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I HC QUC GIA THNH PH H CH MINH TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN KHOA IN T - VIN THNG

Nguyn Nh Hu MSSV: 0720095

TI:

NGHIN CU V M PHNG MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX

Chuyn ngnh: Vin Thng v Mng

Thnh ph HCM Nm 2011

I HC QUC GIA THNH PH H CH MINH TRNG I HC KHOA HC T NHIN KHOA IN T - VIN THNG

Nguyn Nh Hu MSSV: 0720095

TI:

NGHIN CU V M PHNG MNG TRUY NHP QUANG FTTX


KHA LUN TT NGHIP C NHN NGNH IN T VIN THNG

CHUYN NGNH: VIN THNG V MNG

NGI HNG DN KHOA HC: 1. TS. Bi Hu Ph

Thnh ph HCM Nm 2011

LI CM N

Em xin gi li cm n chn thnh v su sc nht ti Thy Bi Hu Ph -Trng b mn Vin Thng v Mng. Trong sut qu trnh lm lun vn, Thy lun ht lng hng dn, gip v to iu kin em hon thnh lun vn ny. ng thi, em cng xin gi li cm n ti Thy C trong khoa in T Vin Thng, Trng i Hc Khoa Hc T Nhin i Hc Quc Gia Thnh Ph HCM tn tnh dy d em trong sut 4 nm hc ti trng. Em c gng ht sc hon thnh lun vn ny. V thi gian nghin cu v trnh c hn nn lun vn ca em khng th trnh khi thiu st. Em rt mong s quan tm, gp ca thy c v cc bn lun vn tt nghip ca em hon chnh hn. Em xin chn thnh cm n!

LI NI U
X hi ngy cng pht trin dn ti s pht trin ca cc khu vc kinh t nh: khu cng nghip, khu cng ngh cao, khu thng mi, khu chung c cao cp cng vi s pht trin ngy cng ln mnh ca cc t chc kinh t nh: ngn hng, kho bc, cng ty to ra nhu cu rt ln trong vic s dng cc dch v tin ch tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d liu. Bn cnh , cc dch v ng dng trn Internet ngy cng phong ph v pht trin vi tc nhanh nh cc dch v mua bn trc tuyn, ngn hng, game trc tuyn, cc dch v o to t xa, c bit nhu cu v cc loi dch v tch hp thoi, hnh nh v d liu ngy cng gia tng. S pht trin ca cc loi hnh dch v mi i hi h tng mng truy cp phi p ng cc yu cu v bng rng, tc truy cp cao. Cng ngh truy nhp cp ng xDSL c trin khai rng ri nhng hn ch v tc v c ly khng p ng c yu cu dch v. V vy, nghin cu trin khai cc gii php truy nhp quang (FTTx) l vn cp thit hin nay nhm xy dng h tng mng truy nhp p ng yu cu bng thng rng, tc cao ca cc loi hnh dch v mi. Cng ngh truy nhp quang th ng GPON c ITU chun ha, hin nay l mt trong nhng cng ngh c la chn hng u cho trin khai mng truy nhp ti nhiu nc trn th gii. GPON l cng ngh hng ti cung cp dch v mng y , tch hp thoi, hnh nh v s liu vi bng thng rng. GPON s l cng ngh truy nhp c la chn trin khai hin ti v tng li. Hin nay, nc ta c mt s nh cung cp dch v nh FPT, VNPT, Viettel, CMC TI v ang trin khai h thng mng truy nhp quang (FTTx Fiber To The X). V CMC TI l cng ty u tin ti Vit Nam trin khai mng FTTx theo cng ngh GPON. Do em chn ti tt nghip l Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx tm hiu v cng ngh ny. Lun vn gm 5 chng, ni dung c th ca cc chng nh sau : Chng 1: Tng quan v mng FTTx Chng ny cho ta ci nhn khi qut v s ra i, tnh hnh pht trin ca mng FTTx trn th gii v Vit Nam, nhng ng dng thc tin ca mng FTTx.

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Chng 2: Cc gii php trin khai mng FTTx Trong chng ny, chng ta s xem xt qua v kin trc mng ch ng AON v nghin cu ch yu mng quang th ng PON vi chun GPON. Chng 3 : Trin khai mng FTTx theo chun GPON ti CMC TI Trong chng ny chng ta s xem xt trin khai mng truy nhp quang theo cng ngh GPON ti cng ty CMCTI. i su tm hiu thit b OLT ang c s dng ti CMC TI, thit b ISAM 7342 FTTU. Chng 4 : M phng h thng mng FTTx theo chun GPON Chng ny m phng h thng mng FTTx theo chun GPON. Mt s tnh hung s c a ra nh gi s ph thuc ca h thng mng quang vo cc yu t nh khong cch truyn, tc bit, h s chia ca splitter, suy hao, phng thc m ha nh gi h thng da trn t l li bit BER, th mt, ch s Q. Chng 5: Kt lun v hng pht trin ca ti

Sinh vin thc hin Nguyn Nh Hu

III

MC LC
LI CM N..I LI NI UII MC LC..IV DANH MC HNH. . VIII DANH MC BNG.. X DANH MC T VIT TT.. XI CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V MNG FTTx.. .....................................3 1.1 Gii thiu chng ...........................................................................................3 1.2 Ngun gc s ra i ca mng FTTx ..............................................................3 1.3 nh ngha ......................................................................................................7 1.4 Phn loi .........................................................................................................7 1.4.1 Phn loi theo chiu di cp quang..........................................................7 1.4.2 Phn loi theo cu hnh ...........................................................................8 1.5 u nhc im mng FTTx ............................................................................9 1.5.1 u im ................................................................................................ 10 1.5.2 Nhc im .......................................................................................... 11 1.6 ng dng ca FTTx ...................................................................................... 11 1.7 Tnh hnh pht trin FTTx trn th gii v ti Vit Nam ................................ 12 1.7.1 Tnh hnh FTTx trn th gii ......................................................................12 1.7.2.Tnh hnh FTTx ti Vit Nam .....................................................................14 1.8 Kt lun chng ............................................................................................ 14 CHNG 2 MNG QUANG TH NG VI CHUN GPON ................. 15 2.1 Gii thiu chng ......................................................................................... 15 2.2 Mng quang ch ng AON .......................................................................... 15 IV

2.3 Mng quang th ng PON ........................................................................... 16 2.3.1 M hnh mng quang th ng.............................................................. 16 2.3.2 Cc chun mng PON ........................................................................... 19 2.3.2.1 APON ........................................................................................... 19 2.3.2.2 BPON ........................................................................................... 19 2.3.2.3 EPON ........................................................................................... 20 2.3.2.4 GPON........................................................................................... 22 2.3.3 u nhc im mng PON ...................................................................23 2.3.3.1 u im........................................................................................ 23 2.3.3.2 Nhc im .................................................................................. 23 2.3.4 So snh mng PON v AON .................................................................23 2.3.4.1 V bng thng v lu lng.......................................................... 23 2.3.4.2 V tnh kinh t .............................................................................. 24 2.4 Cng ngh GPON (Gigabit PON)..................................................................25 2.4.1 Gii thiu .............................................................................................. 25 2.4.2 Kin trc mng GPON .......................................................................... 26 2.4.2.1 Kt cui ng quang OLT ......................................................... 27 2.4.2.2 Thit b u cui mng ONU/ONT ............................................... 28 2.4.2.3 Mng phn phi quang ODN ........................................................ 28 2.4.3 Cc c tnh c bn ca GPON ............................................................ 29 2.4.3.1 Tc bit ................................................................................... 29 2.4.3.2 Khong cch ............................................................................... 30 2.4.3.3 T l chia...................................................................................... 30 2.4.4 Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON ............................................ 30 2.4.4.1 Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD ........................................ 30 2.4.4.2 Lp hi t truyn dn GTC .......................................................... 32 V

2.4.4.2.1 Cc chc nng chnh h thng GTC .....................................34 2.4.4.2.2 Cc chc nng ca cc phn lp trong h thng GTC ........... 35 2.4.4.2.3 Phn lp thch ng v giao din vi cc thc th lp trn .... 35 2.4.4.3 Cu trc khung GTC ....................................................................36 2.4.4.3.1 Cu trc khung ng xung ............................................... 36 2.4.4.3.2 Cu trc khung ng ln .................................................... 37 2.4.5 Cp pht bng tn ng DBA ............................................................... 38 2.4.5.3 Qun l hot ng DBA .............................................................. 40 2.5 Bo v i vi phn mng quang th ng GPON .......................................40 2.6 Bo mt ........................................................................................................ 41 2.7 Kt lun chng ........................................................................................... 42 CHNG 3 TRIN KHAI MNG FTTX TI CMC TI .............................. 43 3.1 Gii thiu chng ........................................................................................ 43 3.2 M hnh GPON ti CMC TI ......................................................................... 43 3.3 Cc thit b trong mng GPON .....................................................................44 3.3.1. Mt s thit b ONT ............................................................................ 44 3.3.2 Cu trc thit b OLT s dng trn mng FTTx ti CMC TI ............... 46 3.3.2.1. Tng quan v sn phm 7342 ISAM FTTU ................................ 46 3.3.2.2 Tnh nng GPON ca 7342 ISAM FTTU .....................................46 3.3.2.3 Dch v ........................................................................................ 47 3.3.2.4 Giao din mng ............................................................................ 47 3.3.2.5 Cu trc thit b ISAM 7342 FTTU ............................................ 49 3.3.2.6 Cc khi chc nng ca thit b ................................................... 49 3.3.2.7. Hot ng qun l v bo tr ........................................................ 53 3.4 Cc dch v ang cung cp trn mng GPON CMCTI .................................57 3.4.1 FTTH/B ............................................................................................... 57 VI

3.4.2 Dch v VoIP ....................................................................................... 58 3.4.3 Dch v IPTV ....................................................................................... 58 3.4.4 Dch v truyn s liu VPN/MPLS ....................................................... 59 3.5 Kt lun chng............................................................................................... 59 CHNG 4 M PHNG MNG FTTX THEO CHUN GPON ................... 60 4.1 Gii thiu chng ............................................................................................ 60 4.2 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng mng quang .................................................. 61 4.2.1 T l li bit BER.................................................................................... 61 4.2.2 H s phm cht Q ................................................................................ 64 4.2.3 th mt ............................................................................................ 65 4.2.4 Mi quan h gia th mt v t l li bit BER ...................................67 4.3 Cc tham s c trng cho mng GPON .......................................................... 67 4.3.1 Bc sng hng xung 1490 nm, hng ln 1310 nm ........................ 67 4.3.2 Phng thc iu ch NRZ ...................................................................68 4.3.2.1 Chc nng c bn ca m ng dy............................................ 68 4.3.2.2 Ti sao li dng iu ch NRZ ...................................................... 69 4.4 M phng cc yu t nh hng n cht lng mng GPON ......................... 71 4.4.1 S kt ni ......................................................................................... 71 4.4.2 Cc tnh hung m phng .....................................................................73 4.4.2.1 Cc thng s thit lp chung ......................................................... 73 4.4.2.2 nh hng ca khong cch ........................................................ 74 4.4.2.3 nh hng ca h s chia ca Splitter .......................................... 77 4.4.2.4 nh hng ca tc bit .............................................................. 79 4.5 Kt lun chng............................................................................................... 80 CHNG 5 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI ....................... 81 TI LIU THAM KHO ................................................................................... 82 VII

Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V MNG FTTx


1.1 Gii thiu chng Chng ny cho ta ci nhn khi qut v s ra i, tnh hnh pht trin ca mng FTTx trn th gii v ti Vit Nam cng nh nhng ng dng thc tin ca mng FTTx. 1.2 Ngun gc s ra i ca mng FTTx Ngy cng nhiu dch v truy cp bng rng ra i m bng thng ca cc loi hnh dch v l rt ln. Bng 1.1 cho ta thy nhu cu v bng thng cho mt s loi hnh dch v nh vy. Bng 0.1 Yu cu bng thng i vi mt s loi hnh dch v Service Bandwidth (downstream)

Broadcast TV (MPEG 2) 2 - 6 Mbps HDTV (MPEG 4) High speed internet Video Conferencing Voice/Video Telephony VoD 6 - 12 Mbps 3 - 10 Mbps 300 - 570 Kbps 64 - 570 Kbps 2 - 6 Mbps

Tnh n thi im thng 9/2008 s thu bao bng rng nc ta vt 1,8 triu thu bao. So vi nm 2007 s lng thu bao tng thm khong 50%. Tc tng chm mt phn do nh hng ca suy thoi kinh t. Trong cc nm sau tc tng trng s tng ng v thm ch l nhanh hn bi nn kinh t n nh v pht trin. Biu Hnh 1.1 di y cho bit v tc tng trng thu bao Internet ti Vit Nam tnh t nm 2008 n nm 2012. Qua biu ny, ta c th thy th phn ca th trng Internet bng thng rng s tng dn so vi th phn Internet chung v s t mc ti a 10% th phn vo nm 2012.

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Hnh 1.1 D bo tng trng Internet ti Vit Nam (ngun CMC Telecom) Tc tng s lng ngi dng Internet, cng nh s lng thu bao quy i ti Vit Nam ang dn i vo n nh mc 10 30%. S lng ngi gia tng do tc ng ca hi nhp, pht trin v do tc ng ca cng ngh vi mc tiu ngy cng to iu kin thun li hn cho ngi s dng vi tc ngy mt cao. Trong s pht trin th mt phn l s chuyn i ca ngi s dng Internet t cng ngh c (dial up) sang cc cng ngh mi (c bit l ADSL). Minh chng l tc tng thu bao quy i kh n nh khong 30%/nm nhng tc tng thu bao bng rng trong sut my nm qua lun mc trn 200% nm. Nng lc kt ni ca cc ISP ra quc t c tc tng nhanh qua cc nm, mc trn 90% nm, iu chng t nhu cu gia tng c v cht lng cng nh s lng ngi s dng Internet. Mng Internet ng trc ca Vit Nam thng c thit k vi 3 port Internet t ti 3 min, c h thng cp bin v h thng cp ngm, chy ring nhm backup ln nhau khi c s c v ch yu vn kt ni vi 3 im chnh l Nht Bn, Hng Kng v Singapore thng qua ch yu h thng cp quang bin. c kt ni trung chuyn qua VNNIC v peering vi nhau gia cc ISP nhm tn dng ng truyn v lu lng trong nc.

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Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

R rng, vi yu cu bc thit ca th trng vin thng Vit Nam, cc ISP ang ra sc tng cng h tng vin thng mng ca mnh p ng nhu cu . Trn nn h tng mng nh vy c rt nhiu cng ngh truy nhp. Cc cng ngh trong mng truy nhp c th c chia thnh hai nhm chnh l: Cc cng ngh hu tuyn: xDSL (Digital Subscriber Line): ADSL, HDSL, VDSL.. qua ng cp ng. FTTx: (FTTH, FTTB, FTTC, FTTN..) truy nhp bng rng qua ng cp quang. Truy nhp bng rng qua ng in (Broadband over Power Line BPL hay Power Line Communications PLC). Cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn: Truy nhp qua v tinh. H thng truy nhp a im ni ht (LMDS Local Multipoint Distribution System). WiFi, WiMAX. 3G, HSPA. Cng ngh xDSL: tn dng h thng h tng cp in thoi bng ng c sn truyn ti d liu tc cao, xDSL tch bng thng trn ng in thoi thnh hai: mt phn nh dnh cho truyn m thoi, phn ln dnh cho truyn ti d liu tc cao. xDSL c nhiu bin th nh ADSL (Asymetric DSL), ADSL2, ADSL2+, VDSL (Very high bit-rate DSL), HDSL.. Cp truyn hnh: Truy nhp Internet tc cao qua ng truyn hnh cp l m hnh lai ghp HFC (Hybrid Fiber Coaxial), tn dng c s h tng cp quang v cp ng trc ca mng truyn hnh cp, cho php kt ni Internet vi tc download ti a ln ti 10Mbps v tc upload ln ti 2Mbps cao hn nhiu so vi tc ng ADSL (8 Mbps download, 600 Kbps upload). Mng cp CATV truyn thng ch truyn ti thng tin 1 chiu t nh cung cp ni dung chng trnh (cc knh TV) ti cc thu bao. s dng c Internet loi hnh thng tin hai chiu th cc nh cung cp truyn hnh cp cn phi u t nng cp thit b c

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kh nng truyn ti thng tin theo chiu ngc li t pha u cui khch hng. ng thi cn c cc kt ni ra Internet qua cc nh cung cp dch v th ba. iu ny l mt nhc im ca phng n ny v cn chi ph trin khai, duy tu v bo dng cao. WiFi: l cng ngh mng ni b khng dy (WLAN) da trn tiu chun IEEE 802.11. WiFi v ang c s dng rt rng ri cc ni cng cng. Tuy nhin Wifi khng thch hp l cng ngh truy nhp ca nh cung cp dch v v khong cch bao ph qu ngn (di 100m). Vi cng ngh Wi-Fi, cc trm u cui truy nhp theo im truy cp (Access point) trn c s ngu nhin. V th, trm xa im truy cp d b t kt ni hn so vi trm gn. iu ny hn ch vic trin khai nhng dch v cht lng cao nh IPTV, VoIP... WiMAX: l mt cng ngh truy cp khng dy bng rng do din n WiMAX (WiMAX Forum) xy dng v hng n cung cp cc dch v t c nh n di ng, n cho php truy cp bng rng v tuyn n u cui (last mile) nh mt phng thc thay th cho cp v DSL, c bit hu ch i vi cc vng khng trin khai c cng ngh DSL. WiMAX c th cung cp tc hng chc Mbps ti ngi s dng v trong khong cch hng chc km theo chun IEEE 802.16, tm hot ng c th ln ti 50 km i vi cc trm c nh, v 5 - 15km cho di ng. Tuy WiMAX c nhiu im u vit nh vy v c th cnh tranh vi cc xDSL cng cha p ng nhu cu bng thng c Gigabit ti ngi dng. Vic trin khai cng ngh ny cng c nhng kh khn nht nh. Mt khc gi c thit b u cui hin cn t, di tn m WiMAX s dng khng tng thch ti mi quc gia. Mt khc, qu bng tn c hn ch c th cp cho mt s nh khai thc. Ngoi ra WiMAX s dng sng v tuyn nn chu nh hng nhiu bi cc yu t mi trng. p ng c nhu cu cp thit cho th trng vin thng v c mt tc , loi hnh dch v , ngi ta ngh n mt cng ngh truy nhp mi FTTx.

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1.3 nh ngha FTTx (Fiber To The x) l mt kin trc mng trong si quang c ko t cc thit b chuyn mch ca nh cung cp dch v n cc thu bao. Trong , si quang c hoc khng c s dng trong tt c cc kt ni t nh cung cp n khch hng. x c hiu l mt k hiu i din cho cc loi hnh mng khc nhau nh FTTH, FTTC, FTTB, FTTN... Do n c th thay th c s h tng cp ng hin ti nh dy in thoi, cp ng trc. y l mt kin trc mng tng i mi v ang pht trin nhanh chng bng cch cung cp bng thng ln hn cho ngi dng. Hin nay, cng ngh cp quang c th cung cp ng truyn cn bng ln ti tc 100 Mbps. 1.4 Phn loi 1.4.1 Phn loi theo chiu di cp quang

Hnh 1.2 Phn loi mng FTTx theo chiu di cp quang Mt cch tng quan ta c th nhn thy r s phn loi h thng mng FTTx thng qua Hnh 1.2. Nh trong nh ngha ta c cc loi FTTH, FTTB, FTTC, FTTN im khc nhau ca cc loi hnh ny l do chiu di cp quang t thit b u cui ca ISP (OLT) n cc user. Nu t OLT n ONU (thit b u cui pha user) hon ton l cp quang th ngi ta gi l FTTH/FTTB.

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FTTH (Fiber To The Home): cp quang chy n tn nh thu bao. FTTB (Fiber To The Building): ging nh FTTH nhng y l ko n cc ta nh cao tng.

FTTC (Fiber To The Curb): cp quang n mt khu vc dn c. Lc t ONU n thu bao c th s dng cp ng. Trong m hnh ny, thit b u cui pha ngi s dng c b tr trong cc cabin trn ng ph, dy ni ti cc thu bao vn l cp ng. FTTC cho php san s gi thnh ca mt ONU cho mt s thu bao do n c th h thp c gi thnh lp t ban u. Ngoi ra cn c mt s loi hnh khc nh l FTTE (Fiber To The Exchange),

FTTN (Fiber To The Node) 1.4.2 Phn loi theo cu hnh Cu hnh Point to Point: l kt ni im im, c mt kt ni thng t nh cung cp dch v n khch hng, mi si quang s kt ni ti ch mt khch hng, nn cu hnh mng tng i n gin ng thi do bng thng khng b chia s, tc ng truyn c th ln rt cao. Qu trnh truyn dn trn cu trc P2P cng rt an ton do ton b qu trnh c thc hin ch trn mt ng truyn vt l, ch c cc u cui l pht v thu d liu, khng b ln vi cc khch hng khc. Tuy nhin, cu trc ny kh c th pht trin cho quy m rng bi gi thnh u t cho mt khch hng rt cao, h thng s tr ln rt cng knh, kh khn trong vn hnh v bo dng khi s lng khch hng tng ln. Cu hnh Point to Multipoints: kt ni im a im, mt kt ni t nh cung cp dch v n nhiu khch hng thng qua b chia splitter. Trong h thng ny mi ng quang i t nh cung cp dch v c chia s s dng chung cho mt s khch hng. S c mt ng quang i n mt nhm khch hng gn nhau v mt a l, ti y ng quang dng chung ny s c chia tch thnh cc ng quang ring bit i n tng khch hng. iu ny lm gim chi ph lp t ng cp quang v trnh cho h thng khi pht trin khi cng knh.

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1.5 u nhc im mng FTTx 1.5.1 u im Cng ngh FTTx s dng cp quang nn n c rt nhiu u im ca h thng quang ni chung. Dung lng ln: Cc si quang c kh nng truyn nhng lng ln thng tin. Vi cng ngh hin nay trn hai si quang c th truyn c ng thi 60.000 cuc m thoi. Mt cp si quang (c ng knh > 2cm) c th cha c khong 200 si quang, dung lng ng truyn ln ti 6.000.000 cuc m thoi. Tnh cch in: Cp si quang lm bng cht in mi thch hp khng cha vt dn in v c th cho php cch in hon ton cho nhiu ng dng. N c th loi b c nhiu gy bi cc dng in chy vng di t hay nhng trng hp nguy him gy bi s phng in trn cc ng dy thng tin nh st hay nhng trc trc v in. Tnh bo mt: Si quang cung cp bo mt thng tin cao. Mt si quang khng th b trch ly trm thng tin bng cc phng tin in thng thng nh s dn in trn b mt hay cm ng in t, v rt kh trch ly thng tin dng tn hiu quang. tin cy cao v d bo dng: Do khng chu nh hng ca hin tng fading v do c tui th cao nn yu cu v bo dng i vi h thng quang l t hn so vi cc h thng khc. Tnh linh hot: Cc h thng thng tin quang u kh dng cho hu ht cc dng thng tin s liu, thoi v video. Cc h thng ny u c th tng thch vi cc chun RS.232, RS422, V.35, Ethernet, E1/T1, E2/T2, E3/T3, SONET/SDH, thoi 2/4 dy. Tnh m rng: Cc h thng si quang c thit k thch hp c th d dng c m rng khi cn thit. Mt h thng dng cho tc s liu thp, v d E1/T1 (2,048 Mbps/1,544 Mbps) c th c nng cp tr thnh mt h thng tc s liu cao hn bng cch thay i cc thit b in t. H thng cp si quang c th vn c gi nguyn nh c.

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Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

S ti to tn hiu: Cng ngh ngy nay cho php thc hin nhng ng truyn thng bng cp quang di trn 70 km trc khi cn ti to tn hiu, khong cch ny cn c th tng ln ti 150 km nh s dng cc b khuch i laser. Ngoi nhng u im trn ca si quang ni chung, cng ngh FTTx cn c mt s u im khc. Vi cng ngh FTTH, nh cung cp dch v c th cung cp tc download ln n 10 Gbps, nhanh gp 200 ln so vi ADSL 2+. Tc truyn dn vi ADSL l khng cn bng, c tc ti ln lun nh hn tc ti xung. Cn FTTH cho php cn bng, tc ti ln v ti xung nh nhau v cho php ti a l 10 Gbps, c th phc v cng mt lc cho hng trm my tnh. Tc i Internet cam kt ti thiu ca FTTx 256 Kbps. Bng 1.2 So snh gia FTTx v ADSL Yu t so snh ADSL FTTx Cp quang

Mi trng truyn tn Cp ng hiu n nh

D b suy hao do in t, Khng b nh hng thi tit, chiu di cp

Bo mt

bo mt thp, d b bo mt cao, khng th nh cp tn hiu ng nh cp tn hiu trn dy ng truyn Cho php cn bng : Upload = download Tc ti a l 10 Gbps FTTx

Tc truyn dn (Upload v download )

Bt i xng : Download > Upload Tc ti a l 20 Mbps

Yu t so snh

ADSL

Kh nng p ng dch Khng ph hp v tc Rt ph hp v tc rt v bng rng : Hosting thp server ring, VPN, hi ngh truyn hnh cao v c th ty bin tc .

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1.5.2 Nhc im Mng quang ni chung v cng ngh FTTx ni ring c rt nhiu u im nhng khng trnh khi nhng nhc im. Mc d si quang rt r nhng chi ph cho lp t, bo dng, thit b u cui li ln. Hn th na, do thit b u cui cn kh t cho nn khng phi lc no h thng mng FTTx cng ph hp. i vi nhng ng dng thng thng, khng i hi bng thng ln nh lt Web, check mail th cp ng vn c tin dng. Do cng ngy ngi ta cng cn phi u t nghin cu gim cc chi ph . 1.6 ng dng ca FTTx Nhng tnh nng vt tri ca FTTx cho php s dng cc dch v thoi, truyn hnh, internet t mt nh cung cp duy nht vi mt ng dy thu bao duy nht. iu to nn s thun tin khng ch trong vic nh gn v thit b, ng dy, chi ph m iu quan trng l n mang li cht lng ng truyn tt nht. Cng ngh p ng iu c trin khai trn nn mng FTTx chnh l IPTV. IPTV (Internet Protocol TV) l dch v truyn hnh qua kt ni bng rng da trn giao thc Internet. y l mt trong cc dch v Triple - play m cc nh khai thc dch v vin thng ang gii thiu trn phm vi ton th gii. Hiu mt cch n gin, Triple - play l mt loi hnh dch v tch hp 3 trong 1: dch v thoi, d liu v video c tch hp trn nn IP (tin thn l t h tng truyn hnh cp). IPTV v ang pht trin vi tc rt nhanh. Theo Telecom Asia, s thu bao IPTV ring khu vc chu - Thi Bnh Dng s gia tng 75% mi nm, t 34,9 triu thu bao v doanh thu 7 t USD vo nm 2011. Ti Vit Nam, IPTV tr nn kh gn gi i vi ngi s dng Internet ti Vit Nam. Cc nh cung cp nh FPT, VNPT, SPT, VTC a IPTV, VoD... ra th trng nhng phm vi v quy m nh. Cc loi hnh dch v i hi tc truyn cao, bo mt tt nh truyn hnh hi ngh, Hosting server ring, VPN cng c cc nh cung cp dch v tp trugn khai thc. Ngoi ra cn rt nhiu dch v khc nh check mail, lt web, chat, game online, xem phim, nghe nhc trc tuyn, hc trc tuyn

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1.7 Tnh hnh pht trin FTTx trn th gii v ti Vit Nam 1.7.1 Tnh hnh FTTx trn th gii Th trng Trung Quc: Trung Quc l th trng bng rng ln nht Chu , hin c khong 69,1 triu thu bao bng rng tnh n thng 9/2008, trong c 6 triu thu bao FTTH/B. Cng ngh truy cp DSL vn thng lnh 90,9% th trng (China Telecom chim 40 triu thu bao, China Netcom chim 25 triu thu bao), cng ngh cp chim 0,4%, FTTH/B chim n 8,7%. Cc nh cung cp dch v bng thng rng Trung Quc tp trung vo trin khai FTTH/B l chnh v theo xu hng cng ngh PON, c th l EPON v GPON. IPTV l yu t tc ng quan trng nht pht trin FTTx ti Trung Quc. Trung Quc c xu hng truy cp mng tc cao vi cht lng n nh v truyn dn i xng. Thng tin th trng Hn quc

Hnh 1.3 : Tc pht trin FTTH ti Hn Quc Mc tiu truy cp bng rng ca Hn Quc: cung cp truy cp tng th bng rng, cc dch v a phng tin mi ni, mi lc. c 10 triu thu bao tc 50 100 Mbps, v 10 triu thu bao khng dy tc thp hn 1Mbps vo nm 2010 ti Hn Quc.

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Thng tin th trng Nht Bn Nht Bn xy dng d n 5 nm vi mc tiu: 38 triu thu bao aDSL, 18 triu thu bao FTTH , gi bng rng gim trn 60%, 97% c quan chnh ph lm vic qua Internet, kt ni bng rng n c nng thn v ngi gi (trn 65 tui). Cng ty NTT dn u v FTTH Nht u t 5 ngn t Yn (47 t USD) tnh n nm 2010 nng cp FTTH cho cc ng dn c ca 30 triu thu bao. NTT v Tepco a gi dch v ln n 1Gbps cho php xem TV trn FTTH.

Hnh 1.4 Pht trin thu bao FTTH ti Nht Bn Ti khu vc chu u: mng FTTx cng chng t tim nng pht trin qua nhng con s ng ch . Ti M, FTTH l gii php duy nht i vi cc cng ty cung cp dch v ni ht ti M. Tnh n cui qu 2 nm 2008, cng ty Verzon c ti 2 triu thu bao FTTH. Cui qu 3 nm 2008, cng ty Verizon vt qua con s 8,5 triu thu bao FTTH. n nm 2010, cng ty ny t c s lng l 18 triu thu bao FTTH. Qua nhng s liu phn tch trn, c th thy rng th trng FTTx ni chung v FTTH ni ring l y tim nng. Khng ch nhng nc pht trin nh Nht Bn, m c nhng nc ang pht trin khc nhu cu ng truyn tc cao nh FTTH cng l rt ln. Ti Vit Nam, th trng FTTx cng v cng si ng.

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1.7.2.Tnh hnh FTTx ti Vit Nam Hin nay, Vit Nam c mt s nh cung cp dch v FTTH sau : Thng 8/2006 FPT Telecom chnh thc tr thnh n v u tin cung cp loi hnh dch v tin tin ny. Ngy 1/5/2009, VNPT cung cp dch v Internet FTTH trn cp quang vi tc cao n 20Mbps/20Mbps. Cc chi nhnh ca VNPT ti cc tnh thnh cng pht trin mt cch rm r. Ngy 15/05/2009, Viettel chnh thc trin khai cung cp dch v truy nhp Internet FTTH (Fiber To The Home) Cp quang siu tc nhm phc v khch hng doanh nghip m dch v truy cp Internet hin ti (ADSL v Leased Line) cha p ng c v tc v chi ph s dng. Ngy 10/4/2010, CMCTI chnh thc khai trng dch v FTTH. y l cng ty u tin ti Vit Nam trin khai loi hnh FTTH da trn chun GPON l chun tin tin nht hin nay. Nhng thng k trn cho thy cc nh cung cp dch v Internet hng u Vit Nam v ang ra sc xy dng v trin khai h thng mng cho cng ngh FTTx. Mc d chi ph lp t ban u cn cao nhng dch v FTTH s dn ph bin hn m trc ht l hng n mt s i tng khch hng nh cc doanh nghip, cng ty, cc qun game 1.8 Kt lun chng Nhng phn tch trong Chng 1 a ra ci nhn tng quan v mng FTTx. l mt trong nhng th trng v cng tim nng. N em n cht lng tt hn i vi khng ch loi hnh dch v truyn thng nh thoi, data m cn c nhng dch v mi nh Triple-play. tm hiu su hn v kin trc mng ny chng ta s nghin cu tip Chng 2.

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CHNG 2 MNG QUANG TH NG VI CHUN GPON


2.1 Gii thiu chng FTTx c th s dng mng quang ch ng Active Optical Network (AON) hoc mng quang th ng Passive Optical Network (PON) trin khai mng li. Hai mng ny c phn bit vi nhau bi kin trc c hay khng c s tham gia ca cc thnh phn tch cc trong tuyn truyn t tng i nh cung cp (CO) ti ngi s dng. Trong chng ny, chng ta s xem xt qua v kin trc mng ch ng AON v nghin cu ch yu mng quang th ng PON vi chun GPON. 2.2 Mng quang ch ng AON Mng quang ch ng s dng cc thit b cn ngun in nui phn tch d liu nh mt chuyn mch, router hoc multiplexer. D liu t pha nh cung cp ca khch hng no s ch c chuyn n khch hng v d liu t pha khch hng s trnh c xung t khi truyn trn ng vt l chung bng vic s dng b m ca cc thit b ch ng. Mi t chuyn mch c th qun l ti 1.000 khch hng, thng thng l 400-500 khch hng. Cc thit b chuyn mch ny thc hin chuyn mch v nh tuyn da vo lp 2 v lp 3. Mt nhc im rt ln ca mng quang ch ng chnh l thit b chuyn mch. Vi cng ngh hin ti, thit b chuyn mch bt buc phi chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in phn tch thng tin ri tip tc chuyn ngc li truyn i, iu ny s lm gim tc truyn dn ti a c th trong h thng FTTX. Ngoi ra do y l nhng chuyn mch c tc cao nn cc thit b ny c chi ph u t ln, khng ph hp vi vic trin khai i tr cho mng truy cp. Hnh 2.1 di y m t kin trc mng quang ch ng AON. Vi m hnh cp quang chy n tng h gia nh, mt thu bao ca mng quang ch ng hnh cy cch trung tm iu khin t xa ti 20 km s c cp mt ng dy quang ring p ng cho bng thng 2 chiu. Cu trc mng ny tng t nh cu trc ca mng cp ng hin nay v d dng cho cc nh cung cp dch v c sn c s h tng. Bi v c im quan trng ca cc h thng vin thng l cc thit b

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u cui thay i rt nhanh chng nhng nhng c s h tng mng th phi tn ti t 15 n 20 nm. Do la chn gii php no l iu rt quan trng i vi cc nh cung cp dch v cng nh nhng k s thit k h thng mng.

Hnh 2.1 Kin trc mng quang ch ng 2.3 Mng quang th ng PON 2.3.1 M hnh mng quang th ng

Hnh 2.2 M hnh mng quang th ng PON

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Cu trc mng PON c bn gm cc thnh phn l OLT, splitter quang, ONU/ONT. OLT chnh l thit b u cui pha nh sn xut, c nhim v kt ni tt c cc loi dch v li v truyn tn hiu thng qua si cp quang. Tn hiu t OLT s n cc splitter quang. Splitter quang c s dng phn chia bng thng t mt si duy nht n 64 ngi s dng (c th l 32 hoc 16, iu ph thuc vo h s chia ca splitter) trn mt khong cch ti a l 20 km. thu c tn hiu t OLT, ti pha ngi s dng cn c cc ONU/ONT. Cc thit b ny c nhim v l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang. S khc bit r nht gia ONU v ONT l ONU khng cn cp ngun cn ONT cn phi cp ngun v ch c ONU mi c kh nng h tr dch v IPTV. Trong s trn, cc thnh phn chnh ca mt mng PON l: OLT (Optical Line Terminal): y l thit b kt cui knh quang t ti

Center Office. N l thnh phn quan trng nht trong h thng FTTH, cung cp cc giao din truy nhp PON cho thit b ONU pha ngi s dng v cc giao din khc cho tn hiu pha uplink. ONU (Optical Network Unit): ONU l thit b lp t ti pha khch hng.

N l im cui ca mng quang FTTH. ONU c nhim v chuyn tn hiu quang t giao din PON thnh cc chun tn hiu cho cc thit b mng, tn hiu truyn hnh, tn hiu thoi c s dng ti thu bao. ONT (Optical Network Terminal): y l thit b u cui pha ngi s

dng, l im cui cng ca ODN. OND (Optical Network Distribution): H thng phn phi cp quang tnh t

sau OLT n ONU/ONT. C th, h thng phn phi quang OND li bao gm cc thnh phn sau y: mng xng quang, dy nhy quang, hp phi quang ODF, splitter (b chia/ghp quang). y b chia/ghp quang chnh l b chia cng sut quang (Optical Power Splitter): dng chia mt tn hiu quang u vo thnh nhiu tn hiu u ra. Cc h s chia thng thng l 1:4, 1:8 y l b chia th ng tc l khng phi cp ngun. Suy hao trong b chia ph thuc vo h s chia. H s chia cng ln th

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suy hao cng ln. Vi h s chia l 1:2 th suy hao khong 3 dB, vi h s chia l 1:32 th suy hao ti thiu l 15dB. Suy hao ny chnh l suy hao xen to ra bi s cha hon ho trong qu trnh x l.

Hnh 2.3 B chia cng sut quang Hnh 2.3 cho bit nguyn l chung ca b chia cng sut quang. Gi s ti u vo c 3 bc sng 1 hng ln, 2, 3 hng xung, vi b chia cng sut c h s chia l 1:2 th u ra c 2 ca ra, mt ca c bc sng vo l 2v bc sng ra l 1, mt ca khc li c bc sng vo l 3v bc sng ra l 1.

Hnh 2.4 Kin trc mng quang th ng

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Hnh 2.4 a ra nhng m hnh mm do, ph hp vi nhu cu pht trin ca thu bao cng nh i hi ngy cng tng v bng thng. Bng cch s dng b ghp 1:2 v cc b chia 1:N, PON c th trin khai theo bt c cu hnh no theo Hnh 2.4. PON c th thu gn li thnh cc vng ring kp, hnh cy hay mt nhnh ca cy. Cc tuyn truyn dn trong PON u c thc hin gia OLT v ONU. 2.3.2 Cc chun mng PON Cc chun mng PON c th chia thnh 2 nhm: nhm 1 bao gm cc chun theo phng thc ghp knh TDM PON nh l APON, BPON (Broadband PON), EPON (Ethernet PON), GPON (Gigabit PON); nhm 2 bao gm chun theo cc phng thc truy nhp khc nh WDM-PON (Wavelength Division Multiplexing PON) v CDMA-PON (Code Division Multiple Access PON). 2.3.2.1 APON y l mng PON truyn theo kiu khng ng b. APON do chun G.983 ca ITU-T quy nh. y cng l chun mng PON u tin trn th gii. 2.3.2.2 BPON Mng quang th ng bng rng BPON c chun ha trong chui cc khuyn ngh G.938. Cc khuyn ngh ny a ra cc tiu chun v cc khi chc nng ONT v OLT, khun dng v tc khung ca lung d liu hng ln v hng xung, cc giao tip vt l, giao tip qun l v iu khin ONT v DBA.

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Hnh 2.5 Kin trc mng BPON Trong mng BPON, d liu c ng khung theo cu trc ca cc t bo ATM. Mt khung hng xung c tc 155Mbit/s hoc 622 Mbit/s v mt t bo qun l vn hnh bo dng lp vt l OAM (PLOAM Physical layer Operation Administration and Maintenance) c chn vo c mi 28 t bo trong knh. PLOAM c mt bt nhn dng cc t bo PLOAM. Ngoi ra cc t bo PLOAM c kh nng lp trnh c v cha thng tin nh l bng thng hng ln v cc bn tin OAM. Cn c vo cc thng tin v m s nhn dng knh o v nhn dng ng o (VPI/VCI) trong cu trc ATM, cc ONT nhn bit v tch d liu ng xung ca mnh. Mi mt knh (time slot) gm c mt t bo ATM/PLOAM v 24 bit t mo u. T mo u mang thng tin v thi gian bo v (guard time), mo u cho php ng b v khi phc tn hiu ti OLT, v thng tin nhn dng im kt thc ca t mo u. Chiu di ca t mo u v cc thng tin cha trong c lp trnh bi OLT. Cc ONT thc hin gi cc t bo PLOAM khi chng nhn c yu cu t OLT. BPON s dng giao thc DBA cho php OLT nhn bit lng bng thng cn thit cp cho cc ONT. OLT c th gim hoc tng bng thng cho cc ONT da vo gi cc t bo ATM ri hoc lm y tt c hng ln bi d liu ca ONT. OLT dng nh k vic truyn hng ln do vy n c kh nng mi bt k ONT mi no tham gia vo hot ng h thng. Cc ONT mi pht mt bn tin phc hi trong ca s ny vi thi gian tr ngu nhin trnh xung t khi m c nhiu ONT mi mun tham gia. OLT xc nh khong cch ti mi ONT mi bng vic gi ti ONT mt bn tin o c ly v xc nh thi gian bao lu thu c bn tin phc p. Sau OLT gi ti ONT mt gi tr tr, gi tr ny c s dng xc nh thi gian bo v ng vi cc ONT. 2.3.2.3 EPON EPON c chun ha bi IEEE 802.3. Trong EPON d liu hng xung c ng khung theo khun dng Ethernet. Cc khung EPON c cu trc tng t nh cc lin kt Gigabit Ethernet im ti im ngoi tr t mo u v thng tin

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xc nh im bt u ca khung c thay i mang trng nhn dng knh logic (LLID Link logic ID) nhm xc nh duy nht mt ONU MAC.

Hnh 2.6 Kin trc mng EPON Trong hng ln, cc ONU pht cc khung Ethernet trong cc khe thi gian c phn b. ONU s dng giao thc iu khin a im PDU (MPCPDU Multi Point Control Protocol Data Unit) gi cc bn tin Report yu cu bng thng, trong khi OLT gi bn tin Gate cp pht bng thng cho cc ONU. Cc bn tin Gate bao gm thng tin v thi gian bt u v khong thi gian cho php truyn d liu i vi ONU. OLT cng nh k gi cc bn tin Gate ti cc ONU hi xem chng c yu cu bng thng hay khng. Cc ONU cng c th gi Report cng vi d liu c pht trong hng ln. Ngoi ra, giao thc DBA cng c th c s dng trong EPON thc hin c ch iu khin phn b bng thng. Do khng c cu trc khung thng nht i vi hng xung v hng ln, do vy trong cu trc ca EPON, cc khe thi gian v giao thc xc nh c ly l khc so vi BPON v GPON. OLT v cc ONU duy tr cc b m cc b ring v tng thm 1 sau mi 16ns. Tc truyn d liu EPON c th t ti 1Gbit/s.

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2.3.2.4 GPON

Hnh 2.7 Kin trc mng GPON GPON c xy dng da trn BPON v EPON. Mc d GPON h tr truyn ti tin ATM, nhng n cng a vo mt c ch thch nghi ti tin mi m c ti u ha cho truyn ti cc khung Ethernet c gi l phng thc ng gi GPON (G-PON Encapsulation Method - GEM). GEM l phng thc da trn th tc ng khung chung trong khuyn ngh G.701 ngoi tr vic GEM ti u ha t mo u phc v cho ng dng ca PON, cho php sp xp cc d liu Ethernet vo ti tin GEM v h tr sp xp TDM. GPON s dng cu trc khung GTC (GPON Transmission Conversion) cho c hai hng xung v hng ln. Khung hng xung bt u vi mt t mo u PLOAM, tip sau l vng ti tin GEM v/hoc cc t bo ATM. PLOAM gm c thng tin cu trc khung v sp t bng thng cho ONT gi d liu trong khung hng ln tip theo. Khung hng ln bao gm cc nhm khung gi t cc ONT. Mi mt nhm c bt u vi t mo u lp vt l m c chc nng tng t trong BPON, nhng cng bao hm tng hp cc yu cu bng thng ca cc ONT.

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2.3.3 u nhc im mng PON 2.3.3.1 u im S dng cc thit b th ng nn khng cn cp ngun, loi b hon ton s cn thit ca ngun ngoi. Dn ti gi thnh r. Gim chi ph bo dng v vn hnh. Tc down load v up load cao. Gim chi ph si quang v gim chi ph cc thit b cho php nhiu ngi dng chia s chung mt si. 2.3.3.2 Nhc im Gii hn bng thng cho cc thu bao v splitter chia u bng thng Gii hn vng ph sng: ti a l 20 km, ph thuc vo s lng splitter (cng nhiu splitter th khong cch truyn cng gim) Khi c OLT mi cn lp t th gi thnh i vi mi thu bao c kt ni n OLT s tng ln cho n khi cc port ca OLT lp y 2.3.4 So snh mng PON v AON C rt nhiu yu t so snh u im v nhc im ca hai k thut PON v AON. Tuy nhin, y chng ta s xem xt mt s thng s quan trng nh bng thng, kh nng iu khin lung, khong cch l nhng thng s v k thut. Ngoi ra, 2 ch tiu rt quan trng khi ngi ta nh gi mc kh thi ca mt d n chnh l vn u t cho thit b v kinh ph cho khai thc, vn hnh v bo tr h thng. 2.3.4.1 V bng thng v lu lng Ngy cng c nhiu dch v vin thng yu cu tc cao nh IPTV, VOD, Conference meeting Do bng thng l mt vn v cng quan trng. Cc chun ca mng PON c nghin cu rng ri cho php bng thng cp pht n cc port ti OLT l ging nhau. V iu chnh bng thng v lu lng ca mt thu bao th rt kh v n ph thuc vo cu trc ca mng PON. iu ny c th c ci tin nu cu trc mng PON c cu hnh d phng n +1.

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Mng AON: vi mi mt thu bao s dng ring mt ng cp quang th bng thng c th nm trong khong t 100Mbps n 1Gbps (i vi h gia nh hoc mt cng ty). Vic iu chnh bng thng kh d dng. Khi mt node truy cp c cu to t cc module th ngi ta c th nng cp c bng thng cho mt thu bao no bng cch can thip vo phn cng. 2.3.4.2 V tnh kinh t Vn u t cho thit b ca cc hng: Bng 2.1 So snh AON v PON v gi thnh thit b AON PON Gi thnh thit b u cui Thp Cao AON u th hn Gi thnh

Bi v cc chun Ethernet Cu trc mng khng ging nhng c s dng nn thit b u mng truyn thng nn phi xy cui ti pha ngi s dng dng cc chun mi nn thit b tng i r. u cui cng kh khn hn trong vic nghin cu v ch to.

Gi thnh cc thnh phn cu thnh nn mng (cc thit b ch ng) Cao Thp PON chim u th

Mt thu bao cn c mt port Bi v mt port trn OLT c th laser ti node truy cp nn mt cung cp cho nhiu thu bao nn ng quang c chia ra lm khi s lng thu bao tng ln nhiu kt ni th cng sut ca ngi ta c th s dng cc splitter cc thit b cng phi tng ln.

Gi thnh cc thnh phn mng (cc thit b th ng v cu trc h tng) Cao Thp PON u th hn

S lng cc giao din quang V mi mt ngun laser trn OLT trn cc node truy cp kh ln. s chia s cho nhiu thu bao.

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Kinh ph cho khai thc vn hnh v bo tr h thng : Bng 2.2 So snh AON v PON v chi ph vn hnh v bo tr h thng AON PON Ngun in tiu th Ln Nh Chi ph bo dng Mi mt node truy cp yu Trong mt cabinet t ngoi PON tt hn cu mt ngun in ring. Do tri, splitter gn nh khng cn v c t thit b kh bo dng v chi ph bo dng v cng khng cn th ng hn bo dng cao. ngun ngoi cung cp cho trong cu hnh thit b ny. mng. PON tt hn nh gi

Gi thnh cc thnh phn mng (cc thit b th ng v cu trc h tng) Cao Thp PON u th hn

Bi v s lng cc giao din V mi mt ngun laser trn quang trn cc node truy cp OLT s chia s cho nhiu thu l kh ln. bao.

Tm li, mi cu hnh mng u c nhng u im ring ca n. Ty vo kh nng ti chnh ca tng nh cung cp dch v cng nh cc iu kin khc m la chn mng PON hay l AON. Tuy nhin vi nhng u im c bit, mng PON ang dn chim lnh th trng bng rng. 2.4 Cng ngh GPON (Gigabit PON) 2.4.1 Gii thiu B khuyn ngh G.984 ca ITU a ra tiu chun cho mng PON tc gigabit (GPON) l phin bn mi nht i vi cng ngh mng PON. Mng GPON c dung lng mc gigabit cho php cung cp cc ng dng video, truy nhp internet tc cao, multimedia, v cc dch v bng thng rng. Tiu chun mi ny a ra kh nng x l IP v Ethernet hiu qu hn.

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H thng GPON thng thng gm mt thit b kt cui ng dy OLT (Optical Line Termination) v thit b kt cui mng ONU (Optical Network Unit) hay ONT (Optical Network Termination) c ni vi nhau qua mng phn phi quang ODN (Optical Distribution Network). Quan h gia OLT v ONU l quan h mt-nhiu, mt OLT s kt ni vi nhiu ONU. 2.4.2 Kin trc mng GPON Hnh 2.8 di m t cu trc h thng GPON bao gm OLT, cc ONU, mt b chia quang v cc si quang. Si quang c kt ni vi cc nhnh OLT ti b chia quang ra 64 si khc v cc si phn nhnh c kt ni vi ONU.

Hnh 2.8 : Kin trc mng GPON Trong : OLT (Optical Line Terminal) : thit b kt ni cp quang tch cc lp t ti pha nh cung cp dch v, thng c t ti cc trm i. ONT (Optical Network Terminal): thit b kt ni OLT thng qua mng phn phi quang (ODN) dng cho trng hp kt ni quang ti nh thu bao (FTTH) ONU (Optical Network Unit): thit b kn ni OLT thng qua mng phn phi quang (ODN) dung cho trng hp kt ni quang ti buiding hoc ti cc va h, cabin (FTTB, FTTC, FTTN). B chia/ ghp quang th ng (Splitter): dng chia/ghp th ng tn hiu quang t nh cung cp dch v n khch hng v ngc li gip tn dng hiu qu

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si quang vt l. Splitter thng c t ti cc im phn phi quang (DP) v cc im truy nhp quang (AP). B chia/ghp quang c hai loi, mt t ti nh trm vin thng, s dng cc t kiu indoor, loi kia s l loi thit b c bc kn c th m ra khi cn thit v t ti cc im mng xng. FDC: Fiber Distribution Cabinet : t phi quang FDB - Fiber Distribution Box: Hp phn phi quang loi nh. 2.4.2.1 Kt cui ng quang OLT OLT c kt ni ti mng chuyn mch thng qua cc giao din c chun ha. pha phn tn, OLT a ra giao din truy nhp quang tng ng vi cc chun GPON nh tc bit, qu cng sut, jitter OLT bao gm ba phn chnh: Chc nng giao din port dch v, chc nng kt ni cho v giao din mng phn tn quang.

Hnh 2.9 : Cc khi chc nng trong OLT Pon core shell : khi ny gm hai phn, phn giao din ODN v chc nng PON TC. Chc nng PON TC bao gm to khung, iu khin truy cp phng tin, OAM, DBA, v qun l ONU. Mi PON TC c th la chn hot ng theo mt ch ATM, GEM hoc c hai. Cross-connect shell: cung cp ng truyn gia PON core shell v Service shell. OLT cung cp chc nng kt ni cho tng ng vi cc ch c la chn (ATM, GEM hoc c hai).

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Service shell: phn ny h tr chuyn i gia cc giao din dch v v giao din khung TC ca phn PON. 2.4.2.2 Thit b u cui mng ONU/ONT Hu ht cc khi chc nng ca ONU/ONT tng t nh cc khi chc nng ca OLT. Do ONU hot ng vi mt giao din PON (hoc ti a 2 giao din khi hot ng ch bo v), chc nng u ni cho (cross-connect function) c th c b qua. Thay vo l chc nng ghp v tch knh dch v (MUX v DMUX) x l lu lng. Cu hnh tiu biu ca ONU c th hin trong Hnh 2.10. S cc khi chc nng ONU. Mi PON TC s la chn mt ch truyn dn ATM, GEM hoc c hai.

Hnh 2.10 : Cc khi chc nng ca ONU 2.4.2.3 Mng phn phi quang ODN Mng phn phi quang kt ni gia mt OLT vi mt hoc nhiu ONU s dng thit b tch/ghp quang v mng cp thu bao. B tch/ghp quang: L thit b th ng chia tn hiu quang t mt si truyn i trn nhiu si v ngc li, kt hp cc tn hiu quang t nhiu si thnh tn hiu trn mt si. Dng n gin nht l b ghp quang bao gm hai si dnh vo nhau. Tn hiu nhn c bt k u no cng chia lm hai. Cc b tch/ghp NxN c ch to bng cch ghp nhiu b 2x2 vi nhau hoc s dng cng ngh ng dn sng. Nguyn Nh Hu Page 28

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Hnh 2.11 : Cc b ghp 8x8 c to ra t cc b 2x2 Cc b tch ghp c c trng bi cc tham s: Suy hao chia: l t l gia cng sut u ra v cng sut u vo ca b ghp, tnh theo Db. Vi mt b 2x2 l tng, gi tr ny l 3dB. Hnh trn biu din hai m hnh ca b 8x8 da trn cc b 2x2. Trong m Hnh 2.11 a, ch c 1/16 cng sut u c a ti tng u ra. Hnh 2.11 b biu din m hnh thit k hiu qu hn, mi u ra nhn c 1/8 cng sut u vo. Suy hao ghp: y l cng sut b tn hao do qu trnh sn xut, gi tr ny thng thng khong 0.1 dB n 1dB. Thng thng cc b tch/ghp ch ch to c mt u vo hoc mt u ra. B c mt u vo gi l b chia (tch), b c mt u ra gi l b ghp. Tuy nhin c nhng b 2x2 c ch to khng i xng (vi t s chia 5/95 hoc 10/90). 2.4.3 Cc c tnh c bn ca GPON 2.4.3.1 Tc bit GPON hng ti tc truyn dn ln hn hoc bng 1.2 Gbit/s. GPON nh ngha 7 dng tc bit nh sau: ng ln/ xung: 155 Mbit/s/1.2 Gbit/s; 622 Mbit/s/1.2 Gbit/s; 1.2 Gbit/s/1.2 Gbit/s; 155 Mbit/s/2.4 Gbit/s; 622 Mbit/s/2.4 Gbit/s; 1.2 Gbit/s/2.4 Gbit/s; 2.4 Gbit/s/2.4 Gbit/s. 2.4.3.2 Khong cch Khong cch logic: l khong cch ln nht gia ONU/ONT v OLT ngoi tr khong vt l. Trong mng GPON, khong cch logic ln nht l 60 km.

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Khong cch vt l: l khong cch vt l ln nht gia ONU/ONT v OLT. Trong mng GPON, c hai ty chn cho khong cch vt l v 10 km v 20 km. i vi vn tc truyn ln nht l 1.25 Gbit/s th khong cch vt l l 10 km. 2.4.3.3 T l chia i vi nh khai thc mng th t l chia cng ln cng tt. Tuy nhin t l chia ln th i hi cng sut quang pht cao hn h tr khong cch vt l ln hn. T l chia 1:64 l t l l tng cho lp vt l vi cng ngh hin nay. Tuy nhin trong cc bc pht trin tip theo th t l 1:128 c th c s dng. 2.4.4 Cu trc phn lp ca mng quang GPON Cu trc phn lp ca mng GPON c cho trong Bng 2.3:

Phn lp tng thch hi t truyn dn Lp hi t truyn dn (TC) (Transmission convergence) Phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing sub- layer) Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l (Physical Media Dependence) (TC adaption sub- layer).

Bng 2.3 Cu trc phn lp mng GPON 2.4.4.1 Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD Lp ph thuc phng tin vt l (Physical Media Dependence) qun l cc thng tin v tc , phng tin vt l v phng thc truyn cng nh m ha ng dy v bc sng hot ng. Tc tn hiu: Tc ng truyn l cc tc bi s ca 8 kHz. H thng c chun ha s c cc tc (ng xung/ng ln) nh sau: Nguyn Nh Hu Page 30

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1244.16 Mbit/s/155.52 Mbit/s, 1244.16 Mbit/s/1244.16 Mbit/s, 2488.32 Mbit/s/622.08 Mbit/s, 2488.32 Mbit/s/2488.32 Mbit/s.

1244.16 Mbit/s/622.08 Mbit/s, 2488.32 Mbit/s/155.52 Mbit/s, 2488.32 Mbit/s/1244.16 Mbit/s,

Cc thng s ny tng ng vi vi cc thng s trong mng quang t c t l li bit BER 1 1010 trong trng hp iu kin suy hao v tn sc ng truyn ln nht do nh hng bi mi trng v yu t thi gian. Phng tin vt l v phng thc truyn Tn hiu c truyn c hng ln v hng xung bng phng tin truyn dn. Vic truyn dn song hng c thc hin bng cch ghp knh theo bc sng WDM truyn trn mt si quang hoc truyn n hng trn hai si quang. Tc bit Tc ng xung: Tc bit tn hiu t OLT ti ONU l 1244.16 hoc 2488.32 Mbit/s. Khi OLT v u xa ang hot ng tc danh nh (ng ln/ ng xung) ca n th tc ny c theo di bi mt ng h lp 1 vi chnh xc 1 1011. Khi u xa hot ng ch t do, tc ca tn hiu ng xung c theo di bi ng h lp 3 vi chnh xc 4.6 106. Khi OLT hot ng ch t do, tc ca tn hiu ng xung c theo di bi ng h lp 3 vi chnh xc 3.2 105. Tc ng ln: Tc bit tn hiu t ONU ti OLT l 155.52, 622.08, 1244.16 hoc 2488.32 Mbit/s. Khi ang trng thi hot ng v c cp quyn, ONU s pht tn hiu vi chnh xc bng chnh xc ca tn hiu thu c ng xung. ONU s khng pht tn hiu khi khng ang trng thi hot ng hoc khng c cp quyn. M ha ng dy M ha ng ln v ng xung s dng m NRZ. Phng thc ngu nhin ha khng c nh ngha trong lp ph thuc vt l. Quy nh s dng

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mc logic quang l: pht mc cao cho bit 1, pht mc thp cho bit 0 Bc sng hot ng ng xung: Di bc sng hot ng cho ng xung trong h thng s dng mt si quang l 1480-1500 nm. Di bc sng hot ng cho ng xung trong h thng s dng hai si quang l 1260-1360 nm. ng ln: Di bc sng hot ng cho ng ln l 1260-1360 nm. 2.4.4.2 Lp hi t truyn dn GTC Lp GTC bao gm hai phn lp: phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing sub-layer) v phn lp tng tch hi t truyn dn (TC adaption sub-layer). Trong Hnh 2.12, phn ATM, GEM, OAM v PLOAM trong phn lp ng khung GTC c phn bit theo v tr trong mt khung tn hiu GTC. Ch c phn OAM mang thng tin vn hnh, qun l v bo dng c kt cui ti phn lp ng khung GTC ly cc thng tin iu khin cho phn lp ny v thng tin trong phn OAM c gn trc tip vo tiu ca khung GTC. Thng tin vn hnh, qun l v bo dng lp vt l PLOAM (Physical layer Operation Administration and Maintenance) c x l ti khi PLOAM trong phn lp ny. Cc gi tin dch v SDU (Service Data Unit) trong phn ATM v GEM c chuyn thnh t gi tin giao thc PDU (Protocol Data Unit) ca phn ATM v GEM ti mi phn lp thch ng hi t tng ng. Ngoi ra cc PDU cn bao gm d liu knh OMCI, c xem xt phn lp hi t ny v c trao i vi thc th giao din iu khin v qun l ONU (OMCI-ONU Management and Control Interface). Khi iu khin cp pht bng tn ng (DBA control) l khi chc nng chung, c trch nhim cp pht bng tn ng cho ton b cc ONU.

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Hnh 2.12 Ngn xp giao thc h thng GTC Trong lp hi t GTC, OLT v ONU khng cn thit phi c c 2 ch h tr giao thc ATM hay GEM. Vic nhn dng ch no ang c yu cu ngay khi ci t h thng. ONU thng bo ch lm vic ATM hay GEM thng qua bn tin Serial_Number. Nu OLT c th giao tip vi mt trong s cc ch m ONU a ra th n s tin hnh thit lp knh giao din iu khin v qun l ONU (OMCI) v thit b ONU s xut hin trong mng. Nu OLT khng h tr ch hot ng m ONU a ra th ONU s c xp vo hng i nhng s c thng bo khng tng thch vi h thng ang hot ng. OAM v PLOAM: qun l cc chc nng ph thuc phng tin vt l PMD v cc lp GTC. OMCI: cung cp h thng qun l ng b cc lp cao hn (lp dch v) Knh PLOAM bao gm cc thng tin c dnh ring ch trong khung GTC. Knh ny c dng cho tt c cc thng tin qun l GTC v PMD khc khng c gi qua knh OAM. Knh OMCI c dng qun l cc lp dch v nm trn lp GTC. GTC cung cp 2 la chn v giao din truyn ti cho lu lng qun l ny l Nguyn Nh Hu Page 33

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ATM v GEM. Chc nng GTC cung cp phng tin cu hnh cc knh ty chn ny sao cho p ng c kh nng ca thit b bao gm nhn dng lung giao thc truyn ti (VPI/VCI hoc Port-ID). 2.4.4.2.1 Cc chc nng chnh h thng GTC Hai chc nng chnh ca lp hi t truyn dn mng GPON (GTC) chnh l iu khin truy nhp phng tin v ng k ONU. iu khin truy nhp phng tin (Media access control flow) : Lp GTC thc hin iu khin truy nhp cho lu lng ng ln. V c bn cc khung d liu ng s ch ra v tr lu lng ng ln s c php truyn trong cc khung ng ln c ng b vi cc khung ng xung.

Hnh 2.13 iu khin phng tin trong h thng GTC Khi nim iu khin truy nhp phng tin trong h thng GTC c minh ha trong Hnh 2.13 OLT gn cc con tr (pointer) vo khi iu khin vt l ng xung PCBd, con tr ny cho bit thi gian ONU bt u v kt thc vic truyn d liu. Vi cch ny, ch mt ONU c th truy nhp phng tin ti thi im bt k, khng c xung t trong qu trnh truyn. Cc con tr trong cc byte thng tin cho php OLT iu khin phng tin hiu qu ti bng tn c nh 64 kbit/s. Tuy nhin mt s OLT c th chn cch thit lp cc gi tr cho con tr ti cc tc ln hn v thc hin iu khin bng tn bng c ch ng. Nguyn Nh Hu Page 34

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ng k ONU Vic ng k ONU c thc hin trong th tc discovery t ng. C hai phng thc ng k ONU. Trong phng thc A, s serial ca ONU c ng k ti OLT qua h thng qun l (NMS hoc EMS). Trong phng thc B, s serial ca ONU khng c ng k ti OLT qua h thng qun l. 2.4.4.2.2 Cc chc nng ca cc phn lp trong h thng GTC Phn lp ng khung GTC (GTC framing sub-layer) thc hin ba chc nng: Ghp knh v phn knh: Cc thnh phn PLOAM, ATM v GEM c ghp knh vo khung TC ng xung ty theo thng tin v ranh gii trong tiu ca khung. Mi thnh phn c trch ra t mt ng ln ty theo ch th trong tiu . To tiu v gii m: Tiu khung TC c to v nh dng trong khung ng xung. Tiu trong khung ng ln c gii m. Chc nng nh tuyn ni b da trn Alloc-ID: nh tuyn da trn Alloc-ID c thc hin i vi d liu n/t b thch ng hi t truyn dn ATM v GEM 2.4.4.2.3 Phn lp thch ng GTC v giao din vi cc thc th lp trn Phn lp thch ng bao gm 3 b thch ng phn lp hi t: b thch ng hi t truyn dn ATM (ATM TC adapter), b thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM (GEM TC adapter) v b thch ng giao din iu khin qun l ONU (OMCI adapter). Cc b thch ng hi t ATM v GEM xem xt cc PDU ca phn ATM v GEM trong phn lp ng khung GTC v nh x cc PDU vo tng phn. Cc b thch ng cung cp giao din sau y cho cc thc th lp trn: 1) Giao din ATM Phn lp ng khung GTC v b thch ng hi t truyn dn ATM lin kt vi n cung cp cc giao din ATM chun theo tiu chun ITU-T Rec. I.432.1 cho cc dch v ATM. Cc thc th lp ATM thng c th c s dng nh l cc ATM client. 2) Giao din GEM Nguyn Nh Hu Page 35

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B thch ng hi t truyn dn GEM c th c cu hnh tng thch cc khung vo nhiu loi giao din truyn khung khc nhau. Cc b thch ng cn nhn dng cc knh OMCI theo tn knh o/tn ng o (VPI/VCI) i vi ATM v theo Port-ID i vi GEM. B thch ng OMCI c th trao i d liu knh OMCI cho cc b thch ng ATM TC v GEM TC. B thch ng OMCI nhn d liu t cc b thch ng TC ny v truyn n ti thc th OMCI v chuyn d liu t thc th OMCI ti cc b thch ng TC ny. 2.4.4.3 Cu trc khung GTC 2.4.4.3.1 Cu trc khung ng xung Hnh 2.14 Cu trc khung ng xung hi t truyn dn lp GTC. Khung c chiu di 125 s cho c tc d liu 1.24416 Gbit/s v 2.48832 Gbit/s do khung di 19440 byte trong h thng tc 1.24416 Gbit/s v di 38880 byte trong h thng tc . Chiu di ca PCB ng xung l nh nhau cho c hai tc v ph thuc vo s lng cu trc cp pht i vi mi khung.

Hnh 2.14 Cu trc khung ng xung hi t truyn dn lp GTC 2.4.4.3.2 Cu trc khung ng ln V d cu trc khung ng ln c cho trong Hnh 2.15 Cu trc khung ng ln GTC.

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Hnh 2 . 1 5 Cu trc khung ng ln GTC di khung bng di ca khung ng xung i vi cc loi tc . Mi khung bao gm cc truyn dn cho mt hoc nhiu ONU. BWmap (nh x bng tn) thc hin sp xp cc truyn dn ny. Trong qu trnh cp pht bng tn theo s iu khin ca OLT, ONU c th pht t 1 ti 4 loi tiu PON v d liu ngi dng. Cc loi tiu ny nh sau: Tiu lp vt l ng ln (PLOu); Qun l vn hnh v bo dng lp vt l ng ln (PLOAMu); Chui nh mc cng sut ng ln (PLSu); Bo co bng tn ng ng ln (DBRu). Tiu khung ng ln GTC ch ra chi tit ni dung ca cc tiu ny.

Hnh 2.16 Tiu khung ng ln GTC OLT s dng trng flag trong Bwmap ch ra thng tin PLOAMu, PLSu hay DBRu s c truyn trong mi ln cp pht bng tn hay khng. Lch truyn cc thng tin ny trong OLT cn phi tnh n nhu cu v bng tn v tr ca cc knh ph thuc khi thit lp tn s truyn dn.

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Mi khi mt ONU n lt s dng phng tin mng PON t mt ONU khc, n phi gi mt bn copy mi ca thng tin tiu lp vt l ng ln PLOu. Trong trng hp mt ONU c nhn 2 nhn dng cp pht (Alloc ID) lin tip (thi gian kt thc ca 1 nhn dng nh hn 1 so vi thi gian bt u ca nhn dng tip theo), th ONU s b qua vic gi thng tin PLOu cho nhn dng cp pht th 2. ONU c th b qua vic gi ny nhiu ln bng vi s nhn dng cp pht m OLT cp cho n. Yu cu cp pht quyn truy nhp lin tc gip OLT trnh vic b qua cc khong trng gia cc ln truyn ca cng mt ONU. Cc cp pht truy nhp phi lin tc hoc theo lch trnh nu chng xut pht t hai ONU khc nhau. Sau tiu truyn dn l d liu ti tin ca ngi dng c gi cho n khi vic cp pht c ch nh bi con tr kt thc (StopTime pointer). 2.4.5 Cp pht bng tn ng DBA Trong c ch cp pht bng tn ng, khi cc gi tin GEM c di thay i th s c chun ha thnh cc khi c di c nh. 2.4.5.1 Yu cu cp pht bng tn ng Cc chc nng DBA c thc hin i vi mi loi T-CONT. Cc chc nng ny c phn loi thnh cc phn sau: Pht hin trng thi tc nghn do OLT v/hoc ONU thc hin Bo co trng thi tc nghn ti OLT Cp nht bng tn cp pht bi OLT theo cc tham s c cung cp OLT thc hin cp quyn theo bng tn c cp nht v theo loi T- CONT Qun l i vi hot ng DBA 2.4.5.2 Hot ng DBA Hot ng DBA bao gm 2 ch : DBA bo co trng thi (SR-DBA) v DBA khng bo co trng thi (NSR-DBA) trong mi T-CONT. Chc nng bo co DBA l tu chn i vi ONU. Cc OLT bt buc phi h tr c ch bo co v khng bo co, do vy tt c cc ONU c cung cp cc mc i vi chc nng

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DBA. Cc ch ny c th hin bng tnh hung dch v v kh nng ca ONU c cho trong bng sau y.. SR ONU DBA OLT SR-DBA hoc/v NSR-DBA NSR ONU NSR-DBA

Bng 2.4 : Cc ch hot ng DBA SR-DBA: bo co tc nghn ca T-CONT, khi mt T-CONT gi d liu ng ln t ONU ti OLT, s lng t bo hay khi tin trong b m T-CONT c thit lp trong trng DBA ca bo co bng tn ng ln DBRu. Nu OLT khng mun cho php truyn d liu cho T-CONT, OLT c th cp thi gian cho ring bo co DBRu . Tuy nhin, c th c trng hp OLT nhn c bo co nhng khng p dng bo co i vi vic cp nht bng tn. Mt khc, nu mt T-CONT khng th bo co s t bo hay gi tin c lu tr trong b m, n s gi ti OLT mt m s khng c gi tr trong trng DBA. Hnh 2.17 tng kt cc hot ng DBA. Trong ch ny, vic truyn trng tin DBA trong DBRu l bt buc nu OLT yu cu v nu thiu trng DBA, khun dng ca d liu ng ln khng c nhn ra. NSR-DBA: OLT nhn dng trng thi tc nghn ca tng T-CONT bng cch gim st dng lu lng n. Trong ch ny, trng DBA trong DBRu khng c gi i do OLT s khng yu cu. Trong tnh hung ngoi l khi OLT yu cu DBRu th ONU phi gi bn tin ny mc d ni dung thng tin s b OLT b qua.

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Hnh 2.17 Hot ng ca SR-DBA 2.4.5.3 Qun l hot ng DBA hot ng c ch DBA c mt s thng s cn c cung cp v tha thun bi cc chc nng qun l. OLT v ONU s dng cc chc nng qun l tha thun v ch hot ng DBA, v p li thch hp vi cc yu cu ca hai bn. Tt c cc thng s DBA s c cung cp v tha thun bi giao din iu khin qun l ONU ca GPON (GPON OMCI). 2.5 Bo v i vi phn mng quang th ng G PON Kin trc bo v ca mng GPON cn thit trong vic tng cng tin cy cho mng truy nhp. Vic trin khai mng bo v cn c xem xt nh mt c ch ty chn v vic ny ph thuc vo iu kin kinh t ca tng nh khai thc mng. C hai loi chuyn mch bo v tng t vi chuyn mch bo v trong h thng SDH: Chuyn mch t ng c kch thch khi pht hin ra cc li nh mt tn hiu, mt khung, gim tn hiu (t l li bit BER thp hn mc ngng quy nh) ... Chuyn mch bt buc c kch hot trong qu trnh qun tr mng nh nh tuyn li tuyn quang, thay th si quang...

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Hnh 2.18 M hnh h thng bo v kp m t m hnh h thng bo v kp cho mng truy nhp. Cc phn lin quan n vic bo v trong mng GPON c th l mt phn bo v gia giao din ODN trong OLT v giao din ODN trong ONU qua mng ODN, khng bao gm giao din SNI trong OLT.

Hnh 2.18 M hnh h thng bo v kp Cc yu cu i vi chuyn mch bo v: Chc nng chuyn mch bo v nn l chc nng ty chn.Trong h thng GPON c th c c hai loi chuyn mch bo v trn. C ch chuyn mch thng c thc hin bi chc nng OAM, v vy, trng thng tin OAM phi c d tr trong khung OAM. Mi kt ni gia nt dch v v thit b u cui phi c gi sau khi chuyn mch. Ty theo yu cu cui cng vic trin khai nt dch v POTS yu cu qu trnh mt khung phi nh hn 120 ms. Nu thi gian mt khung di hn khong thi gian ny, nt dch v s ct kt ni v yu cu thit lp li cuc gi sau khi chuyn mch bo v. Do GPON h tr pht trin cc dch v hin ti nh POTS v ISDN, cn phi xem xt thi gian ngt kt ni ny. 2.6 Bo mt Trong h thng PON th hng xung, d liu c truyn broadcast n tt c ONU. Mi ONU ch c th truy cp d liu ca mnh, nhng nu ngi dng no c nh ph hoi th c th gi ONU ca ngi dng khc truy cp d liu, h thng bo mt PON s ngn chn vic ny. Ging nh cc mng khc, GPON s dng th tc mt m ngn nga vic nghe trm cc tn hiu khng mong mun. Khng ging nh truy cp wireless hay modem, trong mng PON, bt k ONU no

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cng khng th thy c lu lng hng ln ca ONU khc. iu ny cho php lm n gin ha th tc mt m. u tin l ch cn mt m hng truyn xung ca d liu. Th 2 l d liu hng ln c th truyn kha mt m. GPON s dng chun mt m AES (Advanced Encryption Standard). l mt khi mt m m n hot ng trn mt khi d liu 16 byte (128 bit). c bit ch m c s dng. Khi mt m gi ngu nhin 16 byte c pht ra v XOR vi d liu ng vo to ra d liu mt m OLT. ONU, d liu c mt m ny th XOR vi chui gi ngu nhin 16 byte tng t nh OLT to li d liu ban u. Vi ATM ch c 48 byte c mt m, vi GEM ch c phn ti GEM c mt m. OLT khi to vic trao i kha bng vic gi bn tin n ONU thng qua knh PLOAM. Sau ONU s chu trch nhim to ra kha v pht ngc tr v OLT. 2.7 Kt lun chng Chng 2 nu ln c cc gii php trin khai mng FTTx: AON v PON. i su tm hiu PON v nghin cu k cc c tnh k thut, kin trc ca mng GPON. Chng cng a ra cu trc ca cc thit b ONT v OLT. Chng 3 s tm hiu c th hn v cc thit b u cui ny.

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CHNG 3 TRIN KHAI MNG FTTX TI CMC TI


3.1 Gii thiu chng Cng ty C phn H tng Vin thng CMC (CMC TI) l n v trin khai mng GPON u tin Vit Nam. CMC TI la chn dng thit b 7342 ISAM FTTU ca hng Alcatel-Lucent cung cp gii php mng quang th ng gigabit (Gigabit Passive Optical Network - GPON). Mng GPON ny cho php CMC TI trin khai cc dch v Triple play tin tin, bao gm Internet tc cao, cc dch v truyn thng v thng tin, v truyn hnh/video phn gii cao cho cc khu dn c v cc doanh nghip va v nh. Chng ny s i su v cc tnh nng k thut ca thit b 7342 ISAM FTTU. 3.2 M hnh GPON ti CMC TI

Hnh 3.1 M hnh GPON ti CMC TI M hnh tng th m cc ni cn cung cp dch v mng ti ngi tiu dng l ng i t ONT ti OLT ri truyn ti cc ni nh IP voice, data, video. Ty vo nhu cu ca ngi tiu dng m ngi ta s chuyn ti nhng server khc nhau. Ti CMCTI, Alcatel-Lucent trin khai gii php GPON hng u ca mnh l 7342 Intelligent Services Access Manager Fiber-to-the-User - ISAM FTTU (thit b qun l cc dch v truy nhp thng minh 7342, c s dng cho vic cng ngh Nguyn Nh Hu

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a cp quang ti ngi dng u cui). Nn tng GPON cng c b sung bng 5520 Access Management System (AMS), tc h thng qung l mng truy nhp 5520 AMS, l h thng qun l cho cc phn t mng th h mi ca AlcatelLucent, bao gm tt c cc sn phm ISAM, DSL v truy nhp fiber-based.

. Hnh 3.2: V tr ca 7342 ISAM FTTU 3.3 Cc thit b trong mng GPON 3.3.1. Mt s thit b ONT ONT chia thnh nhiu loi: trong nh (Indoor series), bn ngoi (Outdoor series), doanh nghip (Business series), modular (Modular series). Thit b I-series ONT (Indoor- series)

Hnh 3.3 Thit b Indoor-series ONT L thit b dng cho gia nh. Indoor ONT cung cp kt ni gia cp quang Nguyn Nh Hu Page 44

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PON v thit b ca ngi s dng, Indoor ONT phc v nh mt im vo duy nht cho cc dch v. Nhiu ONT c kt ni vi mng 7342 ISAM FTTU. Indoor ONT cung cp cc interface cho: 2 knh dch v thoi (POTS) 2 cp Ethernet 10/100Base-T 1 kt ni video RF 1 port cp quang v 1 port ngun

Thit b Outdoor-series ONT: c lp t bn trong hoc bn ngoi nh .

Hnh 3.4 Thit b Outdoor-series ONT Outdoor ONT s dng ba loi connector: cc POTS (RJ-11),connector data(10/100Base-T RJ-45) v quang(SC/APC connector) . Thit b Bussiness-series ONT

Hnh 3.5 Thit b Bussiness-series ONT Thit b Bussiness ONT ph hp trong cc doanh nghip cho nhng ng dung SOHO. Thit b ny h tr cc connetor: POTS (RJ-11),connector data (10/100Base-T RJ-45) , quang (SC/APC connector) v video. Thit b MDU-series ONT

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Hnh 3.6 Thit b MDU-series ONT c s dng bn trong hoc bn ngoi nh, trn tng hoc trong cc t rack. Modular ONT c thit k chc chn v kn chng bi, ma... Cp ni c gn vo pha sau ca ONT, h tr nhiu loi connector : POTS (RJ-11),connector data(10/100Base-T RJ-45) , quang(SC/APC connector) 3.3.2 Cu trc thit b OLT s dng trn mng FTTx ti CMC TI. 3.3.2.1. Tng quan v sn phm 7342 ISAM FTTU 7342 ISAM FTTU l mt h thng vi si quang cung cp cc dch v v m thoi, d liu, v cc dch v v video cho cc khu dn c v kinh doanh. 7342 ISAM FTTU thu thp v phn phi vi tc cao cc thng tin k thut s, bng cch s dng cng ngh ca mng quang th ng GPON.

Hnh 3.7 Thit b 7342 ISAM FTTU

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Cc GPON mng cp quang kt ni P-OLT v ONTs l mt mng quang th ng (PON). Mi kt ni mng GPON t OLT-P l mt kt ni cp quang n. POLT h tr ln n ti a l 32 kt ni mng GPON. Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU h tr nhiu dch v hn GPON, bao gm: voice, d liu, v video. S dng V-OLT, cc 7342 ISAM FTTU h tr cp tiu chun cc dch v video, truyn hnh, cng nh cc knh analog v digital. V-OLT h tr cc tn s v tuyn y (RF) ph tn s 47 MHz n 862 MHz . 3.3.2.2 Tnh nng GPON ca 7342 ISAM FTTU Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU cung cp cc tnh nng GPON sau y : Cung cp dch v voice, d liu, v cc dch v IPTV cho ti a l 64 port thu bao. Sa cha li v pha trc (FEC) trn giao din PON. RF video phn phi cc dch v c h tr cc knh analog v k thut s. Cu hnh h tr cho a phng tin trn cp ng trc Alliance (MoCA) cho ONTs c h tr MoCA Dng mc 2,488 Gb/s Down Stream dng bc sng 1490 nm v 1,244 Gb/s Up Stream dng bc sng 1310 nm. Khong cch ti a l 20 Km. GEM-ng gi da trn GPON. Ph hp vi mng truy cp y dch v (FSAN) tiu chun. 3.3.2.3 Dch v Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU h tr nhiu dch v, bao gm: m thoi, d liu, IPTV v RF video, qua mng chuyn mch gi (PSN). 3.3.2.4 Giao din mng Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU cung cp mt tc cao v mng truy cp bng thng cao. Truy cp mng ny bao gm cc giao din sau y: Cc giao din P-OLT gia mng gigabit Ethernet (GE) v cc ONTs Cc giao din V-OLT gia cc mng cung cp dch v video v cc ONTs

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Cc giao din ONT gia OLT-P v thit b thu bao Cc giao din h tr cc kt ni sau y: P-OLT quang kt ni mng vi mng Ethernet: LC / UPC P-OLT quang kt ni mng n cc GPON: SC / UPC ONT quang kt ni mng n cc GPON: SC / APC P-OLT giao din h thng P-OLT cung cp cho ch bin li, chuyn i, v chc nng kim sot. Trong hng Down Stream, P-OLT tng tc vi cc chuyn mch Ethernet v voice gateway bng cch s dng vic chm dt mng (NT) card. Trong hng UP Stream, P-OLT phn phi thoi, d liu v video trong bn nhc, hoc lu lng truy cp n cc ONTs trn GPON. Ti P-OLT, line chm dt (LT) card chm dt kt ni GPON. P-OLT cng c cha mt card kim sot bo ng v cc giao din th cng, cho php EMS truy cp vo cc h thng 7342 ISAM FTTU cho hot ng, hnh chnh, v bo dng (OAM). Mi h thng P-OLT h tr ti a l: Hai card NT 16 card LT 32 Pons mi P-OLT vi mi card LT h tr hai Pons 64 ONTs trong nh, ONTs ngoi tri, hoc ONTs kinh doanh cho mi PON 48-Gb / s kh nng chuyn i V-OLT giao din : - V-OLT RF phn phi cc dch v video qua PON cc t dch v video nh cung cp cho cc thu bao. - V-OLT cung cp giao din gia mng v cung cp dch v video phn chia bc sng (WDM) n v. Cc ONTs kt ni vi videocung cp dch v mng bng cch s dng GPON v WDM. Qun l thit b: EMS c chc nng qun l P-OLT t xa t mt v tr trung tm. Bn pht hnh c cc h tr sau y: - 5.523 AWS - 5.528 WAM

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3.3.2.5 Cu trc thit b ISAM 7342 FTTU 7342 ISAM FTTU cung cp 1 gigabit qua mang quang (GPON) l c s mng truy nhp v c 3 c im chnh : Gi d liu thit b ng quang (P- OLT) cung cp chuyn mch trung tm, x l v chc nng iu khin. Video thit b ng quang (V-OLT) cung cp x l v phn b dch v video. Mng thit b quang (ONT ) cung cp chuyn mch vng x l v chc nng

iu khin. 3.3.2.6 Cc khi chc nng ca thit b Chc nng ca thit b bao gm chc nng ca cc khi : Khi ngun, Khi iu khin, Khi modul cung cp dch v, Khi thu pht tn hiu quang P-OLT. Khi thu pht tn hiu quang gm hai khi chc nng chnh l: Thit b mng (NT) ng dy thit b (LT)

Hnh 3.8. P-OLT cc khi chc nng vi mt EHNT

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Cc khi chc nng c xy dng trn nn tng phn mm ng dng, bao gm thng tin lin lc v cc giao thc qun l, dch v ct li v cc ng dng qun l, v cc ng dng truyn ti. Network termination: Cc khi chc nng NT c cha mt cp NT card v card ACU cung cp cc chc nng chnh sau y: Lp chuyn mch. NT d phng. Kim sot v qun l. ng b ha Kt ni. Lp chuyn mch: Thit b u cui NT v LT lm vic cng nhau cung cp cc lp chuyn mch chuyn i chc nng. Cc NT card cung cp cc lp chuyn mch o mng cc b (VLAN) qun l chc nng.Chc nng ny kim sot nh x port, bao gm c ngi s dng giao din mng (UNI) ti mt port v GPON ng gi module (GEM) ti port VLAN lp mt ng truyn dn d liu.Thit b LT cung cp lp chuyn mch ti kt ni cho hoc ch iBridge. NT D phng: Chc nng th hai l hai lp chuyn mch NT d phng c cung cp chia s. Bnh thng trng hp khi c hai card NT ang hot ng, b iu khin on-board (OBC) trn lp chuyn mch chuyn i chc nng ng vai tr iu khin hot ng ca c hai thit b chuyn mch. Kim sot v qun l: Cc lp chuyn i c OBC kim sot ring chc nng nh tuyn ca giao thc Internet(IP). Chuyn i ny c qun l ring bit t card NT. Cc switch c c s qun l thng tin ring (MIB) c th c truy cp vo trc tip bng cch s dng giao thc n gin l qun l mng (SNMP) hoc gin tip bng cch s dng giao thc vi ngn ng (TL1) hoc giao din dng lnh (CLI). Cc OBC trn card NT chnh iu khin hot ng ca ton b thit b POLT. Cc OBC NT c tc qun l nhanh hn Ethernet (FE), OBC NT kt ni cho OBC trn lp chuyn mch ng b ha cc c s d liu. Cc OBC NT qun l thng tin ring (MIB) ca mnh m c th c truy cp trc tip bng cch

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s dng giao thc qun l mng SNMP hoc gin tip bng cch s dng ngn ng TL1 hay dng dng lnh CLI. Cc Swich c c s qun l thng tin MIB s kim sot ng dng c lin quan n cc khi thit b P-OLT. ng b ha: H thng 7342 ISAM FTTU phi c ng b vi mt vi cc dch v nh voice, video, dch v (CES). H thng ny c th c cu hnh ng b ha mng bng cch tch hp cung cp (BITS) vi giao din mng IEEE1588v2 v kh nng ca giao din mng EXNT. Kt ni: Card EHNT s dng mt lin kt da trn nng lc Ethernet imim, card (eHCL) theo di trn bng ni a nng P-OLT tc ln n 2 Gb/s ca unicast, multicast, v trong bng thng qun l truyn dn cho tng LT (ln n 4 Gb/s t c hai card NT). 10 gigabit Ethernet (GE) nh km giao din thit b c cung cp gia hai NTS. Lp chuyn mch layer 2 cung cp 48 port GE v hai port10-GE. Cc port cung cp chc nng sau y: Upstream hoc mng giao din: bn port 1-GE v mt port 10-GE gii hn trn mt trc cung cp mt giao din vi giao din mng Ethernet (EMAN). Dowstream hoc ngi s dng giao din vi hai port ca card LT: ti a 32 port ti bng iu khin tr li cung cp giao din cho cc card LT. Mi card LT yu cu hai port GE. Dowstream hoc ngi s dng giao din vi 4 port ca card LT trn mt k OLTS-M: ti a 56 port ti bng iu khin tr li cung cp giao din cho cc card LT. Mi card LT yu cu bn port GE. NT d phng kt ni: Mt port 10-GE cung cp mt giao din vi card NT d phng chia s v truyn ti thng tin lin lc lin kt vi c s d liu. Line termination (Thit b u cui OLT): P-OLT cung cp cc chc nng bng cch s dng chc nng ca card LT. Cc card LT cung cp chc nng chnh sau y: - Cu hnh cho GPON.

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- Cu hnh cho cc card NT. - lp chuyn mch. - kim sot v qun l. Cu hnh cho GPON: Mi card LT cung cp cu hnh cho GPON. Cu hnh h tr GPON sa li (FEC), gim Raman. FEC cung cp m ha d liu d phng, cho php card LT pht hin v sa li truyn dn t cc ONT, v nng cao tin cy ca upstream d liu. Upstream h tr FEC c kch hot hay v hiu ha bng cch s dng lnh TL1. Cu hnh cho cc card NT: Mi card LT lin kt ni vi card NT thng qua cc giao thc lin kt. Cc loi hnh lin kt truyn thng ph thuc vo loi card NT trong k. Vi EHNT ci t lin kt eHCL c s dng. EHCL l gi tin da trn giao din Ethernet m cung cp truyn dn t im n im v cho truy cp mng t card NT. Cc lin kt eHCL h tr nng lc vi tc 4 Gb/s, nhn (Rx) v truyn (Tx) cho card NT. Vi EXNT ci t lin kt XAUI c s dng. XAUI l mt gi tin da trn giao din Ethernet cung cp truyn dn t im n im v v cho truy cp mng t card NT. Cc lin kt XAUI, trn hai port ca card LT, h tr vi tc 5 Gb/s, nhn (Rx) v truyn (Tx) cho card NT. Cc XAUI lin kt, trn bn port ca card LT, h tr cng sut 20 Gb/s , nhn (Rx) v truyn (Tx) cho card NT. Lp chuyn mch: Cc khi chc nng LT cung cp lp chuyn mch chuyn i c th truy cp mng bng cch h tr kt ni qua ch iBridge. Khi LT phc v nh mt lp chuyn mch l chc nng c lp ca khi NT. C LT v NT hot ng c lp trn phng tin truyn thng truy cp kim sot (MAC) a ch. Khi LT cng cung cp nhn bn truyn dn multicast. Multicast trng lp trn LT card c th lm tng hiu qu ca bng thng vo cc lin kt eHCL gia NT card v card LT. Mi PON c th ng thi h tr ln n 2,4 Gb/s ca multicast vi cch tip cn ny, mc d NT LT cng sut l 4 Gb/s. Cc khi chc nng LT cung cp chc nng qun l GPON kim sot chc nng vn chuyn, chng hn nh thit lp cc lung GEM trn PON ny. Cc GPON qun l

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chc nng thit lp lin kt gia cc khe, port, dch v v UNIS. Cc card LT chuyn ti container truyn (T-CONT) phn b nhn dng (ID), ID port, khu vc u tin v cht lng dch v (QoS) thng tin cho ONTs c nhn. T-CONTs c s dng qun l cc d n gc phn b bng thng trong phn PON ca lp hi t truyn dn. Cc ONTs s dng T-CONTs v s phn cng nng ng, bng thng yu cu pha Upstream bng thng. Kim sot v qun l: Cc OBC LT gi thng tin qun l ONT thng qua cc VLAN OAM n NT card. Thng tin ny bao gm bo ng v s kin thay i trng thi xy ra trn ONTs h tr bi card LT. 3.3.2.7. Hot ng qun l v bo tr. Qun l giao din: Giao din qun l cho php vic thc hin cc hot ng qun l, chng hn nh cu hnh, d phng, theo di, bo co, v x l s c. Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU h tr cc giao din qun l sau y cho khu vc gn v qun l t xa: Port th cng hoc port Ethernet trn card AACU cho mt khu vc gn c kt ni thit b u cui.(Hnh 3.9)

Hnh 3.9: AACU-C th cng v cc kt ni Ethernet Cc port th cng vi 2 port trn bng ni a nng P-OLT cho mt thit b u cui kt ni th cng t xa.(Hnh 3.10 v Hnh 3.11)

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Hnh 3.10. ALTS-N bng ni a nng th cng v cc kt ni Ethernet

Hnh 3.11. OLTS-M bng ni a nng th cng v cc kt ni Ethernet

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Port Ethernet trn bng ni a nng P-OLT cho bng thng ra kt ni t xa kt ni th cng thng qua mt thit b u cui ca h thng qun l mng thng qua mt Mng IP Ct port Ethernet gigabit (GE) trn card NT nh ti bng tn kt ni th cng t xa vi thit b u cui thng qua mt h thng qun l mng thng qua mt mng IP. Thit lp th cng thit b u cui: S dng lnh TL1 thng qua kt ni gn hoc t xa n im cui l cch thit lp th cng. Cc P-OLT cung cp la chn hai giao din th cng. Mt giao din th cng c v tr trn card AACU trong k, xem Hnh 3.9. Giao din th cng l mt giao din RS-232 vi mt u ni DB-9. Thit b u cui ca cp c th s dng mt u ni DB-9 hoc u ni DB25 ty thuc vo loi thit b u cui ca giao din th cng c s dng. Giao din th cng trn card AACU thng c s dng truy cp gn. Mt giao din th cng t xa nm khu vc kt ni ca thit b P-OLT. y l mt DB-9 ni c gn nhn RCFT (remote th cng) trn k ALTS-N v l c nhn giao din th cng 2 trn cc k OLTS-M. Thit b u cui ca cp c th s dng mt DB-9 hoc DB-25 ni ty thuc vo loi thit b u cui th cng, hoc modem s dng. Giao din 2 th cng thng kt ni vi mt modem c th c truy cp t xa. TL1 v giao thc truy cp vi ty chn CLI: Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU h tr cc giao thc sau y TL1 v CLI ty chn truy cp: CLI thng qua Telnet v SSH. TL1 thng qua Telnet, SSH, v UDP. Port Ethernet trn bng ni a nng AACU v P-OLT: P-OLT cung cp hai port Ethernet c th c s dng cho nhim v qun l. Mt port Ethernet l trn AACU v port khc l trn bng ni a nng P-OLT. Chng c th c c s dng nh mt port Ethernet hoc th cng cho gii bng thng ngoi kt ni mng IP n mt EMS. Ch c mt port Ethernet c th c s dng ti mt thi im. Cc port Ethernet c th c cu hnh trong cc cch sau:

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Nh cu hnh th cng thit b u cui khi cc knh qun l bc sng thng qua cc port GE trn card NT. Qun l bng thng ngoi khi cc port GE c s dng ch cho d liu lu lng truy cp. Khng c s dng Chc nng EMS: Cc 7342 ISAM FTTU cung cp h thng qun l chc nng (EMS) thng qua h thng mng li qun l sau y: 5520 AMS

Cc 5520 AMS l mt h thng qun l chc nng cung cp mt gii php qun l hon chnh cho h thng 7342 ISAM FTTU. Nhim v qun l cho 7342 ISAM FTTU c th c thc hin thng qua GUI cung cp bi 5520 AMS. Cc 5.520 AMS l t xa kt ni vi 7342 ISAM FTTU h thng thng qua kt ni mng n cc port GE trn NT,hoc vo port Ethernet trn bng ni a nng P-OLT. 5528 WAM

Cc WAM 5528 l mt my tnh v cng c qun l da trn h iu hnh Solaris cho cu hnh,duy tr, v khc phc s c cc 7342 ISAM FTTU. Nhn vin iu hnh c th s dng mt trnh duyt web. trnh duyt web h tr bao gm Microsoft Internet Explorer v Mozilla Firefox. Cc WAM 5528 l ph hp vi cc mng nh. N cng c th cung cp mt b sung bo dng v kh nng x l s c cho cc mng ln. N lm tng s ngi s dng c trong h thng v cho php kt ni gn. Cc WAM 5528 l kt ni t xa vi h thng 7342 ISAM FTTU thng qua mng li kt ni n cc port GE trnNT, hoc vo port Ethernet trn AACU hoc qua bng kt ni a nng P-OLT. Cc WAM 5528 s dng da trn kin trc web m c nh gi cao kh nng m rng. N cung cp tng th thit b ha, CLI, v truy cp TL1. Khc ph s c v bo tr: Phn cng hot ng, qun l v nhim v bo tr cho 7342 ISAM FTTU bao gm: da trn kh nng nng cp ca 7342 ISAM

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FTTU, p ng i vi ch dn LED, thay th hoc thm card, khc phc s c cc s c lp vt l. Sa cha ONT v x l thng tin c gi tr li c lu tr trong RAM d b mt ONT c th c ly t b nh Flash bng cch s dng mt phin qun l EMS vi cc-P OLT. Mt nt nhn trn ONT cng c th c dng thu thp cc thng tin mi nht. Mt khi khi xng, cc thng tin ONT c lu gi trong b nh RAM c lu vo b nh FLASH, t thng tin c th c ly ra xem bng cch s dng WAM 5528. 3.4 Cc dch v ang cung cp trn mng GPON CMCTI 3.4.1 FTTH/B Hin ti CMC TI ang trin khai gi thu xy lp cp quang n nh thu bao trin khai dch v GigaNet da trn cng ngh FTTx GPON ln u tin trin khai ti Vit Nam ca CMC TI, cung cp cc gi cc GigaNet Speed1 (24Mbps), GigaNet Speed2 (32Mbps), GigaNet Speed3 (48Mbps) v GigaNet Bmax (480Mbps) Dch v Giganet cho php bng thng t ti 2.5 Gbps, p ng y nhu cu pht sinh cc dch v vin thng ca khch hng nh: Voip, Video on Demand, truyn s liu, MPLS m khng b suy gim cht lng kt ni. CMC TI trin khai mng FTTx cho c bussiness v home. Mi khch hng c 1 ONT sing c kt ni bng cp quang . GIGANET B - Dch v Internet FTTB ca CMC TI, l dch v truy nhp Internet bng thng rng bng cp quang s dng cng ngh tiu chun quc t GPON, h tr a dch v trn mt kt ni vi ng cp quang a n chn ta nh. L qu trnh chuyn tip cng ngh t internet bng rng (ADSL) ln internet cp quang (FTTH) vi kh nng cung cp bng thng upload/download i xng, chiu di cp nh hn v tc nhanh gp nhiu ln ADSL. Dch v FTTB chuyn cp quang ti cc ONT c nh t ti ta nh. mi ONT c 24 port , dng cp ng ti tng ngi s dng.

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3.4.2 Dch v VoIP VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)- Truyn thoi trn giao thc IP. N s dng cc gi d liu IP (trn mng LAN, WAN, Internet) vi thng tin c truyn ti l m ho ca m thanh. Tun theo chun SIP,H323 cho php kt ni ti tt c cc nh cung cp dch v thoi IP. Cng vi s pht trin ca cng ngh cho php ngi dng c th gi ng thi c 2 mng IP v mng PSTN.Vi cc c ch bo mt iu khin truy xut vt l, chng thc, quyn hn ca ngi dng vi cc dch v v s m ha gip cho h thng VoIP lun c bo mt cao nht. Trong cc dch v th Voip c u tin m thoi gim ti thiu kh nng rt mng.

Hnh 3.12 : M hnh Voip CMCTI 3.4.3 Dch v IPTV IPTV - Internet Protocol TV - l mng truyn hnh kt hp cht ch vi mng vin thng. Ni rng hn IPTV l dch v gi tr gia tng s dng mng bng rng IP phc v cho nhiu ngi dng (user). Cc user c th thng qua my vi tnh PC hoc my thu hnh ph thng cng vi hp phi ghp Settopbox (STB) s dng dch v IPTV. IPTV c 2 loi l : Unicast c truyn t nh ISP ti CMCTI. y l chng trnh truyn hnh tivi km theo dch v IPTV.

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Multicast c truyn t nh ISP ti CMCTI. y l chng trnh truyn trn Tivi thng thng 3.4.4 Dch v truyn s liu VPN/MPLS Dch v truyn s liu ni ht lin tnh Gigawan da trn cng ngh chuyn mch nhn a giao thc MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching) m bo vic truyn d liu tc cao, cht lng, d dng nng cp m rng ph hp vi cc khch hng c nhu cu truyn d liu a im, tc cao. Dch v GIGAWAN c cc Doanh nghip trong khi ngn hng, doanh nghip, bo him ti chnh, tp on xuyn quc gia, Doanh nghip, t chc ln c nhiu chi nhnh, vn phng giao dch a chung truyn s liu v cht lng ng truyn n nh, chi ph s dng thp, c bit l h tr kh nng support rt nhanh khi xy ra s c k thut hay li cp... Hin trn th trng cc ISP cung cp vi nhiu tc khc nhau t 128k, 256k, 1MbpsCn CMC TI ch cung cp cho cc i tc c nhu cu s dng t tc 1Mbps n 450Mbps ni ht hay lin tnh vi gi thnh ph hp nht. 3.5 Kt lun chng Chng 3 nu ln c m hnh mng GPON ti cng ty c phn vin thng CMC TI. Tm hiu chi tit v thit b GPON ti cng ty- 7342 ISAM FTTU, v cc dch v ang c CMC TI cung cp trn mng GPON. Chng 4 s m phng h thng mng GPON, cc yu t nh hng ti cht lng ng truyn nh tc bit, khong cch v t l chia.

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CHNG 4 : M PHNG MNG FTTX THEO CHUN GPON


4.1 Gii thiu chng Chng 4 m phng h thng mng FTTx theo chun GPON bng phn mm OptiSystem 7.0. Mt s tnh hung a ra nh gi s ph thuc ca h thng mng quang vo cc yu t nh khong cch truyn, tc bit, cng sut pht, suy hao, phng thc m ha. C th, trong phn m phng ny gm 2 phn: Phn 1: M phng cc tham s c bn ca mng GPON Bng 0.1 Cc thng s c bn mng GPON c tnh Tc bit ti a T l chia (ONU/ONT) M ng dy Bc sng Thng s 2,488 Gbit/s i vi c 2 hng ln v xung 1:16 hoc 1:8 NRZ 1550 nm xung & 1310nm ln 1490 nm xung & 1310nm ln Khong cch Khong cch ti a gia ONT v OLT 20 km

Phn 2: M phng cc yu t nh hng n cht lng mng GPON - Khong cch - H s chia ca Splitter - Tc bit Khi h thng quang cng tr nn phc tp hn, cc nh khoa hc v k s

ngy cng phi p dng cc k thut phn mm m phng tin tin h tr vn thit k linh hot, hiu qu. Bi vy, OptiSystem ra i. Optisystem mt phn mm thit k cc h thng quang chuyn nghip c xy dng bi Optiwave Systems Inc. Phin bn OpticSystem 7.0 l phin bn mi cung cp cc tnh nng, to iu kin m phng v thit k cc cng ngh mng truy nhp quang mi. Mi trng m phng mnh m cho php ngi dng kim tra, lp k hoch v m phng cc

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h thng quang trong cc lp vt l ca mt lot cc mng quang th ng: BPON, EPON, GPON. Hn na, OptiSystem cn h tr cc cng c phn tch nh gin mt, BER, Q-Factor, tn hiu chirp nh gi h thng. V th, trong phn m phng ny, s s dng phn mm m phng OptiSystem 7.0. 4.2 Cc ch tiu nh gi cht lng mng quang 4.2.1 T l li bit BER nh ngha: L t l bit b li trn tng s bit truyn i. Trong , xc sut li bit l mt trong nhng cch hiu qu nh gi tn hiu mt cch nh lng. Khi my thu nhn c tn hiu quang, n s chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in thng qua mt photodiode. Sau , tn hiu in li c khuch i tn hiu nh mt b khuch i. Tn hiu ny sau c ly mu tng ng vi mi bit, ta c mt mc in th xc nh. Vi mt ngng cho trc, mc tn hiu no ln hn ngng th l bit 1, ngc li l bit 0. Nu nhiu qu ln, cc mc in th c th vt qua ngng c c thnh bit 1 v ngc li to ra li.. Nh k thut m ha sa sai FEC, ngi ta c th h thp t l li bit t 10-4 xung cn 10-12. Tuy nhin, thng thng t l li bit trong tn hiu quang thng l 10-9. Cch tnh BER vi nhiu bin tun theo hm phn b Gaussian.

(a)

(b)

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Hnh 4.1 Mi lin quan tn hiu nhn c v hm phn b xc sut Hnh a ch ra dng tn hiu nhn c. Gi tr dng in I dao ng t I0 ti I1 v ID l dng ngng. Nu I > ID th l bit 1 cn ngc li l bit 0. BER c th c tnh theo xc xut li bit: BER = P(1)P(0/1) + P(0)P(1/0) Trong : P(1) v P(0) l xc sut nhn c bit 1 v 0. P(0/1) l xc sut la chn bit 0 khi bit 1 c nhn P(1/0) l xc sut la chn bit 1 khi bit 0 c nhn Do c th xy ra trng hp: P(1) = P(0) = 1/2. Khi : BER = [P(0/1) + P(1/0)] (4.2) (4.1)

Hnh b ch ra xc sut P(0/1) v P(1/0) ph thuc vo hm mt xc xut P(I). Dng hm P(I) ph thuc vo thng k ngun nhiu. Vi nhiu bin tun theo hm phn b Gaussian, ta c:

(4.3)

(4.4)

(Mi mt hm Gaussian c mt gi tr khc nhau.) Trong erfc l hm b li c nh ngha nh sau:

(4.5) Thay vo cng thc trn ta c:

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(4.6) Phng trnh ny ch ra rng BER ph thuc vo dng ngng ID. Trn thc t ID c nh gi da trn gi tr BER nh nht. Trng hp nh nht khi ID c chn theo cng thc:

(4.7) Tnh xp x ta c :

(4.8) Suy ra:

(4.9) Ta c: 0 = 1, (4.10) Khi , BER min. Khi P(1/0) = P(0/1). iu ny c th nhn thy r trong hnh (b). Thay cc gi tr tm c vo cng thc tnh BER ta c:

(4.11) Vi:

(4.12) Phng trnh trn ch ra mi quan h gia BER v h s Q: Q gim th BER tng v ngc li. Ta c th thy r iu thng qua th di y:

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Hnh 4.2 Mi quan h gia h s phm cht Q v t l li bit BER 4.2.2 H s phm cht Q nh ngha: H s cht lng tn hiu l t s tng ng vi t l tn hiu trn nhiu (SNR) ca tn hiu in b thu sau khi c khuch i. H s ny c tnh da theo cng thc (4.12).

Hnh 4.3 H s Q tnh theo bin

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4.2.3 th mt nh ngha: Biu mt hay mu mt l mt hnh nh cho thy rt r mc mo ca tn hiu s. u ra phn bng gc ca h thng (sau khi lc bng gc, trc khi ly mu quyt nh bit truyn l 1 hay 0), cc h thng lun c mt im o, t dn tn hiu vo mt oscilloscope. Nu tn s qut ca oscilloscope bng vi tc bit ca tn hiu th trn mn hnh hin th ca oscilloscope, cc tn hiu s dng li trng ln nhau. Nu xem mc tn hiu dng l m mt bn trn, tn hiu m l m mt bn di, ta s c mt hnh nh nh mt mt ngi m. chnh l mu mt. Mu mt vi v s tn hiu i vo oscillocscope th chng ln nhau. Nhng hnh nh cho thy mc mo ca tn hiu v d tr tp m. Gi gi tr nh dng ca tn hiu khng mo l tng l 1 cn gi tr nh m ca tn hiu khng mo l tng l -1 th m ca mu mt l tng s l (2/2)x100% = 100%, trong thc t th m mu mt s l khong trng ln nht gia cc ng cong tn hiu m v dng, chia 2 v tn theo phn trm. Mu mt cng m (s % cng ln ) th cht lng tn hiu cng tt. Ngc li vi m mu mt l ng mu mt Mu mt c gi l m nu m mu mt ln hn 0. Mu mt c gi l ng nu m bng 0. Mu mt thng l t 20% 30%, ty theo h thng c m chng nhiu hay khng. Mu mt c xem l bnh thng nu khong ln hn 50 %. Thc t th yu cu ln hn, khong 75%. Hnh 4.4 m t chi tit cch thc dng ln th mt. Gi s ta c 8 chui bit ln lt l 000, 100, 010, 110, 111, 001, 101, 011, 111. ng vi cc chui bit ta c cc dng tn hiu tng ng. V d nh vi chui bi 000, ta s c gi tr nh m ca mu mt (trong hnh di ly l nh dng), vi chui bit 111, ta s c gi tr nh dng ca mu mt (trong hnh di ly l nh m). Ngoi ra cn c mt s chui bit khc. Tng hp cc chui bit ta c th mt tng ng nh hnh v. Nu s chui bit cng ln th hnh dng ca biu mt s gm rt nhiu ng chng chp ln nhau. Ta c th thy rt r iu ny

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trong biu mt Hnh 4.5. y, th mt c ly trong mt chu k bit, m mt l khong 50%, mt con s c th chp nhn c trong thc t.

Hnh 4.4 S hnh thnh th mt Hnh 4.5 cho ta thy mt kt qu thc t ca th mt. C rt nhiu chui bit c tng hp li pha thu to nn th mt c hnh dng kh phc tp.

Hnh 4.5 th mt

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4.2.4 Mi quan h gia th mt v t l li bit BER th mt l s kt hp ca cc mu in p hoc thi gian ca cc tn hiu gc. Mt oscilloscope, c th c tc ly mu l 10 Gbps. Vy phn ln cc mu mt c to ra t mt s t cc mu tn hiu. Trong trng hp s mu t, nhng nhiu lin quan n hoc xut pht t cc hiu ng crosstalk v cc hiu ng giao thoa c th khng xut hin trong th mt nhng n li ngn cn vic lin kt cc mc tn hiu (c th hiu y l cc mc in p c trng cho cc bit 0 v 1). V d lin kt c cc mc tn hiu th t l li bit l c 10-12, trong khi th th mt ch hin c tn hiu mc 10-5. S mt mt nhng bit gy ra s thiu ht v thng tin. C th khc phc vn bng nhiu cch. u tin l xy dng th mt bng cch o cc thng s v in p/thi gian vi mt m hnh c hiu sut ly mu ln hn. Gii php th 2 l s dng nhng mu bit trc tip t ng truyn, iu s trnh c iu kin l s gii hn lm vic ca thit b. 4.3 Cc tham s c trng cho mng GPON 4.3.1 Bc sng hng xung 1490 nm, hng ln 1310 nm

Hnh 4.6 Ph tn hiu tp trung bc sng 1490 nm

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Hnh 4.7 Ph tn hiu tp trung bc sng 1310nm Hnh 4.6 v Hnh 4.7 cho thy mt ph tp trung 2 tn s ng vi 2 bc sng tng ng l 1490 nm (hng xung) v 1310 nm (ng vi hng ln). 4.3.2 Phng thc iu ch NRZ 4.3.2.1 Chc nng c bn ca m ng dy: Mt vn quan trng trong x l tn hiu bng gc l tch tn hiu nh thi t tn hiu c chuyn ti. Tn hiu nh thi thng c tch t cc chuyn i cc tnh xung thnh phn. Trong trng hp s dng cc tn hiu NRZ th vic tch cc tn hiu nh thi l rt kh khn v gi s tn hiu nh thi l bit 1 v bit tn hiu d liu cng lin tip sau l 1 r rng rt kh xc nh. khc phc iu ny, ngi ta m ha tn hiu nh phn n cc trc khi truyn trc tip trn ng dy. Cch thc m ha nh vy gi l m ha ng dy. Cc chc nng ch yu ca m ha ng dy l: Chuyn ph tn hiu bng gc (tp trung ch yu ti min tn thp v cha thnh phn mt chiu rt ln) ln min tn s cao hn lt vo bng thng ng dy truyn khng iu ch tn hiu bng gc i c xa hn.

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Tng mt chuyn i cc tnh ca tn hiu nhm h tr cho qu trnh ng b ng h pha thu.

C kh nng kim sot li (thng ch c kh nng pht hin li ch khng c kh nng sa).

4.3.2.2 Ti sao li dng iu ch NRZ ng truyn dn quang l loi ch truyn 2 trng thi sng v ti. Do cn phi dng m ch c 2 mc. Trong thng tin quang, ngi ta thng s dng loi m nh phn nBmB. M nh phn nBmB: Ngi ta coi mt chu k bit u vo l n bit v chu k bit u ra l m bit. Tn hiu nh phn thch hp vi vic truyn trn si quang hc vi bit 1 c quy nh l xung c nh sng cn bit 0 l xung khng c nh sng. khng kh khn trong vic khi phc nh thi do khng c chuyn i cc tnh xung ko di khi c chui bit (hiu l mt chui chu k bit) lin tip l 0 hoc 1, ngi ta s dng m nBmB. Gi s y ngi ta s dng m 5B6B. Trong 5 bit li vo sau m ha s c 6 bit li ra. 5 bit s to thnh mt nhm. Khi m ha th mt nhm bit s tng ng vi mt mc in p ca tn hiu NRZ. S t hp t m ca nhm 5 bit l 32, ca nhm 6 bit l 64. Tc l cn tha 32 bit nn ngi ta dng pht hin li. Ngoi ra, khi dng m 5B6B th tc bit tng ln 6/5 =1,2 ln. iu ny khng nh hng ng k i vi h thng quang (vn c xem l bng tn v hn). Vi h thng truyn dn hn ch, ni chung h thng ny khng m bo c hiu qu s dng knh. Di y chng ta s xem xt vic s dng cc loi iu ch ha knh s nh hng nh th no n t l li bit. S dng iu ch NRZ : iu ch NRZ lm cho cc tnh ca tn hiu khng thay i trong mt chu k bit. Hnh 4.8 ta thy rng ca th mt l kh ln. C th y, ta c th thy Min BER = 1.752e-13. Ngoi ra, th ny cn mang hnh dng c trng ca phng thc iu ch NRZ. Cc tnh ca tn hiu c gi nguyn trong mt chu k bit.

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Hnh 4.8 S dng iu ch NRZ S dng NZ:

Hnh 4.9 S dng iu ch RZ

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Theo th Hnh 4.9 ta nhn thy r c rng th mt l qu nh, cha t ti 20%. T l li bit l ln (= 1.552e-5) tc l c 10 -5. y l t l li bit qu ln v khng chp nhn c trong h thng thng tin quang, khi yu cu BER ch c 10 -9. Vy ti sao li nh vy? R rng l trong mt chu k bit, vi tn hiu RZ, cc tnh ca tn hiu b thay i mt ln, iu ny gy kh khn cho pha thu xc nh c cc tnh nht l vi tc m ha cng cao. Trong khi , vi m ha RZ, cc tnh ca tn hiu gi nguyn trong mt chu k bit. Do vic xc nh cc tnh d hn. iu gii thch ti sao trong h thng mng GPON ngi ta li s dng NRZ ch khng phi RZ. 4.4 M phng cc yu t nh hng n cht lng mng GPON 4.4.1 S kt ni M hnh kt ni mng c m t Hnh 4.10. Trong s trn ta thy h thng mng FTTx theo chun GPON c cc thnh phn chnh l: Thit b u cui pha nh sn xut OLT. chnh l b ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng. y cc d liu c iu ch ln cc bc sng thuc ca s quang 1550 nm. Sau khi iu ch cc tn hiu s c a vo b ghp knh theo bc sng WDM. Circulator dng tch mt bc sng ra phn tch tn hiu trn ng truyn. Si quang n mode c chiu di l 20 km tnh t pha nh sn xut n ngi s dng. Cc thng s ca si quang: Splitter quang: v bn cht, splitter quang l mt b chia cng sut. C nhiu loi splitter quang, c loi th cng sut cc ng u ra bng nhau nhng cng c loi th cng sut u ra theo cc t l 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32 N cng l b chia bng thng. Gi s, tc hng xung l 1,244 Gbps, h s chia ca splitter l 1:16 th bng thng ti a dnh cho cc user hng xung s l 1,244 : 16 = 0,07775 Gbps hay l 77,5 Mbps.

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Hnh 4.10 S mng GPON

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Hnh 4.11 Cu trc ONU ONU l thit b u cui pha ngi s dng. N c chc nng l bin i tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in. S lng ONU l 8. Cu trc bn trong ca ONU c c th nh Hnh 4.11 Ta c th thy trong s , ONU s gm 2 phn thu v pht. Phn thu gm c mt Photodetecor, mt b lc Bessel. Tn hiu khi n u vo ca ONU n s c Photodetector thu, qua b lc Besel n s lc ly nhng tn hiu c tn s thp ri qua b khi phc tn hiu v cui cng a vo b phn tch t l li bit BER. Phn pht gm mt b ghp knh quang WDM gm cc tham s c thit lp nh hnh v. Qua cc b dynamic Select (v bn cht n c chc nng nh l mt switch), tn hiu s c truyn i theo hng ln Ngoi ra cn c mt s thit b khc phn tch tn hiu nh my phn tch ph (Optical Spectrum Analyser), b ti to tn hiu (3R Generation), b hin th thi gian (Optical Time Domain Visualizer). 4.4.2 Cc tnh hung m phng 4.4.2.1 Cc thng s thit lp chung: Mng GPON Vi b chia 1:16 Pha pht: Phng thc m ha: NRZ Cng sut pht: - 3 dBm

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Tc bit: 1224.16Mbps Bc sng hng xung: 1490 nm rng mi knh: 10 MHz

Knh truyn: Si n mode Suy hao: 0,2 dB/km tn sc: 16,75 ps/nm/km

Pha thu: Phng thc m ha: NRZ Tc bit: 1224.16Mbps Bc sng hng ln: 1310 nm rng mi knh: 10 MHz Cng sut pht: - 3 dBm

4.4.2.2 nh hng ca khong cch Vi khong cch l 20km, th th mt, BER v Q nh sau:

Hnh 4.12 th mt, BER, Q khong cch 20km

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Khi khong cch cng ln th t l li bit cng ln. Theo tiu chun ca ITU T 984, khong cch truyn ti a trong mng GPON l 20km. Ta s th nghim vi 2 khong cch: 20 km v 10 km thy s khc bit. Trn thc t th CMCTI s dng khong cch truyn l 10 km. Nh Hnh 4.12 trn, ta c th thy khong cch 20km ta c cc thng s c bn nh : Max Q factor: 6.89129 Min BER: 2.74131e-012 Eye height: 3.50054e-006 Threshold: 4.17419e-006

Hnh 4.13 th BER min khong cch 20 km

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Hnh 4.14 th mc ngng khong cch 20 km T hnh v 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, ta thy rng trong mt chu k bit, ti sn ca tn hiu I bin thin nhanh nht, nn kh phn bit l mc trn hay mc di . Do

t l li bit khu vc ny l cao. Phn cn li t l li bit l kh xy ra. Nh ta thy trn hnh 4.13, BER min= 2.74131e-012 nm khu vc nh tn hiu. So snh 2 hnh 4.12 v 4.13 ta thy r rng khi BER min tng, th Q gim v ngc li. ng vi BER min= 2.74131e-012 th Max Q factor = 6.89129. iu ny hon ton ng vi cng thc (4.10). v = 4.17419e-006.

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Hnh 4.15 th mt, BER, Q factor khong cch 10 km Tng t nh trn, khong cch 10 km ta c cc thng s nh sau: Max Q factor: 10.4515 Min BER: 7.1845e-026 Eye height: 6.9262e-006 Threshold: 5.5553e-006 nh gi: Qua cc kt qu m phng trn ta thy rng, khong cch cng ngn th t l li bit cng gim. khong cch l 10 km, BER l 7.1845e-026 cn khong cch 20 km th BER l 2.74131e-012. R rng s chnh lch l kh ln. Ngoi ra, da vo 2 th trn ta cn c th thy c cc thng s nh Q factor 4.4.2.3 nh hng ca h s chia ca Splitter Theo tiu chun ca ITU-T G984.4, h s chia ca splitter c th l 1:4, 1:8, 1:16, 1:32, 1:64. Trong m hnh m phng y, chng ta s th nghim vi 2 h s chia l h s chia 1:8 (Hnh 4.16) v 1:16 (Hnh 4.17) di y:

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Hnh 4.16 th mt khong cch 20 km, h s chia ca splitter l 1:8

Hnh 4.17 th mt vi h s chia l 1:16 Nh vy, khi h s chia cng nh th m ca th mt cng ln, h s Q max cng ln. Vi cng mt cng sut pht my pht v cng mt ngng thu

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my thu, khi suy hao ng truyn cng nh th cng sut thu cng ln. Cng sut thu cng ln hn ngng thu bao nhiu th cng tt by nhiu. Khi th t l li bit cng gim. Trn l thuyt th h s chia ti a trong mng GPON t mc l 1 :164. Tuy nhin trong phn mm m phng ta ch c th thy cht lng mng t mc 1 :64 vi tc l 622.08 Mbps. 4.4.2.4 nh hng ca tc bit Khi tc bit cng cao, th cng sut pht cng phi cao hn v b thu cng phi c b nhy thu cao hn. y, ta tng cng sut pht ln 3dBm (vn nm trong gii hn khuyn ngh ca ITU). Di y chng ta s xem xt cc tc c th thc hin c vi chun GPON. Bng 4.2 Cc tc download v upload c th trong mng GPON Tc down link(Mbps) Tc up link (Mbps) 1244.16 1244.16 1244.16 2448.32 2448.32 2448.32 2448.32 155.52 622.08 1244.16 155.52 622.08 1244.16 2448.32

Vi cc gi nh: tc download ln lt s l 622.08 Mbps v 1244.16 Mbps. Ta c cc kt qu nh Hnh 4.18 v Hnh 4.19.

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Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

Hnh 4.18 th mt GPON 1:16 tc 1224.16MHz (down link)

Hnh 4.19 th mt GPON 1:16 tc 2448.32MHz (down link) 4.5 Kt lun chng T nhng kt qu trn ta thy rng, c rt nhiu yu t nh hng n cht lng mng GPON. c th l khong cch truyn dn, h s chia splitter (y l c im c trng ca FTTx). Ngoi ra cn c mt s yu t nh hng khc nh tc bit Tuy nhin, trong chng trnh m phng chng ta ch xt n 2 yu t trn.

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Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

CHNG 5 KT LUN V HNG PHT TRIN TI


Sau thi gian thc hin lun vn vi s hng dn v gip tn tnh ca Thy Bi Hu Ph, lun vn Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx hon thnh ng thi gian quy nh. Lun vn trnh by chi tit v mng truy nhp quang FTTx cng vi cng ngh GPON- chun mi nht c trin khai ti Vit Nam. a ra cc m hnh mng truy nhp quang vi nhng u im vt tri v tc , bng thng cng nh cht lng. Ha hn s pht trin vt bc cho mng truy nhp, p ng nhu cu khch hng. Hin ti PON ang c trin khai rng ri nhiu nc trn th gii. Ti Vit Nam, nhng nh cung cp dch v nh Viettel, FPT, SPT, CMC TI cng ang y mnh pht trin PON da trn nhiu chun khc nhau. Lun vn cng tp trung nghin cu qu trnh trin khai mng FTTx da trn cng ngh GPON ti CMC TI. ng thi em m phng h thng mng FTTx theo chun GPON v s nh hng ca mt vi yu t ti cht lng mng. Nhng kt qu m phng phn no phn nh c cht lng ca mng FTTx. Hng pht trin tip theo ca em l nghin cu i su hn na v chun GPON ny theo hng: Ci thin cht lng mng quang ni chung v mng GPON ni ring bng cch s dng m Turbo code. Trong qu trnh truyn tn hiu quang, tc khong vi Gbps th hin tng tn sc gy ra nh hng rt ln n t l li bit. Ngi ta c th ci thin BER bng cch s dng m ha knh nh m Turbo code.

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Nghin cu v m phng mng truy nhp quang FTTx

TI LIU THAM KHO [1] Gerd Keiser, PhotonicsComm Solutions, Inc, FTTX Concepts and Applications, Wiley Series in Telecommunications and Signal Processing Publication Date: January 2006 Wiley-IEEE Press [2] Paul E. Green Jr., Fiber to the Home: The New Empowerment John Wiley & Sons [3] Cedric F. Lam (Editor), Passive Optical Networks: Principles and Practice (Hardcover) [4] Glen Kramer, University of California, Davis Biswanath Mukherjee, University of California, Davis Ariel Maislos, Passave Networks, Israel, Ethernet Passive Optical Network (EPON) [5] The FTTH Prism, Vol.5 No.2, February 2008, OFC/NFOEC 2008 Issue [6] Lucent Technologies, Bell Lab Innovations, FTTx in Europe: Technology Options and Economics [7] Jeroen Wellen, Lucent Technologies, Outlook: Next Generation FTTX Access Networks [8]. ITU G.984.3 (2004), Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Transmission convergence layer specification. [9]. ITU G.984.2 (2003), Gigabit-capable Passive Optical Networks (GPON): Physical Media Dependent (PMD) layer specification. [10]. Hong Vn Bnh, Nghin cu gii php quang th ng Gigabit ph hp vi yu cu mng VNPT. [11]. Nguyn Vit Hng, Hc Vin CNBCVT, Cng ngh truy nhp trong mng NGN. [12]. Quang Minh - Cng ngh v chun ha mng quang th ng . [13]. http://vntelecom.org/diendan/forum.php (truy cp ngy 27/04/2011) [14].http://www.diendantinhoc.vn (truy cp ngy 15/05/2011).

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