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BO CO N MN HC QUN L H THNG MNG

ti: Tim hiu giao thc SNMP va phn mm quan ly h thng mang CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution.
Gio vin Lp Sinh vin thc hin : L T Thanh : MM02A Nhm 4 - Trn Hu t - Khng vn Phc - Phan Vn Ty

LI NOI U Vi s phat trin cac may tram, cac may chu va mang LAN a lam thay i mang may tinh lin tuc. Mc khac vi s phat trin manh me cua cac h thng va thit bi, phn mm cua cac nha san xut khac nhau. Mt khc do s mua bn cc h thng v thit b, phn mm ca cc nh sn xut khc nhau. Do vy cc nh sn xut thit b hoc phn mm phi cung cp phn mm giao tip vi thit b c th cu hnh v qun l chng. V nh vy, mi mt nh sn xut t nht l phi c mt phn mm qun l ring vi nguyn tc hot ng ring cho sn phm ca mnh. iu ny gy ra nhiu bt tin. Do vy, ngi ta xy dng cc giao thc qun l thit b chung cho tt c cc nh sn xut. Trong cc giao thc , th giao thc c bit n nhiu nht l giao thc SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol). Cc thit b d n gin hay phc tp u cha phn mm SNMP dng tham gia vo vic qun l mng. Hin nay, cc n v nghin cu pht trin trong lnh vc vin thng trong nc ni chung v CDiT ni ring c nhiu sn phm c s dng trn mng li. Tuy nhin vic qun l cc sn phm ny vn cha c thc hin theo tiu chun quc t nh cc sn phm nhp hay chuyn giao t nc ngoi. Trn th gii vic nghin cu v ng dng th tc SNMP trong vic qun l cc h thng v thit b vin thng lm t lu, v vic ng dng SNMP vo qun l l mc nh. ng trc c hi hi nhp quc t, th vic p dng mt giao thc tiu chun quc t vo qun l sn phm l cn thit v n thng nht c giao din qun l trn mng, to iu kin thun li cho vic cung cp giao din qun l chun khi pht trin cc h thng v thit b vin thng trong nc. Trong phm vi ca mt n mn hc, nhm xin trnh by v cc phn c bn ca giao thc SNMP v phn mm gim st h thng mng CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution.

MUC LUC

CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V QUAN LY H THNG MANG VI GIAO THC SNMP 1 CHNG 2: CC YU CU CA QUN L H THNG MNG 15 CHNG 3: TRIN KHAI PHN MM QUN L H THNG MNG CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT SOLUTION ......................................................17 Tng Kt 28 Ti liu tham kho ..............................................................................................................28

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CHNG 1: TNG QUAN V QUAN LY H THNG MANG VI GIAO THC SNMP


1.1. Gii thiu chung v quan ly h thng mang S pht trin v hi t mng trong nhng nm gn y tc ng mnh m ti tt c cc kha cnh ca mng li, thm ch c v nhng nhn thc nn tng v phng php tip cn Qun ly mng cng l mt trong nhng lnh vc ang c nhng s thay i v hon thin mnh m trong c n lc tiu chun ho ca cc t chc tiu chun ln trn th gii v yu cu t pha ngi s dng dch v. Mt khc cc nh khai thc mng, nh cung cp thit b v ngi s dng thng p dng cc phng php chin lc khc nhau cho vic qun ly mng v thit b ca mnh. Mi nh cung cp thit b thng a ra gii php qun ly mng ring cho sn phm ca mnh. Trong bi cnh hi t mng hin nay, s lng thit b v dch v rt a dng v phc tp to ra cc thch thc ln trong vn qun ly mng. Nhim v ca qun ly mng rt r rng v mt nguyn tc chung, nhng cc bi ton qun ly c th li c phc tp rt ln. iu ny xut pht t tnh a dng ca cc h thng thit b v cc c tnh qun ly ca cc loi thit b, v xa hn na l chin lc qun ly phi ph hp vi kin trc mng v p ng yu cu ca ngi s dng. Mt lot cc thit b in hnh cn c qun ly gm: My tnh c nhn, my trm, server, my vi tnh c nh, my vi tnh c ln, cc thit b u cui, thit b o kim, my in thoi, tng i in thoi ni b, cc thit b truyn hnh, my quay, modem, b ghp knh, b chuyn i giao thc, CSU/DSU, b ghp knh thng k, b ghp v gii gi, thit b tng thch ISDN, card NIC, cc b m ho v gii m tn hiu, thit b nn d liu, cc gateway, cc b x l front-end, cc ng trung k, DSC/DAC, cc b lp, b ti to tn hiu, cc thit b chuyn mch, cc bridge, router v switch, tt c mi ch l mt phn ca danh sch cc thit b s phi c qun ly. Ton cnh ca bc tranh qun ly phi bao gm qun ly cc ti nguyn mng cng nh cc ti nguyn dch v, ngi s dng, cc ng dng h thng, cc c s d liu khc nhau trong cc loi mi trng ng dng. V mt k thut, tt c thng tin trn c thu thp, trao i v c kt hp vi hot ng qun ly mng di dng cc s liu qun ly bi cc k thut tng t nh cc k thut s dng trong mng truyn s liu. Tuy nhin s khc nhau cn bn gia truyn thng s liu v trao i thng tin qun ly l vic trao i thng tin qun ly i hi cc trng d liu chuyn bit, cc giao thc truyn thng cng nh cc m hnh thng tin chuyn bit, cc k nng chuyn bit c th thit k, vn hnh h thng qun ly cng nh bin dch cc thng tin qun ly v bo li, hin trng h thng, cu hnh v bo mt. 1.2. Tng quan v giao thc SNMP 1.2.1.Hai phng thc gim st Poll v Alert Hai phng thc gim st Poll v Alert, y l 2 phng thc c bn ca cc k thut gim st h thng, nhiu phn mm v giao thc c xy dng da trn 2 phng thc ny, trong c SNMP. Vic hiu r hot ng ca Poll & Alert v u nhc im ca chng s gip chung ta d dng tm hiu nguyn tc hot ng ca cc giao thc hay phn mm gim st khc.

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1.2.1.1. Phng thc Poll Nguyn tc hot ng: Trung tm gim st (manager) s thng xuyn hi thng tin ca thit b cn gim st (device). Nu Manager khng hi th Device khng tr li, nu Manager hi th Device phi tr li. Bng cch hi thng xuyn, Manager s lun cp nht c thng tin mi nht t Device.

1.2.1.2. Phng thc Alert Nguyn tc hot ng : Mi khi trong Device xy ra mt s kin (event) no th Device s t ng gi thng bo cho Manager, gi l Alert. Manager khng hi thng tin nh k t Device. Device ch gi nhng thng bo mang tnh s kin ch khng gi nhng thng tin thng xuyn thay i, n cng s khng gi Alert nu chng c s kin g xy ra. Chng hn khi mt port down/up th Device s gi cnh bo, cn tng s byte truyn qua port s khng c Device gi i v l thng tin thng xuyn thay i. Mun ly nhng thng tin thng xuyn thay i th Manager phi ch ng i hi Device, tc l phi thc hin phng thc Poll.

1.2.1.3. So snh phng thc Poll v Alert Hai phng thc Poll v Alert l hon ton khc nhau v c ch. Mt ng dng gim st c th s dng Poll hoc Alert, hoc c hai, ty vo yu cu c th trong thc t. Bng sau so snh nhng im khc bit ca 2 phng thc :

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1.2.2.Gii thiu giao thc SNMP SNMP l giao thc qun l mng n gin, nh vy th no l giao thc qun l mng n gin. Giao thc l mt tp hp cc th tc m cc bn tham gia cn tun theo c th giao tip c vi nhau. Trong lnh vc thng tin, mt giao thc quy nh cu trc, nh dng (format) ca dng d liu trao i vi nhau v quy nh trnh t, th tc trao i dng d liu . Nu mt bn tham gia gi d liu khng ng nh dng hoc khng theo trnh t th cc bn khc s khng hiu hoc t chi trao i thng tin. SNMP l mt giao thc, do n c nhng quy nh ring m cc thnh phn trong mng phi tun theo. Mt thit b hiu c v hot ng tun theo giao thc SNMP c gi l c h tr SNMP (SNMP supported) hoc tng thch SNMP (SNMP compartible). SNMP dng qun l, ngha l c th theo di, c th ly thng tin, c th c thng bo, v c th tc ng h thng hot ng nh mun. VD mt s kh nng ca phn mm SNMP : Theo di tc ng truyn ca mt router, bit c tng s byte truyn/nhn. Ly thng tin my ch ang c bao nhiu cng, mi cng cn trng bao nhiu. Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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T ng nhn cnh bo khi switch c mt port b down. iu khin tt (shutdown) cc port trn switch. SNMP dng qun l mng, ngha l n c thit k chy trn nn TCP/IP v qun l cc thit b c ni mng TCP/IP. Cc thit b mng khng nht thit phi l my tnh m c th l switch, router, firewall, adsl gateway, v c mt s phn mm cho php qun tr bng SNMP. SNMP l giao thc n gin, do n c thit k n gin trong cu trc bn tin v th tc hot ng, v cn n gin trong bo mt (ngoi tr SNMP version 3). S dng phn mm SNMP, ngi qun tr mng c th qun l, gim st tp trung t xa ton mng ca mnh. u im cua thit k SNMP SNMP c thit k n gin ha qu trnh qun l cc thnh phn trong mng. Nh cc phn mm SNMP c th c pht trin nhanh v tn t chi ph . SNMP c thit k c th m rng cc chc nng qun l, gim st. Khng c gii hn rng SNMP c th qun l c ci g. Khi c mt thit b mi vi cc thuc tnh, tnh nng mi th ngi ta c th thit k custom SNMP phc v cho ring mnh (trong chng 3 tc gi s trnh by file cu trc d liu ca SNMP). SNMP c thit k c th hot ng c lp vi cc kin trc v c ch ca cc thit b h tr SNMP. Cc thit b khc nhau c hot ng khc nhau nhng p ng SNMP l ging nhau. Cac phin ban cua SNMP SNMP c 4 phin bn : SNMPv1, SNMPv2c, SNMPv2u v SNMPv3. Cc phin bn ny khc nhau mt cht nh dng bn tin v phng thc hot ng. Hin ti SNMPv1 l ph bin nht do c nhiu thit b tng thch nht v c nhiu phn mm h tr nht. Trong khi ch c mt s thit b v phn mm h tr SNMPv3. 1.2.3.Cac thanh phn chinh cua giao thc SNMP Theo RFC1157, kin trc ca SNMP bao gm 2 thnh phn : cc trm qun l mng (network management station) v cc thnh t mng (network element). Network management station thng l mt my tnh chy phn mm qun l SNMP (SNMP management application), dng gim st v iu khin tp trung cc network element.

Network element l cc thit b, my tnh, hoc phn mm tng thch SNMP v c qun l bi network management station. Nh vy element bao gm device, host v aplication. Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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Mt management station c th qun l nhiu element, mt element cng c th c qun l bi nhiu management station. Vy nu mt element c qun l bi 2 station th iu g s xy ra ? Nu station ly thng tin t element th c 2 station s c thng tin ging nhau. Nu 2 station tc ng n cng mt element th element s p ng c 2 tc ng theo th t ci no n trc. Ngoi ra cn c khi nim SNMP agent. SNMP agent l mt tin trnh (process) chy trn network element, c nhim v cung cp thng tin ca element cho station, nh station c th qun l c element. Chnh xc hn l application chy trn station v agent chy trn element mi l 2 tin trnh SNMP trc tip lin h vi nhau. 1.2.3.1. ObjectID: Mt thit b h tr SNMP c th cung cp nhiu thng tin khc nhau, mi thng tin gi l mt object. V d : My tnh c th cung cp cc thng tin : tng s cng, tng s port ni mng, tng s byte truyn/nhn, tn my tnh, tn cc process ang chy, . Router c th cung cp cc thng tin : tng s card, tng s port, tng s byte truyn/nhn, tn router, tnh trng cc port ca router, . Mi object c mt tn gi v mt m s nhn dng object , m s gi l Object ID (OID). V d : Tn thit b c gi l sysName, OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5 4. Tng s port giao tip (interface) c gi l ifNumber, OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.1. a ch Mac Address ca mt port c gi l ifPhysAddress, OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.6. S byte nhn trn mt port c gi l ifInOctets, OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10. Bn hy khoan thc mc ngha ca tng ch s trong OID, chng s c gii thch trong phn sau. Mt object ch c mt OID, chng hn tn ca thit b l mt object. Tuy nhin nu mt thit b li c nhiu tn th lm th no phn bit ? Lc ny ngi ta dng thm 1 ch s gi l scalar instance index (cng c th gi l sub-id) t ngay sau OID. hu ht cc thit b, cc object c th c nhiu gi tr th thng c vit di dng c sub-id. V d: mt thit b d ch c 1 tn th n vn phi c OID l sysName.0 hay 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0. Bn cn nh quy tc ny ng dng trong lp trnh phn mm SNMP manager. Sub-id khng nht thit phi lin tc hay bt u t 0. VD mt thit b c 2 mac address th c th chng c gi l ifPhysAddress.23 v ifPhysAddress.125645.

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OID ca cc object ph bin c th c chun ha, OID ca cc object do bn to ra th bn phi t m t chng. ly mt thng tin c OID chun ha th SNMP application phi gi mt bn tin SNMP c cha OID ca object cho SNMP agent, SNMP agent khi nhn c th n phi tr li bng thng tin ng vi OID . VD : Mun ly tn ca mt PC chy Windows, tn ca mt PC chy Linux hoc tn ca mt router th SNMP application ch cn gi bn tin c cha OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0. Khi SNMP agent chy trn PC Windows, PC Linux hay router nhn c bn tin c cha OID 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0, agent lp tc hiu rng y l bn tin hi sysName.0, v agent s tr li bng tn ca h thng. Nu SNMP agent nhn c mt OID m n khng hiu (khng h tr) th n s khng tr li.

Mt trong cc u im ca SNMP l c c thit k chy c lp vi cc thit b khc nhau. Chnh nh vic chun ha OID m ta c th dng mt SNMP application ly thng tin cc loi device ca cc hng khc nhau. 1.2.3.2. Object access: Mi object c quyn truy cp l READ_ONLY hoc READ_WRITE. Mi object u c th c c nhng ch nhng object c quyn READ_WRITE mi c th thay i c gi tr. VD : Tn ca mt thit b (sysName) l READ_WRITE, ta c th thay i tn ca thit b thng qua giao thc SNMP. Tng s port ca thit b (ifNumber) l READ_ONLY, d nhin ta khng th thay i s port ca n. 1.2.3.3. Management Information Base: MIB (c s thng tin qun l) l mt cu trc d liu gm cc i tng c qun l (managed object), c dng cho vic qun l cc thit b chy trn nn TCP/IP. MIB l kin trc chung m cc giao thc qun l trn TCP/IP nn tun theo, trong c SNMP. MIB c th hin thnh 1 file (MIB file), v c th biu din thnh 1 cy (MIB tree). MIB c th c chun ha hoc t to. Hnh sau minh ha MIB tree:

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Mt node trong cy l mt object, c th c gi bng tn hoc id. Cc objectID trong MIB c sp xp th t nhng khng phi l lin tc, khi bit mt OID th khng chc chn c th xc nh c OID tip theo trong MIB. VD trong chun mib-2 th object ifSpecific v object atIfIndex nm k nhau nhng OID ln lt l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.22 v 1.3.6.1.2.1.3.1.1.1 Mun hiu c mt OID no th bn cn c file MIB m t OID . Mt MIB file khng nht thit phi cha ton b cy trn m c th ch cha m t cho mt nhnh con. Bt c nhnh con no v tt c l ca n u c th gi l mt mib. Mt manager c th qun l c mt device ch khi ng dng SNMP manager v ng dng SNMP agent cng h tr mt MIB. Cc ng dng ny cng c th h tr cng lc nhiu MIB. Trong chng ny chng ta ch cp n khi nim MIB ngn gn nh trn. Chng 3 s m t chi tit cu trc ca file MIB. 1.2.3.4. Cac thc th cua h thng quan ly mang Ban u, h thng quan ly mang c xy dng da trn m hinh kha n gian. Quan ly c inh nghia la s tng tac qua lai gia hai thc th: thc th quan ly va thc th bi quan ly. Thc th quan ly c trng bi h thng quan ly, nn tang quan ly (flatform) va ng dung quan ly. Agent cung co th la Agent quan ly hoc Agent bi quan ly. Manager chinh la thc th quan ly, trong khi o Agent lam thc th n di s tng tac gia Manager va cac ngun tai nguyn bi quan ly thc s. M hinh Manager Agent rt thn dung, dung m ta thc th quan ly va thc th bi quan ly lp cao. y cung chinh la ly do ma cac m hinh c tao ra t nhin cho muc ich quan ly u gn vi m hinh Manager Agent. Tuy nhin trong thc t m hinh nay phc tap hn nhiu. Co mt s m hinh khac cung dung cho vic trao i thng tin quan ly nh m hinh Client Server hay m hinh Application Object server. Nhng m hinh nay, v Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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ban cht dung xy dng cac ng dung phn b hoc cac mi trng i tng phn b. 1.2.3.5. Quan im quan ly Manager Agent thc th Cac quan im v quan ly cho rng chc nng quan trong nht trong quan ly la quan h gia thc th quan ly va thc th bi quan ly. iu nay da trn m hinh phan hi. Manager se yu cu t Agent cac thng tin quan ly c trng va thc th bi quan ly , thng qua Agent, se c quan ly lai bng thng tin cha y u cac yu cu. Nu thng tin yu cu phan hi c s dung lin tuc tim kim mi Agent va cac i tng bi quan ly tng ng thi c ch nay goi la polling va ln u tin c ng dung quan ly trong mi trng internet da trn giao thc quan ly mang n gian SNMP. 1.3. Cc phng thc ca SNMP Giao thc SNMPv1 c 5 phng thc hot ng, tng ng vi 5 loi bn tin nh sau :

Mi bn tin u c cha OID cho bit object mang trong n l g. OID trong GetRequest cho bit n mun ly thng tin ca object no. OID trong GetResponse cho bit n mang gi tr ca object no. OID trong SetRequest ch ra n mun thit lp gi tr cho object no. OID trong Trap ch ra n thng bo s kin xy ra i vi object no. 1.3.1.GetRequest Bn tin GetRequest c manager gi n agent ly mt thng tin no . Trong GetRequest c cha OID ca object mun ly. VD : Mun ly thng tin tn ca Device1 th manager gi bn tin GetRequest OID=1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5 n Device1, tin trnh SNMP agent trn Device1 s nhn c bn tin v to bn tin tr li. Trong mt bn tin GetRequest c th cha nhiu OID, ngha l dng mt GetRequest c th ly v cng lc nhiu thng tin. 1.3.2.SetRequest Bn tin SetRequest c manager gi cho agent thit lp gi tr cho mt object no . V d :
C th t li tn ca mt my tnh hay router bng phn mm SNMP manager,

bng cch gi bn tin SetRequest c OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.5.0 (sysName.0) v c gi tr l tn mi cn t.

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C th shutdown mt port trn switch bng phn mm SNMP manager, bng

cch gi bn tin c OID l 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7 (ifAdminStatus) v c gi tr l 2 7. Ch nhng object c quyn READ_WRITE mi c th thay i c gi tr. 1.3.3.GetResponse Mi khi SNMP agent nhn c cc bn tin GetRequest, GetNextRequest hay SetRequest th n s gi li bn tin GetResponse tr li. Trong bn tin GetResponse c cha OID ca object c request v gi tr ca object . 1.3.4.Trap Bn tin Trap c agent t ng gi cho manager mi khi c s kin xy ra bn trong agent, cc s kin ny khng phi l cc hot ng thng xuyn ca agent m l cc s kin mang tnh bin c. V d : Khi c mt port down, khi c mt ngi dng login khng thnh cng, hoc khi thit b khi ng li, agent s gi trap cho manager. Tuy nhin khng phi mi bin c u c agent gi trap, cng khng phi mi agent u gi trap khi xy ra cng mt bin c. Vic agent gi hay khng gi trap cho bin c no l do hng sn xut device/agent quy nh. Phng thc trap l c lp vi cc phng thc request/response. SNMP request/response dng qun l cn SNMP trap dng cnh bo. Ngun gi trap gi l Trap Sender v ni nhn trap gi l Trap Receiver. Mt trap sender c th c cu hnh gi trap n nhiu trap receiver cng lc. C 2 loi trap : trap ph bin (generic trap) v trap c th (specific trap). Generic trap c quy nh trong cc chun SNMP, cn specific trap do ngi dng t nh ngha (ngi dng y l hng sn xut SNMP device). Loi trap l mt s nguyn cha trong bn tin trap, da vo m pha nhn trap bit bn tin trap c ngha g. Theo SNMPv1, generic trap c 7 loi sau : coldStart(0), warmStart(1), linkDown(2), linkUp(3), authenticationFailure(4), egpNeighborloss(5), enterpriseSpecific(6). Gi tr trong ngoc l m s ca cc loi trap. ngha ca cc bn tin generic-trap nh sau :
ColdStart : thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny ang khi ng li

(reinitialize) v cu hnh ca n c th b thay i sau khi khi ng.


WarmStart : thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny ang khi ng li v gi

nguyn cu hnh c.
LinkDown : thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny pht hin c mt trong

nhng kt ni truyn thng (communication link) ca n gp li. Trong bn tin trap c tham s ch ra ifIndex ca kt ni b li.
LinkUp : thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny pht hin c mt trong

nhng kt ni truyn thng ca n khi phc tr li. Trong bn tin trap c tham s ch ra ifIndex ca kt ni c khi phc.
AuthenticationFailure : thng bo rng thit b gi bn tin ny nhn c

mt bn tin khng c chng thc thnh cng (bn tin b chng thc khng thnh cng c th thuc nhiu giao thc khc nhau nh telnet, ssh, snmp, ftp, ). Thng thng trap loi ny xy ra l do user ng nhp khng thnh cng vo thit b.

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EgpNeighborloss : thng bo rng mt trong s nhng EGPneighbor ca thit

b gi trap b coi l down v quan h i tc (peer relationship) gia 2 bn khng cn c duy tr.
EnterpriseSpecific : thng bo rng bn tin trap ny khng thuc cc kiu

generic nh trn m n l mt loi bn tin do ngi dng t nh ngha. Ngi dng c th t nh ngha thm cc loi trap lm phong ph thm kh nng cnh bo ca thit b nh : boardFailed, configChanged, powerLoss, cpuTooHigh, v.v. Ngi dng t quy nh ngha v gi tr ca cc specific trap ny, v d nhin ch nhng trap receiver v trap sender h tr cng mt MIB mi c th hiu ngha ca specific trap. Do nu bn dng mt phn mm trap receiver bt k nhn trap ca cc trap sender bt k, bn c th c v hiu cc generic trap khi chng xy ra; nhng bn s khng hiu ngha cc specific trap khi chng hin ln mn hnh v bn tin trap ch cha nhng con s.

i vi cc phng thc Get/Set/Response th SNMP Agent lng nghe port UDP 161, cn phng thc trap th SNMP Trap Receiver lng nghe port UDP 162. 1.4. Cc i tng trong giao thc SNMP SNMP gm hai i tng chinh: ngi quan ly va ngi phuc vu (Agent). Agent bao gm ca mt phn cua phn mm trong may. SNMP Agent tn tai tt ca cac phn cua thit bi , tuy nhin thit lp Agent khng cho phep lam bt c gi cho n khi hoi ngi quan ly. y la mt chng trinh ring le, ngi quan tri chay chinh may cua minh hoi nhng cu hoi n may Agent thu thp thng tin. Thit lp thng tin c goi la MIB (Management Information Base) c s quan ly thng tin. Hu ht mi Agent u co nhng MIB nho cho phep ngi quan tri xem nhng goi tin nhp xut cua h thng. Ngoai MIB c ban nay, mi Agent h tr nhng MIB khac nhau cha ng thng tin v muc ich c bit cua no. Mt giao tip (community) SNMP la mi quan h logic gia ngi phuc vu SNMP va mt hoc nhiu ngi quan ly. Mt community gm co tn va tt tt ca nhng thanh vin trong community co cung mt quyn truy cp nh nhau. Thao tac TRAP gi nhng thng tin n tram quan ly ( Management Station) khi mt i tng c thay i (cho thy rng vic thay i quan trong n vic phai gi nhng thng bao) Mc inh chui community cung cp kim tra hay oc nhng kha nng thi thng xuyn c bit n mc inh s iu khin hay vit nhng chui community Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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thi thng xuyn c giu kin. SNMP khai thac nhng thun li cua nhng chui community mc inh cho phep ngi tn cng thu thp thng tin v nhng thit bi s dung nhng chu community chung, hay ngi tn cng co th thay i cu hinh h thng s dung nhng chui community kin ao. 1.5. Cu truc va c im cua thng tin quan ly (SMI) SMI (Structure Management Information) inh nghia mt c cu t chc chung cho thng tin quan ly. SMI nhn dang cac kiu d liu trong MIB va chi ro cach thc miu ta va t tn cac tai nguyn trong MIB. SIM duy tri tinh n gian va kha nng m rng trong MIB, vi th MIB chi lu tr nhng loai d liu n gian. SMI khng cung cp cach tao hoc truy xut cac cu truc d liu phc tap. Cac MIB se cha cac loai d liu do nha cung cp tao ra. cung cp phng thc tiu chun biu din thng tin quan tri SMI cn nhng cng vic sau: Cung cp ki thut tiu chun inh nghia cu truc MIB c bit.l Cung cp ki thut tiu chun inh nghia cac i tng n le, bao gm cu phap va gia tri mi i tng . Cung cp ki thut tiu chun ma hoa cac gia tri i tng. S m ta cac i tng quan ly c SMI thc hin thng qua ngn ng ASN. 1 Vic inh nghia i tng gm 5 trng: Object: Tn i tng Systax: Cu phap cho loai i tng. Definition : Cac inh nghia. Truy cp (Access): Co th la chi oc, oc ghi, khng th truy cp. Trang thai (Status): Co th cng ch, tuy chon hay khng con hiu lc. 1.6. SNMPv2 SNMPv2 tch hp kh nng lin iu hnh t manager ti manager v hai n v d liu giao thc mi. Kh nng lin kt iu hnh manager-manager cho php SNMP h tr qun l mng phn tn trong mt trm v gi bo co ti mt trm khc. h tr tng tc tt nht, SNMPv2 thm cc nhm cnh bo v s kin vo trong c s thng tin qun l MIB. Nhm cnh bo cho php t ngng thit lp cho cc bn tin cnh bo. Nhm s kin c a ra khi thng tin Trap xc nh cc gi tr phn t MIB. Hai n v d liu giao thc PDU (Protocol Data Unit) l GetbulkRequest v InformRequest. Cc PDU ny lin quan ti x l li v kh nng m ca SNMPv2. X l li trong SNMPv2 i km vi cc i tng yu cu cho php trm qun l lp trnh t cc phng php khi phc hoc dng truyn bn tin. Kh nng m trong SNMPv2 s dng b m 64 bit (hoc 32) duy tr trng thi ca cc lin kt v giao din. 1.6.1.Cu trc bn tin SNMPv2

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Hnh: Cu trc bn tin SNMPv2 Cc bn tin trao i trong SNMPv2 cha cc n v d liu giao thc PDU. Hnh trn m t cu trc chung cc bn tin ny. + Trng phin bn (Version) th hin phin bn ca giao thc SNMPv2. + Trng Community l mt chui password xc nhn cho c tin trnh ly v thay i d liu. SNMP PDU cha kiu iu hnh (get, set), yu cu p ng (cng s th t vi bn tin gi i) - cho php ngi iu hnh gi ng thi nhiu bn tin. Bin ghp gm cc thit b c c t trong RFC 2358 v cha c gi tr t ti i tng. Trng n v d liu giao thc (PDU) gm c cc trng con: Kiu n v d liu giao thc, nhn dng cc yu cu (Request ID), trng thi li, ch s li, cc gia tri va i tng. Cc kiu n v d liu giao thc PDU th hin cc bn tin s dng trong SNMPv2 gm c: GetRequest,GetNextRequest, SetRequest, GetResponse, Trap, GetBulkReques, InformRequest . 1.6.2.C s thng tin qun l MIB trong SNMPv2 IB trong SNMPv2 nh ngha cc i tng m t tc ng ca mt phn t NMPv2. MIB ny gm 3 nhm: Nhm h thng (System group): l mt m rng ca nhm system trong MIB-II gc, bao gm mt nhm cc i tng cho php mt Agent SNMPv2 m t cc i tng ti nguyn ca n. Cc i tng mi trong phn m rng c tn bt u bng sysOR, chng lin quan n ti nguyn h thng v c s dng bi mt Agent SNMPv2 m t cc i tng ti nguyn m vic iu khin chng tu thuc vo cu hnh ng bi mt b phn qun l. Nhm SNMP (SNMP group): mt ci tin ca nhm SNMP trong MIB-II gc, bao gm cc i tng cung cp cc cng c c bn cho hot ng giao thc. N c thm mt s i tng mi v loi b mt s i tng ban u. Nhm SNMP cha mt vi thng tin lu lng c bn lin quan n ton t SNMPv2 v ch c mt trong cc i tng l b m ch c 32-bit. Nhm cc i tng MIB (MIB objects group): mt tp hp cc i tng lin quan n cc SNMPv2-Trap PDU v cho php mt vi phn t SNMPv2 cng hot ng, thc hin nh trm qun tr, phi hp vic s dng ca chng trong ton t Set ca SNMPv2.

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Phn u ca nhm ny l mt nhm con, snmpTrap, bao gm hai i tng lin quan n Trap: SNMPTrapOID: l nhn dng i tng ca Trap hoc thng bo c gi hin thi. Gi tr ca i tng ny xut hin nh mt varbind (variable binding) th hai trong mi SNMPv2-Trap PDU v InformRequest PDU. SNMPTrapEnterprise: l nhn dng i tng ca t chc lin quan n Trap c gi hin thi. Khi mt Agent u quyn SNMPv2 nh x mt Trap PDU sang mt SNMPv2-Trap PDU, bin ny xut hin nh mt varbind cui cng. Phn th hai ca nhm ny l mt nhm con, snmpSet, bao gm mt i tng n snmpSerialNo. i tng ny c s dng gii quyt hai vn c th xut hin khi s dng ton t Set: Th nht l mt qun tr c th s dng nhiu ton t Set trn cng mt i tng MIB. Cc ton t ny cn thc hin theo mt trt t c a ra thm ch khi chng c truyn khng theo th t. Th hai l vic s dng ng thi cc ton t Set trn cng mt i tng MIB bi nhiu manager c th gy ra mt s mu thun hoc lm cho c s d liu b sai. i tng snmpSet c s dng theo cch sau: Khi mt manager mun t mt hay nhiu gi tr i tng trong mt Agent, u tin n nhn gi tr ca i tng snmpSet. Sau n gi SetRequest PDU c danh sch bin lin kt bao gm c i tng snmpSet vi gi tr nhn c ca n. Nu nhiu manager gi cc setRequestPDU s dng cng mt gi tr ca snmpSet, bn tin n Agent trc s c thc hin (gi s khng c li), kt qu l lm tng snmpSet; cc ton t set cn li s b li v khng ph hp vi gi tr snmpSet. Hn na, nu mt manager mun gi mt chui cc ton t set v m bo rng chng c thc hin theo mt trt t nht nh th i tng snmpSet phi c gp vo trong mi ton t. 1.6.3.Nguyn tc hoat ng cua SNMP 1.6.3.1. Truyn mt bn tin SNMPv2 Qui tc gi v nhn bn tin ca Manager v Agent c th hin trong bng sau:

Mt phn t SNMPv2 thc hin cc hnh ng sau truyn mt PDU cho mt phn t SNMPv2 khc: S dng ASN.1 m t mt PDU. PDU ny c chuyn sang dch v xc nhn cng vi cc a ch ngun v ch ca truyn thng v mt tn truyn thng. Dch v xc nhn sau Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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thc hin nhng bin i bt k theo yu cu cho s trao i ny nh m ho hoc thm m xc nhn v tr li kt qu. Phn t giao thc sau to ra bn tin gm trng s hiu phin bn, tn truyn thng vo kt qu ca bc trn. i tng ASN. 1 mi ny sau c m ho s dng BER v gi n dch v vn chuyn. 1.6.3.2. Nhn mt bn tin SNMPv2 1.6.3.3. Cc trng thi thch ng cho SNMPv2 1.7. SNMPv3 Nh a trinh bay cac phn trn, ban thn SNMPv2 a co phn bao am bao mt c thm vao. Tuy nhin phn nay cha c tao s ng thun cua ngi s dung do tinh tin li va bao mt cua no. sa cha nhng thiu hut cua no,SNMPv3 c gii thiu nh mt chun nghi cho nhng linh vc quan tri mang va c trinh bay chi tit ln u tin vao nm 1998 vi cac tai liu RFC2271-RFC2275. Chun nay a ra nhm hoan thin hn vn quan tri va bao mt. Muc ich chinh cua SNMPv3 la h tr kin truc theo kiu module co th d dang m rng. Theo cach nay, nu cac giao thc bao mt mi c m rng chung co th c h tr SNMPv3 bng cach inh nghia nh la cac module ring. C s thng tin quan tri va cac dang thng tin s dung trong SNMPv3 cung hoan toan tng t trong SNMPv3. 1.7.1.Cac c im mi cua SNMP v3 SNMPv3 da trn vic thc hin giao thc, loai d liu va uy quyn nh SNMPv2 va cai tin phn an toan. SNMPv3 cung cp an toan truy cp cac thit bi bng cach kt hp s xac nhn va ma hoa goi tin trn mang. Nhng c im bao mt cung cp trong SNMPv3 Tinh toan ven thng bao: am bao cac goi tin khng bi sa trong khi truyn . S xac nhn: xac nhn ngun cua thng bao gi n. Ma hoa: ao ni dung cua goi ngn can vic gi thng bao t ngun khng c xac nhn. SNMPv3 cung cp m hinh an toan va cac mc an toan. M hinh an toan la thc hin vic xac nhn c thit lp cho ngi s dung va nhom cac ngi s dung hin co . Mc an toan la mc bao am an toan trong m hinh an toan . S kt hp cua m hinh an toan va mc an toan se xac inh c ch an toan khi gi mt goi tin. Tuy nhin vic s dung SNMPv3 rt phc tap va cng knh. Tuy nhin y la s la chon tt nht cho vn bao mt cua mang. Nhng vic s dung se tn rt nhiu tai nguyn do trong mi ban tin truyn i se co phn ma hoa BER. No se chim mt phn bng thng ng truyn do o lam tng phi tn mang. Mc du c coi la phin ban nghi cui cung va c coi la y u nht nhng SNMPv3 vn chi la tiu chun d thao va vn ang c nghin cu hoan thin. 1.7.2.H tr bao mt va xac thc trong SNMPv3 Mt trong nhng mc tiu chnh nu khng coi l mt mc ch chnh chnh khi pht trin SNMPv3 l thm c tnh bo mt cho qun l SNMP. Xc thc v bo v thng tin, cng nh xc thc v iu khin truy cp, c nu r trn. Cu trc Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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SNMPv3 cho php s dng linh hot bt c mt giao thc no cho xc thc v bo v thng tin. D sao, nhm IETF SNMPv3 a ra m hnh bo mt ngi dng. Chng ta s tm hiu thm v cc kha cnh chung v bo mt kt hp vi cc kiu ca cc mi e do bo mt, m hnh bo mt, nh dng d liu bn tin iu tit cc tham s bo mt v s dng cng nh qun l ca cc kho trong phn ny. Cc mi e do bo mt. C 4 mi e do n thng tin qun l mng khi mt thc th qun l c truyn n thc th khc l: Thng tin c th b thay i bi mt ngi dng khng c php no trong khi truyn. Ngi dng khng c php c gng gi trang nh ngi dng c php. Thng tin SNMP c chia lm nhiu gi nh truyn i theo nhiu hng v pha nhn phi sp xp li. V vy n c th b ngi no lm tr 1 gi tin, b gi li do mt ngi khng c php to ra ... lm thay i thng tin ca bn tin. B ngn chn hoc b l bn tin. t nht c 2 mi e do trn thng xy ra vi kt ni d liu truyn thng, nhng vi m hnh bo mt ngi dng SNMP th n c coi l khng c mi e do. Th nht l t chi dch v, mt xc thc ngi dng s b t chi dch v bi thc th qun l. N khng b coi nh mi e do, khi mng li c th l l do ca s t chi, v mt giao thc s thc thi mc ch ny. Th hai l thng k lu lng bi mt ngi dng khng xc thc. Nhm IETF SNMv3 xc nh rng khng c thun li quan trng no t c bng cch chng li s tn cng ny. M hnh bo mt M hnh bo mt trong SNMPv3 l m hnh bo mt ngi dng (User-base Security Model vit tt l USM). N phn nh khi nim tn ngi dng truyn thng. Nh chng ta nh ngha giao din dch v tru tng gia cc phn h khc nhau trong thc th SNMP, by gi chng ta s nh ngha giao din dch v tru tng trong USM. Cc nh ngha ny bao trm ln khi nim v giao din gia dch v ging USM v xc thc khng ph thuc v dch v ring. Hai primitive c kt hp vi mt dch v xc thc, mt to ra bn tin xc thc i, v mt kim tra bn tin xc thc n. Tng t, 2 primitive c kt hp vi cc dch v ring: encryptData m ho bn tin i v decryptData gii m bn tin n. Cc dch v c cung cp bi module xc thc v module ring trong phn h bo mt cho bn tin i v bn tin n. M hnh x l bn tin dn chng cho USM trong phn h bo mt. Da trn mc bo mt gn trn bn tin, USM ln lt c dn qua module xc thc v module ring. Kt qu c a tr li m hnh x l bn tin bi USM.

CHNG 2: CC YU CU CA QUN L H THNG MNG


2.1. Cac yu cu quan ly h thng mang Cac c ch quan ly mang c nhin nhn t hai goc , goc mang chi ra h thng quan ly nm tai cac mc cao cua m hinh OSI va t phia ngi iu hanh quan ly h thng mang. Mc du ca rt nhiu quan im khac nhau v m hinh quan ly h thng Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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nhng u thng nht bi ba chc nng quan ly c ban gm: giam sat, iu khin va a ra bao cao ti ngi iu hanh. Chc nng gim st c nhim v thu thp lin tc cc thng tin v trng thi ca cc ti nguyn c qun ly sau chuyn cc thng tin ny di dng cc s kin v a ra cc cnh bo khi cc tham s ca ti nguyn mng c qun ly vt qu ngng cho php. Chc nng qun ly c nhim v thc hin cc yu cu ca ngi qun ly hoc cc ng dng qun ly nhm thay i trng thi hay cu hnh ca mt ti nguyn c qun ly no . Chc nng a ra bo co c nhim v chuyn i v hin th cc bo co di dng m ngi qun l c th c, nh gi hoc tm kim, tra cu thng tin c bo co. Di gc ca ngi iu hnh qun ly mng, mt s yu cu c bn thng c t ra gm: Kh nng gim st v iu khin mng cng nh cc thnh phn ca h thng thit b t u cui n u cui. C th truy nhp v cu hnh li t xa cc ti nguyn c qun ly. D dng trong vic ci t, vn hnh v bo dng h thng qun ly cng nh cc ng dng ca n. Bo mt hot ng qun ly v truy nhp ca ngi s dng, bo mt truyn thng cc thng tin qun ly. C kh nng a ra cc bo co y v r ngha v cc thng tin qun ly. Qun ly theo thi gian thc v hot ng qun ly hng ngy c thc hin mt cch t ng. Mm do trong vic nng cp h thng v c kh nng tng thch vi nhiu cng ngh khc nhau. C kh nng lu tr v khi phc cc thng tin qun ly. 2.2. Kin truc quan ly h thng mang 2.2.1.Kin truc quan ly mang Qun ly mng gm mt tp cc chc nng iu khin, lp k hoch, lin kt, trin khai v gim st ti nguyn mng. Qun ly mng c th c nhn nhn nh mt cu trc gm nhiu lp: Qun ly kinh doanh: Qun ly kha cnh kinh doanh ca mng v d nh: ngn sch/ ti nguyn, k hoch v cc tha thun. Qun ly dch v: Qun ly cc dch v cung cp cho ngi s dng, v d cc dch v cung cp bao gm vic qun ly bng thng truy nhp, lu tr d liu v cc ng dng cung cp. Qun ly mng: Qun ly ton b thit b mng trong mng. Qun ly phn t: Qun ly mt tp hp thit b mng, v d cc b nh tuyn truy nhp hoc cc h thng qun ly thu bao. Qun ly phn t mng: Qun ly tng thit b n trong mng, v d b nh tuyn, chuyn mch, Hub. Qun ly mng c th chia thnh hai chc nng c s: truyn ti thng tin qun ly qua h thng v qun ly cc phn t thng tin qun ly mng. Cc chc nng ny gm Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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cc nhim v khc nhau nh: Gim st, cu hnh, sa li v lp k hoch c thc hin bi nh qun tr hoc nhn vin qun ly mng. 2.2.2.C ch quan ly mang C ch qun ly mng bao gm c cc giao thc qun ly mng, cc giao thc qun ly mng cung cp cc c ch thu thp, thay i v truyn cc d liu qun ly mng qua mng. Cc c ch gim st nhm xc nh cc c tnh ca thit b mng, tin trnh gim st bao gm thu thp c v lu tr cc tp con ca d liu . D liu thng c thu thp thng qua polling hoc tin trnh gim st gm cc giao thc qun lymng. X l d liu sau qu trnh thu thp thng tin qun ly mng l bc loi b bt cc thng tin d liu khng cn thit i vi tng nhim v qun ly. S th hin cc thng tin qun ly cho ngi qun ly cho php ngi qun ly nm bt hiu qu nht cc tnh nng v c tnh mng cn qun ly. Mt s k thut biu din d liu thng c s dng di dng k t, th hoc lu (tnh hoc ng). Ti thi im x l thng tin d liu, rt nhiu cc thng tin cha kp x l c lu tr ti cc vng nh lu tr khc nhau. Cc c ch d phng v cp nht lu tr lun c xc nh trc trong cc c ch qun ly mng nhm trnh ti a tn tht d liu. Cc phn tch thi gian thc lun yu cu thi gian hi p ti cc thit b qun ly trong khong thi gian ngn. y l iu kin nh i gia s lng c tnh v thit b mng vi lng ti nguyn (kh nng tnh ton, s lng thit b tnh ton, b nh, lu tr) cn thit h tr cc phn tch. Thc hin nhim v cu hnh chnh l ci t cc tham s trong mt thit b mng iu hnh v iu khin cc phn t. Cc c ch cu hnh bao gm truy nhp trc tip ti cc thit b, truy nhp t xa v ly cc file cu hnh t cc thit b . D liu cu hnh c thng qua cc cch sau: Cc cu lnh SET ca SNMP Truy nhp qua telnet v giao din dng lnh Truy nhp qua HTTP Truy nhp qua kin trc CORBA S dng FTP/TFTP ly file cu hnh

CHNG 3: TRIN KHAI PHN MM QUN L H THNG MNG CISCOWORKS LAN MANAGEMENT SOLUTION
3.1. Gii thiu Vi cc h thng mng ln, vic qun tr cc thit b mng bao gm Router, Switch v Access Point l rt quan trng. c bit l vi cc h thng vi s lng thit b ln v thi gian gin on mng cho php ngn. Thng qua vic qun tr ny, ngi qun tr c th thay i cu hnh cc thit b mng cng nh thun tin trong vic sa li mt cch nhanh nht c th. Vi cc yu cu ny, Cisco c cung cp b gii php qun tr mng dnh cho cc thit b nh Routers, Switches v Access points. Chi tit cc thng s k thut: LMS l mt phn ca gii php qun tr mng CiscoWorks, cung cp cc cng c ci t, qun tr, gim st, pht hin li, v khc phc s c c th xy ra trong mng. Cc Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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cng c ny c th p dng cho hu ht cc thit b trong mng, bao gm Switch, Router, PIX Firewall v k c thit b mi chy phn mm Cisco CallManager. B phn mm LMS c vit trn cc giao thc chun ca Internet v thm cc chc nng m rng cho cc thit b v phn mm ca Cisco, to nn mt cng c mnh m gip nh qun tr mng c th qun l mng ni b ca mnh mt cch hiu qu. LMS c giao din web nn nh qun tr c th d dng xem cc s mng, xem cc cu hnh, v thng tin v tnh trng ca cc thit b t bt k mt v tr no trong mng thng qua trnh duyt web. LMS c thit k linh hot, c th ci t ring hoc dng chung vi cc phn mm qun tr mng khc ca HP, Sun gip cho nh qun tr c nhiu la chn ph hp vi kinh nghim ca mnh. B phn mm CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution bao gm cc thnh phn sau: Campus Manager (CM) l phn mm qun l cc thit b switch ca Cisco qua giao din web, cung cp thng tin v cc thit b lp 2, m hnh kt ni chi tit, cu hnh VLAN, ATM LANE, qun l cc thit b ca ngi dng, in thoi IP Device Fault Manager (DFM) Phn mm gim st hot ng v kim tra li ca cc thit b mng Cisco hot ng thi gian thc, thng bo li qua cc thng bo li, qua email, hoc kt hp vi cc thng bo ca cc chng trnh khc. Resource Manager Essentials (RME) Gip qun l danh sch cc thit b mng, cu hnh phn cng, phn mm, cc s c xy ra S dng phn mm ny ch yu nhm mc ch thng k, lp bo co, lu h s v mng. eGenius Real-Time Monitor (RTM) y l phn mm mi c a vo b CWLMS, hot ng da vo giao thc RMON nhm qun l, gim st hot ng v khc phc s c ca mng. Cc kt qu phn tch, bo co u c a ln mn hnh web trc quan vi y thng tin. CiscoView (CV) y l phn mm ph bin nht ca Cisco dng truy cp xem thng tin trng thi v ci t cu hnh ca thit b mng. Vi tp hp cc phn mm trn, gii php LMS cung cp gim st t mi gc cnh trong hot ng ca mng LAN, t nhng g xy ra cho n hin ti nhm pht hin, phng v khc phc s c mng c th xy ra, gim thi gian gin on mng xung mc thp nht.. Do tp trng vo qun l, gim st cc hot ng ca cc thit b mng, b phn mm LSM gip nh qun tr mng lun yn tm v thi gian hot ng ca mng ni b. 3.2. Trin khai phn mm 3.2.1.M hnh h thng trin khai thc nghim Ciscowork LMS l mt phn mm mnh, h tr cc h thng mng ln, phc tp, nhiu thit b khc nhau nh: Switch, router, server, PC, IP Phone.. y nhm xin a ra mt m hnh nh trin khai thc nghim bao gm cc thit b nh switch, router, server, PC nh hnh di.

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Hnh: M hnh h thng. 3.2.2.Cu hnh h thng yu cu

3.2.3.Ci t phn mm Ci t CiscoWorks LAN Management Solution 3.2 cng ging nh ci t nhng phn mm khc. Hon ton bng giao din, rt d dng cho vic ci t d cho ngi mi tip xc ln u cng khng my kh khn trong vic s dng. Chng trnh ch chy trn cc phin bn h iu hnh mng nh Windows 2K3 hoc Windows 2K8. y nhm trin khai thc nghim trn mi trng Windows 2K3 phin bn R2. Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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Qu trnh khi chy ci t chng trnh cng ging nh nhng chng trnh bnh thng khc ta thng ci t.

Xut hin bng thng bo ta nhn NEXT tip tc cng vic ci t

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Yu cu chp nhn cc iu khon gia nh pht trin v ngi s dng phn mm ca hng cung cp. Ta nhn vo I accept the term of the license agreement v nhn NEXT tip tc cng vic ci t.

Yu cu la chn ci t theo cu hnh mc nh ca nh sn xut phn mm hoc l ci theo ty chnh ca ngi s dng. Ta la chn mt trong 2 phng thc ci t m ta cho l ph hp. Sau tip tc nhn NEXT. Sau mt vi ln lp li cc bc tng t l ta ci t xong phn mm. 3.2.4.Giao din s dng vo cc tnh nng c bn Sau khi ci t thnh cng ta kch hot chng trnh. Chng trnh gim st mng ciscoworks lan management solution l mt chng trnh c giao din chy hon ton Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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trn ng dng web, s dng giao thc HTTP hoc HTTPS ty theo yu cu cng vic m ta c th ty chn. Nu la chn HTTP th chng trnh s hot ng nhanh nhng km bo mt, ngc li HTTPS li cho ta tnh bo mt cao nhng li lm cho h thng b chm i. Ta ng nhp vo chng trnh bng User v Password in vo trc lc ci t login vo chng trnh.

Sau khi ng nhp thnh cng chng trnh s a cho chng ta mt giao din gm cc tnh nng iu khin, xem xt, qun l.

Hnh: Giao din chnh ca chng trnh.

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Giao din chnh ca chng trnh l tng th cc iu khin nm trong tab Functional bao gm cc tnh nng nh: Common service: cho ta bit v tnh trng server, trung tm phn mn, cc thit b Setup Centrer: Ni ta cu hnh cho ton b chng trnh nh to user, thm, sa thng tin, xa cc thit b, cc kt ni Campus Manager: l trung tm iu khin, hin th cc user ang lm vic, xem thng bo, cu hnh. Cisco View : Ni chng ta c th xem xt tng quan cc thit b, dng Mini Rmon sa li cho cc thit b, s c mng Ngoi ra cn c cc Report gip din gii nhng hng dn cho ngi dng bng cc Clip ngn gip ngi dng d dng s dng.

Hnh: Ca s System Ca s System cho ta bit v cc cng vic no ang hot ng, cng vic no ang b ngng, cng vic no hon thnh hay cha. Trong phn Log space Usage cn cho ta bit tnh trng cc file log ghi li cc s kin ca h thng. Ngoi ra chng trnh cn h tr chc nng tm kim xem cc cng vic, thit b, cng hot ng

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Hnh: Ca s Network Ca s Network cho ta thy cc thng tin v h thng mng ang hot ng bao gm cc thit b ang hot ng, tnh trng ca thit b mng, cc tc t lin quan

Hnh: Ca s CM Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A

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Campus Manager (CM) l phn mm qun l cc thit b switch ca Cisco qua giao din web, cung cp thng tin v cc thit b lp 2, m hnh kt ni chi tit, cu hnh VLAN, ATM LANE, qun l cc thit b ca ngi dng, in thoi IP

Hnh: Ca s CS CS l ca s hin th cc dch v c ci t v chy trn h thng mng, cc ch Backup ca h thng v tnh trng hot ng ca cc ng dng cc ca s khc.

Hnh: Ca s DFM

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DFM l phn mm gim st hot ng v kim tra li ca cc thit b mng Cisco hot ng thi gian thc, thng bo li qua cc thng bo li, qua email, hoc kt hp vi cc thng bo ca cc chng trnh khc.

Hnh: Ca s IPM IPM cung cp cho chng ta cc thng tin v cc hot ng qua li gia cc mng khc nhau trong h thng m chng ta qun l.

Hnh: Ca s RME

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Resource Manager Essentials (RME) Gip qun l danh sch cc thit b mng, cu hnh phn cng, phn mm, cc s c xy ra S dng phn mm ny ch yu nhm mc ch thng k, lp bo co, lu h s v mng. Ngoi ra phn mn cn cung cp cc thng k nh sc khe ca h thng, tnh trng thit b, h thng mng

Hnh: Thng tin v thit b trong mng

Hnh: Tnh trng ca cc thit b trong mng

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Hnh: Hin trng ca cc port

Tng Kt
Qua n ny gip cho sinh vin c k nng lm vic theo nhm. Cng c cc kin thc hc trong b mn qun l h thng mng, gip cho sinh vin c thm kinh nghim khi ra trng khng b gp kh khn khi tip xc vi cc cng ngh mi. Nhng y ch l mt n mn hc nn qu trnh tm hiu, lng kin thc cn t, cn nhiu hn ch trong cch trnh by V phn nhm, nhm rt c gng cng nhau chia s cng vic, tm kim, trao i ti liu c mt n tt nht c th. Song do lng kin thc cn t v knh nghim cn thiu nn cng s kh trnh khi nhng sai st trong cng vic. Phn mm ciscoworks lan management solution l mt phn mm ln, i hi cu hnh my ch kh cao, c bn quyn s dng Mc d c php dng th nhng li b hn ch nhiu tnh nng cng vi my cu hnh khng mnh lm cho nhm gp nhiu kh khn trong vic trin khai m hnh trn thc t.

Ti liu tham kho


SNMP ton tp Dip Thnh Nguyn. Gii php an ninh trong kin trc qun tr mng SNMP Trn Duy Minh.
http://nhatnghe.com http://hvaonline.net http://net-snmp.sourceforge.net

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Khoa hoc may tinh MM02A