Llaqtakanuq atipayninwan teqsimuyuta kuyuchisunchis The effects of Discrimination: Exploring the Public Services of Urubamba

Executive Summary Nexos Voluntarios is a Peruvian not-for-profit organization that has devoted its efforts to working towards facilitating development in Urubamba. This report is the product of an anti-discrimination campaign that aims to raise awareness and incite discussion on the topic of inequality. Its findings can be used as the results of a preliminary investigation, which is simply a first step, meant to encourage further research on the subject. The research group that focused on the perspectives of discrimination within the municipality found that 55% of respondents from the municipality and 45% of respondents from the general public agreed that discrimination exists within the public institution. In addition, respondents from both the general public and the municipality generally agreed that two social groups in particular – (1) Quechua speakers and (2) people from Andean communities – are underrepresented in the municipal decisionmaking process, do not have equal access to municipal services, and do not receive equal-quality service from the municipality. An analysis of the health sector found that discrimination manifested itself in this public service through differences in access and differential treatment from person to person. Overall, 63% of those who responded to the public questionnaire believe that there is discrimination in the health sector. 34% of public respondents stated that they have actually experienced discrimination while using health services and 62% of individuals who responded thought that health care professionals treat patients differently based on their appearance. Those focusing on discrimination within the police found that the largest possible source of discrimination in the police force is rooted in the lack of female police officers. While 80% of public female respondents expressed a preference to converse with a female officer rather than a male officer, only 32% of female respondents felt that they have access to one. The police are in agreement with the public on this issue - only 39% of police respondents stated that a female officer is always available – meaning the lack of female officers is an issue that both the police and public are aware of. The most astounding discovery made by researchers studying the education system is that 26.7% of respondents claim that their own children have suffered from ethnic bullying in schools. However, 100% of teachers surveyed stated that they have never reported an incident of ethnic bullying
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during their time as a teacher in this particular school. This indicates that ethnic bullying is occurring without teachers realizing that it is a problem in schools. Overall, 60.6% of respondents believe that children are being bullied at school because of their ethnicity. Cuncani is a case study meant to highlight inequality and demonstrate the harmful effects that discrimination based on language, place of origin, and ethnicity can have on people and the field of development in general. Findings demonstrate that 63% of respondents from this community do not believe that their “Junta Directiva” (AKA: community representative body) is properly represented in municipal decision- making. Interestingly, 47% of municipal workers surveyed also believe that people from high Andean communities are underrepresented. Findings from Cuncani additionally show that the health and education sectors are disproportionately lacking in support within the highland community.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I.Introduction……………………………………………………….......……………

4 II. Definitions…………………………………………………...…………………. …..6 III. Methodology………………………………………………………….. ………......7 IV. Discrimination in Public Institutions………………………............. ……........8 A. Municipality……………………………………………………... ……………...10 B. Police Department of Urubamba.... ………………………………………...13 C. Education Institutions……………………………………………...……. …...15 D. Health Centres………………………………………………………...... ….....18 V. Case Study: Cuncani……………………………………………………........ …...21 VI. Limitations and Conclusions…………………………………………... ……….23

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I. INTRODUCTION Nexos Voluntarios began its work in different areas of development in May 2008. In May 2009, our organization started a development project to combat discrimination; three years later, we have found that discrimination is not only a social problem. Instead, discrimination also has major implications in the development of different aspects of what it means to be human. Discrimination is a complex problem that manifests itself in many different forms and situations. The original consequences of the phenomenon are difficult to perceive. In order to analyse discrimination, it was necessary to conduct research which would in turn lead to concrete results and explications of habitual conduct. This preliminary report is the result of our concentrated efforts to analyze the data pertaining to public service provision. We anticipate that this preliminary investigation will incite discussion on the topic as well as help the community to gain an understanding of the perceptions of service users and service providers. The findings should encourage new discussion on the topic and help to generate further research. The problem of discrimination in Urubamba is relevant
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because unequal treatment perpetuates impoverishment and negatively affects development while lowering the human dignity of those affected by injustice. Six different surveys were created and carried out in order to obtain the necessary information to adequately analyze the problem of discrimination. Civil servants of the Municipality of Urubamba, health professionals from Urubamba, officers from the Police Department of Urubamba and teachers from four different public schools responded individually to questionnaires designed for their specific sector. Meanwhile, questionnaires were also created and distributed to the citizens of Urubamba and to the members of the Cuncani community. The different investigations were united by the general theme of discrimination. Additionally, each investigation looked specifically at the following forms of discrimination: language, place of origin, ethnicity, and gender. Although each survey design was based around these four categories, the inherent differences between each public institution meant that different questions had to be formulated for each survey in order to more accurately approach the subject matter. The findings demonstrate that discrimination manifests in each of the public services that were analyzed. After analysing the data derived from all the questionnaires, it was apparent that discrimination based on place of origin was overwhelmingly persistent in many public services. For this reason, the research group decided to do a case study based on the people of the high-Andean community, Cuncani. This case study can be found at the end of the report and is relevant to all the public services which this report discusses. Lastly, it is important to remember that discrimination is inevitably found in many different aspects of the life of a citizen residing in this province. However, certain public services, such as health and education, are indispensible for the basic development of a human being. Therefore, it is vital to give a consistent effort in combating the problem of discrimination that is so deeply rooted within these different areas of public service.

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II. DEFINITIONS A. Discrimination Discrimination is the different or unequal treatment that – without justification- is exercised upon a person or group of people causing deterioration in the exercise of one’s individual or collective rights. Unjustified treatment by prohibited motives is addressed in the judicial ordinance.1 A discriminatory act must conform to the following three elements:
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Municipalidad Provincial de Urubamba, Ordenanza Municipal Que Prohíbe la Discriminación Social en la Provincia de Urubamba, Ordenanza Municipal # 019-2009-MPU, 16 July 2009. Nexos Voluntarios - NeVo 7
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1. Unjustified differential treatment. 2. The differential treatment is based on a prohibited motivation (race, place of origin, sex, ethnicity, language, incapacity, sickness or economic position) or a voluntarily assumed position (religion, opinion, political affiliation, sexual orientation) or discrimination in any other form. 3. It produces the abolition or impairment in the recognition, exercise and/or enjoyment of a right. (National Ombudsman – Peru). B. Ethnicity Ethnicity refers to the cultural practices and perspectives that distinctly determine a community of people. There exists a diverse quantity of characteristics that can serve to distinguish ethnic groups from one another such as language, history, religion and clothing. C. Mestizo The term “mestizo” refers to a specific ethnicity of person living in Perú. A person who identifies as “mestizo” sees his or her heritage as one of mixed ancestry between Spaniards and native South Americans. D. Quechua Speakers For the purpose of this document, the term “Quechua speakers” refers to those people whose mother tongue and native language is the Quechua language.

III. METHODOLOGY Our research team distributed specific surveys to each sector of public service providers in Urubamba. The result was a total of four different surveys distributed to the appropriate public service bodies: • In the health centres, such as EsSalud and MinSa, surveys were disNexos Voluntarios - NeVo Sector Huincho, Urubamba, Cuzco, Perú Cavenecia 160, Oficina 204, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú Tel: (51 84) 201211 Tel (511) 440 0739 www.nexosvoluntarios.org

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tributed to doctors, nurses and technicians. People contacted: 28. • In the Municipality of Urubamba surveys were distributed to different areas of the local government. People contacted: 31. • In the Police Department of Urubamba surveys were distributed to police officers. People contacted: 28. • In the education sector, surveys were distributed to principals and teachers of four different public schools: Villa Marcelo in Yanahuara (primary), Wiñayninchis in Chichubamba (primary), General Ollanta in Urubamba (high school), and La Salle in Urubamba (high school). People contacted: 25. In addition, surveys were distributed to the Urubamban public (citizens 18 years old or older) at random. People contacted: 106. All of the surveys, including those completed by the public as well as by public service providers, were conducted in a manner that preserved anonymity. Also, the research team visited the community of Cuncani on two separate occasions to conduct a survey specifically designed for this community. Due to the fact that the majority of the community members do not speak Spanish, it was necessary to bring Spanish-Quechua translators for each visit. As a result, the manner in which the surveys were carried out in Cuncani differed slightly from the manner in which the surveys were conducted in Urubamba. However, the results are representative of the perspectives found there and have not significantly affected the research. Number of people contacted in Cuncani: 28.

IV. DISCRIMINATION IN PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS Our study took into account four different dimensions in order to determine if discrimination does or does not exist in the public institutions of Urubamba. They were: ethnicity, language, place of origin, and gender.
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We believe that each one of these categories requires a more rigorous form of analysis, however, in many circumstances, they are interconnected and no definitive separation exists between them. That said, because of the complexity of studying discrimination in Peru, our team thought it would be interesting to inquire about the ethnic self-identification of each respondent. We believe that of the four categories indicated above, ethnicity must be the starting point for a more in-depth analysis of discrimination in this province.

E thnic S elf-Identification of P ublic S ervice P roviders *

Mestizo 90.3% Indigenous 1.9% Andean 6.8% White 1%

* In the Police Department: 100% Mestizo In the Education Sector: 77% Mestizo, 18% Andean, 5% White In the Health Sector: 96% Mestizo, 4% Indigenous In the Municipality: 85% Mestizo, 11% Andean, 4% Indigenous

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Ethnic Self-Identification of the Population of Cuncani

Mestizo 0% Indigenous 64% Andean 32% White 0%

Ethnic Self-Identification of the Citizens of Urubamba

Mestizo 60% Indigenous 1% Andean 28% White 5% Other 6%

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A. Municipality 1. General Information People from the general public and people working for the municipality were asked which groups are underrepresented in the municipal decisionmaking process, which groups do not have equal access to municipal services, and which groups do not receive equal-quality municipal services. It is important that different social groups are sufficiently represented in local politics and the public policy decision-making process. Furthermore, it is the municipality that is in charge of promoting activities and caring for the interests of all the citizens in its district. If certain groups do not have equal access to municipal services or do not receive equal quality service from the municipality, it will become a source of unequal development. In the survey design for the Municipality of Urubamba, the variables of representation, access, and quality were used as indicators of social inequality. Many important data exist which should be taken into account; two of those are the following:

55% of respondents from the municipality and 45% of respondents from the general public agree that discrimination exists within the Municipality. 56% of women from the municipality agree that discrimination based on gender exists in the Municipality. 2. Representation

It is fair to assume that if a particular social group is not sufficiently represented in local decision-making, then the issues that matter most to that group as a whole are less likely to be addressed and the problems that confront them are less likely to be resolved. In the Municipality of Urubamba, with respect to the topic of representation, we have discovered the following findings:
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52% of respondents from the general public and 61% of respondents from the municipality affirmed that Quechua-speakers are under-represented in the municipal decision-making process. Similarly, of all the Quechua speakers that were questioned, 76% agreed with this affirmation. 47% of respondents from the municipality believe that people from high Andean communities are underrepresented in the municipal decision-making process. 42% of respondents from the municipality believe that indigenous peoples are underrepresented in the municipal decision-making process. 3. Access2

The provision of municipal services is an important aspect of social development, improving the lives of individuals and the well-being of the community as a whole. It is therefore crucial that all social groups have equal access to these services. If a particular social group does not have equal access to these services, then this reflects and exacerbates certain social inequalities. Some relevant findings:

58% of respondents from the general public and 50% of respondents from the Municipality agree that people from high Andean communities do not have equal access to municipal services (in Urubamba). 43% of respondents from both the general public and the municipality and 60% of Quechua-speakers agree that Quechua-speakers do not have equal access to municipal services. 4. Quality

If a particular social group does not receive equal-quality service, meaning they are not treated equally, then this reflects the existence of social biases and discriminatory attitudes toward that group. Within the context of this report, we can understand “prejudice” to be an “aversive or hostile attitude toward a person who belongs to a group, simply

2

For the purpose of this report, access refers to one’s ability to obtain public services.
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because he belongs to that group, and is therefore presumed to have the objectionable qualities ascribed to that group” (Allport, 1954). Some relevant findings:
• 59% of respondents from the general public believe that people from

high Andean communities do not receive equal-quality municipal services. • 50% of all respondents from the general public and 56% of Quechuaspeakers from the general public believe that Quechua-speakers do not receive equal-quality municipal services.
Discrimination within the Municipality of Urubamba: (General Public Survey and Municipal Work ers Survey)

General public that believe discrimination exists in the Municipality

Public servants of the Municipality that believe discrimination exists within the Municipality

0%

10%

20%

30%

40%

50%

60%

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B. Police Department of Urubamba 1. General Information We decided that the services provided by the police department would be most appropriately assessed using the four general categories of discrimination: gender, language, ethnicity and place of origin. However, in this report information referring to ethnicity has been omitted because the findings, in this case, had little relevance. It is especially important to examine public perceptions of the police because the security and protection that the police provide to the public is a service that affects the public as a whole. The data indicates that there is a clear discrepancy between how police officers and the public perceive levels of discrimination within the police department. The data also shows that the police department has taken steps to address the problem of discrimination in Urubamban society. Some relevant findings: • 14.3% of police officers agree that there is discrimination in the police department, while 57.4% of respondents in the general public believe that discrimination exists within the police department. • 42.3% of police officers said that they have received a complaint from the public about discrimination. In response to these complaints, 28.6% of police officers said that they have given out a warning and 3.6% of police officers said that they have given a fine. 2. Gender

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There seems to be general agreement between police officers and the public that the number of female police officers in the police force falls short of the number that is desired by the female population of Urubamba. However, a large discrepancy seems to exist between the police and the public in terms of how comfortable they believe women feel when accessing their services. The following findings were made: . • 79.7% of female respondents stated that they feel more comfortable making a complaint to a female police officer than to a male police officer. • 32.5% of respondents in the general public stated that female officers are always available in the police department. Similarly, 39.3% of police officers believe that a female police officer is always available in the police department. • 71.4% of police officers believe that women feel comfortable accessing police services, while only 33.4% of female respondents agreed with this statement.

Availibility of Female Officers in the Police Department of Urubamba (Women Surveyed in the General Public )
Women who would prefer a female officer 79.70%

Women who believe there is always a female officer available

32.5%

0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90%

2. Language The data indicates that 75% of officers in the Police Department of Urubamba can communicate in Quechua if a citizen prefers to speak in this language.
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3. Place of Origin Across the four categories of discrimination (gender, ethnicity, language, place of origin), the police and the public both agree that discrimination based on place of origin is the most prevalent form of discrimination in the police force. One respondent stated, [translated] “the police are not just with all those they care for because the same kind of justice doesn’t exist for people from high-Andean communities that speak Quechua.” Some relevant findings: • 14.3% of police officers agree that discrimination exists in the police force on the basis of place of origin. • 30.8% of respondents in the general public agree that there is discrimination in the police force based on place of origin.

C. Education Institutions 1. General Information Four schools were selected to represent the education sector in Urubamba. Teachers from these schools completed individual questionnaires regarding the students in their classes and the condition of discrimination in their schools. The focus of this investigation was the differential treatment of students by fellow students and/or teachers on the basis of ethnicity, place of origin, language and gender. It is important to indicate that the results from questions relating to gender were not conclusive and for this reason they were not included in the report. 2. Ethnicity The majority of the general public who have children in schools indicated that incidents of ethnic discrimination do exist in Urubamban schools. However, 77.3% of teachers indicated that they do not know or do not believe that ethnic discrimination is currently a problem in their schools. Some of the findings include the following:
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• 100% of teachers indicated that they have never reported an incident of ethnic bullying. • 60.6% of the surveyed citizens believe that children are bullied for ethnic reasons in schools. • 26.7% of surveyed citizens affirmed that their children have been bullied for ethnic reasons.

Cases of Ethnic Bullying in Schools (General Public Survey and Teacher Survey)
Surveyed teachers who have reported cases of ethnic bullying

Surveyed citizenswho believeethnic bullyingtowa children exists rds in school Surveyed citizenswho have children who have been bullied for ethnic reasons in school

0.00% 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% 80.00% 100.00%

3. Place of Origin

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After an analysis of the surveys distributed to the general public, and those distributed to teachers, we have concluded that there exists a discrepancy between the perceptions of the two groups. Furthermore, there are a high percentage of students from Andean communities that attend the schools where research was conducted. Some of the findings: • 76.2% of teachers believe that discrimination based on place of origin does not exist within the institution where they are currently employed. • 66.3% of the surveyed general public agree that children from Andean communities are discriminated against in schools. • 58.7% of students whothat attend the schools where research was conducted are from Andean communities. 4. Language The situation of discrimination based on language is similar to that of place of origin because there is a discrepancy between the perceptions of the general public and the teachers. Furthermore, there is a visible presence of children that are Quechua-speakers in the schools of Urubamba. Some relevant findings: • 60% of teachers affirmed that discrimination based on language does not exist in schools. • 55.3% of the general public agreed that Quechua-speaking children are discriminated against in schools. • 13.8% of the students in schools that were investigated speak Quechua as their primary language. The mother tongue of 83% of the students from these schools is Castellano (Spanish).

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D. Health Centres 1. General Information The questionnaire for the health sector was designed with the presumption that discrimination manifested itself in this public service through differences in access and differential treatment from client to client. A person’s ability to interact in his or her language of choice, and ability to use the requested services regardless of gender or place of origin were determined to be indicators of access. Physical appearance, an individual’s clothing, ethnicity or gender were decided to be factors in determining the quality of service that was available to an individual. Overall, 63.2% of those who responded to the public questionnaire believe that there is discrimination in the health sector. Also, 62% of individuals who responded to the same survey thought that health care professionals treat patients differently based on their appearance.
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As stated by one surveyed individual from the general public [translated] “In the health centres, discrimination is very strong […] they attend to patients according to where those people are from.” 2. Language • 35.7% of medical professionals surveyed believed that there were insufficient services available in spoken Quechua for Quechuaspeakers. • 78.5% of medical professionals surveyed believe that there is not sufficient written material for those whose first language is Quechua. In contrast, 85.7% of respondents agreed that there were sufficient resources for individuals looking for medical information in Spanish. The data above is significant because 32.1% of medical professionals agree that a person’s primary language affects the quality of the health services they are able to receive in Urubamba. Those whose primary language is Quechua consequently do not have the same quality of access to health services as those whose primary language is Spanish. 3. Gender • 75% of medical professionals surveyed agree that female doctors are available to women upon request. • 60.7% of medical professionals surveyed agree that there are enough services available to women who require treatment as a result of violence they have experienced; additionally, 64.3% of medical professionals surveyed agree that there are enough services for pregnant women. • However, 19% of women feel that they are never or are almost never treated with respect when accessing health services. The data shows that gender does not affect an individual’s ability to access the health sector but that it does affect the quality of services a woman receives. 4. Place of Origin

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• 42.9% of health professionals do not agree that health services are accessible for people from communities outside of Urubamba. Additionally, 19.2% of those surveyed from within the health sector agree that place of origin affects one’s quality of service. • 25% of people from the surveyed general public who were born in Andean communities feel like they are almost never treated with respect when accessing health services in Urubamba. These findings show that many individuals cannot use the services they are entitled to because of distance, and when they can, the quality of these services are negatively affected depending on a person’s place of origin. 5. Ethnicity • 30.7% of medical professionals surveyed agree that one’s ethnicity affects the quality of the health services a person is able to receive in Urubamba. • 45.5% of the general public who self-identified as Andean believe that they have been discriminated against by health professionals in Urubamba. However, only 27.8% of the general public who identified as Mestizo agreed with this statement.. These results indicate that the Andean population is most at risk to receive unequal treatment and to be discriminated against in the health centres of Urubamba.

Belief that Discrimination exists in the Health Sector of Urubamba: By Ethnicity (General Public Surveys)
Other

White

Mestizo

Andean 0.00% 5.00% 10.00%

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40.00% 45.00% 50.00%

V. Case Study: Cuncani During our analysis, the forms and severity of discrimination seemed to vary depending on which public service was being investigated. However, one significant break from this trend was the consistent belief, by both service users and service providers, that if a citizen were to be discriminated against it would most often be because of that individual’s place of origin. For this reason our research team thought it necessary to conduct a case study in a high Andean community in order to assess the feelings of people in this region. The majority of the community that was surveyed stated that they rarely contact the police and do not desire to have more contact with the police. As a result, this section will only address the services of the health centers, the Municipality and the Education Institutions. A. Health Centres Less than half of the surveyed sample received respect when accessing health services; therefore there is likely an issue with the treatment of people from Andean communities in the health care system. Some relevant findings: • 60% of respondents in Cuncani do not believe they receive an equal quality of health care in comparison with the care received by Urubamban citizens. • 60% of respondents in Cuncani do not feel they are treated with respect when accessing health care services. • 65% of respondents in Cuncani believe that discrimination exists in the health centers.
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B. Municipality In this particular case, it seems that municipal workers and the Cuncani public are in agreement that people from Andean communities are in need of political empowerment. Examining the findings: • 63% of respondents in Cuncani do not believe that the Junta Directiva of Cuncani is properly represented in Municipal decision making. The survey conducted within the municipality itself had similar findings as 47% of public servants believed that people from high Andean communities are underrepresented. • While a majority of respondents in Cuncani would like to use Municipal services, 54% of respondents do not believe they have access to them. • 40% of respondents from Cuncani believe that discrimination exists in the Municipality. C. Education Researchers who specialized in the education sector of Urubamba found that the most prevalent form of discrimination in schools was based on place of origin. The education sector is a particularly important body to be free of discrimination because it is at this institution where everlasting ideas are set into a society’s mental framework. • 63% of the respondents in Cuncani believe that the government of Urubamba has neglected education in Cuncani. • A majority of respondents in Cuncani expressed interest in sending their children to school in Urubamba. However, 32% of respondents stated that they believe their child would be discriminated against in Urubamban schools. • 54% of respondents in Cuncani believe that discrimination exists in the education sector. Upon evaluation of the responses from the surveys in Cuncani, we can conclude that discrimination is present in all public sectors with regards to this Highland community. There is still much work to be done; however 40% of the population of Cuncani is already aware of the existence of the Municipal Ordinance for the Prohibition of Social Discrimination in the Province of Urubamba.
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VI. Limitations and Conclusions A. Limitations The current preliminary investigation presented here came with various limitations. First, there was only a limited amount of time to complete this preliminary study and, for this reason, we were only able to conduct questionnaires with a portion of the population of Urubamba. Second, in obtaining the opinions and perceptions of people from Andean communities we only had sufficient time and resources to carry out an investigation in one community: Cuncani. Third, the language barrier in Cuncani required the presence of translators in order to converse in Quechua. Fourth, it was difficult to collect all the questionnaires that were distributed to some public services.

Nexos Voluntarios - NeVo Sector Huincho, Urubamba, Cuzco, Perú Cavenecia 160, Oficina 204, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú Tel: (51 84) 201211 Tel (511) 440 0739 www.nexosvoluntarios.org

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Despite these mentioned limitations, we feel very satisfied with the delivery of this report as a preliminary investigation into the issue of discrimination in Urubamba. B. Conclusions This investigation concludes that different forms of discrimination exist in the public services of Urubamba. We recognise that these services have worked hard on improving different aspects involved with bettering access for all citizens. Yet it is important to be aware of the areas that are still in need of improvement. For this reason, our suggestions are the following:
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That, in concordance with the Municipal Ordinance a person is delegated from the Municipality to receive complaints pertaining to discrimination. Also, that the Municipality effectively promotes the Ordinance against Social Discrimination that was passed in 2009. That, in concordance with the work on combating discrimination antidiscrimination, the Municipality will be the public institution that acts as a leader in the initiatives taken against social discrimination. That, in order for the Municipality of Urubamba to succeed in working in harmony with others, a committee against discrimination should be created, so that different social actors can discuss the theme and put forward ideas and solutions to the problem. That other types of events are carried out which involve students, representatives from civil society, authorities, and others, with the purpose being that all citizens are aware of their rights and entitlements when using public services. That more serious and in-depth investigations need to be carried out on the issue of discrimination in the Municipality of Urubamba.

Nexos Voluntarios - NeVo Sector Huincho, Urubamba, Cuzco, Perú Cavenecia 160, Oficina 204, San Isidro, Lima 27, Perú Tel: (51 84) 201211 Tel (511) 440 0739 www.nexosvoluntarios.org

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