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MATH 121

Problem (10.1.2). Prove that


satisfy the two axioms in Section 1.7 for a

group action of the multiplicative group

on the set

M. r1 , r2 R

Solution. For the rst axiom, we have to check that for

m M,



For the second axiom, we have

r1 (r2 m) = (r1 r2 )m. to check that for m M , 1m = m.

Both of these are

included as part of the denition of a module.

Problem (10.1.4). Let

be the module

be left ideals of (a) (b)

R. Prove that the {(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) | xi Ii }. {(x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) | xi R and x1 + x2 + + xn = 0}.

(a) Call the set for

Rn described in Example 3 and let I1 , I2 , . . . , In following are submodules of M :


r R


N . We have to check that N is a subgroup, and that x N , rx N . Let x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) N . x + y = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ) N

Then since the Ii 's are ideals and hence closed under sums. Now, let

x = (x1 , . . . , xn )


r R.


rx = (rx1 , . . . , rxn ) N,
again because the (b) Call this set

Ii 's

are ideals. Hence Let

is a submodule.


As in part (a), we check that

under scalar multiplication.

P is a subgroup and is closed x = (x1 , . . . , xn ), y = (y1 , . . . , yn ) P and

r R.


x + y = (x1 + y1 , . . . , xn + yn ). From the above, we know that this is in N , so we need to check that (x1 + y1 ) + + (xn + yn ) = 0. This is true because x1 + + xn = y1 + + yn = 0.

rx = (rx1 , . . . , rxn ) N,


(rx1 ) + + (rxn ) = r(x1 + + xn ) = 0, rx P . Hence P is a submodule.



: 10 January, 2011.

Problem (10.1.9). If

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is a submodule of


the annihilator of

{r R | rn = 0 ideal of R.
Solution. Let

for all

n N }.

Prove that the annihilator of

N in R is dened to N in R is a 2-sided

ann(N )

be the annihilator of


n N.

We have to show that

N in R. Suppose r ann(N ), a R, ar, ra ann(N ). We have

(ar)(n) = a(rn) = 0

rn = 0,


for some

n N.


(ra)(n) = r(an) = rn = 0 ann(N ) is a 2-sided ideal of R. R, the annihilator


Problem (10.1.10). If

I in M is dened to be {m M | am = 0 for all a I}. Prove that the annihilator of I in M is a submodule of M .

is a right ideal of and

Solution. Let

r R,

ann(I) be the annihilator a I . Then we have





Suppose that

m, m ann(I),

a(m + m ) = am + am = 0, m + m ann(I). a I. a(rm) = (ar)m = a m = 0

for some Hence

rm ann(I). M



is a submodule of


Problem (10.1.11). Let

be the abelian group (i.e.,

Z-module) Z/24Z Z/15Z

(a) Find the annihilator of (b) Let


(i.e., a generator for this principal ideal).

I = 2Z.

Describe the annihilator of


as a direct product of cyclic


a Z annihilates M if and only if am = 0 for all m in a set of generators of M . One choice of generators of M is (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0), and (0, 0, 1). Hence, ann(M ) is the intersection of the annihilators
(a) An element of the submodules generated by these elements. Clearly, the annihilators of these submodules are


(24), (15), and (50), respectively, so their intersection is (lcm(24, 15, 50)) = (600). An element m = (m1 , m2 , m3 ) of M is annihilated by I if and only if (2m1 , 2m2 , 2m3 ) = 0.
This happens if and only if

50Z/50Z, 25Z/50Z.

or, equivalently, if Hence

2m1 24Z/24Z, 2m2 15Z/15Z, and 2m3 m1 12Z/24Z, m2 15Z/15Z, and m3

ann(I) = 12Z/24Z 15Z/15Z 25Z/25Z.

Problem (10.2.5). Exhibit all


homomorphisms from




Z-module homomorphism from a cyclic module to any module is determined by where a generator is sent. (See Problem 10.2.9 below.) Let : Z/30Z Z/21Z be a Z-module homomorphism. Then we must have 30(1) = 0. The elements y Z/21Z so that 30y = 0 are y = 7k (mod 21) for k = 0, 1, 2, so there are three such homomorphisms, given by 1 7, 1 14, and 1 0.
Problem (10.2.9). Let

Solution. A

HomR (R, M ) and M are isomorphic as left R-modules. [Show that each element of HomR (R, M ) is determined by its value on the identity of R.]
be a commutative ring. Prove that

Solution. We dene a map

that this is a homomorphism of left

: HomR (R, M ) M given by (1). Let's show R-modules. For 1 , 2 HomR (R, M ), we have r R,
we have

(1 + 2 ) = (1 + 2 )(1) = 1 (1) + 2 (1) = (1 ) + (2 ),

and for

HomR (R, M )


(r) = (r)(1) = r(1) = r(),

as desired. Now let's show that that is injective. Suppose that

() = 0.

This means

(1) = 0.

Now, let

r R.

We have

(r) = r(1) = r0 = 0
since that

is an R-module homomorphism. Hence = 0, as desired. Finally, we show is surjective. Pick m M . We need to nd HomR (R, M ) so that (1) = m. We dene (r) = rm, but we need to check that this is actually an R-module homomorphism. Let r1 , r2 R. We have (r1 + r2 ) = (r1 + r2 )m = r1 m + r2 m = (r1 ) + (r2 )


is indeed an

(r1 r2 ) = (r1 r2 )m = r1 (r2 m) = r1 (r2 ). R-module homomorphism, and so is an R

be a commutative ring. Prove that

isomorphism. and

Problem (10.2.10). Let

HomR (R, R)


isomorphic as rings.

HomR (R, R) and R are isomorphic as R-modules, so it suces to check that our map from that problem is in fact a ring map. Hence, we have to check that (1 2 ) = (1 )(2 ) and (1) = 1. For the
Solution. We showed in Problem 10.2.9 that

rst one, we have

(1 2 ) = (1 2 )(1) = 1 (2 (1)) = 1 (1)2 (1) = (1 2 ).

For the second, we have

(id) = id(1) = 1,
as desired. Thus

is a ring isomorphism.

Problem (10.2.11). Let

MATH 121

A1 , A2 , . . . , An
Prove that


R-modules and let Bi

be a submodule of


for each

i = 1, 2, . . . , n.

(A1 An )/(B1 Bn ) (A1 /B1 ) (An /Bn ). =

[Recall Exercise 14 in Section 5.1.]
Solution. In Problem 5.1.4, we showed that there is an isomorphism

(A1 An )/(B1 Bn ) (A1 /B1 ) (An /Bn ) =

of groups. We must now show that it is compatible with the



Recall that the map is given by

((a1 , . . . , an )
Now, let

mod B1 Bn ) = (a1 (a1 , . . . , an ) A1 An . = (ra1 = r(a1

mod B1 , . . . , an
We have

mod Bn ).



(r(a1 , . . . , an )

mod B1 Bn ) = ((ra1 , . . . , ran ) mod B1 Bn ) mod B1 , . . . , ran mod B1 , . . . , an mod Bn ) mod Bn )

= r((a1 , . . . , an )
Problem (10.2.13). Let

mod B1 Bn )

be a nilpotent ideal in a commutative ring

37, Section 7.3), let homomorphism. then




and let

Show that if the induced map

R (cf. Exercise : M N be an R-module : M/IM N/IN is surjective, mM

so that

is surjective.

Solution. Let

n N.

By hypothesis, we can nd some

(m) = n +

ai ni , mi
so that

ai I


ni N .

For each


we can nd some

(mi ) = ni +

aij nij . ai aij nij N + I 2 N.


ai mi = n

Hence we've shown that the induced map

M N/I 2 N

is surjective. Continuing in

the same manner, we can see that all the induced maps r Since some I = 0, this shows that the original map : Note that we didn't use the fact that

M N/I k N are surjective. M N is surjective.

is nilpotent until the last step. Consider the

more down-to-earth example that sets aside that hypothesis. Let

R = Z, M = N = Z, I = (3), and suppose that : M N is multiplication by 5. Now, the induced map M/IM N/IN is surjective, which means that every integer is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 3. For example, if n = 4, then n is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 3 because 4 + 2 3 = 10 is a multiple of 5. The argument above shows that we


can improve the situation to saying that 4 is a multiple of 5 up to a multiple of 9, which is true because up to a multiple of no power of

4 + 4 9 = 40 is a multiple of 27, because 4 + 3 27 = 85 is

5. Similarly, 4 is a multiple of 5 a multiple of 5, and so on. The

only dierence here is that we cannot conclude that

is actually surjective because

is 0.

Problem (10.3.4). An

there is a nonzero

R-module M is called a torsion module if for each m M element r R such that rm = 0, where r may depend on m (i.e.,
Prove that every nite Give an example of an innite abelian group

M = Tor(M )

in the notation of Exercise 8 of Section 1).

abelian group is a torsion that is a torsion

Z-module. Z-module. A

Solution. Suppose that

is a nite abelian group (or

by Lagrange's Theorem, for each

a A, na = 0.


Z-module) of order n. Then A is a torsion Z-module. An


example of an innite abelian group that is a torsion


Problem (10.3.9). An

R-module M is called irreducible if M = 0 and if 0 and M are the only submodules of M . Show that M is irreducible if and only if M = 0 and M is

a cyclic module with any nonzero element as its generator. Determine all irreducible

Solution. Suppose that

is an irreducible

R-module. M


be a nonzero element





is a submodule of


so by hypothesis, we must have si a generator.

M = Rm.


is cyclic, and any nonzero element of

For the other

direction, suppose Now suppose that must be all


M is a cyclic module, and that any nonzero element is a generator. N is a nonzero submodule of M . Then for any nonzero n N , Rn of M , because n is also a nonzero element of M . As any submodule of some Rn, M must be irreducible. The irreducible Z-modules, then, are M1

exactly the cyclic groups of prime order.

Problem (10.3.11). Show that if


are irreducible


then any


is irreducible then

R-module homomorphism from M1 to M2 is an isomorphism. Deduce that if EndR (M ) is a division ring (this result is called Schur's Lemma.) : M1 M2
be a nonzero

[Consider the kernel and image.]

Solution. Let


homomorphism between two


Then ker and im are submodules of M1 and M2 , respecker = 0 and im = M2 . Hence is an isomorphism. Now, let EndR (M ) be nonzero. By the previous argument, is an automorphism, so it has an inverse. Since was arbitrary, every nonzero element of EndR (M ) is invertible, so EndR (M ) is a division ring. tively, so we must have


Problem (10.3.20). Let

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be a nonempty index set and for each




be an


The direct product of the modules


is dened to be their direct product

as abelian groups (cf. Exercise 15 in Section 5.1) with the action of multiplication. The direct sum of the modules product of the abelian groups

R componentwise Mi is dened to be the restricted direct Mi 's is the iI mi such of R on the


(cf. Exercise 17 in Section 5.1) with the action of which consists of the elements

componentwise multiplication. In other words, the direct sum of the

subset of the direct product,

prodiI Mi ,

that only nitely many of the components direct product or direct sum is given by denoted by


are nonzero; the action

r iI mi = ii rmi (cf. Appendix I for the denition of Cartesian products of innitely many sets). The direct sum will be

Mi . Mi 's
is an

(a) Prove that the direct product of the of the


and the direct sum

Mi 's

(b) Show that if

is a submodule of their direct product. R = Z, I = Z+ and Mi is the cyclic group of order

for each


then the direct sum of the

Mi 's

is not isomorphic to their direct product.

[Look at torsion.]

(a) We have

(mi )iI + (mi )iI = (mi + mi )iI



r(mi )iI = (rmi )iI


Mi , Mi is a submodule of the mi and mi are zero, Mi ,

we then this


is an


To show that and

must show that if all but nitely many of is also true of the many indices

mi + m + i

i so that at least one and mi is nonzero, so there can only be nitely many indices in which the sum is nonzero. Similarly, for the scalar
product, there are only nitely many the only positions in which

rmi . of mi i

For the sum, there are only nitely

in which


is nonzero, and these are Hence the direct sum is


can be nonzero.

indeed a submodule of the direct product. (b) One way to do this is to observe that

Mi is a torsion group, whereas Mi is not. To see that Mi is torsion, let (mi ) be any element of Mi , and suppose that n is large enough so that mi = 0 for i > n. Then n!(mi ) = 0, so (mi ) is a torsion element. Since (mi ) was arbitrary, Mi is a torsion group. Now, let's illustrate a non-torsion element of Mi . Take x = (1, 1, 1, . . .) = Mi . th place, n Suppose that nx = 0. Then in order to annihilate the 1 in the i + must be a multiple of i. Hence, n must be a multiple of i for each i Z . The only integer with this property is 0, so x is torsion-free. Another way to do this is to note that Mi is countable (as a set), whereas Mi is uncountable.

Problem (10.3.22). Let

(cf. Exercise 4) and let

R be a Principal Ideal Domain, let M be a torsion R-module p be a prime in R (do not assume M is nitely generated, hence it need not have a nonzero annihilator  cf. Exercise 5). The p-primary component of M is the set of all elements of M that are annihilated by some positive power of p. (a) Prove that the p-primary component is a submodule. [See Exercise 13 in
Section 1.] (b) Prove that this denition of in Exercise 18 when (c) Prove that as


component agrees with the one given

has a nonzero annihilator.

is the (possibly innite) direct sum of its

p-primary components,

runs over all primes of (a) Let



M [p] denote the p-primary component of M . Suppose that m, n M [p] and r R. Suppose that m and n are annihilated by pa and pb ,
respectively. Then

pa+b (m + n) = pa+b m + pa+b n = 0,


m + n M [p]. rm M [p].


pa (rm) = r(pa m) = r0 = 0,
so Hence

M [p]

is a submodule of

M. p p ,
so the denitions

(b) In this case, any element of coincide. (c) We dene a map

M [p]

is annihilated by

M [p], as follows. Let m M . Then m is contained in a nitely generated R-submodule of M , say N = Rm. Then N has an annihilator ann(N ), so by Exercise 10.3.18, N is the direct sum of its p-primary components, : N N [p]. Now, we embed each N [p] inside the corresponding M [p] in the natural way: p : N [p] M [p]. Now, we dene (m) = ( p )(m). One can check that is in fact an R-module

: M