Está en la página 1de 55

HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

Contract n° EVK4–CT– 2000–00025


http://hqe2r.cstb.fr

Brochure HQE²R n°1


May 2003

HQE²R: Towards a methodology for


sustainable neighbourhood regeneration
Catherine CHARLOT–VALDIEU, CSTB
Philippe OUTREQUIN, La Calade

with contribution by:


Ernersto ANTONINI, QUASCO
Andreas BLUM and Munia TARABICHI, IOER
Antonella GROSSI, ICIE
Martin SYMES and Celia ROBBINS, UWE

Special thanks for their advice or numerous readings to:


Xavier CASANOVAS and Oriol CUSIDO, CAATB - Daniela GABUTTI and Francesco CAPRINI,
QUASCO-COPRAT - Noemi GRANADO, ITeC - Holger MARTIN, IOER - Sandra MATTAROZZI,
ICIE - Ove MORCK, Cenergia - Daniela BELZITI and Laure NAGY, CSTB - Jan ZIECK, AMBIT

1
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R is a combined research and demonstration project, which is partly funded under the
“Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development” programme, Key Action 4, “City of
Tomorrow & Cultural Heritage”, with the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Union
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

ABSTRACT1
Today cities are being rebuilt, buildings are being rehabilitated, and neighbourhoods revitalised. To
assure sustainability, this regeneration must go beyond technical solutions, taking social trends,
changes in behaviour, environmental and economic development into account. In the HQE2R project
14 neighbourhoods and 10 research institutes in 7 European countries are co-operating to provide
methods and tools for use by local municipalities and their partners: government agencies, planners,
landlords, local citizens and other stakeholders in sustainable urban renewal projects.
The project is partly financed by the European Commission Programme for Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development (City of Tomorrow) and is led by CSTB.
The objective of the project is to develop a new methodology together with the tools needed to
promote sustainable development and an improved quality of life at the crucial and challenging
level of the urban neighbourhood.
As so far developed, HQE2R provides a methodological framework for sustainable neighbourhood
analysis and development: it is structured in 4 phases (the decision, an analysis - identification of
priorities-, the definition, discussion and assessment of scenarios, and finally the establishment of an
action plan at the neighbourhood scale). In addition, it is based on 5 main SD objectives and a system
of 21 sustainable development targets, and backed up by a system of key issues and indisputable
indicators and 3 new assessment tools.
In detail the main results of the work done until now are:
• the choice of 6 sustainable development principles at the scale of the city,
• the definition of 5 global sustainable development (SD) objectives with 21 targets at the
neighbourhood and building scales, and a definition of sustainability at the neighbourhood
scale;
• a shared diagnosis method for SD (with an integrated analytical grid for the earlier inventory)
adapted to the neighbourhood scale;
• SD indicators at the built environment and urban scales:
- state indicators for the buildings and for the neighbourhood diagnosis,
- a system of key issues (ISDIS) linked to the SD targets, with their SD Indicators for
use in assessing the sustainability of the neighbourhood,
- monitoring indicators for the different projects in the neighbourhood (and for the
city),
- a model using indicators (INDI model) as a decision aid tool for assessing different
scenarios before the final action plan for the neighbourhood is chosen;
• the state of the art analysis according to laws and an analysis of the practices about residents and
users participation and recommendations for improving participation in neighbourhood
regeneration projects;
• an analysis of the different laws and practices about urban planning documents and their impacts
upon neighbourhoods with recommendations for taking SD into account in urban planning
documents (for each partner country);
• development of pilot-versions of 3 assessment models for use as decision aid tools for
choosing the best renewal project for a neighbourhood: 2 at the neighbourhood scale: the
INDI model with SD indicators, the ENVI model which assesses the environmental impact of the
different scenarios and one at the building scale: the ASCOT model concerning global costs;
• briefing documents for sustainable building renovation and construction,
• guidelines for the briefing documents of sustainable on built elements,
• guidelines for the management of sustainable neighbourhood regeneration projects.

1
Abstracts in other languages are in Appendix 3
2
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

As indicated by the title – HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood


regeneration – this document reflects the special situation of a combined research and demonstration
project. On the one hand (section 2) the project HQE2R - which in fact includes the development and
pilot application of the methodology – is described and on the other hand (section 3) the main
elements of the methodology HQE2R as such are introduced. Since this document provides insight into
work in progress, any remarks, comments or criticism is welcome (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr).

All reproduction, all partial or integral representation of the pages published in this book, in any form and by any
means, done without the authorisation of the editor or of the Centre Français d'Exploitation du droit de copie (3
Rue Hautefeuille, 75006 Paris, France), is forbidden and constitutes a counterfeiting.
Only reproductions strictly reserved for the personal use of the copyist and analysis and short quotations justified
by the scientific or informative character of the work where they are incorporated are allowed. (French Law of the
1st July 1992 – article L122-4 and L122-5, and the French Penal Code, article 425)
© CSTB

3
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

CONTENTS
ABSTRACT 2
1 - Introduction 8
1.1 - The objectives of the HQE2R project 8
1.2 - The neighbourhood scale 10
1.3 - The lack of tools for buildings and neighbourhoods assessment 10
2 – HQE²R Project: theoretical basis 11
2.1 - Definition of sustainable development (SD) 11
2.2 - The Principles for an Urban Sustainable Development 12
2.3 - Global objectives and targets for sustainable neighbourhoods and buildings 13
2.4 - Sustainable neighbourhoods 19
2.5 - Sustainable built environment & buildings 20
2.6 - Participation 21
3 - The HQE2R methodology 25
3.1 - From the Inventory to the shared SD “diagnosis” (systemic analysis) – Phase 2 27
3.2 - From the shared SD “diagnosis” to the priorities (or “stakes”) and to local SD objectives – Phase
2 28
3.3 - From the local priorities (or “stakes”) and SD objectives to potential scenarios and the final
actions plan: Tools to assess the scenarios and support decision for choosing the final actions plan –
Phase 3 29
3.4 - Implementation of the action plan or project – Phase 4 30
3.5 - Urban Planning – Phase 4 31
3.6 - Monitoring and evaluation – Phase 4 33
APPENDIX 1: 5 SD Objectives, 21 SD targets and 51 Key Issues 34
APPENDIX 2: THE 3 ASSESSMENT MODELS FOR SCENARIOS OR NEIGHBOURHOOD
REGENERATION PROJECTS 37
1. An indicators impact model: the INDI Model 38
2. An environmental impact model at the neighbourhood level:
the ENVI Model 39
3. An economic and environmental assessment tool for a building:
the ASCOT model 40
APPENDIX 3: ABSTRACTS 42
APPENDIX 4: LIST OF THE HQE²R PARTNERS 49
Bibliography 54

4
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

MEMORANDUM: THE HQE2R APPROACH


AND THE FINDINGS OF THE PROJECT
“Je refuse l’idée qu’il y a d’un côté la lumière et de l’autre les ténèbres, l’homme et la
femme, moi et l’autre, le bien et le mal. Je cherche un lieu où ces contradictions puissent être
résolues. C’est une quête sans illusion »2 - Murale, Mahmoud Darwich, édition Actes Sud

The objectives of the HQE²R project


“Sustainable Renovation of Buildings for Sustainable Neighbourhoods” or HQE²R is a project
partly funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework R&D Programme.
The project started in September 2001 and will continue until the end of March 2004.
Co-ordinated by the CSTB (Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment), France, it
combines research and demonstration aspects with the co-operation of 10 European research
partners and demonstration partners (local authorities or social buildingowners) working upon
14 neighbourhoods3.
The objective of the project is to develop a new methodology or approach together with
the necessary methods and tools to promote sustainable development and the quality of
life at the urban neighbourhood level. HQE²R aims at providing decision aid tools for
municipalities and their local partners, focussing on neighbourhood inhabitants’ and users’
concerns. With its integrated approach, it aims at providing a framework, which can be
generally applied to European cities. The project uses case studies as neighbourhood models
for which the tools are elaborated and in which the approach or the different tools can be
tested.
The elements taken into account in the development of this approach towards sustainable
development and its tools are:
• Improvements in the quality of the buildings and non built elements, which are
closely linked with needs expressed by the actors concerned (users), especially as regard
improvements in comfort and reductions in the costs-in-use and maintenance of
residential and non-residential buildings (energy savings, reduced water consumption,
optimisation of the use of raw materials).
• Improvements in the quality of life through urban development, which respects the
environment: reduced urban sprawl, more effective use of public spaces, and the creation
of cycle-ways, pedestrian areas and green spaces. Developing coherence and synergy
between the neighbourhood levels and the conurbation. Encouraging work in partnership
and building the capacity of the local community to achieve meaningful participation.
• Controlling costs and applying management methods, which allow all categories of
actors to share expenses.
• Controlling urban sprawl and commuting by managing the economy and
environmental impact of space use and also by managing mobility and the use of public
transport at the scales of the neighbourhood, the town and the conurbation.

2
I refuse the idea that there is a side for the light and another one for the darkness, the man and the woman, me and the
others, the good and the bad ones. I look for a place where contradictions can be solved. That is a quest without illusion.
3
See the list of the partners in Appendix or at the end
5
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The aim of HQE2R project is thus to allow local authorities to implement regeneration
action plans in their neighbourhoods and renovation of their buildings towards
sustainable development. It is a question of providing operational tools for a concrete
analysis and evaluation, which are open to public (and private) debate and to action.
1.2 - The HQE2R approach and the expected project results
Today cities are being rebuilt, buildings are being rehabilitated, and neighbourhoods
revitalised. To assure sustainability, this regeneration must go beyond technical solutions,
taking social trends, changes in behaviour, environmental and economic development into
account.
To define concrete action plans, sustainable development requires an iterative way of
achieving a decision, because of the necessity of taking the various principles of sustainable
development into account all together at once. As the market law only takes into account
economic factors, and principally only in the short-term, sustainable development requires
sustainable development principles: the integration of the long-term, global impact of
decisions on environmental and social factors, with less hierarchical forms of participation
than usual market practices.
The HQE2R methodological framework for sustainable neighbourhood analysis and
development is structured as an ideal regeneration neighbourhood projects into 4 phases: a
decision phase, an analysis phase - identifying priorities, definition, discussion, an
assessment of scenarios phase and finally the setting up of the action plan for the
neighbourhood).
The methodological framework is furthermore based on 6 sustainable development principles
at the city scale, and then a system of 21 sustainable development targets under 5 main
objectives (see the list next page) and backed up by a set of 51 key issues with their 61
indicators for the neighbourhood and its buildings (ISDIS system).

THE HQE²R APPROACH TOW ARDS SUSTAINABLE


NEIGHBOURHOOD DEVELOPMENT

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

3. Inventory based on the


1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 21 targets and the
problems (social, for sustainable integrated SD indicators
environmental, technical) regeneration of the system (ISDIS)
that need actions neighbourhood

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential,
12. Monitoring and
dysfunction,
evaluation of the
Participation of residents and users cohesion)
project : SD
monitoring Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance 5. Strategic
priorities for the
neighbourhood and
definition of
11. Projects upon objectives for SD
9. Urban planning
the neighbourhood regulations including
with SD SD recommendations
specifications
7. Evaluation of
6. Generation of
10. Projects for the scenarios
scenarios
Sustainable Buildings against SD
8. Action plan for (to identify options
(new & existing) with targets (INDI,
the neighbourhood for SD action)
SD specifications ENVI, ASCOT)

PHASE 4 : ACTION and EVALUATION PHASE 3 : DECIDING UPON THE ACTION PLAN

Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr) SD: Sustainable Development

6
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The HQE2R project results are specific tools for local communities and for their local
partners (see also the diagram below):
- The choice of 6 sustainable development principles at the scale of the city and a
definition of sustainability for the neighbourhood scale.
- The definition of an overall methodological framework with 5 main global
sustainable development (SD) objectives, their 21 targets, 51 key issues or sub
targets and then 61 indisputable indicators at the neighbourhood and building
scales (the ISDIS system).
- A shared SD diagnosis method for SD (with an integrated analytical grid for the
previous inventory) adapted to the neighbourhood scale.
- Evaluation tools for scenarios or neighbourhood projects as decision aid tools for
assessing different scenarios before the final action plan for the neighbourhood is
chosen (3 models with the support of 3 analytical grids):
3 models:
- INDI (INDicators Impacts) a model of sustainable regeneration impact using
indicators and allowing the development of different environmental and
sustainable development profiles
- ENVI (ENVironmental Impact)
- ASCOT (Assessment of Sustainable Construction & Technology Cost), a
model of global cost of energy efficient technologies from an environmental point of view at the
building scale.
- Recommendations for improving participation in neighbourhood
regeneration projects.
- Recommendations for taking SD into account in urban planning documents (for each partner
country).
- Recommendations for specifying sustainable development in the building process
- Recommendations for specifying sustainable development for non built elements
- Indicators for the different phases of a project state indicators, pressure indicators
and then monitoring indicators.
RESULTS OF THE HQE²R PROJECT:
an approach with methods and tools
for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration

Definition of 6 SD Choice of 5 SD Development of a shared SD


principles at the objectives, 21 SD diagnosis method enabli ng the
city scale targets, 51 SD key identification of territorial SD
issues and indicators (at stakes*
the neighbourhood and
buildings scales): the
ISD ID system

Elaboration of Recommendations to improve


assessment and and to promote inhabitants’ and
monitoring indicators users’ participation :
for projects and
neighbourhoods, - to identify and collect their needs
regarding SD - to improve procedures and
practices

-Recommendations
for briefing Elaboration of decision aid tools
documents taking Recommandations to to evaluate scenarios or potential
into account SD for integrate SD in urban urban planning projects (“design
new and existi ng planning documents contract” for example)
buildings
- Recommendations
for non – built
elements SD Sustainable Development
Source: HQE 2 R project (http:hqe2r.cstb.fr) 7 * See the scheme «The shared SD di agnosis method for setting priorities»

CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE


HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

1 - INTRODUCTION
1.1 – The objectives of the HQE2R project
“Sustainable Renovation of Buildings for Sustainable Neighbourhoods” or HQE²R is a project partly
funded by the European Commission under the Fifth Framework R&D Programme. The project
started in September 2001 and will continue until April 2004. Co-ordinated by CSTB (Centre
Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment), France, it combines research and demonstration aspects with
the co-operation of 10 European partners and is connected with 14 municipal case studies4.

The objective of the project is to develop a new methodology together with the necessary tools to
promote sustainable development and the quality of life at the crucial and challenging level of
urban neighbourhoods. HQE²R aims at providing decision aid tools for municipalities and their
local partners, focussing on the goals of the inhabitants and users of neighbourhoods. With its
integrated approach it aims to provide a framework, which can be generally applied in European cities.
The project uses the case studies as model neighbourhoods in which the methodology can be tested.

Figure 1 (next page) gives a general overview of the project with research and demonstration works
and tools.

The elements taken into account in the development of this methodology and its tools are:
• Improvements in the quality of the built environment, which are closely linked with needs
expressed by the actors concerned (users), especially improvements in comfort and reductions in
the costs-in-use and maintenance of residential and non-residential buildings (energy economies,
reduced water consumption, optimisation of raw materials).
• Improvements in the quality of life through urban development, which respects the environment:
limits to urban sprawl, more effective use of public space, and the creation of cycle-ways,
pedestrian areas and green spaces. Developing coherence and synergy between the levels of the
neighbourhood and the conurbation. Encouraging partnership working and building the capacity of
the local community to achieve meaningful participation.
• Controlling costs and applying management methods, which allow all categories of actor to
share expenses.
• Controlling urban sprawl and commuting by managing the economy and environmental impact
of space use and also by managing mobility and the use of public transport at the scales of the
neighbourhood, the town and the conurbation.

4
See the list of the partners in Appendix 4
8
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

TOOLS CONNECTED TO
THE HQE²R METHODOLOGY

Theoretical basis Actions


THE 6 SD PRINCIPLES,
Phase 2
Phase 3
THE OVERALL 5 Tools (guidelines /
Phase 4
OBJECTIVES AND THE methods / models)
21 TARGETS
Working elements

SD Analysis SD = Sustainable Development


Neighbourhood
Grid (20 topics)
elements

SD INDICATORS AT THE BUILDING


AND THE NEIGHBOURHOOD SCALES

3. INVENTORY Specific Monitoring


Indicators Indicators

ISDIS INDI
Shared SD System
4. SHARED SD Indicators
diagnosis method
DIAGNOSIS

5. SD STAKES /
ISSUES ASSESSMENT MODELS

INDI Model
PARTICIPATION / URBAN GOVERNANCE

SD indicators
evaluation
LOCAL SD
OBJECTIVES
ENVI Model
Environmental
impacts assessment
6. SCENARIOS
Building and
7
Neighbourhood ASCOT Model
Global cost analysis

Guidelines including 8. PLANNING


SD for neighbourhood AND ACTION
and open spaces PLAN
11. SUSTAINABLE
NEIGHBOURHOOD

Briefing documents 10. SUSTAINABLE


for existing and new BUILDINGS
buildings

Recommendations for
9. URBAN
integrating SD in urban
PLANNING planning documents
ANALYSIS

Recommendations to
organise monitoring and
12.MONITORING
evaluation AND
EVALUATION

Source : CSTB, La Calade with contribution of the European partners of the HQE²R project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)
9
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

1.2 - The neighbourhood scale


Appreciating the neighbourhood as a life space is a strategic move towards developing policies of
sustainable urban development. Significant neighbourhoods may be at the entrance to cities, or in
leisure or activity zones, low-density housing estates, etc.

Policies of sustainable development can be implemented in each of these types of space. Particular
policies involve transforming functional zones into living space, but also have to give a more
systematic consideration to the environment and to social mix.

The value of a neighbourhood-by-neighbourhood approach can be understood more clearly when we


consider the diversity of these districts – where the same response, in terms of sustainable
development, cannot be uniformly applied. At the same time, the neighbourhood is not the only living
space. The daily or weekly mobility of city dwellers means that they go about their business in the
space of the conurbation. These two types of spaces can be highly contrasted and the approaches
perceived as complementary.

So, the neighbourhood is important for:


- Neighbourhood life, providing urban activity, the existence of public space,
- Urban consciousness: in terms of landscape (a unified ensemble), cultural heritage as well as
civic or “citizen’s” heritage (existence of shared urban space),
- Social and political participation: the concrete expression of local solidarity, fostering civic
awareness in young people, the existence of participative dynamics,
- The collective management of public property or participation by the population in
improving its living environment.

1.3 - The lack of tools for buildings and neighbourhoods


assessment
The main outcome of the research on existing tools5 is, that in detail a lot can be taken from them with
respect to methodology and content of sustainability-assessment (“issues”) and that some tools can be
utilized within a more comprehensive approach as for example energy calculation tools. Nevertheless
there is no tool directly appropriate as a general basis of HQE²R. In general, the building related tools
are too specific and detailed to serve within neighbourhood assessment. This means that – as expected
and taken for a reason for the project – the special approach and methodology for the built
environment within HQE²R has to be newly developed. To get started, it is necessary to answer some
basic questions before coming to some methodological suggestions that can be derived from the
existing experience and the research work previously done.

5
E. Antonini, A. Blum, A. Grossi, C. Robbins, January 2002, Analysis and adaptation of most appropriate tools and
methods, HQE²R Deliverable 3, Sophia Antipolis
10
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

2 – HQE2R PROJECT: THEORETICAL BASIS


2. 1 - Definition of sustainable development (SD)
Nowadays, creating or renovating a neighbourhood calls for new methods which will face up to the
issues of the city: pollution, deterioration of the quality of life, insecurity, waste of resources and time,
etc. The HQE2R project envisages a new way of apprehending the city, its neighbourhoods and
its buildings by suggesting methods of territorial analysis and evaluation, which are tied to the
objectives and rely on the principles of sustainable development.

The point of departure for any approach in terms of sustainable development must be to impose the
rule of action on oneself of relying on the universal principles governing sustainable development,
the foremost of which are set out in the definition of sustainable development provided in 1987 by Gro
Harlem BRUNTLAND:
« Development that responds to the needs of the present without compromising the
capacity of future generations to respond to their own needs »6

This definition should remain the benchmark for thinking about sustainable development even if local
objectives depend on their socio-political context and the people responsible for these policies.
Sustainable development can be defined as a political approach based on the development of solidarity
in space and in time and with the objective of a triple dividend7 in the economic, social and
environmental fields:
• Solidarity in time, solidarity with future generations, emphasising the desirability of
preserving future interests,
• Solidarity in space, where the immediate fight against poverty and social exclusion is
desirable.
Obviously, "development" is already at the heart of this problem. When we add the notion of
"sustainability", new dimensions appear: that of the environment and the long-term preservation of
the planet’s resources and life.

The European Commission has adopted this concept in article 2 of the Maastricht Treaty8. The
Commission also provides a complementary definition, focusing on « a policy and a strategy [...]
ensuring continuity through time of social and economic development, with respect for the
environment and without compromising the natural resources that are essential for human activity »9.

6
Our common future, report of the World Commission on the Environment and Development (Bruntland
Commission), 1987
7
As for example laid down as guiding principles in the German “Federal Building Code” from 1997, Part One,
Subdivision One, Section 1 (5) and the German “Federal Regional Planning Act” from 1997, Subdivision 1,
Section 1 (2): „The overall concept ... is that of sustainable regional development which will bring the social and
economic demands made on an area into line with its ecological functions and result in a stable order which will
be well-balanced on a large scale.“ Guiding issues listed in further detail are: self-fulfilment within the
community, responsibility to future generations, protection of natural resources, economic development, land use
possibilities shall be kept open in the long term, diversity of individual regions, similar standards of living,
regional and structural imbalances shall be eliminated and cohesion on the European scale.
8
« The community’s mission is to promote sustainable and non-inflationary growth respecting the environment
and to invent methods of growth and, therefore, of consumption, to ensure the well-being of human beings
today, without compromising the well-being of future generations »
9
European Commission, « Towards a sustainable development », CE 30/3/92.
11
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

2.2 – The Principles for an Urban Sustainable Development


Amongst the twenty eight principles mentioned in the Rio Declaration of 1992, a declaration signed by
180 heads of state or government, six would seem fundamental to us in seeking approaches to
sustainable development in the city and its neighbourhoods and buildings.

The first three principles concern the threefold dividend: economic efficiency, social equity and
environmental caution Sustainable Development has to find a balance between competing and
contradictory demands so that they can respond to each other instead of ignoring each other and
setting up barriers:
1) Economic efficiency demands that all efforts should concentrate on that which represents the
greatest good for the collective whole. Action plans should respect the rules of economic efficiency
(dynamic of growth, security for planning and action), but on condition that these include all of the
external costs10, whether social or environmental.
2) Social equity should focus primarily on employment and housing11 but also be concerned
with services to people and with the fight against poverty and social exclusion. As people are
dependent on the economic basis of life, employment does offer social security.
The supply of housing, medical care, education and information can lead to a more stable society,
which is capable of solidarity, tolerance and participation. This can cultivate its traditions and develop
a sustainable way of life. In this context, we can distinguish:
• the principle of inter-generational equity, which requires that the needs of the present are
met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs,
• the principle of intra-generational equity, stating that all people currently alive have an
equal right to benefit from the use of resources, both within and between countries12.
This principle also calls for a greater social efficiency: improved social use of facilities, improvement
of economic and social diversity; this principle must improve the consideration of the social impact of
projects.
3) Environmental caution is seen from the point of view of access to resources and the impact of
pollution from different sources. Consideration must be given to nuisances and the deterioration of
both the local and the global climate and therefore of the flora and fauna which depend on their
environment. The human consumption of energy and materials, being the main cause of environmental
pollution, has to be reconsidered. One of the strong orientations of Sustainable Development must be
the preservation of non-renewable resources and the encouragement of the use of renewable resources
(European Commission principles concerning energy in the 5th PCRD include "Preserving the eco-
system").
Three other principles have to be taken into account: indeed, the objective of sustainable development
requires that public policies and private decisions closely ally the local with the global, the short- with
the long-term, and the participation of both major actors and ordinary citizens in the decision-making
process.

10
Tool elaborated in the WP 6 of the project or in the phase 3 of the methodology
11
“The purpose of the second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements (Habitat II) is to address two
themes of equal global importance: "Adequate shelter for all" and "Sustainable human settlements development
in an urbanizing world". Human beings are at the centre of concerns for sustainable development, including
adequate shelter for all and sustainable human settlements, and they are entitled to a healthy and productive life
in harmony with nature.” http://www.un.org/Conferences/habitat/. Concluding press release: “City summit ends
with leaders commitment to improve living standards“... agreed that they must intensify their efforts to eradicate
poverty and discrimination and provide for basic needs, especially adequate shelter for all.”
12
Selman 1996, derived from Carew-Reid, 1994
12
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

4) Principle of the long-term: decisions must no longer be taken on the basis of short-term
impact; they must include a prospective way of thinking about the future impact of an action
(irreversibility, exhaustion of resources, etc.)
5) Principle of globality: the global in relation to the local; this means considering the impact of
actions at various territorial scales, both at the local level (neighbourhood, city, conurbation) and at
more global levels (region, planet). This principle also leads to thinking about the subsidiarity of
decisions i.e. that decisions should be made at the lowest appropriate level, either by those directly
affected, or on their behalf, by the authorities closest to them.
6) Principle of governance: governance on the local level can be defined as a global approach to
the participation of residents, users and major socio-economic actors in the definition of the objectives
of a project or diagnosis, in the formulation of the problem (issues), in the definition of strategy and
the objectives and means to be involved, in the implementation and follow-up and evaluation of a
project. “Good governance ensures that political, social and economic priorities are founded on a
broad consensus throughout society and that the weakest and most vulnerable voices are the heart of
the decision-making process as regards the allocation of resources for development” 13.
This principle must lead to adoption of a doctrine of public trust, which places a duty on the state to
hold environmental resources in trust for the benefit of the public.

We can say that neighbourhood sustainability will contain elements of these six principles of
Sustainable Development. They are mainly politically neutral, although some are still open to
different interpretations. These are helpful in that they recognise the importance of equity and of the
precautionary principle. The subsidiary principle is particularly relevant to our HQE2R topic of
neighbourhood regeneration.

2.3 - Global objectives and targets (with their key issues and
indicators inside a system, ISDIS14) for sustainable
neighbourhoods and buildings

The sustainable development approach requires prior consideration of the objectives of


sustainability for the city scale. It is not a question of diachronic sustainability (in this sense, any city
is sustainable). It is a question of broad options, which, at the present time, render the city desirable
and liveable for its residents and users without compromising the abilities and quality of life of future
generations.

The HQE2R project proposes the use of five global objectives of sustainable development for
European cities as a point of departure for a thought process which does not, however, prejudge the
specific and particular forms of each city, defined by its history, geography and the men and women
who live and die there. As Cyria Emelianoff15 has written, the lifespan of a city is a creative,
“Bergsonian lifespan”16. These five global objectives of sustainable development for the city are as
follows:

13
Governance for Sustainable Human Development, a UNDP policy document.
14
ISDIS : Issues and Sustainable Development Indicators System
15
Cyria Emelianoff, “Comment définir une ville durable ?” in Villes et développement durable, des expériences
à échanger, volume 3, MATE et CEDIDELP, 2001
16
Henri Bergson, “L’univers dure. Plus nous approfondirons la nature du temps, plus nous comprendrons que
durée signifie invention, création de formes, élaboration continue de l’absolument nouveau”. L’évolution
créatrice, PUF, 1941
13
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

• To preserve and enhance heritage and to conserve resources, i.e. human resources,
constructed or natural heritage, natural resources (energy, water, space), whether local or
global, biodiversity, etc.
• To improve the quality of the local environment, for the residents and users of the city.
• To ensure diversity: diversity of the population, the habitat, human activities, space
• To improve integration: integration of the inhabitants in the city, in order that everyone feels
he is both an inhabitant of and has a role to play in the city; integration of neighbourhoods in
the city, with reference to the multi-centre city17
• To reinforce social life through local governance, and relations of social cohesion and actions
of social equity.

These five objectives (heritage and resources, quality of the local environment, diversity,
integration, social life) must serve as the foundation for regeneration projects, development, and
construction, whether for a city or a neighbourhood as well as for buildings. According to the scale
and characteristics of the area, the concrete form of these objectives will change. They will also vary
according to the project to be handled, as the aforementioned principles do not apply in exactly the
same terms to all projects. It is, in fact, a question of an analysis or grid, which allows an overview of
all the problems to be tackled in an approach to sustainable development.
The analysis of these objectives consequently leads us to ask questions, which correspond, on the
whole to the six principles of sustainable development described above. These questions are just as
much targets to be attained for projects of neighbourhood development or for the renovation of
buildings. Thus, 21 targets have been chosen and approved by the project’s 10 research centres
and constitute the approach’s operational dimensions. These targets are grouped according to each
of the sustainable development objectives.

2.3.1 The SD (Sustainable Development) objectives

!"To preserve and enhance heritage and to conserve resources

Building on the notion and principles of sustainability as laid down in the “Charter of European Cities
and Towns towards Sustainability” (“Aalborg Charter”, Aalborg, Denmark, May 1994), one of the
baselines of sustainable development is defined as environmental sustainability:
“Environmental sustainability means maintaining the natural capital. It demands from us:
• that the rate at which we consume renewable material (...) does not exceed the rate at which the
natural systems can replenish it,
• that the rate at which we consume non-renewable resources does not exceed the rate at which they
are replaced by sustainable renewable resources, and
• that the rate of emitted pollutants does not exceed the capacity of the air, water and soil to absorb
and process them.”
Above that, the overall question is how to develop towards a sustainable society taking into account
the restrictions of nature together with the economic and social dimensions of behaviour, within a
global context. The development of new structures, organisations and technologies is as important as
the inclusion of all people and of communication between them. People have to learn to change their
attitudes, show initiative and interact to ensure a viable future for themselves and the following
generations. Therefore living conditions (e.g. within an urban Neighbourhood) have to be organised in
such a way, that these changes are supported.
17
Jean Pierre Sueur, “Changer la ville”, Odile Jacob editor, 1999, page 66 and following
14
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The management of the space consumption is also a focus point to the extent that this consumption
induces a large part of the increase in resource consumption. This management has as a corollary the
limitation or the reduction of urban sprawl.
As regards the common heritage, this embraces, in a twofold meaning of the term, both the present
and the future:
- by considering energy, material, water and space resources, and also built assets as a stock that
must be preserved for future generations;
- by building on the wealth of the land as formed by humans currently living on it: this
involves enhancing the potential of the material and human resources available to us to
develop a heritage which can be handed on to the future generations.
These two dimensions highlight not only the economic and natural heritage but also the cultural
heritage which current generations wish to pass on to their successors.
To ensure this twofold approach, ethical principles are a necessary foundation for sustainable
management of territorial resources: "We must all learn to be guests of one another and leave the
dwelling of our host enriched by our stay and yet further by our leaving. May the house be more
handsome when we leave it than when we arrived? Ecology is the art of being a guest”18
Globally, all these targets can help us to assess the ecological footprint19 of the neighbourhood or to
consider the neighbourhood as an ecosystem20.

!"To improve the quality of the local environment


Sustainable development must enable citizens to gain the benefit of a better standard of living, both
now and in the future, and must direct actions which place residents at the focus of development. Our
standard of living lies at the very heart of European policy, the aim of which it is "to improve the
quality of the life in cities and conurbations whilst facing the problems of the quality of air, noise,
traffic congestion, waste, economic competition, employment, security and improving the
infrastructure and built environment so as to enhance social inclusion and promote sustainable
development" (European Commission, objective of 5th Framework Programme of the European
Community for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration Activities).
This concept should also be considered in the light of equity, since the objective is indeed to tend
towards a more equitable distribution of wealth, health, education, employment, and housing.
To achieve this objective, we must strive to bring about development that is not only sustainable for
the environment, but also for society21 ; in other words, development must:
- guarantee the basic needs of the inhabitants: food, health, housing, education, employment,
security in the workplace,...;
- make for a fair distribution of wealth;
- improve the physical, psychological and social well-being of residents;
- foster training, creativity and development of residents’ potential;
- preserve the cultural and natural heritage whilst increasing respect and the feeling of belonging to
a community of residents in relation to their neighbourhood and its environment;
- favour conviviality and good relations between residents.
The reduction of nuisance (noise, waste, quality of the air and water) and natural and technological
risks lies at the heart of all these problems.

18
Georges Steiner, « L’homme invité de la vie », Séminaire sir l’éthique et l’environnement, 19/12/1996,
Documentation Française, 1997, p. 23.
19
Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth.
Gabriola Island, B.C. New Society Publishers. November 1995. By. Jim Duncan, CotR Faculty PD Committee.
20
Barton, Grant and Guise, Shaping Neighbourhoods, WHO Healthy Cities centre, University of the West
England, 2001
21
Osberg, Lars. Sustainable Social Development. Halifax, N.S.: Department of Economics, Dalhousie
University.
15
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The neighbourhood and the city are not simply territories, but complex systems of networks, activities,
users and human experience, with similarities and differences that are constantly changing. To allow
for the increasingly dynamic aspect of urban flows, one must reconcile within the different time-scales
of the city22, life at work and life outside work, offer the possibility of access to the different services
of the region, modulated to suit the requirements of its inhabitants.

!"To ensure diversity


A district must be capable of offering a variety of economic, social, cultural, and natural functions
and of ensuring the greatest possible degree of adaptability in the long-term. Diversity must reflect
the complexity of these systems, and can increase the information content and quality of exchanges.
A varied supply of the functional opportunities as well as of human and material resources underlies
the concept of diversity, the aim of which is to guarantee social and urban mix, to fight social
exclusion23, to support the development of economic and cultural activities, and to define the
continuity of a system where although heterogeneous elements interact they form, together, a
homogenous region..
Supporting sustainable development of a neighbourhood and region also means promoting diversity
and cultural vitality whilst fostering human resources (gender, ethnic origins, social strata, etc) and
material resources (variety of functions, spaces and activities).
Diversity must also take into account all the functions available at the boundaries of the district, and
they must be easily accessible.

!"To improve integration


An neighbourhood continuously interacts with contiguous areas and all those surrounding it (city,
conurbation, sub-region, region, state and planet). This relation with its neighbours, as also with the
global environment, is necessary, so that each feels as an inhabitant of his city or his agglomeration, as
of the planet, and conversely, so that no territory is excluded from development.
To guarantee continuous exchange of resources and information, the neighbourhood, the city and the
neighbourhood must hence form open and permeable systems. This opening-up is a denial of
“neighbourhood balkanisation” and fundamental both to upholding the life of the neighbourhood,
which cannot itself possess all the means to develop comprehensively and independently, and to
ensuring real social and economic integration.
The concept of integration also refers to that of equilibrium between neighbourhoods. However, we
focus on the concept of integration since this highlights the interdependence of residents, districts and
cultures in a SD dynamic process, at the neighbourhood scale.

!"To reinforce social life


The creation of relations of exchange and respect between individuals and participation in the life
of the town are fundamental objectives for ensuring the perennial nature or sustainability of
neighbourhoods. One of the objectives of the Treaty of the European Union is to achieve balanced and
sustainable development, in particular by strengthening economic and social cohesion24. Social
cohesion is absolutely vital to the development of neighbourhoods: Wilson25 argues that a
neighbourhood in which social organisation, or social capital, is strong, will offer a better quality of
life. He points out that neighbourhoods which suffer from poverty and exclusion are also likely to lack
social capital. One of the key questions facing regeneration at present is the extent to which excluded

22
Les temps de la ville. Report from Edmond Hervé, Deputy Mayor in Rennes ; June 2001.
23
Relative poverty (< 60 % of mean national income) is at an average rate of 17 % in the EU; the vulnerability
rate is 32 % (the percentage of the population encountering at least one period of low income per 3-year cycle),
while 7 % of the population (25 million people) experience persistent poverty over this period.
24
Article 2 of the European Union Treaty.
25
Wilson, When Work Disappears: the World of the New urban Poor, New York, 1996, Knopf editor
16
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

neighbourhoods have the capacity to use their social capital to bring about improvement. There is a
growing consensus that regeneration programmes initiated by external organisations will only succeed
if they work in partnership with local people and utilise local social resources.
As the primary urban forum in which residents can share a common identity and common values, the
neighbourhood represents a scale of analysis at which all issues and sustainable development
objectives can be fully expressed, particularly with respect to the social dimensions.
To ensure a process of social participation, each inhabitant must develop a feeling of belonging to the
district in which he lives: this can be strengthened by a policy of information and of stimulating
greater awareness, particularly concerning sustainable development issues of interest to the
neighbourhood concerned.
Accordingly, the common values of civics, solidarity and citizenship must be expressed by social
bonds, situating the citizen in relation to the sustainable development of her neighbourhood.
Management based on solidarity also involves economic resources. An economy that aims for
solidarity can be defined on the basis of practices which spring from individual and associative or
community actions such as:
- residents, users or professionals initiating the services they consider necessary;
- entrepreneurs contributing to the economic integration of those sectors of the population in major
difficulty or in a highly precarious situation;
- consumers getting organised to verify the quality of the products they purchase;
- savers using their savings in new ways ("ethical funds", supporting saving schemes)...;
This combination of actions and patterns of behaviour can be considered as an approach to the
supportive management of economic assets.

2.3.2 The SD targets

The following list presents the 21 targets which must be reached to improve the sustainability of a
neighbourhood and its buildings.

These targets deal with one or more of the 6 SD principles chosen at the beginning of the HQE2R
project.

These targets are also explained by 51 key issues which are the indisputable questions we have to
think about for including sustainable development in urban regeneration projects.

For each of these key issues, indicators are then chosen according to the phase inside the
neighbourhood regeneration project (indicators for the analysis phase with the shared diagnosis for
SD, assessment indicators with the INDI model, monitoring indicators, …).

17
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

THE 5 OBJECTIVES AND 21 TARGETS


FOR SUSTAINABLE
NEIGHBOURHOODS AND BUILDINGS

TO PRESERVE AND ENHANCE HERITAGE AND CONSERVE RESOURCES


1 - To reduce energy consumption and improve energy management
2 - To improve water resource management and quality
3 - To avoid land consumption and improve land management
4 - To reduce the consumption of materials and improve their management
5 - To preserve and enhance the built and natural heritage

TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT


6 - To preserve and enhance the landscape and visual comfort
7 - To improve housing quality
8 - To improve cleanliness, hygiene and health
9 - To improve safety and risk management
10 - To improve air quality
11 - To reduce noise pollution
12 - To minimise waste

TO ENSURE DIVERSITY
13 - To ensure the diversity of the population
14 - To ensure the diversity of functions
15 - To ensure the diversity of housing supply

TO IMPROVE INTEGRATION
16 - To increase the levels of education and job qualification
17 - To improve access for all residents to all the services and facilities of the city
by means of easy and non expensive transportation mode
18 - To improve the integration of the neighbourhood in the city by creating living
and meeting places for all the inhabitants of the city
19 - To avoid unwanted mobility and to improve the environmentally sound mobility
infrastructure

TO REINFORCE SOCIAL LIFE


20 - To reinforce local governance
21 - To improve social networks and social capital

Source: CSTB, La Calade with contribution by the European partners of the HQE²R project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

18
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

2.4 - Sustainable neighbourhoods


Recent analyses of the city have shown that the social treatment of neighbourhoods is no longer
sufficient. Even if the city or conurbation constitutes a favoured terrain for urban studies, the
neighbourhood is a living entity where a good part of everyone’s life is played out: diversity in the
neighbourhood, its integration in the city, the conservation and promotion of its heritage (natural,
historic, human), the quality of life of its inhabitants, and the social ties, constitute fundamental axes
of a local policy based on sustainable development.

The HQE2R approach aims at asking questions about all of the needs of a neighbourhood and its
population and at identifying problems, whether economic or social and environmental. It must
emphasise a long-term thought process on the future vocation of the neighbourhood and look for
solutions to making the neighbourhood a structured area based on social relations, with a function in
the city and a capacity for the cooperative production of goods, services and spiritual direction.

Even if a neighbourhood does not have an ambition to become autonomous and, even less, to live self-
sufficiently, sustainable neighbourhoods which simultaneously highlight the management of
resources26 and space, the quality of life and the participation of their inhabitants allow meaning to be
given to neighbourhood life and raise the awareness of their inhabitants that their
neighbourhood has a future and a role to play in the city.

Neighbourhoods and urban renewal


Cities, like neighbourhoods, evolve. History shows that neighbourhoods also die… and are reborn,
especially in those European countries where space is at a premium. In certain neighbourhoods
constructed in haste, the only solution is massive demolition, not because the buildings have been
badly designed but because of their disposition in terms of the space they occupy and their form,
which renders it impossible to organize the public and private space which frames the life of their
inhabitants. By the same token, a neighbourhood will not be sustainable as long as 30 or 40% of the
active population remain unemployed or 50% of households live below the poverty threshold.
But even demolition, like the resulting movement of population, must not be the fruit of individual
visions but the result of a collective diagnosis, based on the analysis of long-term issues and existing
constraints.
Speaking at the same time of social (unemployment) and landscape problems, together with problems
of economics, accessibility to services, etc. is the purpose of the shared diagnosis. To do this it will
certainly be necessary to create new places of dialogue and consultation, at a considerable remove
from standard practice.
Some Local Agenda 21s, as well as some participative budgetary procedures, set an example Certain
planning laws recommend consultation, but what does this mean in practice, what level is attained on
the participation scale?
Recent elections in Europe have put the accent on their citizens’ request to participate. Local Agenda
21s, urban planning, and planning projects are some of the elements of this participation which can
already be achieved. But to do it fully, a major effort is necessary in awareness-raising,
information and training.

Rather than financing projects, even though they may well be interesting, for squares, urban furniture
and eco-museums, it would be more basic and sustainable to raise the level of training of the
population and its elected representatives to deal with their environment, their city, and their
institutions. But training the population is only interesting for them if the decisions to be made which
concern them have not already been made before they reach “empowerment”.

26
Environmental management of resources alone is not enough to define a sustainable neighbourhood.
19
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

Sustainable development is an approach which requires collective work in advance, and in which
the partners must try to define common objectives for the long-term: initiating a policy of
sustainable development must facilitate the mobilisation of all the partners, it must concern both short-
term problems (preoccupation of the inhabitants) as well as long-term problems, as well as the aspects
of the neighbourhood and its relation to the city. It becomes a question of combining the sociological
or psycho-sociological approach (showing the needs of the inhabitants, even if these are not all
legitimated…) with the “visionary” (but often individualistic) approach of the architect– town planner.
This combination can be achieved by working together, where everyone’s skills are not simply an
accumulation: they are multiplied by a combined effort which allows everyone to occupy the other’s
ground; this is the cost of a cross cutting approach.
Amongst the 21 targets of sustainable development, almost all the targets directly address goals for
which sustainable neighbourhoods are striving. These same targets will help us to determine the
essential indicators of sustainable development at the neighbourhood scale:
The target 7 “To improve the housing quality” is the only one which is not directly linked to the
neighbourhood scale.

2.5 - Sustainable built environment & buildings


The building provides a basic condition of urban life and at the same time the urban built environment
represents a huge share of human mass and energy flows27. Existing buildings may also be regarded as
“secondary resources”, especially in cases were vacancy occurs or even buildings / parts of the built
environment are abandoned. So from a point of view that is guided by the principle of sustainable
development the built environment has great importance.

Therefore it is not surprising that there is a great tradition and experience in (environmental)
assessment of (mostly new, residential) buildings. Reasons/objectives for/of assessment of buildings
are:
- material basis of the life / action of inhabitants / users
- health of users (in general, although often residential buildings are clearly to the fore)
- the building as a piece of real estate property (economic value; marketing)
- energy- and mass-flows on a macro-level as a result of / accountable to individual / private
(“micro”) action (gathering data and information for policy design)
Further criteria can be added looking at the phase of use of the building, so that the actual data of
resource consumption could be compared with the expected data from the planning stage. Some of the
existing tools introduced in Deliverable 328 give examples for that. In fact, the gaining of meaningful
criteria is probably the most reasonable use of existing building related tools within the development
of HQE²R.
The renovation of buildings must, in terms of sustainable development, satisfy a certain number of
previously defined targets. These are principally targets linked to two global objectives of sustainable
development: to preserve and enhance the heritage conserve resources, and to improve the quality of
the local environment.

27
“The construction, use and demolition of buildings have considerable impact on the natural and built
environment. At present, the building sector is responsible for about 30% of primary energy use in OECD
countries. Material flow analyses for some Member countries show that the sector accounts for between one-
third and one-half of commodity flows when expressed in terms of weight. In addition, indoor air quality has a
large impact on human health because people usually spend as much as 80-90% of their time indoors.”
OECD/IEA Joint Workshop on the Design of Sustainable Building Policies, June 28-29, 2001 - Summary and
Conclusions and Contributed Papers: Part 1, 2 - Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), Paris, 2001, 6
28
E. Antonini, A. Blum, A. Grossi, C. Robbins, January 2002, Analysis and adaptation of most appropriate tools and
methods, HQE²R Deliverable 3, Sophia Antipolis
20
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The social life and local governance are a third objective which must be considered, the improvement
of living conditions not being only to be looked at from a technical point of view: it would be
indecent, for example, to speak of sustainable housing if the housing does not offer a minimum of one
room per person, including children. Studies have shown that the fact of having several children in the
same bedroom increases the educational difficulties of these children. By the same token, in
considering the requirement (needs and wishes) of the inhabitants, an sustainable renovation will have
to consider the uses and functions of the building: creating, for example, common areas for meetings,
games rooms, etc., which could be managed by the inhabitants, family gardens in the place of certain
useless “green areas”… These problems, linked to the use of the building, are indispensable when
one discusses on renovation (targets 21 but also 12).

Sustainable buildings will have to make it their business to better attain the following targets:
1 - To reduce energy consumption and improve energy management,
2 - To improve water resource management and quality,
3 - To avoid land consumption and improve land management,
4 - To improve the consumption of materials and their management,
5 - To preserve and enhance the built and natural heritage,
6 - To preserve and enhance the landscape and visual comfort,
7 - To improve housing quality,
8 - To improve cleanliness, hygiene and health,
9 - To improve safety and risk management,
10 - To improve air quality,
11 - To reduce noise pollution,
12 - To minimise waste,
13 - To ensure the diversity of the population,
15 - To ensure the diversity of the housing supply,
18 - To improve the integration of the neighbourhood in the city by creating living and meeting
places for all the inhabitants of the city,
21 - To improve social networks and social capital.

Within HQE²R it will be part of the model-development to suggest a tool for an integrated discussion
of these targets at the building scale by the help of the already developed checklist of indicators.

2.6 - Participation
2.6.1 Introduction
The Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, adopted unanimously by the 178 States
represented in 1992, evokes in one of its 27 principles the participation of citizens as a fundamental
aspect of sustainable development. The tenth principle states:
“the best way to consider environmental questions is to ensure the participation of all the
citizens concerned, at the appropriate level. At the national level, each individual must have
access to information relative to the environment held by public authorities, including
information relative to dangerous substances and activities in their communities, and be able
to participate in the decision process. The states must facilitate and encourage the public in
becoming more concerned and participating by putting information at their disposal.
Comprehensive access to judiciary and administrative actions, namely redress and appeals,
must be ensured.”

21
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The HQE2R programme is directly concerned with the participation methods in use in each of the
partner countries. Current good practice demands that regeneration projects must take full account of
social dynamics, as major a component of sustainable development (also taking into account the
environment and economic development). The involvement of residents and users in the life of their
districts and of their cities gives great benefit to local social dynamics.

2.6.2 The HQE2R approach

There are two main elements to the approach being adopted by the project:
• To conceptualise participation in sustainable neighbourhood regeneration according to a three axes
(introduced below)
• To place participation as a guiding principal at the centre of the HQE2R methodology.

Analysing participation in neighbourhood regeneration using a three dimensional HQE2R scale:

• A first scale with the different steps of participation:


As with many considerations of participation in public affairs, our approach starts with Arnstein’s
Ladder of Citizen Participation (1971). The ladder was designed with specific reference to
American federal social programmes, and it describes eight levels of participation, starting with
manipulation by the authorities, and progressing to citizen control:
8. Citizen control
7. Delegated power
6. Partnership
5. Placation
4. Consultation
3. Information
2. Therapy
1. Manipulation29

The concept of different levels and types of participation is useful in a number of ways. It provides a
structure for thinking about what types of participation are feasible, desirable and effective in different
circumstances. It also helps us to think about participation in a European context, where different
political, cultural and legislative contexts result in a very broad spectrum of practice. The concept of a
scale of participation has therefore been adopted from Arnstein, and adapted to fit the European
urban regeneration context. For the purposes of the HQE2R project, this adapted version of the
ladder of participation provides the first dimension of the three-dimensional scale:
- Coercion (action of force),
- Information (presenting public knowledge), and training (putting in place of the
appropriate means to ensure the training and the development of a human being),
- Awareness (create interest),
- Consultation (collecting opinions),
- Empowerment (participation of the people concerned in every decision process but
without the power of taking the final decision)
- Self – government or co-operation (participation of the people concerned in a common
decision).

29
Arnstein (1971)
22
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The six points on the scale, from coercion to self-government are proposed as being relevant and
readily understood in the European context. These descriptors will be tested during the completion
of the project deliverables on participation. The analysis may be further developed through
consideration of the ‘Ladder of citizen empowerment’ (Burns, Hambleton & Hoggett, 1994), a
refinement of the ladder of participation adapted to UK local government.

But this scale is not enough to explain the different phases of urban renewal as well as the nature of all
the various problems. So we imagined two additional new scales adapted to the specific context of
urban renewal projects:

• The second axis in our analysis is that of the project process:


Four key phases in the development and implementation of a regeneration project are proposed:
- for the establishment of the diagnosis (analysis of issues and reaching consensus on
priorities),
- at the definition of the project,
- during implementation,
- for monitoring and follow-up.

These phases thus form the second axis in our three dimensional analysis. The project will test the
assumption that increased participation in the first dimension (from coercion to self-government) will
enable more complete participation in the second dimension, and vice versa.

• The third axis concerns the scope of participation in terms of the issues that are
dealt with:
Can participation encompass long term issues, as well as pressing daily problems? Most people
respond more readily to pressing daily problems; is it possible to present sustainability issues in a way
that will engage people in longer-term thinking? Related to this is making the connections between
local and global issues; noise nuisance in the street can be reduced by street surfacing or by better
sound insulation, but what about the discussion concerning transport plans and urban planning more
generally?

23
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

THE THREE DIMENSIONS OF PARTICIPATION


PROJECT PHASES

Monitoring to long term

Implementation

From short term

Decisions To Global

Diagnosis
From Local

Identification
of problems

n t
cio ion es
s
tio
n en ion PARTICIPATION
er at en a rm at
Co rm ar ult ow
e er STEPS
fo ns p op
In Aw Co Em Co

Source: CSTB, La Calade for HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

2.6.3 Participation at the centre of the HQE²R methodology


The approach of the partnership is that participation should be at the centre of the methodology (see
overall methodology diagram below). It is a guiding principle of the methodology that the appropriate
level of participation should be sought at each stage, and that the aim should be to progress through
the three dimensions described above.
The wide variety of practice across Europe calls for a degree of pragmatism both in the completion of
the project and in the final recommendations. In the completion of the city case studies, the research
teams are guided by the local context in determining the appropriate level of resident participation.
The project will explore whether it is possible to make recommendations that will apply to all
European countries. Some of the questions that will be addressed include;
- Is there a minimal level of participation at which it is possible to speak about
sustainability?
- Is it possible for participation to be effective and efficient at any level of participation, i.e.
can information becomes consultation, can that consultation become empowerment and
then empowerment lead to co-operation ?
- Is it possible to improve the participation procedures and to propose any methodology
for that?

24
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

3 - THE HQE2R METHODOLOGY

The objective of the HQE2R project is to allow local authorities to implement regeneration
action plans in their neighbourhoods and for the renovation of their buildings towards sustainable
development. It is a question of providing tools for a concrete analysis and evaluation which are open
to public (and private) debate and to action. But to define concrete plans of action, sustainable
development requires a roundabout way of achieving a decision, because of the necessity of taking the
various principles of sustainable development into account at one and the same time. As the law of the
market only takes account of economic factors, and principally only in the short-term, sustainable
development demands the integration of the long-term, global impact of decisions on environmental
and social factors, with less hierarchical forms of participation than the usual market practices.

This integrated way inside each phase of the process should, in return, allow major future economies
of operation as well as avoid negative external factors, both socially and environmentally.

In the following section, we are going to present shortly the basic steps of the overall methodology
focussing on the expected results – an action plan – and going as far as recording full knowledge
about the neighbourhood and existing problems. The elements of the methodology concern more
particularly the following topics:
- problems, inventory, shared sustainable development “diagnosis” (systemic analysis),
- analysis, indicators, tools for the scenarios or projects assessment,
- definition of the final action plan, guidelines and briefing documents for the process, the
implementation and monitoring at both scales: the neighbourhood and the buildings ones.

Four phases are defined in the HQE²R overall methodology (see the scheme on next page):
- decision
- analysis
- assessment
- action

25
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
THE HQE²R METHODOLOGY
FOR LEADING SUSTAINABLE

HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1)


URBAN PLANNING PROJECTS

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE

that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
26

evaluation of the Participation of residents and users


project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for

HQE²R
the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

3.1 - From the Inventory to the shared SD “diagnosis” (systemic


analysis) – Phase 2

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

The “diagnosis”30 of the neighbourhood and of the built environment (stock of buildings) can only be
conducted on the basis of an overall review of the known or expected prospects and of an inventory
of the neighbourhood. This inventory and the known or expected prospects must concern both all the
aspects of sustainable development (SD) (economic, social and environment effectiveness) and
include items of information applicable to each sustainable development objective. This inventory
must also be concerned with the different fields of analysis of the neighbourhood: residential
buildings, non residential buildings, non-built spaces, infrastructures and networks.
The analysis grid which enables this inventory to take place will interrelate the aspects and the
overall SD objectives. This analysis grid consists of sheets, each providing coverage of overall SD
objectives and SD aspects. Each sheet will comprise a combination of questions (also called state
indicators) enabling the inventory to be achieved. (some of these questions are called key issues or
indisputable issues for going towards SD, it is the ISDIS31 system used for the shared diagnosis for
SD).

30
We use here the word as in medicine
31
Issues and sustainable Development Indicators System. This system will be described in a specific document
and will be available on the web site: http://hqe2r.cstb.fr
27
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

3.2 From the shared SD “diagnosis” to the priorities (or “stakes”)


and to local SD objectives – Phase 2

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

The neighbourhood “diagnosis” must thus be structured on the basis of overall sustainable
development objectives defined in a general way, but specifically adapted to the geographical scale
of the neighbourhood.
The definition of what is essential in the neighbourhood is achieved by establishing a “diagnosis”.
This “diagnosis” must analyse the prevailing situation in the neighbourhood as well as its prospects for
change in relation to sustainable development objectives. These SD objectives are global and general
and should be applied to all neighbourhoods. Then each city and neighbourhood should seek to
achieve these objectives in accordance with specific procedures for each population and their
economic, social, and environmental context.
The local objectives of sustainable development can be defined only after first knowing or
determining the “stakes”32 in the sustainable development of the neighbourhood. That is to say the
establishment of the problems to solve in the short, medium and long term. The “stakes” are the means
organising a hierarchy of these problems.
The “stakes” are the key questions or the indisputable points (so rather different than the usual English
word “priorities”) that will lead the neighbourhood to sustainable development or not. They are
defined at a given moment with regards to the capacity of the different stakeholders (inhabitants, local
elected officials, municipal services, consultants,...) to conceive the future situation and to set an order
of importance to the causes of the different problems encountered.

32
This word “stakes” seems to be another “European English word”, so its definition is given in the next
sentences… and we keep the word in “…” asking for indulgence from English people…
28
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

3.3 From the local priorities (or “stakes”) and SD objectives to


potential scenarios and the final Actions plan or project for the
neighbourhood: Tools to assess the scenarios and support decision
for choosing the final actions plan – Phase 3
PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

The assessment of scenarios must lead decision-makers to define an Actions plan or a project for
the neighbourhood and for buildings. This assessment phase is supported by the different actors of
the neighbourhood. Scenarios must be considered as a foundation for the discussion of development
options and a precondition for decisions on measures / action plans / projects. Scenarios-writing gives
opportunities for seeing ones own position within a wider context and understanding the positions and
interest of other actors. It also helps one to think in alternatives and thereby to overcome routine.
Scenario-writing usually has two steps:
- the writing of “pre-scenarios” summarizing general development trends / driving forces
- the writing of final scenarios: definition of most probable development paths for the
neighbourhood in the light of the pre-scenario assumptions and the stakes and priorities identified
within the diagnosis step.
In “playing” with the scenarios – that is to say : altering the solutions to the issues / stakes of
development identified in the diagnosis – the actors involved gain a first impression of the impact of
different development paths on the (core) indicators. HQE2R supports this play by providing three
evaluation models and a methodology for decision–making.

29
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

This methodology will include projects for buildings, land planning and a series of accompanying
measures. These measures will also concern training, awareness, animation, communication, financial
supports, resident and user participation,…
The action plan or project for the neighbourhood must also be developed with annual stages in terms
of budgetary and human resources.
In order to define action plans or to choose the best project for a neighbourhood in a sustainable way,
methodological tools are therefore required. The HQE2R project proposes three methodological tools
to assess the different scenarios and to support decisions for action, to choose the best project:
- a model to assess the long term impact on the neighbourhood and buildings
sustainability of scenarios and planning projects, using the indisputable indicators
system (INDI model).
- an environmental impact model at both the neighbourhood and the buildings
scales (ENVI model),
- an economic and environmental assessment for a building renovation or
construction (ASCOT model),

These tools (cf. the appendix) must ensure the coherence of the actions plan or strategies proposed
with regard to sustainable development objectives. To be clearly defined in the decision-making
phase, the impact of these plans or programmes, when applied to the different aspects of sustainable
development, must be evaluated, in other words, how or in what way the plans and programmes, once
they are implemented, will enable the objectives of sustainable development to be fully or closely
achieved.

3.4 – Implementation of the Actions plan or project – Phase 4

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

30
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The different sub-projects defined by in the planning process (i.e. the action plan) will include both
physical developments and socio-economic measures. In fact most action plans or projects will cover
both aspects of neighbourhood regeneration and, where a project is defined only in terms of physical
or socio-economic dimensions, there will almost always be implications for the other dimensions. For
sustainability to be ensured, both sides of projects must always be considered carefully. This is
especially the case during an implementation stage, as the urgencies of “getting something done” can
easily lead to neglect of one or the other aspect.
Projects are likely to focus on:
- buildings, in which there is a combination of demolition, renovation and new construction,
- open spaces, such as green spaces, streets, sidewalks,…
- public services, such as transportation, in which land management is linked to the services or
facilities management.

Following the demonstration phase of HQE2R, the research team will produce:
• guidelines for non-built elements (box 11 in the previous scheme): open spaces, green
spaces, streets, …
• and briefing documents for buildings projects (box 10): construction of new buildings or
renovation of existing ones.
which can be used in decision-support for sustainable development programmes elsewhere.

Briefing and building process


Building process

Pre-project Project Post-Project

CONCEIVE DESIGN CONSTRUCT OCCUPY


Briefing process

Goal setting Strategic Project Construction Occupancy


briefing briefing briefing briefing briefing

project brief occupancy


Output of briefing

review

strategic brief
post construction
review

goal setting brief

Source : ICIE and CSTB, HQE²R project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

The briefing documents for buildings refer to the different building stages:
#" Pre-project stage: This step might be divided in two briefing steps:
Goal setting briefing, where, at the beginning of the pre-project phase, the key actors defines
the needs in a goal setting brief.
Strategic briefing, where, at the end of the pre-project phase, the key actors examine the
objectives of the design, different options are tested and a strategic brief is defined.
31
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

#" Project stage:


Project briefing, where, at the beginning of the project stage, the design team transform the
strategic brief in a project brief and requirements for the construction stage are defined.
Post-construction briefing, during which the project brief is implemented on the construction
site. This briefing stage ends with a post-construction review which is done just before the
building occupancy, where the result is tested with reference to the statement of need defined
in the pre-project stage and to the requirements of the project brief.
#" Post-project stage:
Occupancy review, where the result is tested with reference to users that occupy the building,
after a period of use/living.

3.5 – Urban Planning – Phase 4

PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

The HQE2R methodology also includes urban planning analysis, at the national and local levels for
regulation and at the local level for analysing the crossed-cutting impacts with the buildings and
neighbourhood sustainability.
In each neighbourhood, it will be necessary to integrate the impacts of the decisions or of the action
plan in the different urban planning documents.
Then, specific recommendations will be proposed for each country in order to take into account
sustainable development in urban planning.

32
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

3.6 – Monitoring and evaluation – Phase 4


PHASE 1 : DECISION PHASE 2 : ANALYSIS

1. Identification of 2. Strategic decision 3. Inventory based on


problems (social, for sustainable the 21 targets. Mesure
environmental, technical) regeneration of the of the SD indisputable
that need actions neighbourhood indicators

4. Shared SD
diagnosis of the
neighbourhood
(potential, dysfunction,
cohesion)
12. Monitoring and
evaluation of the Participation of residents and users
project : monitoring
Partnership (public / private)
indicators
Local Governance
5. Strategic priorities
for the neighbourhood
and definition of
objectives for SD
11. Neighbourhood
specifications for 9. Urban planning
the project stage regulations

10. Buildings 8. Action plan for 7. Assessment 6. Generation


specifications for the neighbourhood of the scenarios of scenarios
call for tender

PHASE 4 : ACTION PHASE 3 : ASSESSMENT


Source: HQE²R Project (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr)

SD is not a stable but a continuous process. Solutions of today may be the problems of tomorrow.
This raises the question of a long term evaluation (monitoring) of the proposed actions, measures or
action plans. Starting from the ISDIS system, then from assessment and evaluation tools, the final
HQE2R project will also give global recommendations for managing a SD neighbourhood
regeneration project and recommendations on how to organise long term monitoring and a
possible review process for the actions and development measures chosen (box 12). May be this
evaluation could lead to the definition of response indicators in regards to local SD objectives and to
stakeholders’ behaviour.

The key issues and indicators system (ISDIS) as a follow-up and governance tool
ISDIS may be used as a follow-up system for development projects. In this case, the local
communities may, within the system of issues and indicators suggested, choose the most pertinent
indicators for their neighbourhood and monitor their development at well-defined intervals.
The system of key issues with indicators may be a communication tool, but also a governance tool
to the extent that the local community can involve the main actors and the residents of the
neighbourhood in measurement and analysis, possibly leading to modification of the projects chosen.
The system of issues and indicators can be a communication tool but must be used in a
cumulative fashion, for it is not a question of drawing partial conclusions per indicator. Each of these
indicators offers only a partial vision of the problem at hand and, even if one can assume that they will
be representative of a theme or problem to be dealt with within the framework of sustainable
development, it is desirable to consider the system of indicators as a whole. The analysis of the
evolution of the system of indicators thus requires a complete system of evaluation to be put into
place. It is proposed that the evolution of the measurements made against the indicators be analysed
globally according to the impact made on each of the five global objectives of sustainable
development.
33
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

APPENDIX 1:
5 SD OBJECTIVES,
21 SD TARGETS AND 51 KEY ISSUES

34
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

SD OBJECTIVES, SD TARGETS
AND KEY ISSUES

5 SD
21 SD Targets 51 Key issues
objectives
1 – To reduce energy 1A To improve energy efficiency for heating and cooling
To preserve and enhance heritage and

consumption and 1B To improve energy efficiency for electricity


improve energy 1C To use renewable energy sources
management
1D To fight against the greenhouse effect gas emissions
2A Drinking water consumption
conserve resources

2 – To improve water 2B Use of rainwater


resource management
and quality 2C Rainwater management
2D Sewerage network
3 – To avoid land 3A Optimisation of the land consumption
consumption and 3B Regeneration of brownfields and polluted sites and soils
improve land
management 3C Integration of environmental concerns in urban planning
4 – To reduce the Integration of recycled and reusable materials in
4A
consumption of materials construction, retrofitting and demolition process
and improve their
4B ibid for public spaces
management
5 – To preserve and 5A Enhancement of the architectural quality
enhance the built and
natural heritage 5B Preservation / valorisation of the natural heritage
6 – To preserve and 6A Visual quality of natural landscape
enhance the landscape
and to improve visual 6B Visual quality of urban landscape
comfort
To improve the quality of the local environment

7A Building Quality
7 – To improve housing
quality 7 B Housing Quality
7C Satisfaction of users and residents
Improvement of the cleanliness in the neighbourhood and in
8A
8 - To improve the common spaces
cleanliness, hygiene and 8B Substandard housings
health
8C Right and access to care and health

9A Improvement of safety of people and goods

9 - To improve safety and 9 B Improvement of the road safety


risk management
9 C Local management of technological risks
9 D Local management of natural risks

10 - To improve air 10A Quality of interior air


quality 10 B Quality of outside air
11A Nuisances linked to the neighbour
11 - To reduce noise Noise pollution in the neighbourhood due to traffic or to
11 B
pollution activity
11 C Noise pollution due to construction site building
12A Household waste management
12 - To minimise waste
12B Site building waste management
Source: CSTB, La Calade
35
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

SD OBJECTIVES, SD TARGETS
AND KEY ISSUES
5 SD
21 SD Targets 51 Key issues
objectives
13 – To ensure the 13A Social and economic diversity
To ensure diversity

diversity of the population 13B Age distribution diversity

14A Presence of economic activities


14 - To ensure the 14B Presence of retail stores
diversity of functions
14C Presence of local amenities in the neighbourhood
15 - To ensure the
diversity of housing 15A Diversity of housing
supply
16 - To increase the 16A Foster academic success
levels of education and
job qualification 16B Reinforcement of the role of the school in the neighbourhood
17 - To improve access
To improve integration

for all residents to all


services and facilities of 17A Improvement of the public transportation system
the city by means of an
easy and non expensive
transportation mode
18 - To improve the
integration of the
neighbourhood in the city
18A Presence of attractive amenities in the neighbourhood
by creating living and
meeting places for all the
inhabitants of the city
19 – To avoid unwanted
19A Safe and convenient footpaths and bicycle ways
mobility and to improve
the environmentally
sound mobility Implementation of non-pollutant, coherent and efficient
19B
infrastructure displacements systems
To reinforce social life

20A Residents and users engagement in the SD process


20 – To reinforce local
governance Participation of residents to decision and projects related to
20B
the neighbourhood

21A Strengthening of community


21 – To improve social
networks and social 21B Developing social economy
capital
21 C Cultural links across the globe

Source: CSTB, La Calade

36
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

APPENDIX 2:
THE 3 ASSESSMENT MODELS
FOR SCENARIOS
OR
NEIGHBOURHOOD REGENERATION
PROJECTS

37
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

1. AN INDICATORS IMPACT MODEL: THE INDI MODEL


The INDI model (INDicators Impacts) is an assessment model for projects or scenarios using
sustainable development indicators. It is a decision aid tool. It aims at helping local authorities to
define their action plan by taking into account the SD concept in their choice (and not in their
approach which is not the concern of the model but which has to be transversal and include
governance). We can consider it as a strong decision making tool because it gives to its user an
assessment of the impact of different scenarios on a neighbourhood.
To carry out an assessment, we must give a mark to or at least put a figure on the initial data, the
indicators, and then we will be able to assess the impact of projects on these indicators. It will be
easier for the municipalities to choose the scenario which will be the most suitable for improving the
performances of the neighbourhood and initiate sustainable development.
The INDI model aims first of all at evaluating how a scenario or a project modifies the level of
sustainability noted for each indicator; to do this, it defines evaluation procedures which allow the
model to be used in the same fashion in different situations or different neighbourhoods. Each
indicator is evaluated for the neighbourhood on a SD scale proposed by the model (and which can be
different according to the national or local context). The user will have to make the value of the
indicator improve year by years for each project or scenario

Then, the model proposes aggregation of indicators according to each objective or to all of them. That
allows a comparison between the scenarios or projects for each target, each objective or all of them.
So INDI allows a comparison between scenarios or urban development projects for a
neighbourhood.

Example of a neighbourhood HQE2R profile


over two years for one scenario

Year 0
Evolution of a neighbourhood profile
Year T
3

2
Heritage
1 and
resources Integration
0
Quality of local Diversity
-1 environment
Social life
-2

-3

The INDI model then attempts to regroup the indicators according to the targets and objectives of
sustainable development and thus to assess the role of the scenario or project in the quest for
sustainability in the neighbourhood.
The indicators chosen are linked to the 5 SD objectives and to their 21 targets and they take also into
account the 6 main SD principles which have to be the background for each action at the city scale.

38
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The INDI model includes a total of 63 SD indicators. This total number seems to be a compromise
between - on the one hand the will for having a simple and easily usable decision aid tool or model
which assist communication and systemic reflection, and, on the other hand, the necessity of covering
all the S.D. fields and their interacting impacts.
For each target INDI proposes one to four indicators. The distribution of indicators numbers for each
SD objective is shown in the following table:

Allocation of the INDI indicators between SD objectives

Number of indicators for


SD objectives
each objective
To preserve and enhance heritage 17
and to conserve resources
To improve the quality of the local 21
environment
To ensure diversity 9
To improve integration 11
To reinforce social life 5

2. AN
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT MODEL AT THE
NEIGHBOURHOOD LEVEL: THE ENVI MODEL
The purpose of the environmental impact model ENVI (ENVironmental Impact) is to make an ex-ante
evaluation tool available for municipalities, which gives a calculation of the environmental impact of
the chosen projects or scenarios for the neighbourhood.
The tool is presented in the form of a software calculation package with a scrolling menu comprising:
• Two families of entry parameters which allow the neighbourhood to be defined:
- Compulsory input parameters to define the neighbourhood, such as the nature of the
neighbourhood, the surface area, the population, etc.;
- Optional parameters: in all cases the model suggests default values, e.g. heating energy;
- In a certain number of cases, questions concerning the buildings and activities are asked, with
an optional numerical response but a compulsory qualitative response.
• A list of possible work and scenarios
• A results sheet.
The neighbourhood will be described in the following manner:
• Residential sector: housing stock, the population in single-family houses, social housing and
private multi-family buildings.
• Tertiary sector distinguishing:
- Private buildings: shops (superstores), retail trade outlets, offices, hotels, restaurants
and cafés
- Public buildings: schools, gymnasia and sports centres, administrative buildings,
swimming pools, cultural and leisure facilities, health care establishments, community
spaces, public lighting
39
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

• Mobility: simulation of the mobility and of the allocation between the different personal
transportation methods according to the different ratios of population/jobs/shopping/schools
established bearing in mind the position of the neighbourhood in the conurbation; simulation
of goods transportation according to the number of shops and firms in the neighbourhood;
simulation of transit transportation on the main streets in the neighbourhood.

Scenarios
The model will allow the evaluation of the environmental impact of various scenarios concerning:
- The construction of buildings (impact upon density, land management, the transportation
system, energy, water, etc.)
- The demolition of buildings
- The renovation of buildings including modifications of the quality of the buildings, energy
systems and water needed (consumption efficiency), energy used (integration and / or
substitution of renewable energy sources)
- modification of land use: parking, green areas, etc.
- modification of the public lighting system
- modification of the transportation system
- modification of waste management
- modification of water management and consumption
- The combination of these various operations

Expected results
A tool will be available to the local authority (municipality), which models the different impacts of
various scenarios on the following variables:
- energy consumption and pollutants and greenhouse gas emission, linked to the buildings and
transportation systems;
- water consumption and rainwater re-use ;
- land consumption;
- waste (not recycled, not re-used) quantities;
- consumption of renewable energy sources.

To optimise the use of ENVI, the ENVI model will set out to focus on the public action leverage
points which underpin the development of the scenarios. These leverage points, which may be
national or regional public policies, will be different in the various Member States, or even between
the regions of the same Member State, and will be presented by each partner before the model is
calibrated.

3. AN ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT TOOL


FOR A BUILDING: THE ASCOT MODEL
The ASCOT model (Assessment of Shared global COst and exTernalities) is a simulation model,
which allows comparing, in term of global costs, a sustainable building (construction or rehabilitation)
and a reference (or traditional) building. Costs for a sustainable building can be higher than for a
traditional construction then operating costs are generally lower. Then there also differences in the life
time of materials and equipments.

40
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

The model assesses the different costs for the different partners engaged in the project, taking into
account the different means of financing and payments.
In front of these costs, there are in first the satisfaction of users (inhabitants) with a quality of use and
comfort. This is a qualitative indicator which is the counter-part of costs (from ISDIS).

The model includes some externalities which are assessed as SD indicators. These indicators favour
the discussion in order to consider the building from a “macroscopic approach” specific to the
sustainable development.

Overview of the model


The ASCOT model is an accounting model. It is as a data base to fill with the builder and the
architect, in order to calculate the different costs for the construction or the rehabilitation of a
building.
- The investment costs are those for the construction or the rehabilitation of a sustainable
construction and those for the construction or the rehabilitation of the same building but with
traditional technologies (reference building).
- Then, the operating costs are assessed in regards to the different technologies included or not
in the building. The operating costs are calculated for the sustainable construction and for the
traditional construction. The operation savings are evaluated by an estimation of the impact of
the used technologies and a calculation is carried out separately for each technology.
- The model user can assess the over-cost and the savings in comparison with a reference
construction.
- This model also includes the financing rules and allows calculating a global cost for
different kinds of stakeholders.

This accounting model can be also used as a monitoring tool. The model could be also improved by
the compilation of all the case studies where the global cost is measured in order to get a data base of
global cost of sustainable constructions
This model also includes some externalities and impacts of the project, the first of them is the
satisfaction of users. In order to include these impacts and externalities and in front of the difficulty
to give a value to each, the model proposes to assess some relevant indicators from ISDIS.

41
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

APPENDIX 3: ABSTRACTS

FRENCH ASBTRACT
Aujourd’hui les villes se reconstruisent sur elles-mêmes, de nombreux bâtiments doivent être réhabilités, de
nombreux quartiers revitalisés et/ou repensés, qu’ils se trouvent en banlieue ou en centre ville. Cette
réhabilitation ne peut plus se contenter de solutions techniques, elle doit prendre en considération les
dynamiques sociales, les modifications d’usage, l’environnement et le développement économique, en un mot le
développement durable.
Le projet HQE2R est un projet de recherche et de démonstration cofinancé par la Commission Européenne dans
le cadre du Programme Energie, Environnement et Développement Durable dont le but est d’élaborer des
méthodes et outils à destination des collectivités locales et de leurs partenaires : services déconcentrés de
l’Etat, bailleurs sociaux, agences d’urbanisme, ... afin de les aider dans leurs projets de renouvellement urbain
(projet de recherche). Ces méthodes et outils seront testés sur 14 quartiers dans 13 villes de 7 pays membres de
l’Union Européenne (Allemagne, Danemark, Espagne, France, Italie, Pays - Bas et Royaume-Uni) dans les
différentes étapes en amont de la programmation et lors de la programmation (projet de démonstration).
Ce document présente la méthodologie globale du projet HQE2R concernant l’intégration du
développement durable dans les projets de renouvellement urbain à l’échelle des quartiers et leurs
bâtiments.
Cette méthodologie est composée de 4 phases :
1. L’émergence ou la prise en compte des problèmes et la décision ;
2. L’analyse (état des lieux et diagnostic partagé de développement durable) ;
3. L’évaluation des scénarios ou plan d’actions potentiels à l’aide des 3 outils d’aide à la décision élaborés ;
4. La mise en œuvre, le suivi et l’évaluation du plan d’actions (à l’aide des outils et recommandations sur les
documents d’urbanisme, la participation des habitants et usagers et les cahiers de charges type ou
recommandations pour la conduite de projet à l’échelle des bâtiments et des quartiers).
La méthodologie contient des outils spécifiques, élaborés à destination des collectivités locales et de leurs
partenaires locaux, tels que :
• la définition de 6 principes de développement durable d’une part et de 5 grands objectifs de
développement durable décomposés en 21 cibles et 51 questions clés d’autre part, ainsi que la définition
d’un quartier « durable » ;
• la méthode de diagnostic partagé de développement durable d’un quartier et la grille d’analyse éco-
systémique à utiliser pour l’inventaire et le diagnostic préalable ;
• un système de questions clés et d’indicateurs incontournables de développement durable (le système
ISDIS) pour évaluer la « durabilité » du quartier, utilisable notamment lors de la réalisation du diagnostic ;
• une analyse des différentes lois et pratiques dans les projets de renouvellement urbain ou Agendas 21
Locaux et des recommandations pour l’amélioration de la participation des habitants et usagers ;
• une analyse des différentes lois et pratiques de l’aménagement du territoire et des recommandations pour
l’intégration du DD dans les documents d’urbanisme ;
• 3 modèles d’évaluation des projets d’aménagement ou de renouvellement urbain à l’échelle des
quartiers et des bâtiments: le modèle ENVI sur l’impact environnemental, et le modèle INDI
d’indicateurs de DD pour l’évaluation et le choix des projets ; le modèle de simulation ASCOT permettant
de comparer, grâce à une analyse en coût global, un bâtiment durable (neuf ou réhabilité) avec un bâtiment
de référence ;
• des cahiers des charges types pour la réhabilitation et la construction de bâtiments durables ;
• des recommandations pour l’élaboration de cahiers des charges pour les éléments non bâtis ;
• un guide pour la conduite de projets d’aménagement ou de renouvellement urbain intégrant le
développement durable ;
• des indicateurs d’évaluation et de suivi pour les différents projets concernant le quartier ou la ville.

42
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

GERMAN ABSTRACT

Der hier vorliegende Text gibt einen Überblick über den methodischen Rahmen des von der EU im 5.
Rahmenprogramm geförderten Projekts HQE²R und seinen umfassenden Ansatz für eine nachhaltige
Stadtteilentwicklung. Die zu entwickelnde Methodik zielt insbesondere auf Instrumente zur
Entscheidungsunterstützung für kommunale Verwaltungen und deren Partner.
Entsprechend dem momentanen Entwicklungsstand ist der methodische Ansatz HQE²R in vier Phasen
gegliedert: Bestandsaufnahme, Analyse und Prioritätensetzung, Definition, Diskussion und Bewertung von
Szenarien und das Aufstellen eines Entwicklungsplanes für den Stadtteil. Dabei basiert der Ansatz im
Wesentlichen auf 21 Zielen nachhaltiger Entwicklung in fünf Themenfeldern, deren Umsetzung durch ein Set
von vordefinierten grundlegenden Indikatoren und drei (in Entwicklung befindliche) Bewertungsverfahren
unterstützt wird.
Im Einzelnen liegen bisher folgende Arbeitsergebnisse vor:
• die Zusammenstellung von 6 Prinzipien einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung auf Gemeindeebene;
• die Festlegung von fünf allgemeinen Hauptzielen einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung mit 21 detaillierteren
Unterzielen;
• Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren: eine erste Darstellung des Entwicklungsstands auf den unterschiedlichen
räumlichen Ebenen (Nationalstaat, Region, Stadt, Stadtteil und Gebäude) in vielen europäischen Staaten
erlaubte die Definition
- von Zustandsindikatoren zur Bewertung von Gebäuden und Stadtteilen
- eines Systems unverzichtbarer Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren (ISDIS) zur Bewertung der
Nachhaltigkeit eines Stadtteils
- von Verlaufsindikatoren für verschiedene Vorhaben im Stadtteil (und in der Gesamtstadt)
- eines Indikatorenmodells (INDI Modell) als Instrument zur Unterstützung im
Entscheidungsprozess bei der Bewertung verschiedener Szenarien, die der Entwicklung einer
Maßnahmenplans für den Stadtteil vorausgeht;
• die Untersuchung der rechtlichen Rahmenbedingungen und der Praxis der Beteiligung von Bewohnern und
Nutzern und daraus folgend Empfehlungen zur Stärkung der Bürgerbeteiligung;
• eine Analyse der unterschiedlichen Rechtssysteme bezüglich der räumlichen Planung und der
Planungspraxis sowie ihrer Auswirkungen auf einen Stadtteil zusammen mit Empfehlungen, wie die Ziele
einer nachhaltigen Entwicklung im Planungsprozess besser berücksichtigt werden können (für jedes
einzelne Land);
• Pilotversionen für 3 Modelle zur Hilfe bei der Entscheidungsfindung bei der Auswahl des am besten
geeigneten Maßnahmenplans für einen Stadtteil: das INDI Modell mit Nachhaltigkeitsindikatoren, das
ENVI Modell, das eine Bewertung der Umweltfolgen verschiedener Entwicklungslinien (Szenarien)
ermöglicht und das ASCOT Modell zur Einbeziehung externer Kosten;
• Entwürfe für eine prozessorientierte kurze Anleitung zur Auswahl geeigneter Ziele für eine nachhaltige
Gebäudesanierung
• Entwürfe für eine prozessorientierte kurze Anleitung hinsichtlich des Vorgehens bei der Erarbeitung einer
Maßnahmenplans für einen Stadtteil

Wie schon im Titel deutlich gemacht – HQE2R - Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood
regeneration / HQE²R - auf dem Weg zu einer Methode für nachhaltige Stadteilentwicklung – reflektiert dieses
Dokument die besondere Situation eines kombinierten Forschungs- und Demonstrationsprojektes. Zunächst
(Kapitel 2) wird das Projekt HQE²R beschrieben, das die Entwicklung und Pilotanwendung des methodischen
Ansatzes umfasst. Anschließend (Kapitel 3) werden die Hauptelemente und Charakteristika der Methode HQE²R
als solche vorgestellt. Da dieses Dokument als Werkstattbericht zu verstehen ist, sind Anmerkungen,
Kommentare oder Kritik jederzeit willkommen (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr).

43
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

CATALAN ABSTRACT

Les ciutats d’avui s’estan reconstruint, rehabilitant els seus edificis i revitalitzant els seus barris. Per garantir la
sostenibilitat, aquesta rehabilitació ha de, a part d’aportar solucions tècniques, pendre tendències socials, canvis
en el comportament, i tenir en compte aspectes del desenvolupament econòmic i ambiental. En el projecte
HQE2R, 14 barris i 10 instituts de recerca de 7 països europeus, estan col·laborant per proporcionar mètodes i
eines per ser utlitzades per les autoritats locals i els seus socis: agències governamentals, planificadors,
propietaris, ciutadans i altres participants en projectes de renovació urbana sostenible.

L’objectiu del projecte és desenvolupar una nova metodologia global amb les eines necessàries per promocionar
el desenvolupament sostenible i la qualitat de vida al determinant nivell d’escala urbana dels barris.

S’ha elaborat una metodologia per l’anàlisi i el desenvolupament de barris sostenibles. La metodologia descriu 4
fases (un inventari, un anàlisi identificant prioritats, una definició i valoració d’escenaris i finalment, un pla
d’actuació per cada barri) que estan basades en un conjunt de 21 criteris de desenvolupament sostenible per 5
objectius principals, un seguit d’indicadors, i 3 noves eines d’avaluació.

Aquest document presenta la metodologia global del projecte HQE2R. Fa referència a una aproximació al
desenvolupament sostenible dels barris. Aquesta metodologia global conté eines de suport específiques
desenvolupades per les autoritats locals i els seus socis locals:

• La tria de 6 principis de desenvolupament sostenible a escala de ciutat.


• la definició de 5 objectius globals de desenvolupament sostenible (SD) amb 21 objectius, i la definició
de sostenibilitat a escala del barri;
• un mètode de diagnosis SD ( amb una xarxa d’ecosistemes per a un inventari de les condicions actuals)
adaptat a escala del barri;
• indicadors SD: una primera actualització a les diferents escales (nacional, regional, a escala d la ciutat, el
barri i els edificis) en un seguit de països europeus incloent la definició de:
- indicadors d’estat pels edificis i per una diagnosi del barri,
- un sistema d’indicadors SD indisputables (ISDIS) per valorar la sostenibilitat del barri,
- indicadors per la supervisió per als diferents projectes del barri (i de la ciutat),
- un model que utilitzi indicadors (model INDI) com a una eina de suport decisòria per valorar
els diferents escenaris abans d’escollir un Pla d’Actuació definitiu pel barri;
• la actualització d’acord amb la llei i l’anàlisi dels costums de participació dels residents i dels usuaris
donant opcions per a generar recomanacions per a millorar la participació.
• un anàlisi de les diferents lleis i dels costums als documents de planificació urbana i del seu impacte als
barris amb recomanacions per tenir en compte els SD als documents de planificació urbana (per a cada
país associat);
• 3 models com a eines de suport decisòries per a l’elecció del millor pla d’acció pel al barri: el model
INDI amb els indicadors SD, el model ENVI que valori l’impacte ambiental dels diferents escenaris i el
model ASCOT que faci referència als costos globals;
• Documents d’abreviació SD per a l’elecció d’objectius adequats per a la renovació dels edificis,
• Documents d’abreviació SD per als procediments i decisions estratègiques fetes abans del desenvolupament
d’un pla d’acció per al barri.

44
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

SPANISH ABSTRACT

Las ciudades de hoy se están reconstruyendo, rehabilitando sus edificios y revitalizando sus barrios. Para garantir
la sostenibilidad, esta rehabilitación debe, a parte de aportar aspectos técnicos, tomar tendencias sociales,
cambios en el comportamiento, y considerar aspectos del desarrollo económico y ambiental. En el proyecto
HQE2R, 14 barrios y 10 institutos de investigación de 7 países europeos, esta colaborando para proporcionar
métodos y instrumentos para ser utilizados por las autoridades locales y sus socios: agencias gobernamentales,
planificadores, propietarios, ciudadanos y otros participantes en proyectos de renovación sostenible urbana.

Los objetivos del proyecto son desarrollar una nueva metodología con los instrumentos necesarios para
promocionar el desarrollo sostenible y la calidad de vida al crucial nivel de escala de urbana de barrio.

Este documento presenta la metodología global del proyecto HQE2R sobre la integración de los conceptos de
desarrollo sostenible en los proyectos urbanos referidos a barrios y sus edificios. Esta metodología contiene una
serie de herramientas específicas para el uso de los organismos locales:

• La elección 6 principios de desarrollo sostenible a escala de ciudad


• La definición de 5 grandes objetivos del desarrollo sostenible estructurados en 21 temas y la definición
de lo que entendemos por barrio “sostenible”.
• Un método de diagnosis compartido (con una parrilla para la realización del inventario) adaptado a escala
de barrio.
• Una selección de referencias sobre indicadores de desarrollo sostenible a distintas escalas (desde a escala
nacional al nivel de edificio) en los principales países europeos, que han permitido elaborar:
- Una serie de indicadores de estado para la diagnosis de edificios y de barrios.
- Un sistema de indicadores indisputables (ISDIS) para evaluar la sostenibilidad de los barrios.
- Una serie de indicadores para el seguimiento de proyectos que se desarrollen a escala de barrio (y
para la ciudad).
- Un modelo de indicadores (INDI) como herramienta de decisión para la elección de proyectos.
• Una selección de las leyes y experiencias en los distintos países al nivel de participación ciudadana con
recomendaciones para potenciarla.
• Un análisis de las leyes i las prácticas a nivel de planificación urbana y su implicación en los barrios con
recomendaciones para introducir el desarrollo sostenible en los documentos de planificación (para cada
país).
• 3 herramientas para ayudar en el proceso de decisión a la hora de elaborar planes de Acción para intervenir
a escala de barrio: el modelo INDI, con indicadores de desarrollo sostenible, el modelo ENVI, sobre la
valoración del impacto ambiental, y el modelo ASCOT, sobre los costes globales.
• Un pliegue de condiciones que recoja los nuevos objetivos de desarrollo sostenible para la rehabilitación i
construcción de edificios.
• Un pliegue de condiciones para los proyectos de recuperación y renovación urbana para identificar las
estrategias y procedimientos a considerar antes de elaborar un plan de acción para los barrios.

45
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

ITALIAN ABSTRACT
Oggi le città si ricostruiscono su se stesse, molti edifici vengono recuperati e interi quartieri rivitalizzati. Per
garantire la sostenibilità, il recupero del patrimonio costruito richiede non solo soluzioni idonee dal punto di
vista tecnico, ma deve tenere in considerazione anche le dinamiche sociali, ambientali ed economiche.
Nel progetto HQE2R 14 quartieri e 10 istituti di ricerca di 7 stati europei stanno cooperando per mettere a punto
metodi e strumenti destinati alle municipalità e ai loro partner locali –agenzie di sviluppo, progettisti, proprietari
di immobili, cittadini e altri utenti– coinvolti in progetti di recupero edilizio ed urbano sostenibile.
Il progetto è parzialmente finanziato dalla Unione Europea all’interno del Programma Energy, Environment and
Sustainable Development (City of Tomorrow) ed è coordinato dal CSTB.
L’obiettivo del progetto è la definizione di una nuova metodologia e dei relativi strumenti necessari per
promuovere lo sviluppo sostenibile e la qualità della vita alla scala cruciale e spesso disattesa del quartiere
urbano.
Allo stato attuale del progetto, il metodo HQE2R per l’analisi e lo sviluppo sostenibile del quartiere si articola in
4 fasi principali (censimento dei dati, analisi e individuazione delle priorità, generazione, disamina e valutazione
di differenti scenari di sviluppo, elaborazione finale del piano d’azione per il quartiere). Il metodo, si basa su 21
obiettivi specifici di sviluppo sostenibile -afferenti 5 obiettivi principali- supportati da un set di indicatori cogenti
e da 3 nuovi strumenti di valutazione.
Allo stato attuale del progetto i risultati principali conseguiti sono in dettaglio:
• la definizione di 6 principi di sviluppo sostenibile a scala urbana;
• la definizione di 5 obiettivi principali di sviluppo sostenibile (SD) articolati in 21 obiettivi specifici e la
definizione di sostenibilità alla scala di quartiere;
• un metodo di diagnosi partecipata dello stato di sostenibilità del quartiere con una matrice/griglia per
l’analisi preliminare - l’inventory – delle condizioni esistenti;
• indicatori di sviluppo sostenibile (SD): la preliminare disamina dei principali sistemi di indicatori esistenti
alle diverse scale (nazionale, regionale, urbana, di quartiere, di edificio) nei principali paesi europei ha
consentito la definizione di:
- indicatori di stato per la diagnosi degli edifici e dei quartieri;
- un sistema di temi-chiave (ISDIS) correlati agli obiettivi di sostenibilità ed ai rispettivi
indicatori per valutare la “sostenibilità” del quartiere;
- indicatori per la valutazione di progetti alternativi per il quartiere ( e per la città);
- un modello basato sugli indicatori (INDI) utile come strumento di supporto alle decisioni per la
valutazione dei possibili differenti scenari e per la scelta del piano d’azione finale per il
quartiere;
• un’analisi delle leggi e delle prassi legate alla partecipazione degli abitanti e degli utenti finalizzata alla
elaborazione di raccomandazioni per favorire e migliorare la partecipazione dei cittadini;
• un’analisi delle leggi e delle prassi della pianificazione urbana e del relativo impatto sul quartiere con le
relative raccomandazioni per l’integrazione dei principi della “sostenibilità” nell’ambito degli strumenti
urbanistici (per ciascun paese partner del progetto);
• sviluppo della versione sperimentale di 3 modelli di supporto alle decisioni per la scelta del migliore
piano d’azione:
- due modelli a scala di quartiere: il modello INDI con gli indicatori di sostenibilità e il modello
ENVI per la valutazione dell’impatto ambientale dei differenti scenari
- un modello a scala di edificio: il modello ASCOT per la valutazione dei costi globali.
• linee guida per la gestione di progetti di recupero sostenibile del quartiere;
• briefing document SD (documento di indirizzo) per l’individuazione degli obiettivi e dei criteri di
sostenibilità che guidano la costruzione ed il recupero degli edifici.
Come indicato dal titolo – HQE2R – Verso una metodologia per il recupero sostenibile dei quartieri – questo
documento illustra sinteticamente gli aspetti salienti di un progetto tuttora in corso. Commenti, osservazioni o
critiche sono, pertanto, ritenuti utili e ben accetti. (http://hqe2r.cstb.fr).

46
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

DUTCH ABSTRACT

Het doel van het HQE2R project is de duurzame ontwikkeling en de kwaliteit van het leven in stadswijken
te bevorderen.
Een methode voor de analyse en ontwikkeling van een duurzame wijk is uitgewerkt. De methode beschrijft vier
fases van aanpak (de inventarisatie, de analyse met vaststelling van prioriteiten, de definiëring en de beoordeling
van scenario’s en de uiteindelijke opstelling van een actieplan voor de wijk) en is gebaseerd op 21 duurzame
ontwikkelingsdoelen voor vijf hoofddoelstellingen, een set van kernthema’s en drie nieuwe
beoordelingshulpmiddelen.
In dit document wordt in algemene zin de methodologie van het HQE2R project omschreven betreffende de
duurzame ontwikkeling van stadswijken.
Deze methode bevat specifieke hulpmiddelen voor de besluitvorming, uitgewerkt ten behoeve van lokale
autoriteiten en hun lokale partners:
• De keuze van zes duurzame ontwikkelingsprincipes op stadsniveau;
• De definiëring van vijf algemene duurzame ontwikkelingsdoelstellingen en 21 doelen op wijk- en
gebouwniveau en de definitie van duurzaamheid op wijkniveau;
• Een gezamenlijk op te stellen diagnose methode (met een ecosysteemmatrix van de inventarisatie)
aangepast aan het wijkniveau;
• De duurzame indicatoren: een eerste “state of the art” op de verschillende niveaus (nationaal, regionaal,
stedelijk, de wijk en het gebouw) in veel Europese landen leiden tot de definitie van:
- toestandsindicatoren voor gebouw en wijkdiagnose,
- een systeem van kernthema’s ter beoordeling van de duurzaamheid van een stadswijk,
- monitoringsindicatoren voor de diverse projecten gerelateerd aan de wijk en de stad,
- een model van indicatoren (INDI model) als een besluitvormingshulpmiddel voor de
beoordeling van de verschillende scenario’s ten behoeve van de keuze van het definitieve
actieplan van de stadswijk;
• De “state of art” van de wetgeving en een analyse van de praktijk van participatie van bewoners en
gebruikers, die het mogelijk maakt aanbevelingen voor verbetering van de participatie uit te werken;
• Een analyse van de verschillende wetten en praktijken van stedelijke planningsdocumenten en hun invloed
op de wijk, met aanbevelingen voor het rekening houden met SD (duurzame ontwikkeling) in de stedelijke
planningsdocumenten voor elk partnerland;
• Drie modellen als hulpmiddel bij de besluitvorming voor de keuze van het beste actieplan voor een
stadswijk:
- het INDI model met de duurzame ontwikkelingsindicatoren,
- het ENVI model waarmee de invloed op het milieu wordt beoordeeld van de verschillende
scenario’s,
- het ASCOT model betreffende de raming van de kosten;
• De SD (duurzame ontwikkeling) instructiedocumenten voor de keuze van goede relevante doelen voor
gebouwrenovaties;
• De SD instructiedocumenten voor procedures en strategische beslissingen ten behoeve van de uitwerking
van het actieplan voor de stadswijken.

47
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

DANISH ABSTRACT
2
I HQE R – projektet samarbejder 14 bykvarterer og 10 forskningsinstitutioner i 7 europæiske lande for at
udvikle en ny metodologi og de nødvendige værktøjer i forbindelse hermed for at fremme en bæredygtig
udvikling og fremme livskvalitet i bykvarterer.

Dette dokument præsenterer HQE2R projektets metodologi – indfaldsvinkel til og fremgangsmåde i forbindelse
med bæredygtighed i byudviklingen. Igennem denne metodologi udvikles bestemte metoder og hjælpeværktøjer
til hjælp for lokale myndigheder og deres samarbejdspartnere. Der er i øjeblikket identificeret 4 faser
(indsamling af data, analyse til prioritering af tiltag, definition, diskussion og evaluering af mulige scenarier,
samt udarbejdelse af handlingsplan).

Hovedresultaterne af arbejdet er:


• valg af 6 principper for en bæredygtighed byudvikling
• definition af 5 overordnede bæredygtighedsobjektiver med 21 mål, der kan anvendes ved definition af
bæredygtighed for et bykvarter.
• en diagnosemetode for bæredygtighedsudvikling tilpasset et bykvarter.
• bæredygtighedsindikatorer: status over diverse niveauer ( nationalt, regionalt, bymæssigt, for bykvarter
og for selve bygningen) i diverse europæiske byer inklusiv en definition af:
- tilstandsindikatorer med hensyn til diagnosen for bygninger og for et bykvarter,
- et system af nøgle parametre (ISDIS) sat i relation til bæredygtighedsmål for valgte
indikatorer til vurdering af et bykvarters bæredygtighed,
- overvågningsindikatorer for de forskellige projekter i bykvarteret og i byen,
• en status i henhold til loven and en analyse af beboer- og brugerdeltagelse, der giver mulighed for at
generere anbefalinger til at forøge deltagelsen.
• en analyse af de forskellige love og praksis indeholdt i byplanlægning og dets indvirkning på
lokalsamfundet med anbefalinger om at medtage bæredygtighedsudvikling i lokalplanlægning
(gældende for hvert deltagerland).
• Udvikling af 3 modeller (pilot-versioner) med hjælpeværktøjer til brug ved valget af den bedste
handlingsplan for et bykvarter. INDI modellen med bæredygtighedsindikatorer, ENVI modellen som
vurderer de forskellige scenariers effekt for miljøet og ASCOT modellen der beregner de globale
omkostninger. De to første er beregnet på anvendelse på hele kvarterer, mens den sidstnævnte kan
anvendes på enkelte bygninger.
• forslag til standard bæredygtighedsspecifikationer til brug for opstilling af egnede mål for en
bæredygtig kvartersudvikling og bygningsrenovering.
• forslag til en vejledning for ledelse af bæredygtige kvartersudviklingsprojekter.

Som indikeret i titlen: ”HQE²R - Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration” -
præsenterer denne rapport den specielle situation for et kombineret forsknings- og demonstrationsprojekt. På den
ene side (sektion 2) er projektet HQE²R – som inkluderer udvikling og pilot-anvendelse af metodologien –
beskrevet og på den anden side (sektion 3) er hovedelementerne i den udviklede metodologi beskrevet. Da dette
dokument giver indsigt i et projektarbejde undervejs er kritik, kommentarer og forslag velkomne
(http://hqe2r.cstb.fr).

48
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

APPENDIX 4: LIST OF THE HQE²R PARTNERS

FRANCE
Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment
(CSTB)
www.cstb.fr
Catherine CHARLOT-VALDIEU

Route des Lucioles - BP 209 Ville d'Angers


F-06904 SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS Cedex Mrs MOREAU, councillor
Mr Gilles MAHE, councillor
Phone: +33 4 93 95 67 08 Mr Gildas BALES, "La Roseraie" project leader
Fax: +33 4 93 95 64 31 Hôtel de Ville, BP 3527
E-mail: catherine.charlot-valdieu@cstb.fr F-49035 ANGERS CEDEX 1
or charlot_valdieu@cstb.fr Phone: + 33 2 41 05 40 00
Fax: +33 2 41 05 39 00
Laure NAGY Web: www.angers.fr

84 Avenue Jean Jaurès – BP 02 La Roseraie


F-77421 MARNE LA VALLEE Cedex

Phone: +33 1 64 68 84 54 Ville de Cannes


Fax: +33 1 64 68 83 50 Mrs COTTER, councillor
E-mail: laure.nagy@cstb.fr Mr CIER, head of urban planning service
Hôtel de Ville, BP 140
Daniela BELZITI F- 06406 CANNES
Phone: + 33 4 97 06 40 00
Route des Lucioles - BP 209 Fax: +33 4 97 06 46 22
F-06904 SOPHIA ANTIPOLIS Cedex Web: www.cannes.fr

Mimont-Prado-République
Phone: +33 4 93 95 64 59
Fax: +33 4 93 64 31
E-mail: daniela.belziti@cstb.fr

La Calade
www.la-calade.org
Ville d'Echirolles
Philippe OUTREQUIN
Mrs PRINCE–CLAVEL, councillor
Mr Jean CABALLERO, director of technical
services
Mrs Valérie VACCHIANI, in charge of
environmental service
Hôtel de Ville, BP 248,
F- 38433 ECHIROLLES CEDEX
Phone: + 33 4 76 63 00
363 Avenue de Pierrefeu Fax: +33 4 76 40 45 87
F-06560 VALBONNE Web: www.ville-echirolles.fr

La Viscose
Phone: +33 4 93 40 29 30
Fax: +33 4 93 42 07 28
Ville d'Anzin
E-mail: la.calade@free.fr or info@la-calade.org
Mr Gery DUVAL, Mayor
Hôtel de Ville, Place Roger Salengro, BP 89
F- 59416 ANZIN CEDEX
Phone: + 33 3 27 28 21 00
Fax: +33 3 27 28 21 01

Salengro-République

49
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

SPAIN
Institut de Tecnologia de la Construcció de Catalunya
(ITeC)
www.itec.es
Patronat Municipal de
Fructuós MAÑÀ
l'Habitatge de Barcelona
C/ Dr. Aiguader, 26-36
E-08003 Barcelona

C / Wellington 19 Phone: +34 93 291 85 08


E-08018 Barcelona, Catalunya E-mail: cramis@sct.ictnet.es
Web: www.bcn.es
Phone: +34 93 309 34 04
Fax: +34 933 00 48 52 Bon Pastor
E-mail: fmanya@itec.es

Ajuntament de Manresa/Foment de la
Rehabilitació Urbana de Manresa S.A.
FÒRUM
Albert CUCHÍ Plaça de la Immaculada, 3 baixos
Noemí GRANADO E-08240 Manresa
Emilio RAMIRO
Phone: +34 93 872 56 01
Fax: +34 93 872 72 56
E-mail: jarmengol@forum-sa.org

Web: www.ajmanresa.org
C / Wellington 19
E-08018 Barcelona, Catalunya
Direcció General d'Arquitectura i Habitatge.
Generalitat de Catalunya.
Phone: +34 93 309 34 04
C/ Aragó 244-248, 5ena planta
Fax: +34 933 00 48 52
E-08029 Barcelona
E-mail: ngranado@itec.es
eramiro@itec.es
Phone: +34 93 495 82 86
E-mail: wbadenas@gencat.net
Web: www.gencat.es

Antic / Escodines / Vic-Remei

Collegi d'Aparelladors I Arquitectes Tècnics de


Barcelona (CAATB)
www.apabcn.es
Xavier CASANOVAS
Foment de Ciutat Vella
Carrer Bon Pastor, 5 Mr Marc Aureli Santos
E-08021 Barcelona Mr Martí Abella i Pere
Carrer Pinto Fortuny 17-19
Phone: +34 93 240 20 60 E-08001 Barcelona
Fax: +34 93 240 20 61
E-mail: xavica@apabcn.es Phone: + 34 93 343 54 54
Fax: + 34 93 343 54 55
Oriol CUSIDO E-mail:
masantos@fomentciutatvella.net
Carrer Bon Pastor, 5 mabella@fomentciutatvella.net
E-08021 Barcelona Web: www.bcn.es

Phone: +34 93 240 23 66 Raval - Ciutat Vella


Fax: +34 93 240 20 61
E-mail: ocusido@apabcn.es

50
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

GERMANY
Institute of Ecological and Regional Development
(IÖR)
www.ioer.de
Andreas BLUM Landeshauptstadt Dresden
Mrs Kathrin Kircher, headmistress urban renewal
Weberplatz 1 and neighbourhood planning
D-01217 Dresden Stadtplanungsamt
Hamburger Straße 19
Phone: +49 351 4679245 D-01067 Dresden
Fax: +49 351 4679212
E-mail: a.blum@ioer.de Phone: +49 351 4883620
Fax: +49 351 4883579
Holger MARTIN
E-mail:
Weberplatz 1 kkircher@dresden.de
D-01217 Dresden
Web: www.dresden.de
Phone: +49 351 4679246
Fax: +49 351 4679212
E-mail: h.martin@ioer.de Loebtau

ITALY
Istituto Cooperativo per l'Innovazione
www.icie.it
(ICIE)
Comune di Cinisello Balsamo
Antonella GROSSI
Mr Giuseppe FARACI, head City Planning
Department
Via Ciamician, 2
Mrs Lucia PALENA, Administrative Coordinator
I-40127 Bologna
Mr Roberto RUSSO, City Planning Department
Mrs Marina Lucchini, head Environment
Phone: +39 51 243131
Department and Agenda 21 Coordinator
Fax: +39 51 243266
E-mail: a.grossi@bo.icie.it
Via U.Giordano 1
I – 20092 CINISELLO BALSAMO (MI)
Sandra MATTAROZZI Phone: +39 2 66023450
Fax: + 39 2 66023443
Via Ciamician, 2
I-40127 Bologna Web: www.comune.cinisello-balsamo.mi.it

Phone: +39 51 243131


Fax: +39 51 243266 Crocetta - Cornaggia
E-mail: s.mattarozzi@bo.icie.it

Matteo GUALANDI Comune di Mantova


Mr Michele CELONA, head City Planning
Department
Mr Davide ONEDA, Agenda 21 Coordinator
Mrs Nicoletta LEORATI, City Planning
Via Ciamician, 2 Department
I-40127 Bologna
Via Roma 39
Phone: +39 51 243131 I - 46100 MANTOVA
Fax: +39 51 243266 Phone: +39 376 338500
E-mail: m.gualandi@bo.icie.it Fax: +39 376 222814

Web: www.comune.mantova.it

San Leonardo - Porta Mulina


51
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

QUASCO - COPRAT
www.quasco.it

Ivan CICCONI

Via Zacconi, 16
I-40127 Bologna

Phone: +39 051 6337811 Comune di Melegnano


Fax: +39 051 6337814 Mr Ercolino DOLCINI, Mayor
E-mail: direttore@quasco.it or res@quasco.it Mrs Giulietta PAGLIACCIO, Environment
committee chairman
Daniela GABUTTI
Mr Vittorio CIPOLLETTA, City planning
Via Corridoni, 56 committee chairman
I-46100 Mantova Phone: +39 02 982081
Fax: +39 02 9837669
Phone: +39 0376 368412
Fax: +39 0376 368894 Mrs Letizia GIARDINETTI, City planning office
E-mail: coprat@tin.it Phone: +39 02 98208302
Fax: +39 02 98208275
Francesco CAPRINI E-mail:
letizia.giardinetti@comune.melegnano.mi.it
Via Corridoni, 56
I-46100 Mantova
Municipio, Piazza Risorgimento, 1
Phone: +39 0376 368412 I-20077 MELEGNANO (MI)
Fax: +39 0376 368894
E-mail: coprat@tin.it

Nicoletta ANCONA Web: www.comune.melegnano.mi.it

Viale Scarampo, 49 Cipes


I-20148 Milano

Phone: +39 02 3271782


Fax: +39 02 33005763
E-mail: n.ancona@archiworld.it

DENMARK
Cenergia
www.cenergia.dk

Ove MORCK Frederiksberg Kommune


Mrs Anne Aunby, Project co-ordinator
Town Hall
Sct. Jacobs Vej 4 Smallegade 1
DK- 2750 Ballerup DK-2000 Frederiksberg

Phone: +45 44 660099 Phone: +45 3821 4265


Fax: +45 44660136 Fax: +45 3821 4500
E-mail: ocm@cenergia.dk Web: www.frederiksberg.dk

Lindevang

52
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

UNITED-KINGDOM
University of the West of England
www.uwe.ac.uk
(UWE)
Martin SYMES

Frenchay Campus - Coldharbour Lane


UK-BS16 1QY Bristol

Phone: + 44 117 344 3968


Fax: +44 117 344 3002 Bristol Regeneration Partnership
E-mail: martin.symes@uwe.ac.uk
Mr Graham Partridge, Best Practice Manager
Celia ROBBINS Community at Heart
Salisbury Street
Frenchay Campus - Coldharbour Lane UK- BS5 9UD Bristol
UK-BS16 1QY Bristol
Phone: +44 117 903 9071
Phone: + 44 117 344 3215 E-mail: Graham.partridge@ndcbristol.co.uk
Fax: + 44 117 344 3899
E-mail: celia.robbins@uwe.ac.uk
"Community At Heart" Barton Hill,
Marcus GRANT Redfield, Lawrence Hill, The Dings

Frenchay Campus - Coldharbour Lane


UK-BS16 1QY Bristol

Phone: + 44 117 344 3363


Fax: +44 117 344 3899
E-mail: marcus.grant@uwe.ac.uk

THE NETHERLANDS
AMBIT
www.ambit.nl
Gemeente Vlissingen
Jan ZIECK
Mr Henri C.A. Willemsen, head Environmental
Department
Glacisstraat 165
Zijpendaalseweg 1c NL-4381 SE Vlissingen
NL-6814 CA Arnhem
Phone: +31(0)118-487173
Phone: +31(0)26 4427236 Fax: +31(0)118-487070
Fax: +31(0)26 4424276 E-mail: hwn@vlissingen.nl
E-mail: info@ambit.nl Web: www.vlissingen.nl

Royal Schelde Group

53
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

BIBLIOGRAPHY

S. Antoine, M. Barrère, G. Verbrugge, 1994, La planète Terre entre nos mains, guide pour la
mise en œuvre des engagements du sommet planète Terre, La Documentation Française, Paris
E. Antonini, A. Blum, A. Grossi, C. Robbins, 2002, Analysis and adaptation of most
appropriate tools and methods, HQE²R project
S.R. Arnstein, (1971) ‘A ladder of participation in the USA’, Journal of the Royal Town
Planning Institute, April, pp. 176-82.
A. Badshah, 1996, Our urban future, ZedBooks Ltd, London
U. Beck, 1986, La société du risque, Alto Aubier
G. Barton, Grant book, 2001, Shaping Neighbourhoods, WHO Healthy Cities centre,
University of the West England, Spoon Press.
P.S. Brandon, P.L. Lombardi, V. Bentivegna, (publisher), Evaluation of the Built
Environment for Sustainability, London, Weinheim, New York, Tokyo, Melbourne, Madras
1997
Bundesamt für Bauwesen und Raumordnung (publisher), Urban Development and Urban
Policy in Germany – An Overview, Berichte volume 6; Bonn 2000
D. Burns, R. Hambleton and P. Hoggett, (1994) The Politics of Decentralisation:
revitalising local democracy, London, Macmillan.
C. Charlot-Valdieu, P. Outrequin et C. Emelianoff, April 2001, Le développement durable
urbain et l’Agenda 21 local : évolution des documents d’urbanisme et de l’approche quartier -
Cahier du CSTB n° 3 331.
C. Charlot-Valdieu, P. Outrequin, July 2002, The Indisputable Sustainable Development
Indicators System (ISDIS), HQE2R.
C. Charlot-Valdieu, P. Outrequin, July / August 2000, L’analyse environnementale d’un
quartier urbain, Cahier du CSTB, n° 3236
C. Charlot-Valdieu, P. Outrequin, March 1999, La ville et le développement durable,
Cahier du CSTB, n° 3106
CNUED – UN, 1992, Conference on Environment and Development, Rio
M. Cohen de Lara and D. Dron, 1997, Evaluation économique et environnement dans les
décisions publiques, Documentation Française.
R.J. Cole, N. Larsson, 1998, Green Building Challenge (GBC), Green Building Challenge
‘98 - GBC ‘98 Assessment Manual, Vancouver.
EPPUR and Ecole d’Architecture Paris Malaquais, L’élaboration du projet urbain et la
démocratie participative, le cas de l’Ile Saint Denis (1998 – 2001).
European Commission, 1992, Towards sustainable development, CE 30/3/92.
European Commission, March 1996, European Sustainable cities, report by the expert group on
the urban Environment
European Commission, 1997, Sustainable urban development in the European Union: a
framework for action
European Commission, Design for living – The European City of Tomorrow, EUR 19381,
2000
54
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE
HQE2R: Towards a methodology for sustainable neighbourhood regeneration (Brochure 1) HQE²R

A. Finco, P. Nijkamp, 2002, Pathways to urban sustainability


The German “Federal Building Code”, 1997.
The German “Federal Regional Planning Act” , 1997.
M. Hart, Guide to Sustainable Communitiy Indicators, Second Edition, North Andover, 1999
E. Hervé, Deputy Mayor in Rennes, June 2001, Les temps de la ville .
W. Lafferty and K. Eckerberg editor, 1998, From the earth Summit to Local Agenda 21,
Earthscan, london
Ministry of Equipment, Housing and Transport, France, Gouvernance, October 1999,
Documentary, volume 1, published by Ministère de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de
l’Environnement, 2000.
OECD (publisher), Towards Sustainable Development – Environmental Indicators, Paris
1998
L. Osberg, Sustainable Social Development, Halifax, N.S.: Department of Economics,
Dalhousie University.
M. de Solà-Morales, Les formes de creixement urbà , Edition UPC, Barcelona, Catalonia.
P. Selman, 1996, Local Sustainability, St Martin’ Press, New York
G. Steiner, 1997, Man as the guest of life, Seminar on Ethics and the Environment,
19/12/1996, Documentation Française.
JP Sueur, 1999, Changer la ville, Odile Jacob editor.
UNDP, United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, 1996, Habitat II, Istanbul
M. Wackernagel and W. Rees, November 1995, Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing
Human Impact on the Earth. Gabriola Island, B.C. New Society Publishers. By. Jim Duncan,
CotR Faculty PD Committee.
Wilson, 1996, When Work Disappears: the World of the New urban Poor, New York, Knopf
editor.
World Commission on the Environment and Development (Bruntland Commission),
1987, Our common future.

Some abbreviations
SD: Sustainable Development
INDI: INDicators Impact model
ENVI: Environment Model
ASCOT: Assessment of Shared global COst and exTernalities
ISDIS: Issues and Sustainable Development Indicators System

Web sites
The results and documents will be regularly published until the end of the project in 2004 and
will be announced in the HQE2R web site: http://hq2er.cstb.fr or http://hqe2r.cstb.fr

55
CSTB – La Calade with contribution by ICIE, IOER, Quasco and UWE