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KIN TRC MNG CHUYN MCH BURST QUANG

Trn Quang Vinh, V M Hng 1. Gii thiu Chuyn mch burst quang (OBS) l mt phng php cho php truyn ti lu lng mt cch trc tip qua mng WDM m khng cn b m quang. OBS c thit k t c mt s cn bng gia chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi. OBS s dng cc s nh trc mt hng vi qu trnh truyn tc thi, burst d liu truyn i sau gi iu khin tng ng m khng i phn hi (bo nhn) t nt ch [1]. Thc cht, OBS xem xt lp quang hc n thun nh mt phng tin truyn thng trong sut cho cc ng dng. Tuy nhin, cha c nh ngha chung cho chuyn mch burst quang. Mt s c trng chung ca OBS nh sau: - Tch bit gia knh iu khin v knh d liu: thng tin iu khin c truyn trn mt bc sng (knh) ring bit. - S dnh ring mt chiu: nhng ti nguyn c cp pht s dng s dnh ring mt chiu. Ngha l, nt ngun khng cn i thng tin phn hi t nt ch trc khi n bt u truyn burst. - di ca burst thay i c: kch thc ca burst c th thay i c tu theo yu cu. - Khng cn b m quang: nt trung gian trong mng quang khng yu cu phi c b m quang. Cc burst i xuyn qua cc nt trung gian m khng c bt k s tr no. Bng 1 tng kt u nhc im ca ba s chuyn mch phn tch trn: Bng 1 Chuyn mch Knh Gi/ OBS Kh nng tn dng bng thng Thp Cao Cao Kh nng X l/ng thch ng Mc tr m quang b ho mo (vi lu lng u v li) Khng Cao Thp Thp yu cu Thp Yu cu Cao Cao Khng Thp Thp Cao yu cu

Nhng c trng chnh ca OBS l cch tip cn lai gia bo hiu ngoi bng v x l in t cc thng tin mo u trong khi d liu vn dng quang trong ton b thi gian truyn, s dnh ring mt chiu, di burst c th thay i c, v khng bt buc phi c b m. Sau y chng ta xem xt mt s kin trc mng chuyn mch burst quang. 2 Kin trc mng chuyn mch Burst quang (OBS) 2.1 Kin trc mng OBS dng mt li Trong mng chuyn mch burst quang cc burst d liu bao gm t hp nhiu gi c chuyn qua mi nt mng dng ton quang. Mt thng bo iu khin (gi mo u) c truyn trc burst d liu vi mc ch thit lp cc chuyn mch dc theo ng i ca burst. Burst d liu c truyn theo sau gi mo u m khng i bo nhn thit lp kt ni.
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Hnh 1 th hin mt mng OBS dng mt li bao gm cc nt ra v cc nt li. Mng OBS bao gm cc chuyn mch burst quang c ni vi cc tuyn WDM. OBS pht mt burst t cng u vo ti cng u ra, da trn thit k chuyn mch n c th c hoc khng c trang b b m quang. Cc tuyn WDM mang t hp nhiu bc sng v mi bc sng coi nh mt knh truyn. Gi iu khin kt hp vi mt burst cng c th truyn trn bng tn qua cng 1 knh nh l d liu, hoc trn mt knh iu khin ring bit. Burst c th c c nh mang mt hoc nhiu gi IP.

Hnh 1. M hnh mng OBS dng mt li

Mt nt chuyn mch c trng bao gm nhng thnh phn sau: - Giao din u vo: Tip nhn gi mo u v burst d liu, chuyn i gi mo u thnh tn hiu in. - n v iu khin chuyn mch: Phin dch gi mo u, t lch trnh v gii quyt xung t, nh tuyn, iu khin ma trn chuyn mch, to li gi mo u v iu khin bin i bc sng. - Cc b bin i bc sng v cc ng tr quang (ODL): ng tr quang s dng nh mt b m cha burst trong mt khong thi gian tr nht nh. - n v chuyn mch quang: Cc chuyn mch khng gian lm nhim v chuyn burst d liu. Cc nt ra c thm chc nng to burst bi s kt hp v gii kt hp. Vi cc cch thc hin khc nhau nh c th s dng mt ngng hoc khong thi gian quy nh kt hp cc gi d liu to ra mt burst quang v gi burst vo mng. Cc nt li s c cc b thu WDM, cc b pht WDM, cc b ghp knh WDM, cc b gii ghp knh WDM cc b khuych i node, cc n v iu khin chuyn mch, cc b bin i bc sng, cc ng to tr, cc b chuyn mch phn chia khng gian. 2.2 Kin trc mng OBS dng Vng v Nt Chng ta xem xt mng gm N nt OBS c t chc trong mt vng Ring n hng, nh trn hnh 2. Vng Ring c th l mt mng vng th (MAN) phc v nh mng Backbone kt ni mt s mng truy nhp, v truyn dn nhiu kiu lu lng t nhiu ngi dng nh giao thc IP, giao thc ATM, Frame Relay, HDTV ...
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Hnh 2 M hnh mng OBS dng vng RING

Mi si kt ni gia hai nt OBS lin tip trong vng ring c th h tr N+1 bc sng. Trong N bc sng c s dng truyn burst, bc sng th N+1 c s dng nh mt knh iu khin. Mi nt OBS c gn vi mt hoc nhiu mng truy nhp. Theo chiu t mng truy nhp n vng Ring, cc nt OBS hot ng nh mt b tp trung. D liu t ngi s dng cn chuyn qua mng Ring c tp hp, lu tr (m) dng in t ri sau c nhm li cng nhau v c truyn trong burst ti nt OBS ch. Mi burst c th c kch thc bt k gia gi tr cc i v cc tiu. Cc burst c truyn i dng tn hiu quang dc theo vng Ring m khng tri qua bt k s chuyn i in-quang no nhng nt trung gian. Theo hng t vng Ring n cc mng truy nhp, nt OBS ngt cc burst quang c nh sn ti chnh n, chuyn tn hiu quang thnh tn hiu in t, x l in t d liu cha ng trong burst v chuyn giao chng ti nhng ngi dng trong cc mng truy nhp gn lin vi n. Kin trc ca mt nt OBS c cho thy trong hnh 3, mi nt c trang b mt b tch ghp knh quang (OADM), v hai cp thu pht quang. Cp u tin gm c mt my thu v my pht c nh c iu hng bi bc sng iu khin, v l b phn ca module iu khin. Bc sng iu khin c tch bi OADM mi nt, v c ghp tr li sau khi module iu khin c thng tin iu khin v c th chn thng tin mi vo. Cp th hai ca b phn thu v pht gm c mt my pht c c nh iu hng ti bc sng ch ca nt, v mt my thu nhanh (hoc mt mng my thu) c th nhn cc burst t tt c N bc sng truyn ti. Mi nt OBS c mt bc sng ch chuyn dng truyn cc burst ca chnh n. B OADM mi nt loi b tn hiu quang t bc sng ch ca nt bng cch tch bc sng tng ng, nh minh ha trong hnh 3. B OADM cng tch tn hiu quang trn nhng bc sng khc nhau, mi khi cc bc sng cha ng cc burst cho nt ny. Trong trng hp khi c nhiu burst n, mi burst trn mt bc sng khc nhau, mt nt OBS, module thu trong hnh 3 s dng mt chin lc gii quyt xung t xc nh burst no s c chp nhn. D liu i truyn i c t chc thnh nhng hng i truyn (lgc) da theo ch ca chng. B m d liu mi nt OBS c chia s thnh N-1 hng i, mi hng i tng ng vi mt trong s N-1 nt ch.

Hnh 3. Kin trc nt chuyn mch quang

Cc hng i c phc v theo th t xc nh bi module lch trnh nh trong hnh 3. 2.3. Hot ng ca bc sng iu khin Bc sng iu khin c s dng truyn cc khe iu khin (slot control). Trong mt vng Ring vi N nt, c N khe iu khin, mi khe cho mt nt, c nhm li trong mt khung iu khin lin tc lu thng quanh vng Ring. Ph thuc vo ln ca vng Ring, c th c vi khung iu khin lu thng ng thi. Mi nt l ch ca mt khe iu khin trong mi khung iu khin. Mi khe iu khin cha mt s trng nh trong hnh 4.

Khun dng v kiu ca cc trng ph thuc vo giao thc OBS c s dng. Thng thng, mi khe iu khin bao gm cc trng nh: a ch ch, gi tr offset v kch thc ca burst. Cc trng khc nh trng th bi (token) trong mt s giao thc nu cn. Khi hot ng nh mt nt ngun, n i khung iu khin tip theo v ghi thng tin v burst (a ch ch, chiu di burst, v c th c gi tr Hnh 4. Cu trc ca khung iu khin offset) vo trong khe iu khin ca chnh n. Nu n khng c nhu cu truyn, th n ch vic xo sch tt c cc trng trong khe iu khin ca n. mi nt, trc tin ton b khung iu khin c c xc nh liu c phi khe iu khin no ch th mt s truyn burst ti nt ny hay khng. Nh vy vi gi s nt khng phi ang trong qu trnh nhn burst khc, n bo cho my thu iu hng c ca n iu chnh ti bc sng thch hp nhn burst n. Trong trng hp c mt xung t my thu (ngha l khi a ch ca nt ny c ghi r trong nhiu khe iu khin), nt ch s la chn mt trong cc burst thu. Chng ta ch rng mi nt trong vng Ring hot ng nh mt nt ngun (chn cc burst trong bc sng ch), nh mt nt trung gian (cho cc burst i qua ti cc nt trong ring), hoc nh mt nt ch (nhn nhng burst gi cho n). V vy, mi nt phi c ton b khung iu khin chuyn n n trc khi quyt nh hot ng nh th no (v d, ghi vo khe iu khin ch bo d nh mun truyn mt burst, v/hoc tha nhn yu cu cho s truyn burst). Bi vy, trong mt mng vng Ring thi gian x l mt khung iu khin l nh nhau cho c nt ch v nt trung gian (ngha l Ti ( P ) = Td( P ) ). Khung iu khin b tr mt lng thi gian nh nhau khi n i qua mi nt. Gi tr tr ny l tng thi gian truyn khung iu khin cng vi thi gian x l khung iu khin, v gi tr tr ny c th c ti thiu ho bi vic dng mt giao thc n gin c thc hin trong phn cng. Mt s giao thc OBS c nhng c tnh ny c m t trong mc tip theo. 2.4 Gi tr Offset ca Burst Offset l khong thi gian tnh t khi truyn bt u tin ca gi iu khin n khi truyn bt u tin ca burst d liu (xt ti nt ngun). Trn c s ln ca gi tr offset, OBS c th c chia thnh 3 loi sau: - Khng c s dnh ring no: burst c gi tc th sau khi gi gi iu khin. Nh vy, gi tr Offset ch l thi gian truyn ca gi iu khin. S ny ch c ng dng khi thi gian thit lp cu hnh chuyn mch v thi gian x l chuyn mch cho mt gi iu khin l rt ngn. S ny hot ng gn ging vi chuyn mch gi quang. - Dnh ring mt chiu: Burst c gi sau mt thi gian ngn sau gi iu khin v nt ngun khng cn i phn hi t nt ch. Bi vy, gi tr offset l khong gia thi gian truyn ca gi iu khin v tr mt chiu ca gi iu khin. - Dnh ring hai chiu: offset l thi gian cn thit nhn c mt s xc nhn (phn hi) ca nt ch. Loi ny ging vi chuyn mch knh quang, n phi chu mt thi gian tr hai chiu thit lp ng truyn dn, v t duy tr ti nguyn gi iu khin, s phn pht cc burst c bo m. Tuy nhin thi gian offset di, gy tr d liu ln. 2.5 Gi tr offset v cc s dnh ring Cc cng ngh chuyn mch burst quang khc nhau da trn vic lm th no v khi no cc ngun ti nguyn mng nh rng bng thng b chim dng v c gii phng.
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OBS da trn chun chung ITU-T (International Telecom-munication Union- Telecommunication Standardization Sector) cho chuyn mch burst trong cc mng c ch truyn bt ng b (ATM), nh truyn khi ATM (ABT). C hai phin bn ABT: ABT vi tr truyn v ABT truyn tc thi. Trong phin bn u tin, khi mt nt ngun mun truyn mt burst, n gi mt gi ti cc chuyn mch ATM trn ng kt ni thng tin bo cho chng bit n mun truyn mt burst. Nu tt c cc chuyn mch trn ng truyn sn sng, yu cu c chp nhn v nt ngun c php truyn. Ngc li yu cu b t chi v nt ngun phi gi yu cu khc sau . Trong ABT vi ch truyn tc thi, ngun gi gi tin yu cu v sau truyn ngay m khng nhn thng tin xc nhn. Nu mt chuyn mch dc theo ng truyn khng th chuyn burst do tc nghn, burst s b loi b. Hai cng ngh c la chn cho cc mng quang. Trong mng OBS, gi iu khin v burst d liu c tch ring bit ti nt ngun (cng nh cc nt trung gian k tip) bi mt gi tr offset. Gi tr offset ny tnh n thi gian gi mo u c x l ti mi nt trong khi burst c m nt ngun, do khng cn dy tr quang cc nt trung gian. Thng bo iu khin cng cho bit chiu di ca burst, vi mc ch mt nt nhn bit khi n mun nh li cu hnh chuyn mch ca n cho cc burst tip sau, cng ngh ny c gi l s nh tr (DR- Delayed Reservation) [2]. Gi Ti ( P ) l tr x l gi mo u burst mt nt chuyn mch trung gian; Td( P ) l tr x l gi mo u burst mt nt chuyn mch ch; Td(s ) l thi gian thit lp cu hnh chuyn mch nt ch. Gi tr offset ng vi JET l:
Offset JET = Ti ( P ) + Td( P ) + Td( S ) i

(1)

Vic tnh gi tr offset cho giao thc JET c minh ha trong hnh 5 vi mt ng truyn gm hai nt chuyn mch trung gian gia nt ngun v nt ch ca burst. Gi tr offset cn phi ln b vo thi gian x l ca gi mo u burst hai nt chuyn mch trung gian v nt ch cng vi thi gian thit lp chuyn mch nt ch. Nu thi gian offset nh hn gi tr , th c kh nng burst n mt nt chuyn mch trc khi nt sn sng chuyn burst qua.

Hnh 5. Gi tr offset trong giao thc JET

Mt vn ny sinh trong vic tnh ton gi tr offset cho JET l phi xc nh c s nt chuyn mch trung gian (hops) gia ngun v ch. Trong cc mng OBS, thng tin v s lng cc hops trong mt ng dn thng thng l khng sn c; thm ch khi nhng thng tin ny bng cch no c bit th do nh hng ca l trnh thay i, n cng khng c bo m tnh hp l khi s dng. Nh vy, cn phi c mt gi tr offset m khng ph thuc vo ng truyn s dng v khng yu cu s trao i thng tin gia cc nt mng vi nhau. Nh chng ta bit t biu thc (1), thnh phn ca gi tr offset m ph thuc vo ng dn gia nt ngun v nt ch l tng ca thi gian x l ti nhng nt trung gian. Da vo nhng tin b gn y trong ch to phn cng cho cc giao thc truyn thng, c th gi thit thi gian x l Ti ( P ) trong biu thc (1) l rt ngn trong hu ht cc chc nng chung ca giao thc bo hiu. Trong trng hp ny, cc dy tr quang c th c s dng mt cch hp l cc nt trung gian lm tr mi burst u vo mt lng thi gian cn bng vi Ti ( P ) . Nh vy, bng cch dng cc dy tr, s hng u tin bn v phi ca biu thc (1) c th c b qua khi tnh ton gi tr offset. Chng ta gi s mi ny l giao thc ch c tr ch (Only Destination Delay -ODD) v gi tr offset trong biu thc (1) c vit li l:
OffsetODD = Td( P ) + Td( S )

(2)

Hn na, thay v s dng cc gi tr c trng ca nt ch nh tr x l v tr chuyn mch trong biu thc (2), mt phng php s dng mt gi tr offset khng thay i bng cch ly gi tr ln nht ca nhng tham s ny tt c cc nt chuyn mch ch. Mt hng s offset m khng ph thuc vo ng dn (s cc hops) ti nt ch lm n gin ha ng k trong vic thit k v thc thi cc giao thc bo hiu v cc chuyn mch quang cho mng chuyn mch burst quang. Nh vy, c mt khong tr gia truyn gi iu khin v truyn burst quang. Tr ny c th c t ln hn tng thi gian x l ca gi iu khin dc ng dn. Khi burst n mi nt trung gian, gi iu khin c x l song v mt knh trn cng ra c ch nh. Do khng cn m burst ti nt. y l c trng rt quan trng ca OBS, v cc b m quang rt kh thc hin. Mt bc ci tin na ca OBS c th t c bng cch d tr ngun ti nguyn ti chuyn mch burst quang k t khi burst n chuyn mch hn l k t khi cc gi iu khin ca n c x l ti chuyn mch. 3. Kt lun Chuyn mch burst quang l ng lc cho vic pht trin Internet tc cao trong cc mng thng tin quang. Chuyn mch burst quang l s kt hp cc li th ca chuyn mch gi v chuyn mch knh. D liu v cc thng tin iu khin c truyn i thng qua cc knh thng tin c bc sng khc nhau trong h thng ghp knh phn chia theo bc sng. Khi cc burst v phn mo u c phn tch v truyn trn cc knh khc nhau, cn thit c mt giao thc mi trnh mt cc burst. Trong bi vit ny, cc tc gi trnh by kin trc mng chuyn mch burst quang, cc giao thc, cc s dnh ring v mt s vn lin quan trong vic gim tn tht gi v gii quyt tranh chp trong mng thng tin quang y l nhng vn cn c nghin cu trong qu trnh trin khai p dng cng ngh ny. Ti liu tham kho [1]. C. QIAO and M. YOO, Optical Burst Switching (OBS) - A New Paradigm for an Optical Internet, Journal of High Speed Networks, vol. 8, no.1, pp. 69-84, Jan. 1999. [2]. E. HASELTON, A PCM frame switching concept leading to burst switching network architecture, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 21, pp. 13-19, June 1983. [3]. S. AMSTUTZ, Burst switching - an introduction, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 21, pp. 36-42, Nov. 1983. [4]. D. K. HUNTER et al., WASPNET: A Wavelength Switched Packet Network, IEEE Commun. Mag., Mar. 1999, pp. 120-29. [5]. S. YAO, B. MUKHERJEE, and S. DIXIT, Advances in Photonic Packet Switching: An Overview, IEEE Commun. Mag., Feb. 2000, pp. 84-94. [6]. C. QIAO, Labeled Optical Burst Switching for IP-over-WDM Integration, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 104-114, Sept. 2000. [7] H. Perros. An Introduction to ATM Networks. Wiley, New York, 2001. [8]. R. RAMASWAMI and K.N.SIVARAJAN, Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1998. [9]. I. CHLAMTAC, A. FUMAGALLI, L. G. KAZOVSKY, et al., CORD: Contention Resolution by Delay Lines, IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1014-1029, June 1996.