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VISUALISING IMPACT OF TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT ON CITY DEVELOPMENT CASE STUDY: DWARKA AND ROHINI

HARI SHANKAR SINGH BISHT BP/422/2007

Department of Physical Planning School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi

New Delhi

July 2011

DECLARATION
This is to declare that the Thesis report titled Visualising Impact of Transit Oriented Development on City Development. Case study: Dwarka and Rohini has been undertaken by the author in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Planning. The research work undertaken is original and authentic.

Date: 19th July, 2011

(Hari Shankar Singh Bisht) BP/422/2007 Department of Physical Planning School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi

School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi (Deemed to be a University)

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Thesis titled Visualising Impact of Transit Oriented Development on City Development. Case study: Dwarka and Rohini has been submitted by Hari Shankar Singh Bisht in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Planning.

Recommended By:

Accepted By:

(Mr. R.M. Lal) Thesis Supervisor, Additional Commissioner (Retd.), DDA Delhi Development Authority, Consultant, Delhi Urban Shelter Improvement Board

(Prof. Raman Dev Surie) Professor and Head of the Department, Department of Physical Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to extend profound gratitude to Mr. R. M. Lal, my research supervisor, for his valuable guidance throughout the research. The support, exceptional knowledge and hold of the subject as well as constant encouragement he provided me during my endeavour were heartwarming. I am grateful to Dr. Mrs. Poonam Prakash, research co-supervisor, for keeping me on the right track by providing perspective to an unintentionally biased approach, and helping me focus on my priorities. I would like to thank Prof. Raman Dev Surie, Head of the Department of Physical Planning for reviewing my work and giving me valuable inputs from time to time. Words of thanks are due for Dr. Ashok Kumar and Dr. Mahavir for being always open to adjustments in their tight schedules for my inquisitive sessions. If they all had not gone out of their way to support me, this thesis would not have been possible. I want to thank all faculty of the Department of Physical Planning for ironing out my shortcomings and giving valuable suggestions, especially Mrs Taru Jain Dongre for providing that transport point of view. I would like to thank Mr. Vinod Sakle (Director, DDA Rohini) for helping me with data collection.

I shall forever be full of gratitude to Mummy, Papa, Dadda and my Didi for always being there for me. Without their constant support, I shall never have been able to pursue this course or complete the thesis. In fact, this thesis is a reality only because of them.

I am forever indebted to all my seniors, especially Shaila, Megi, Vabby, Sheena, Tama, Rahul Shukla, Sneha, Mitava, Garima, Tarun Songra, Reema, Raina, Chikaso, Dhiru, Pranav Praveen and Pragya for their help in the thesis and during the course. I am especially thankful to Geetanjli, for her support throughout this thesis, which held some anxious moments of self-doubt for me. I will never forget the cheering faces and loud support I got from my classmates, in spite of my shortcomings. To all my juniors (naming them here would easily fill few pages!), a BIG thanks for helping me out not only with subject matter, but also for those fun-filled stress free sessions! Without you all, I am sure; B.Planning would never have been what it was an awesome roller-coaster ride.

(Hari Shankar Singh Bisht)

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ABSTRACT
Urban transport is an imperative part of urban infrastructure, shaping the city and its development. The spill-over of informal sector on the area makes way to problems of congestion, delays and problem in regulation of the area. Transport situation in most Indian metropolitan cities is rapidly deteriorating because of the increasing travel demand and inadequate transportation system. The Master Plan of Delhi 1962 enunciated the policy of self-containment which fundamentally speaks about ways to minimize commuting and maximizing self-sufficiency of a town, at a planning division level. But due to unsynchronized development of housing and employment it was never realized. Transit oriented development can succeed where the previous policies have not achieved desired results. Transit Oriented Development is a technique to achieve higher density development and balanced environment, with focus on the three Ds Density, Diversity and Design. The applicability of Transit Oriented Development was studied in detail by the author in his research taking case studies of Dwarka and Rohini with differing nature of development: density, design, commuter perception and transit ridership etc. Both the case-studies were studied comprehensively to identify bottlenecks and issues. Further, the potential for transit-oriented development to address these issues and bottlenecks was identified. Transformations due to implementation of Transit Oriented Development in case study areas were visualized. The analysis leads to conclusions which were eye - opening. Both case-studies showed both favorable and unfavourable characteristics to. Dwarka, perceived to be a model Transit Oriented Development, lacks essential components like efficient feeder service and pedestrian-friendly design, whereas Rohini had no observable gradation of density of development, and little diversity of uses near station areas. These are remarkable findings, and reflect other parts of Delhi where MRTS is present. The research then tries to give certain recommendations for effective realization of Transit Oriented Development in these sub-cities, which can be implemented elsewhere in Delhi by suitably modifying it according to conditions prevalent there. A conceptual Transit Oriented Development plan also has been laid down, to be followed as a model Transit Oriented Development implementation plan, which may not be the ideal solution, but gives a starting point for even more comprehensive and better plans later on. The location of various transit related proposals within close proximity to each other encourages transit supportive mixed uses within the sector and adjacent areas. Successful implementation of such transit supporting uses could lead to increased intensity of development near metro stations and greater return on transit infrastructure.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Declaration............................................................................................................................. i Certificate...............................................................................................................................ii Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................... iii Abstract.................................................................................................................................iv

........................................................................................................................................ v
Table of Contents..................................................................................................................vi List of Figures .......................................................................................................................ix List of Tables ........................................................................................................................ x Abbreviations ........................................................................................................................xi CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR TOD ...................................................... 1

Introduction ............................................................................................................. 1 Need for the study .................................................................................................. 2 Aim ......................................................................................................................... 5 Objectives ............................................................................................................... 5 Scope of the study .................................................................................................. 5 Limitations .............................................................................................................. 5 Methodology ........................................................................................................... 6 Chapter framework ................................................................................................. 6 Data requirements and Probable sources ............................................................... 7 Conclusions ............................................................................................................ 7 LITERATURE STUDY ................................................................................ 10

CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6

Introduction ........................................................................................................... 10 Transit oriented development - background .......................................................... 10 What is Transit oriented development? ................................................................. 12 The relationship between transit and land use ...................................................... 12 The three Ds of TOD ............................................................................................ 13 Defining TOD for the 21stcentury Delhi .................................................................. 14

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2.7 2.8

Status of TOD In Indian cities ............................................................................... 15 Case Studies ........................................................................................................ 16 Global Scenario ............................................................................................. 16 Indian Scenario .............................................................................................. 18

2.8.1 2.8.2 2.9 2.10

Issues in Implementing TOD ................................................................................. 18 Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 19 INTRODUCTION TO CASE STUDY .......................................................... 20

CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

Introduction ........................................................................................................... 20 Case study areas .................................................................................................. 21 Case Study I: Dwarka Sub City .......................................................................... 22 Case STUDY II: Rohini ......................................................................................... 23 Delineation of Study Area Boundary ..................................................................... 24 Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 25 TOD CASE STUDY ANALYSIS.................................................................. 26

CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3

Framework for analysis ......................................................................................... 26 Land-Use Analysis Of Case Study Areas ........................................................... 27 Work Home Relationship Rohini ........................................................................ 29 Socio economic characteristics ................................................................... 29 Trip Character ................................................................................................ 30 Desire-Line Diagram ...................................................................................... 31

4.3.1 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.4

Work Home Relationship: Dwarka ........................................................................ 32 Socio economic characteristics ................................................................... 32 Trip character................................................................................................. 33 Desired-Line Diagram .................................................................................... 34

4.4.1 4.4.2 4.4.3 4.5

3 DSConcept Of TOD .......................................................................................... 35 Density and feeder service............................................................................. 35 Diversity ......................................................................................................... 38 Design ........................................................................................................... 40

4.5.1 4.5.2 4.5.3 4.6

Conclusions .......................................................................................................... 41 vii

CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3

ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS ........................................................ 42

Introduction ........................................................................................................... 42 Issuesand Recommendations - Dwarka and Rohini .............................................. 43 Sector-wise proposals........................................................................................... 45 Density Proposals .......................................................................................... 45 Mix-Use Proposals ......................................................................................... 46 Feeder services and overall integration of transport: ...................................... 46

5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 5.4 5.5

The TOD Concept Plan......................................................................................... 47 FAR Densification and Mix-Use ............................................................................ 48 Scenario Building ........................................................................................... 48 FAR Options .................................................................................................. 48 Graded Densification ..................................................................................... 49 Options Matrix................................................................................................ 50

5.5.1 5.5.2 5.5.3 5.5.4 5.6 5.7

Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 54 Further scope of work ........................................................................................... 54

ANNEXURES ..................................................................................................................... 55 Checklist For Housing ..................................................................................................... 56 Checklist For Transport ................................................................................................... 57 Questionnaire for Household Survey ............................................................................... 59 Questionnaire for Delhi Transport Corporation ................................................................ 60 Questionnaire for Transport associations ........................................................................ 61 Questionnaire for Origin Destination Survey .................................................................... 62 Questionnaire for Informal Activity Survey- Retail ............................................................ 63 Questionnaire for Informal Activity Survey- Eating Joints................................................. 64 National Urban Transport Policy (2007) Report .................. Error! Bookmark not defined. Thesis Presentation Sheets (14 No.s) ................................ Error! Bookmark not defined. REFERENCES ................................................................................................................... 65

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 Methodology ....................................................................................................... 8 Figure 2.1 Issues that may arise while implementing TOD .................................................. 19 Figure 3.1 Map showing the location of Rohini and Dwarka Sub Cities in Delhi .................. 21 Figure 3.2: Delineated Area, Dwarka .................................................................................. 24 Figure 3.3: Delineated Area, Rohini .................................................................................... 24 Figure 4.1 Framework for Analysis ...................................................................................... 26 Figure 4.2 Land-Use Analysis: Existing Land Use (Rohini), 2011 ....................................... 27 Figure 4.3: Land-Use Analysis: Proposed Land Use (Rohini), 2021 .................................... 27 Figure 4.4: Land-Use Analysis: Existing Land Use (Dwarka), 2011 ..................................... 28 Figure 4.5: Land-Use Analysis: Proposed land Use (Dwarka), 2021 ................................... 28 Figure 4.6 Population Characteristics (Age structure in Rohini, in Years) ............................ 29 Figure 4.7 Population Characteristics (Income levels in Rohini, in Rs.) ............................... 29 Figure 4.8 Trip Characteristics (Purpose wise modal split in Rohini) ................................... 30 Figure 4.9 Trip Characteristics (Modal split in Rohini) ......................................................... 30 Figure 4.10 Trip Characteristics (Average trip length for each mode in Rohini) .................. 31 Figure 4.11 Trip Characteristics (Desire-line diagram in Rohini) .......................................... 31 Figure 4.12 Population Characteristics (Age structure in Dwarka, in Years) ........................ 32 Figure 4.13 Population Characteristics (Income levels in Dwarka, in Rs.) ........................... 32 Figure 4.14 Trip Characteristics (Mode wise purpose split in Dwarka) ............................... 33 Figure 4.15 Trip Characteristics (Modal split in Dwarka) ..................................................... 33 Figure 4.16 Trip Characteristics (Average trip length for each mode in Dwarka) ................. 34 Figure 4.17 Trip Characteristics (Desire-line diagram in Dwarka) ........................................ 34 Figure 4.18 Land use population analysis (Population density in Dwarka) ....................... 35 Figure 4.19 Land use population analysis (Population density in Rohini) ......................... 35 Figure 4.20 Users travel characteristics (Feeder system in Dwarka) .................................. 36 Figure 4.21 Users travel characteristics (Feeder system in Rohini) .................................... 36 Figure 4.22 Users travel characteristics (Trip costs for various modes in Dwarka) ............. 37 Figure 4.23 Users travel characteristics (Trip costs for various modes in Rohini) ............... 37 Figure 4.24 Land use Diversity analysis (Mix use in Dwarka) .......................................... 38 Figure 4.25 Land use Diversity analysis (Mix use in Rohini) ............................................ 38 Figure 4.26 Social Diversity analysis (Social Mix in Dwarka) .............................................. 39 Figure 4.27 Social Diversity analysis (Social Mix in Rohini) ................................................ 39 Figure 4.28 Pedestrian design analysis (Percentage of walk trips in Dwarka) .................... 40 Figure 4.29 Pedestrian design analysis (Percentage of walk trips in Rohini) ...................... 40 Figure 5.1 Visualizing a concept plan for TOD implementation ........................................... 47 Figure 5.2 Delineation of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 km stretch Along the Study Corridor; Dwarka. ......... 49 Figure 5.3 Delineation of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 km stretch Along the Study Corridor; Rohini ............ 49

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Data requirements and probable sources .............................................................. 9 Table 3.1 Work Centers and employment in Rohini ............................................................ 23 Table 5.1: Comparative Issues & Recommendations (Rohini and Dwarka) ......................... 43 Table 5.2 Graded Densification & Scenario Comparisons. ................................................. 50 Table 5.3 Option Matrix for Scenario 1 ............................................................................... 51 Table 5.4 Options matrix for Scenario 2. ............................................................................ 52 Table 5.5 Option Matrix for Scenario 3. .............................................................................. 53

ABBREVIATIONS
AR Accommodation Reservation CGHS Co-operative Group Housing Society DDA Delhi Development Authority DIMMTS Delhi Integrated Multimodal Transit System DU Dwelling Unit DUAC Delhi Urban Arts Commission EWS Economically Weaker Sections F.A.R Floor Area Ratio GNCTD Government of National Capital Territory Delhi GoI - Government of India HUDCO Housing and Urban Development Corporation LIG Low Income Group MCD Municipal Corporation of Delhi MGD Million Gallons per Day MIG Middle Income Group MLA - Member of Legislative Assembly MoUD - Ministry of Urban Development MPD Master Plan for Delhi MRTS Mass Rapid Transit Corridor NDMC New Delhi Municipal Corporation NGO - Non-governmental Organization Ppha Persons per hectare RWA - Residents Welfare Association SC - Supreme Court SPA - School of Planning and Architecture SRA Slum Rehabilitation Act TDR Transferrable Development Rights TOD - Transit Oriented Development ULB Urban Local Body UTTIPEC Unified Traffic and Transportation Infrastructure (Planning and Engineering) Centre ZDP Zonal Development Plan

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CHAPTER 1
1.1

INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR TOD

INTRODUCTION

Urban transportation systems are complex systems defined by land-use and transport policies. A description of a complete transportation system must meet the following conditions (Cervero, R. 1998: 24): a) All modes of transport must be considered, including walking. b) All elements of the transportation system must be considered this includes the persons and items being transported; the vehicles in which they are conveyed; and the network of facilities through which the vehicles, passengers, and cargoes move, including terminals where trips originate or terminate and transfer points where commuters transfer from bus to train or bicycle to train or bus etc. c) All movements through the system must be considered. d) For each specific flow the total trip from point of origin to final destination overall modes and facilities must be considered. Such a comprehensive definition of a transportation system enables analysts to consider explicitly the assumptions introduced by eliminating individual elements of a highly complex and interrelated system. In cities in which the level of complexity increases because of large disparities between the city residents, however, often only selected elements are quantified and analyzed. Public transport is a significant part of urban fabric which outfits the demands of city. It plays vital role within the cities which have hasty population growth rate as well as brisk vehicle growth rate. If we observe the relative percentage growth of various modes it is noticed that there is decrease in the growth rate of public modes where as private modes are mounting in Delhi (CRRI, 2007: 27). Public transport service has to meet the needs of commuters. This includes accessible stations, minimum affordable time loss at interchanges, safer and

reliable services. Transit Oriented Design and Transit Oriented Development are two effective methods to resolve such an issue. Since 500 m is an ideal walking distance, population residing along the metro within walking distance has the highest accessibility to metro. MPD 2021 speaks about the 500 m influence along the metro corridor and considers Transit oriented development as a means for promotion and utilization of multimodal rail transportation system including Delhi Metro (Government of India, 2007: 133).

1.1

NEED FOR THE STUDY

The self containment of these divisions was particularly envisaged to reduce the need for travelling long distance to reduce decrease movement demands. This self containment was also envisaged to obviate the need for high-capacity, high-cost transport systems and also to conserve energy. The Master Plan enunciated the policy of self containment and envisaged a strong work home relationship. This principle fundamentally speaks about ways to minimize commuting and maximizing self-sufficiency of a town. But, there has been a failure in realization of the above principle through the various Master Plans till date, due to these factors (not all-inclusive): 1) Unsynchronized development of housing and Jobs. 2) Other economic centers within easy commuting distance. In accordance with the changing transportation scenario in India over the last two decades, there has been a change in the policies at both national level and in Delhi. National Urban Transport Policy 2007, recommends integrated land use and transport policy and priority to the use of public transport & non-motorized vehicles (MoUD, 2007: 14). The MPD-2021 master plan talks about the concept of Transit-oriented development in the context of Delhis development keeping in mind the synergy between transport and land use. The concept of the Master Plan for Delhi 1962 was based on a poly-nodal, polycentric, distribution of work centers, largely based on road transport nodes. A major fall-out of this has been distortion between infrastructure, transport and land use. To achieve spatial 2

balance, development should take place according to new corridors of mass movement. This has implications in terms of land use planning along major transport corridors and the Mass Rapid Transport/ Transit System. This would not only help to solve, to some extent, the enormous problems of mass transportation, but would also generate a dynamic potential for growth and employment. (Government of India, 2021:72) The Plan contemplates a mechanism for the restructuring of the city based on mass transport (Government of India, 2021:73) Redevelopment strategy under MPD-2021: The proposed MRTS network will bring sizable urban area within walking distance from the proposed stations. This changed scenario provides opportunities for city restructuring and optimum utilization of the land along the MRTS corridorsa sizable proportion of the additional population with requisite facilities and employment can be absorbed along these corridors.(Government of India, 2021:14) Transit Oriented Development of Delhi is therefore not just about redevelopment & redensification along 500m of MRTS corridors. It is about structuring a Transit Oriented City. The reasons for the need of studying impact of Transit oriented development on Delhi: 1. Transit-focused development generally occurs under three conditions: a) When stations are located in prime regional and community nodes of activity attractive to typical market forces; b) When the regional and local real estate market is active; and c) When public policies and regulations permit or encourage intensive development in station areas. Delhi satisfies all the three criteria to a large extent. But still no approach towards a Transit oriented development is visible here. In fact, Delhi city as well as Delhi Metropolitan Region can be a case of Development oriented Transit, where the transport facilities and transit are designed in accordance with the needs of maximizing economic gains from or to suit real-estate development.

2. MPD 2021 identifies a current Modal Split of 60-40 (Public-Private Transport). It sets the following targets for the near future: 70-30 Modal Split by 2011 and 80-20 Modal Split by 2021. However, a recent RITES study (RITES, 2009: 33) has revealed that the modal split of Delhi has actually dropped from 60-40 to 45-55! Clearly the direction where we are headed is contrary to the spirit and direction intended by the Master plan. 3. The City of Flyovers is actually becoming more and more unworkable, accident prone and the cons outweigh the pros for the flyovers. A complete re-structuring of the city is needed, with the tearing away of unnecessary flyovers and implementing Transport oriented development instead (Roy, R., 2009: 09). 4. High car dependency by people as against a cars small share in number of total vehicles in Delhi indicates a failure on the part of government to sensitize people towards usage of public transport more frequently (DIMMTS, 2008: 12). 5. Various development activities being carried out in isolation to each other instead of an integrated whole, resulting in total chaos. Need for a comprehensive revamping of the manner in which institutions function. An integrated services approach, in which each aspect shall be designed in keeping with its inter-aspects relationships and backward and forward linkages, shall be the way forward. The goals of such a transit oriented development should be that maximum people can live, work & play within 10-min walking distance of MRTS stations, station areas become well connected and vibrant places, city level goals of sustainability, mobility, safety, affordability, equity & quality of life are achieved. (UTTIPEC, 2010: 42) The strategies for ushering in such a development can be to reorder growth to redevelop and re-densify the city along MRTS corridors, amend planning guidelines to attract private investment into densification and redevelopment of existing areas, bring about innovative urban design guidelines to make cities safe, attractive and walkable, and leveraging of private investment for direct public benefit. (UTTIPEC, 2010: 44)

1.2

AIM

The aim of the study is to comparatively study two potentially self-contained sub-cities of Delhi so as to visualize the impact of Transit oriented development in Delhi and propose certain planning interventions for achieving the same.

1.3

OBJECTIVES
To understand the concept of Transit oriented development, its need, advantages and disadvantages with reference to sustainable urban transport.

To analyze the Policy framework for Transit Oriented Development in Delhi. To visualize the impact of TOD in Delhi, taking two sub-cities, with a dedicated Mass Rapid Transit System corridor, but differing in the nature of development.

To advise certain planning interventions for realizing Transit oriented development.

1.4

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

To understand the concept of TOD and its need, detailed literature study will be undertaken. The criteria for identifying case study areas will be set up and the obstacles and implications in carrying out TOD would be studied. To evaluate norms/policies on TOD in case of Delhi, study of the MPD guidelines based on the parameters defined would be undertaken. Study will be based upon the metro user survey and non-user survey data supported by secondary information. The study is structured under National Urban Transport Policy(2007). Modifications will be suggested in TOD implementation on basis of case study findings.

1.5

LIMITATIONS

Study is limited to MRTS corridor area. Observations are based on studies conducted by various organizations and some primary survey which cannot be comprehensive due to time-constraints. Study area has been limited due time constraints. The study is primarily restricted to the two sub-cities as a whole and all discussions are restricted to these case studies as entities within themselves, as apart from the whole of Delhi.

1.6

METHODOLOGY

As pictorially depicted in Figure 1.1, in stage one i.e. background, the need for study would be determined followed by the establishment of aims and objectives of the study. Stage two will be literature study in which detailed literature review will be done which will comprise of understanding the concept of Transit oriented development, and Delhi master plan guidelines will be studied. Alongside this, there will be definition of criteria for selection of case study. The case study for the thesis is limited to metro corridor. The selection of the case study, there may be a need to see that the case study zone has delineated the metro influence zone as per the guidelines given in the master plan, wherever possible. The metro influence zone stretch will be such that it can be extrapolated and where the maximum housing typologies are present, most nearly a sector boundary on either side of metro corridor. In the third stage i.e. survey, the data collection will be done both for primary data which will comprise of Land use, household survey, transportation surveys, metro user surveys. The secondary data will consist of various reports related to case study such as ZDP, etc. In the next stage, analysis of Data will be done in terms of its existing condition, need and potential for Transit oriented development and the possible obstacles/ issues relating to the process of TOD will be found out. After that, recommendations to address these issues will be given.

1.7

CHAPTER FRAMEWORK

The study is divided in eight chapters. The first chapter establishes the background and need of the study, the aim, and objective of the research, its scope and limitations and the methodology of the research. The second chapter presents a theoretical review on Transit oriented development, with foreign and Indian case studies. It discusses concept of TOD in terms of its definitions, criteria, factors, its processes and the issues that are associated with the process. The next chapter pertains to the case study, profile of the case study area and includes the criteria for selection and delineated area of case study. The fourth chapter includes a framework for analysis and the analysis of the primary and secondary surveys 6

conducted. The fifth chapter presents the overall issues identified and recommendations to address those issues, and further scope of work. The sixth chapter provides annexure of certain reports used in the study and survey formats. The last chapter compiles a list of references used for the research.

1.8

DATA REQUIREMENTS AND PROBABLE SOURCES

The data requirements for the case study are outlined in Table 1.1. The table includes the data required for each objective, along with the techniques required, format and the probable sources for the same. In this way, the objectives are classified early on in accordance with the kind of data that shall be needed, whether secondary data collection or primary surveys.

1.9

CONCLUSIONS

A transit-oriented development (TOD) is a technique to achieve mixed-use residential or commercial character designed to maximize access to public transport, and often incorporates features to encourage transit ridership. A TOD neighborhood typically has a center with a transit station or stop (train station, metro station, tram stop, or bus stop), surrounded by relatively high-density development with progressively lower-density development spreading outward from the center. TODs generally are located within a radius of 400 to 800 m from a transit stop, as this is considered to be an appropriate scale for pedestrians. A substantial market exists for a new form of walkable, mixed-use urban development around these new rail or rapid bus stations and transit stops. Changing demographics are creating a need for a diversification of real estate projects, and transit-oriented development is beginning to receive serious attention in real estate markets as diverse as the San Francisco Bay area, suburban New Jersey, Atlanta, Dallas and Chicago. This chapter has thus outlined the need for the study on TOD and the approach to the study. The next chapter discusses the concept and literature on TOD in a detailed manner.

Figure 1.1 Methodology

Source: Author, January 2011

Table 1.1 Data requirements and probable sources

S. N o. To understand the 1 concept of Transitoriented development. To analyze Objective

Data Requirement Books, Policies, Case (Gloabal Indian) the NUTP, Master 1962, Studies /

Techniques

Format

Probable Source

Literature Search

Text, Figures, Graphs

Library, Organisations, and Internet

present policy frame DDA 2. work with reference Plan to development. To visualize of the

Literature Search Primary survey

Ministry Text Transport, Website Interview

of

Transit-oriented 2001 and 2021, DMRC Policy Work studies

DMRC, DDA, RITES, etc

impact Oriented

Transit

done till date/ Trip Characteristics in case study area Trip Characteristics, Origin Destination,

Literature search/ secondary data collection Primary Survey

Thesis, Detailed Project Report (DPR), and reports Questionnaire other Primary Survey

Development Delhi, 3. different studies, with taking

in two casean

MRTS corridor, but differing nature development. Propose interventions 4. implementation policy for of in the of

Analysis From collected data data for collected

of Analysis tables, to graphs, at detailed findings case study of and Analysis stage

successful TOD in case study


Source: Author, January 2011

Objective 1 to arrive Objective 4 useful

conclusions

CHAPTER 2
2.1

LITERATURE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

As India becomes increasingly urbanized, cities and metropolitan regions are faced with the challenge of maintaining and enhancing sustainability in the face of often rapid population growth. One of the most important aspects of maintaining livability in urban development is the link between land use and transportation. Land-use mix and density affect the viability of transit and other transportation systems and, on the other hand, the availability of transit affects land use and density patterns (Smith, W., 1997: 27).

2.2

TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT - BACKGROUND

While considering urban form and density, the historical context of the land use-transport connection is often ignored. Historically, cities developed as a walking city where all destinations could be reached on foot in half an hour thus resulting in smaller city sizes roughly 5 kilometers across and characterized by high density, mixed-use development. Then, during the late 19th century, city sizes increased to 20 to 30 kilometers as trains and trams allowed faster means of travel (Newman and Kenworthy, 1996: 22). Cities at this stage could be called the transit city. This also resulted in the creation of rail and tram based suburbs which retained the walking scale characteristics along with mixed-uses and medium density development. However, since around the 1940s, automobile based development became the order of the day and cities started to decentralize and disperse, particularly the North American cities. Low density development along with zoning laws led to cities spread over as far as 50 kilometers (Newman and Kenworthy, 1996: 21). Cities at this stage could be called the automobile city. This has led to numerous problems such as traffic congestion, air and water pollution, CO2 emission and not to mention loss of prime agricultural land. This pattern of uncontrolled growth of urban boundaries has continued till date and is referred to as urban sprawl and is identified as one of the primary hindrance to sustainable development. 10

This could be best explained by taking the example of two cities, Atlanta and Barcelona which have similar population but different sizes. Atlanta is spread over 4000 square kilometers and had a population of 2.5 million in 1990, whereas, Barcelona occupies about 160 square kilometers and had a population of 2.8 million during the same period. Whereas, 60% of the population in Barcelona is concentrated within 600 meters of a metro station, only 4% of Atlantas population resides within 800 meters of a metro station. The metro network is also similar in these two cities with the total line length of 74 and 99 kilometers respectively. Consequently, only 4.5% of the trips in Atlanta are made by metro whereas, in the case of Barcelona the figure is around 30% in addition to 8% of trips which are made by walking (Ford, 2003). While most cities have adopted the North American pattern of development some cities in Asia, such as Singapore, Hong-Kong and in Europe, such as Zurich, Stockholm (Newman and Kenworthy, 1996: 139) etc. have maintained their commitment to transit corridor oriented development along with improving their inner city centers and high density development. However, the case of cities in developing and less developed countries particularly in Asia are significantly different from developed countries. In general, cities in Asia traditionally have higher density and have a more walking and transit oriented urban form (Newman and Kenworthy, 1996:45). However, with rapid industrialization and improved economic situation in recent years these cities are growing at a rapid pace resulting in uncontrolled growth as in the case of Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok The concept of focusing compact, mixed-use development around transit nodes has emerged as a key strategy to manage the effects of growth, create more livable communities and reduce automobile use, thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions, congestion and costly road expansion. (Lynch, K., 1981: 34) These places, characterized by pedestrian-oriented routes, a range of land uses and parcel sizes, a mix of residential densities and, wellestablished transit nodes, support a range of efficient and reliable transportation options. This form of development, often referred to as Transit-Oriented Development (TOD), is now 11

experiencing resurgence in cities across Canada, the U.S. and elsewhere. TODs are showing promise as one method to boost transit use and contain urban sprawl while contributing to healthy, walkable neighborhoods (TCRP, 1996: 138)

2.3

WHAT IS TRANSIT ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT?

Peter Calthorpe, an urban planner and one of the pioneering advocates of this approach to development, coined the term "transit-oriented development" to describe "moderate and high density housing, along with complementary public uses, jobs, retail and services concentrated in mixed-use developments at strategic points along the regional transit systems" (Calthorpe, P.,1993: 12).TODs are located within an easy walk that is 10 minutes or 1000 m of a transit station or major stop in environments that encourage walking. TODs can occur at a variety of scales. They can be both large-scale, master-planned projects, and incremental redevelopment on a parcel-by-parcel basis around a transit stop or node.

2.4

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSIT AND LAND USE

Though, TOD remains primarily a transport problem involving transit network design, effective transfer between nodes and scheduling, it is related directly to compact development principles as TOD efficiencies are achieved through densification of urban nodes (Cervero and Kockelman, 1997: 17) resulting in modal shift from automobile to transit, and mixed use development. (Cervero 1996; Nelson, Niles et al., 2001: 48) Transit oriented development involves not only heavy rail transit (HRT), both surface and underground, but also feeder bus service and express bus service. Recently, light rail transit (LRT) is gaining popularity in many cities as a replacement for bus in some busier corridors particularly due to its ability to carry significantly more passengers per hour per direction but also due to its quality of service and reduced journey times due to traffic signal priority as in the case of London. (Gleave, 2005: 99) Moreover, all the different transit networks involving HRT, LRT and bus should be integrated in the transit network planning process along with provisions for smooth transfer in between. In addition to improvement of transit service,

12

some auto disincentives are also required to achieve desirable transit system efficiency. (Casello, 2007: 65) However, in case of existing underutilized transit infrastructure, construction of new transit infrastructure is not an option and redevelopment of the existing transit nodes at higher density using mixed use development principles should be the priority. (E.P.A. 2001) Furthermore, cities with several activity centers in addition to the central business district (CBD) also referred as polycentric metropolitan development tends to show more distributed trip patterns along with higher modal percentage of automobile usage. Thus, coordinated transit services both between and within activity centers (Casello, 2007: 76) and between primary residential areas and activity centers are required to improve transit system performance. (Modarres, 2003: 78)

2.5

THE THREE DS OF TOD

The link between neighborhood design and the traditional land use transportation models lies in the neighborhood built environment characteristics and how it influences modal choice and travel demand. Built environment density, diversity and design or in other terms compact neighborhoods, mixed-land uses and pedestrian friendly designs, generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-automobile travel in statistically significant ways (Cervero,1996: 88; Cervero and Kockelman, 1997: 154). Previous research has established that, residential densities exert stronger influence on commuting mode choices than levels of land use mix except for walking and bicycle commutes (Cervero, 1996: 77). Office locations in a high density walkable environment was also found to be associated with reduced car use for work trips and also for mid day trips (Frank, Chapman et al., 2005: 98). Cervero and Radisch (1996: 127) found that, for work trips, compact, mixed use and pedestrian oriented development resulted in higher shares of trips by walking and bicycle for access trips to the railway station. However, neighborhood design was found to exert the greatest influence on local shopping trips and other non-work trip purposes (Cervero and Radisch, 1996: 48). Even though, most studies on transportation planning focuses on work trips, 13

transportation economists have always recognized the significant contribution of non-work trips to urban congestion (Bhat, 1997: 82) and at present non-work trips are estimated as the main type of trips in large urban areas (Palma and Rochat, 2000: 65; Nelson, Niles et al. 2001: 98). Close proximity to commercial land uses is also associated with relatively low vehicle ownership rates and shorter commutes among the residents of a mixed use neighborhood (Cervero 1996: 60; Frank, Chapman et al., 2005: 38). Thus, presence of enough retail and commercial floor space within the neighborhood to satisfy the local demand is an important criterion for neighborhood design. Besides, mixed land use patterns, particularly presence of shops and consumer services and an interconnected street network also leads to trip chaining (Frank, Chapman et al., 2005: 111) i.e., combination of trips like shopping and working trips and gives us further insight into choice of transport mode (Walle and Steenberghen, 2006: 126). Thus, successful implementation of TOD is also linked to the presence of shops and retail near the station premises which in turn depends on the response of the retail market place, including developers, store owners and consumers (Niles and Nelson, 1999: 77).

2.6

DEFINING TOD FOR THE 21STCENTURY DELHI

The 21st century transit stations offer a unique opportunity for development to be simultaneously locally and regionally oriented. This powerful combination is fundamental to what distinguishes transit-oriented development from other types of urban infill projects However, it is not always clear how best to create synergy between these two functions. Definitions of transit-oriented development often focus on built form. Bernick and Cervero emphasize the role of the "three Ds" (density, diversity, and design) in the success of TOD (Bernick, Michael, and Robert Cervero, 1997: 22). Although proper built form is a necessary element, that alone is not sufficient for achieving all the benefits of TOD. For example, units per acre are a measure of physical form that tells us very little about the way a place functions: a high-density area can easily be less pedestrian-friendly than a low-density one.

14

In contrast, the ability of residents to make fewer trips, own fewer cars, breathe cleaner air, and enjoy more parks are all functional outcomes that can be measured. (TCRP, 1997: 202) Because most definitions of TOD focus on built form, many projects that are billed as successful transit-oriented development don't function very well. They may have overcome the main barriers to creating dense mixed-use development next to a transit station, but they fall short when measured by performance rather than physical characteristics. (Cervero, R., 1998: 27)

2.7

STATUS OF TOD IN INDIAN CITIES

TOD has quite remarkably not been able to make much ground in India. The reasons being: a) No working definition of transit-oriented development costs. b) Transit-oriented development must deal with the complementary relationship between node and place. That is, it must achieve a functional integration of transit and the surrounding uses. The need for TOD to function as both node and place affects virtually every aspect of the station area, from physical layout and design of the appropriate development program. Yet, the absence of a clear definition of action and goals to be found in any TOD project makes integration of node and place extremely difficult. c) Planners have no guidelines for translating the concept of location efficiency into concrete prescriptions far TOD in different settings. d) TOD requires synergy among many different uses and functions, but this synergy is extremely difficult to achieve As a result, TOD almost always involves more complexity, uncertainty, and higher costs than other forms of infill development. e) Transit-oriented development typically occurs in a very fragmented regulatory and policy environment. There is often no comprehensive plan or vision, and many local governments suffer from a significant leadership gap.

15

2.8

CASE STUDIES

2.8.1 Global Scenario


2.8.1.1 California- St. Rose of Lima Park Station The St. Rose of Lima Park Station provides a good example of integration of a light rail station into an urban streetscape. The train arrives along a pedestrianized street where train tracks are set flush with the street's attractive brick pavement. Although, the station is unenclosed, the use of trees creates a comfortable place to wait. (Fulton, William, 1999: 35) The St. Rose of Lima Park light rail station is located in the central business district of Sacramento. The adjacent Downtown Plaza is a successful regional mall with over 100 shops, a multiplex theatre and several restaurants. St. Rose is situated within the Street Mall, which has offices above street-level retail closed to automobiles and open only to pedestrians and the occasional light rail train or motorized trolley. Within the station area there is Old Sacramento, the State Railroad Museum, an IMAX theater, the state Capital and park, the Sacramento Convention center, several multistory hotels, a Greyhound station, and a historic Amtrak rail depot. Before the introduction of light rail in the late 1980s, this area was underdeveloped and a problem area for crime. There is now a lot of foot traffic in and around this station throughout the day as government and other office workers shop, eat lunch, browse or otherwise stroll down the pedestrian thoroughfare. At night is significant transit and pedestrian activity from patrons and tourists. (Beatty, David F, et al., 1995: 309) 2.8.1.2 The Rosslyn-Ballston corridor in Arlington, VA The Rosslyn-Ballston corridor in Arlington, VA, illustrates how TOD can accommodate tremendous development in a way that benefits both new and existing residents. This was a declining low-density commercial corridor 30 years ago when the local government decided to focus development around five closely spaced rail stations, working with residents and the private sector. The results are extraordinary despite the enormous amount of development that has occurred, single-family neighborhoods have been preserved just a short walk away, 16

and there has been only a modest increase in traffic. (Holtzclaw, J.,1994: 27) The benefits include: a) Assessed value of land around stations increased by 81% in 10 years; b) 8% of county land generates 33% of county revenues - allowing Arlington to have lowest property tax in northern VA; c) 50% of residents take transit to work; 73% walk to stations; development generated only modest increases in traffic; d) Surrounding single-family neighborhoods have been preserved. 2.8.1.3 Streetcar in Portland's Pearl District, Oregon The streetcar was built to connect two large parcels of vacant industrial land north and south of downtown. The city struck a deal with the owner of 40 acres: the city would build the streetcar past his property if he would up-zone his property from 15 dwelling units per acre to 125 du/a. This was in the early '90s when there was no market for this kind of development, but today it is the city's densest neighborhood, and at sellout it will be home to 10,000 residents and 21,000 jobs. The streetcar now runs to the second vacant parcel, the south waterfront, where an even more ambitious redevelopment effort is underway. Private investment in TOD in Portland's Pearl district helped the city meet public goals and objectives, namely: a) 7,248 housing units, 4.6 million square feet of commercial space - worth $2.3 billion built within 2 blocks of the streetcar from 2001 to 2005; b) Portland's 20-year housing goal met in7 years on 1/10th the projected land and 25% of all units are affordable; c) Record number of building permits issued 7 years in a row.

17

2.8.2 Indian Scenario


2.8.2.1 Calcutta MRTS In Calcutta (now Kolkata), the MRTS route was planned in keeping with the principles of TOD, and large vacant tracts of land along Hooghly were utilized to initiate development. Changes in the land use included increase in commercial use and decrease of vacant land. New categories of commercial uses like retail or service commerce came up near nodes. Moderate intensity of change was visible within 100m to 300m from the corridor, residential to commercial use at lower stories. (Roy, S., 2000: 39) Delineation of inner and outer impact areas was done. New Development Control to encourage high intensity development and commercial exploitation of land in inner impact areas were proposed - different DCR for commercial plots facing the main roads. Planned development near station areas and concept of spot zoning along with forbidding of activities like heavy and obnoxious industries and go-downs & promotion of commercial and residential uses, surface dispersal plans and urban renewal schemes for critical areas was also undertaken. (Roy, S., 2000: 45)

2.9

ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTING TOD

TOD may result in social stigma, with the economically weaker sections of people not being able to rent or buy property near the high land value metro corridor, and thus the benefit would extend only to the better off social sector. Consequent to gentrification, average income increases and average family size decreases in the community (Morris, M., 1996: 201). It is commonly believed that this results in the poorer native residents of the neighborhood, being unable to pay increased rents, house prices, and property taxes, being displaced. Also, it involves high costs of implementation (TCRP, 1997), and delays in project implementation, which may be due to people who are not willing to shift to newer housing or commercial places created specifically according to TOD. It results in increase in the land

18

values nearer to the site, and this in turn makes the very concept unfeasible for economically weaker sections. (Refer Figure 2.1) Figure 2.1 Issues that may arise while implementing TOD

SOCIAL

Gentrification Displacement/ relocation Segregation/ mixture on the basis of caste High costs Delays in project implementation Non willingness of the people involved to shift to transit camps Increase in values Loss to the public sector

IMPLEMENTATION

ECONOMIC

Source: (Teaford, J. C, 2000: 52; Taku, S., 2010: 22)

2.10 CONCLUSION
Transit-oriented developments have the potential to provide residents with improved quality of life and reduced household transportation expenses while providing the region with stable mixed income neighborhoods that reduce environmental impacts and provide real alternatives to traffic congestion. One criticism of TOD is that it has the potential to spur gentrification in low-income areas. In some cases, TOD can raise the housing costs of formerly affordable neighborhoods, pushing low- and moderate-income residents farther away from jobs and transit. But when executed with equity in mind, TOD has the potential to benefit low- and moderate-income (LMI) communities: it can link workers to employment centers, create construction and maintenance jobs, and has the potential to encourage investment in areas that have suffered neglect and economic depression. TOD also reduces transportation costs, which can have a greater impact on LMI households since they spend a larger share of their income on transportation relative to higher-income households. This frees up household income that can be used on food, education, or other necessary expenses. Low-income people are also less likely to own personal vehicles and therefore more likely to depend exclusively on public transportation to get to and from work, making reliable access to transit a necessity for their economic success. 19

CHAPTER 3
3.1

INTRODUCTION TO CASE STUDY

INTRODUCTION

Delhi has been following planned development under the three master plans namely MPD 1962-1981, 1981-2001, 2001-2021. The basic objectives of the MPD-62 were to organize all developments on the basis of large districts that would be developed as relatively selfcontained for daily purposes and needs. This location relationship was considered of prime importance as it would have reduced the travel costs and distance to a large extent. The second master plan took into account basic postulates of the previous plan. It proposed that the future development of Delhi to be low rise high density with residential density to be compact with low rise structures. The gross residential density was proposed at a range of 300-400 ppha and the overall density was proposed in the range of 180-200 ppha (Government of India, 1962: 17).

The plan proposed a multi modal transport system bus transport, light rail transit system and ring rail plus spurs. A proper plan for integrating the land use with transport system was not followed. While the policies of decentralized work centers were adopted, their location was mostly not well thought out. Apparently, the location of district centers was decided on the basis of their proximity to the arterial roads. However this resulted in some of the highly accessible areas to be neglected (Government of India, 1962: 72).

Delhi has significant reliance on its transport infrastructure. The city has developed a highly efficient public transport system with the introduction of the Delhi Metro, which is undergoing a rapid modernization and expansion. Delhi and NCR lose nearly 42 crore manhours every month while commuting between home and office through public transport, due to the traffic congestion (DIMTS, 2009: 35). Therefore serious efforts, including a number of transport infrastructure projects, are under way to encourage usage of public transport in the city.

20

3.2

CASE STUDY AREAS

The case study for the entire research shall be located within the two sub cities of Rohini (Phase I and II) and Dwarka, as shown in Fig. 3.1., the exact delineated area being one sector on either side of metro corridor passing through these sub-cities, wherever possible. Figure 3.1 Map showing the location of Rohini and Dwarka Sub Cities in Delhi

Source: DDA, January 14, 2011.


SCALE 1:
0

500

500

1000

2000 M

21

3.3

CASE STUDY I: DWARKA SUB CITY

NCT Delhi is divided into 15 zones for planning purposes under the MPD-2021. Dwarka subcity is an urban extension area under Zone K, divided into two zonal divisions called K-I west DelhiII zone (5782 Ha.) and a K-II Dwarka zone (6408 Ha.). A new K-II zone is added near Dwarka under MPD-2021. (Government of India, 2021: 45) Dwarka is a planned urban extension area under development by the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) since 1992. It is designed as a sub-city located in the southwest district of the National Capital Territory (NCT) Delhi. Dwarka's development has been slow. DDA estimated that by 2001 Dwarka would accommodate a population of around 1.1 million, but the 2001 census showed Dwarka's population as 579,000. The recently released draft master plan of Delhi 2021 (MPD-2021) shows Dwarka and the adjoining undeveloped area's population holding capacity to be approximately 1.7 million in the next fifteen years. Dwarka's proximity to the rapidly developing Gurgaon (in the neighboring state of Haryana) enhances its potential for rapid development in the next few years. The recent extension of the Delhi Metro to Dwarka at the request of DDA has increased its connectivity to the rest of Delhi. ( Songra, T., 2009: 19) These factors can be taken advantage of by thoughtful transit oriented development planning. Dwarka sub-city is located in the southwest district within the NCT Delhi. It is located close to the IGI Airport (0.4 KM) and 8 KM from the developing business center of Gurgaon in the neighboring state of Haryana. The extension of the Delhi Metro brings Dwarka closer to New Delhi's CBD (Rajiv Chowk /Connaught Place) (Singh, D. 2008: 44).

22

3.4

CASE STUDY II: ROHINI

Rohini scheme was launched in 1980's to provide housing for the composite society, consisting of all income groups. However major percentage of the housing was given for EWS and LIG categories (Sikka, N., 2005). Rohini sub city consists of Two Part Zones namely Zone 'H' Part (Phase-I and Phase-II) and Zone 'M' Part (Phase III, IV and V). Integration of arterial road network systems with the city network linking other sub cities like Dwarka and Narela was an essential vision. Another essential feature is introduction of planning measures for controlling unauthorized commercialization of residential plots along major traffic corridors and achieving safe and pollution free residential environment. (DDA, 2011) Also, establishing an efficient, reliable and attractive multi modal transport, with

favourable conditions for safe use of bicycles and pedestrian movements was thought of. With generation of employment in different sectors, work participation rate as per MPD 2021 is of the order of 35% in Delhi. The work force is as given in Table 3.1. Table 3.1 Work Centers and employment in Rohini Work center OFFICE COMPLEX WAZ1RPUR DC SHALIMAR B AGH DC ROHINI DC MANGOLPURI LAWRENCE INDUST. EST WAZIRPUR INDUST. EST MANGOLPURI INDUST. EST BADLI INDUST EST. TOTAL
Source: DDA (Rohini), (2001: 57)

Area(ha) 3 31 10 45 21 71 78 104 55 419

Persons 5600 25800 8400 33700 15800 21200 23400 31100 15600 180600

Emp. Density (ppha) 1867 832 840 749 752 300 299 300 281 432

23

3.5

DELINEATION OF STUDY AREA BOUNDARY

The complete metro corridor in the sub cities of Rohini and Dwarka have been taken with one sector on either side of the metro corridor, and not just the influence corridor. The reason for taking one sector completely and not the influence corridor only, is the convenience in survey and data collection from the sectors which would become very cumbersome if the sectors were cut into while following influence corridor line. Figure 3.2: Delineated Area, Dwarka

150

150

300

600 M

Source: Author, January 2011

Figure 3.3: Delineated Area, Rohini

150

150

300

600 M

Source: Author, January 2011

24

3.6

CONCLUSION

The sub-cities of Dwarka and Rohini were designed essentially as self sustainable units that would support a population designed for them that would operate on the principles of selfcontainment. The Master Plan foresaw that the creation of new work centers and facilities in these sub cities would lead to a better distribution of population and a good quality of life and environment to the people. But this did not result in actual because ultimately all population who chose to shift there did not necessarily have their work centers in the same place. Indeed the situation that arose was that most of the population living in Dwarka and Rohini had their work centers in other parts of Delhi, most notably in the central and southern part, and even in satellite cities like Noida and Gurgaon, which led to a failure of the self containment policy. Thus there arose a need of an affordable and rapid transit for people for journey to and fro work centers and home. In the absence of a viable alternative, people had to depend on sluggish service of buses or if they could afford it, personal vehicles most notably two wheelers and cars. Those could not afford private transport, preferred to hire autos and taxis. This led to a mass escalation of personal vehicles and led to greater load on infrastructure, which even many new fly-overs could not resolve. Only more recently was the MRTS introduced which also fell short in supply. Hence, to study the impacts of Transit oriented development on city form and development, it was best suited to study the impacts of MRTS related transit and development in these two sub-cities. Also, since they differ in time scale of their

development, the impacts of MRTS on a new development like Dwarka and an established development like Rohini would be best suited for the purpose of the study. Since it is near impossible to cover the whole sub-cities in a the short duration of the research, it was decided to cover one sector on either side of the MRTS corridor in each sub-city to be as close as possible to a sub-city, yet to be studied comprehensively.

25

CHAPTER 4
4.1

TOD CASE STUDY ANALYSIS

FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS

The analysis of the case studies has been divided into two major heads: Work Home relationship as well as analysis on the basis of 3 Ds concept of TOD - the two case studies were first analyzed in terms of the above two major heads and then compared to find out issues in each case study, to ascertain the cause of success / failure of TOD related components in each case. (Refer Fig. 4.1) Figure 4.1 Framework for Analysis

Land use analysis:


Existing and Proposed land uses in case study area.

Primary survey and analysis:


This consists of two major heads of analysis:

Work Home Relationship:


To see if TOD results in better Work Home Relationship

3 Ds analysis: Density, Diversity and Design


Primary principles of TOD

Conclusions: Identification of
issues and proposals for better achieving TOD.

Source: Author, January 2011

26

4.2

LAND-USE ANALYSIS OF CASE STUDY AREAS

The land use analysis is shown below (Refer Figures 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5). It shows the existing and proposed land use for the two case studies. Figure 4.2 Land-Use Analysis: Existing Land Use (Rohini), 2011

Land Use %age Residential 52 Commercial 6 PSP 13 Industrial 3 Green/ Open 12 Circulation 14 Total 100

250

250

500

1000 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.3: Land-Use Analysis: Proposed Land Use (Rohini), 2021

Land Use %age Residential 47 Commercial 4 PSP 14 Industrial 3 Green/ Open 16 Circulation 16 Total 100

Source: DDA (Rohini), (2021: 26)

250

250

500

1000 M

27

Figure 4.4: Land-Use Analysis: Existing Land Use (Dwarka), 2011

Land Use %age Residential 58 Commercial 9 PSP 5 Industrial 2 Green/ Open 15 Circulation 11 Total 100

250

250

500

1000 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.5: Land-Use Analysis: Proposed land Use (Dwarka), 2021

Land Use %age Residential 44 Commercial 6 PSP 14 Industrial 2 Green/ Open 16 Circulation 18 Total 100

250

250

500

1000 M

Source: DDA, (2021: 23)

28

4.3

WORK HOME RELATIONSHIP ROHINI

The work home relationship is the first criterion for analysis, under which the whole case study area was studied for possible work to home correlation for the work centers within and outside the study area. This was done primarily to determine whether the MRTS service really did play an important role in creating cheaper costs and overall convenience.

4.3.1 Socio economic characteristics


Majority of people travelling are in the age group 24-40 years, i.e. working people in the income category 15,000-25,000 indicating a lower middle class as the maximum user (Refer Fig. 4.6 and 4.7). Two-wheelers are owned by a large share of people, as well as car percentage which is also high which is against the principles of TOD. Figure 4.6 Population Characteristics (Age structure in Rohini, in Years)
9% 6% 21% 28% 12-18 18 -24 24 - 40 40 -60 36% 60 ABOVE

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.7 Population Characteristics (Income levels in Rohini, in Rs.)


13% 5% 21% 25%

<5000 5000 TO 15000 15000 TO 25000 25000 TO 50000 36% ABOVE 50,000

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

29

4.3.2 Trip Character


Majority of trips in almost all the sections are done by bus, indicating preference for buses in Rohini, a good sign for TOD. Work trips are most followed by shopping (Refer Fig. 4.8). Hence use of MRTS is most fruitful if it is planned in sync with work home relationship. Figure 4.8 Trip Characteristics (Purpose wise modal split in Rohini)
40.0% %AGE SHARE 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% WORK EDUCATION RECREATION HEALTH SHOPPING SOCIAL CAR TWO-WHEELER CYCLE RICKSHAW CYCLE AUTO BUS METRO

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Buses form the backbone of the lower income, lower middle class majority segment of Rohinis population (Refer Fig. 4.9). This is possible due to better penetration of buses in Rohini, and good feeder for buses and buses acting as good feeder for metro, which in turn favours TOD based planning since Metro ridership becomes high. Work trips and Return to home trips are the longest, indicating longer distances for work centers, well served by buses and metro. Work trips and Return to home trips are longest (Refer Fig. 4.10) Figure 4.9 Trip Characteristics (Modal split in Rohini)

METRO 21%

CAR 16% TWOWHEELER 11% CYCLE RICKSHAW 9% CYCLE 2%

BUS 29%

AUTO 13%

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

30

Figure 4.10 Trip Characteristics (Average trip length for each mode in Rohini)

AVERAGE TRIP LENGTH ( in kms)

15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0

11.9 9.7 6.4 3.7 2.1 CYCLE AUTO

CAR

TWO-WHEELER CYCLE RICKSHAW

MODE OF TRANSPORT
Source: Primary survey, February 2011

4.3.3 Desire-Line Diagram


The desire line diagram for the site shows the presence of some work centers in and around the case study but the major trips fall outside the study area located mainly in the Central and Northern of Delhi, and even Noida. This indicates a significant movement of people to and fro the sub-city of Rohini. The overwhelming movement of people towards Gurgaon and Noida (Refer Fig. 4.11).This indicates that MRTS is a potentially viable option for TOD based development due to its reach and affordability. Figure 4.11 Trip Characteristics (Desire-line diagram in Rohini) North West Delhi North Delhi

South-West Delhi

South Delhi
Source: Primary survey, February 2011
150

Central Delhi
0 150

and
300

East
150 600 M 0 150 300 600 M

31

4.4

WORK HOME RELATIONSHIP: DWARKA

As compared to Rohini, work home relationship in Dwarka is dependent more on the interdependence of the metro and the cars, with cycle rickshaws serving as main feeder. The absence of a secondary transit (bus) and robust feeder service is significant.

4.4.1 Socio economic characteristics


This is similar to Rohini case study (Refer Fig. 4.13) though car has a large share of vehicle ownership, indicating a high use of car, which is against the principles of TOD. Figure 4.12 Population Characteristics (Age structure in Dwarka, in Years)

4%

15%

17%

12-18 18 -24 24 - 40 23% 40 -60

41% 60 ABOVE

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.13 Population Characteristics (Income levels in Dwarka, in Rs.)

4%

19%

13%

<5000 5000 TO 15000 15000 TO 25000 25%


25000 TO 50000

39% ABOVE 50,000

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

32

4.4.2 Trip character


Majority of trips in almost all the sections are done by personal vehicles. Major share of the trips are done for work. Hence use of MRTS is most fruitful if it is planned in sync with work home relationship. Majority of trips are work trips (Refer Fig. 4.14). Figure 4.14 Trip Characteristics (Mode wise purpose split in Dwarka)
0.8 %AGE SHARE 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 CAR TWO-WHEELER CYCLE RICKSHAW CYCLE AUTO WORK EDUCATION RECREATION HEALTH RELIGIOUS

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

The mode of transport for majority of residents is metro, followed by car. This is both a good and bad indicator, since the major use of metro indicates a better feasibility for TOD in the area, but the use of car is against TOD principles of less dependence on car. Another remarkable characteristic is the low share of buses (only 14%), indicating poor secondary transit support. This is in stark contrast to Rohini, which has a good bus support to MRTS. One striking aspect is the over dependence on cycle rickshaw as the major transit feeder in absence of dedicated feeder service like in Rohini. (Refer Fig. 4.15). Figure 4.15 Trip Characteristics (Modal split in Dwarka)

METRO 27%

CAR 24%

BUS 14% CYCLE AUTO 2% 7%


Source: Primary survey, February 2011

TWOWHEELER 13% CYCLE RICKSHA W 15%

33

Figure 4.16 Trip Characteristics (Average trip length for each mode in Dwarka)

AVERAGE TRIP LENGTH ( IN kms)

15.0 10.0 5.0 0.0

11.9 6.4 3.7 2.1 CYCLE

13.3 9.7

CAR

TWO-WHEELER

MODE OF TRANSPORT
Source: Primary survey, February 2011

CYCLE RICKSHAW

AUTO

METRO

4.4.3 Desired-Line Diagram


The desire line diagram for the site shows the predominance of the external to internal trips, with the major trips being oriented towards the Central Delhi, which basically is an indicator of the clustering of the work centers in and around central, southern parts of Delhi, as well as NOIDA. (Refer Fig. 4.18) Figure 4.17 Trip Characteristics (Desire-line diagram in Dwarka) North West Delhi East and Central Delhi

Dwarka East Delhi

South Delhi
150 0 150 300 600 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

34

4.5

3 DSCONCEPT OF TOD

4.5.1 Density and feeder service


4.5.1.1 Density Since TOD principles generally predict a density gradation over the area, with densities reducing from the rapid transit corridor as we go further away, the absence of such a gradation in Rohini may be due to the absence of a significant impact on the development over the area MRTS was introduced here; whereas in Dwarka it is possible because it is relatively new development offering flexibility of densities (Refer Fig. 4.19 and 4.20). Figure 4.18 Land use population analysis (Population density in Dwarka)

Low Medium High


Source: Primary survey, February 2011
200 0 200 400 800 M

Figure 4.19 Land use population analysis (Population density in Rohini)

Low Medium High


Source: Primary survey, February 2011
200 0 200 400 800 M

35

4.5.1.2 Feeder services The cycle rickshaw is the only feeder service in Dwarka. Undue dependence on cycle results in high costs and absence of feeder, not a good sign for TOD. Rohini has a lot of feeder systems like Kisan - sewa, Fat-Fat sewa, Minibus etc. The presence of IPT systems augurs well for fast TOD implementation. The major mode for access/dispersal mode is through cycle-rickshaws, and the personal vehicles come next. This indicates a failure of buses in the area, and an absence of IPT systems (Refer Fig. 4.21 and 4.22). Figure 4.20 Users travel characteristics (Feeder system in Dwarka)

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

200

200

400

800 M

Figure 4.21 Users travel characteristics (Feeder system in Rohini)

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

200

200

400

800 M

36

The most costly is the auto followed by the personal vehicles which augurs well for the development of TOD in the area (Refer Fig. 4.23 and 4.24). The greatest reach is through the personal vehicles. This is one of the drawbacks of the Dwarka sub-city. Although it has the necessary infrastructure, it does not have the necessary multi-modal integration of transport as well as feeder service to facilitate TOD. The trip distances for buses are more, implying more number of people using buses as their preferred mode of transport. The trip costs for autos are more. Overall, the feeder transport in Rohini is better than Dwarka. But still there are lots of improvements that can be done, especially pedestrian circulation. Figure 4.22 Users travel characteristics (Trip costs for various modes in Dwarka)
35

PERSONAL (CAR/2H) C.R. AUTO BUS 0 5 10 11 13 15 DISPERSAL


Source: Primary survey, February 2011

26 15 21

37

45

20

25 ACCESS

30

35

40

45

50

Figure 4.23 Users travel characteristics (Trip costs for various modes in Rohini)
19 21 12 14 24 7 8.4 0 5 10 15 20 DISPERSAL ACCESS 25 30 35 31

PERSONAL (CAR/2H) C.R. AUTO BUS Rupees

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

37

4.5.2 Diversity
4.5.2.1 Mix use Mix use in Dwarka shows proximity to the mass transit corridor, which is in accordance with TOD principles, whereas it is more along outer ring road in Rohini. TOD was to be developed along outer ring road, it would favour TOD. (Refer Fig. 4.25 and 4.26). Although in Rohini, pockets along metro have developed mix-use that is extraneous and unplanned. Figure 4.24 Land use Diversity analysis (Mix use in Dwarka)

200

200

400

800 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.25 Land use Diversity analysis (Mix use in Rohini)

Source: Primary survey, February 2011


200 0 200 400 800 M

38

4.5.2.2 Social mix Social mix is more pronounced in Dwarka, good for TOD, while in Rohini, it is not so because there are different pockets of different income groups (Refer Fig. 4.27 and 4.28). The presence of a social mix augurs well for a TOD based development. Figure 4.26 Social Diversity analysis (Social Mix in Dwarka)

Low income Medium income High income


150 0 150 300 600 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.27 Social Diversity analysis (Social Mix in Rohini)

Low income Medium income High income


150 0 150 300 600 M

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

High

Medium Low 39

4.5.3 Design
Walk trips in Dwarka are very low as compared to the walk trips in Rohini (Refer Fig. 4.29 and 4.30). This is majorly due to poor feeder service in Dwarka and good bus feeder and IPT system in Rohini, but also more so due to poor pedestrian systems and design in Dwarka, which has large ROW and pedestrians feel overawed using them. A decent system of footpaths and subways as well as over-bridges are almost absent in Dwarka, while pedestrian linkages are enhanced in Rohini due to presence of many pedestrian networks. Figure 4.28 Pedestrian design analysis (Percentage of walk trips in Dwarka)

PERSONAL VEH.TRIPS 33% OTHER TRIPS 58% WALK TRIPS 9%


Source: Primary survey, February 2011

Figure 4.29 Pedestrian design analysis (Percentage of walk trips in Rohini)

PERSONAL VEH.TRIPS 21% WALK TRIPS 21%

OTHER TRIPS 58%

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

40

4.6

CONCLUSIONS

The socio-economic characteristic reveals that metro has got potential for increasing the patronage by enabling work-home trips in both case studies. But, due to its higher cost at present lower income group does not patronize it. Access mode for metro users and non users is predominantly walk and Cycle Rickshaw is the second most used mode to access stations due to absence of any feeder service in Dwarka. In terms of access distance metro has wider catchment area (1.5 Km) and is almost double that of other public transport modes and people are willing to come to metro from larger distances and if better access facilities are provided it can further increase. Almost 50% of total journey time for metro users is outvehicle time i.e. in accessing and dispersing to and from the stations. Therefore, there is potential for increasing patronage by decreasing access and dispersal time by organizing an efficient feeder system. As per the attitudinal survey, it was observed that the main reason for using bus is less cost whereas in case of auto the less time and convenience is the main reason. Out of this 35% of the people said that they are willing to shift to metro on the account of time saving and convenience. As per the peoples perception maximum distance they can walk is 1 km (81%) and maximum distance for which they are ready to use mode (public or private) is 1-3 km. This is a necessary condition of implementing TOD. Only 5% of metro users are using buses as their access mode and also frequency of buses doesnt match with metro. Regular long route buses are not acting as feeder because there is inertia to change the mode, so it should terminate at the metro station. Evaluation of Metro station in study area shows that there is no provision for dedicated parking of public transport or feeder buses at the station leading to increased transfer time. The next chapter deals with the final issues arising while implementation of TOD principles in the case-studies and the recommendations and proposals for achieving the same.

41

CHAPTER 5
5.1

ISSUES AND RECOMMENDATIONS

INTRODUCTION

The residential densities are high in both the case studies the difference lies primarily in the manner of development. While in Dwarka the development is high rise high density development with higher densities nearer the Transit corridor, in Rohini, the development is primarily low-rise high density development with higher densities in no particular gradation. This affects the overall development that is the not favorable for TOD. The transit corridor in Dwarka consists of a mix of uses with primarily the planned commercial uses along the transit corridor, whereas in Rohini the mix of uses were not initially planned along the corridor, but the benefits of placing commercial property nearer to the transit stations in particular and the transit corridor in general, have dictated development in the recent years. The result is the sprawling of mix use along the corridor. Now, this trend indicates the usefulness of planning for a mix of uses initially along the corridor that favours TOD. The design of the transport access points is pedestrian unfriendly in Rohini. This is one of the root causes of its being unfeasible for TOD. In this chapter, these issues that emerged during the analysis of the case study areas have been looked into and then compared with each other. This gives a preliminary idea about the kind of problems that is being faced in implementation of the Transit oriented development concept in the case studies, and whether or not this is beneficial for overall development in the area. These are looked into in Table 5.1. Then, a TOD concept plan has been proposed, that is a rudimentary approach on how best to approach development so as to further TOD. Further, detailed proposals in terms of FAR and Ground Coverage are given.

42

5.2

ISSUESAND RECOMMENDATIONS - DWARKA AND ROHINI

Table 5.1: Comparative Issues & Recommendations (Rohini and Dwarka) Aspect Issues Dwarka Rohini Recommendations

Work-Home Relationship Some work centres in vicinity of sub-city. But they lie Large lengths. work-trip influence away from area of Creation centres near corridor the in of work-

necessary transit Dwarka.

Trip Lengths

metro. Maybe because metro was imposed

over Rohini. Hence the relation could not be fully developed Effect Costs Trip Costs of travel for account is of and less on

that can resist long work-trip lengths

above due of to IPT

round trips are high factor,

Need to bring more feeder services at

due to multiple mode presence interchanges.

modes and secondary transit.

cheap fares

Modal Split

Bus services are very Buses, though present low (14%) are not solely. than two

Very

necessary

to bus

implement

services in Dwarka

One Interchange point More is Interchange points observed

most, Interchange points are Higher showing on

dependence feeder and of

pointing to need of bus observed, services which

is high dependence on Integration service, needs transport.

almost absent in the bus area

belter bus services. Introduction of metro

Most Trip Distribution directed

Trips outside

are the

provides flexibility of longer travel of and work wider

study area

distribution centres area

over

43

Aspect

Issues Dwarka Rohini

Recommendations

Feeder Services and Dispersal Heavy dependence on Access Mode rickshaw along and autos Introduction of belter IPT modes in Dwarka

with

personal Buses, though present viz. Kisan Sewa. FatFat sewa.

transport. showing a are not solely serving. Dispersal Mode lack of feeder services In the area An almost absence of IPT modes such as fat-fat sewa and others Autos and Rickshaws Access/ Dispersal Cost costly, lead to tower metro ridership by IPT modes exists are heavily overloaded

Distribution IPT modes

of

Introduction of round trip feeder buses or circular bus services

prohibiting access to metro

Access/Dispersal Distance

Penetration of Buses is less, hence

monopoly of rickshaws

F.A.R- Densification & Mix- Use Highly favourable for TOD for a regulated F.A.R. High Moderate growth along he

transit corridor and for desired ridership of any transit system.

Existing- 405 pph can Density achieve more density can be achieved

Existing- 415 pph. Can Density pattern near be allowed to growth metro could be higher as it is (up to 607 pph) near the nodes

(target 600 pph) Graded Densification

Graded densification norms apply to the areas falling within the 1.5 km band on either side of the stretch. However the growth in FAR option can be applied to the immediate stretch of km on either side. Transit ridership is Transit ridership is

Transit Ridership

almost half as Rohini

high in two centres.

44

Aspect

Issues Dwarka Rohini

Recommendations

F.A.R- Densification & Mix- Use Mix-use has come up Mix - use is a healthy upon Extent Use of Mix Residential commercial residential pattern along metro

with property in unplanned nodes, it should be manner, with broken encouraged, frontages setbacks and preferably along

pedestrian routes mix is

Extent of Social Mix Pedestrian Design

Less

social

observed

Detailing of pedestrian facilities Pedestrian Linkages/street furniture/lighting pedestrian Pedestrian linkages Pedestrian street needs to along routes be

are almost absent

furniture is abysmal

Integrated for better TOD, friendly Pedestrian design

(landscaping etc.) Walk Percentage walk trips trips are Walk trips can be

of Walk trips are very low moderately high, not improved and much <9%) sufficient for desirable higher share realised TOD enacts. (up to 30%)

Source: Primary survey, February 2011

5.3

SECTOR-WISE PROPOSALS

5.3.1 Density Proposals


The density of the Dwarka case study shows a gradation, with higher densities nearer the corridor. It needs to be approached in innovative manners. Two of the recommendations maybe redevelopment and higher FARs near the transit corridor.

45

5.3.2 Mix-Use Proposals


Higher FAR can be provided for commercial use as an incentive for locating nearer to the transit corridor. This enables TOD based development.

5.3.3 Feeder services and overall integration of transport:


a) Physical integration Loop type of routing pattern has been proposed for feeder modes. For this, feeder modes are configured such that routes form a closed loop with buses running on both sides. Rohini (W) station should been redesigned for providing space for feeder modes and other public transport modes. As per the proposal, average access time to metro stations from origin is estimated to be 13 minutes. b) Operational Integration scheduling of services The timings of feeder buses is proposed to be synchronized with the operations of MRTS. Uniform Street signs, vehicle identification by use of attractive color schemes and separate type of bus stops. c) Fare integration Differential fare system to be introduced for different classes of commuters by issuing subsidized passes for different groups like students, retired persons etc. Fare for feeder buses is proposed at break-even rates i.e. without any profit. d) Institutional integration Also very important is the integration of the functioning of various agencies like DTC, DMRC, and Associations etc. There should be preferably single window clearance.

46

5.4

THE TOD CONCEPT PLAN

The TOD Concept Plan (Refer Fig. 5.1) provides a number of potential benefits. The land use recommendations increase the density of development near the Metro Station. The location of various transit related proposals within close proximity to each other encourages transit supportive mixed uses within the sector and adjacent areas. Figure 5.1 Visualizing a concept plan for TOD implementation

Source: Author, March 2011

Successful implementation of such transit supporting uses could lead to: a) Increased intensity of development near Metro Station: High intensity development near transit encourages the use of transit, potentially increasing ridership and reducing parking demand. b) Greater return on transit infrastructure: Preliminary cost estimates suggest higher per annum return of TOD development at the DMRC site by locating the Metro station underground indicating greater return on the initial transit infrastructure compared to the typical elevated stations with surface parking areas.

47

5.5

FAR DENSIFICATION AND MIX-USE


The detailed analysis is carried out to analyze and assess the feasibility of TOD in a

study area and their land use. This was the main input for strategy building. The zone of influence has been demarcated as one sector on both sides of the corridor (i.e. 1.5 km on either side of the line). The study will here concern with the re-densification or development of these areas. The scenarios are built on the feasibility study and the graded densification concept.

5.5.1 Scenario Building


Scenario 1: The existing land use is allowed to develop permitting small level commercial use in the future along the corridor. Scenario 2: Change in the land use is proposed along the corridor. More commercial area are encouraged with the FAR calculation. Scenario 3: Rohini is already high density- so natural growth is retained; however area where possible can be identified for development with target density of 600 pph. Dwarka can still be incorporated for the coming developments for such targeted density.

5.5.2 FAR Options


Along with scenario building, some FAR and ground coverage options have to be given. This would ensure that the growth is regulated in all the terms- population and physical growth. FAR Options FAR 1: Allowing FAR without any restriction. FAR 2: Allowing FAR between 1.1 and 3.0 (calculated in detailed feasibility study for TOD). Ground Coverage Options GC 1: Allowing existing plot coverage is to continue. GC 2: Allowing plot coverage of 65-90%.

48

5.5.3 Graded Densification


The whole 1.5 km on either side of the line is divided into three bands of 500mts each. The density arrived at by the model is then used in these different bands in different grades. (Refer Fig. 5.2 and Table 5.2) This is the concept of graded densification. The population density and employment density reduces progressively with distance from the transit corridor. Figure 5.2 Delineation of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 km stretch Along the Study Corridor; Dwarka.

150

150

300

600 M

Source: Author, March 2011

Figure 5.3 Delineation of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 km stretch Along the Study Corridor; Rohini

.
Source: Author, March 2011

150

150

300

600 M

49

Table 5.2 Graded Densification & Scenario Comparisons. Levels Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Discouraging Discouraging 1. 0.0- residential, Discouraging residential, growth in commuter residential, commercial, PSP-new movement 0.5 km growth in informal growth commercial commercial far guidelines Plotted development, 2. 0.5- intensification residences, change commercial Encouraging High of residential commercial/ housing to offices rickshaws para-transit To Plotted Plotted/ 3. 1.0- development, housing1.5km intensification residences 2wheelers.
Source: Author, March 2011

Remarks To encourage

in by

in buildings to follow the markets walking. To encourage

commute density movement residential, group MRTS by cycle / in and

1.0 km

encourage

group Plotted high density residential medium

commuter movement in

of density

MRTS by four/

5.5.4 Options Matrix


On the basis of the scenarios and the FAR and plot coverage options, an options matrix is formed to assess the best suitable scenario and the FAR option. Each of the options was analyzed on the basis of infrastructure availability, land availability and suitability in terms of urban form. Thereafter they are assessed with the impact on the station and the section etc. The options matrices are detailed out in tables 5.3, 5.4 and 5.5.

50

5.5.4.1 Option Matrix for Scenario 1 Table 5.3 shows that scenario 1 does not give a favorable option in terms of development, as the infrastructure availability might not be sufficient for the unregulated growth of FAR. Table 5.3 Option Matrix for Scenario 1 Option Combination Advantage Possibility of increasing A FAR-1 GC-1 and the building to future Disadvantages FAR without any restriction might Recommendations

accommodate population

lead to shortage Moderately favoured of infrastructure

facilities of Not favored

Possibility of increasing Shortage B FAR-1 GC-1 and the building to infrastructure

accommodate population

future facilities for urban renewal process Low risk of of

Planned C FAR-2 GC-1 and and

development shortage possibility of infrastructure

increasing the buildings facilities but not Moderately favored to accommodate future favorable population urban process High Planned development & shortage risk of of for renewal

FAR-2 GC -2

and

possibility of increasing infrastructural the buildings to facilities but not Less favored future favorable urban process for renewal

accommodate population

Source: Author, March 2011

51

5.5.4.2 Option Matrix for Scenario 2 Table 5.4 shows that scenario 2 does not give a favorable option in terms of development, as the infrastructure availability might not be sufficient for the unregulated growth of FAR. Table 5.4 Options matrix for Scenario 2. Option Combination Advantage Possibility of increasing A FAR-1 GC-1 and the building to future Disadvantages FAR without any restriction might Recommendations

accommodate population

lead to shortage Moderately favoured of infrastructure

facilities of Not favoured

Possibility of increasing Shortage B FAR-1 GC-1 and the building to infrastructure

accommodate population

future facilities for urban renewal process Low risk of of

Planned FAR-2 GC-1 and and

development shortage of infrastructure

possibility

increasing the buildings facilities but not Moderately favoured to accommodate future favorable population urban process High Planned development & shortage risk of of for renewal

FAR-2 GC-2

and

possibility of increasing infrastructural the buildings to facilities but not Less favoured future favorable urban process for renewal

accommodate population.

Source: Author, March 2011

52

5.5.4.3 Option Matrix for Scenario 3 According to Table 5.5 the scenario 3 with the option of FAR-2 and GC-1 is highly favored for a regulated growth along the transit corridor and for desired ridership of any transit system. Thus it is proposed that growth along the Rohini corridor is allowed as it is as there is not much scope of development with areas having densities as high as 607 ppha already. Table 5.5 Option Matrix for Scenario 3. Option Combination Advantage Disadvantages Increase A FAR-1 GC-1 and Increase commercial in unregulated in growth, Moderately favoured Recommendations

risk of shortage of facilities

Increase FAR-1 GC-1 and commercial

in Shortage

of

and infrastructure facilities

residential leading and not favourable for Not favored to a high %age of urban mixed use Planned development, possibility of the Low risk of shortage of infrastructural facilities Highly favoured in future process renewal

FAR-2 GC-1

and increasing

buildings for future population in tune with the services levels assurance Planned

High risk of shortage will of infrastructural but for not Less favoured urban

FAR-2 GC-2

and

development lead to

proper facilities and favorable

commercial

residential growth.
Source: Author, March 2011

renewal process

53

5.6

CONCLUSION

Dwarka has ample scope of densification and can develop with a target density of 600 ppha. Graded densification norms apply to the areas falling within the 1.5 km band on either side of the stretch. However the growth in FAR option can be applied to the immediate stretch of km on either side.

5.7

FURTHER SCOPE OF WORK

Work is going on in the ITO complex and the Karkarduma complex in UTTIPEC. It needs to be examined and analyzed and the present thesis can help in the additional input for a live project. The entire integrated system needs to be put on GIS for effective routing and for integrated fare.

54

ANNEXURES

55

CHECKLIST FOR HOUSING

Information required

Indicators

Type of Housing Subsystem development

Type Survey Primary Survey/ Secondary

of Conclusive expected

information

Kind of development of houses like group housing , plotted, etc. To assess the target groups like old age residents, students, single family etc. Extent of income category of housing- LIG, MIG, HIG. To assess the general condition of houses and land mark used as proxy indicator of land values (high land values near the landmark)

SocioAge, income, occupation economic etc. of the households, Primary survey character of ownership pattern house holds Average Plot size, condition of built Primary survey structures, average height, land mark Secondary survey Secondary survey

Built form

Development codes Ward maps Slums

Use and adequacy of Primary survey facilities Revenue Secondary boundary map survey Condition and distance of Accessibility access roads, home of housing Primary survey work relation in terms of areas time and distance Users Use and adequacy of Perception of Social and physical Primary survey facilities infrastructure Any notified residential Secondary land use survey change in the zone Department/ agencies involved in supply For formal housingagencies involved as in Housing Secondary govt./ semi govt. And Supply survey private organisations For informal housingunauthorised, slums or squatter settlements. Primary/ Housing Banks/ departments Secondary finance involved in housing loans survey Primary Issues Survey

Condition of slums

Efficiency of housing within the zone.

areas

Adequacy, quality and efficiency of housing facilities

Agency level mechanism of land supply by various bodies.

Financial / loans/ subsidies given by the govt. And schemes for the inhabitants of the city

56

CHECKLIST FOR TRANSPORT

S.N o.

Data requireme nt Residence work relationship s Existing road network

Indicators

Source (primary/ secondary)

Survey name

Result

9 10

Distance travelled, time Primary and taken for work secondary place Primary Right of way and secondary Truck and bus terminals, bus stops, parking Existing Primary and areas, flyovers facilities secondary etc., quantity of public transport No. Of Condition passengers vs. of public Seating Primary transport capacity, age of vehicle Route map of public Secondary transport Volume, ridership, IPT, public capacity, Secondary transport distance-wise cost Parking (identify Parking major turnover, Primary parking index, survey nodes in accumulation the town) Traffic flow, Traffic v/c, modal Primary characteris split, survey tics directional split Share of a Primary Modal split mode in the survey traffic flow Freight movement Trip characteris tics Quality road of Flow, directional split Primary survey

Household survey

Efficiency uses

of

land

Reconnaissan ce/ transport Functional hierarchy department

Reconnaissan Existing transport ce, transport infrastructure in the department town

Reconnaissan ce

Overcrowding quality in transport

and public

RTO, transport Efficiency of existing department route

Transport department

Quantity and usage of public transport

Parking survey

Parking demand and supply, peak parking demand

Traffic volume Congestion, peak flow count Traffic volume Distribution of traffic count by modes Traffic volume Peak flow and goods count movement in the town Trip attracting/ Origin and generating points, destination desired line diagram Reconnaissan ce Surface roads quality of 57

11

Trip rate, trip by purpose, Primary mode, survey frequency etc. Potholes Primary

12

13

Vehicular emission

So2, RSPM, Secondary SPM etc.

State pollution Pollution load in the board air Transport department Cost of various public transport to link with affordability of vulnerable group Vehicle ownership of the town to check the concomitance with economic pattern and projection road

14

Distance-wise Cost of cost of various public Secondary public transport transport

15

Vehicle ownership

No. Of vehicles by mode in a Secondary year

RTO

16

Accident data Land use map, population and economy, published reports

No. Of deaths Secondary in a year

RTO, traffic Road safety, police user behaviour department

17

Employment rates, population growth rate

Secondary

Relating economic rate with population growth rate for projections

58

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HOUSEHOLD SURVEY

59

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR DELHI TRANSPORT CORPORATION 1. Collect Route map of bus transport (both intercity and intra-city) 2. What is the total number of buses running in the town and

intercity?............................................................................................................ 3. What is their Frequency per day?................................................................... 4. What is the Passenger capacity of varying buses (or bus

routes)?.............................................................................................................. 5. How much is the number of incoming and outgoing bus trips per day from the area?.................................................................................................. 6. What is the existing fare structure of buses and IPT? (Collect fare structure distance wise) ................................................................................................. 7. How much is the growth of bus traffic annually? (Get at least for past 5-10 years)?........................................................................................................... 8. What is the total no. of IPT (Auto/ Taxi) running in the

area?............................................................................................................... 9. Identify their routes (fixed/ flexible).1 10. How much is their annual growth in number? (get at least 5-10 year trend)..

Mark on the map

60

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATIONS Surveyors name: Name of Transport Association: Officials name and Designation: Data: 1. What is the existing number of vehicles? 2. What is your fare structure?2 3. What are the assigned routes? 3 4. What is the growth in the number of vehicles (at least for past five years)? 5. What is their fuel type (diesel/ petrol)? Date: Location:

2 3

Collect distance-wise fare structure Mark on the map

61

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ORIGIN DESTINATION SURVEY Surveyor's Name: Date of survey: 1 Street name /code : (Make a sketch indicating the direction): Time:
TIME MODE
2

OCCUPANCY

ORIGIN

DESTINATION

PURPOSE

DISTANCE FREQUENCY

Note:1. Code as per the group. 2. 1-Car/jeep, 2-wheelers, 3-taxi, 4-cycle, 5- auto rickshaw. 3. 1-work, 2-education, 3-recreational, 4- health, 5- religious,6- social, 7- return home,8- if any other, specify. * Drivers in case of taxi/ auto-rickshaw/ personal vehicle are not to be included. 4. Daily, weekly, fortnightly, monthly, occasionally. 4. Select a bus during the survey and note the condition of overcrowding (with photograph), specify timeOvercrowding can be quantified as: a. Passengers only sitting b. passengers sitting and few standing c. Passengers sitting and standing

62

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INFORMAL ACTIVITY SURVEY- RETAIL 1. Name of the shop: . 2. Year of Establishment: .. 3. Commodities sold: . 4. Activity happening before this place was occupied: . 5. Total area used: .. 6. Number of employment: 7. Total Earnings: 8. Advantages of nearness to Terminal: . 9. Disadvantages of nearness to Terminal: 10. Any Suggestions: Surveyors observation 1. Quality of establishment Good Average 2. Physical Determinants Height Area

Poor

63

SCHOOL OF PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE, NEW DELHI DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICAL PLANNING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INFORMAL ACTIVITY SURVEY- EATING JOINTS 1. Name: 2. Year of Establishment: 3. Commodities sold: 4. Activity happening before this place was occupied: 5. Total area used: 6. Number of employment: 7. Total Monthly Earnings: .. 8. Advantages of nearness to Terminal: . 9. Disadvantages of nearness to Terminal: .. 10. Any Suggestions: Surveyors observation 3. Quality of establishment Good Average 4. Physical Determinants Height Area

Poor

64

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Thesis : Roy,S. (2000) Impact of MRTS Station on Adjacent Land Values And Land Use Patterns, Thesis Report, Department Of Urban Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Sikka, N. (2005) Integrated Feeder Transport System for Delhi Metro Case Study: Rohini (Phase-I, Line-I), Thesis Report, Department of Physical Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Singh, D. (2008) Appraisal of Redevelopment Strategy MPD 2021, Thesis Report, Department of Physical Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Songra, T. (2009) Influence Zone of Delhi Metro Station, Thesis Report, Department of Physical Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi. Taku, S. (2010) Appraisal of MPD-2021 Redevelopment Guidelines for Metro Influence Zone, Thesis Report, Department of Physical Planning, School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi.

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[http://www.trb.org/publications/tcrp/tcrp_lrd_12.pdf], (accessed on February 22, 2011)

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UTTIPEC (2010) ITO Urban Renewal, TOD Pilot Project, Presentation to Lt. Governor, Delhi, [uttipec.nic.in/writereaddata/linkimages/9885214065.pdf], (accessed on January, 12, 2011) .

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