Mi

is an

R-module.

must show that if all but nitely many of is also true of the many indices

mi + m + i

i so that at least one and mi is nonzero, so there can only be nitely many indices in which the sum is nonzero. Similarly, for the scalar

product, there are only nitely many the only positions in which

rmi . of mi i

in which

mi

rmi

can be nonzero.

indeed a submodule of the direct product. (b) One way to do this is to observe that

Mi is a torsion group, whereas Mi is not. To see that Mi is torsion, let (mi ) be any element of Mi , and suppose that n is large enough so that mi = 0 for i > n. Then n!(mi ) = 0, so (mi ) is a torsion element. Since (mi ) was arbitrary, Mi is a torsion group. Now, let's illustrate a non-torsion element of Mi . Take x = (1, 1, 1, . . .) = Mi . th place, n Suppose that nx = 0. Then in order to annihilate the 1 in the i + must be a multiple of i. Hence, n must be a multiple of i for each i Z . The only integer with this property is 0, so x is torsion-free. Another way to do this is to note that Mi is countable (as a set), whereas Mi is uncountable.

HOMEWORK 1 SOLUTIONS

Problem (10.3.22). Let

R be a Principal Ideal Domain, let M be a torsion R-module p be a prime in R (do not assume M is nitely generated, hence it need not have a nonzero annihilator cf. Exercise 5). The p-primary component of M is the set of all elements of M that are annihilated by some positive power of p. (a) Prove that the p-primary component is a submodule. [See Exercise 13 in

Section 1.] (b) Prove that this denition of in Exercise 18 when (c) Prove that as

p-primary

p-primary components,

R.

Solution.

M [p] denote the p-primary component of M . Suppose that m, n M [p] and r R. Suppose that m and n are annihilated by pa and pb ,

respectively. Then

so

m + n M [p]. rm M [p].

Also,

pa (rm) = r(pa m) = r0 = 0,

so Hence

M [p]

is a submodule of

M. p p ,

so the denitions

M [p]

is annihilated by

M [p], as follows. Let m M . Then m is contained in a nitely generated R-submodule of M , say N = Rm. Then N has an annihilator ann(N ), so by Exercise 10.3.18, N is the direct sum of its p-primary components, : N N [p]. Now, we embed each N [p] inside the corresponding M [p] in the natural way: p : N [p] M [p]. Now, we dene (m) = ( p )(m). One can check that is in fact an R-module

: M

isomorphism.

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