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Compound stiffness modelling of an integrated open-die forging centre with serialparallel heavy-duty manipulatorsg
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C Yan1 , F Gao1* , and Q J Ge2 State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Peoples Republic of China 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, New York, USA The manuscript was received on 7 August 2009 and was accepted after revision for publication on 15 March 2010. DOI: 10.1243/09544054JEM1766

Abstract: This paper presents a method for modelling the compound stiffness of an integrated open-die forging centre that consists of a forging press as well as a manipulator that handles the workpiece. Open-die forging has considerable differences to general machining processes due to the complex plastic deformation effects created by consecutive forging strikes. The manipulator must comply with the movement of the workpiece during forging. The stiffness of the integrated system mainly comes from two sources: the compliance of the manipulator and the elastic deformation of the workpiece during forging. First, the stiffness matrix of the workpiece is derived using the theory of mechanics of materials. Then, the complete Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator is developed by using the conservative congruence transformation method. Finally, the compound stiffness model is constructed by combining these two stiffness matrices. A numerical algorithm is developed that is able to simulate the compliance motion of a programmed open-die forging process. Two numerical examples are presented to validate the proposed modelling method and numerical algorithm. Keywords: compound stiffness modelling, stiffness matrix, integrated forging centre, programmed open-die forging

1 INTRODUCTION The stiffness modelling of an integrated manufacturing system is of great importance to the successful execution of contact and non-contact tasks. The model can be integrated into an active stiffness control, impedance control, or hybrid position/force control strategy to regulate the interaction between the manipulator and its environment. The topic of stiffness modelling has been extensively investigated and applied to dexterous robotic hands and manufacturing systems such as assembling, machining, deburring, and grinding. In an integrated manufacturing system, stiffness (or compliance) exists in every
*Corresponding author: School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical System and Vibration, Shanghai 200240, Peoples Republic of China. email: gaofengsjtu@gmail.com
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object which is in contact with another object. The manipulators, the clamping tools, and even the workpieces, are all possible sources of stiffness and can thus influence the interaction behaviours of the entire system. The stiffness of a manipulator defines the relation between the contact force and the compliant displacement of the end-effector, which must be controlled to satisfy the desired position and force commands [1]. Salisbury [2] proposed the concept of active stiffness control of a manipulator and was the first to derive the conventional congruence transformation that maps the stiffness matrix from the joint space to Cartesian space. After this seminal work numerous studies were performed on manipulator stiffness and compliance [39]. The global modelling of compliant couplings was studied in [5] and it was concluded that for a conservative system, the general stiffness matrix should not be symmetric. Thus, the conventional stiffness transformation developed
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Fig. 1 Schematic view of an integrated open-die forging system

by Salisbury is only valid under limited conditions. Howard et al. [9] proved the asymmetric property of a conservative stiffness matrix by using arguments based on differential geometry and the properties of Lie groups. Chen and Kao [10] proposed a new conservative congruence transformation (CCT) to represent the generalized relationship between the joint and Cartesian stiffness matrices. The CCT is able to account for changes in the Jacobian matrix in the presence of external forces and thus preserves the fundamental conservative nature of the stiffness matrix. The CCT has been further studied and extended in [1116] and its effectiveness has been demonstrated by theoretical and experimental results on stiffness identification, verification, and characterization for robot manipulators [17]. A stiffness analysis of overconstrained parallel manipulators was carried out in [18] using a multidimensional lumped model of the flexible links. This paper studies the application of an integrated manufacturing system to a metal forming process, such as heavy open-die forging. In such a process, one portion of the workpiece is under complex plastic deformation, which differs from material removal processes such as machining processes. An integrated open-die forging system [1921], as shown in Fig. 1, includes a forging press and one or two heavyduty forging manipulators. The workpiece is held by the gripper of the manipulator, and is formed into the desired dimensions through incremental plastic deformations between the two flat dies of the forging press. In such a manufacturing system, the compliant motion of the end-effector is determined not only by the stiffness of the manipulator, but also, to a great extent, by the characteristics of the deforming process and the material properties of the workpiece. The impact force exerted on the manipulator through its manipulation of the workpiece must be minimized to avoid damage to the mechanical structure of the manipulator and to ensure the forming quality of
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Fig. 2 An integrated open-die forging system and the interactions between its components

the workpiece. Although there exists an extensive literature on the stiffness modelling of serial, parallel, and hybrid serial-parallel manipulators, to date the modelling of an integrated manufacturing system, using a compound stiffness matrix approach that incorporates the characteristics of the metal forming process and conservative stiffness modelling of the manipulator, has not been fully studied. The goal of this paper is to develop a model for the compound stiffness of the integrated open-die forging system shown in Fig. 2. Plastic deformation takes place in the part of the workpiece that is between the two dies due to the forging force, while elastic deformation takes place in the part that is between the gripper of the manipulator and the plastic deformation volume. The plastic deformation of the workpiece can be obtained by analytic methods [22], experimental methods [20, 23], or finite-element modelling (FEM) [24], based on plastic forming theory. The compound stiffness model is obtained by combining the stiffness of the manipulator and the stiffness of the elastic deformation portion of the workpiece. The following assumptions are made in this paper. 1. The links of the manipulator are infinitely stiff. 2. The actuators are regarded as a massspring system and their stiffness values are constant. 3. The deformation of the workpiece can be divided into two sections: the elastic deformation section (EDS) and the plastic deformation section (PDS) and these two sections are rigidly connected. 4. The velocity field of the PDS during the forging process is obtained by FEM or other methods, as
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Fig. 3 Velocity field of a forged workpiece obtained by FEM simulation

shown in Fig. 3. The EDS is regarded as a beam that is being bent under the action of an axial compression and its stiffness matrix is formulated using the theory of the mechanics of materials. The Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator is formulated by considering the stiffness of the actuators, the manipulator configuration, and the external load. The compound stiffness model of the integrated system is established by combining the two stiffness models. This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the stiffness modelling of the deforming workpiece and derives the stiffness matrix of the EDS. In section 3, the compound stiffness modelling of the integrated system is formulated and the complete conservative Cartesian stiffness matrix is derived. Section 4 presents a numerical algorithm for simulating the programmed forging process performed by the integrated forging centre, based on the proposed compound stiffness model. Simulation examples using these algorithms are presented in section 5. Finally, conclusions are drawn in section 6. 2 MODELLING THE STIFFNESS OF THE DEFORMING WORKPIECE In an integrated open-die forging centre, the workpiece is held by the gripper of the forging manipulator and the upper and lower dies of the press compress a portion of the workpiece. The forces exerted on the workpiece are created by the contacts between the
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upper and lower dies and the impact force of the gripper. The deformation of the workpiece can be divided into three sections as shown in Fig. 4(a): the PDS, the EDS, and the rigid section (RS) (not shown in this case). Plastic deformation mainly happens between the two dies and constitutes the PDS of the workpiece during forging, i.e. the section between the point P and point E. The RS generally exists at the free end where the workpiece is in contact with the environment. In Fig. 4(a) there is no RS because plastic deformation only occurs at the end. The EDS is located between point O and point P. The portion of the workpiece in this section is under elastic deformation because of the joint action of the metal flow of the PDS and the stiffness of the gripper. Figure 4(b) illustrates the elastic deformation of the EDS, where the operation frame O-XY of the manipulator is located at the centre of the gripper, and l is the length of the elastic section, V f = Vfx , Vfy is the velocity vector of point P in frame O-XY caused by the deformation of the PDS, Ve = Vex , Vey is the compliant velocity of the gripper in the frame O-XY , dx, dy are infinitesimal displacement of point P in the X and Y directions, respectively, d is the infinitesimal bending angle of the EDS, Fpy , dFpy are the bending force exerted on point P of the EDS and its infinitesimal increment, respectively, Fpx , dFpx are the axial compressive force exerted on point P of the elastic section and its infinitesimal increment, respectively, and Fx , Fy , Mz are the force (moment) components exerted on the holding end of the workpiece by the gripper.
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Fig. 4 Deformation model of the workpiece during the forging process

According to solid mechanics, the elastic deformation consists of two parts: axial compression and beam bending. Then, during the time span (t, t + dt), the infinitesimal displacement of point P is computed as dx = (Vfx Vex )dt dy = (Vfy Vey )dt (1)

where E is the elastic modulus, and A is the crosssectional area of the EDS. From the theory of bending by a transverse force, dFpy satisfies the equation dFpy = 3EI dy l3 (4)

Because dt, dx, and dy are infinitesimal, the longitudinal shortening in length of the EDS can be regarded as dx, as shown in Fig. 4(b), while the deflection of the centre line of the EDS is approximately dy. It is reasonable to assume that l = dy, then the bending angle d can be computed as dy d l (2)

where I is the moment of inertia of the cross-sectional area with respect to the neutral axis. Moments of inertia are always positive and have dimensions of length to the fourth power, which can be computed as I= y 2 dA
A

From the theory of mechanics of materials, the axial deformation dx is caused by axial force dFpx , and the deflection dy and the bending angle d are caused by the transverse force dFpy . From axial compression theory, dFpx satisfies the equation dFpx = EAdx l (3)

where y is the Y -coordinate of a point on the crosssection of the beam. The moment of inertia of a rectangular cross-section with width b and height h can be computed as I = bh3 /12. The force equilibrium equation of the EDS is Fx = Fpx Fy = Fpy Mz = Fpy l
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(5)

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Substituting equations (3) and (4) into equation (5) yields EA 0 0 l dx dFx dFpx 3EI 0 dy dFy = dFpy = 0 3 l d dMz dMpz 3EI 0 0 l (6) The stiffness of the EDS, denoted by k e , represents the relation between the magnitudes of the acting forces and the elastic deformation value, and is thus given by EA 0 0 l 3EI ke = 0 (7) 0 l3 3EI 0 0 l

open-die forging system. The manipulator consists of three kinematic chains: (a) limb I: the rear lifting mechanism; (b) limb II: the front lifting mechanism; (c) close chain III: the buffer mechanism to absorb impact and accumulate energy. The stiffness model is shown in Fig. 5(b), with O-XY representing the base frame of the integrated system which is associated with the press. The other quantities defined in this base frame are: x the position vector of point Pe located at the centre of the gripper, x the position vector of point Pf connecting the PDS with the EDS of the workpiece, Vf the velocity vector of point Pf , ke the stiffness matrix of the EDS of the workpiece, kx the Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator, F the force vector exerted on the gripper by the holding end of the workpiece, and Ve the compliant velocity vector of the gripper. Due to the symmetry of the configuration, it can be reasonably assumed that the compliant motion of the gripper only happens in the XY -plane. Let F = Fx , Fy , Mz denote the force vector exerted on the gripper by the holding end of the workpiece. The Cartesian stiffness matrix kx of the gripper of the manipulator defines the relation between the infinitesimal change of F to the infinitesimal

3 THE COMPOUND STIFFNESS OF THE INTEGRATED OPEN-DIE FORGING SYSTEM Figure 5(a) shows a schematic of the manipulator and the coordinated configuration of the integrated

Fig. 5 An integrated open-die forging system: (a) its configuration; (b) its stiffness model
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displacement of the gripper denoted by dx at an equilibrium position, that is kx = dF dx (8)

Suppose the displacement of the gripper is initialized from an equilibrium position x = x0 , then at time t the force can be obtained by integration of equation (8), that is F =
x x0

where q, q, and dq denote the joint displacements, joint velocity, and infinitesimal joint displacement respectively. The joint stiffness matrix of a manipulator, denoted by kq , relates an infinitesimal joint force change to the corresponding infinitesimal joint displacement. Here kq is treated as a constant diagonal matrix consisting of the joint stiffness of the actuators. The infinitesimal joint forces can be expressed as d = kq dq (15)

kx dx =

t 0

kx xdt

(9)

where x is the first derivative of the displacement of the gripper x, namely the spatial velocity. The EDS of the workpiece can be regarded as a spatial spring with an elastic modulus of ke . Then, the force F can be computed from the EDS side, as F = ke (x x ) Combining equations (9) and (10) yields
t 0

According to the principle of virtual work, the actuating joint forces are related to the force and moment exerted to the environment by the gripper as = JT F It follows from equations (9), (15), and (16) that
t 0

(16)

(10)

kq qdt = JT
t 0

t 0

kx (t)xdt
t 0

kx xdt + ke (x x ) = 0

(11)

kx xdt = JT

kq qdt

(17)

Differentiation of equation (11) with respect to time gives the following relation kx x + ke (x x ) = 0 where x = Ve , x = Vf . Then x is obtained as x = (kx + ke )1 ke x (13) (12)

Differentiating equation (17) with respect to time and considering that JT varies with time, the following relation can be obtained kx x = d(JT ) dt
t 0

kq qdt + JT kq q

(18) (15) and (16),

Equation (13) shows that the compliance velocity of the gripper x relates to x (= Vf , the velocity of point Pf ), ke (the stiffness matrix of the EDS), and kx (the Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator). The following two extreme cases should be noted. 1. If the workpiece is highly rigid, i.e. when ke is much greater than kx , then kx + ke ke . It follows from 1 equation (13) that x = ke ke x = x . This means that the compliance velocity of the gripper is equal to x and that the impact force F is determined by kx according to equation (9). 2. If the gripper of the manipulator is perfectly compliant, which means that kx is equals to zero, then x is also equal to x , and there is no impact force between the gripper and the workpiece, i.e. F is equal to zero. Next it will be shown how to obtain the Cartesian stiffness matrix kx . The Jacobian matrix of a manipulator, denoted by J, relates the spatial velocity (infinitesimal displacement) of the gripper to the joint velocities (infinitesimal joint displacement) of all active joints, as x = Jq dx = Jdq
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Combining with equations (14), equation (18) can be rewritten as kx Jq = (JT ) dq + JT kq q q dt

(19)

Eliminating q and using J1 to right-multiply both sides of equation (19), the Cartesian stiffness matrix kx can be obtained as kx = (JT ) 1 (JT ) J + JT kq J1 = + JT kq J1 q x (20) Equation (20) can be written as kx = kg + JT kq J1 where kg = JT x1 JT x2 JT x6 (22) (21)

(14)

Equation (21) is the complete Cartesian stiffness matrix for hybrid serial-parallel manipulators, which is the CCT first developed in [10], although in this paper a different approach was used in its derivation.
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4 AN ALGORITHM FOR SIMULATING A FORGING PROCESS This section presents an algorithm that is based on the compound stiffness model and is able to simulate integrated forging process as in terms of the penetration movement of the press. Using the speed of the upper die, material data, and a given pass schedule, changes in the shape of the workpiece can be calculated using the spread coefficient method or by FEM simulation, i.e. x can be obtained. Let f0 denote the initial external force exerted on the gripper. The entire forging process is divided into small steps, the time increment for each step being t. The system is assumed to remain in quasi-static equilibrium at each step. The algorithm, shown in Fig. 6, presents the procedure to compute the contact force and the compliant displacement of the gripper during a programmed open-die forging process. The efficiency of this numerical algorithm is significantly influenced T by the computation of the Jacobian matrix Ji , Ji , T and its differential form (Ji )/x. Yan et al. [25]

present a closed-form solution of the computation of the Jacobian matrix of this forging manipulator, and Huang et al. [13] give an effective algorithm to T compute (Ji )/x. 5 SIMULATION EXAMPLES Two examples are provided in this section. First, the numerical simulation of a serial-parallel manipulator is conducted to verify the Cartesian stiffness matrix of the manipulator obtained by CCT. Second, a programmed open-die forging process is simulated based on the compound stiffness model. 5.1 The Cartesian stiffness matrix of a serial-parallel manipulator and its verification The Cartesian stiffness matrix can be calculated from equation (20). A manipulator under stiffness control is a conservative system, which means that the work done by the manipulator along any closed path should be zero. The simulation algorithm was designed to numerically integrate the network along a closed path in the Cartesian and joint spaces, by using conventional and CCT methods. The steps of the numerical algorithm are similar to those proposed in [11] and [13]. To save space the details of the algorithm are omitted. The geometric configuration of a serial-parallel forging manipulator is shown in Fig. 7. The Denavit Hartenberg parameters for the manipulator are given in Table 1. Some of the dimensions are specified as follows (units: m) l1 = 2.5, l3 = 4.7, l3 = 3.2, d4 = 1.45, l5 = 11.16, l5 = 5.16, l7 = 1.67, l8 = 2.5, l9 = 2. The coordinates of points P1 , P2 , and P3 in base frame F0 , denoted by 0p1 , 0p2 , 0p3 , are [6, 0, 0]T , [1.67, 5.318, 0]T , [7.67, 5.318, 0]T respectively. During the forging process, the compliant motion of the gripper is assumed to be confined in the XY-plane, thus the model of the spatial serial-parallel manipulator can be reduced to a three-degree-of-freedom (3-dof) planar mechanism. The active joints are a rear lifting cylinder with a joint variable denoted as d8 , a front lifting cylinder whose joint variable is denoted as d8 and a buffer cylinder whose joint variable is denoted as d6 . The corresponding joint stiffness values are k1 = 500 N/m, k2 = 1000 N/m, and k3 = 500 N/m respectively. Accordingly, the motion of the gripper, which is reduced to a 3-dof planer motion vector D, consists of two translation movements Dx and Dy along the x and y axes respectively and one rotation movement Rz with respect to the z-axis. The forces exerted on the gripper, denoted by F , consists of two force components Fx and Fy along the x and y axes
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Fig. 6 Algorithm for computing contact force and compliant displacement of the gripper during the open-die forging process
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Fig. 7 The geometric configuration of the hybrid serial-parallel forging manipulator Table 1 The DenavitHartenberg parameters of the forging manipulator (joints marked with a are active joints)
Joint/link i ai (m) Link 1 Link 2 Link 3 Link 4 Link 5 Link 6 Link 7 Link 8 Link 1 Link 2 Link 3 Link 4 Link 5 Link 7 Link 8 Link 4 Link 5 Link 6 0 l1 0 l3 0 0 l7 0 0 l1 0 l3 0 l7 0 l3 l3 0 0 i (rad) di (m) 0 0 0 0 /2 /2 0 /2 0 0 0 0 /2 0 /2 0 /2 /2 0 d2 (d2 = 0) 0 0 d4 l5 0 d8 (d8 = 2.718) 0 d2 (d2 = 0) 0 0 d4 0 d8 (d8 = 2.718) 0 0 d6 (d6 = 3.5) i (rad) 1 (1 = 0) 0 3 (3 = /2) 4 (4 = /2) 5 (5 = /2) 6 (6 = 0) 7 (7 = 0) 0 1 (1 = 0) 0 3 (3 = /2) 4 (4 = /2) 5 (5 = /2) 7 (7 = 0) 0 4 (4 = /2) 5 (5 = /2) 0

The initial force and moment exerted to the environment by the gripper is F0 = [100, 7644, 0, 0, 0, 0]T , and the actuating force applied at the initial configuration is computed using equation (16) to be 0 = [9922.1656, 21 365.2794, 146.875]T . The joint stiffness matrix is given by k1 kq = 0 0 0 k2 0 500 0= 0 k3 0 0 0 1000 0 0 0 500

The initial conventional stiffness matrix is given by 231.7791 0 = 753.282 0 669.336 4792.4458 753.282 4792.4458 42116.7662

kxCON respectively and one moment Mz with respect to the z-axis. At the initial configuration, the position of the gripper frame Ft relative to the base frame F0 is [13.660, 3.25, 0]T . The planned path of the gripper is designed to be a circle in the XY-plane. The starting point of the circle is at the grippers initial position, and the radius of the circle is 0.8, as described by the following relations 13.660 + 0.8(cos(t) 1) D = 3.25 + 0.8 sin(t) 0

The initial Cartesian stiffness matrix is given by 1849.679 = 0.0817 1633.0922 50.5896 629.336 4506.7803 1630.7214 4586.0487 32 773.3596

kxCCT

for 0 < t

The time history of the work done over the planned path (shown in Fig. 8) and the corresponding external force (shown in Fig. 9), were calculated by the conventional stiffness transformation and CCT methods. In
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Fig. 8 The work done over the closed path

Fig. 9 The external force exerted on the gripper moving over the closed path

Fig. 8, the work WJ denotes the work done by the joint actuation forces, which is calculated in the joint space; the work WCCT is obtained by using the CCT stiffness matrix kxCCT in equation (21), and WCON is obtained by using the conventional Cartesian stiffness matrix kxCON . Both WCCT and kxCCT are calculated in the Cartesian space. As illustrated in the figure, the curves of WCCT and WJ are coincident and return to zero at the end, while the work WCON shows an obvious discrepancy with WJ . Figure 9 shows the force components Fx , Fy , Mz exerted on the gripper respectively. As can be seen, when the gripper returns to the initial position after the closed path is finished, the curves of the force components obtained using
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the conventional stiffness matrix cannot return to the original value, whereas the curves obtained by CCT return to the original value as expected. The results show that the CCT method used to calculate WCCT does obey the conservation of energy law, in which the total work done over the closed path returns to zero and the calculated external forces are identical to their initial value, whereas the conventional stiffness transformation method is unable to preserve the conservative property of the system in this case. This illustrates why the stiffness of the manipulator should be modelled using the CCT method instead of the conventional stiffness approach under heavy payload requirements. It should also be noted
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Fig. 10 The movement of the PDS during one forging strike

that the discrepancies of the force curves obtained by CCT and the conventional approach become more pronounced as the actuating torque becomes larger. 5.2 A programmed open-die forging process A schematic drawing of the integrated forging centre is shown in Fig. 5. The geometric and mechanical properties of the workpiece are as elastic modulus of 120 GPa, an initial length of the workpiece of 0.8 m, an initial width of the workpiece of 0.5 m, an initial height of the workpiece of 0.5 m, and a moment of inertia of the cross-section of 5.2083 103 m4 . The stiffness matrix of the EDS ke can be computed from equation (7) as ke = 3.125 107 0 0 0 0.0191 107 0 0 0 0.0122 107

stiffness of the front lifting cylinder. Equation (5) shows that Mz is proportional to Fy , and the same trend is observed in both Fig. 11 and Fig. 12. The simulation shows that in order to decrease the acting force Fx , it is necessary to lower the stiffness of the buffer cylinder; while in order to decrease the acting force Fy and moment Mz , the stiffness of the front lifting cylinder must be controlled at a low level.

6 CONCLUSIONS This paper developed a method for modelling the compound stiffness of an integrated manufacturing system for open-die forging process. The new contributions of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. The stiffness of the workpiece under plastic deformation is taken into consideration for the modelling of the compound stiffness of the integrated open-die forging system. The force-compliant control of the forging manipulator relies not only on the Cartesian stiffness of the end-effector, but also on the geometry and material characteristics of the workpiece. The EDS of the forged workpiece is modelled as a beam under the action of compressing and bending and the stiffness matrix of the EDS is formulated by using the theory of mechanics of materials. 2. The stiffness of the manipulator is modelled by using a CCT, because of the heavy payload requirement. 3. A method for modelling the compound stiffness of an integrated open-die forging centre is developed. The Cartesian stiffness of the manipulator is obtained by using a CCT instead of the conventional stiffness transformation proposed by Salisbury [2].
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The movement (displacement, velocity, and acceleration) of the PDS during one forging strike is shown in Fig. 10. The entire process is simulated by using the numerical algorithm presented in section 4. The time history of the force and moments exerted on the gripper by the workpiece are shown in Fig. 11 and Fig. 12, respectively, with different joint stiffness configurations. In Fig. 11, the joint stiffness of the buffer cylinder d6 is at three different levels k3 = 0, 500, 1200 N/m, with k1 = 500 N/m and k2 = 1000 N/m; In Fig. 12 the joint stiffness of the front lifting cylinder is at three different levels: k2 = 500, 1500, 2500 N/m, with k1 = 500 N/m and k3 = 500 N/m. As shown in Fig. 11, as k3 increases, the vertical component of the force, Fy , shows a relatively smaller variation than the force component Fx . From Fig. 12, it can be seen that the vertical component of the force, Fy , is mostly influenced by the joint
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Fig. 11 The contact forces with different stiffness levels of the buffer cylinder

4. In order to simulate the programmed opendie forging process conducted by an integrated manufacturing system, a numerical simulation algorithm based on the compound stiffness modelling method is proposed. The simulation shows that the proposed stiffness model can be used to quantitatively analyse the interaction between the gripper and the workpiece during the forging process. The results can be used to guide the design of the manipulator. Furthermore, the algorithm can also be incorporated into a virtual reality
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simulation of the forging process, and applied in the coordinated compliance control strategies of integrated open-die forging centres. In future work the proposed stiffness model will be used to create a control strategy for a new-type heavy-duty forging manipulator developed in the authors laboratory, which is expected to be a major component of an integrated open-die forging centre to realize the programmed forging processes together with a forging press.
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Fig. 12 The contact forces with different stiffness levels of the front lifting cylinder

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of this work by the National Basic Research Program of China (grant 2006CB705402) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grants 60534020 and 50728503). Any opinions, findings and conclusions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the funding agencies. Authors 2010
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