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2

u&ifvlrsdK;vlOD;a& cefYrSef;wGufcsufrIrsm;ESifhywfouf odvkdvQif http://www.karenpeople.org ESifh http:/


/www.kawthoolei. org ponfh tifwmeufpmrsufESmrsm;wGif MunfhIEkdifygonff/

10

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3

1988 ckESpfaemufydkif;rSp tkyfcsKyfcJhaomppftpdk;&onf 4if;wdkY\trnfemrudk EkdifiHawmfNidrf0yfydjym;a&; pepfwnf


aqmufa&;aumifpD (e0w) rS EkdifiHawmfat;csrf;om,ma&;ESifh zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD (etz)odkY 1997 ckESpfwGifajymif;
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ajymif;vJjcif;r&Sdyg/

11

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4

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wGufcsufrIrsm;t & ppfonf OD;a&onf (410000)xufrydkay/ atmufwdkbm 31 &ufaeY 2007 ckESpfwGif vlYt
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5
tjynfjynfqdkif&m vGwfNidrf;csrf;omcGifh Amnesty International rS xkwfjyefaom Myanmar: ''Leaving
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index/engasa160232005 rS 'DZifbm 6 &uf 2007 ckkESpfwGif &,lxm;ygonff/

12

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to succeed" aqmif;yg;rS xkwfEkwfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ tifwmeufpmrsufESm http://www. myanmar.com/
myanmartimes/MyanmarTimes13-255/feagen.htm rS 'DZifbmv 12 &uff 2007 ckkESpfwGif
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'DZifbmv 11 &ufaeYwGif &,lxm;ygonf/

14

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15

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16

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aus;rI bmom&yf r sm;oif M um;cG i f h & &S d & ef wif j ycJ h & ma'ocH etz tmPmyd k i f r sm;u oif M um;cG i f h r jyKcJ h a y/
("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

etz ausmif;rsm;ESihf aus;&Gmud,


k x
f u
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f ausmif;rsm;tMum; uGjJ ym;jcm;em;rIonf &Si;f &Siv
f if;vif;r&Sd
ay/ tb,faf Mumifq
h akd omf etzonf ausmifrsm;udt
k axmuftyHah y;aomfvnf; ausmif;q&mvcESihf
ausmif;vnfywfp&dwrf sm;udk vHak vmufpmG raxmufyEhH ikd af y/ xdt
k ajctaersKd ;wGif vdt
k yfaomukeu
f s
p&dwrf sm;udk aus;&Gmvlxrk yS ifusc&H ygonf/ odjYk zpf xdak usmif;rsKd ;udk wpfpw
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f pfa'o aus;&Gmud,
k x
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f ausmif;rsm; [kvnf;aumif; ac:qdEk ikd yf gonf/
tb,faMumifq
h akd omf 4if;ausmif;rsm;onf etzxHrv
S nf;aumif;? aus;&Gmvlxx
k rH v
S nf;aumif; t
axmuftyH&h &Sad omaMumifjh zpfygonf/

aus;&Gmukd,fxludk,fxausmif;rsm;
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif &Gmol&Gmom;rsm; udk,fxludk,fxaqmufvkyfxm;aom pmoifausmif;wpf ausmif;
&Sdygonf/ pmoifMum;ay;aom ausmif;q&m? q&mr (4)OD;&Sdygonf/ ausmif;tkyfq&mBuD;onf wpfv
vQif (30000)usyf&&SdNyD; q&m q&mrrsm;onf (22000)usyf&&Sdygonff/ ausmif;om;OD;a& (81) a,muf&Sd
ygonf/ ausmif;olausmif;om;wpfa,mufvQif ausmif;0ifaMu; (1000)usyf ay;aqmif& ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

u&ifjynfe,faus;&Gmrsm;wGif etz tpd;k &rS ausmif;aqmufvyk &f efEiS hf ausmif;vnfywfEikd &f ef ukeu
f s
p&dwrf sm;udk jynfjh ynf0h 0axmufyEhH ikd jf cif;r&Sad omaMumifh a'ocHjynfov
l x
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k nf ausmif;aqmufvyk &f ef?
q&m?q&mrrsm;cefx
Y m;Edik &f efEiS hf ausmif;vkyif ef;rsm;vnfywfEikd &f ef uk,
d x
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f BuKd ;pm;aqmif&u
G f
&ygonf/ aus;&Gmtrsm;pkwiG f &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf rlvwef;tqifah usmif;rsm;udk zGiv
hf pS Ef idk cf NhJ y;D tcsKd U
aom&GmBu;D rsm;wGif tv,fwef; (odrYk [kw)f txufwef;tqifah usmif;rsm;udk zGiv
hf pS Ef ikd cf yhJ gonf/ etz
(odrYk [kw)f 'DaubDat xde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sd aus;&Gmrsm;wGif pmoifausmif;rsm;zGiv
hf pS v
f ykd gu 4if;wdx
Yk rH S
cGijhf yKcsu&f ,l&ygonf/ tcsKd Uaomaus;&Gmrsm;wGif txufwef;ausmif;rsm;zGiv
hf pS v
f akd omfvnf; cGijhf yK
csurf &&Sad y/ xkaYd Mumihf uav;oli,frsm; txufwef;ynmudo
k if,El idk &f efrvG,u
f al y/ aus;&Gmtrsm;pk
&Sad usmif;rsm;onf av;wef;txdom&Sad om rlvwef;ausmif;rsm;jzpfNy;D xdx
k uftqifjh rifah omausmif;
rsm;udw
k nfaqmufciG rhf &&Sad y/

11

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJU ESifh urmhukvor* vlom;csif;pmemrItaxmuftulay;a&;kH;wm0efcHodkY yk*dKvfa&;t&


qufoG,far;jref;jcif; uddk az:jyxm;jcif;jzpffonf/ ({NyDv 3 &uf 2008)

17

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

txufygpmoifausmif;onf 2006 ckESpfwGif awGUjrif&aom zmyGefc&kdif? w0,fvdkNrdKUe,f? 0godk;avmfaus;&Gm&Sd


rlvwef;ausmif;jzpfygonf/ aus;&Gmvlxkonf 4if;wdkYuav;rsm; rdrd&GmwGifyif ckESpfwef;txd ynmoifMum;
Edkif&ef txufyg rlvwef;ausmif;udk ckESpfwef;txd wdk;jr
jrifihfvdkygonf/ aus;&GmvlxkrS ausmif;udktqifhjrifhwif&ef
twGuf vdktyfaom q&m^q&mrrsm;iSg;&rf;cefYxm;rI? ausmif;aqmifopfrsm; wdk;csJUaqmufvkyfrIudk rdrdwdkYukd,f
ydkifaiGj zifh vkyfu d k i f a qmif & G u f v d k a omf v nf ; 'grl ; ppf pcef;wGiftajcpdkufaom etz a'ocH trSwf(30)ajcvsif
wyf&if;rS t&m&Sdjzpfaom xGef;atmif rS ydwfyifxm;jrpfcJhygonf/ xkdYaMumifh 4if;&Gm&Sduav;rsm;onf 4 wef;
atmifjrifNyD;aemuf ynmqufvufoifMum;vdkygu tjcm;&Gmrsm;odkY oGm;a&mufoifMum;&ygonf/ xdk okdY tjcm;
aom&G m rsm;wG i f ynmoG m ;a&muf o if , l y gu ausmif ; om;rsm; onf rd o m;pk r sm;ES i f h c G J u G m &NyD ; rd b rsm;twG u f
aiG u k e f a Mu;usrsm; apygonf / rsm;pG m aomrd o m;pk r sm;rS m aiG a Mu; uk e f u scH & ef rwwf E k d i f a omaMumif h uav;
rsm;twG u f ynma&;ud k x d c d k u f a pyg onf / ("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

aus;&Gmrsm;wGif rdrw
d u
Ykd ,
kd x
f u
l ,
kd x
f ausmif;rsm;aqmufvyk cf iG &hf ygu? ausmif;aqmifaqmuf vkyjf cif;ESihf
q&m^q&mrrsm;iSm;&rf;rItwGuf ukeu
f sp&dww
f Ykd ukd &Gmom;rsm;rSusc&H ygonf/ tcsKd Uaomaus;&Gmrsm;&Sd
ausmif;rsm;onf jyifyrStultnD rsm;jzpfaom u&ifausmif; q&m^q&mrrsm; tzGUJ (KTWG) odrYk
[kwf ausmif;oH;k ypn;f rsm;udk &&Syd gonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh (KTWG) rS 'DZifbm 2007wGif xkwjf yef
aom tpD&ifcpH mwGif u&ifjynfe,fynma&; taxmuftulay;a&; tzGUJ (tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESihf wpfo;D
yk*v tvSL&Sirf sm;yl;aygif;xm;aomtzGUJ )onf 1997 ckEpS rf pS etz xde;f csKyrf aI tmufoYkd a&muf&cdS hJ
aom 'lyvm,mc&dik w
f iG ;f &Sd ausmifaygif; 324 ausmif;teuf 316 ausmif;udk 2007 ckEpS t
f wGi;f wGif
12
ynma&;ESiyhf wfoufaom tultnDrsm;udk aqmif&u
G af y;Edik cf o
hJ nf/
]]uRef a wmf w k d Y & G m wG i f pwk w wef
wef;txd ynmoif,lEdkifaom ausmif;wpfausmif;&SdNyD; ausmif;om; aygif;
30 ausmf&Sdygonf/ ausmif;q&m^q&mr oHk;OD;&SdNyD; 4if;wdkYonf uRefawmfwdkY&Gmol&Gmom; yifjzpfygonf/
uRefawmfwdkYausmif;onf &Gmom;rsm;ESifh u&ifynma&;Xme (KED) rS acgif ; aqmif rsm; yl ; aygif ;
wnf a xmif x m;aomausmif ; jzpf y gonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f & d k i f / (arv 2007)
12

u&ifjynfe,f ynma&;taxmuftulay;a&;tzGUJ tpD&ifcpH mudk tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http://www.ktwg.org/


library/KSEAG% 20REPORT%20DEC%202007.pdf rS {Nyv
D 6 &uf 2008 ckEpS w
f iG f &,lxm;ygonf/

18

ynma&;u@
aus;&Gmpmoifausmif;rsm;toD;oD;onf jyifyrSaxmufyrhH t
I enf;i,fu&kd &SMd uaomfvnf; &&Sad omtul
tnDrsm;onf ausmif;wpfausmif;vnfywf&ef vdt
k yfaomukeu
f sp&dwt
f m;vH;k twGuf vHak vmufrrI &Sd
ay/ jyifyrS&&Sad omtaxmuf tyHt
h enf;i,ftjyif tjcm;vdt
k yfaom&HyakH iGrsm;pkaqmif;&ef &Gmom;
rsm;twGuf tvGeyf ifcufcyJ gonf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf etz ppfwyfrsm;\
vkyt
f m;? aiGaMu;? pm;eyf&u
d m ESihf tjcm;aomtaxmuftyHrh sm; tjrwfxw
k af cgif;yHjk zwfrEI iS hf &ifqikd &f Ny;D
vGwv
f yfpmG oGm;vmcGi?hf ukeo
f ,
G cf iG Ehf iS hf aexdik cf iG rhf sm;udv
k nf; ppfwyfrS ydwyf ifxm;cH&aomaMumifh
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;\pD;yGm;a&;udk usyw
f nf;apygonf/ rnfoyYkd if cufcaJ p umrl u&ifjynfe,fwpfvmT ;&Sd
jynfov
l x
l o
k nf 4if;wdaYk us;&Gmpmoifausmif;rsm;udk axmufyEhH ikd &f ef wm0ef,Ml uygonf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif wwd,wef;txdynmoifMum;ay;aom ausmif;&Sdygonf/ &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf
ausmif ; aqmuf v k y f & ef qE
qE jyif
jyif;jyaomaMumifh c&pf,meftoif;awmfESifh u&ifynma&;Xge (KED)
rS tultnDESifh tMuHOmPfrsm; ay;cJhMuygonf/ ausmif;wGif q&m 2 a,muf&SdNyD; 4if; q&mrsm;onf
uRefawmf wdkY&Gmom;yifjzpfygonf/ q&mwdk Yonf vpmaiGaMu;tb,frQ&&Sdonfudk uRefawmftwd tusr
odaomfvnf; 4if;wdkY&&SdaomaiGaMu;onf rdom;pkudkaxmufyHh&ef rvHkavmufEkdif[k uRefawmfxifjrifyg
onf/ ausmif;om; rdbrsm;onf ausmif;0ifaMu;tjzpf qefwpfyHk;ESifh aiG 500 usyfudkay;aqmif&yg
onf/ tjcm;aomolrsm;u i&kwfoD;? EkdYqDAl; ESpfvHk;? qm; ESifh ig;yd wpfydmpD a y;Mu&ygonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 31ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (arv 2007)

uav;oli,frsm;pmoifMum;Edik &f eftwGuf aus;&Gmvlxrk w


S nfaxmifxm;aomausmif;rsm;wGif pmoif
Mum;&ef &Gm&St
d wef;ynmtjrifq
h ;kH &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk apcdik ;f ygonf/ tcsKUd aom&Gmausmif;rsm;twGuf
etz ynma&;0efBu;D XgerS q&m^q&mr rsm;apvTwaf y;ygonf/ 4if;q&m^q&mrrsm;onf rsm;aom
tm;jzifh NrKd Ursm;wGiaf exdik Mf uaom ArmvlrsKd ;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ q&m^q&mrrsm;udk &Gmausmif;rsm;twGuf
apvTwaf y;aomfvnf; ausmif;q&mvcrsm;udrk l aus;&Gmvlxrk yS if wm0ef,al y;aqmif&ygonf/
]]uRef a wmf w d k Y & G m wG i f pwk w wef
w ef; xd ynmoif , l E k d i f a omausmif ; wpf a usmif ; &S d y gonf / ausmif ; ud k
&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rS wnf aqmufxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ q&m^q&mrrsm;rSm NrdKUe,fat;csrf;om ,ma&;ESifh
zGHUNzdK;a&;aumifpD (rtz)rS apvTwf xm;aomolrsm;jzpfygonf/ odkYaomf &Gmol&Gmom; rsm;rSyif ausmif;
q&mrsm;vcudk ay;aqmif&ygonf/ ausmif;q&m^ q&mr ig;a,muf&SdNyD; av;a,mufrSm q&mrjzpf
NyD; wpfa,mufrSmq&mjzpfygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;rS ausmif;0ifaMu;rsm;udkay;aqmif&ygonf/ ausmif;
om;ausmif ; ol r sm; pwk w wef
wef;atmifjrifNyD;ygu a&SUqufynmoif,lEdkif&ef rdbrsm;u NrdKUe,frsm;odkYydkY
aqmif y gonf / ausmif ; oH k ; yp
yp nf
nf;rsm; vHk;0tcrJhr&&Sdyg/ rdbrsm;rS tcaMu;aiGay;aqmif ygonf/}}
-OD ; --(usm;? 44ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (*Ref v 2007)

19

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

etz ausmif;rsm;
]]EdkifiHawmftpdk;&onf wdkif;jynfynma&;u@zGHUNzdK;wdk;wuf&ef rnfuJhodkYvkyfaqmifaeonfudk uREkfyf
wifjyvdkygonf/ tajccHynmtqifhwGif txufwef;ausmif;rsm;? tv,fwef;tqifhausmif;rsm;ESifh rlv
wef;ausmif;rsm;toD;oD; ydkrdkrsm;jym;vmygonf/ u&ifjynfe,fwGif 1988 ckESpfrwdkifrSDwGif txuf
wef;ausmif;aygif; 20 om&SdNyD; tv,fwef; 65 ausmif;ESifh rlvwef;ausmif;aygif; 1064 ausmif;&SdcJh
ygonf/ ,aeYvuf&Sdtcsdef u&ifjynfe,fwGif txufwef;ausmif;aygif; 35 ausmif;? tv,fwef;ausmif;
77 ausmif;ESifh rlvwef;ausmif; 1154 ausmif;xd wdk;wufzGifhvSpfEdkifcJhygonf/ ausmif;q&m^q&mr
ta&twGufonfvnf; 4000 ausmfrS 6000 ausmfxd wdk;wufvmcJh ygonf/ xdkYjyifausmif;om;OD;a&onf
vnf; 100000 ausmfrS 200000 xd wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifh ausmif;om;OD;a& 80000
ausmf c eY f r sm;jym;vmcJ h y gonf / }}
-etz owif ; pm&S i f ; vif ; yG J w G i f w&m;0if a jymqd k c suf (ZG e f v 2006)13

etz rS w&m;0ifxw
k jf yefaomude;f *Pef;rsm;t& u&ifjynfe,fynma&;u@onf zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wuf
vmonf[x
k if&aomfvnf; etz tpd;k &onf u&ifjynfe,fEiS hf tjcm;aomae&ma'orsm;wGif ynma&;
zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrrI &Sad p&ef tuGuu
f susaqmif&u
G v
f su&f ydS gonf/ ynma&;zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrrI &Sad p&ef 4if;a'
rsm;wGiv
f t
kd yfaom ausmif;oH;k ypn;f rsm;udk jynfph pkH mG axmufyrhH rI jyKjcif;? taxmuftyhH aiGaMu;rsm;udk
avQmhcsjcif;ESifh oif&dk;Te;f wrf;rsm;udk vGwv
f yfpmG oifMum;cGirhf jyKjcif; ponfwu
Ykd v
kd yk af qmifygonf/
NAw
d ed Ef ikd if t
H pd;k & tjynfjynfqikd &f mzGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;XgerS etz tpd;k &onf Edik if aH wmfynma&;u@
twGuf aiGaMu;tenf;i,f (GDP \ 0.3%) udo
k m oH;k pGaJ Mumif;awGU&Scd yhJ gonf/ xdjYk yifru ynma&;
tqift
h wef;vnf;edru
hf svmNy;D ynmoifMum;p&dwjf rifw
h ufvmaMumif;ESihf ae&ma'otrsm;tjym;wGif
14
ynmoifMum;&efrvG,u
f al Mumif;udyk g awGU&Scd yhJ gonf/ ppfa&;twGurf l etzonf Edik if aH wmf& oH;k rSe;f
ajcaiGpm&if; (Budget) \ xuf0ufut
kd oH;k jyKygonf/15 ynma&;twGurf l etz tpd;k &onf rqdpk
avmufaomaiGaMu;udo
k m toH;k jyKaomaMumifh urmay:wGif ynma&;twGuf aiGaMu;oH;k pGrJ I tenf;
qH;k Edik if t
H jzpfwnf&adS eygonf/ etz tpk;d &rS ynma&;twGuo
f ;kH pGaJ omaiGaMu;onf ausmif;om;
wpfO;D twGuf wpfEpS yf wfv;kH rS tar&duefwpfa':vmom&Syd gonf/ trSet
f m;jzifh jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f tpd;k &rS
zGiv
hf pS af omausmif;rsm;? tedrq
hf ;kH tqifh rlvwef;ynma&;onf tcrJjh zpf&rnf[k w&m;0if trdex
Yf w
k jf yef
xm;ygonf/odaYk omf ausmif;ol?ausmif;om;rsm;ESirhf b
d rsm;onf tpd;k &ausmif;rsm;? acgif;pOf trsKd ;rsKd ;jzifh
awmif;cHaomaiGaMu;rsm;udk ay;aqmifae&ygonf/ 4if;wdrYk mS ausmif;q&mrsm;vctwGuf ay;aqmif
&jcif; Avmpmtky?f cJwH ESihf zwfpmtkyrf sm;0,f,&l jcif;? ausmif;jyKjyifxed ;f odr;f a&;ESihf oef&Y iS ;f a&;t
13

]]etz tpdk;&\vrf;TefrIjzifh u&ifjynfe,fwGifaexkdifMuaom u&if? Arm? &cdkif? rGef? &Srf;? ytdkY ESifh tjcm;aom
vlrsKd ;rsm;onf Nird ;f csr;f acwfrw
DS ;kd wufaom jynfe,fjzpfay:vm&ef BuKd ;pm;vQu&f ydS gonf/}} etz owif;pm&Si;f vif;yGJ
(ZGefv 11? 2006) tifwmeufpmrsuf ESm http://www.myanmar.com/press_conference/2006/116f.html rS 'DZifbmv 22 &ufaeY 2007 ckESpfwGif &,lxm; ygonff/
14
NAd w d e f E d k i f i H tjynf j ynf q d k i f & mzG H U Nzd K ;wd k ; wuf r I X merS atmuf w d k b m 4 &uf 2005 ck E S p f w G i f x k w f j yef a om
]]jrefrmjynfEiS o
hf ufqikd af omt aMumif;t&mrsm;}}/ tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http://www.dfid.gov.uk/countries/
asia/burma.asp rS pufwifbm 5 &uf 2007 ckESpfwGif &,lxm;ygonf/
15
"134 MPs Demand Tatal Oil Withdraw From Burma," The Burma Campaign UK, July
14th 2005. Accessed at http://burmacampaign.org.uk/pm/more.php?id= 175_0_ 1_0_ M
on December 12th 2007.

20

ynma&;u@
wGuaf y;aqmif&jcif;? etz tpd;k &tzGUJ rS rMumcPjyKvyk af om yGaJ wmfrsm;ESihf tcrf;tem;rsm;twGuf
tvSLaiGay;aqmif&jcif; ponfwjYkd zpf ygonf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif uav;oli,frsm;twGuf ausmif;wpfausmif;&Sdygonf/ q,fausmfoufrsm;rSmrl
etz tpdk;&rS zGifhvSpfaom tjcm;ae&ma'orsm;&Sd ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;&ygonf/ &Gmausmif;?
rSoifMum;ay;aomq&mrudk uRefawmfwdkYrS vpmay;&ygonf/ &Gmom;rsm;rS q&mrtwGuf wpfESpfvQif
60000 usyfay;ygonf/ tpdk;&ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoif,laeMuaomausmif;om;rsm;onf pmtkyf ?
abmyifESifh ausmif;oHk;yp
yp nf
nf;rsm;udk udk,fydkifydkufqHjzifh0,f,l&ygonf/ uRefawmf\ om;oHk;a,mufudk
tpdk;&ausmif;wGif ynmoif,lapygonf/ 4if;wdkYtwGuf uRefawmfaiG 30000 usyfoHk;pGJcJhygonf/ 4if;wdkY
ow
ow rwef
rwef;atmifjrifvQif zmyGefNrdKU&Sdausmif;odkY oGm;a&mufynmoif,l&ygrnf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 45ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Ed k 0 if b mv 2007)
]]ausmif ; oH k ; zwf p mtk y f r sm;ud k etz ynma&;0ef B uD ; XmerS xk w f a 0NyD ; ausmif ; om;ausmif ; ol r sm;rS
0,f,l&ygonf/ pwkwwef
wef;twGuf zwfpmtkyfwpffpHkvQiff 1500 usyfcefYusoifhygonf/ rSwfpkpmtkyfrsm;
udk etz rS &Hzef&Hcgqdkovkd tcrJhxkwfay;avh&Sdygonf/ tpdk;&r[kwfaomtzGJYwpfck uRefawmfwdkY\
ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;twGuf rSwfpkpmtkyf tcrJhwpfBudrfay;a0cJhygonf/ pwkw wef
w ef; ausmif ; om;
twGuf ausmif;0ifaMu;rSm 1000usyffjzpfNyD; oli,fwef;twGufrl 500 rS 600 usyfjzpfygonf/ ausmif;
0ifaMu;rsm;udk ausmif;tkyfBuD;xHay;oGif;&NyD; ausmif;tkyfBuD;rS 4if;aiGaMu;rsm;udk ausmif;vkkyfief;rsm;
twG u f t oH k ; jyKygonf / }}
-apm ---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / ('D Z if b m 2006)

uav;oli,frsm;b0 trSew
f u,fw
f ;kd wuf&ef vkyaf qmifvjkd cif;xuf Edik if w
H pfumrS 4if;wdu
Yk kd w&m;0if
tpd;k &tjzpf todtrSwjf yKc&H ef etz tpd;k &onf wdik ;f jynfzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wufa&;twGuf 4if;wdBYk uKd ;pm;vkyf
aqmifaeaMumif;jyoonft
h aejzifh xifomjrifomaomvkyif ef;rsm;udk vkyaf qmifjyavh&ydS gonf/ ynm
a&;u@wGif ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm; t&nftcsi;f wd;k wuf&efEiS hf ausmif;om;OD;a&ydrk rkd sm;jym;vm&ef
vdt
k yfaom&if;ES;D jryEf rHS u
I rkd l rjyKvyk af y/ xdaYk Mumifh tcsKd Uausmif;rsm;onf pwifaqmufvyk &f eftwGuf
etz xHrS aiGaMu;taxmuftulwpfcsKd U&&Sad omfvnf; aemufyikd ;f wGif ausmif;vnfywfEikd &f efvt
kd yf
aomaiGaMu;udrk l raxmufyaHh wmhay/ ynma&;0efBu;D Xge atmufwiG f tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd Mf uaomq&m^q
&mrrsm;onf tpd;k &xHrS aiGaMu;taxmuftyH&h &Sad omfvnf; 4if;wd&Yk &Sad omw&m;0ifvpmrSm b0&Sif
oef&yfw
f nf&eftwGuf zlvrkH rI &Syd g/
xdjYk yifru etz tpd;k &rS aus;&Gmrsm;odaYk y;ydaYk om q&m^q&mrrsm;ta&twGuEf iS hf ausmif;om;rsm;t
a&twGufrSm udkufnDrIr&Sday/ ausmif;q&mrsm;vpmzlvHkrIr&Sdjcif;ESifh ausmif;q&mta&twGufvHk
avmufrrI &Sjd cif;wdaYk Mumifh &Gmom; rsm;onf ausmif;q&mrsm;twGuf vpmtjyif 4if;wdYk rdom;pkpk m;0wf
aea&;ajyvnfEikd &f ef tydak qmif;aMu;rsm;ay;aqmifMu&ygonf/ ausmif;q&m rvHak vmuf ausmif;
q&mtopfrsm;iSm;&rf;ygu &Gmom;rsm;rSyif xdak usmif;q&mtopfrsm;twGuf vpmaiGukd vH;k 0usc&H yg
onf/ xdt
Yk jyif &Gmom;rsm;ud,
k x
f u
l ,
kd x
f aqmufvyk x
f m;aomausmif;rsm;&Sd ausmif;q&mrsm;vpm
udv
k nf; &Gmom;rsm;rSyif usc&H ygonf/ rsm;aomtm;jzifh ausmif;q&mrsm;twGuf tydak qmif;aMu;ay;
aqmif&m? qefpyg;rsm;udo
k may;avh&ydS gonf/

21

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
]]tpdk ;&rS ausmif;twGuf q&m^q&mr ESpfa,mufudkcefYtyfay;ygonf/ q&m^q&mr ESpfa,mufonf
ausmif;twGuf vHk;0rvHkavmuf ausmif;q&mtopf 6 a,mufudk &Gmom;rsm;rS xyfrHiSg;&rf;&&

4if;ausmif;q&mrsm;twGuf &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rSyif vdktyfaomt&mrsm;udk axmufyHhay;&ygonf/ ausmif;


onf tVrwef;txd&Sdygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;rS ausmif;oHk;yp
yp nf
nf;rsm;udk ukd,fydkifaiGaMu;jzifh 0,f,l
&ygonf/ aus;&Gm&Sd uav;oli,ftrsm;pkonf ausmif;wGifynmoif,lMuaomfvnf; tcsdKUrSmrl ausmif;
vc ray;aqmifEdkifMuaomaMumifh ynmroif,lEkdifMuay/ rdbrsm;aiGaMu;rwwfEdkifaom ynmtrSefw
u,foif,lvdkaom uav;oli,frsm;udkulnDEdkif&ef uRefrwdkYrsm;pGm BudK;pm;vsuf&Sdygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 34ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (rwf v 2007)
]]uRefawmfwdkY&Gm&Sdausmif;onf txufwef;ausmif;jzpfNyD; 'orwef;txd qufvufwdk;csJUoGm;ygrnf/
ausmif;q&mtrsm;pkonf etz tpdk;&rS cefYtyfxm;olrsm;jzpfygonf/ ausmif;q&mESpfa,muf? oHk;
a,mufrSmrl &Gmom;rsm;rSiSm;&rf;cefYxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ etz tpdk ;&cefYxm;aom ausmif;q&mrsm;onf
etz tpkd;&xHrS vpmaiGwpfvvQif 8000-9000 usyf &&Sdygonf/ vpmaiGonf 4if;wdkYpm;0wfaea&;
twGuf zlvHk rIr&SdaomaMumifh &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rS 4if;wdkYudkvpOf pm;eyf&dumaxmufyHhay;Muygonf/
&Gmom;rsm;onf q&mq&mrwdkif;ukd vpOfqefESpf awmif;pDay;Muygonf/ etz rS cefYxm;aom q&m?
q&mrOD;a& ESpfq,fcefY&Sdygonf/ q&m? q&mrrsm;tm;vHk;twGuf qef 150 awmif;ay;ygonf/ ausmif;
om;wpfOD;onf wpfESpfvQif ausmif;twGufvdktyfaom yp
yp nf
nf;rsm;0,f,l&efESifh ausmif;vctwGuf
aiG 200000 rS 300000 usyf a y;&ygonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / ({NyD v 20006)
]]uRefrwdkY&Gm&Sdausmif;wGif trSefwu,ftm;jzifh tpdk;&rScefYxm;aomausmif;q&m? q&mr ig;OD; &Sd&rnf
jzpf a omf v nf ; wpf O D ; om;&S d usefav;OD;udk &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rSyif iSm;&rf;cefYxm;&ygonf/}}
-a':---(r? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2006)

ausmif;q&mrsm;vctwGuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESirhf b
d rsm;onf tydak iGaMu;ay;aqmif&onfomru &Hzef&H
cg odrYk [kwf tNrq
J o
kd vdk yGaJ wmfrsm;twGu?f tcrf;tem;rsm;twGuEf iS hf ausmif;vkyif ef;rsm;twGuf
aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&ygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh zmyGeNf rKd Uay:&Sd tpd;k &rlvwef;ausmif;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;
ay;&aomaiGaMu;rSm wpfEpS v
f Qif 2000 usyf ausmjf zpfygonf/ xkjYd yif 0gqdo
k uFe;f uyfvLS yG?J oDwif;uRwf
rD;xGe;f yG?J wefaqmifwikd yf ?JG tmp&d,ylaZmfy?JG pmqdNk yKd iyf ?JG tmZmenfaeY a[majymyG?J toif;0ifaMu;?
oef&Y iS ;f a&;aMu;? vpOfaMu;? tm;upm;aMu;ESihf ema&;rsm;twGuf wpfvwpfcg odrYk [kwf wpfEpS w
f pfcg
aiGusyf 100 rS 500 txday;aqmif&ygonf/
tv,fwef;ESihf txufwef;tqifah usmif;rsm;onf ydrk kday;aqmif&ygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh rdom;pkrk sm;
onf rdru
d av; twef;jrifv
h monfEiS t
hf rQ aiGaMu;ydrk u
kd ek u
f saomaMumifh rdru
d av;rsm;ukd ausmif;
xm;Ekdif&ef &kef;uefvIyf&Sm;&ygonf/ etz ausmif;rsm;wGif rdrdom;orD;rsm; ynmoifMum;Edkif&ef
vHak vmufaomaiGaMu;udk rdom;pkrS &SmazG&ygonf/ &SmazGr&Ekid v
f Qif rdro
d m;orD;rsm;udk ausmif;rS
xkwyf pfMu&ygonf/ ausmif;0ifaMu;? pmtkyzf ;kd ESihf ausmif;oH;k ypn;f rsm;aMumifh rdom;pkpk m;0wfaea&;udk
xdcu
kd af pygonf/
]]ausmif;om;rsm;onf pmtkyf? abmyif? cJwH? xD;? vG,ftdwfESifh zwfpmtkyfrsm;udk udk,fydk ifaiGaMu;jzifh
0,f,l &ygonf/ etz tpdk ;&rS pmtkyfrsm;udktcrJh ray;yg/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf pmtkyfrsm;udk aps;rS0,f
,l&ygonf/ ausmif;rS pmtkyfrsm;udk xkwfay;vQifvnf; pmtkyfzdk;ay;aqmif&ygonf/ xkdYaMumifh aiGuk ef
aus;Muoufom &eft wGuf ausmif;om;rsm;onf zwfpmtkyfrsm;udk &dkaopGmudkifwG,fNyD; ESpfukefvQif
rdrd\nDi,f? nDri,frsm;udk vufqifhurf;ay;Mu&ygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf aeYv,fpmudk,laqmif

22

ynma&;u@
vm&ygonf/ tcsdKUqif;&Jaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf aeYv,fpmr,laqmifvmEdkifaomaMumifh aeYvnfx
rif;pm;csdefwGif tpmrpm;bJaeMu&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 28ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

etz ausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;Muaom ausmif;om;^olrsm;&ifqikd Bf uKH awGU&aom jyemrsm;


omru oifMum; a&;ESiyhf wfoufvnf; jyemrsm;awGUMuKH &ygonf/ q&m? q&mr rsm;&&Sad om
vpmaiGrmS tvGeyf ifenf;yg;aomaMumifh q&m? q&mrrsm;onf rdrpd m;0wfaea&;twGuf tyk0d ifaiG&
&S&d efvyk af qmifMuygonf/ ausmif;wGif q&m? q&mrrsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;udk xdxad &mufa&muf
apwemjynf0h pGm oifMum;ay;rIr&Sad omaMumifh ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;onf pmar;yGrJ sm;atmifjrif
&ef oufqikd &f m q&m? q&mrrsm; ausmif;csed jf yifywGif zGiv
hf pS af omusL&Sirf sm;ukd wufa&muf&ygonf/
]]uk e f y pp nf
nf;aps;EIef;rsm; tvGefjrifhrm;aomaMumifh q&m? q&mrrsm;ESifh &Hk ;0efxrf;rsm;\ vpmaiGonf
4if;wdkY&yfwnfaexdkifEdkif&efvHk avmufrIr&Sday/ q&m? q&mrrsm;onf tydk0ifaiG&&Sd&ef usL&Sifrsm;udk
zGihf vSpfMuygonf/ uRefawmf onfvnf; q&m?q&mrrsm; zGifhvSpfaom usL&Sifrsm;udk wufa&muf&ygonf/
}}
-ud k - --(usm;? 24ES p f ) ? &ef u k e f (zmyG e f c &d k i f w G i f awG U qH k a r;jref ; rI j yKvk y f c J h y gonf ) (azazmf 0 g&D 2007)

]]uRef r aexd k i f a om&G m wG i f uRef r pwk w wef


w ef; atmif j rif c J h N yD ; ? awmif i l N rd K UwG i f q uf v uf N yD ; ynmoif
,lcJhygonf/ uRefr awmifilNrdKUwGif ynmoif,laecsdefwGif awmifilNrdKU&Sd ausmif;om;ausmif; olrsm;
onf u&if b momud k o if , l c G i f h r &&S d M uay/ ES p f v od k Y r [k w f oH k ; vwG i f w pf B ud r f u s Ed k i f i H a &;ES i f h
ywfoufaom oifcef;pmrsm;udk oifMum;ay;ygonf/ ausmif;pmoifcsdef rsm;wGif q&m? q&mrrsm;
onf ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;udk vHk;0em;vnfoabmayguf&ef roifMum;ay;aomaMumifh awmif
ilNrdKUay:&Sdausmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum; Muaom ausmif;om;ausmif;olwdkif;onf ausmif; csdefjyifywGif
usL&S i f wuf a &muf & ygonf / ausmif ; pmoif c sd e f r sm;wG i f tcsd K Uaom q&m? q&mrrsm; onf
ausmif ; om;rsm;ud k pmvH k ; 0oif M um; ay;jcif ; r&S d b J tcsd e f u d k t usd K ;rJ h u k e f q H k ; apygonf / xd k Y a Mumif h
ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf pm ar;yGJus&SLH;rnfudkpk d;&drf aomaMumifh rdrdwdkYESifhouf qdkif&m q&m?
q&mrrsm;xHwGif usL&Sif,l&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 17ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / ({NyD 2006)

etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sd jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&Gmrsm;wGif ynma&;tajctaeonf yHrk eS af us;


&Gmrsm; wGi&f adS om etz ausmif;rsm;xuf yd
k qd;k &Gm;ygonf/ jyefvnfae&mcs xm;a&;aus;&Gm rsm;onf
etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrrsm;wGi&f adS om ajrvGwf ajr&dik ;f rsm;ay:wGif wnfaxmifay;xm;jcif;jzpfygonf/
odrYk [kwf tcsKd Ua'orsm;wGif etz xde;f csKyrf eI ,fajratmufwiG f wnf&NdS y;D xm;aomaus;&Gmrsm;udk xyfrH
wd;k csUJ xm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ rnfonfah e&modaYk jymif;a&TU&onfjzpfap ajymif;a&TUMu&aom &Gmol&mG om;
rsm;udk etz rS tultnDtenf;i,fomay;ygonf/ ausmif;aqmufvyk &f eftwGuv
f nf; tultnDr
ay;ay/ etz tpd;k &\ twif;t"rapcdik ;f rIukd wdr;f a&Smifrnfukd pd;k &drfvnf;aumif;? jyefvnfae&m
csxm; a&;aus;&Gmrsm;rS vH;k 0xGuaf jy;rnfukd pd;k &drfvnf;aumif; jyefvnfae&mcsxm; a&;aus;&Gmrsm;
wGif aexdik Mf uaom&Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk pmoifausmif;rsm;&Sad om teD;ywf0ef;usi&f &dS mG rsm;odYk oGm;vmcGihf
udv
k nf; ydwyf ifxm;ygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh jyefvnfae&mcsxm;jcif;cH&aomuav;rsm;onf rdrw
d &Ykd mG wGif

23

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
aexkid pf Of vGwv
f yfpmG ynmoif,cl iG u
hf &kd &Sad omfvnf; etz xde;f csKyrf aI tmuf&dS jyefvnfae&mcsxm;
a&;aus;&Gmrsm;wGif aexdik Mf u&aomtcgwGirf l ynmoifMum;cGirhf &&SMd uyg/
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif rlvwef;ausmif;wpfausmif;&SdcJhaomfvnf; jyefvnfae&mcsxm;jcif;cH&aomtcg
ausmif;wnfaqmufcGifh r&&Sdawmhyg/}}
-apm---(usm;? 30ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2006)

txufygyHkonf anmifav;yifc&dkif&Sd ajrvGwfajr&dkif;ay:wGifwnf&Sdaom yavmavmbv,ftrnf&Sd jyefvnf


ae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&G m "gwf y H k j zpf y gonf / ,cif u &G m om;rsm;aexd k i f c J h a omtd r f j cH a jrus,f 0 ef ; pG m jzif h pd r f ; vef ;
aomobm0ywf0ef;usif &Sdaom&GmESifhEIdif;,SOfvQif txufygjyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&GmwGif&Sdaomtdrfrsm;
onf wpf t d r f E S i f h w pf t d r f MuyfS y f v suf td r f t &G , f t pm;rsm;rS m vnf ; ao;i,f v S y gonf / xd k Y t jyif ajrrsm;rS m
vnf; pdkufysdK;;
r&EdkifaomajrvGwfajr&dkif;rsm;jzpfygonf/ etz ppfwyfonf 2006 ckESpfrSp ae&ma'oudk
twif ; t"r
t"r jyef
j yefv nf a e&mcsxm;a&;twG u f t oH k ; jyKcJ h y gonf / rwf v 2007 ck E S p f w G i f ywmvm &G m ol & G m om;
rsm;udk txufyHkygjyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&GmodkY twif;t"r
t"rajymif
ajymif;a&TUaexdkifapygonf/ xdkenf;wl arv
2007 ckESpfwGifvnf; etz ajcjrefwyf&if;16 350\ wyf&if;rSL;jzpfaomatmifaZmfonf okwbDaus;&Gmtkyfpkudk
ae&modkY ajymif;a&TUtrdefYay;cJhygonf/ jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&Gmrsm;ESifh tjcm;aus;&Gmrsm;&Sd &Gmol&Gm
om;rsm;onf ynma&;ESifh ywfoufvnf;aumif;? tjcm;aomtultnDrsm;ESifhywfoufvnf;aumif; tult
nDtenf;i,fom&&Sdygonf/ wpfcsKdUolrsm;onf tultnDvHk;0r&&SdMuay/ ("gwfyHk u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJU)

ausmif;rsm;ESifhpmMunfhwdkufrsm;twif;tMuyfaqmufvkyfapjcif;
]]ausmif;aqmufvkyf&ef &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf ausmufp&pfvSnf;aygif; 30-40 o,f,lcJh&ygonf/
&Gmom;rsm;onf ausmufp&pfrsm;udk armvdkjrpfrS o,f,l&ygonf/ xdkYjyifru oJrsm;vnf;o,f,lay;
&ygonf / um;yd k i f & S d a omol r sm;onf 4if ; wd k Y \ um;rsm;jzih f &G m om;rsm;twG u f oJ r sm;o,f a qmif a y;
ygonf/ oJum;jzifhwpfBudrfo,f,lvQif &Gmom;rsm;rS um;ydkif&Sifudk 6000 usyf ay;aqmif&ygonf/
16

etz tpdk;&\ ajcjrefwyf&if; (cr&) wyf&if;wGif ppfonfOD;a& 500 &Sd&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; trsm;pkaom


ajcjrefwyf&iff;rsm;onf ppffonfOD;a& 200 atmuffom&Sdygonf/

24

ynma&;u@
ausmif;wnf aqmufNyD;pD;aomtcg etz rS ausmif;udk 4if;wdkY\ausmif;jzpfaMumif; aMujimavh
&SdNyD; trSeftm;jzifh ausmif;jzpfajrmuf&ef &Gmom;rsm;rS yifyef;pGmBudK;pm;cJh&ygonf/ etz rS &Gmom;
rsm;udk ausmif;wnfaqmuf&ef tcrJh twif;t"r
t"rcdckdif;apcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifh ausmif;udk &Gmol&Gmom;
rsm;\ausmif;[k ac:qdkEdkif ygonf/ ausmif;udk2005 ckESpfrS pwnfaxmifcJhygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / ({NyD 2006)

ausmif;aygif;rsm;pGmudk Edik if aH wmfb@mjzifh wnfaqmufay;onf[k etz tpd;k &rS ajymqdak &;om;


azmfjyaomfvnf; trSepf ifppfrl ausmif;rsm;udk a'ocHjynforl sm;\ vkyt
f m;jzift
h wif;t"rwnfaqmuf
xm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ odYk &yf&mG vlx\
k qErygbJ twif;t"rapcdkif;jcif;udk etz ppfAdkvfrsm;rS
]]vkyt
f m;ay;}} cdik ;f apjcif;f jzpfonf[k ajymqkyd gonf/ ]]vkyt
f m;ay;}} qdo
k nfh a0g[m&onf jrefrmh&;kd &m
,Ofaus;rIt& bk&m;ausmif;uefrsm;? &yfa&;&Gma&;rsm;wGif pdwaf pwemxufoefpmG tcrJyh g0ifaqmif
&Gujf cif;jzpfyf gonf/ odaYk omf ppfwyfEiS hf Edik if aH wmfprD u
H ed ;f rsm;twGurf l vkyt
f m;ay;cdik ;f aprIr&S&d ay/
xdaYk Mumifh ppfwyfrS cdik ;f aprIrsm;onf twif;t"rcikd ;f aprIrsm;jzpfNy;D &Gmom;rsm; rdrpd m;0wfaea&;twGuf
v,f,mxGe,
f ufpu
kd yf sKd ;&ef tcsed rf ay;Edik o
f nf omru b0a&SUa&;twGuf rjzpfraevkyu
f ikd &f rnht
f &m
rsm;udv
k nf; vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd jf cif;r&Sad wmhay/
]]pmoifausmif;aqmufvkyf&eftwGuf etz rS &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;udk ausmufp&pfcJrsm;udk twif;t"r
t"r
o,f,lapygonf/ 4if;wdkYaqmufvkyfaeaomausmif;onf aqmufvkyfqJjzpfygonf/ uRefawmf wdkY&Gm
ol&Gmom;rsm;onf olqif;&Jom;rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh vSnf;ESifhEGm;rsm;udk,fydkifr&Sdyg/ tcsdKUaom&Gmom;
rsm;wGif EGm;rsm;&Sdaomfvnf; vSnf;r&Sdyg/ tcsdKUaom&Gmmom;rsm;wGif vSnf;&Sdaomfvnf; EGm;rsm;r&Sdyg/
xd k Y a Mumif h etz rS uRef a wmf w d k Y & G m om;rsm;ud k ausmuf r sm;o,f , l a pcd k i f ; aomtcg &G m om;rsm;onf
twlwuGyl;aygif;vkyfaqmif&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkY&Gmom;rsm;onf oJrsm; o,faqmif &ef ppfwyfrS
awmif;qkdvQif EGm;vSnf; 10 pif; 4if;wdkYxHydkYay;&ygonf/ &Gmom;rsm;onf oJrsm;udk armvdkacsmif;rS
av;u,fppfpcef;odkY o,fydkYay;&ygonf/ armvdkacsmif;ESifhav;u,f&Gm onf rdepfoHk;q,fcefYoGm;&NyD;
c&D; 2wdkif(zgvHk)cef17
Y uGma0;ygonf/ ,ckkvuf&Sd wnfaqmufqJ ausmif;udk aqmufvkyfNyD;vQif aq;&Hkudk
qufvufaqmufvkyf&ef etz rS pDpOfxm;ygonf/ aq;&Hkaqmufvkyf&efudp twG
t wGu f v nf ; &G m ol & G m
om;rsm;rS pdk;&drfylyefvsuf&Sdygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 42ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D 2006)

etz t&m&Srd sm;onf aus;&Gmpmoifausmif;rsm;udk &Gmom;rsm;\vkyt


f m;jzihw
f nfaqmufapaomaMumifh
ynma&;0efBu;D XmerScsay;aomausmif;aqmufvyk &f efaiGaMu;udk rdru
d ,
kd u
f sKd ;twGuf toH;k jyKygonf/
ausmif;aqmufvyk jf cif;vkyif ef;udt
k aMumif;jyNy;dD &Gmom;rsm;xHraS iGaMu;udk twif;t"raumufcNH y;D
rdru
d ,
kd u
f sKd ;twGut
f oH;k jyKygonf/
]]uRefrwdkY&GmwGif aq;&Hkaq;ay;cef;r&Sdyg/ rmwdef&GmwGif aq;ay;cef;wpfck&SdNyD;? avnmNrdKUwGif pmoif
ausmif;wpfausmif; &Sdygonf/ etz rS xdkausmif;udk aqmufvkyfjcif;jzpfNyD; &Gmom;rsm;xHrS aiGaMu;
tajrmuftrsm; aumufcHcJhygonf/ tdrfwpftdrfvQif 50000 rS 60000 usyftxd ay;aqmif&ygonf/
4if;ausmif;udk vGefcJhaom 2 ESpfausmfwGif wnfaqmufNyD;pD;cJhygonf/}}
-a':---(r? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? weF o m&D w d k i f ; / (ZG e f v 2007)
17

1zmvHo
k nf c&D;tuGmta0;twdik ;f twmt& 201 rDwm&Syd gonf/ tcsKd U&Gmom;rsm;toH;k jyKaomc&D; 1 zmvHk odrYk [kwf
1 wdik [
f o
l nfh tuGmta0;onf wpfae&mrStjcm;wpfae&modYk 1 rDwm 2 rDwm ponfjzifh wdik ;f wmjcif;r&Sb
d J wpfae&mrS
tjcm;wpfae&modkYoGm;&ef Mumjrifhcsdefjzifh wddkif;wmaomtuGmta0;jzpfygonf/

25

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
]]oxHkc&dkif? zm;tHNrdKUe,f&Sd aus;&Gmrsm;rS &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf rdrdudk,fykdifaiGaMu;rsm;udk pkaqmif;NyD;
tcsif;csif;yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufum ausmif;rsm;udk wnfaqmufcJhMuygonf/ &Gmom;rsm;rS ausmif;rsm;udk
wnfaqmufNyD;aomtcg etz ppfwyfrS ppfonfrsm;&GmodkYa&mufvmNyD; ausmif;rsm;udk "gwfykH&dkuful;
ygonf/ xdkYaemuf ppfwyfrsm;onf ynma&;0efBuD; XmeodkY rdrdwdkYonf u&ifjynfe,ftwGif;wGif pDrHudef;
rsm;pG m aqmif & G u f M uaMumif ; tpD & if c H w if j yygonf / &G m ol & G m om; rsm;\ b0aemif a &;wd k ; wuf & ef
vkyfaqmifaeMuaMumif; &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;aqmufvkyfxm;aom ausmif;rsm;\ "gwfyHkrsm;udk etz ppfwyf
rsm;onf ynma&;0efBuD;XmeodkY 4if;wdkYwnfaqmufxm; oa,mifwifjyygonf/ xkdYjyif ynma&;0efBuD;
Xme&Hk;csKyfodkY etz ppfwyfrS 4if;wdkYonf ausmif;rsm;wnfaqmufcJhaomaMumifh aiGaMu;ajrmufrsm;pGm
ukefusoHk;pGJcJh aMumif;wifjyygonf/ ynma&;0efBuD;XmerS 4if;wdkYwifjyvmaom aiGaMu;pm&if;twdkif;
jyef v nf x k w f a y;ygonf / xd k a iG r sm;ud k etz ppf w yf t &m&S d r sm;u ud k , f u sd K ;twG u f t oH k ; jyKygonf /
ynma&;0efBuD;Xmeonf ausmif;wpfausmif;twGuf q&mwpfa,mufEIef; apvTwfay;ygonf/ aus;&Gm
ausmif;rsm;&Sd ausmif;tkyfwdkif;onf etz rS cefYxm;olrsm;yifjzpfonf/ etz rS ausmif;wpfausmif;vQif
ausmif;q&mwpfOD;omapvTwfay;aomaMumifh tjcm;vdktyfaomausmif;q&m? q&mrrsm;udk &Gmol&Gmom;
rsm;rS iSm;&rf;cefYxm;&ygonf/ rnfonfh ausmif;om;rQ u&ifpmoifMum;cGifhr&&Sdyg/ etz rS u&ifpmoif
Mum;&ef tcsdefray;yg/ xdkYjyif etz apvTwfay;aomausmif;q&mrsm;onf ynmoifMum;ay;&ef tepfem
cH?udk,fusdK;pGefYpdwf"mwfr&Sdyg/ ausmif;csdefESifh pmoifcsdefrsm;wGif 4if;q&mrsm;onf tcsdefrSefvmavhr&Sd
yg/}}
-u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U uG i f ; qif ; avh v mol ? oxH k c &d k i f / ({NyD 2006)

etztmPmydik rf sm;onf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk pmoifausmif;omru pmMunfw


h u
kd rf sm;udyk g rdru
d ,
kd yf ikd pf
&dwjf zifw
h nfaqmufapygonf/ etzonf Edik if aH wmfrS xkwaf 0aomowif;? *sme,frsm;wGif &Gmom;rsm;
aqmufvyk x
f m;aomausmif;rsm;? pmMunhw
f u
kd rf sm;udk 4if;wdw
Yk nfaqmufay;xm;ouJo
h Ykd xnfo
h iG ;f azmf
jyygonf/ odjYk zifh etz ppftpd;k &onf Edik if w
H ;kd wuf&f efBuKd ;pm;aqmif&f u
G af eaMumif;azmfjyavh&ydS g
onf/ u&ifjynfe,f&dS pmMunfw
h u
kd rf sm;onf tpd;k & rSwnfaqmufapjcif;aMumifh wnfaqmufxm;aomf
vnf; tpd;k &rS pmtkyrf sm;tenf;i,fom&Sad omaMumihf pmMunfw
h u
dk o
f Ykd pmvmzwforl sm;r&Syd g/ pmMunfh
wdu
k w
f iG f zwf&LS zG,&f mrsm;rSmvnf; r*Zif;pmtkyt
f a[mif;rsm;om&Syd gonf/
]]Nrd K Ue,f f a t;csrf ; om,ma&;ES i f h zG H U Nzd K ;a&;aumif p D r S uRef a wmf w d k Y N rd K Ue,f & S d aus;&G m oH k ; &G m ud k pmMunf h
wddkufrsm;ukd twif;t"r
t"r wnf
wnfaqmufapygonff/ Zefe0g&Dv 7 &ufaeY 2005 ckESpfwGif wnfaqmufNyD;
pD;ojzifh rtz rS uRefrwdkY&GmwGif pmtkyf 25 tkyf? tjcm;aomm&GmtwGuf 30 tkyfESifh tjcm;aom&Gmt
wGuf 45 tkyf ay;tyffygonf/ xdkYaemuf pmtkyfrsm; udk pmtkyfAD&dkxJwGif xnffhodrf;xm;apygonf/
tcsd K Uaompmtk y f r sm;rS m usef ; rma&;? pD ; yG m ;a&;? vl r I a &;ES i f h y wf o uf a om r*
r*Zif
Z if; pmtk y f r sm;jzpf N yD ;
pmtkyftrsm;pkrSm trsdK;orD;rsm;ESifh uav;oli,frsm; pdwf0ifpm;ap&ef &kyf&Sifrif;om;? rif;orD;rsm;\
owif;twif;tzsif;rsm;ESifh ywfoufaomr*
omr* Zif
Z if; pmtk y f r sm;omjzpf o nf / }}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 56ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (Zef e 0g&D 2006)

&Gmol&mG om;rsm;rS rdrw


d u
Ykd ,
kd yf ikd pf rG ;f tm;jzihf aqmufvyk x
f m;aomausmif;rsm;udjk zpfap? etz ppfwyfrS
twif;t"rvyk t
f m;jzifh aqmufvyk x
f m;aomausmif;rsm;udjk zpfap etzonf 4if;wnfaqmufrrI sm;udk
0g'jzefcY saD &;wGif vufeufozG,t
f oH;k jyKygonf/ etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrrsm;wGif ausmif;rsm;udk aqmuf
vkyNf y;D aomtcg etz t&m&Srd sm;rS ausmif;zGiyhf cJG rf;tem;rsm;udk rSww
f rf;wif AD'&D "kd gwfy&kH u
kd u
f ;l Ny;D
Edik if yH ikd o
f wif;pm(jrefrmhtvif;) wGiaf zmfjyNy;D jrefrmh&yk jf rifoMH um;ESihf jr0wD&yk jf rifoMH um;tpDtpOf
rsm;wGiv
f nf; xkwv
f iT jhf yoygonf/ ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;udv
k nf; ausmif;zGiyhf t
JG crf;tem;rsm;wGif

26

ynma&;u@
twif;tMuyfyg0ifapNy;D ? etz t&m&Srd sm;rS ausmif;wGi;f vSnv
hf nfMunf&h jI cif;udk vufcyk w
f ;D tm;ay;&
ygonf/
]]etz ppft&m&Sdrsm; taqmufttHkzGifhyGJtwGufaomfvnf;aumif; wpfpHkwpfcktwGufaomfvnf; aumif;
tcrf;tem; jyKvkyfvQif xdktcrf;tem;odkY ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;wufa&muftm;ay;NyD; ppfacgif;
aqmif;rsm;udk BudKqdkEIwfquf&ygonf/ etz rS tcrf;tem;rsm;wufa&muf&ef vltrsm;tjym;vdktyfvQif
ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;udktvG,fwulac:,lEdkifaMumif; od&SdaomaMumifh tcrf;tem;wGif ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;rsm;udk wufa&mufapygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 28ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

a'ocHtmPmydik rf sm;rSvnf; txufygtcrf;tem;rsm;usi;f y&eftwGuf jynforl sm;udk aiGaMu;twif;t


Muyfyg0ifvLS 'gef;apjcif;jzifh jynforl sm;tay: tjrwfxw
k yf gonf/
]]etz t&m&Sdrsm; uRefawmfwdkY&Gm&Sdausmif;okdY vma&mufMunfh&SLvQif xdkt&m&Sdrsm;udk BudKqdk{nfhcH&ef
q&m? q&mrrsm;onf ausmif;om;ausm;if;olrsm;xH aiGaMu;aumufcHygonf/ wpfcgwpf&H ausmif;
om;wpfOD;vQif 200 rS 300 usyf ay;aqmif&NyD; tcsdKUtcsdeftcgrsm;wGif 400 rS 500 usyftxd ay;
aqmif & ygonf / }}
-apm---?(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c& d k i f / ({NyD v 2006)

ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;xGufEIef;rsm;jym;vmjcif;ESifh ausmif;tyfrIEIef;usqif;


vmjcif;
]]tcsdKUaomuav;rsm;onf rdbrSaxmufyHhjcif;rjyKEkdifaomaMumihf ausmif;rwufEkdifMuay/ xdkYaMumihf
4if;uav;rsm;onf rdrdtdrfwGifaexdkifNyD; rdbrsm;udkulnD&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkY&Gm&Sd tcsdKUausmif;om;
rsm;onf yO
yO rwef
rwef;atmifjrifvQif ynmqufvufoif,l&ef aumhu&dwf odkYr[kkwf tjcm;NrdKUrsm;okdYoGm;
a&mufynmoif,l&ygonf/ yO
yOwef
wef;atmifjrif NyD;aomfvnf; rdbrsm;rS qufvufaxmufyHh&ef rwwfEkdif
vQif 4if;ausmif;om;rsm;onf ausmif;rSxGuf aexd k i f & yg onf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (rwf v 2007)
]]uRefawmf\tpfudkESifh tpfrrsm;onf etz ppfwyfrS 4if;wdkYausmif;udktNrJtaESmuft,Suf ay;aom
aMumifh ausmif;ynmoif,l&ef pdwf0ifpm;rIr&Sday/ uRefawmf\nDi,f ESifh ESri,frsm;udk ynmoifMum;
&ef uRefawmf\rdcifrS 'kuonfpcef;odkYydkYaqmifygonf/ &GmwGifaexkkdifvQif etz rS aESmuf,Sufaom
aMumifh pmoif,l&eftcsdeftvHktavmufr&ay/ wpfcgwpf&H uREkfyf\aemufaMumif;udk jyefvnfpOf;pm;
rdvQif uRefawmfonf ausmif;ynmroifMum;cJh&aomaMumifh rsm;pGm0rf;enf;rdygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 21ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azazmf 0 g&D 2007)

ausmif;pm;&dwrf wwfEikd af omaMumifv


h nf;aumif; pm;0wfaea&;Muyfwnf;vmjcif;aMumifv
hf nf;aumif;
etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sad usmif;rsm;wGif ausmif;xGuEf eI ;f rsm;jym;vmNy;D ausmif;om;opftyfErHS EI eI ;f usqif;
vmygonf/ ausmif;pm;&dw
d rf wwfEikd jf cif;? ausmif;wuf&ef ukeu
f spm;&dwrf sm;jym;vmjcif;onf etz
rS wdik ;f jynfb@mudk ynma&;twGut
f oH;k rjyKbJ ppfa&;twGuo
f mt"duxm;toH;k jyKaomaMumifh
jzpfygonf/ pm;0wfaea&;Muyfwnf;vmrIonf etz ppfwyfrS aus;&Gmrsm;wGif twif;t"rvt
l m;?
aiGaMu;? pm;eyf&u
d m ESihf tjcm;taxmuftyHrh sm;awmif;cHjcif; ESihf a'owGi;f vGwv
f yfpmG oGm; vmcGi?hf
ukefoG,fcGifhwdkYudk ydwfyifxm;jcif;aMumifhjzpfygonf/ ausmif;q&m? q&mrrsm;twGuf vpmaiG
27

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
ay;&jcif;? Avmpmtkyrf sm; ausmif;oH;k pmtkyrf sm;udk ud,
k yf ikd 0f ,f,jl cif;? ausmif;oef&Y iS ;f a&;ESihf xde;f odr;f
a&;twGuf aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&jcif;? yGv
J rf;obifEiS hf tcrf;tem;rsm;twGuf aiGay;aqmif&jcif; ponf
wdo
Yk nf rdbrsm;pGmtwGuf 0efxw
k 0f efy;kd jzpfapNy;D 4if;wdu
Yk av;i,frsm;udk pmoifausmif;okrYd ydaYk qmiff
Edik af y/
]]ausmif;twGufvdktyfaomyp
omyp nf
n;f rsm;udk ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;rS 0,f,l&ygonf/ &Hzef&Hcgqdkovkd
u&if y nma&; Xme(KED) rS taxmuftyHhrsm;&&Sdaomfvnf; vHkavmufrIr&Sday/ ausmif;om;trsm;
tjym;&SdaomaMumifh wpfOD;vQif Avmpmtkyfwpftkyfom tcrJh&&Sdygonf/ tcsdKUaomuav;i,frsm;onf
ausmif;wuf&efqEE&S&dSaomfvnf; rdbrsm;rS rydkYaqmifEdkifay/ tcsdKUaomuav;i,frsm;onf rdrd\nDi,f?
nDri,frsm;udk Munfh&SLapmifha&Smuf&efESifh uRJEGm;rsm;udk Munfh&SL&ef twif;apcdkif;cH&ygonf/ rdbrsm;rS
vHk avmufaom aiGaMu;r&SdaomaMumifh rdrduav;i,frsm;udk ausmiff; okkdYrydkYaqmifEdkifay/}}
-apm---(usm;? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azazmf 0 g&D 2006)

&efuek w
f iG af jcpdu
k af om urmu
h v
k or* uav;oli,frsm;qkid &f mtxl;&HyakH iGtzGYJ (UNICEF) rSvnf;
qif;&J Muyfwnf;rIaMumifahf usmif;om;ausmif;olrsm; ausmif;xGuEf eI ;f jrifrh m;vmaMumif; awG&Y cdS yhJ gonf/
atmufazmfjyyg UNICEF ud,
k pf m;vS,\
f rSwcf suu
f kd Munfjh cif;jzifh ausmif;xGuEf eI ;f rsm;jym;vmrIukd
od&d EdS ikd yf gonf/
]oli,fwef;ESifh yxrwef;rS ausmif;om;rsm; ausmif;xGufEIef;jrifhrm;vmygonf/ ---rdom;pkrsm; pGmonf
]]ol
aiG a &;aMu;a&;tcuf t cJ r sm;tMum; &k e f ; uef v I y f & S m ;Mu&aomaMumif h 4if ; wd k Y \ uav;ol i ,f r sm;
ynma&;twGuf aiGukefaMu;usrcHEkdifay/ pm;0wfaea&;tajccHvdk tyfcsuftwGuf aiGukefcH&efom
vd k t yf a omaMumif h j zpf o nf / }} 18

ausmif;tyf&efuek u
f spm;&dwrf sm;jym;jcif;ESihf rdom;pk0ifaiGyrkd rkd sm;jym;vm&ef rdbrsm;onf rdrw
d \
Ykd uav;
i,frsm;udk ausmif;rSxw
k yf ,fMuygonf/ uav;oli,frsm; ausmif;raeaomaMumifh 4if;wdu
Yk kd rdbrsm;rS
0ifaiG&&Sad omtvkyv
f yk af pjcif;? rdom;pkyikd v
f ,fajr? O,smOfjcrH sm;wGif vkyu
f ikd af pjcif;? tdrw
f iG ;f vkyif ef;
rsm;jzpfaomcsujf yKwjf cif;? oef&Y iS ;f a&;vkyjf cif;ESihf rdrd \
d nDi,f? nDri,frsm;udk Munf&h LS jcif;ponfwu
Ykd kd
vkyu
f ikd af pygonf/
]]tcsd K Uaomuav;ol i ,f r sm;onf rd r d w d k Y \ nD i ,f ? nD r i,f r sm;ud k Munf h & S L apmif h a &S m uf & jcif ; aMumif h
ausmif; ynmroif,lEdkifMuay/ tdrftwGuf tpm;taomufrsm;udk vnf; csufjyKwf&NyD; aomufoHk ;
a&rsm;ud k v nf ; o,f , l & ygonf / }}
-aemf - --(r? 42ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / ({NyD v 2007)
]]ausmif;ae&rnfh touft&G,f&Sduav;i,ftcsdKUonf v,f,mpkdufcif;rsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfapjcif;cH&yg
onf/ rdrdwdkY\nDi,fnDri,frsm; odkYr[kwf uRJEGm;rsm;udk Munfh&SL&ygonf/}}
-OD ; .---(usm;? 44ES p f ) &G m ol B uD ; ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azazmf 0 g&D v 2006)

18

UNICEF rS ausmif;tyfEaHS &;&uowywfwiG f ausmif;aet&G,u


f av;rsm;udk ausmif;tyfE&HS ef wdu
k w
f eG ;f tm;ay;yg
onf/ UNICEF Myanmar Media Center, June 2004. tifwmeufpmrsuEf mS http"//www.unicef.org/
myanmar/media_1567.html rS Zefe0g&Dv 4 &uf 2007 ckESpfwGif &,lxm;ygonf/

28

ynma&;u@
xdt
Yk jyif ynmoif,al &;udk ydrk x
kd cd u
kd af paomtcsurf mS rde;f uav;rsm;twGuf tv,fwef;ESihf txuf
wef;ausmif;rsm;onf rdrw
d &Ykd mG wGirf &Sad omaMumifh rdrw
d &Ykd mG teD;tem;&Sd aus;&GmBu;D rsm;? NrKd Ursm;odo
Yk mG ;
a&muf ynmoifMum;&efrvG,fulay/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf tjcm;NrdKU&Sdausmif;rsm;
odo
Yk mG ;a&muf&ef v,fuiG ;f jyifrsm;? awmwef;rsm;udk jzwfoGm;a&muf&ygonf/ rde;f uav;i,frsm;onf
&d;k &mxH;k wrf;pOfvmt& c&D;a0;odw
Yk pfO;D wnf;oGm;a&muf&ef ydwyf ifc&H jcif;ESihf 4if;wkt
Yd azmfrygbJomG ;
vQif vrf;c&D;wGif taESmuft,Sujf yKc&H jcif;? rw&m;jyKusichf &H jcif; ponfwEYkd iS &hf ifqikd &f rnfukd rdbrsm;rS
pd;k &dryf gonf/ xkaYd Mumifh rdbrsm;onf orD;rde;f uav;rsm;udk tdrw
f iG o
f maexdik af pNy;D om;a,musmf ;
rsm;udo
k m ausmif;ynmoifMum;apygonf/
]]tjcm;NrdKU&Gmrsm;&Sdausmif;odkY orD;rdef;uav;rsm;udk ynmoifMum;aprnfqdkvQif rdbrsm;onf emrnf
aumif;aomausmif; ESifh rdef;uav;twGuf vHkjcHKpdwfcs&aomausmif;udkom&SmazGydk Yaqmifygonf/ rdb
rsm;onf orD;rdef;uav;rsm;udk &yfa0;odkYoGm;a&muf aiG&SmcGifhvnf;rjyKay/ tdrfaxmif&SifrwpfOD;rS
rdrdorD;twGuf pdk;&drfaomaMumifh &yfa0;odkYoGm;a&muf aiG&SmcGif hrjyKyg/ rdef;uav;vHk jcHKpdwfcsrItwGuf
pdk ;&drfaomaMumihfvnf; jzpfygonf/}}
-aemf - --? (r? 22 ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2006)

xdt
Yk jyifx;kH xrf;pOfvmt& orD;D rde;f uav;rsm;onf ausmif;ynmt&nftcsi;f jrifrh m;&efrvdt
k yfaom
tdraf xmifwm0efuo
dk m &,lapygonf/ ppftpd;k &\zdEydS t
f yk cf sKyrf aI tmufwiG f b0a&SUa&;wd;k wufjrifh
rm;&ef tcGit
hf vrf;tenf;i,fom&Sad omaMumifh rdbrsm;onf rdrw
d \
Ykd om;? orD;rsm; ausmif;ynmwwf
ajrmufatmifjrifjcif;udk tusKd ;r&S[
d ,
k q
l Muygonf/
]]pwk w wef
yOwef
wef;atmifjrifNyD;ygu uRefawmfwdkY&Gm&Sd ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf yO
wef;ynmqufvuf
oif,l&ef zl;y&m&GmodkY oGm;a&muf&ygonf/ odkYaomf &Gm&Sdausmif;om;^ausmif;ol oHk ;OD;odkYr[kwf av;OD;
om zl;y&m&GmodkYoGm;a&muf ynmoif,lygonf/ tcsdKUaomrdbrsm;onf rdrd\&ifaoG;i,frsm;tjcm;
od k Y o G m ;a&muf ydkrdkjrifhrm;aom twef;ynmoif,lMujcif;onf tv[oaiGESifh tcsdefjzKef;jcif;om
jzpfonf[k ,lqMuygonf/ txufwef;ynmjrifhrm;pGmoifMum;NyD; &Gmodk YjyefvmvQif rdbrsm;ESifh v,f,m
O,smOfjcHrsm;wGifom ulnDvkyfudkif&ygonf/ tjcm;vkyfudkifEdkifaomtvkyftudkifr&Sdyg/ odkYaomf tcsdKUt
enf;i,faomrdbrsm;url txufygtwdkif; r,lqMubJ rdrd\uav;i,frsm;udk ausmif;ynmqufvuf
qnf;yl;&ef wdkufwGef;tm;ay;ygonf/}}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 39 ES p f ) &G m ol B uD ; ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / ('D Z if b m 2005)

ausmif;ynmoif,&l ef ukeu
f spm;&dwjf rifrh m;jcif;? rdom;pkqif;&JMuyfwnf;jcif;? ausmif;ESit
hf rd t
f Mum;oGm;
&rnfh c&D;a0;uGmjcif;ESifh tjcm;aomtcuftcJrsm;jzpfvmygu &&SdrnfhtusdK;tjrwfESifh EdIif;,SOf
rdru
d av;i,frsm;udk ausmif;qufwufciG Ehf iS hf ausmif;tyfEcHS iG jhf yKoifrh jyKoifu
h kd qH;k jzwfMuygonf/ txuf
ygtaMumif;t&mrsm;onf &d;k &mxH;k xrf; pOfvmt& ynma&;tay:tjrifEiS v
hf nf;qufpyfaeygonf/
u&ifvrl sKd ;rsm;onf tawGUtMuKH jzifh oif,&l aomoufarG;0rf; aMumif;ynma&;udk wefz;kd xm;ouJo
h Ykd
,cktcg u&iftrsKd ;om;? orD;rsm;tMum;wGif ausmif;ynmudyk gwefz;kd xm;vmMuygonf/ odaYk omf rdom;
pkrsm;onf qif;&JMuyfwnf;rIrsm;jym;vmjcif;aMumifhf ynma&;udk wefz;kd xm;aomfvnf; ukeu
f sp&dwrf sm;
aomausmif;ynmudo
k if,&l ef rdru
d av;i,frsm;udk ausmif;okrYd ydaYk qmifEidk af y/ etz ppftpd;k &\ tkyf
csKyrf ,
I E&m;atmufwiG f aus;&Gm&Sv
d x
l rk sm;twGuf tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd &f efae&mr&So
d jzifh tcsKd Uaomrdb
d rsm;
onf ynma&;udk wefz;kd &So
d nf[rk jrifbJ ausmif;odrYk rd u
d av;i,frsm;udak pvGw
f ynmoifMum;ay;&ef
twGuf ukeu
f sp&dwrf sm;jym; 0efxyk 0f efy;kd jzpfaponf[o
k m xifjrifygonf/
29

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
]]tcsdKUrdbrsm;u ynmwwfrsm;vnf;xrif;pm;&
ynmrwwfaomolrsm;vnf; xrif;pm;&onf[k ajym
pm;&
qd k M uojzif h 4if ; wd k Y t m; rd r d u av;rsm;ud k a usmif f ; xm;&ef t wG u f wd k u f w G e f ; &ef r vG , f u l y g/ tcsd K Urd
brsm;onf rdrd\om;orD;rsm;onf ynmwwf&efxufaiG&Smwwf&efydk ta&;ygonf [ k xif j rif a om
aMumifh rdrduav;i,frsm;udk 0ifaiG&&Sdaomtvkyftudkifrsm;udk twif;tMuyfvkyfudkifapygonf/}}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 44ES p f ) &G m ol B uD ; ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2006)

u&ifjynfe,fwiG f ppftpd;k &\zdEd ydS cf sKycf s,rf aI Mumifh rdom;pktrsm;qif;&JMuyfwnf;vm 0ifaiG&&Sd&ef


rdbrsm;onf jyifywGit
f vkyv
f yk u
f ikd &f aomaMumifh tdrrf u
I pd r sm;udk uav;oli,frsm;rS vkyu
f ikd &f aom
aMumifh ausmif;ynmoif,El idk &f ef rjzpfEidk af y/ vGecf ahJ omtcsed rf sm;wGif tazESihf t&G,af &mufNy;D om;Bu;D
rsm;u v,f,mvkyif ef;udv
k yk u
f ikd Mf uaomtcg? rdcifrS tdrrf u
I pd rsm;udk vkyaf qmifygonf/ ,cktcsed f
wGirf l ppftpd;k &ppfwyfrsm;\ pm;eyf&u
d m rsm;? aiGaMu;rsm;ESihf tdraf rG;wd&pd mefrsm;udk twif;t"rord ;f
,ljcif;ESihf t&G,af &mufNy;D a,musmf ;rsm;udk ppfwyftwGuf twif;t"rac:,lapckid ;f jcif;rsm;aMumifh
tdraf xmif&iS rf rsm;onf tdraf xmifwm0efukd rxrf;aqmifEikd b
f J pm;0wfaea&;twGuf &ke;f uefvyI &f mS ;
&ygonf/ xdaYk Mumifh uav;i,frsm;onf tdraf xmifwm0ef odrYk [kwf v,f,majrpdu
k cf if;rsm;wGif tvkyf
vkyu
f ikd &f ygonf/

txufwGifaz:jyxm;onffhyHkonf ZGefv 2006 ckESpfwGif 'lyvm,mc&dkif&Sd uav;i,fwpfOD;onf pyg; pdk ufysdK;&ef


v,f a jrxG e f , uf a eyH k j zpf y gonf / etz ppf t pd k ; &rS 4if ; wd k Y r d o m;pk x H r S aiG a Mu;? vk y f t m;ES i f h tjcm;aom
taxmuftyHhyppnf
t"rawmif
n;f rsm;udk twif;t"r
awmif;cHrIrsm;aMumifh vpfvyfoGm;aomzcif\v,f,mpdkufysddK;a&;wm0ef
udk0ifa&mufvkyfudkif&jcif;jzpfygonf/ ynmudkoif,lvdkaomfvnf; pm;0wfaea&;twGuf tvkyfvkyfudkif&aom
aMumif h ausmif ; ynmroif , l E k d i f a y/

30

ynma&;u@
]]uRefrwdkY&GmwGif uav;oli,ftm;vHk;onf ausmif;ynmroif,lEdkifay/ tcsdKUuav;rsm;udk rdcifrsm;
rS 4if;wddkY\nDi,f? nDri,frsm;udk Munfh&Iapmiffha&Smuf&ef ausmiff;wufcGifhrjyKay/ tcsdKUuav;i,frsm;
onf ausmif;ynmoif,lvdkaomfvnf; rdom;pkjyy
emrsm;aMumif h ynmroif , l E d k i f a y/}}
-aemf - --(r? 49ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Zef e 0g&D v 2007)
]]uRefawmfwdkY&Gm&Sdausmif;wGif ausmif;om;ausmif;olaygif; 100 ausmf&Sdygonf/ uav;oli,frsm; oHk;
yHkwpfyHk onf ausmif;raeMuay/ tcsdKUuav;i,frsm;onf rdbrsm;rS rtm;vyfaomaMumifh rdrdnDi,f?
nDri,frsm;udk Munfh&Iapmifha&Smuf&ygonf/ tcsdKUwdkYonf rdrdwdkY\ uRJ? EGm;rsm;udk Munfh&I&aomaMumifh
ausmif;ynmoif,l&ef tcsdefr&&Sday/}}
-apm---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / ('D Z if b mv 2006)

ausmif;om;vli,frsm; ausmif;wufEIef;usqif;vmjcif;onf ppftpdk;&\ynma&;twGufEdkifiHawmf


b@mudk tenf;i,fomcsay;jcif;? tvTo
J ;kH pm;tjrwfxw
k jf cif;ponfwEYkd iS hf wdu
k &f u
kd q
f ufpyfaeygonf/
txufygtvTo
J ;kH pm;tjrwfxw
k rf rI sm;onf ppftpd;k &rS wdik ;f jynfukd tkycf sKyaf eoa&GUwnf&adS ernfjzpf
ygonf/

etz \ oif&dk;Tef;wrf;ESifh ppfwyf\r[mArmvlrsdK;BuD;0g'


etz ppftpd;k &\ wdik ;f jynfxal xmifa&;tpDtpOfrsm;wGiyf g0ifaomoif&;kd Te;f wrf;xkwaf 0jcif; tpD
tpOfwiG f ynma&;0efBu;D Xmeonf ArmvlrsKd ;Bu;D 0g'udk tajccHaoma&S;ArmvlrsKd ;bk&ifrsm;\ ordik ;f
aMumif; twkta,mifrsm;udo
k m oif&;kd Te;f wrf;wGif wpfcrf;wpfem;xnfo
h iG ;f xm;jcif;onf ausmif;om;
ausmif;olO;D a&udk usqif;apygonf/ jrefrmjynf&dS wdik ;f &if;om;aygif;rsm;pGm\ ordik ;f aMumif;rsm;udk
oif&dk;Te;f wrf;wGif xnfo
h iG ;f jcif;r&Sb
d J ppfwyftiftm;udt
k oH;k jyKNy;D wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;\ e,fajrrsm;
udo
k rd ;f ydu
k cf ahJ om taemf&xm? usepf pfom;? bk&ifah emif? tavmif;bk&m;? AEKv? AdkvfjrwfxGef; ESifh
rif;wke;f rif;rsm;paom Armbk&ifrsm; bke;f rD;aevawmufycJah omtaMumif;rsm;udo
k m ausmif;om;
19
ausmif;olrsm;tm;oifMum;apygonf/ etz xkwaf 0aomoif&;kd Te;f wrf;onf ArmvlrsKd ;rsm; trsm;pk
aexkid &f ma'orsm;wGif vlxrk v
S ufcH tusKd ;tjrwf&&SEd ikd af omfvnf; u&ifvrl sKd ;rsm;aexdik &f m u&if
jynfe,faus;&Gmrsm;&Sd u&ifvlrsdK;rsm;twGufrl tusdK;r&SdbJ pdwfysufzG,f&mjzpfapygonf/ rnfodkY
yifjzpfaomfjim;vnf; jrefrmjynfwpfvmT ;&Sd etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrwGif etz rS xkwjf yefaomoif&;kd Te;f
wrf;udo
k m ausmif;rsm;wGio
f ifMum;&Ny;D oif&;kd Te;f wrf;rsm;wGif wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;\ ordik ;f aMumif;rsm;ESihf
etz cGijhf yKxm;aomoif&;kd ESihf uGv
J aJG omordik ;f bmomrsm;udk oifMum;cGirhf &Sad y/ ausmif;rsm;wGif oif
Mum;&ef oif&;kd Te;f wrf;rsm;udk jrefrmynma&;0efBu;D XmerS etz ppfacgif;aqmifrsm;xde;f csKyx
f m;aom
jrefrmEdik if yH nma&;aumfrwDu csrw
S x
f m;aomynma&;qdik &f mrl0g'twdik ;f a&;om;xkwaf 0xm;jcif;
jzpfygonf/ 2004 ckEpS f etz ppftyk pf t
k wGi;f oabmxm;uGv
J rJG I rjzpfay:rSt
D csed x
f d jrefrmEdik if yH nm
a&;aumfrwDwiG f 0efBu;D csKyf 'kw,
d Adv
k cf sKyBf u;D cifeG rYf S OuXwm0efux
kd rf;aqmifcyhJ gonf/20 'kw,
d Adv
kd f
19

Thein Lwin, ''The Educational Cost of Army Rule in Burma," Norwegian Church Aid/
Norwegian Burma Council, September 24th -27th 2000, Oslo. Accessed at http://www.
educationburma.net/Papers/Paper%202% 20Educational% 20Cost% 20of%20Army%
20Rule.htm on January 4th 2008.
20
Cheesman, Nick. 2003, "Sangha,State and Society," Comparative Education 39(1):
45-63. p56.

31

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
csKyfBuD;cifeG &Yf mxl;rSz,f&mS ;cH&Ny;D aemufwiG f ,ckvuf&dS 'kw,
d Adv
kd cf sKyBf u;D ode;f pderf S OuXwm0efukd
21
vTaJ jymif;&,lxm;ygonf/ etz ppftpd;k &onf oif&;kd Te;f wrf;rsm;udk csKyu
f ikd x
f m;jcif;jzifh wdik ;f jynf
ynma&;onff etz ppftpd;k &\ Edik if aH &;rl0g'ESihf udu
k n
f aD p&efjzpfygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh 4if;wd\
Yk
rl0g'wpfcrk mS 4if;wd\
Yk oufO;D pHyikd f ppftmPm&Sit
f yk cf sKyrf pI epfut
kd usKd ;jyKaom etz\ trdeu
Yf ekd mcH
aomvlxkwpff&yfudkaz:aqmiff&efjzpfygonf/ ynma&;okkawoDwpfOD;rS jrefrmEdkifiHyna&;epfudk
atmufygtwdikd ;f rSwcf sucf sygonf/
]]1988 ckESpfrSp jrefrmEdkifiH&Sdausmif;rsm;tm;vHk;udk tkyfcsKyfolppftmPm&SifrS vHk ;0xdef;csKyfxm;jcif;
jzpfaomaMumifh 4if;ynma&;pepfatmufwGif BuD;jyif;vmaomvlxkonf wdkif;jynfftkyf csKyfa&;twGuf
tusdK;&Sdaponf/ xkdYaMumifh ynma&;pepfonf qdk&S,fvpfacwfOD;ydkif; pepfESifhwlaponf/ etz
tpd k ; & onf vl x k u d k 4 if ; wd k Y c srS w f x m;aomvrf ; pOf r S vT J z ,f r oG m ;ap&ef ppf a cgif ; aqmif r sm;onf
vl x k r sm;\wm0ef 0 w
w &m;ES
uP rsm;ud
& m;ESi f h tcef ; uP
rsm;udk tNrJwapajymqdkygonf/ xdkYaMumifhvlxkonf ppftpdk;
&twGuf om&yfwnf&rnfjzpfNyD; tjcm;aomrnfonhftzGJUtpnf;rsm;twGuf vHk;0r&yfwnf&yg/}}22

r[mArmvlrsKd ;Bu;D 0g'jzifh wdik ;f jynfwnfaqmufa&;tpDtpOfonf jrefrEdik if w


H pfvmT ; wdik ;f &if;om;rsm;\
bmompum;rsm;udk ausmif;rsm;wGio
f ifMum;cGihf ydwyf ifjcif;ESihf qufpyfaeygonf/ 0g'udk wdik ;f jynf
wpfvmT ;rusio
hf ;kH aomfvnf; a,bk,stm;jzifh ausmif;rsm;wGif u&ifbmompum;udk w&m;0ifoifMum;
cGifhrjyKay/
]]y
rwef
]]y
rwef;ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;twGuf ausmif;0ifaMu;rSm 3500 usyf? qXrwef; ausmif;om;
ausmif;olrsm;twGuf 4000 usyf? ow
owrwef
rwef;ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;twGuf 4500 usyf ESihf tXrwef;
ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;twGuf 5000 usyf toD;oD;jzpfMuygonf/ odkYaomf ausmif;rsm;wGif u&if
bmompum;udk oif,lcGifhr&Sday/ ausmif;tkyfq&m rSm etz ynma&; 0efBuD;XmerS cefYtyfxm;aomol
jzpf o nf /
-apm---(usm;? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2006)
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif pwkw wef
wef;txd ynmoifMum;Edkifaom rlvwef;ausmif;wpfausmif;&Sdygonf/
ausmif;udk aus;&Gmvlxk rS udk,fydkifvkyftm;jzifh aqmuffvkyfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ q&m? q&mr (4)OD;
&Sdygonf/ ausmif;q&m? q&mr (3)OD;rSm etz tpdk ;&rScefYxm;ay;ydkYxm;aomolrsm;jzpfNyD; wpfOD;rSm
&G m ol & G m om;rsm;rS a&G ; cs,f c ef Y x m;jcif ; jzpf y gonf f / ausmif ; q&m(3)OD ; ud k tpd k ; &rS a xmuf y H h ay;NyD ;
usefwpfOD; udk &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rS axmufyHhay;ygonf/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf u&ifbmomudk
ausmif;wGif
oifMum;cGifhr&aomaMumifh
u&ifpum;udkajymqdkEdkifaomfvnf;
u&if p mud k r l z wf & I E d k i f j cif ; r&S d y g/}}
-aemf - --(r? 53ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (ZG e f v 2007)

xdjYk yifru etz tpd;k &rS ceft


Y yfxm;aomausmif;q&m? q&mrrsm;onf NrKd Ujya'orsm;rS ArmvlrsKd ;
q&m? q&mrrsm;jzpfygonf/ 4if;q&m? q&mrrsm;onf u&ifbmompum;rsm;udk ajymqdw
k wfjcif;r&Sd
21

''Teachers asked to raised ethics," The Myanmar Times, February 13th-19th 2006. Access
ed http://www.myanmar.com/myanmartimes/MyanmarTimes16-304/n015.htm on December 14th 2007.
22
Cheesman, Nick. 2003, "Sangha,Statee and Society," Comparative Education 39(1):4563.p56.

32

ynma&;u@
q&m? q&mrrsm;\&Si;f vif;csurf sm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;rS em;rvnfEikd af omaMumifh ausmif;om;? ausmif;
olrsm;udk rdru
d ,
kd u
f rkd rd jd yefvnf oifMum;apvQif ydkyifaumif;rGerf nfjzpfygonf/
]]uREkfyfwdkY&GmwGifpmoifausmif;&Sdaomfvnf; 4if;pmoifausmif;onf uav;oli,frsm;\ b0wdk;wufa&;
udk taxmuftulrjyKEdkifyg/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf rdrdudk,fydkifaiGjzifh ausmif;oHk;pmtkyfrsm;udk 0,f,l&
aomaMumifh tcsdKUr0,fEdkifaom ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;wGif vdktyfaomzwfpmtkyfESifhrSwfpkpmtkyf
rsm; tvHk tavmufr&Sdyg/ q&m? q&mrrsm;udk,fwdkif u&ifbmompum;udkajymqdkEdkifjcif;? zwfEdkifjcif;
r&SdaomaMumifh ausmif;om;rsm;udk u&ifbmomoifMum; jcif;rjyKEdkifay/ xdkYaMumifh ausmif;om;vli,f
trsm;pkonf u&ifbmompum;udkajymqdkEdkifNyD;? a&;Edkif?zwfEdk ifjcif;r&Sdyg/}}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 44ES p f ) &G m ol B uD ; ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2006)

odaYk omftcsKd Uaomu&ifvrl t


I odik ;f t0ef;onf u&ifbmompum;oifcef;pmrsm;udk rdred nf;rdr[
d efjzifh
oifMum;Muygonf/ tcsKd Uaomu&ifjynfe,faus;&Gmrsm;&Sd ausmif;rsm;ESihf etzrSceft
Y yfaomq&m?
q&mrrsm;r&Sb
d J a'ocH&mG ol&mG om;rsm;yif q&m?q&mrtjzpf oifMum;Muaomausmif;rsm;wGiv
f nf;
u&ifbmomudk oifMum;Muygonf/ pae? we*FaEG ausmif;ydw&f ufrsm;wGiv
f nf; tcsKd UaomAk'b
mom
bke;f Bu;D ausmif;rsm;ESihf c&pf,mefb&k m;&Scd ;kd ausmif;rsm; wGiv
f nf; u&ifpmudo
k ifMum;ay;Muygonf/f
]]uRef r wd k Y & G m wG i f pwk w wef
w ef; txd y nmoif , l E d k i f a om rl v wef ; ausmif ; av;&S d y gonf / ausmif ; q&m?
q&mrrsm;onf uRefrwdkY&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;yifjzpfNyD; 4if;wdkYudk&GmrSyifaxmufyhHay;ygonf/ ausmif;om;
ausmif;ol 69 OD; ynmoifMum;vsuf&Sdygonf/ 4if;ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;onf uHaumif;axmufr
pGmjziffh u&ifbmompum;oif,l&ef tcGifhta&;&&Sdygonf/}}
-a':---(r? 55ES p f ) ? ---&G m ?oxH k c &d k i f / (ZG e f v 2006)
]]uRef a wmf w d k Y & G m wG i f bmoma&;tzG J U tpnf ; rsm;rS wnf a xmif x m;aompmoif a usmif ; wpf a usmif ; &S d
ygonf/ ausmif;q&m? q&mr ig;OD;&SdNyD; ausmif;om;OD;a&rnfrQ&Sdonfudk uREkfyftwd tusrod&Sdyg/
ausmif ; om;ausmif ; ol r sm;onf rS w f p k p mtk y f r sm;ud k tcrJ h & &S d N yD ; abmyif E S i f h c J w H r sm;ud k & &S d o nf ? r&S d
onfukdrl uRefawmftwdtusrodyg/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf u&ifbmomudk aumif; rGefpGm
oifMum;cGifh &&SdMuygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 29ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / ({NyD v 2007)

u&ifjynfe,f tcsKd Uaome,fajr&S&d mG rsm;onf u&iftrsKd ;om;tpnf;t&H;k (autef,)l ESihf etz ppfwyf
ESpzf UJG vH;k rS xde;f csKyaf ome,fajrwGi&f adS omaMumifh 4if;aus;&Gmrsm;&Sad usmif;rsm;onf autef,rl aS &;aom
oif&dk;Te;f wrf;ESihf etz rSa&;aomoif&;kd Te;f wrf;ESpcf v
k ;kH udk u&ifbmomESihf jrefrmbmomESprf sKd ;
vH;k jzifh oifMum;ygonf/
]]uRefrwdkY&GmwGif pmoifausmif;wpfausmif;&Sdygonf/ ausmif;udk autef,l ESifh etz ausmif;[kkac:
qdk Ekdifygonf/ ,ckkESpfwGif pwkkw wef
wef;ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf autef,lrS jyKvkyfaompmar;yGJ
udk 0ifa&mufajzqdkvQif aemifESpfwGif etz rSjyKvkyfaompmar;yGJudk 0ifa&mufajzqdkMuygonf/ ausmif;
wGif q&m? q&mr ig;OD;&SdNyD;? wpfOD;rSm etz apvTwfaomoljzpfNyD; usefav;OD;rSm aus;&GmrS iSg;&rf;cefY
xm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ etz rSapvTwfaomausmif;q&mtwGuf vcay;&efrvdk aomfvnf; pm;eyf&dum
rsm;axmuf y H h & ef v d k y gonf / }}
-aemf - --(r? 45ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D 2006)

33

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
ausmif;rsm;wGif q&mq&mrrsm;onf ppftpd;k &rSjyXmef;aomr[mArmvlrsKd ;Bu;D 0g'udk tajccHaomoif
&d;k Te;f wrf;udk oifMum;&&krH u q&mq&mrrsm;onf etzrS zGUJ pnf;xm;aomjynfaxmifpBk uchH ikd af &;ESihf
zGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJU (jynfcdkifNzdK;)23 wGiyf g0ifjcif;jzifh etz tpd;k &rSjyKvyk af omEdik if aH &;oifwefrsm;udkd wuf
a&muf&ygonf/ etz ppftpd;k &rSjyKvyk af omtpDtpOfrsm;wGif tv,fwef;ESit
hf xufwef;ausmif;
om;rsm;udk twif;tMuyfyg0ifapNy;D xdu
k o
hJ yYkd g0ifjcif;jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;rS q&m? q&mrrsm;ay;aomt
rSwrf sm;&&Syd gonf/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf ausmif;pmar;yGaJ tmifjrif aemufwpfwef;odw
Yk uf
a&mufEidk &f ef pmayatmifrw
S f 40% &&S&d rnft
h jyif etz rSjyKvyk af om tpDtpOfrsm;wGiyf g0ifjcif;jzifh
&&Sad omtrSwf 40% jynfrh &DS ygrnf/ ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;yg0ifvyk u
f ikd &f rnfh tpDtpOfrsm;rS
atmufygtwdik ;f jzpfygonf/
1/ rdrad exdik af omaus;&Gm odrYk [kwf NrKd U ESihf Edik if aH wmfzUHG NzKd ;wd;k wuf&efaqmif&u
G rf rI sm;? yg0ifjcif;
2/ rdrad us;&Gm? NrKd Uvkyif ef;rsm;twGuf rdrq
d Et& tcrJhyg0ifvkyfudkifjcif;
3/ ausmif;rsm;wGif zGUJ pnf;xm;aomtoif;tyif;ESit
hf zGUJ tpnf;rsm;\vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;wGiyf g0ifjcif;
ESihf MuufajceDpaomvlraI &;tzGUJ rsm;wGiyf g0ifvyI &f mS ;jcif; ponfwjYkd zpfyg onf/24
etz ppftpd;k &onf 4if;wk\
Yd tkycf sKyaf &;,Em,m;ydrk cdk ikd Nf raJ p&efEiS hf Ekid if w
H umrS 4if;wdu
Yk ykd rkd kd todtrSwf
jyK&ef 4if;wdaYk jymqdo
k ;kH EIe;f aompum;toH;k tEIe;f rsm;udk uRr;f usiv
f rd m pGmtoH;k jyKygonf/ txufazmf
jyyg ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;vkyaf qmif&aomvlraI &;vkyif ef;rsm;onf trSepf ifppfrl ausmif;olausmif;
om;rsm;twGuf ynma&;t&vnf;aumif;? vlraI &;t&vnf;aumif; tusKd ;tjrwftenf;i,fom&&Sd
apNy;D etz tpd;k &\twif;t"rvyk t
f m; awmif;cHjcif;udk yHzk sux
f m;jcif;omjzpfygonf/ xdjYk yif etz
tpd;k &onf ]]vkyt
f m;ay;}} [lonft
h oH;k tEIe;f udo
k ;kH pGNJ y;D jynfov
l x
l u
k kd twif;t"rtvkyaf pcdik ;f ygonf/
ausmif; om;? ausmif;olrsm;onf &Hzef&cH gqdo
k vdyk if rdrad exdik &f mNrKd U&Gmvkyif ef;rsm;wGif yg0ifvyk u
f ikd &f ef
twif;tMuyfapcdik ;f cH&aomaMumifh pmayoifMum;csed u
f x
kd cd u
kd ef pfemapygonf/ pmoifausmif;rsm;onf
etz ppftpd;k &twGuf uav;oli,frsm;\vkyt
f m;udk tvG,w
f ul&,lEikd &f efae&mrsm;yif jzpfygonf/
]]uRefawmfonf awmifilNrdKU trSwf (5)ausmif;wGif ynmoifMum;cJhygonf/ ausmif;onf etz rS
zGifhvSpfxm;aomausmif;jzpfNyD; q&mq&mrrsm;rSmvnf; etz rS ceYftyfxm;olrsm;yifjzpfygonf/ wpf
cgwpf&H ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf ]]vkyftm;ay;}}oGm;a&mufvkyfudkif&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 19ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / ({NyD v 2006)

etz tpd;k &onf uav;oli,frsm;tm; twif;t"rapckid ;f &efypfrw


S rf xm;aomfvnf; rdom;pkpm;0wf
aea&;tcuftcJrsm;ESihf etz \awmif;cHrrI sm;tvGet
f rif;rsm;jym;aomaMumifh uav;oli,frsm;onf
aemufq;kH wGif rwufomaomaMumifh twif;t"rcikd ;f aprIrsm;wGif yg0ifvyk u
f ikd &f ygonf/ etz ppftpd;k
&rSvnf; uav;oli,frsm; twif;t"rvyk t
f m;ay;rsm;wGif yg0ifvyk u
f ikd Mf uonfukd vH;k 0ydwyf ifwm;
jrpfjcif;r&Sad y/ xdaYk Mumifh tcsKd Uaomrdbrsm;onf 4if;wdrYkd rd v
d ,f,majrwGif ydrk t
kd vkyv
f yk u
f ikd Ef ikd &f ef
23

The White Shirts: How the USDA will become the new face of Burma's dictatorship,
Network for Democracy and Democracy, May 2006, p.19. Accessed at http://www.ibiblio.
org/obl/docs3/USDAFinall/pdf on February 12th 2007.
24
'Development of Education in Myanmar,' Myanmar Ministry of Education, September
2004, p.31. Accessed at http://www.ibe.unesco.org/International/ICE47/English/Natreps/
reports/myanmar_ocr.pdf on December 11th 2007.

34

ynma&;u@
etz rS awmif;cHaomtwif;t"rcikd ;f aprIrsm;udv
k yk u
f ikd &f ef rdru
d av;i,frsm;udak pvTwyf gonf/ tcsKd U
aomtajctaersm;wGif uav;oli,frsm;onf vkyt
f m;ay;rsm;wGif wuf<upGmyg0ifvyk af qmifapyg
25
onf/
]]tcsdKUrdbrsm;onf emrusef;?zsm;em
rdrduav;i,frsm;udk ausmif;rwufapbJ 4if;wdkYudk,fpm;vkyftm;
?zsm;em
ay;rsm;udk oGm;a&mufvkyfudkifapygonf/ xdkYtjyif etz odkYr[kwf 'DaubDat rSawmif;cHaomt&m
rsm;udkvnf; ,laqmifoGm;&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 13ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

txuf y gyH k w G i f trsd K ;orD ; rsm;ES i f h uav;ol i ,f r sm;onf ul ; ap;a'o&S d um;vrf ; ab;wG i f a yguf a &muf a om
csH K ? EG , f r sm;uk d Ed k i f 0 if b mv 12 &uf 2 007ck E S p f w G i f &S i f ; vif ; ck w f x G i f a eMuygonf / etz ajcjref w yf & if ; 434
rS wyf&if;rSL; atmif x G e f ; vif ; rS apck d i f ; jcif ; jzpf y gonf / Edk 0ifbm 12 &ufaeYonf wevFm aeYjzpfaomaMumifh
uav;oli,frsm;onf ausmif;wuf&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; yHkwGifyg&Sdonfhtwdkif;vkyf tm;ay;vkyfudkifMu&ygonf/
("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J Y )

ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk toif;tyif;rsm;? vlraI &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;wGif twif;tMuyfyg0ifvyk u


f ikd af p
jcif;onf 4if;vli,frsm;\zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufrt
I wGuf tusKd ;tjrwftrsm;tjym;r&&Sad pyg/ jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
tpd;k &rS cGijhf yKxm;aomw&m;0iftzGt
YJ pnf;rsm;tm;vH;k etz ppftpd;k &rS vH;k 0xde;f csKyx
f m;ygonf/
xdt
Yk jyif etzonf 4if;wdu
Yk akd xmufcaH omtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udzk UJG pY nf;cGiv
hf yI &f mS ;cGiahf y;ygonf/ tpd;k &rS
cGijhf yKcsurf &&Sad omausmif;om;vli,frsm;tzGUJ tpnf;wGif yg0ifvyI &f mS ;aomolukd axmif'PfBu;D av;
pGmcsrw
S yf gonf/ tjcm;wzufrv
S nf; wdik ;f jynfwpf0rS ;f &Sd ausmif;om;vli,frsm;udk ppftpd;k &\ausm

25

etz ppftpdk;&\uav;vkyftm; twif;t"rtoHk;jyKrIESifhywfouf pmtkyfaemufcef;wGifzwfIEdkifygonf/

35

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
axmufaemufcjH yKxm;aom jynfaxmifpBk uchH ikd af &;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;tzGUJ odYk 0ifa&mufapygonf/ ,aeYvuf&dS
xkwjf yefaomtpD&ifcpH mwGif azmfjyxm;onfrmS ]]jynfaxmifpkMuHhcdkifa&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;tzGJUodk Y jynfolrsm;0ifa&muf&ef wdkufwGef;aomfvnf; ausmif;om;
vli,frsm;udk 4if;tzGJUodkY 0ifa&mufvIyf&Sm;&ef t"duxm;wkdufwGef;ygonf/ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;onf
jynfaxmifpkMuHhcdkifa&;ESifhzGHUNzdK;a&;toif;odkY r0ifrae&jzpfaomaMumifh jrefrmjynf&Sdausmif;om;vli,f
trsm;pkonf MuHhzGHYtoif;0ifrsm;jzpfMuygonf/}}26

jynfaxmifpMk uchH ikd af &;ESihf zGUH NzKd ;a&;tzGo


YJ nf ppftpd;k &rS taMumif;udpt
rsKd ;rsKd ;twGuf toH;k jyK&efzUJG pY nf;
xm;aomtzGt
YJ pnf;jzpfygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh pufwifbm 2007 ckEpS w
f iG f &efuek Nf rKd U ESit
hf jcm;e,fNrKd U
rsm;wGif jzpfymG ;cJah omvlxq
k EjyyGrJ sm;udk tMurf;zufErdS Ef iS ;f &mwGif jynfaxmifpMk uchH ikd af &;ESihf zGNYH zKd ;a&;
tzGUJ udt
k oH;k jyKcyhJ gonf/27 xdt
Yk jyif jynfov
l x
l t
k oGiaf qmifxm;aom jrefrmMuufajceDt
D zGEYJ iS hf jynf
cdik Nf zKd ;tzGrYJ sm;udk ppfwyft&m&Srd sm;rS wdu
k &f u
kd t
f yk cf sK yyf gonf/ jynfcikd Nf zKd ;tzG\
YJ taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;
rSL;csKyf wm0efu,
kd x
l m;aom OD;aX;OD;d onf etz ppfwyfrS Adv
k rf LS ;csKyw
f pfO;D jzpfNy;D etz ppftpd;k &tzGUJ
v,f,mpdu
k yf sKd ;a&;ESihf qnfajrmif;0efBu;D XmewGif 0efBu;D tjzpfxrf;aqmifaeolyifjzpfygonf/ u&ifjynf
e,fwiG f jrefrmEdik if MH uufajceDtzGUJ ESihf jynfcikd f NzKd ;tzGUJ rsm;onf jynfov
l x
l u
k kd rdrpd &dwrf rd pd m;Ny;D 4if;wdw
Yk iG f
yg0ifapNy;D etz udak xmufcaH Mumif;jyoapygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh etz ppftpd;k &rS rwfv 19 &uf
2007 ckEpS w
f iG f xkwjf yefcahJ omtrdeaYf MujimpmwGif 'lyvm,mc&dik &f mG olBu;D tm; 2007-2008 ckEpS w
f iG f
&Gmol&mG om;rsm; 90% onf jrefrmppftpk;d &rS ausmaxmufaemufcjH yKxm;aomtpd;k &r[kwaf omtzGUJ
tpnf;rsm;wGif yg0ifvyk af qmif&rnf[
k eT Mf um;cJyh gonf/28 4if;ppftpd;k &rS ausmaxmufaemufcjH yKxm;
aomtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;rSm jynfcikd Nf zKd ;tzGUJ ? jrefrmEdik if rH cd ifEiS hf uav;apmifah &Smufa&;tzGUJ ESihf jrefrmEdik if H
MuufajceDtzGUJ wdYk jzpfygonf/
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;rS u&ifvt
Yl cGit
hf a&;tzGUJ odaYk jymjyonfrmS 4if;wd&Yk mG ol&mG om;wdt
Yk m; jrefrmEdik if MH uuf
ajceDtzGUJ rS jyKvyk af omoifwef;rsm;onf aus;&Gmwd;k wufzUHG NzKd ;a&;ESihf etz ppfonfrsm;udk ulnaD xmuf
yHah &;twGuf &nf&,
G fzGiv
hf pS x
f m;jcif;jzpfaMumif; etz ppft&m&Srd sm;rSajymMum;ygonf/ etz ppft
pd;k &onf jynfcikd Nf zKd ;tzGUJ ? jrefrmEdik if MH uufajceDtzGUJ ?Y jrefrmEdik if rH ;D owftzGUJ ESihf tjcm;aomppftpd;k &rSzUJG
pnf;xm;aomtoif;tzGUJ rsm;udk Edik if aH wmf\t&Hppftiftm;tjzpfxm;&Sx
d m;jcif;jzpfygonf/29

26

The White Shirts: How the USDA will becom the new face of Burma's dictatorship,
Network for Democracy and Democracy, May 2006, p.19. Accessed at http://www.ibiblio.
org/obl/docs3/USDAFinall.pdf on February 12th 2007.
27
Crackdown: Repression of the 2007 popular protests in Burma, Human Rights Watch,
December 2007. Accessed at http://hrw.org/reports/2007/burma1207/burma1207web.pdf
on December 18th 2007. pp.6-7.
28
To read the full text of this order document please see Order #39 in Shouldering the
Burden of Militarisation: SPDC, DKBA and KPF order documents since September
2006, KHRG, August 2007.
29
See Andrew Selth, Burma's Armed Forces: Power Without Glory, 2002, Norwalk:
Eastbridge;p.81.

36

ynma&;u@
etz rS xkwjf yefaomowif;rsm;wGif etz ppftpd;k &onf 4if;wdaYk usmaxmufaemufcjH yKxm;aom
tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udkd wdik ;f jynf\tcsKyt
f jcmtmPmudk xdyg;aESmuf,u
S o
f rl sm;tm;acsreI ;f &mwGif yg0if
30
aqmif&u
G &f ef tcGit
hf mPmay;xm;aMumif; azmfjyxm;ygonf/ txufygtzGUJ tpnf;\ tzGUJ 0ifrsm;
onf twif;tMuyfapcdik ;f rIc&H jcif;ESihf vlxq
k EjyyGJrsm;udk tMurf;zufESdrfESif;&mwGifyg0if&jcif;wdkYudk
vkyaf qmif&ojzifhf 4if;wd\
Yk vIy&f mS ;rIrI sm;wGif uav;oli,ft
f oif;0ifrsm;yg0ifrrI &Sad Mumif; etzrS jiif;
qdyk gonf/ odaYk omf etz ppftpd;k &rS urmukvor*uav;oli,frsm; tcGit
hf a&;aumfrwDoYkd 'kw,
d
tMurd w
f if;oGi;f aomtpD&ifcpH mwGif ]],ckvuf&t
dS csed w
f iG f jynfcikd Nf zKd ;tzGUJ ? jrefrmEdik if MH uufajceDtzGUJ ESihf
t&Hr;D owfwyfzUJG rsm;onf jrefrmEdik if w
H iG x
f if&f mS ;aom vlraI &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;jzpfNy;D uav;oli,frsm;
onf 4if;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;\vIyI &f mS ;rIrsm;wGif wuf<f upGmyg0ifMuygonf}}31 [kazmfjyxm;ygonf/
uav;oli,frsm;udk ppftpd;k &rSzUJG pnf;xm;aomvlraI &;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;odYkd twif;tMuyf0ifa&mufap
onfomru etz ppftpd;k &onf ausmif;om;rsm;\rdbrsm;udv
k nf; 4if;wdaYk pcdik ;f aomvkyt
f m;ay;rsm;
wGif yg0ifjcif;r&Syd gu 4if;ausmif;om;rsm;\ ynma&;udx
k cd u
kd af prnf[k ajymqdNk crd ;f ajcmufygonf/
txl;xif&mS ;aomOyrmwpfcrk mS 2007ckEpS f atmufwb
kd mvtapmydik ;f (vlxk qEjyyGrJ sm;udk ESrd Ef iS ;f Ny;D
aemufwpfv)rSpNy;D uav;oli,frsm;udk jynfcikd Nf zKd ;paomtzGt
YJ pnf;rsm;\vIy&f mS ;rIrsm;wGif yg0ifap
ygonf/ etz ppft&m&Srd sm;onf atmufwb
kd mv 7 &ufaeY zm;tHNrKd UwGiu
f si;f yaom ppftpd;k &axmufcH
yGrJ sm;odYk &Gmol&mG om;rsm;wufa&mufapygonf/ wpftrd af xmifvQiw
f pfO;D wufa&muf&Ny;D wufa&muf
jcif;r&Syd gu rwufa&mufaomtdraf xmifrsm;&Sd ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;udk ausmif;rsm;wGit
f wef;wif
pmar;yGu
J akd jz qdck iG jhf yKrnfr[kwyf g/32

ppftkyfcsKKyfrIaMumifh ynma&;udkwdkuf&dkufxdcdkufapaomtaMumif;rsm;
ppftyk cf sKyaf &;onf aus;&Gmvlxrk sm;twGuf ynma&;tcGit
hf a&;rsm;udx
k cd u
kd af pjcif;ESihf pD;yGm;a&;Muyf
wnf;rIrsm;jym;vmjcif;wdu
Yk kd jzpfay:aponfomru ppfqifa&;ESihf twif;t"rapckid ;f rIrsm;onfvnf;
uav;oli,frsm;\ynma&;udk wdkuf&dkufxdcdkufapygonf/ etz xdef;csKyfe,f ajrjyifywGif&Sdaom
ausmif;rsm;onf ppfwyf\wdu
k &f u
kd zf supf ;D jcif;udck &H Ny;D etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sad usmif;rsm;onff twif;
t"r apcdik ;f cH&jcif;? ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f tE&m,frsm;ESiahf wGUMuKH &jcif;ESifh &Hzef&cH gqdo
k vdk pmoifausmif;rsm;tm;
pcef;rsm;tjzpftoH;k csc&H jcif; ponfwEYkd iS &hf ifqikd &f ygonf/ rdbrsm;vkyt
f m;ay;oGm;a&mufvyk u
f ikd &f
aomtcg ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf ausmif;wufciG rhf &bJ rdom;pkpm;0wfaea&;twGuf rdbud,
k f
pm;vkyu
f ikd &f ygonf/ txufwiG af z:jyouJo
h yYkd if ppftpd;k &onf &Hzef&cH gqdo
k vkd uav;oli,frsm;udk
30

''Information Sheet,'' Myanmar Information Committee, August 9th 2005. Accessed


online at http://www.myanmar-information. net/infosheet/2005/050809.htm on December 11th 2007.
31
'Second periodic reports of States parties due in 1998: Myanmar,' United Nations High
commissioner on Human Rights, June 2002, p.21. Accessed at http://www.unchr.ch/tbs/
doc.nsf/385c2add1632f4a8c12565a9004dc311/357a104dd2a37d04c1256e0c0037e59a/$
FILE/G0344866.pdf on December 11th 2007.
32
See Forced labour, extortion and the state of education in Dooplaya District, KHRG,
October 2007.

37

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
vkyt
f m;ay;vky&f ef toH;k jyKygonf/ uav;oli,frsm; vkyt
f m;ay;vkyu
f ikd &f jcif;taMumif;udk aemufwiG f
azmfjyrnft
h cef;wGiv
f nf; xnfo
h iG ;f xm;ygonf/
etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrwGif ppfwyf\tMurf;zufrf rI sm;onf tNryJ ifjzpfymG ;aeygonf/ txl;ojzifh u&if
jynfe,fwiG v
f x
l o
k nfajrjrKyrf ikd ;f aMumifx
h cd u
kd 'f Pf&m&&SNd y;D tcsKd Uwdo
Yk nf toufq;kH &SL;H Mu&ygonf/33
ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f onf&mG ol&mG om;rsm;\ b0aexkid rf u
I x
kd cd u
kd af pNy;D uav;oli,frsm;\ ynma&;udv
k nf;
xdcu
dk af pygonf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf uav;oli,frsm;rScD &kd aomrdbrsm;ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f aMumifh xdcu
dk f
'Pf&m&&Sdaomtcg roefrpGrf;b0odkYusa&mufoGm;NyD; rdrduav;i,frsm;ausmif;ynmoif,l&eft
axmuftyHrh ay;Edik af wmhay/
]],cifuuRefawmf awmifilNrdKU&Sdausmif;odkYoGm;a&mufynmoif,laomfvnf; ,ckcsdefwGifuRef awmfhudk
axmufyHhay;rnfh tazuG,fvGefoGm;aomaMumifh uRefawmfynmroif,lEdkifawmhay/ uRefawmfhtazonf
rwfv 22 &uf 2000 ckESpf eHeuf 7;00 em&DwGif etz rSaxmifxm;aomajrjr
m;aomajrjr Kyf
K yfr d k i f ; aMumif h aoqH k ;
cJh&ygonf/ xkdaeYeHeufwGif uRefawmf? uRefawmfh\oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh uRefawmf\tazwdkYonf abm*vd
&GmodkY &dumrsm;o,f,l&efoGm;a&mufcJ hygonff/ etz ppfwyfrS aumfa[mf'Je,fajr&Sd uav;vdkjrpfurf;
wpfavQmuf&Sd um;vrf;ay:wGif ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;udkjrrKyf
KyfESH xm;ygonf/ uRefawmfESifhuRefawmfholi,fcsif;rsm;rS
ta&SUrSoGm;NyD; uRefawmhftazESifh 4if;\oli,fcsif; apm0g;rStaemufrSvrf;avQmufvmcJhygonf/ &kwf
w&uf 4if ; wd k Y E S p f a ,muf o nf ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;udkwufeif;rdNyD; ae&mwGifyGJjcif;NyD;aoqHk;cJhygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 19ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / ({NyD 2006)

u&ifjynfe,f e,fajrtESt
YH jym;wGif ppfwyf\zdEd ydS t
f yk cf sKyrf aI Mumifh uav;oli,frsm;\b0? txl;ojzifh
ynma&;udk vrf;aygif;rsm;pGmjzifx
h cd u
kd af pygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh etz ppfonfrsm;aus;&Gmrsm;odv
Yk m
vQif ausmif;rsm;udk 4if;wdpYk pfpcef;rsm;tjzpftoH;k jyKygonf/ xkaYd Mumifh 4if;wdpYk pfom;rsm;&GmwGif aexdik f
onfu
h mvywfv;kH uav;oli,frsm;ausmif;pmroif,El ikd af y/ oxHck &dik w
f iG &f adS om &Gmol? &Gmom;rsm;
onf 'DaubDat (DKBA) acgif;aqmifrsm;tm; 'DaubDat 999wyf&if;\wyf&if;rSL;rd;k BuKd ; ESi4hf if;
\ ppfonfrsm;onf aus;&Gm&St
d rd rf sm;wGif acwpcef;csvQif 4if;tdrfrsm;&SdrdefrysdKav;rsm;udk vdifydkif;
qdik &f m tMurf;zufru
I sL;vGeMf uaMumif; wdik w
f ef;cJyh gonf/ xdaYk Mumifh ,cktcsed w
f iG f rd;k BuKd ;ESit
hf zGo
YJ nf
aus;&Gmrsm;odv
Yk ma&mufvQif pmoifausmif;rsm;wGio
f m pcef;cswnf;cdak vh&ydS gonf/
]]rdk;BudK; uRefawmfwdkY&GmodkYvmvQif 4if;wnf;cdk&ef ausmif;udkydwfxm;&NyD; ausmif;om;rsm;ynm roifMum;
Edk ifay/ 4if;&GmwGifaepOf rdk;BudK;onf ausmif;zGifhcGifh ray;ay/ rdk;BudK;rS&Gmom;rsm;tm; 4if;&GmodkYvmvQif
ausmif;okdYrnfolrQrvm&ef trdefYxkwfxm;ygonf/ 4if;wdkY&GmodkYa&mufvQif autef,l wyfr[m(1)rS
odrf;qnf;&rdaom vufeufrsm;rSm 22&dkifz,f(1)vuf? atau47 &dkif z,f(1)vuf? vufeufBuD; usnfqH
(4)vHk;? ppf,leDazmif;tpHk(30) ESifh aq;0g;tcsddKUwdk YomjzpffNyD; pmtkyfESifhabmyiftajrmuftrsm;yg0ifyg
onf/ xdkpmtkyfESifh abmyifrsm;onf autef,lrS ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;tm; tcrJha0iS&efjyifqif
xm;jcif ; jzpf y gonf / }}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 60ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (ZG e f v d k i f 2006)
33

On the increasing landmine casualties in Burma see, for example, the Burma section of
Landmine Monitor Report 2007: Toward a Mine-Free World, 2007. Accessed at: http://
www.icbl.org/lm/2007/burma.html on December 20th 2007.

38

ynma&;u@

etz xdef;csKyfe,fajrjyify&Sd ausmif;om;vli,frsm;\ynma&;tajctae


]]autef,l xdef;csKyfxm;aomwyfr[m(2)e,fajronf ,cktcsdefwGif wnfNidrfrIr&Sdyg/ wyfr[m (2)
e,fajr&Sd &Gmwpf&GmwGif qXrwef;txdynmoif,lEdkifaomausmif;&Sdygonf/ xdk ausmif;udk &GmolBuD;ESifh
&Gmom;rsm;rSwnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ etz ppfwyfrS 4if;&Gmuddk wdk ufcdkufaomtcg &Gmom;rsm;
onf awmwGif;odkYxGufajy;ykef;atmif;&ygonf/ xkdYaMumifh &Gm&Sdausmif;udkvnf; ydwfxm;&ygonf/ uav;
oli,frsm;onfvnf; awmwGif;ykef;atmif;&mae&mrsm;wGif rdbrsm;ESifhtwlaexdkif&NyD; Muuf? 0ufponfh
td r f a rG ; wd & d p mef
acwyky ke f ; atmif ; &mae&mwG i f p moif a usmif ; r&S d y g/}}
mefrsm;udk Munfh&I&ygonf/ awmwGif;acw
-apm---(usm;? 54ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (atmuf w d k b mv 2007)

txufwiG af z:jyxm;onfh &Gmom;ajymqdo


k nft
h wdik ;f yif tcsKd UaomawmwGi;f wGif yke;f atmif;ae&aom
jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
nfrsm;twGuf pmoifausmif;rsm;r&Sad omfvnf; tcsKd UawmwGi;f yke;f a&Smifaexdik o
f &l mG ol?
&Gmom;rsm;onf ykek ;f cd&k mae&mwGif ,m,Dpmoifausmif;rsm;udk aqmufvyk Ef ikd Mf uygonf/f xdo
k Ykd ,m,D
yke;f cd&k mae&mrsm;ESihf etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrjyify&Sd pmoifausmif;rsm;onf aus;&Gmol&mG om;rsm;rS wnf
axmifxm;Ny;D &Hzef&cH gwGif autef,v
l ufatmuf&dS autD;'D(KED) u&ifynma&;XmeESihf oD;jcm;
vGyv
f yfaomtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;jzpfaom u&ifausmif;q&m? q&mrrsm;tzGUJ (KTWG) wd\
Yk tultnD
taxmuftyHu
h &kd &Syd gonf/ odaYk omf etz ppfwyfrsm;onf aus;&Gmrsm;udjk zpfap? ,m,Dyek ;f cd&k mae&m
rsm;udjk zpfap wku
d cf u
kd af omtcg&Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf awmwGi;f odx
Yk u
G af jy;wdr;f a&Smif&aomaMumifh
uav;oli,frsm;\ynma&;udk xdcu
kd af pygonf/ tcsKd Uaom&Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf yke;f cd&k m,m,Dpcef;
rsm;wGif ausmif;rsm;udw
k nfaqmuf uav;oli,frsm;pmoifMum;Edik &f efBuKd ;pm;vkyaf qmifvakd omfvnf;
pm;0wfaea&;twGuv
f wfwavmvdt
k yfaeaompm;eyf&u
d m &SmazG&jcif;? wJrJ sm;aqmuf&jcif;? uav;
oli,f rsm;ESio
hf ufBu;D &G,t
f rkd sm;udk jyKpak pmifah &Smuf&jcif;wdu
Yk kd OD;pm;ay;vkyaf qmif&ygonf/ atmufazmf
jyygajymqdck surf sm;onf awmwGi;f ,m,Dyek af tmif;&mae&mrsm;wGif yke;f a&Smifae&aom&Gmom;ESpOf ;D rS
etz ppfwyf\xd;k ppfaMumifh yke;f a&Smifae&aomtajctaersm;udak jymqdx
k m;jcif;f jzpfygonf/
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif ausmif;ae&rnfht&G,fuav;oli,frsm;&dSaomaMumifh &Gmol? &Gmom;rsm;ESifh &Gmol
BuD;wdkYwdkifyifum q&m? q&mrESpf OD;iSg;&rf;cefYxm;NyD; ausmif;wpfausmif;aqmufvkyfonf/ awmwGif;wGif
ykef;a&Smif&vQif q&m? q&mrrsm;rS opfyifatmuf odkYr[kwf 0g;&Hkrsm;atmufwGif pmoifMuygonf/
q&m? q&mrrsm;onf wpfvvQifvpmaiG 10000 usyf&&Sdygonf/ q&m? q&mrrsm;udk axmufyhH&ef
aiG a Mu;ud k ausmif ; om;rsm;\rd b xH r S v nf ; aumif ; ? wpf c gwpf & H jyif y tul t nD r sm;rS v nf ; aumif ;
&&Sdygonf/ ausmif;om;ausmif;ol 30 rS 40 OD;&Sdygonf/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf ausmif;0ifaMu;
aiGray; &aomfvnf; rSwfpkpmtkyfrsm;udk udk,fydkif aiGjzifh0,f,l&ygonf/ ,refESpfwGif pmoifausmif;udk
.....e,fajrrS .....e,fajrodkY ajymif; a&TUcJh&ygonf/ etz ppfwyf\ppfqifa&;rsm;aMumifh wpfae
&mrS wpfae&modk Y ajymif;a&TUcJh&jcif;jzpfygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (ZG e f 2007)

39

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
]]uRef a wmf w d k Y & G m wG i f ,ck t csd e f w G i f p moif a usmif ; r&S d a wmh y g/ 1997ck E S p f r S p uRef a wmf w d k Y \ pmoif
ausmif;udk etz ppfwyfrSrD;&dIUzsufqD;cJhygonf/ ,cktcsdefwGif ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; pmoifMum;&ef
a&wdk(ESpfv rS oHk ;v) pmoifausmif;rsm;udkom zGifhvSpfygonf/ etz ppfwyf\tE
tE&m,f
&m,f udkpdk;&drf&aom
aMumiffh pmoifESpfjynfhpmoifausmif;udk rzGifhvSpfEdk ifay/ ausmif;om;ausmif;olrsm;onf wpfv odkYr[kwf
ESpfvcefYpmoif&NyD; etz ppfwyfrS ppfqifa&;jyKvkyfaomtcg &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;tm;vHk;awmwGif;odkY
xGufajy;wdrf;a&Smif&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif autef,lvufatmuf&Sd u&ifynma&;Xme(KED) rS
tultnDrsm; &&Sdygonf/ 4if;wdkYrS uRefawmfwdkYausmif;twGuf rSwfpkpmtkyfESifh u&ifzwfpmtkyfrsm;
udkay;a0ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYaexdk if&eftwGuf &Gmae&mtwnfwusr&SdaomaMumifh ESpfjynfhpmoif
ausmif;udkvnf; rzGifhvSpfEdk ifay/}}
-apm---(usm;? 36ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / ({NyD v 2006)

atmufazmfjyygajymqdck surf sm;wGif Zefe0g&Dv 2007ckEpS w


f iG f u&ifvt
Yl cGit
fh a&;tzGYJ uGi;f qif;avh
vmol rS awmificl &dik w
f iG f jynforl sm;&ifqikd Bf uKH awGUae&aom (pmoifausmif;rsm;ydw&f jcif;? awmwGi;f
xGuaf jy;yke;f a&Smif&jcif;ESihf yke;f atmif;&m,m,Dae&mrsm;wGif ,m,Dausmif;rsm;zGiv
hf pS jf cif;) ponf
tcuftcJwu
Ykd kd azmfjf yxm;ygonf/f
]]uRefawmfwdkYa&muf&SdoGm;aoma'owGif uav;oli,frsm;onf ynmudkaumif;rGefpGmoif,lcGifhr &ay/
etz ppfwyfrS&Gmom;rsm;aexdkif&mawmifay:a'orsm;txda&muf&SdvmMuNyD; 4if;wdkYe,f ajrrsm;udkodrf;
,lygonf/ uav;oli,frsm;onf awmwGif;ykef;atmif;&mae&mrsm;wGif opfyifrsm; ESifh0g;&kHrsm;atmuf
wGif pmoifMum;MuNyD; tcsdKUae&mrsm;wGif awmwGif;wGif&Gmom;rsm;rS ausmif;aqmufvkyfxm;ygonf/
&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf wpfae&mrSwpfae&mokdY ajymif;a&TUykef;a&Smifae&aomaMumifh ausmif;pmESifhtquf
jywfum pmoifESpfrukefrDyif ausmif;rSEIwfxGuf&ygonf/ tcsdKUuav;rsm;onf pm;eyf&dumrvHkavmufrI
aMumifh ausmif;ynmroif,lEdkifbJ tvkyfvkyf&yg onf/ xdkav;i,frsm;twGuf tem*wfonftvGef
yif p k d ; &d r f z G , f a umif ; ygonf / ausmif ; wG i f p m oif M um;cG i f h & aom ausmif ; om;rsm;onf v nf ; etz
ppfwyf\ aESmuf,SufrIaMumihf ausmif;udkESpf v? oHk;vcefYydwfNyD;rS jyefzGifhEdkifojzifhaumif;pGm pmoifMum;
cGifhr&&SdMuay/ uav;oli,frsm;onf 4if;wdkY touft&G,ft& &Sdoifhaomausmif;ynmt&nftcsif;
4if;wdkY?r&Sday/ q&m? q&mrrsm;onfvnf; pmoifMum;&eftcsdefr&&Sday/ xdkYaMumiffh uav;oli,frsm;ESifh
vl i ,f r sm;\ tem*wf o nf y d k yd k cuf c J v mygonf / }}

40

ynma&;u@

Mo*k w f v 2007 ck E S p f ? zm;tH c &d k i f ? ---&G m rS q&m? q&mrrsm;ES i f h a usmif ; om;? ausmif ; ol r sm;\yH k / ausmif ;
udk autef,ltzGJY\u&ifynma&;Xge (KED) rS wnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfNyD; u&ifjynfwGif;'kuonfrsm;aumfr
wD (CIDKP) xHrSvnf; tultnDtaxmuftyHhrsm;&&Sdygonf/ ausmif;wGif ausmif;om; ausmif;olrsm;onf
u&ifbmom? jrefrmbmom? yx0Dbmom? t*Fvdyfbmom? usef;rma&; ESifh oufqdkifaombmomESifh ocsFmbm
omrsm;ud k pwk w wef
wef;txdoif,lEdkifNyD; tm;vyfcsdefrsm;wGif ppftpdk;&\wdkufcdkufrIrsm;udk pdk ;&drf&efrvdkbJ
aysmf&TifpGmaqmhupm;Edkifygonf/ uav;oli,frsm;rS 4if;wdkYonf etz ESifh 'DaubDat ppfom;rsm;udk aMumuf&GHU
MuaMumif; odkYaomf etzESifh 'DaubDatppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdkYaexdkif&mae&mokdYvma&mufavhr&Sday/ ("mwfyHku&if v l Y t cG i h f t a&;tzG J U )

txufazmfjyygyHw
k iG yf g&Sad om aemf---onf---&Gm&Sad usmif;wGif ausmif;q&mrwpfO;D jzpfygonf/ olronf
touf(17)ESp&f NdS y;D tdraf xmif&iS rf jzpfygonf/ 4if;onfveG cf ahJ om (3)ESpcf efu
Y tdraf xmifjyKcyhJ gonf/
4if;pmoifaeaomausmif;taMumif;udk atmufygtwdikd ;f ajymjycJyh gonf/
]]uRefronf tdrfaxmif&SifrjzpfNyD; om;orD;ESpfOD;rS oHk;OD;xd (rdef;uav; odkYr[kwf a,musfm;av;)&,l
vkdygonf/ uRefronf uav;oli,frsm;udk pm;BudK;Mu&eftNrJwd kufwGef;ygonf/ 4if;wdkY pmBudK;pm;rS
tv,fwef;? txufwef;ynmrsm;udk oif,lEk difrnfjzpfNyD; 4if;wdkYausmif;ynmNyD;jynfhpHkvQif &GmodkYjyef
vmNyD; q&m?q&mrtjzpf wm0efxrf;&G,fEdkifrnffjzpffygonf/ uRefrwdkYonf etz ppfom;rsm;udkawGYvQif
tvGefyifaMumuf&GHUYygonf/ 4if;wdkYonf uRefrwdkYuJhodkY u&ifvlrsdK;rsm;r[kwfaomaMumifh uRefrwdkYudk
tE
tE &m,f
&m,fwpfpHkwpfckjyKrnfudk uRefrwdkYtvGefyifpdk;&drfygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 17ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zm;tH c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

u&ifjynfe,fwpftvTm; etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr&S&d mG ol&mG om;rsm; awmwGi;f odx


Yk u
G af jy;yke;f atmif;&jcif;?
ausmif;rsm;udzkd iG v
hf u
kd yf w
d v
f u
kd v
f yk &f jcif;ponft
h ajctaersm;onf wpfaf e&mESiw
hf pfae&mrwlnaD y/

41

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
tcsKd Ua'orsm;wGif aus;&Gmrsm;onf etz rS aESmuf,u
S w
f u
kd cf u
kd jf cif;r&Sad omaMumihf xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smif
&efrvdt
k yfaomaMumihf pmoifausmif;rsm;udEk pS jf ynfzh iG v
hf pS Ef ikd yf gonf/ 4if;a'orsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh
u&ifvrl sKd ;rsm;vGwaf jrmufa&;wyfzYJG (KNLA) rsm; pcef;cs&m ae&mrsm;ESihf eD;uyfaomae&mrsm;wGif
wnf&adS omaMumifh etz ppfwyf\wdu
k cf u
kd rf rI sm;rS tumtuG,&f &Syd gonf/

Mo*k w f v 2007ck E S p f zm;tH c &d k i f bav;rd k c D ; aus;&G m &S d p moif a usmif ; rS ausmif ; om;rsm;tjyif z uf o d k Y M unf h & I
aepOf bav;rdkcD;aus;&Gmonf etz xdef;csKyfe,fajrjyifywGifwnf&SdNyD; 4if;ausmif;udk autef,lvufatmufcH
u&ifynma&;Xme (KED) rS zGifhvSpfwnfaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ 4if;&Gmonf u&ifvlrsdK; rsm;vGwfajrmuf
a&;wyf z G J U (KNLA)\
\ pcef ; cs&me,f a jrrsm;wG i f & S d a omaMumif h uav;ol i ,f r sm;onf wpf E S p f od k Y r [k w f E S p f
ES p f t wG i f ; wG i f awmwG i f ; od k Y x G u f a jy;wd r f ; a&S m if & ef r vd k a y/ xd k & G m &S d u av;i,f r sm; rS ]]uRef a wmf w d k Y o nf
upm;csdefwGif aMumuf&GHU&efrvdkbJaysmf&Tifpmupm;Edkifygonf}} [k u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJYodkYajymMum;ygonf/
("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J Y )

42

ynma&;u@
uRef r wd k Y w G i f w pf c gwpf & H pm;eyf & d u m tvH k t avmuf f & S d N yD ; ...

]]uRef r wd k Y & G m &S d a usmif ; wG i f q&m---onf ausmif ; tk y f q &mjzpf N yD ; xk k d a usmif ; ud k ZOA (e,f o m vef
EdkifiHtajcpdk uftpdk;&r[kwfaom tjynfjynfqdkif&mtzGJY tpnf;)rS axmuffyHhygonf/ ausmif;wGifausmif;
om;rsm; ow
ow rwef;txdynmoifMum;EdkifNyD; oifMum;ay;aombmom&yfrsm;rSm u&ifbmom? t*Fvdyf
bmom? ocsFmbmom? yx0Dbmom? ody?Hbmom ESifh EkdifiHa&;ESifhywfouf aombmom&yfponfwdkYjzpf
ygonf/ uRefrwdkY&GmwGif ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf abmf'gaqmifwpfaqmif&SdNyD;
wpfcgwpf&HwGifausmif;om;rsm;twGuf pm;eyf&dumvHkavmufNyD;? wpffcgwpf&HwGif vHkavmufrIr&Sday/
tcsdKUuav;i,frsm;onf rdbrsm; etz ppfwyf\ypfcwfrIaMumifhaoqHk;oGm;ojzifh rdbrJhausmif;rsm;wGif
aexdkif&ygonf/ 4if;uav;i,frsm;onf 'kutcuftcJrsdK;pHkESifh&ifqdkif&aomaMumifh ausmif;ynmroif
,l E d k i f a y/
tcsdKUuav;oli,frsm;onf u&ifbmomudkoif,lvdkaomaMumihf uRefrwdkY&GmwGifvma&mufNyD; ausmif;
ynmoif,lygonf/ 4if;wdkY&Gmrsm;wGif etz rSu&ifbmomoif,lcGifhrjyKay/ 4if;wdkY&GmrS uRefrwdkY&GmodkY
vm&mvrf;c&D;wGif etz ppfwyf\zrf;qD;jcif;ESifh ajrjr
ajrjrKyf
rsm;tE &m,f
Kyfrdkif;rsm;tE
&m,fudk aMumuf&GHU&ygonf/ tcsdKU
uav;i,frsm;onf 4if;wdkYaexdkif&ma'orsm;wGif etz ppfwyfrSppfwyfxJodkY twif;tMuyf0ifa&muf
apaomaMumifh uRefrwdkY&GmodkYvma&mufaexdkifygonf/ 'DaubDatonfvnf; (18)ESpfatmufuav;
i,frsm;udk 4if;wdkYwyfzGJYodkYtwif;tMuyf0ifa&mufapygonf/ ppfwyfok dYoGwfoGif;jcif;cHH&aomuav;i,f
rsm;onf ppfwdkuf&rnfht&G,fr[kwfaomaMumifh ppfyGJrsm;udkaMumuf&GHUNyD; 4if;wdkY\vufeuf(aoewf)
udkyif ukdifwG,fEdkifjcif;r&Sday/ tcsdKUuav;rsm;onf ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;eif;rdaomaMumiffh ajcaxmufrsm;udk
jzwfawmufypf&ygonf/ rdbrsm;onf rdrduav;i,frsm; ppfom;rsm;jzpf&eftvdkr&Sday/ tcsdKUuav;
rsm;onf ppfwyfxJodkYoGwfoGif;jcif; a&SmifvTJEdkif&ef ae&modkYvma&mufaexdk ifygonf/
rd o m;pk r sm;twG i f ; wG i f jy
emrsdK;pHkESifh&ifqdkif&ygonf/ pm;0wfaea&;tcuftcJaMumifh uav;i,f
jy
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43

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44

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34

ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif Papun Update: SPDC attacks on villages continue, KHRG, October 2006
and Road construction, attacks on displaced communities and the impact on education
in northern Papun District, KHRG, March 2007.wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/

45

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46

MuHKawGY&ygonf/ 2006 ckESpf wGif ppfwyfrS uRefawmfwdkY&GmodkY 2 Budrfvma&mufcJhNyDD; tdrfrsm;ESifh pmoif


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ausmif;ol? ausmif;om;rsm;ESihf ausmif;rsm;onf ppfqifa&;rsm;aMumift


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47

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

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uav;oli,frsm;onf ausmif;ynmoif,&l eftcsed rf &Sad y/

48

ynma&;u@

Zef e 0g&D v 2007ck E S p f vl a omNrd K Ue,f ? ---&G m wG i f


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onf / }} ("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

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-apm---(usm;? 14ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

49

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
etz ppfwyf\ppfqifa&;wGif ppfwyf\ypfcwfowfjzwfraI MumifEh iS hf ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm;aMumifh rdbrsm;
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rsm;uJhodkY aysmf&TifpGmjzifh ynmoifMum;cGifhr&&Sday/ tcsdKUuav;i,frsm; ESifh q,fausmfouf&G,frsm;onf
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-aemf - --(r? 19ES p f ) ? q&mr? ---&G m ? zm;tH c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

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-aemf - --(r? 14ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2008)

50

ynma&;u@

txufygyHkonf ppftpdk;&ppfwyfrsm; 4if;wkdYaexdkif&ma'orsm;udk ydkrdkxdk;ppfqifvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; awmifil


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("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

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G Mf uygonf/35

35

ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif SPDC Attacks on Villages in Nyaunglebin and Papun Districts and Civilian
Response, KHRG, September 2006.wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/

51

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52

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0ifa&mufaexdik &f ygonf/

36

ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif tpD&ifcHpmtcef;(5)wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/
For more information on KHRG 'Village Agency' workshops see 'Supporting IDP resistance strategies,' Forced Migration Review, April 2008. Available at http://www.fmreview.
org/burma.htm.

37

54

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tjynfjynfqikd &f mtpd;k &r[kwaf omtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ponfwrYkd S ulnaD xmufyyhH gonf/
]]etz ppfwyfrsm;onf uRefrwdkY&GmeD;0ef;usifodkY rMucPvmavh&Sdojzifh uRefrwdkYonf ynmaumif;rGef
pG m oif , l c G i f h r &&S d a y/ wpf a e&mwG i f a exd k i f N yD ; wpf v Mumpmoif , l c G i f h & NyD ; aemuf tjcm;wpf a e&mod k Y
wpfzefajymif;a&TUaexdkif&aomaMumifh pmaumif;rGefpGmoif,lcGifhr&&Sday/ uRefrrdbrsm;u uRefrudk

38

South, Ashley. 2007. 'Karen Nationalist Communities: The ''Problem" of Diversity,'


Contemporary Southeast Asia 29:1 (55;76). p.71.

56

ynma&;u@
ynmwwf jzpf a pcsif M uojzif h autef , l(KNU) xdef;csKyfe,fajrwGif aexdkifaomuRefr\ OD;av;ESifh
twlaexdkifapNyD; ynmoif,lapygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 23ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

atmufwiG af wGUqHak r;jref;rIjyKvyk x


f m;aomuav;rsm;onf zmyGecf &dik f vlaomNrKd Ue,f&dS rdbrJah usmif;
rsm;wGif aexdik Mf uolrsm;jzpfygonf/ tcsKd Uuav;i,frsm;onf autef,x
l ed ;f csKyef ,fajr&Sd xD;aqG;eD
rlvwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoifMum;MuNy;D tcsKd Uwdo
Yk nf a'bl;'kt
d xufwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoifMum;
vsu&f ydS gonf/ uav;i,ftrsm;wGif rdbwpfO;D odrYk [kwf ESpOf ;D pvH;k touf&x
Sd if&mS ;&Sad omfvnf;
rdom;pktwGuf pm;eyf&u
d m ESihf aiGa&;aMu;a&;rvHak vmufrI (tvkyv
f yk Ef ikd af om zcifq;kH yg;oGm;ojzif)h
ESihf etz \wdu
k cf u
kd rf aI Mumifh aus;&GmNird o
f ufrrI &Sjd cif; ponfwaYkd Mumifh rdbrsm;onf 4if;wd\
Yk uav;
i,frsm;udk raxmufyEHh ikd af y/ uav;i,frsm;onf 4if;wd&Yk ifqikd Mf uKH awGU&aomt&mrsm;udk rdrw
d &Ykd if
xJ&o
dS nft
h wdik ;f ajymqdMk uygonf/ uav;i,frsm;onf 4if;wd&Yk mG ol&mG om;rsm;cH&aomtvGo
J ;kH pm;rI
taMumif;rsm;? use;f rma&;ESiyhf wfoufaomtcuftcJrsm;? 4if;wd\
Yk aMumuf&UHG pdwEf iS hf pd;k &dryf yl efrrI sm;t
jyif 4if;wdu
Yk ,
dk ?f pdwEf pS yf g;use;f rmcsr;f om&ef rnfuo
hJ aYdk exdik af qmif&u
G &f rnfaomtaMumif;t&mrsm;udk
ajymjyMuygonf/ u&ifjynfe,fwiG ;f &Sd abmf'gaqmifrsm;ESihf rdbrJah usmif;rsm;wGif aexdik Mf uaomuav;
i,frsm;onf tcsi;f csi;f Munf&h aI pmifah &Smufjcif;? wdik yf iftMuaH y;jcif;ESihf oli,fcsi;f uJo
h aYkd ygif;oif;quf
qHMuygonf/ uav;i,frsm;onf toufi,f&,
G Mf uaomfvnf; 4if;wdaYk exdik &f ma'orsm;wGif jzpfay:
aeaomEdik if aH &;tajctaersm;ESihf ppfwyf\zdEydS rf rI sm;aMumifh 4if;wdb
Yk 0a&SUa&;xdcu
kd Mf u&yHrk sm;udk od&dS
em;vnfMuygonf/ u&ifjynfe,fwiG f ppftpd;k &\vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;csKd ;azmufrrI sm;onf uav;oli,frsm;\
b0udk b,fuo
hJ x
Ykd cd u
kd ef pfemaponft
h ajctaersm;udk uav;i,fwpfO;D csi;f pDonf aumif;rGepf mG od&cdS H
pm;Mu&ygonf/ tb,faMumifq
h akd omf 4if;wdt
Yk ay:tvTo
J ;kH pm;jyKjcif;udk rsujf rifawGU&Scd pH m;&aom
aMumifjh zpfonf/
]]ausmif ; ae&ef p &d w f r sm;jrif h r m;rI a Mumif h uRef r onf & G m wG i f & S d a omausmif ; wG i f y nmroif , l E k d i f y g/
xdkYaMumifh uRefronf ae&modkYvma&mufNyD; rdbrJhausmif;wGifaexdkifum ynmoif,l&ygonf/ uRefr
wd k Y & G m wG i f aexd k i f p Of u ppf t pd k ; &\ppf w yf r sm; uRef r wd k Y u d k a wG U &S d y gu zrf ; qD ; ES d y f p uf c H & rnf u d k t jrJ
aMumuf&GHUae&ygonf/ ppfom;rsm; uRefrwdkY&GmodkYvma&mufaomtBudrfwdkif; uRefrwdkY &Gmol&Gmom;
rsm;udk zrf;qD;Sif;qJESdyfpuf ygonf/ uRefrESifhuRefrtpfronf ae&modkYvma&mufNyD; ausmif;ynmoif
,l M uygonf / uRef r tpf r \trnf r S m aemf - --jzpf N yD ; ol r onf yy
rwef
r wef; wG i f ynmoif M um;aeNyD ;
uRefronf wwd,wef;wGif ynmoiffMum;aeygonf/ vGefcJhaomESpfu uRefronftoJa&mifa&m*gcH
pm;cJh&ygonf/ tpmtqdyfoifhjcif;aMumifh toJa&mifa&m*g&&Sdjcif;jzpfonf[k q&m0efrSajymMum;yg
onf/ uRefronf wpfESpftwGif; aq;&kHig;Budrfwufa&mufcJh&aomfvnf; ausmif;oifcef;pmrsm;udkrl
tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;enf;wl usufrSwfoif,lEdkifcJhygonf/ ae&mwGif ynmoifMum;&onfudk uRefrt
vGef0rf;ajrmuf0rf; omjzpf&ygonf/ ausmif;pwifwufa&mufcsdefrSp ,cktcsdefxd etz ppfwyfaMumifh
xGufajy;&jcif;r&Sdyg/ uRefrynmoif ,lNyD;qHk;atmiffjrifvQif rnfonhftvkyftudkifvkyfudkif &rnfudk
rod&Sdao;aomfvnf; uRefronf olemjyKq&mrjzpf&ef tvdk&Sdygonf/ olemjyKjzpfvQif uRefr\&Gmol&Gm
om;rsm; rusef;rmvQif apmifha&SmufukoEdkifrnfjzpfygonf/
-aemf - --(r? 12ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

atmufwiG f aemf---ESijhf yKvyk x


f m;aom awGUqHak r;jref;rIwiG f aemf---onf olraexdik &f mae&ma'o
wGif&Sdaom EdkifiHa&;ESihfppfa&;tajctaeudk taotcsmyifod&SdaMumif;udkodjrif&ygonf/ olr\
zcifonf ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f aMumifh 'kuw
d jzpfcahJ omaMumifh olronf ,cktcgwGif a'bl'&kd adS bmf'gaqmif
57

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
wGif aexdik &f ygonf/ olronf olrwdt
Yk b,ftaMumif;aMumifh rdrw
d &Ykd mG udpk eG cYf mG vQuf xGuaf jy;yke;f
atmif;&onfuv
kd nf;aumif;? olr\rdom;pkEiS &hf mG ol&mG om;rsm;udk tb,forl S wdu
k cf u
kd o
f wfjzwfonf
udv
k nf;aumif; &Si;f vif;pGmod&ydS gonf/ odaYk omforl \ tem*wf&nfrf eS ;f csuyf ef;wdik u
f akd &muf&dS taumif
txnfazmfEikd rf nfukd olronf vH;k 0,HMk unfpw
d cf sr&I ydS gonf/
]]etz ppftpdk ;&\zdESdy
f Sif;qJrIaMumifh uRefronf ae&modkYvma&muf ynmoif,l&ygonf/ etz
ppfom;rsm; uRefrwdkY&GmokdYa&mufvmvQif uRefrwdkY&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;tm;vHk; xGufajy;ykef;atmif;&ygonf/
tb,faMumiffhqdkaomf 4if;wdkY&GmxJokdY a&muf&Sd wpfpHkwpfa,mufudkawGU&Sdygu ppfaq;ar;jref;rIr&SdbJ
awGU&mae&m?yif aoewfjzifhypfcwfowfjzwfygonff/ aetdrf rsm;ESifhpyg;usDrsm;ukdvnf; rD;&dIUzsufqD;yg
onf/ odyfrMumao;rSDuyif etz ppfom;rsm;onf &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;tvkyfvkyfonfudk uif;apmifhay;
aeaom uRef r \OD ; av;jzpf o l apmao;Mumazmud k aoewf j zif h ypf c wf c J h y gonf / uRef r OD ; av;onf
autef,l (KNU, KNLA) ppfom;wpfOD;jzpffygonff/ etz ppfom;onf 4if;\aemufrSa&muf&SdvmNyD;
4if; uif;apmifhaeaomae&mrSmyif ypfcwfowfjzwfcJ hygonf/ uRefrwdkYonf wpfywfvQifESpfBudrf odkYr
[kwf oHk;BuddrfcefY xGufajy;ykef;atmif;&aomaMumifh ausmif;rwufEdkifay/ uRefrwGif rdbESpfyg;pvHk;
touf&Sdxif&Sm;&Sdaeygonf/ uRefronf ,cktcgwGif pwkw wef
wef;wGif ynmoifMum;aeygonf/ uRefr
onf ausmif;ynm oif,lwwfajrmufNyD;ygu olemjyKq&mrjzpf&ef BudK;pm;ygrnf/ uRefrwdkY&Gmol&Gmom;
rsm;onf acgif;udkufa&m*g? 0rf;a&m*gESifh zsm;ema&m*grsm;ukd rMucPcHpm;&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 14ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

atmufwGif a'bl'dktxufwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoif,laeaom udk;wef;ausmif;om; apm---ESifh


jyKvyk af omawGUqHak r;jref;rIwiG f apm---rS ppfwyf\ wdu
k cf u
kd rf aI Mumifh ausmif; om;ausmif;olrsm;\
ynma&;udk xdcu
kd &f yHu
k kd ajymjyxm;onfukd azmfjyxm;ygonf/ rdom;pk &St
d pfuBkd u;D ? tpfrBu;D rsm;onf
rdrn
d iD ,f? nDri,frsm;\ ynma&;twGuf 4if;wdaYk usmif; raebJ tepfemcHtvkyv
f yk Mf uyHu
k v
kd nf;
apm---rS ajymjyxm;ygonf/ aemufqHk; wGif apm---rS vltcsdKUwdkYonf tb,faMumifh etz
\wdu
k cf u
kd rf rI sm;udk jyefvnfNy;D vufeufpu
JG ikd cf k cHwu
kd cf u
kd f Muonfukd 4if;\tjrifjzifh ajymjyxm;ygonf/
u&ifjynfe,fwiG jf zpfay:aeaomy#dyuwiG f etz ESiahf uteft,f(v)atwyfzUJG rsm;tMum; jzpfymG ;
aomwdu
k cf u
kd rf rI sm;wGio
f mrefjynforl sm;onf r&nf&,
G af omfvnf; Mum;wGiyf w
d rf dyS rf ad eonfu4kd if;
ajymjycsurf sm;wGif awGU&S&d ygonf/ &Hzef&cH gwGiv
f nf; etz ppfwyfrsm;onf omrefjynforl sm;udyk if
ypfrw
S x
f m;wdu
k cf u
kd af omaMumifh jynforl sm;rSvnf; jyefvnfcck w
H u
kd cf u
kd &f ygonf/ xkjYd yifru rdru
d
av;i,frsm; ynmoif,cl iG &hf &Sad &;twGuyf g BuKd ;pm;vkyaf qmifMu&ygonf/
]]uRefawmfwdkYzcifonf 0rf;a&m*gaMumifh aoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ uRefawmf\rdbrsm;onf v,form;rsm;
jzpfMuygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYrdom;pktwGuf pm;eyf&dumrvH
mrvHkavmufaomaMumifh uRefawmfonf rdbrJh
ausmif;wGif vma&mufaexdkif&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYu&ifvlrsdK;rsm;onf pmoif,l&rnfhtcsdefwGif xGuf
ajy;ykef;atmif;ae&aomaMumifh ausmif;ynmtwef;tenf;i,fomatmifjrifygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf
&GmESifh a0;&mae&mrsm;odkY xGufajy;&NyD; tcsdKUwdkYonf vufeufpGJudkifNyD; etz ppfwyfudkjyefvnfawmf
vSef&ygonf/ tcsdKUwdkYonf etz ppfwyfrsm;\ wdkufcdkufrI? zdESdyfrIwdkYudk rcHEkdifonfh tqHk; rcHcsifpdw39f jzifh
vufeufpGJudkifNyD; rwdkufcdkufvdkaomfvnf; wdkufcdkuf&ygonf/ q,fausmfouf&G,ftrsm;tjym;wdkYonf
ausmif;ynmoif,lEkdif&ef ausmif;rwufa&mufEdkifMuay/ tcsdKUwdkYonf rdrdnDi,f? nDri,frsm;udk ausmif;
xm;Edkif&ef rdbESifhtwl tvkyfvkyfudkif&ygonf/ nDi,f? nDri,frsm;twGuf 4if;wkdYrStepfemcH&ygonf/
39

Translated from the Burmese phrase 'M'Kan Chin Seit'rl&if;t*Fvyd b


f momjzifhf xkwaf 0aompmtkyf
wGif jrefrmpum;vHk; ]]rcHcsifpdwf}}udkt*FvdyftoHxGuftwdkif;aygif;a&;xm;jcif;jzpfonf/

58

ynma&;u@
uRefawmfonf txufwef;atmifjrifNyD;vQif wu
wuod
okdvfqufwufEdkif&ef BudK;pm;vdkNyD; bGJU&&SdvQif u&if
ynma&;Xge (KED)wGif jyefvnftvkyftauR;jyKvdkygonf/
-apm---(usm;? 16ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

tcsKd Urdbrsm;onf rdr&d ifaoG;rsm;udk xdik ;f Edik if eH ,fpyf&dS 'kuo


nfpcef;rsm;&Sad usmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;
apjcif;onf jrefrmjynfwiG ;f &Sad usmif;rsm;wGif ynmoifMum;apjcif;xuf ydrk v
kd jkH cKH pw
d cf s&onf[x
k ifjrif
,lqaomaMumifh 'kuo
nfpcef;rsm;odrYk rd u
d av;i,frsm;udk ydaYk qmifynmoif,al pygonf/ atmufwiG f
14 ESpft&G,f&Sd aemf---ESifh jyKvkyfcJhaomawGUqHk ar;jref;rIwGif aemf---rS 4if;rdbonf olrudk
'kuo
nfpcef;odyYk aYkd qmifynmoifMum;apyHEk iS hf 'kuo
nfpcef;&Srd b
d rJah usmif;wGif tjcm;ausmif;om;
50 ESit
fh wl tb,fuo
hJ aYkd exdik yf nmoif,&l onfukd ajymjyxm;ygonf/ uav;i,frsm;onf tcsi;f csi;f
apmifah &SmufMuNy;dD rdbrJah usmif;udMk unf&h aI om ZeD;armifErHS v
S nf; 4if;wdu
Yk kd tkyx
f ed ;f apmifah &Smufygonf/
qufvufNy;D aemf---rS olrwdcYk cH &hJ aomtvGo
J ;kH pm;jyKrrI sm;? olr\pd;k &dryf yl efrrI sm;? olrwd\
Yk rdom;pk
tay:tvGo
J ;kH pm;jyKc&H rI qd;k usKd ;rsm;enf;yg;oGm;ap&ef 4if;\vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;ESihf olr\b0a&SUa&;
&nfreS ;f csurf sm;ud&kd ifxrJ cS pH m;&onft
h wkid ;f &Si;f vif;ajymjycJyh gonf/
]]etz ppfom;rsm;onf uRefrwdkY&GmodkY rMucPvmavh&SdNyD; 4if;wdkYvma&mufonfhtBudrfwdkif; aetdrfrsm;
udkrD;&dIUjcif;? tdrfarG;wd&dp mef
mefrsm;udk owfjzwfpm;aomufjcif;ESifh 4if;wdkY jyefvnfxGufcGmvQif &GmwGif
ajrjr
ajrjrKyf
jr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;udk jr
KyfESHcJhjcif;ponfwdkYudkjyKvkkyfygonf/ 4if;wdkY uRefrwdkY&GmodkY a&mufvmvQif uRefrwdkY
onf awmwGif;odkYxGufajy;ykef;atmif;ygonf/ xGufajy;ykef;atmif;&onfhtcgrsm;wGif uRefronf armif
i,f? nDri,frsm;udk Munfh&Iapmifha&Smufjcif;? xif;rsm;udk&SmazGay;jcif; ponfwdkYudk ulnDvkyfudkifyg
onf/ etz ppfwyfrS uRefrwdkY\tdrfrsm;ESifh pyg;usDrsm;udk rD;&IdUzsufqD;rnfudk uRefrwdk YtvGefyifpdk;&drf
Muygonf/ uRefrzcifuG,fvGefcJhonfrSm ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmMumcJhNyD; rdcifonfuRefrwdkYausmif;ynmoif
,l&efraxmufyHhEdkifaomaMumifh uRefronf r,fvtl;'kuonfpcef;odkY vma&mufaexdkif&ygonf/ uRef
rwGif armifESr 6 a,muf&SdNyD; uRefrwpfOD;wnf;om ynmoif,lcGifh&&Sdygonf/ r,fvtl;pcef;wGif
uRefrwdkY&GmESifhEdIif;,SOfvQif ynmqufvufoif,lEdkif&ef tcGifhta&;rsm;pGm&SdaomaMumifh pcef;wGif
aexdkif&onfrSm aysmf&TifzG,f&maumif;ygonf/ uRefrq,fwef;atmifjrifNyD;ygu r,fvpcef&Sd usrf;
pmoifusmif;wGif ynmqufvufoif,lvdkygonf/ uRefronf "r
"r q&mjzpf
q&mjzpfvdkNyD; ae&ma'ora&G; wm0ef
xrf ; aqmif & ef t vd k & S d y gonf / }}
-aemf - --(r? 14ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

r,fvtl;'kuo
nfpcef;&Sd abmf'gaqmifw
f iG f ,ckaexdik v
f Qu&f adS omuv;i,fwpfO;D ESihf r,fvtl;p
cef;wGif ynmoifMum;aeaomvli,fEpS Of ;D wdo
Yk nf 4if;wk&Yd ifqikd Mf uKH awGU&aomtajctaersm;udk rdrw
d cYkd H
pm;&onft
h wdik ;f ajymjyxm;onfukd atmufaf zmfjyygawGUqHak r;jref;rIrsm;ukzd wf&EI ikd yf gonf/
]]uRefawmfonf r,fvtl;'kuonfpcef;odkY ZGefv 10 &uf 2006 ckESpfwGifa&muf&SdcJhygonf/ uRefawmf
rdbrsm;onf uRefawmfwdkYarmifESrrsm;twGuf ynmoifMum;Ekkdif&ef txl;ojzifh uRefawmfonf &Gmausmif;
wGif rlvwef;atmifjrifNyD; tv,fwef;ynmoif,l&rnhftcsdefwGif raxmufyHhEdkifawmhojzifh uRefawmf
onf &GmrSxGufcGmvmcJh&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGifrlvwef; ausmif;wpfausmif;wnf;om&Sdygonf/
4if;udk autef,l(KED) u&ifynma&;XgerS zGifhvSpfxm;jcif; jzpffygonf/ ausmif;vcrSm wpfESpftwGuf
xkdif;bwfaiG 1000 ay;&ygonf/ uRefawmfonf r,fvtl;pcef;wGif aepOfyHkrSeftaESmuft,Sufr&SdbJ
ynmaumif;rGefpGmoifMum;&ojzifh pcef; wGifaexdkif&jcif;udk ESpfoufygonf/ uRefawmfonf q,fwef;
atmifjrifNyD;vQif acgif;aqmifrIESifh pDrHpcefYcGJrIausmif;odkYwufa&mufynmoif,lvdkygonf/ uRefawmf

59

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
onf acgif;aqmifaumif;wpfOD;jzpfvdkNyD; wpfcsdefwGif u&ifjynfe,fodkYjyefumvlrsdK;twGuf tvkyftauR;
jyKvd k y gonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 16ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &&dd k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)
]]uRefawmf\nDi,f? uRefawmfESifh tarwdkYonf 'kuonfpcef;odkYvma&mufcJhygonf/ taronf pcef;wGif
aq;ukorIcH,lNyD;aomtcg nDi,fESifhtwl &GmodkYjyefoGm;ygonf/ uRefawmfonf ynmqufvufoif,l
Edkif&ef 'kuonfpcef;wGifusef&pfcJhygonf/ uRefawmfonf abmf'gaqmifwGifaeNyD; xdktcsdefwGif uRefawmf
\toufrSm 12 ESpfom&Sdygao;onf/ uRefawmftar&GmodkYjyefoGm;pOfu uRefawmf tvGefyifjyefvdkuf
vdkygonf/ uRefawmfonftvGef0rf;enf;NyD;wpfBudrfESpfBudrfcefYrQ rsuf&nfusrdygonf/ uRefawmfonf
txD;usefcHpm;&NyD; oli,fcsif;taygif;toif;vnf;r&Sdyg/ uRefawmf\0rf;uGJnDtpfudkrsm; pcef;wGif&Sd
aomfvnf; uRefawmfwdkYr&if;ESD;Muao;yg/ uRefawmfwdkY abmf'gaqmifwGif ausmif;om; 40-50 cefY&Sdyg
onf/ xkdpOfu uRefawmfonftoufti,fqHk;jzpfNyD; olwpfyg;ESifhaygif;oif;&ef rvG,fulcJhyg/ trsdK;orD;
BuD;wpfOD;rS uRefawmfwdkYudk Munf&Iapmifha&SmufcJhygonf/ wpfaeYuRefawmfaexdkifraumif;csdefwGif usefol
rsm;tm;vHk;ausmif;odkYoGm;aomaMumifh uRefawmftxD;usefcHpm;&ygonf/ okdYaomf uRefawmfESifha'o
wpfckwnf; twlaeolrS naeausmiff;qif;csdefwGif uRefawmfhudkMunfh&IjyKpkay;ygonf/ xdkolrS uRefawmfhudk
oltdyf&mteD;wGiftdyfapNyD; uRefawmfysdKUtefvdkvQif 4if;rSulnDay;NyD; aq;0g;rsm;vnf; &SmazGwdkufauR;
ygonf / wpf c gwpf & H ol u Ref a wmf h t wG u f Muuf o m;csuf j yKwf a uR;arG ; ygonf / 'k u o nf p cef ; wG i f
uRefawmfwdkYonf ausmif;ynmvGwfvyfpGmtaESmuft,Sufr&Sd oif,lcGifh&&SdNyD; awmwGif;odkYxGufajy;
yk e f ; atmif ; &ef r vd k y g/}}
-apm---(usm;? 18ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)
]]awmwG i f ; wG i f y k e f ; cd k & ol ausmif ; om;vl i ,f a v;rsm;onf jcif u d k t pmauR;&ef tcG i f h t a&;
om&S d y gonf / t&mud k tcG i f h t a&;[k a c:qd k E d k i f r nf a vm}}

]]uRefawmfonf ckESpfESpfom;t&G,fwGif ausmif;ynmpwifoif,lcJh&ygonf/ uRefawmf\tdrfESifh ausmif;


rSm rdepf 30cefYvrfavQmufoGm;&ygonf/ xdkYaMumifh 7 ESpfom;rwdkifrSDwGif uRefawmfonf ausmif;wuf&ef
vrf;ravQmufEdkifaomaMumifh 7 ESpfom;rSp ausmif;aecJh&ygonf/ uRefawmfonf autef,l(KNU)
rS axmufyHhaomausmif;wGifynmoif,laeygonff/ uRefawmf&GmwGifaexdk ifpOf u etz ppfwyf\aetdrf
rsm;udk rD;&dIUzsufqD;rIrsm;aMumihf ESpfpOfESpfwdkif;&Gmrsm;udk wpfae&mrS wpfae&majymif;a&TUaexdkif&ayonf/
awmwGif;wGif ykef;cdkaexdkif&aomaMumifh ynmudkaumif;rGefacsmarmpGmroif,lEdkifay/ uRefawmfwdkY
ausmif;topfESifh eD;uyfaomawmwGif;wpfae&mwGif uRefawmfESifhuRefawmf\ nDrwdkYaexdkif&ef tazrS
tdrfuav;wpfvHk;aqmufay;xm;ygonf/ uRef awmfwdkYaexdkif&mae&mESifh ausmif;topfonf vrf;wpf
&ufavQmufc&D;&SdaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ odkYaomfvnf; uRefawmfwdkYonf rdbrsm;ajymif;a&TU&jcif;rsm;
udkulnDvkyfudkif&aomaMumifh ynmaumif;rGefpGmroif,lEdkifonfudk rdbrsm;rSod&Sdygonf/ ausmif;om;
trsm;pkonf pmoifMum;&rnfht&G,fwGif pmoifMum;cGifh r&Muay/ xdkYaMumifh pmra&;wwf? rzwfwwf
ay/ awmwGif;wGifjciff udk tpmauR;&ef tcGifhta&;om&Sdygonf/ t&mudk tcGif hta&;[kac:qdkEdkif
rnfavm/ uRefawmfhrSm &nfrSef;csuf&dSygonf/ xdkYaMumifh uRefawmfhrdbrsm;ESifhtwl &GmwGifomaexdkif
vQif ynmoif,lcGifh&&Sdrnf r[kwfay/ uRefawmfonf rdbrsm;udktvGefcspfaomaMumifh &GmwGifxm;
&pffumtjcm; odkYxGufcGm&rnfudk rvdkvm;yg/ uRefawmfonf &GmwGifaexdkifNyD; ynmqufvufoif,lvdk
aomfvnf; rdbrsm;onfpm;0wfaea&;twGuf &kef;uefvIyf&Sm;&aomaMumifh qufvuffaxmufyHh&efr
wwfEdkifaomaMumifh 'kuonfpcef;okdY ydkYaqmifynmoif,lapygonf/
uRefawmfonf'kuonfpcef;odkY xdkpcef;wGifynmoifESifhNyD;aomoli,fcsiff;wpfa,mufESifhtwl vma&muf
cJhygonf/ yxr wpfESpfwGif uRefawmfonfoli,fcsifESifhtwlaexdkifNyD;aemuf rdbrsm;udkowd&aom
aMumifh &Gmodk YjyefoGm;cJhygonf/ uRefawmfonf i,f&G,fao;aomaMumifh aeYa&mnyg rsuf&nfusrdygonf/
uRefawmf&GmodkYjyefa&mufcsdefwGif touf 13ESpf&SdNyD; rdbrsm;ESifhtwl v,f,mvkyfief;vkyfudkifcJhygonf/

60

ynma&;u@
etz ppfwyfrS uRefawmfwdkY\qefvHk;0r&Sdawmhojzifh v,f,mvkyfief; rsm;wGiftvkyf 0ifa&mufvkyf udkif
NyD; qef0,fpm;&ygonf/ rdbrsm;udk ulnDvkyfudkifay;ygu rdom;pktwGuf tultnD&&Sdapaomfvnf;
ausmif;ynmoif,lygu rdbrsm;twGuf tvkyform;wpfa,mufqHk;&IH;apygonf/ rdom;pkkudk wpfESpfulnD
vk y f u d k i f a y;NyD ; 'k u o nf p cef ; wG i f aemuf w pf B ud r f y nmoif , l E d k i f & ef rd b rsm;ud k c G i f h a wmif ; cJ h y gonf /
xdkYaMumifh r,f&mrlavmif'k uonfpcef;odkY jyefvmNyD; 6 ESpfaexdkifynmoif,lcJhygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif
uRefawmfonf rdom;pkESifh&GmudkvGrf;qGwf owd&cJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifh 10 wef;ajzqdkatmifjrifNyD;aemuf
uRefawmfonf &GmodkYjyefvnfvnf ywfcJh ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYrdom;pkwGif 10 wef;ajzqdkatmifjrifNyD;ol
uRefawmf wpfOD;wnf;om &Sdygonf/ uRefawmf 10 wef;atmifjrifNyD;aemuf uRefawmhfrdom;pkrS uRefawmffh
tm;qufvufynmroif,l&ef cGifhrjyKvdkyg/ rdom;pkonf uRefawmf 10 wef;atmifjrifNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh
tvkyfvkyf&eftcsdefwefNyD[k ,lqMuygonf/ okdYaomf uRefawmfrS4if;wdkYtm;cGifhjyK&ef cPcPawmiff;qddk
&aomaMumifh 4if;wdkYonfem;rcHEdk i
f aemufqHk;wGifuRefawmfhudk 'kuonfpcef;wGif qufvufynmoif
,lcGifhjyKcJhygonf/ xdkYaMumifhuRefawmfonf r,fvtl;pcef;&Sd KYLMTC (10 wef;atmifjrifNyD;olrsm;
twGuf acgif;aqmifrIESifhpDrHceYfcGJrI ynmoifMum;ay;aomausmif;)wGif ynmoif,l&ygonf/ tem*wf
wGif uRefawmfonf wu
wuod
wuod
okdvfqufvufwufa&mufvdkygonf/ wu
okdvfbGJU&jzpfygu uRefawmfhaemifa&;
twGuf tcGifhta&;ydkrdk&&SdvmEdkifygonf/ tcGifhta&;&&Sdygu uRefawmfonfwwd,EdkifiHwpfckckodkY oGm;
a&muftajc csaexdkifNyD; ynmqufvufoif ,lvdkygonf/
-apm---(usm;? 23ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

tcsKd Urdbrsm;onf rdr&d ifaoG;i,frsm;a&SUqufynmoif,El ikd af &;ESihf zGNYH zKd ;wd;k wufa&;ud&k nf&,
G f rdrd
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nfpcef;rsm;odv
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awGUqHak r;jref;rIwiG f zcifwpfO;D \ajymjycsurf sm;ukd txufyf gtcsut
f vufrsm;ukv
d nf; awGUjrif&ygrnf/
]]uRefawmfwdkYonf &GmwGifqufvufaexkdifrnfqdkvQif uRefawmf\uav;i,frsm;onf rnfodk YrQ ynm
qufvufoif,lcGifh&&Sdrnfr[kwfay/ uRefawmfonf uRefawmfhuav;rsm;tm;vHk;udk ausmif;ynmoif
,lcGifh&&SdapcsifNyD; ynmwwfrsm;jzpfapvdkygonf/ xkdYjyifru awmwGif;wGiftjrJykef;atmif;ae&aom
aMumifh aexdkfif&eftdrfr&Sday/ awmwGif;wGiftjrJykef;atmif;&NyD; ppfwyfrsm; uRefawmfteD;tem;odkY
a&muf&SdvmvQif odkYr[kwf uif;vSnfhvQiftjcm;wpfae&modkYtjrJxGufajy;&aomaMumifh 'kuonfpcef;
wGifaexdkifjcif;onfom taumif;qHk;jzpfrnf[k qHk;jzwfcJhMuygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 47ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f /

61

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
yH k w G i f y g0if a om uav;i,f o nf xef ; wyif N rd K Ue,f ? --&GmwGif aexdkifaom 15 ESpft&G,f&Sd apm---jzpfyg onf/
4if ; ajcmuf E S p f o m;t&G , f w G i f rd o m;pk E S i f h t wl a wmif , m
vkyfief;vkyfudkifaepOf 4if;&GmodkY etz ppfom; rsm;a&muf&Sd
vmcJhNyD; ypfcwfwdkufcdkufcJhygonf/ apm---\vuf armif;
udk aoewfxdrSefcJhaomaMumifh ol\zcifrS ausmydk;o,f
aqmifumxGufajy;cJhygonf/ atmufwGif 4if;apm--- rS
qufvufajymjyxm;ygonf/ ]]uRefawmfhzcifrS uRefawmfh
'Pf&mudk ukoaysmufuif;Edkif&efaq;0g;rsm;udk udk,fwdkif
&SmazGcJhNyD; uRefawmfhudk autef,l (KNU) aq;cef ; od k Y y d k Y
aqmifcJhygonf/ uRefawmfowdarh &mrS jyefvnfowd&vm
aomtcg uRefawmfonf tdyfruf rufaeovdkyifcHpm;&NyD;
uRef a wmf \ vuf u d k tb,f a Mumif h a jrmuf r&aMumif ;
ud k r od & S d c J h y g/ aemuf r S t azu etz ppf o m;\ypf c wf r I
aMumifh uRefawmfvuf'Pf&m &&SdcJhaMumif; ajymjycJhygonf/
vuf'Pf&mjzifh wpfESpfcefYaecJh&NyD; ausmif;rwufEdk ifcJhay/
wpfESpfNyD;wpfESpf uRefawmfwdkYonf ausmif;ynmudk xGuf
ajy;yk e f ; a&S m if & if ; oif , l c J h & ygonf / 2006 ck E S p f w G i f
uRef a wmf o nf yy
rwef
r wef; atmif j rif c J h N yD ; xd k a eY w G i f y if
uRef a wmf h z cif o nf awmif , mwG i f o D ; ES H & d w f o d r f ; aepOf
etz ppfom;\ypfcwfrIaMumifh aoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ zcif
aoqH k ; cJ h N yD ; aemuf uRef a wmf o nf tjcm;armif E S r 5
OD ; ES i f h t wl rd c if E S i f h a exd k i f & ygonf / uRef a wmf \ tpf u d k B uD ; rS m td r f a xmif j yKcJ h y gonf / uRef a wmf h & G m &S d
ausmif;onf pwkwwef
wef;txd ynmoifMum;ay;ygonf/ uRefawmfvufarmif;'Pf&maMumifh tvkyfrvkyfEdkif
yg/ xdkYaMumifhynmudkom t"duxm;oif,lEdk if&ef tDwl;xm&Sd jynfwGif;'kuonfpcef;odkY vma&mufcJhygonf/
xkdYaMumifh uRefawmfonf ,cktcsdefwGif qXrwef;wGif ynmoif,laeygonf/ }}
-(ZG e f v d k i f 2007) ("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

yHkwGifyg0ifaomuav;i,fESpfOD;rSm awmifilc&dkif? xef;wyif


Nrd K Ue,f ? ---&G m wG i f aexd k i f c J h a om touf 15 ES p f & S d apm--ES i f h 4if ; \nD apm---wd k Y j zpf y gonf / {NyD v 8 &uf 2007ck
ES p f w G i f etz\trS w f 371 ajcjref w yf & if ; rS ppf o m;rsm;
4if;wdkY\tpfudkBuD;udk(&GmwGifpyg;o,f,laepOf)
ypf c wf o wf j zwf c J h y gonf / 2007 ck E S p f arvwG i f ppf w yf
rS 4if ; wd k Y & G m od k Y aemuf w pf a cguf j yef v mcJ h N yD ; 4if ; uav;
i,f r sm;\ zcif u d k zrf ; qD ; ac:aqmif o G m ;cJ h y gonf / ,ck t
csd e f x d y if 4if ; wd k Y o nf zcif a oonf &S i f o nf u d k rod & ay/
4if;aemufwGif rdcifonf tcuftcJrsm;pGmESifh&ifqdkif&aom
aMumif h 4if ; wk d Y u d k ausmif ; ynmoif M um;&ef raxmuf y H h E d k i f
ojzif h tD w l ; xm jynf w G i f ; 'k u o nf p cef ; ok d Y vma&muf
ynmoif , l & ygonf / -(ZG e f v d k i f 2 007) ("gwf y H k - u&if v l Y
tcG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

62

tvkyt
f udik u
f @
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ESpfoufaMumif;ajymjyMuygonf/ u&ifbmompum;udk oif,lcGifh&&Sdjcif;? tcrJhynma&;oif,lvdk
aomfvnf; etz ausmif;rsm;ESiEhf iId ;f ,SOv
f Qif ausmif;vcay;&oufomjcif;f wdaYk Mumifh xdak usmif;rsm;udk
BuKd uEf pS o
f ufMuygonf/ xdt
Yk jyif bmoma&;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;? autef,l (KNU)tzGUJ ? a'ocHtzGUJ
tpnf;rsm;? tpd;k &r[kwaf omtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;? tjcm;tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;ESihf wpfo;D yk*vu
d tvSL&Sirf sm;\
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taESmiht
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d cf svjkH cKH r&I adS omausmif;rsm;odYk oGm;a&mufynmoifMf uygonf/

4/ tvkyftudkifu@
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-tjynf j ynf q d k i f & mtvk y f o rm;tzG J U rS jref r mEk d i f i H u av;i,f r sm;ES i f h y wf o uf xk w f j yef a jymqd k c suf /
(rwf v 2008)40

etzxdef;csKyfe,fajr&Sduav;i,frsm;tvkyfvkyfudkif&rItajctae
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D ;l ay;jcif;ponfjzifh
40

''Developments concerning the question of the observance by the Government of


Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29).'' International Labour
Organisation, [GB 301/5/2]. para.26, March 2008.

63

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Ykd kd vkyaf qmifMu
ygonf/f xdYk aMumifh uav;i,frsm;onf t&G,af &mufvmcsed w
f iG f txufygvkyif ef;rsm;tm;vH;k eD;yg;udk
uRr;f usipf mG vkyu
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]]ausmif ; om;ausmif ; ol r sm;onf 4if ; wd k Y \ tarud k rd r d w d k Y \ nD i ,f ? nD r i,f r sm;tm;Munf h & I a pmif h
a&Smufjcif;jzifh ulnDMuygonf/ rdbrsm;awmif,mvkyfief;oGm;a&mufvkyfudkifNyD; tdrfjyefaemufusygu
uav;i,frsm;onf naepmBudKwifcsufjyKwfxm;jcif;jzifh rdbrsm;tdrfodkYjyefvnfa&muf&Sdygu csufjyKwf
&ef r vk d a wmh a y/}}
-aemf - --(r? 15ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2008)

od&Yk mwGif etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrrsm;wGif uav;i,frsm;tvkyv


f yk u
f ikd &f jcif;onf 4if;wdzYk UHG NzKd ;wd;k wuf
rItwGuf xku
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f ifah omtvkyrf sm;udv
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f ikd &f jcif;xuf twif;t"rapcdik ;f jcif;cH&ygonf/ u&ifjynf
e,fwpfvmT ; etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrwGif etz tpd;kd &onfaus;&Gmvlxu
k kd xde;f csKyx
f m;Edik &f efEiS hf aus;&Gm
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k El ikd &f eftwGuf ppfwyftiftm;wd;k csUJ csxm;jcif;aMumifhf aus;&Gm
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ay:wmxrf;&efqifah c:cH&jcif;? qufom;tjzpfvyk af qmif&jcif;? ppfpcef;rsm;wGif atmufajcodr;f tvkyf
rsm;vkyu
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aqmufvyk &f jcif;ponfh aus;&GmzGUH NzKd ;a&;vkyif ef;rsm;wGif yg0if&jcif;tjyif etz ppfom;rsm;onf &Gmol&mG
om;rsm;tay: aiGaMu;? pm;eyf &dum ESihf tjcm;aomtaxmuftyHrh sm;udk twif;awmif;cHtjrwfxw
k f
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&Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf rdrw
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f yk u
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onf rdru
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wGuf zcifrsm;? tpfurkd sm;ae&mwGif v,f,mvkyif ef;rsm;udk vkyu
f ikd af pygonf/ ppfwyfonf uav;i,f

64

tvkyt
f udik u
f @
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rdom;pk ESihf &yf&mG wGi;f vkyif ef;rsm;udk wdu
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xde;f csKyf e,fajr&Sd rdom;pkrsm;tm;vH;k onf twif;t"rvyk t
f m;apcdik ;f cH&aomaMumifh rdom;pkpm;
0wfaea&;twGuf tvkyv
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vrf;jyay;&jcif;? ppf wyfcrJG sm;twGuq
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vrf;rsm;jyKjyifay;&jcif;? pku
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vkyif ef;rsm;udk vkyu
f ikd Mf u&ygonf/
]]uRefrwdkYonf ausmif;wuf&rnfhtcsdefwGif ppfwyftwGufqefrsm;udko,faqmifay;&ygonf/ etz
ppfom;rsm;onf uRefrwdkYu&ifpmoif,lonfudk rESpfoufyg/ u&ifvlrsdK;rsm; u&ifpm a&;wwf?zwf
wwfrnfudk 4if;wdkYrvdkvm;yg/}}
-aemf - --(r? 15ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2008)
]]etz rSvkyftm;ay;vkyfaqmif&efac:,lygu uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif&SdaomtvkyfvkyfEdk ifolrSeforQukd oGm;
a&mufvkyfudkif&ygonf/ trsdK;orD;rsm;? oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;ESifh uav;oli,frsm;rusef tukefvHk;oGm;
a&mufMuygonf/ trsdK;om;rsm;csnf;oGm;a&mufygu ppfwyfrSapcdkif;aomtvkyfrsm;udk tvsiftjrefr
vkyfudkifEdkifaomaMumifh rdrdwdkYv,fuGif;wGif vkyfudkif&rnhftcsdefudkxdcdkufapojzifh &Gmol&Gmom;tm;vHk;
twif;t"r
t"rapcd
apcdkif;rIudk oGm;a&mufvkyfudkifMuygonf/ etz \apcdkif;rIudk oGm;a&mufvkyfudkifay;aom
&Gmom;tBuD;qHk;rSm touf 50 ESpf&SdNyD; ti,fqHk;rSm 12 ESpf&Sdyg onf/ppfom;rsm;onf &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;udk
vkyftm;cray;onfhtjyif 4if;wdkYxHrS aiGaMu;ESifhpm;eyf&dumudk twif;t"r
t"r awmif
a wmif; ,l y gonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 34ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2006)

65

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

txufygyHkwGif anmifav;yifc&dkif&Sd uav;i,frsm;onf 2007ckESpf rwfv 10&ufaeYwGif vrf;azmufvkyf&m?


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awmvlcdk&GmrS Edkzdk;&Gmtxd um;vrf;azmufvkyfapygonf/ yHkwGifawGUjrif&onfhtwdkif;yif &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf
ayguf w l ; ? ayguf c Ref ; rsm;jzif h v,f u G i f ; rsm;rS a jrud k a yguf , l N yD ; 0g;jcif ; rsm;jzif h xnf h , l o ,f a qmif u m um;
vrf;rsufESmjyifudk zdkYaeMuygonf/ ("gwfyHk-u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJU)

etz ppfwyfonf twif;t"rvyk t


f m;ay;&ef aus;&Gmrsm;udk qifah c:aomtcg uav;oli,frsm;udk
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ESifh rdrdwdkYvkyfief;cGifodkY tvsiftjrefjyefvnf0ifa&mufvkyfudkifEdkif&ef &Gm&SdtvkyfvkyfEdkifoltm;vHk;udk
vkyt
f m;ay; vkyu
f ikd af pygonf/ etz odrYk [kwf 'DaubDatwyfzUJG rsm;onf uav;oli,frsm;onf
4if;wdYk apcdik ;f aomtwif;t"rvyk t
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vli,frsm;ygrusef 4if;wdaYkd pcdik ;f aomapcdik ;f rIrsm;udv
k yk u
f ikd &f rnf[k awmif;qdyk gonf/

66

tvkyt
f udik u
f @
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rsm;ud k um;vrf ; &S i f ; vif ; apjcif ; ? ausmuf w H k ; rsm;wl ; NyD ; vrf ; ayguf r sm;zmax;ay;&jcif ; ponf w d k Y u d k
vkyfudkifapNyD;aemuf &GmjyefcGifhay;ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYudk tcaMu;aiGvHk;0ray;yg/ uRefawmfwdkYxHrS
pm;eyf&dumyif jyefvnfawmif;,lygonf/ vkyftm;ay;vkyfudkif&ef &GmolBuD;rS wqifhac:qdkygonf/
eHeufapmapm tdyf&mrSxNyD; eHeufpmpm;NyD;onfESifhvkyftm;ay; vkyfrnfhae&modkY wef;oGm;&ygonf/
eHeuf 11 em&DwGif &GmodkYjyefvmNyD;aeYvnf 1 em&DwGif tvkyfjyefpvkyf&NyD; nae 4 em&DwGif tvkyfodrf;
tdrfjyefvm&ygonf/ etz ppfom;rsm;rS uRefawmfwdkYudkqlylBudrf;armif;&dkufESufrnfudk aMumuf&GHUaom
aMumifh 4if;wddkYapcdkif;onfhtvkyfudk BudK;BudK;pm;pm; vkyfudkif&ygonff/ uRefawmfwdkY tvkyf vkyfudkifaecsdef
wGif uRefawmfwdkYudk tjrJvdkufvHMunfh&Iygonf/ vkyftm;ay;odkYoGm;aomtouftBuD;qHk;&Gmom;rSm 50
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uav;? vlBuD;ra&G;tukef oGm;a&muf vkyfudkif&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 55ES p f ) ? ---&G G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)

]]jyefvnfae&mcsxm;a&;aus;&GmwGif uRefawmfwdkYaexdkif&rnfhae&mESifh 4if;wdkYppfpcef;twGuf ajrae&m


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&Gmom;rsm;rS uif;tvSnhfusapmifhay;&ygonf/ &GmvlBuD;tm;vkyftm;ay;41vkyf&ef vl&Smcdkif;ygonf/
vkyftm;ay;vkyfudkifaomolrsm;onf touf 13 ESpfuav;t&G,frS touf 60 ESpft&G,f vlBuD;txd
yg0ifygonf/ etz ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdkYrBudKufESpfoufaomt&mrsm;vkyfrdygu uRefawmfwdkYudkql
ylBudrf;armif;ygonf/ vkyftm;ay;vkyfudkif&ef aygufwl;ponfh udk,fydkifvufeufud&d,mrsm;udk ,laqmif
oG m ;&ygonf/ 4if;wdkYonf &Gmwpf&GmvQif vkyf tm;ay;vkyfaqmif&ef vl 10 OD;rS 15 OD;xdawmif;cHyg
onf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 25ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)
]]wyf&if;rSL;&efaemifrS uRefawmfwdk Y&Gmom;rsm;tm; &GmywfvnfjcHpnf;&dk;um&H&ef ajymygonf/ odkYaomf
rnfonffhtaMumif;aMumifhum&Honfudkrl rajymyg/ uRefawmfwdkYonf 0g;&SmazG&efrvG,fulaomaMumifh
&GmwGif&SdNyD;om;0g;rsm;udk jcrf;jcHcwf&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkY&Gmwpf&Gmwnf;om jcHcwf&jcif;r[kwfbJ
teD;ywf0ef;usif&Sd&Gmrsm;tm;vHk;onfvnf;vkyfaqmif&aomaMumifh uRefawmfwdkYonfvnf; rysufruGuf
vkyfaqmif&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYudk vukef 30 &ufaeYtNyD; vkyfaqmif&rnf[kajymygonf/ ,cktcsdef
wGif uRefawmf wdkY&Gmom;rsm;tm;vHk;jcHpnf;&dk;cwfjciff;udk vkyfudkifaeMuygonf/ rdef;r? uav;? vlBuD;tm;
vH k ; vk y f u d k i f M u&ygonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 30)? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2006)

41

vkyftm;ay;qdkonfrSm trSefwu,ftm;jzifh &yf&Gmbk&m;ausmif;uefrsm;twGuf rdrd\oabmtwdkif; ulnDvkyfudkif


ay;jcif;jzpfNyD; ppfwyftwGufr[kwfay/

67

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

txufygyHkonf Mo*kwfv 2006 ckkESpfwGif etz \trSwf 599 ajcjrefwyf&if;'kwyf&if;rSL;&efaemifrS wmcdky


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t"r apcd
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vQH a eaomtcsd e f j zpf a omaMumif h &G m ol & G m om;rsm;onf a&xJ w G i f j cH p nf f ; &d k ; cwf a e&onf u d k awG Y j rif & ygrnf /
jcHpnf;&dk;cwfjcif;udk tvsiftjrefNyD;pD;Edkif&ef aus;&Gm&Sd a,musfm;? rdef;r? uav;oli,fra&G; &Gmom;rsm;tm;
vHk;0dkif;0ef;vkyfaqmif & ygonf / ("mwf y H k -u&if v l Y t cGifhta&;tzGJU )

uav;oli,frsm;onf twif;t"rvyk t
f m;ay;apcdik ;f rIrsm;wGif yg0ifun
l aD y;jcif;jzifh rdbESit
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kd yk u
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rsm;okYd uav;i,frsm;udk apvTw&f efq;kH jzwfMuygonf/ uav;oli,frsm;udk vkyt
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68

tvkyt
f udik u
f @
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-aemf - --(r? 19ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zm;tH c &d k i f ? (Mo*k w f v 2007)

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wpf & G m vQif t if z uf 300 ypf E S i f h 0g;tacsmif ; 300 uspD 4if ; wd k Y p pf p cef ; od k Y v ma&muf y d k Y a qmif a y;&ef a wmif ;
cHcJhygonf/ ("mwfyHk -u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U)

etz ppft&m&Srd sm;rS &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk twif;t"rapcdik ;f onft


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43

Booth, Anne. 2003. "The Burma Development Disaster in Comparative Historical Perspective," SOAS Bulletin of Burma Research 1(1):1-23.p.13
44
"Children in Myanmar," UNICEF Myanmar, 2004. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/
myanmar/children_1350.html on January 4th 2008.

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45

Arnold, Dennis. 2007, Capital Expansion and Migrant Workers: Flexible Labor in the
Thai-Burma Economy, Mahidol University, Bangkok.p.24

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46
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ygonf/

46

Trafficking in Persons Report, Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons,


US State Department, June 12th 2007. Accessed at http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/
2007/82805.htm on January 4th 2008.

74

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47

"Thailand's cynical ploy on Burmese migrant workers," The Nation, December 12th
2006. Accessed at http://www.nationmultimedia.com/2006/12/11/opinion/
opinion_30021216.php on January 3rd 2007.

76

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49

{NyDv 1 &uf? 2008 ckESpfwGif u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJUESifha'gufwmqifoD,marmifwdkY\awGUqHkar;jref;rI


''134 MPs Demand Total Oil Withdraw From Burma," The Burma Campaign UK, July
14th 2005. Accessed at http://www.burmacampaing.org.uk/pm/more.php?id=175_0_1_0_
M on January 17th, 2008.
51
"Burma/Myanmar: A silent crisis," ECHO, November 22nd 2005. Accessed at http://
ec.europa.eu/echo/field/myanmar/index_en.htm on March 1st 2007.
52
The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma. Human Rights
Center, University of California, Berkeley and Centre for Public Health and Human
Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, July 2007. p.1.
53
Ibid., p.4.
50

91

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aus;&GmtwGuf ud,
k yf ikd af q;ay;cef;rsm;aqmufvyk u
f m aq;cef;twGuf vdt
k yfaomaq;0g;rsm;udv
k nf;
ud,
k yf ikd af iGaMu;rsm; jzif0h ,f,x
l m;Muygonf/ odrYk [kwf a'ocH0rf;qGJ q&mrrsm;twGuv
f nf; oifwef;
54

''Kayin, Bamar, Rakhine, Mon, Shan, PaO, and other races striving for emergence of
peaceful developed and modern State under the guidance of the State Peace and Development Council in Kayin State", SPDC Press Conference, June 11th 2006. Accessed at
http: //www.myanmar.com/press_conference/2006/11-6f.html on March 2nd 2007 on January 17th, 2008.
55
WHO Country Cooperation Strategy [CCS], Myanmar (2002-2005), World Health
Organisation, June 28th 2000. Accessed at http://www.who.int/country/cooperation strategy/ countries/ccs_mmr_final_en.pdf on August 21st 2007.

92

use;f rma&;u@
rsm;zGiv
hf pS af y;ygonf/ 0rf;qGq
J &mrrsm;onf &k;d &mtpOftvmtwdik ;f yif ud,
k 0f efaqmifrcd ifrsm;twGuf
use;f rma&;apmifah &SmufraI y;aecsed w
f iG f &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf ,ckvuf&w
dS iG u
f se;f rma&;apmifah &SmufrI
enf;AsL[mtopfuv
kd nf; vkyaf qmifMuygonf/ xdek nf;AsL[mwGif jyifyrStultnDrsm;&,lNy;D 0rf;qGq
J
&mrrsm;udk oifwef;rsm;ydcYk sjcif;? aq;cef;twGuv
f t
kd yfaomaq;0g;ypn;f rsm;udjk znfw
h if;jcif; ponfwyYkd g
0ifonf/ xdo
k v
Ykd yk af qmif&mwGif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk autef,v
l ufatmufcu
H &ifuse;f rma&;ESiv
hf rl I
a&;Xge (KDHW)? u&iftrsKd ;orD;tzGUJ (KWO)? jrefrmEdik if aH q;0g;tzGUJ (BMA)? ausmyd;k tdwu
f se;f
rma&;vkyo
f m;rsm;tzGUJ (BPHWT) ESifh z&D;bm;rm;&de;f *sm;(FBR) ponft
h zGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf oifwef;
ydcYk say;jcif;? aq;0g;ESiahf q;cef;oH;k ypn;f rsm;udk axmufyaHh y;jcif;ponfeh nf;vrf;rsmjzifh tultnDay;
ygonf/ odaYk omf etz vufvrS ;f rSaD ome,fajrrsm;&Sad us;&Gmrsm;onf etz ppfAv
kd rf sm;\trde&Yf rS
yif aq;cef;rsm;aqmufvyk cf iG &hf MuNy;D 4if;f wdrYk t
S wif;t"ryw
d cf ikd ;f ygu ydw&f rnfjzpfygonf/ odrYk [kwf
vQif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;aqmufvyk x
f m;aomaq;cef;rsm;udk etz rSziG v
hf pS af y;aomaq;cef;rsm;[k trnf
ajymif;apumEdik if aH wmfrS apwemBu;D pGmaqmufvyk af y;xm;aomaq;cef;rsm;pm&if;wGix
f nfo
h iG ;f vdu
k yf g
onf/
]]uRefawmfwdkYwGif pm;eyf&dumESifhaq;0g;rsm;0,f,l&efaiGaMu;r&Sdyg/ 0ifaiG&&Sd&efvnf; enf;vrf;r&Sdyg/
trSefwu,ftm;jzifh uRefawmfwdkYcHpm;&aoma&m*grsm;onf omrefa&m*grsm;omjzpfygonf/ odkYaomf
vnf; uko&efaq;0g;r&SdaomaMumifh a&m*gtajctaerSmqdk;&Gm;onf xufqdk;&Gm;vmygonf/ aq;0g;
rsm;taMumif ; em;vnf o l r sm;&S d a omf v nf ; 4if ; wd k Y x H o G m ;a&muf j yovQif aiG a Mu;ay;aqmif & ygonf /
4if ; wd k Y o nf aq;0g;rsm;ud k 4 if ; wd k Y y d k i f a iG a Mu;rsm;jzif h 0 ,f , l & aomaMumif h uRef a wmf w d k Y u d k t crJ h r uk o
ay;Edkifyg/ xdkYaMumifh a&m*gcHpm;&aomfvnf;aiGaMu;r&SdaomaMumifh rnfodkYrQrvkyfEdkifyg/ etz tpdk;&
onf uRefawmfwdkYudk tultnDvHk;0ray;yg/}}
-apm---(usm;? 55ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)

etz xdef;csKyfe,fajr&Sdusef;rma&;tajctae
etz ppftpd;k &onf jynfov
l x
l t
k wGuu
f se;f rma&;apmifah &Smufrv
I yk if ef;rsm; wd;k csUJ vkyu
f ikd af eaMumif;
tjrJajymqdkaeaomfvnf; ppftpdk;&\usef;rma&;0efBuD;Xgeonf jrefrmEdkifiHwGiftjzpfrsm;aomuyf
a&m*grsm;onf umv0rf;a&m*g? ykvyd af &m*g/ aoG;vGew
f w
k af uG;a&m*g? 0rf;azm0rf;a&mifa&m*g? 0rf;
udu
k af &m*g? toJa&miftom;0ga&m*g? tla&mifief;zsm;a&m*gESihf OD;aESmuftm&kaH Mum tajr;yg;a&mifa&m
*grsm;jzpfonfurkd l todtrSwjf yKygonf/ tcsKd UESprf sm;wGif umv0rf;a&m*g? ykvyd af &m*gESihf aoG;vGew
f w
k f
56
auG;a&m*gwdo
Yk nf wpfjynfv;kH wGiyf sUH ESUH jzpfymG ;Ny;D ESpEf pS ?f oH;k ESpw
f pfBurd yf rkH eS jf zpfymG ;avh&ydS gonf/ jrefrm
Edik if H etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrwpfvmT ;wGif uav;rsm;aoqH;k rIEeI ;f ESiyhf wfoufNy;D ,leq
D uf(UNI CEF)
jrefrm &k;H cGjJ yefMum;a&;t&m&Srd S atmufygtwdik ;f ajymjycJyh gonf/ ]]uav;trsm;pkonf &kww
f &ufjzpfymG ;
aomtouf&LS vrf;aMumif;yd;k 0ifaoma&m*g? tqkwt
f at;rda&m*g? 0rf;a&m*gESihf aoG;tqdyw
f uf
57
a&m*grsm;aMumifh ao;qH;k &jcif;jzpfygonf/}}
56

Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team 2006 , p.17
57
"Burma high up on UNICEF's child mortality rate list," Relief Web, January 24th 2008.
Accessed at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/SHES-7B6UDT? Open
Document on January 25th 2008.

93

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
u&ifjynfe,f etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrrsm;atmuf&dS aus;&Gmrsm;wGi&f mG ol&mG om;rsm;twGuf etzrSuse;f
rma&;apmifah &SmufrrI sm;tenf;i,fomvkyaf qmifay;aomaMumifh uav;i,frsm;ESihf arG;uif;puav;
rsm;aoqH;k rIEeI ;f rSm tqrwefjrifrh m;aeygonf/ tcef;tzGiw
hf iG f a'gufwmpifo,
D marmifajymjy
ouJo
h yYkd if uav;i,ftrsm;onf umuG,u
f o
k &aoma&m*grsm;aMumifyh ifaoqH;k cJMh u&ygonf/ 4if;
a&m*grsm;onf umuG,af q;xd;k ay;jcif;? jcifaxmifaxmiftyd jf cif;? t[m&csKd UwJrh u
I u
kd muG,af y;aom
ADwmrif ataq;0g;aomufo;kH jcif;f ? oef&Y iS ;f aoma&ESihf tdro
f mrsm;&&Sjd cif; ponfv
h ,
G u
f &l ;kd &Si;f aom
enf;vrf;rsm;jzifyh if umuG,Ef ikd af oma&m*grsm;jzpfygonf/ umuG,af &;vkyif ef;rsm;vkyu
f ikd &f ef ppft
pd;k &onf BuKd ;pm;vkyu
f ikd v
f jkd cif;r&So
d jzifh ,leq
D uf (UNICEF)onf tcsKd UaomumuG,af q;vku
d v
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k w
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G v
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k w
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k muG,f
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H pf0rS ;f &Su
d av;i,frsm;pGmtwGuf wDbaD &m*gumuG,f
aq;? MuufnmqHq
k aYkd &m*gumuG,af q;? ar;cdik af &m*gumuG,af q;? ydv
k ,
D ?kd 0ufoufEiS t
hf oJa&mif
58
tom;0g(bD) yd;k a&m*g umuG,af q;xd;k ESaH y;jcif; ponfwyYkd g0ifygonf/ xdt
Yk jyif jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
uav;i,frsm;udk wdu
k af uR;aomADwmrifat 95%onf ,leq
D ufrS wdu
k af uR;ay;jcif;jzpfygonf/59
jrefrmEdik if t
H pd;k &onf tjynfjynfqikd &f mtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udk jrefrmEdik if aH e&ma'otESUH udo
k mG ;a&muf
cGiMhf uyfwnf;pGmydwyf ifxm;jcif;aMumifh ,leq
D ufrx
S w
k jf yefaomtpD&ifcpH mjzpfaom]]uav;i,frsm;udk
wdu
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k nft
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Yd jyif etzxde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sd u&ifjynfe,faus;&Gmrsm;wGif aexdik f
Muaom&Gmol&mG om;tcsKd Uom u&ifvt
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k ,
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jrefrmEdkifiHwGif ppftpdk;&\usef;rma&;twGuftoHk;p&dwftvGefenf;yg;jcif;ESifh ppftpdk;&\twif;
t"rvyk t
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,aeYvuf&dS ,leq
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H iG f 5 ESpf atmufuav;rsm;onf
wpfaxmifvQif wpf&mhav;a,muf ESihf wpfEpS af tmufuav;i,frsm;onf wpfaxmifvQif ckEpS q
f ,fah v;
a,mufEeI ;f jzifah oqH;k vQu&f ydS gonf/ xdjYk yif jrefrmEdik if &H u
dS av;oli,frsm;\ use;f rma&;tajctae
60
onf qd;k &Gm;vsu&f adS Mumif;wifjyxm;ygonf/ ppftpd;k &onf vGwv
f yfpmG ajymqdck iG u
hf kd wif;usypf mG ydwf
yifxm;jcif;aMumifh ppftpd;k &\use;f rma&;0efBu;D Xmeudrk jDS irf; xkwjf yefxm;aom,leq
D uf\ ude;f *Pef;
rsm;udk vH;k 0,HMk unfpw
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f yfpmG oGm;
vmcGiEhf iS hf 4if;wd\
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Ykd kd ydwyf ifxm;jcif;aMumifh
,leq
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S w
k f jyefaomude;f *Pef;rsm;onf 4if;wdt
Yk zGUJ tpnf;rS tvkyv
f yk cf iG &hf aomjrefrmEdik if t
H
58

''Helping children stay healthy and well-nourished," UNICEF: Myanmar, 2007. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/health_nutrition_1356.html on January 17th
2007.
59
The State of the World's Chilldren 2008, UNICEF, December 2007, p.118. Accessed at
http://www.uniceff.org/publications/files/The_State_of_the Worlds_ Children_2008.pdf
on January 25th 2008.
60
Ibid., p.115

94

v,fyikd ;f a'orsm;wGio
f m aumuf,jl yKpx
k m;aompm&if;rsm;omjzpfayonf/61 xdjYk yifru ,ckvuf&w
dS iG f
ppftpd;k &\jynfxaJ &;0efBu;D XmerS 2008 ckEpS f Zefe0g&DvwGif xkwjf yefaomtrdet
Yf & jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd af eMuaomtjynfjynfqikd &f mtzGt
YJ pnf;rsm;\jynfy0efxrf;rsm;onf uGi;f qif;avhvm&ef
c&D;xGucf mG vdyk gu umuG,af &;0efBu;D Xme\cGijhf yKcsu&f ,l&ygrnf/ tcsuo
f nf ,leq
D ufrx
S w
k jf yef
aom ude;f *Pef;pm&if;rsm;udk ,HMk unfpw
d cf srrI &S&d ef ydrk w
kd eG ;f tm; jzpfapygonf/ etz A[dt
k qifrh S
jyKvyk cf ahJ omtpnf;ta0;wGif tjynfjynfqikd &f mtpd;k & r[kwaf omtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;onf jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f
pm&if;aumuf,ljyKpkrIudkwwfEdkiforQ tenf;qHk;omjyKvkyf&eftrdefYudktMurf;zsif;csrSwfcJhygonf/62
tjynfjynfqikd &f mtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;udk vlt
Y cGit
hf a&;csKd ; azmufrt
I cH&qH;k u&ifjynfe,f\ae&ma'o
tESUH tjym;okYd oGm;a&mufciG u
hf kd ydwyf ifxm;ygonf/ xdt
Yk jyif xdak 'orsm;wGif jynforl sm;onf awmwGi;f
odYk wpfcsed v
f ;kH xGuaf jy;yke;f atmif; ae&aomaMumifh etz tpd;k &ud,
k w
f ikd yf if pm&if;aumuf,jl yKpv
k ykd gu
jyKvyk Ef ikd rf nfr[kwyf g/
u&ifvt
Yl cGit
hf a&;tzGUJ ESijhf yKvyk cf MhJ uaomawGq
Y akH r;jref;rIrsm;wGif u&ifjynfe,f&&dS mG ol&mG om;rsm;onf
iSuzf sm;a&m*gonf 4if;wkt
Yd wGut
f Bu;D rm;qH;k aomuse;f rma&;jyemjzpfonf[ak jymMum;cJyh gonf/
u&ifjynfe,fwiG f uav;? vlBu;D aoqH;k rIEeI ;f \xuf0ufonf iSuzf sm;a&m*gaMumifjh zpfonf[k od&MdS uyg
onf/63 xif&mS ;aomOyrmwpfcu
k kd wifjy&rnfqv
kd Qif zm;tHc&dik f waeqm&Gmwpf&mG wnf;wGiyf ifvl
aygif; 40 ausmf (trsm;tm;jzihf 8 ESpaf tmuf)wko
dY nf tESpt
f enf;i,ftwGi;f wGiyf if iSuzf sm;a&m*g
aMumifah oqH;k cJMh uygonf/ xd&k mG om;rsm;u iSuzf sm;a&m*gjzpfymG ;rIonf 4if;wd&Yk mG ? ydkydkqd;k &Gm;vmyg
use;f rma&;u@
onf[k ajymjycJyh gonf/64
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif aq;ay;cef;r&Sdyg/ uRefawmfwdkYonf zsm;emvQifNrdKUaq;&kHodkYoGm;;
aq;ukocH&yg
onf/ xdkaq;&kHudk tpdk;&rSzGifhvSpfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ aq;ukop&dwfudk udk,fwdkifuscH&ygonf/ aq;uk
op&dwfay;aqmif&efr&Sdygu q&m0efESifholemjyKq&mrsm;udk aq;ukoay;&efajymqd
k r&yg/ trsm;tm;
jzifh uRefawmfwdkYonfiSufzsm;a&m*gESifh tzsm;wufjcif; a0'emrsm;udkcHpm;&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 25ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)
]]uRefawmfwdkY&GmwGif aq;ay;cef;wpfckrQr&Sdyg/ odkYaomfaq;ay;cef;wpfckaqmufvkyfEdkif&ef BudK;pm; vQuf
&Sdygonf/ &GmwGiftjzpfrsm;aoma&m*gonf iSufzsm;a&m*gjzpfygonf/}}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 60)? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (Ed k 0 if b mv 2006)

61

On the SPDC's increasing restrictions on international aid arencies and their ability to
conduct surveys see, for example, "Burma's government tighters its grip on international
aid agencies," Mizzima News, January 29th 2008. Accessed at http://www.reliefweb.int/
rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/EMAE-7BBQKX?OpenDocument on January 30th 2008.
62
Ibid.
63
Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team 2006, p.34
64
Forced Labour, Extortion, and Festivities: The SPDC and DKBA burden on villagers in
Pa'an District, KHRG, December 2006.

95

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

txuf y g 2006ck E S p f atmuf w k d b mvwG i f & d k u f u l ; xm;aom"gwf y H k w G i f a wG U jrif & aomrd e f ; uav;onf touf
tE
tE&m,f
&m,fudkxdcdkufapEdkifaom iSufzsm;ydk;OD;aESmufxJodkY0ifaoma&m*gaMumifh owdaumif;rGefpGmr&bJ a,mif&rf;
atmf [ pf i d k a <u;aeonf u d k a wG U jrif & ygrnf / ("mwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

a'ocHjynfov
l x
l o
k nf iSuzf sm;a&m*gtjyif tjcm;aomwDb?D 0rf;udu
k af &m*gESihf wkwaf uG;a&m*grsm;
onf 4if;wd\
Yk use;f rma&;udk xdcu
kd af paoma&m*grsm;jzpfonf[ak jymjyMuygonf/ jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f ul;puf
a&m*gjzpfymG ;rIEeI ;f rsm;jrifw
h ufysUH ESv
YH mjcif;aMumifh 2006 ckEpS w
f iG f Oa&myor*? MopaMw; vs? NAw
d ed ?f
e,fomvef? aemfa0ESihf qD'G ifEikd if rH sm;onf jrefrmEdik if w
H iG jf zpfymG ;aeaomiSuzf sm;a&m*g? wDbaD &m*gESihf
tdy(f cs)tdik Af D ckct
H m;usqif;a&m*gponfah &m*goH;k rsKd ;udk wdu
k zf su&f ef (3D)&HyakH iGtzGu
YJ kd zGUJ pnf;cJyh gonf/
4if;(3D)&HyakH iGtzGo
YJ nf tar&duefa':vm 99.5 oef;toH;k jyKNy;D xdak &m*goH;k rsKd ;udik g;ESpt
f wGi;f
wdu
k zf su&f efprD u
H ed ;f csrw
S cf yhJ gonf/ xdk(3D)&HyHkaiGtzGJYonf 2005ckESpfwGif jrefrmjynfrSjyefvnf&w
k f
odr;f oGm;aom*vdb
k ,fzef;&HyakH iGtzG\
YJ ckct
H m;usqif;a&m*g? wDbaD &m*gESihf iSuzf sm;a&m*gwdu
k zf suf
a&;pDru
H ed ;f ae&mwGif tpm;xd;k 0ifa&mufvmjcif;jzpfygonf/ *vdb
k ,fzef;tzGu
YJ jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f 4if;wdt
Yk
zGJUonf jrefrmppftpdk;&\wm;jrpfydwfyifrIrsm;aMumifh tcsdefudkufvkyf&aompDrHudef;rsm;udk rvkyfEdkif
aMumif;? ppftpd;k &rS 4if;wdt
Yk m;vGwv
f yfpmG oGm;vmcGijhf yKrnf[ak jymaomfvnf; oGm;vmvIy&f mS ;cGirhf
&aMumif; 4if;wdt
Yk zJUG rSqE&o
dS nftwdik ;f rjyKvyk Ef ikd af Mumif; ponft
h aMumif;rsm;aMumifh 4if;wd\
Yk pDr
65
u
H ed ;f udjk yefvnf&w
k o
f rd ;f jcif;jzpfonf[ak jymqdck yhJ gonf/ rnfoyYkd ifjzpfap (3D)&HyakH iGtzGo
YJ nf ppftpd;k
&\ xde;f csKyrf aI tmufwiG f 4if;wdv
Yk LS 'gef;ay;urf;vdak omaq;0g;rsm;udk Edik if aH &;tjrwfxw
k rf rI &Sb
d ?J ppft
pdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;v'fpm;rIr&SdbJ ay;a0Edkifjcif;&Sdr&SdESifhppftpdk;&rS wif;usyfpGmydwfyifwm;jrpfxm;aom
u&ifjynfe,fae&mtESt
YH jym;odYk oGm;a&mufEikd jf cif;&Srd &Su
d akd pmifMh unf&h ayrnf/
65

''New Government Restrictions Make Grant Implementation Impossible," The Global


Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, August 19th 2005. Accessed at http://
www. theglobalfund.org/en/media_center/press/pr_050819.asp on January 25th 2008.

96

use;f rma&;u@
u&ifjynfe,fwiG u
f ,
kd 0f efaqmifrcd ifrsm;ESiahf rG;rdcifrsm;udk use;f rma&;apmif ah &SmufraI y;Edik jf cif; tvGef
enf;yg;aomaMumifh rdcifEiS u
hf av;i,frsm;\use;f rma&;onf pd;k &drzf ,
G t
f ajctaewGi&f adS eNy;D arG;rdcif
ESiahf rG;uif;puav;i,frsm;aoqH;k rIukd wdu
k &f u
kd x
f cd u
kd af pygonf/ odaYk omf etz xde;f csKyef ,fajratmuf
&St
d csKd U&Gmrsm;wGif oGuv
f ufjzwfvwfaom&d;k &m0rf;qGq
J &mrrsm;udk oifwef;rsm;ydcYk say;ygonf/ xdo
k if
wef;rsm;wGif ]]ud,
k 0f efaqmifrcd ifEiS o
hf m;zGm;Ny;D prdcifrsm;udk Munf&h aI pmifah &Smufenf;? rdcifrsm;udu
k ;l puf
a&m*guif;aomvHjk cKH pw
d cf s&aomenf;rsm;jzifh arG;zGm;ay;enf;? om;qufjcm;ynmay;enf;ESihf &SLyfaxG;
cufcaJ omrD;,yfa&m*grsm;udk cGjJ cm;od&edS nf;ponfrh sm;udyk cYkd soifMum;ay;ygonf/66 txufygoifwef;
rsm;udk a'ocHtzGt
YJ pnf;rsm;jzpfaomu&ifuse;f rma&;ESiv
hf rl aI &;Xge(KDHW)? u&iftrsKd ;orD;tzGYJ
(KWO) ESihf jrefrmEdik if aH q;0g;toif;(BMA) ponft
h zGt
YJ pnf;rsm;rS tcrJo
h ifMum;ydcYk say;ygonf/
xdt
Yk jyif oifwef;wufa&mufMuaom0rf;qGq
J &mrrsm;udk yd;k owfqyfjym? avpkyaf bmvH;k ? vufonf;
ny?f rsuEf mS okwyf 0k gtao;wpfc?k vufEydS "f mwfr;D wpfv;kH ? "mwfcrJ sm;? vuftw
d ?f rd;k umwpfc?k tyfcsn?f
ywfw;D wpfvyd ?f wm&mrdik pf if;rsupf Of;aq;? y&dAk m'ify;kd owfaq;ESihf 4if;ypn;f rsm;xnf&h ef tdww
f pfv;kH
67
udt
k crJah 0ay;ygonf/ tcsKd U&Gm&St
d rsKd ;orD;rsm;onf etz use;f rma&;0efBu;D XgerS zGiv
hf pS af omom;zGm;
q&mroifwef;rsm;udk wufa&mufMu&aMumif;ajymqdMk uygonf/ odaYk omf xdo
k ifwef;rsm;udk &Gmol&mG om;
trsKd ;orD;rsm;onf rdrw
d q
Ykd Ejzifrh [kwb
f J tpd;k &rStwif;tusyw
f ufa&mufapjcif;aMumifh wufa&muf
&jcif;jzpfNy;D oifwef;wufa&muf&ef ukeu
f sp&dwt
f m;vH;k udw
k ufa&muforl sm;rSusc&H ygonf/ tjcm;wpf
bufwiG f tcsKd Ua'orsm;onf etz rSceft
Y yfaomom;zGm;q&mrrsm;udk tdro
f aYkd c:,lNy;D arG;zGm;ay;&ef
om;zGm;q&mrrsm;&Sad omfvnf; arG;zGm;ay;aomom;zGm;q&mrudk tcaMu;aiGrsm;ay;aqmif&ygonf/
]]uRef r wd k Y & G m wG i f aq;cef ; r&S d y g/ od k Y a omf om;zG m ;q&mrwpf a ,muf & S d y gonf / ol r onf apm---\
orD;jzpfNyD; om;zGm;ynmoGm;a&mufoif,lum&GmodkYjyefvmNyD; tvkyfvkyf oljzpfygonf/ uRefrwdkY&GmwGif
olr&SdaomaMumifh tvGeftqifajyygonf/ aq;zkd;aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&efcufcJvQifvnf; olronf &Gmol
&Gmom;rsm;tay:em;vnfay;ygonf/ xdkYaMumifh olrudktm;udk;Edkifygonf/ odkYaomf &GmwGifaq;ay;cef;
r&SdaomaMumifh tjyif;txefzsm;emvQif ---NrdKUodkYoGm;a&mufuko&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 37ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &k d i f / (puf w if b mv 2006)

]]uRefrwdkY&GmwGif aq;ay;cef;&Sdygonf/ aq;ay;cef;wGif etz cefYtyfxm;aomom;zGm; q&mrwpfOD;&Sdyg


onf/ aq;ay;cef;odkYaq;oGm;awmif;vQif aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&ygonf/ tjyif;txefrusef;rmvQif vlem
ukdabmuvdaq;&kHodkYydkYaqmif&ygonf/ vlemrsm;onf tpm;taomufudk udk,fydkifaiGaMu;jzifh0,f,lpm;
aomuf&NyD; aq;ukop&dwfudkudk,fwdkifuscH&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 59ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)

etz aq;&krH sm;wGif uav;arG;zGm;&mwGiu


f ek u
f sp&dwrf sm;jym;Ny;D aq;ukorIaumif;rGejf cif;r&Sad om
aMumifh u&ifjynfe,fa&SUbufe,fpyfwiG af exdik Mf uol ud,
k 0f efaqmiftrsKd ;orD;rsm;onf xdik ;f Edik if w
H pf
bufurf; odu
Yk ;l Ny;D uav;oGm;a&mufarG;zGm;Muygonf/ txl;ojzifh rJaqmufNrKd U&Sd r,fawmfaq;cef;
wGif tcrJu
h o
k cGi&hf &Sad omaMumifh trsKd ;orD;rsm;onf tzrf;cH&rnfurkd aMumuf&UHG bJ aq;0g;ukorIcH
66
67

Burma Medical Association (BMA) tzGJU\0efxrf;ESifhawGUqHkar;jref;rI 2008ckESpf? azaz:0g&Dv 7&uf/


Ibid.

97

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
,lMuygonf/2005 ckEpS t
f wGuf pm&if;udMk unfv
h Qif r,fawmfaq;cef;wGiv
f ma&muf rD;zGm;Muaomrdcif
68
rsm; 30%onf touf 19 ESpaf tmuftrsKd ;orD;rsm;jzpfMuygonf/ atmufazmfjyygawGq
Y akH r;jref;
rIEpS cf w
k iG f rde;f uav;i,fEpS Of ;D onf r,fawmfaq;cef;odYk 4if;wkq
Yd ;kH jzwfcsut
f wdik ;f vma&mufcMhJ uyHu
k kd
&Si;f vif;ajymjyxm;ygonf/
]]uRefronfxdkif;EdkifiHbufurf;&Sd r,fawmfaq;cef;odkY udk,f0eftppfaq;cH&efvmcJhygonf/ aq;cef;
aumif;rGefaMumif;vlwdkif;ajymonfudkMum;&ygonf/ q&m? q&mrrsm;onfvnf; vllemrsm;udkaumif;rGef
pGmMunfh&Iapmifha&Smufygonf/ uRefronf aq;cef;udkydkrdk,HkMunfpdwfcsygonf/ uRefronf ukojyKpk
apmifha&SmufrIraumif;aom jr0wDaq;&kHwGif aq;ukorcHvkdyg/ xdkYjyif jr0wDaq;&kHwGif aq;ukop&dwf
twGuf aiGaMu;ajrmufrsm;pGmay;aqmif&ygonf/ uRefrtar jr0wDaq;&kHwGifaq;ukocH,lcJhpOfu ukef
usp&dwfaiG qdkifu,foHk;pD;wefzdk;cefYukefuscJhygonf/ rdom;pkwGif uRefronft0wfrsm;udkavQmf zGwfay;
&ygonf/ taronfusef;rma&;raumif;aomaMumifh tdrftvkyfrvkyf Edkifyg/ nDrav;onfvnf; tdrfrI
ud ptm;vH
tm;vHk;udkrvkyfudkifEdkifao;yg/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif uRefronfaeYwpf0uf odkYr[kwf wpfaeYvHk;Adkufatmifh
a0'emcHpm;&ygonf/ cifyGef;onf 0,f,lay;aomaq;0g;rsm;udkaomufoHk;aomfvnf; wpfcg wpf&HwGif
Adkufatmifha0'emudk jyif;xefpGmcHpm;&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif acgif;rl;aomaMumifh uRefr onftdyf&m
rS r xEd k i f y g/}}
-r---(r? 17ES p f ) ? jr0wD N rd K U? zm;tH c &d k i f / (rwf v 2008)
]]uRefronfudk,f0ef&SdaomaMumifh r,fawmfaq;cef;odkYvma&mufaq;ppfcH,lygonf/ jrw0Daq;&kHwGif
aq;ukorIcH,lEdkifaomfvnf; r,fawmfaq;cef;udkydkrdk,HkMunfaomaMumifh aq;cef;wGif vma&mufuko
rIcH,lygonf/ uRefrtpfrBuD;onfvnf; r,fawmfaq;cef;wGifom uav;vma&mufrD;zGm;cJhygonf/
tpfronfvnf; jr0wDaq;&kHodkYrnfonfhtcgrQoGm; a&mufaq;ukorI rcH,lyg/ jr0wDaq;&kHwGifukefus
p&dwfydkrdkrsm;jym;ygonf/ Oyrmtm;jzifh rdrduav;udkcGJpdwfarG;zGm;&vQif jr0wDaq;&kHwGif usyfaiGwpfodef;
rSESpfodef;xdukefusNyD; &kd;&kd;arG;zGm;vQif ckESpfaomif;rS&Spfaomif;usyftxdukefusygonf/}}
-r---(r? 17ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zm;tH c &k d i f / (rwf v 2008)

r---\ tarrSvnf;atmufygtwdik ;f qufvufajymjyygonf/


]]jref r mEd k i f i H w G i f a q;&k H w uf v Qif vd k t yf a omt&mrsm;tm;vH k ; ud k u d k , f y d k i f a iG a Mu;jzif h 0,f , l & ygonf /
aq;0g;rsm;0,f,l&NyD; bvdwf"m;yif0,f,l&ygonf/ aq;cef;odkYvma&mufukorIcH,lvQif vm&ef
twGufvrf;p&dwfomukefusygonf/ tjcm;ukefusp&dwftwGuf aiGtukefrcHvdkaomaMumifh uRefrorD;
onf aq;cef;odkYvma&mufukorIcH,l&efqEE &S& Sd y gonf / }}

etz xde;f csKyrf aI tmuf&u


dS &ifjynfe,fwpfvmT ;wGif t[m&csKd UwJrh o
I nfvnf; Bu;D rm;aomuse;f rma&;
jyemyifjzpfygonf/ uav;i,frsm;tm[m&csKd UwJrh aI Mumifh ul;pufa&m*grsm;rul;pufatmif umuG,f
jcif;udx
k cd u
kd af pygonf/ &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf twif;t"rvyk t
f m;ay;rsm;udk vkyu
f ikd af y;&jcif;? ppfwyf
twGu&f u
d m pyg;rsm;ay;oGi;f &jcif;ESihf ppfwyfrrS w&m;aumufcaH omtcGet
f wkyrf sm;udk ay;aqmif&jcif;
wdaYk Mumifh 4if;wdt
Yk wGu0f rf;pmpyg;rvHak vmufonfomru vdt
k yfaomqefuv
kd nf;r0,f,El ikd yf g/ xdu
k hJ
odYk pm;eyf&u
d m rvHak vmufraI Mumifh &Gmol&mG om;trsm;tm;jzifo
h nf tm[m&csKd UwJrh 'I Pfuckd pH m;Mu&
ygonf/
68

Ibid.

98

use;f rma&;u@
]],ckESpftwGuf uRefawmfwkdYtm;vHk;onfpm;eyf&dumvHkavmufrIr&Sdjcif;aMumifh tpm;taomuf twGuf
pdk;&drfylyef&ygonf/ vGefcJhaomrdk;&moDtcsdefwGif uRefawmfwdkY&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf etz ppfwyfrsm;
twGuf ay:wmxrf;ay;&aomaMumifh udk,fydkifawmif,mrsm;wGif aygif;&Sif;&eftcsdefr&Sdyg/ xdkYaMumifh
uRefawmf wdkYawmif,mpyg;cif;onf pyg;txGufEIef;enf;NyD; uRefawmfwdkYtwGuf 0rf;pmpyg; rvHkavmuf
yg/}}
-apm---(usm;? 55ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (Zef e 0g&D v 2007)
]]&Gmol&Gmom;trsm;pkonf awmif,mO,smOfjcHajrvkyfudkifMuygonf/ awmif,mO,smOfjcHajr pdkufysdK;
a&; vk y f a qmif a omf v nf ; pm;eyf & d u m rvH k a vmuf y g/ tb,f a Mumif h q d k a omf &G m ol & G m om;rsm;onf
rdrdwdkY\ oD;ESHrsm;udk*&krpdkufEdkifbJ vkyftm;ay;tjrJvkyfae&aomaMumifhjzpfygonf/}}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 44ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (ZG e f v 2007)

ygyHkwGifjrifawGU&aom r---? touf 45ESpfonf zmyGefc&dkif? 'GJvdkNrdKUe,fwGifaexdkif oljzpfygonf/ olru


olrESifhcifyGef;wdkYonf etz ppfwyfESifh'DaubDat ppfom;rsm;twGuf tjrJyiftcrJhtvkyf vkyfay;&aomaMumifh
olrwdk Y\uav;i,ftjrTmESpfOD;twGuf tpm;taomufESifhaq;0g;rsm;0,f,l&ef aiGaMu;vHk;0r&SdaMumif; ajymjy
cJhygonf/ arv 2006ckESpfwGif &dkuful;cJhaomtxufygyHkwGif azmfjyxm;onfhtwdkif;yif olr\ESpfvt&G,f
tjrT m uav;i,f E S p f O D ; onf tm[m&csd K UwJ h a eonf u d k a wG Y j rif & ygonf / r---u ol r ud k , f w d k i f t m[m&"mwf
vH k a vmuf p G m r&aomaMumif h ol r \&if o m;onf uav;i,f r sm;twG u f v H k a vmuf p G m Ed k Y r xk w f v k y f a y;Ed k i f y g[k
ajymjycJ h y gonf / ("mwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J Y )

99

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

ppfwyf\zdESdyftkyfcsKyfrIESifh usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrIrsm;udk vufvSrf;rrSD&ef uefYowf


cH&jcif;
etz tpd;k &onf u&ifjynfe,fwiG pf pftyk cf sKyaf &;udk tuGuu
f sustaumiftxnfazmfaqmifaeo
jzifh a'ocHjynforl sm;onf yHrk eS Ef iS t
hf csKd Uae&mrsm;wGif aeYpOfaeYwikd ;f twif;t"rapckid ;f cH&jcif;ESihf pm;eyf
&dum ? aiGaMu;ESit
hf jcm;aomtaxmuftyHyh pn;f rsm;ay;aqmif&ef awmif;qdck &H jcif;ponfwEYkd iS hf &ifqikd f
MuKH awGUae&ygonf/ &Gmol&mG om;rsm;rS ppfwyf\wjznf;jznf;rsm;vmaomtvGo
J ;kH pm;rIrsm;ESihf uefY
owfcsKyjf c,frrI sm;onf 4if;wdu
Yk se;f rma&;ESihf tm[m&vdt
k yfcsurf sm;twGuf vkyaf qmif&rnft
h &m
rsm;udk xdcu
kd af ponf[ak jymjycJyh gonf/ xdjYk yifru 4if;wdu
Yk kd ydrk q
kd if;&JwiG ;f eufapNy;D a&m*gul;pufcH
&rIuv
kd nf;rsm;jym;vmapygonf/ ppftpd;k &xde;f csKyef ,fajr&Sad 'orsm;wGif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk vkyt
f m;
ay;vky&f ef ppfwyf rStjraJ pcdik ;f aomaMumifh &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf 4if;wdpYk u
kd yf sKd ;xm;aomoD;ESrH sm;udk
Munf&h jI yKpck sed rf &&Sad omaMumifh oD;ESrH sm;ysupf ;D jcif; odrYk [kwf txGuef nf;jcif;jzpfapygonf/ ppfwyfrS
tcGet
f wkyrf w&m;awmif;cHaomaMumifh &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf rdrw
d \
Ykd 0rf;pmpyg;udk ay;aqmif&ygonf/
xdaYk Mumif&h mG ol&mG om;rsm;onf pm;eyf&u
d m r&Sad omaMumifh pkaqmif;xm;aomvuf0wf&wem? tdraf rG;
wd&pd mefrsm;udak &mif;csMu&ygonf/ aemufq;Hk wGif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;&Sio
f ef&yfwnf&eftwGuf wpfaeY
vkyrf w
S pfaeYpm;b0odaYk &muf&o
dS mG ;aomaMumifh rdbrsm;onfrrd w
d \
Ykd uav;i,frsm;use;f rma&; twGuf
*&krpdu
k Ef ikd af wmhay/
]]aeYpm;tvkyftudkifonf tpOftjrJrvkyf&aomaMumifh tvkyfrvkyf&aomaeYwGif vlrsm;onf rdrdwdkY
td r f e D ; csif ; rsm;xH r S aiG a Mu;ES i f h t pm;taomuf r sm;acs;iS m ;Mu&NyD ; aemuf r S j yef v nf a y;qyf & ygonf /
olrsm;onf rdrdwdkY\udk,fydkiftvkyfrvkyfEdkif&ef etz rS aESmuf,SufcJhjcif;aMumifh vltrsm;pkonf
qif;&JrGJawMuolrsm;jzpfoGm;&ygonf/ xkdtjyif ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdkYydkifqkdifaomv,fuGif;wGif tvkyf
vkyfaeonfudkawGUygu zrf;qD;xdef;odrf;xm;NyD; ppfwyftwGufay:wmxrf;apygonf/ odkYr[kwf ppfom;
rsm;onf &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;udk &GmjyifxGufNyD; rdrdwdkYv,f,mwGiftvkyfvkyf&efcGifhrjyKay/ olrsm;onf
4if;wdkY\udk,fydkifvk yfief;udk aumif;rGefpGmrvkyfudkifcJh&jcif;aMumifh tjcm;olrsm;xufqif;&J arGawEGrf;yg;
Muygonf / etz ppf o m;rsm;onf &G m od k Y v ma&muf N yD ; &G m om;rsm;xH r S qef r sm; twif ; t"r
t"rawmif
a wmif;
,lygonf/ ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdk Ytpkd&rS&&Sdaom&dumudka&mif;pm;NyD; 4if;wdkYpm;&ef&dumudk &Gmom;
rsm;xHrSjyefvnfawmif;,lygonf/ ppfom;rsm;onf qefudkomawmif; ,lonfr[kwfbJ i&kwfoD; ajcmuf?
ykZGefig;ydESifh vdktyfaomt&mrsm;tm;vHk;udkawmif;,lygonf/ xdkYtjyif 4if;wdkYudkaocsmpGm apmifhMunfhr
xm;ygu &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;ydkifqdkifaomyp
omyp nf
nf;rsm;udk cdk;,lygonf/}}
-zl ; ---(usm;? 48ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (Ed k 0 if b mv 2006)
]]etz ppfom;rsm;apcdkif;onfhtwdkif;yif uRefrwdkYonf vkyftm;ay;vkyfudkifay;&NyD; aiGaMu;awmif;cH
vQif aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif uav;i,frsm;zsm;emygu aq;0g;0,f,l wdkufauR;&ef
aiGaMu;r&Sdyg/ odkYaomf etz odkYr[kwf 'DaubDatrSawmif;cHvQif aiGaMu;udk r&&atmifacs;iSg;&SmazGNyD;
4if ; wd k Y u d k a y;aqmif & ygonf / }}
-aemf - --(r? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (2006)

qif;&Jusyw
f nf;rIrsm;aMumifh rdbrsm;onfaq;0g;0,f,El idk jf cif;r&Sjd cif;? aq;&k?H aq;cef;rsm;odrYk oGm;
a&mufEikd jf cif;ESihf aq;ukorIc,
H &l ef aiGaMu;r&Sjd cif;ponfh tajctaersm;MuKH awGUaeMu&ygonf/ xdYk
aMumifh rdbrsm;onf zsm;emaomuav;rsm;ESix
hf cd u
kd 'f Pf&m&&Sad omuav;rsm;udk aq;ukoay;Edik jf cif;
r&Syd g/
100

usef;rma&;u@
]]uRef a wmf w d k Y \ uav;rsm;zsm;emygu ol e mjyKq&mrxH o d k Y c suf j cif ; ac:aqmif r oG m ;Ek d i f y g/ aq;0g;t
aMumif; em;vnfaomoli,fcsif;rsm;xHrS aq;0g;rsm;0,f,lwdkufauR;&ygonf/ aq;&kHonf uRefawmfwdkY
&GmESifh tvGefuGma0;aomae&mwGifwnf&Sdygonf/ aq;&kHodkYvlemukdo,f,lydkYaqmif&onfrSm tvGef
cufcJygonf/ vlemo,f,lul&ef tjcm;vlrsm;udk tultnDawmif;cH&onfrSmvnf;cufcJygonf/ vlwdkif;
udk,fh0rf;a&;twGuf&kef;uefMu&ygonf/ wpfpHkwpfOD;zsm;emvQif twdkif;omMunfhae&NyD; 4if;vlemonf
ao&rnfh tcsdefrwefao;vQif jyefvnfaexdkifaumif;vmygrnf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 42ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (ZG e f v 2007)

tcsKd Utajctaersm;wGif vlemudrk jzpfraeuko&rnfqv


kd Qif aq;ukoukeu
f sp&dwrf sm;ay;aqmif&ef
tjcm;vlrsm;xHwiG af cs;iSg;&aomaMumihf ta<u;wifapygonf/
]]rdom;pkwGif uav;i,fwpfOD;tjyif;txefaexdkifraumif; &dk;&mwdkif;&if;aq;0g;jzihfvnf; uko r
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ajrmuftrsm;udkoHk;pGJ&ygrnf/ rdbrsm;xHwGif aiGaMu;tvHktavmufr&Sdygu tjcm;olrsm;xHrS acs;iSg;&yg
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102

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69

ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif Cchronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back
Pack Health Worker Team 2006, p.17.wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/

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70

ydrk o
kd &d v
dS v
kd Qif Forced Relocation, Restrictions and Abuses in Nyaunglebin District, KHRG,
June 2006.wGifMunfhIEdkifygonf/

104

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i,fonf emwm&Snfa&m*gjzifhtzsm;wufcJhygonf/ olr\uav;onf npOfudk,fylcsdefwufaomaMumifh
rdcifrSaq;0,f,lxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ odkYaomf 'DaubDatppfom;onf olrudkaq;vuf0,fxm;&Sdjcif;
aMumihf &dkufESufcJhNyD;aq;Al;udkvnf;,laqmifoGm;Muygonf/ rMumrDtcsdeftwGif;wGif olr\uav;i,f
onf raooifhbJaoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ olruav;onfxdkpOfu toufoHk;ESpf&Sdygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 50ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (ZG e f v d k i f v 2006)

txufyg&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;qufvufajymjyonfrSm 'DaubDatppfom;rsm;onf wpfzufEdkifiH&SdtzGJU


tpnf;rsm;rS vma&muftcrJah y;a0xm;aomaq;rsm;udv
k nf;aumif;f ? &Gmaq;qdik &f adS q;0g;rsm;udv
k nf;
71
aumif; odr;f ,lomG ;ygonf/ awmificl &dik f ppfq
f ifa&;AsL[mtrSwf 5 vufatmuf awmifi-l abm*vd
um;vrf;ay:&Sd yufvuf0f ppfaq;a&;*dww
f iG w
f m0efusaomppfom;rsm;onf 2007 ckEpS f rwfvwGif
4if;wdYk *dwaf &SUwGi]f ]&yf}}[ka&;xm;aomqdik ;f bkwu
f akd xmifxm;ygonf/ xdu
k m;vrf;ay:wGif ajy;qGaJ rmif;
ESiaf eaom,mOfrsm;tm;vH;k onf tppfaq;cH&efyufvuf0*dww
f iG &f yfwefMY u&ygonf/ xdpk pfaq;a&;
*dwfwGif ppfom;rsm;onf awmifilNrdKUrSabm*vdodkYarmif;ESifvmaom,mOfrsm;wGif pm;eyf&dumrsm;?
aq;0g;rsm;ESihf tjcm;taxmuftyHyh pn;f rsm;udk wifaqmifciG rhf jyKyg/ xdyk pn;f rsm;wifaqmifvmygu
ppfom;rsm;rS odr;f ,lygonf/ xdo
k yYkd pn;f rsm;o,faqmifjcif;udk ydwyf ifjcif;rSm etzonf awmifay:
aeu&ifjynfol rsm;udk awmwGi;f wGiq
f ufvufyek ;f atmif;aexdik jf cif;rjyKEikd &f ef jyKvyk v
f akd omaMumifjh zpf
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wGiyf ek ;f atmif;aexdik o
f rl sm;xHoYkd a&mufomG ;Edik Nf y;D yke;f atmif;aeolukd awmwGi;f wGiq
f ufvuf&iS o
f ef&yf
72
wnfEikd &f ef taxmuftuljzpfaprnf[k etz rS,q
l xm;ygonf/ uJo
h Ykd jynfov
l x
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jrif&ygrnf/ etz ppfom;rsm;onf aus;&GmodaYk &mufvmvQiaf us;&Gmaq;ay;cef;udk ppfa&;twGuf
toH;k jyK&eford ;f ,lcyhJ u
kH kd atmufwiG af z:jyxm;aomawGUqHak r;jref;rIwiG af wGU&S&d ygrnf/
]]uRefrwdkY&GmwGifaq;ay;cef;i,fwpfck&Sdygonf/ odkYaomf olemjyKq&mrr&Sdyg/ &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;rS aq;
ay;cef;udkaqmufvkyfxm;jcif;jzpfygonf/ odkYaomf ,cktcsdefwGifaq;ay;cef;udk etz ppfom;rsm;u
ppfwef;vsm;rsm;tjzpftoHk;jyKygonf/ ppfom;rsm;&GmodkYvma&mufvQif &Gmom;rsm; u4if;wdkY\tdrfrsm;wGif
rwnf;cdkapvdkaomaMumifh ppfom;rsm;onfxdkaq;ay;cef; wGifpcef;csaexdkif&ygonf/}}
-a':---(r? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (Zef e 0g&D v 2007)

txufygtcsufudkMunfhjciff;jzifh etz ppftkyfcsKyfrIatmufwGifaexdkif&aomjynfolrsm;\ usef;rm


a&;apmifh a&Smufrt
I ajctaeonf tvGeq
f ;kd &Gm;aMumif;awGU&S&d ygrnf/ xdjYk yif u&ifjynfe,f&jdS ynfol
trsm;&ifqikd Mf uKH awGU&aomvlraI &;jyemaygif;pHo
k nfvnf;f tvGeq
f ;kd &Gm;vSygonf/ odaYk omf ,aeY
vuf&dS etz tpd;k &onf 4if;wd\
Yk tpd;k &udk e0w [kac:qdpk Ofuwnf;uyif uav;oli,frsm;Oya'udk
1993 ckEpS w
f iG f xkwjf yefaMujimcJyh gonf/ xkad Mujimcsurf mS ]]use;f rma&;0efBu;D Xmeonf uav;ol
71

For a fuller version of this quote and further analysis of restrictions on medicine and
health care in Karen State, see Development by Decree: The politics of poverty and
control in Karen State, KHRG, April 2007, pp.94-98.
72
For more details on this incident see Provoking Displacement in Toungoo District:
Forced labour, restrictions and attacks, KHRG, May 2007.

105

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
i,frsm;&Sio
f ef&yfwnfEikd &f ef? uav;i,frsm;umuG,af q;xd;k Edik cf iG &hf &S&d ef? uav;oli,frsm;rdcifEt
Ykd m
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73
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a&;twGuf 4if;wdBYk uKd ;pm;aqmif&u
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onf qufvuftouf&SifaexdkifvdkaomaMumifh aiGaMu;r&Sdaomfvnf;acs;iSm;NyD;aq;ukocH,lygonf/
wpfcsdKUrSmrll aq;udkta<u;jzifh0,f,lygonf/ xdkYaMumifhtcsdKU&Gmom;rsm;onf ta<u;rsm;yvlysHwnf&Sd
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-zl ; ---(usm;? 48ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (Ed k 0 if b mv 2006)

etz xdef;csKyfe,fajratmuf&Sd jynfolvlxkrsm;usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrItwGuf toHk;


jyKaomudk,fykdifenf;vrf;rsm;
u&ifjynfe,fwpfvmT ; etz xde;f csKyef ,fajratmufwiG af exdik Mf uaom&Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf etz
tpd;k &\use;f rma&;twGuf taxmuft
f yHah y;rInzhH si;f aomaMumifh xdak 'o&Sjd ynforl sm;onf 4if;f wdYk
use;f rma&;twGuf ud,
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vSpjf cif;? wpfzufEikd if &H v
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hf ifwef;ay;
jcif;rsm;ud&k ,ljcif;ponfwjYkd zpfygonf/

73

''Myanmar's Second Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child (June
2002)." United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Accessed at http://www.
unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/385c2add1632f4a8c12565a9004dc311/357a104dd2a37d04c125
6e0c0037e59 a/$FILE/G0344866.pdf on August 29th 2007, p.10.

106

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u&ifvrl sKd ;rsm;onfb;kd ab;bDbifrpS ,ckrsKd ;qufrsm;txd wdik ;f &if;aq;taMumif;rsm;udk aumif;rGepf mG
od&NdS y;D toH;k jyKcMhJ uygonf/ wdik ;f &if;aq;ESiyhf wfouf uRr;f usiaf om&Gmom;rsm; onf 4if;wd&Yk mG eD;0ef;
usiw
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a&m*g? 0rf;a&m*g? acsmif;qd;k a&m*g? ud,
k yf jl cif;ESihf oGm;uku
d af &m*g ponfh a&m*grsm;udu
k o
k &mwGit
f oH;k
74
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-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Ed k 0 if b mv 2007)
74

Diversity Degraded: Vulnerability of Cultural and Natural Diversity in Northern Karen


State, Burma. Karen Environmental and Social Action Network, December 2005.

107

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75
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76
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75

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Burma Medical Association (BMA)tzGJU\0efxrf;ESifhawGUqHkar;jref;rI 2008ckESpf? azaz:0g&Dv 7&uf/

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77

The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma, Human Rights
Center, University of California, Berkeley and Center for Public Health and Human
Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, July 2007, P.159.

109

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78

Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Backpack Health
Worker Team, 2006, p.10.
79
Ibid., p.38.

110

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av;rsm;onf toufyifq;kH &SL;H cJMh u&ygonf/ jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
nfrsm;yke;f cd&k ma'orsm;wGiv
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f &l mG ol&mG om;rsm;rSajymjycJyh gonf/xdt
Yk jyif 0rf;a&m*g? wkwaf uG;? emwm&Snaf csmif;qd;k a&m*g?
80

Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team, 2006, p.33.
81
Ibid., p.41.

112

use;f rma&;u@
acgif;udu
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]]uRefawmfwdkYonfaq;0g;rsm;oGm;a&muf0,f,lcGifh&&Sdygu oGm;a&muf0,f,lNyD;tcsif;csif;rQa0oHk;pGJMuyg
onf/ odkYaomfaq;0g;rsm;oGm;a&muf0,f,l cGifhr&aomaMumifh a&m*ga0'emrsm;cHpm;&yguemusifrIrsm;
udk pdwf&Snfonf;cHpGmcH,l&ygonf/ tcsdKUuav;rsm;onf aq;0g;raomufoHk;&aomaMumifhaoqHk;cJh&yg
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ta&jym;a&m*grsm;udkvnf;cHpm;&ygonf/ trSeftm;jzifh txufyga&m*grsm;onfaq;0g;yp
q;0g;ypnf
n;f rsm;jynfhpHk
vHkavmufpGmjzifhukocGifh&&Sdygu tcsdefwdktwGif;wGif aysmufuif;Edkifaomfvnf; aq;0g;rjynfhpHk rIaMumifh
a&m*gjzpfygu tcsdefMumjrifhpGmcHpm;&ygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)
]]uRefrudk;ESpforD;t&G,fwGif iSufzsm;a&m*gtrsdK;tpm;ESpfckudkwpfNydKifeufcHpm;cJh&ygonf/ aq;0g;r&Sd
aomaMumifh rdbrsm;uoHy&moD;ESifhoMum;udkomazsmfwkdufcJhygonf/ xdktcsdefwGif etz ppfom;rsm;
uRefrwdkY&GmodkYvma&mufaomaMumifh uRefrwdkYxGufajy;cJh&ygonf/ uRefronf uHaumif;axmufrpGmyif
toufraoqHk;cJhyg/ awmwGif;wGifykef;atmif;aepOf uRefrzsm;emcJhygonf/ jcifaxmifr&SdaomaMumifh
rD;zdkzdkNyD; tdyfMu&ygonf/ wdkif;&if;aq;rsm;udkomoHk;pGJcJh&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 20ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

2007 ckESpf Zefe0g&DvwGif&dkuful;xm;aomtxufygyHkwGif jrifawGU&aomuav;i,fonf etz xdef;csKyfe,f


ajrjyif y &S d zmyG e f c &d k i f ---&G m wG i f a exd k i f a om aemf - --\om;jzpf y gonf / uav;i,f \ uy?,f t d w f w pf z uf r S m
a&m*gaMumif h tvG e f y if a &mif , rf ; aeonf u d k a wG U jrif & ygrnf / od k Y a omf "mwf y H k & d k u f a ecsd e f x d rd b rsm;onf
4if ; uav;i,f u d k r nf u J h o d k Y a ysmuf u if ; atmif u k o ay;&rnf E S i f h rnf o nf f h a e&mwG i f o G m ;a&muf u k o &rnf u d k
rod & ao;yg/ ("mwf y H k - u&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

113

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onfawmwGif;okdYxGufajy;ykef;atmif;&rnfqdkvQif rdrdydkifypnfrsm;udktenf;i,fom
o,f,El ikd af omaMumifh 4if;wdo
Yk nfpf m;eyf&f u
d m udo
k myxrOD;pm;ay;rsm;rsm;o,f,yl gonf/ awmwGi;f yke;f
cd&k mae&mrsm;wGif jcifaxmifraxmiftyd Ef ikd af omaMumifh iSuzf sm;a&m*gjzpfymG ;EIe;f rSm rvdt
k yfbjJ rifrh m;&yg
onf/ jcifaxmifr&SdrD;zdkzdkNyD;tdyfrnfqdkvQif etz ppfom;rsm;rD;cdk;xGufonfudkawGUjrifNyD; 4if;wdkYykef;
atmif;&mae&mudo
k &d rdS nfp;kd &dr&f aomaMumifh rD;udt
k jrrJ zdEkd ikd yf g/ iSuzf sm;a&m*gtjyif tjcm;jcifaMumifh
ul;pufa&m*gjzpfaom aoG;vGew
f yk af uG;a&m*grsm;jzpfymG ;aeygonf/ xdt
Yk jyifroef&Y iS ;f aoma&ESihf tpm;
tpmaMumifv
h nf; a&m*grsm;pGmjzpfymG ;ygonf/
]]&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf awmwGif;wGifykef;cdk ae&csdefwGiftzsm;a&m*grsm;cHpm;&ygonf/ tb,faMumifhqdk
aomf tpm;taomuf v H k a vmuf p G m rpm;oH k ; &aomaMumif h tm;jywf u ma&m*grsm;cH p m;Mu &jcif ; jzpf y g
onf/ awmwGif;wGifykef;atmif;aepOfwGif &Gmom;rsm;onfqefukefvQif rdrdwdkY&GmokdYjyef,l &eftjrJwrf;
rjzpfEdkifay/ tjzpfrsm;aoma&m*grsm;rSm iSufzsm;? acgif;udkufESifh 0rf;a&m*gwdkYjzpfygonf/ tcsdKUvlrsm;
onf oufomMuaomfvnf; tcsdKUwdkYonfroufomyg/ wpfcgwpf&HwGifvnf; uRefawmfonfiSufzsm;?
acgif;udkufESifh0rf;a&m*grsm;cHpm;&aomfvnf; aomufoHk;&efaq;0g;r&Sdyg/ uRefawmfwdkYudkaq;0g;rsm;
,laqmifvmNyD; ulnDrnfholrsm;udkrawGU&ao;yg/}}
-apm---(usm;? 17ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Zef e 0g&D v 2007)
]]uRefawmfonfiSufzsm;a&m*g rMumcPcHpm;&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGifaomufoHk;&efaq;0g;rsm; &SdNyD;
wpfcgwpf&HwGif aq;0g;r&Sdyg/ aq;rsm;udkaps;wGifoGm;a&muf0,f,l&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYwGif jcifaxmif
r&Sdyg/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif uRefawmfwdkYonfaeylxJ odkYr[kwf rdk;a&xJwGifwpfaeukefvrf;avQmuf&ygonf/
xdkYaMumifh uRefawmfwdkY\cE
cEmud
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mudk,ftylcsdef
rrQyg/ aq;0g;rsm;? t0wftxnfrsm;ESifh jcifaxmifrsm;r&Sdjcif;aMumifh uav;i,frsm;pGmrMumcPao
qHk;cJh&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYrdom;pkwGif uav; 5 a,mufi,f&G,fpOf?yif aoqHk;cJhMuygonf/ uRefawmfh
rdcifonf udk,f0ef 12 Budrfaqmiffaomfvnf; uav; 7 a,mufomwifygonf/ uav;rsm;aexdkifr
aumif;vQif jyKpkapmifha&Smuf&onfrSm tvGefcufcJygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 23ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

ppfwyf\wdkufcdkufrIESifhuefYowfydwfyifrIrsm;aMumifh uav;i,frsm;onf t[m&csdKUwJhjcif;ESifha&m*g


a0'emrsm;udck pH m;&ygonf/ xdaYk Mumifu
h &ifjynfe,f jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
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f Qiyf rkd rkd sm;jym;vmEdik af om tvm;tvm&SNd y;D uav;
i,frsm;aoqH;k rIEeI ;f onf tdref ;D csi;f xdifk ;f Edik if x
H uftqrwefjrifrh m;ygonf/ jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f uav;ao
qH;k rIEeI ;f onf tjcm;zGNHY zKd ;rItenf;qH;k Edik if rH sm;jzpfMuaom pDtm&mvD,eG ?f tefuv
kd mESihf uGe*f 'kd rD u
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82
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vQif 1 a,mufEeI ;f jzpfNy;D xdik ;f Edik if H wGirf l 5 ESpaf tmuft&G,u
f av;aoqH;k rIEeI ;f rSm uav; 1000vQif
83
21 a,mufEeI ;f omjzpfygonf/ jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
nfrsm;tMum; vlrsm;aoqH;k &onft
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82

The Gathering Storm: Infectious Diseases and Human Rights in Burma, Human Rights
Center, University of California, Berkeley and Center for Public Health and Human
Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, July 2007, p.101.
83
Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team, 2006, p.33.

114

use;f rma&;u@
txl;ojzifh iSuzf sm;a&m*gonf i,f&,
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udak oqH;k apygonf/ xdak oqH;k rIrsm;onf rvdt
k yfaomaoqH;k rIrsm;jzpfyf gonf/ odaYk omf a&m*guko&ef
aq;cef;ESihf aq;0g;rsm;ud&k &S&d efvt
kd yfNy;D etz tpd;k &rSmrl jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
nfrsm;yke;f atmif;&ma'orsm;
wGif aq;cef;ESiahf q;0g;ESpcf pk vH;k vufvrS ;f rrS&D efjyKvyk x
f m;ygonf/ ppfwyfrcS &D;oGm;vmcGiEhf iS hf a&mif;0,f
azmufum;cGiu
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k rd ;f ,lzsuq
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f
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k &f u
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om;orD ; av;a,muf & S d a omf v nf ; tBuD ; oH k ; a,muf r S m qH k ; yg;cJ h & ygonf / uRef a wmf h r d e f ; ronf wD b D
a&m*gaMumifh aoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ xkdYaemuf uRefawmfhom;orD;oHk;a,muf wpfa,mufNyD; wpfa,mufao
qHk;cJhMuygonf/ uav;ESpfa,mufrSm umv0rf;a&m*gESifhaoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ om;tBuD;rSm olYtarao
NyD;ig;vtMumwGif uG,fvGefcJhNyD; 'kwd,wpfa,mufrSmrlESpfESpf tMumwGifuG,fvGefcJhygonf/ uRefawmfwdkY
ae&mod k Y v mpOf ---a'ota&muf w G i f uav;i,f w pf a ,muf r S m tyl c sd e f j yif ; xef p G m wuf N yD ; owd
arh a jrmoG m ;umaoqH k ; cJ h & ygonf / ---a'ood k Y a &muf a omtcg uRef a wmf o nf ol \ emrnf u d k a c:
aomfvnf; rnfonfhwkefYjyefrIrS r&awmhyg/ xdkYaemufrMumrSDyif olaoqHk;cJh&ygonf/ uG,fvGefcsdefu
olonf 8 ESpfom;om&Sdygonf/ om;ti,fqHk;onfvnf; vm&mvrf;wGifaexdkifraumif;jzpfcJhygonf/
,cktcsdefwGifrl aumif;rGefpGmaq;ukorIcH,l&aomaMumifh usef;rma&;jyefvnfaumif;rGefvmNyD; tpm;t
aomufpm;oHk;Edk ifygonf/ &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;ESifh uav;i,frsm;onf etz ppfom;rsm;\ESdyfpufrIudkcHMu
&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkYonf etz &efrSwpfae&mrSwpf ae&modkYxGufajy;ae&aomaMumifh c&dkifESifhNrdKU
e,faq;ay;cef;rsm;onf uRefawmfwdkYudkaumif;rGefpGmrMunfh&Irapmifha&SmufEdkifay/}}
-apm---(usm;? 43ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

ppfwyf\wdkufcdkufrIESifhusef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrIrcH,lEdkif&efuefYowfjcif;
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awmfwdkYonf qefukefawmhrnfjzpf qefjyKwft&nfusJomaomufoHk;&ygonf/84 ae&mwGif tcsdefMum
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tcsdefwGif rnfonfhae&mwGifrS pm;eyf&dum0,f,
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-apm---(usm;? 21ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f 2007)

84

pm;eyf&u
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f &nfusu
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f Qif t[m&"mwftenf;f i,fomyg&Syd gonf/

115

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
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u&ifjynfe,f etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrjyify&Sd &Gmol&mG om;rsm;\use;f rma&;tajctaersm;qd;k &Gm;&jcif;


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-apm---(usm;? 27ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (puf w if b mv 2007)

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85

For more information on this incident, see Provoking Displacement in Toungoo District: Forced lobour, restrictions and attacks, KHRG, May 2007 and SPDC spies and the
campaign to control Toungoo District, KHRG, March 2008.
86
Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team, 2006, p.51.

116

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87

"Children and armed conflict," Report of the Secretary General, United Nations General Assembly, December 21st 2007. Accessed at: http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/
RWFiles2007. nsf/FilesByRWDocUnidFilename/EGUA-7BBTF3-full_report.pdf/$File/
full_report.pdf on February 29th 2008.

119

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awmwGi;f wGi&f iS o
f ef&yfwnfEikd af &;twGuf enf;vrf;rsm;ud&k mS azGMu&ygonf/ &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf
awmwGi;f wGiyf ek ;f atmif;&csed w
f iG t
f pm;taomufrsm;&&SEd ikd &f ef BuKd wifNy;D awmwGi;f vQKd U0Suaf e&mrsm;wGif
qefrsm;udo
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k o
hJ Ykd qefrsm;udBk uKd wifvQKd U0Suo
f akd vSmifxm;jcif;aMumifh 4if;wdt
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f wGurf rl vG,u
f yl g/ xdjYk yift[m&csKd UwJjh cif;udv
k nf; &ifqikd f
121

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MuKH awGUEdik yf gonf/
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wGif qefrsm;udko,f,lEdkiforQo,f,lMuNyD; 4if;qef;rsm;ukefqHk;oGm;ygu awmwGif;wGifvQdKU0SufBudKwifodk
avSmifxm;aomqefrsm;udkoGm;a&muf,liif&ygonf/ xdkuJhokdYoGm;a&muf,liif&mwGif ntcsdefomoGm;
a&muf,laqmif&ygonf/ xdkpOfu uRefawmfhtouf 10 ESpfom&Sdao;ojzifh rdbrsm;qefoGm;a&muf,l
aqmif&modkYvdkufygulnDEdkifjcif;r&Sdyg/ odkYaomf rdbrsm;tvkyftudkifvkyfudkifcsdefwGifjzpfapqefrsm;udk
oGm;a&mufo,faqmifcsdefwGifjzpfap uRefawmfonf nDi,fESifh nDri,frsm;udk Munfh&Iapmifha&Smufygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 16ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

uav;oli,frsm;use;f rma&;aumif;rGeaf p&efEiS hf &Sio


f ef&yfwnfEikd &f eftwGuf pm;eyf&u
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d m &Sad eoa&TU tcsi;f csi;f
a0rQpm;aomufMuygonf/ odaYk omf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf awmwGi;f wGiMf um&Snpf mG yke;f atmif;&vQif
vnf;aumif;? wdkufyGJrsm;wGifydwfrdvQifaomfvnf;aumif;? rdrdwdkY&SdorQpm;eyf&dumrsm;udka&&Snf
pm;oH;k Edik &f ef awmwGi;f wGi&f orQ [if;oD[if;&Gurf sm;ESiahf &maESmcsujf yKwx
f m;aomqefjyKwt
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nf uav;i,frsm;pm;aomuf&aom
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ESihf wpfaeYvQiw
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uav;i,frsm;pm;oH;k &aom tpm;tpmtrsm;pkwiG f xrif;ESiq
hf m;omyg&Syd gonf/ xdu
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ompm;oH;k &aomaMumifh ADwmrif? y&dw
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-aemf---(r? 19ESpf)? ---&Gm? zm;tHc&dkif/ (Mo*kwfv 2007)

awmwGi;f wGiyf ek ;f atmif;&ol jynfwiG ;f 'kuo


nfrsm;onf 4if;wdyYk ek ;f atmif;&mae&mwGif vHjk cKH pmG ESiw
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ppfwyfrsm;rS &Gmol&mG om;rsm;vQKd U0Supf u
kd yf sKd ;xm;aom awmif,mpdu
k cf if;rsm;udt
k uGuu
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om;rsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifh awmif,mpyg;rsm;udpk u
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H iG f uGr;f oD;ESihf
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k yf sKd ;xm;aom
oD;ESrH sm;udrk awGU&Sdrzsuq
f ;D ygu xdo
k ;D ESrH sm;udak &mif;csNy;D tpm;tpm ESiahf q;0g;ypn;f rsm;ud0k ,f,l
Edik yf gonf/
88

Chronic Emergency: Health and Human Rights in Eastern Burma, Back Pack Health
Worker Team, 2006, p.38.

122

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aq;0g;ypn;f rsm;ud0k ,f,&l ef vGepf mG cufcyJ gonf/ xdaYk Mumifh awmwGi;f wGiyf ek ;f atmif;&ol&mG ? ol&mG om;
rsm;onf 4if;wdyYk ek ;f ck&d mae&mwGi&f &SEd ikd af omobm0aq;yif? aq;&Gu?f opfO? opfzrk sm;udk toH;k jyKNy;D
&d;k &mwdik ;f &if;aq;0g;azmfpyfumzsm;ema&m*grsm;pGmtwGuf toH;k jyKMuygonf/ &Gmom;rsm;\ajymjycsuf
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kd yfaom
89
aq;zuf0iftyifrsm;&Sio
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uRef a wmf o nf A d k u f a tmif f h a 0'emcH p m;&NyD ; touf u d k a umif f ; pG m r&I E d k i f y g/ iS u f z sm;a&m*gvnf ; cH p m;&
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]]&Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf wdk if;&if;aq;0g;jzifhoma&m*grsm;udkukoMu&NyD; wpfcgwpf&HwGif autef,lrSzGifh
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-apm---(usm;? 48ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (atmuf w d k b mv 2007)
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-apm---(usm;? 46ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (ZG e f v d k i f 2007)

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f &d MdS uaomolrsm;
jzpfygonf/
89

Diversity Degraded: Vulnerability of Cultural and Natural Diversity in Northern Karen


State, Burma, Karen Environmental and Social Action Network, December 2005, p.19.

123

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-apm---(usm;? 29ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (arv 2007)

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-apm---(usm;? 65ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / ('D Z if b mv 2006)

124

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90

See, for example, Assistance Programs Constrained in Burma, United States Government Accountability Office, April 2007, p.17-19; 20-22. Accessed at http://www.gao.gov/
new.items/d07457.pdf on April 3rd 2008.
91
"Engaging Burma with Funds for HIV, TB, Malaria," IPS, October 19th 2006. Accessed
at http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=35162 on January 30th 2008.
92
"Burma's government tightens its grip on international aid agencies," Mizzima News,
Janurary 29th 2008. Accessed at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/
EMAE- 7BBQKX?OpenDocument on January 30th 2008.

125

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Muygrnf/
93

Three Disease Fund proposal, available online at the 'HIV Information for Myanmar'
website at http://him.civiblog.org/blog/_archives/2007/1/12/2636163.html.
94
DFID Assistance to Burmese Internally Displaced People and Refugees on the ThaiBurma Border: Responses to the Committee's Tenth Report of Session 2006-07, House
of Commons International Development Committee, October 2007. Accessed at http://
www.dfid. gov.uk/pubs/files/burma-idp-response.pdf on January 30th, 2007.

126

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]] vGefcJhaom wpf&ufESpf&ufwGif u&ifNidrf;csrf;a&; wyfzGJU97 rS ppf o m;rsm; qmap; tygt0if w d k U onf
uRefrtdrfteD;&Sd tdrfwpftdrfodkUvma&mufNyD; 0dkif;zJGUt&ufaomufcJhMuygonf/ rMumrDyif t&ufrl;
vmaomtcg tcsif;csif;pum;rsm;&efjzpfMuNyD; 4if;wdkU? ygvmaomaoewfrsm;jzifh ypfcwfMuygonf/
xdktdrf&SifrSm xdefUvefUaMumuf&GHUaomaMumifh rdrduav;i,fudk ac:aqmifum tjcm;wpftdrfodkUxGufajy;
wd r f ; a&S m if & ygonf / }}
-a':---(r? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? 'l y vm,mc&d k i f / (ZG e f v 2006 )

atmufwb
kd m 24 &uf? 2006ckEpS w
f iG f wyf&if;rSL;oufO;D \vufatmufct
H rSwf 242 ajcjrefwyf
&if;rS ppfom;rsm;onf etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr rke;f NrKd Ue,f&dS wD;emxm&Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk v,fuiG ;f
rsm;? tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd af epOfwiG f vma&mufypfcwfMuygonf/ xdu
k o
Jh Ukd ypfcwfrKS aMumifh touf (16)
96

For the complete text of this order document, see Shouldering the Burden of
Militarisation: SPDC, DKBA and KPF order documents and forced labour since September 2006, Appendix 3, sectiond, order #66, KHRG, August 2007.
97
u&ifNird ;f csr;f a&;wyfzUJG onf ,cifu KNLA wyf&if; 16 jzifah omfvnf; 1997ckEpS w
f iG f etz ESit
hf ypftcwf&yfpJ
a&;oabmwlnDcsufvufrSwfa&;xdk;cJhygonf/

129

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
ESpt
f &G,&f dS apmoa';xl;rSm yGcJ si;f Ny;D aoqk;H cJNh y;D EGm;cD;aus;&GmrS &Gmom;apm---rSmrl xdcu
kd f 'gPf&m
&&Scd yhJ gonf/
atmufwb
kd mv 25 &uf? 2006ckEpS w
f iG f etz xde;f csKyef ,fajr anmifav;yifc&dik Ef iS hf awmificl &dik f
e,fpyf&dS rmvmuke;f aus;&GmrS &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf rdrw
d Ukd v,fuiG ;f rS pyg;rsm;ud&k w
d o
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0Supf mG jzif&h mG rS v,fuu
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ESifhv,f,mvkyfudkifcGifhydwfyifjcif;cH&aomaMumifh pm;eyf&dumjywfvyfaeMuygonf/ etz rSvnf;
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk rnfonfph m;eyf&u
d m rQraxmufyahH omaMumifh &Gmol&mG om;rSm tjcm;a&G;cs,&f ef
enf;vrf;r&Syd g? xdUk aMumifh rdrw
d Ukd \v,fuu
G rf sm;odUk vQKUd 0Supf mG oGm;a&mufNy;D pyg;&dwo
f rd ;f &ygonf/
98
xdo
k Ukd pyg;&dwo
f rd ;f aecsed w
f iG f trSwf (73) ajcvsiw
f yf&if; rS wyf&if;rSL;atmifcESihf 4if;\ppfom;
rsm;onf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udak oewfrsm;jzifh vma&mufypfcwfygonf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ukd ypfcwfaomaMumifh &Gmom;
3 OD; aoqH;k cJNh y;D 2 a,mufrmS touf ( 18 )ESpaf tmuf uav;i,frsm;jzpfygonf/ xdk 3 OD;rSm apm
armifarmif (usm;? 40ESpf )? apmcspcf spf (usm;? 16ESp)f ESiahf pmtm;csKd (usm;? 15ESp)f wdUk jzpfygonf/
etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrjyifywGif etz ppfom;rsm;ypfcwfrKS aMumifh aoqH;k &aomuav;i,frsm; ydrk rkd sm;
jym;vmaomfvnf; etz ppfwyfonf 4if;wdUk \trdeUf tmPmwnfw&Hh ef ESihf jynforl sm;vdu
k ef m&ef
tMurf;zufowfjzwfjcif;enf;vrf;udk rnfonfeh ,fajra'owGirf qdu
k sio
hf ;kH vsu&f ydS gonf/ ,ckvwfw
avmESprf sm;wGif ppfom;rsm;rS jynfov
l x
l u
k kd tppftaq;r&Sd ypfcwfrKS rsm;onf qufwu
kd jf zpfymG ;aeyg
onf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ukd ypfcwfjcif;aMumifh ppfom;rsm;onf rnfoUkd rQta&;,lc&H jcif;r&Sad y/ atmufwiG af zmfjy
xm;aomtajctaersm;wGif ppfwyfrS vlxu
k rkd nfoUkd zdEydS t
f yk cf sKyo
f nfukd awGUjrif&ayrnf/

nifi;f yef;ESdyfpufrSKrsm;
]] &Gm&Sd EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vkH; (trsm;tm;jzifh 12 ESpf odkUr[kwf 13ESpf )onf n 9;00 em&D
tcsd e f w G i f DKBA Adkvfrdk;BudK; vufatmufcHppfom;rsm;\ ac:,lppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;ukd cHcJh&ygonf/
ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;udk &dkufESufrnf[kvnf; Ncdrf;ajcmufcJhygonf/ ppfaq;ar;jref;
NyD;aemufwGif EGm;ausmif;om;rsm;udk jyefvTwfay;cJhygonf/ }}
-aemf - --(r? 37ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxk H c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D 2006)

etz ppfom;rsm;ESihf Nird ;f csr;f a&;wyfzUJG rS ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdUk xde;f csKyef ,fajratmuf&dS aus;&Gmrsm;rS
vlxu
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l x
l rk S 4if;wdUk awmif;qkcd suf
rsm;udk vdu
k ef m&ef Ncrd ;f ajcmufEydS pf ufrKS rsm; jyKvyk Nf y;D aMumuf&UHG apygonf/ ppfom;rsm;onf tvGeif ,f&,
G f
aomuav;rsm;udk Ncrd ;f ajcmufEydS pf ufrKS rsm; rjyKvyk af omfvnf; q,fausmo
f uft&G,u
f av;rsm;udrk l
Ncrd ;f ajcmufEydS pf ufrKS rsm; jyKvyk &f ef0efrav;Muay/ u&ifwikd ;f &if;om;rsm;onf etz ppftpd;k &\ aoG;aESm

98

etz ppfwyf\
f ajcvQiw
f yf&if;wpf&if;onf ppfom;OD;a& (500)&S&d rnfjzpfaomfvnf; vuf&dS etz ajcvQif wyf&if;wGif
ppfom;OD;a&; (200)atmufom&Syd gonf/ ajcvQiw
f yf&if;rsm;udk vHjk cKH a&;wm0ef,&l eftwGuo
f m toH;k jyKavh&adS omfvnf;
&Hzef&HcgwGif ppfqifa&;rsm;twGufvnf;toHk;jyKygonf/

130

tMurf;zuftvGJokH;pm;jyKvkyfrSKrsm;
jcif;jzifh wdkif;&if;om;pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;pDrHudef;99twGuf taESmuft,Suf
jzpfaponf[k etz rS ,lqaomaMumifh u&ifvrl sK;d rsm;udk &efo[
l k etzrS owfrw
S yf gonf/ xdUk aMumifh
u&ifuav;i,frsm;onf u&ifwikd ;f &if;om;jzpfaomaMumifh etz ppftpd;k &\ taESmuft,Suaf y;rSKEiS hf
tvGo
J ;Hk pm;jyKrKS ukd cH&ygonf/ xdUk tjyif etzonf jrefrmjynfow
l pf&yfv;Hk udk 4if;wdUk ppftyk cf sKyaf &;tm;
taESmuft ,Suaf y;rnfo
h rl sm;[k &SKjrifxm;ygonf/ etz vk;H 0xde;f csKyx
f m;aom e,fajrr[kwaf om
DKBA ESihf u&ifNird ;f csr;f a&;wyfzUJG rsm; xde;f csKyef ,fajrrsm;wGiv
f nf; jynfov
l x
l rk sm; zdEydS jf cif;cHMu&yg
100
onf/ DKBAESihf u&ifNird ;f csr;f a&;tzGUJ rsm;onf trnfct
H mPmydik rf sm;jzpfNy;D jynfov
l x
l u
k kd ppftyk f
csKyfa&;ykHpHjzifhyif zdESdyftkyfcsKyfygonf/
]] zmyG e f c &d k i f ? ---&G m wG i f Ed k 0 if b mv 27 &uf ? 2006ck E S p f w G i f 0if a &muf N yD ; pcef ; csaexd k i f c J h a om
ppfom;rsm;onf ajcjrefwyfr101 trSwf (101) vufatmufcH ajcjrefwyf&if; trSwf (255)rS jzpfygonf/
4if;wdkU\ wyf&if;rSL;rSm atmifpHodef;jzpfygonf/ ausmif;om;rsm;ausmif;odkUoGm;&mwGif 4if;ppfom;
rsm;u wkwfrsm;jzifhajcmufvSefUMuygonf/ }}
-u&if v l U tcG i f h t a&;tzG J U uG i f ; qif ; avh v mol ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Zef 2007 )

azaz:0g&Dv 26&uf? 2006ckEpS w


f iG f KNLA wyfzGJUrsm; r,fzl;xm&Sd DKBA pcef;udk wdkufcdkufcJh
pOfwiG f nDnaD v; OD;aqmifaom trSwf (232) ajcvsiw
f yf&if;rS ppfom;rsm;onf zmyGecf &dik f bl;odNk rKd U
e,f--- &GmodUk a&mufomG ;Ny;D vufpm;acsonft
h aejzifh &Gmol&mG om;rsm;udk Ncrd ;f ajcmufcyhJ gonf/ touf
17ESpf t&G,&f adS pm--- onf acsmif;xJwiG f ig;&Sm? [if;oD;[if;&Guf &SmazG&mrSjyefvm&mwGit
f zrf;cH
cJ&h ygonf/ etz ppfom;rsm;onf tqdyk g apm---\ OD;acgif;udk yvyfpwpftw
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Ncrd ;f ajcmufppfaq;ar;jref;jcif;cHc&hJ aMumif; &Gmom;rsm;rS ajymjycJyh gonf/ --- &GmwGif ausmif;om;ausmif;
olrsm;onf KNLA wyfzUJG rsm;\ vSKy&f mS ;rSKtaMumif;udk ar;jref;jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ 6ESpf t&G,o
f m&Sad o;
onfh uav;i,fwpfO;D yifvQif aoewfjzifNh crd ;f ajcmufar;jref;jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ KNLArS r,fr;l xmudk
wdu
k cf u
kd cf jhJ cif;aMumifh ---&GmwGif aexdik af omtouf 16ESpt
f &G,&f dS apm---onfvnf; ppfaq;ar;jref;
jcif;cHc&hJ ygonf/ xdk apm---rS u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ udk odUk ajymjycJyh g onf/
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&GmolBuD;tm;qufvufar;jref;&ef 4if;ppfom;udk uRefawmfajymcJhygonf/ xdktcg ppfom;rsm;onf
99

For details on the SPDC's 'national reconsolidation' programme see, "State Peace and
Development Council Chairman Senior General Than Shwe's Union Day message",
Myanmar Ministry of Foreign Affairs, February 14th, 2003. Accessed at http://www.mofa.
gov.mm/news/feb14_friday_state.html on February 5th , 2008.
100
Mary Callahan in her paper Political Authority in Burma's Ethnic Minority States:
Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence (East-West Center Washington, May 2007,
p.39)terms the particular form of mixed political authority in DBKA-controlled areas as
'coexistence' between the SPDC and DKBA.
101
etz \ajcjrefwyfrwpfckwGif wyf&if;(10)&if;yg0ifygonf/

131

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uRefawmfudkar;aphrSudkifum wpfckckjyKvkyf&ef BudK;pm;cJhaomfvnf; OD;yZif;vlxGuf OD;---rS uRefawmf
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-apm---(usm;? 16ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &k d i f / ({NyD v 2006)

Zlvikd f 15&uf? 2006 ckEpS w


f iG f vSarmifO;D aqmifaom DKBA uaqm0g;wyf&if;rS ppfom; 40 onf
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f if&iS ;f vif;&ef ppfqifa&;jyKvyk cf yhJ gonf/
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f pftrd o
f Ukd
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k rd w
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jyefvnfajymqdck yhJ gonf/ xdt
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kd w
k u
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t&uf0,f&ef aiG 1500usyf ay;&rnf[k rde;f uav;tm;ajymqdck yhJ gonf/ rde;f uav;\rdcifrS 4if;
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d Qif rdro
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k af y;cJyh gonf/ 4if;vkd
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-apm---(usm;? 43ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f 2007)

etz odUk r[kwf 4if;\r[mrdwrf sm; xde;f csKyef ,fajrwGif ppfpcef;rsm;&Gmrsm;ywfvnfEiS v


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132

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Mo*kwv
f 13&uf? 2007ckEpS w
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f iG f
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Kyfrdkif;rsm;aMumifh xdcdkuf'Pf&m&&Sdolrsm;udk rMunfhr
&I r apmif h a &S m uf M uay/ ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;axmifxm;aomae&mrsm;udkvnf; wduspGmrajymjyaomaMumifh
&G m om;rsm;onf ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;udkeif;rdMuygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 43ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

etz ppftpd;k &puf&rHk sm;rSxw


k v
f yk af omrdik ;f rsm; odUk r[kwf w&kwEf ikd if v
H yk rf ikd ;f rsm;onf ESpaf ygif;rsm;pGmr
ysufpD;Edkifyg/ xdkUtjyif etz ESifh DKBA ppfom;rsm;onf 4if;wdUk rnfonfah e&mwGif rdik ;f rsm;jrKyfESH
xm;onfukd rajymjyaomaMumifh rnfonfah e&monf tE&m,fuif;onf[rk od&EdS ikd yf g/ xdUk aMumifh
uav;i,frsm;onf &Gmywf0ef;usiw
f iG f upm;&m?vnf;aumif;? awmwGi;f odUk [if;oD;[if;&Gu&f mS azG&m?
vnf;aumif;? vkyt
f m;ay;ESihf ppfwyftwGuf ay:wmxrf;&mwGiv
f nf;aumif; ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f tE&m,fEiS hf
MuKH awGUEdik yf gonf/ KNLA rS axmifxm;aomajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;udv
k nf; uav;i,frsm;eif;rdEidk yf gonf/
odUk aomf KNLA rS axmifaomrdik ;f rsm;onf a'owGi;f &&SEd ikd af omypn;f rsm;jzifo
h mjyKvyk x
f m;aom
vufvyk rf ikd ;f rsm;jzpfaomaMumifh wm&Snrf cHay/ trsm;tm;jzifh 6 vcefUom cHygonf/ xkUd tjyif KNLA
ppfom;rsm;onf&mG om;rsm;udk 4if;wdUk rnfonfah e&mwGif ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;axmifxm;onfukd ajymjyavh&NdS y;D
rvdt
k yfvQif ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;udk jyefvnfw;l azmfz,f&mS ;avh&ydS gonf/ &Gmol&mG om;rsm;\ tqdt
k & KNLA
wyfzUJG omajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm;udk jyefvnfw;l azmf z,f&mS ;avh&ydS gonf/ etzESihf DKBA ppfom;rsm;rSmrl
&Gmom;rsm; rdr&d mG ESihf v,fuiG ;f rsm;odUk jyefomG ;Edik &f ef ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm;udk jyefvnfz,f&mS ;ay;avhr&Sad y/
aemufxyfu&ifjynfe,fa'orsm;&Sd ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;pGmjrK yEf x
HS m;aom Oyrmudk jy&rnfqv
kd Qif oxkcH &dik &f dS
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ odUk rMumcP atmufygtwdik ;f ajymjycJyh gonf/ oxHck &dik f
133

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
twGi;f vSKy&f mS ;aeaom DKBA trSw(f 333) wyf&if;rS wyf&if;rSL; rd;k BuKd ;onf 4if;\ppfom;rsm;udk
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;\ v,fuiG ;f rsm;? v,fuiG ;f odUk oGm;&mvrf;rsm;wdUk ? ajrjrKyfrdkif;rsm;jrKyEf x
HS m;&ef trdeUf
ay;xm;aomaMumifh &Gmol&mG om;rsm;twGuf tvkyv
f yk u
f ikd &f efcufcaJ yonf/ Adv
k rf ;kd BuKd ;onf p&du
k f
Murf;aomol? aoewfypfjcif;udk ESpo
f ufaomol[k trnfq;kd jzifh ausmMf um;ygonf/ Adv
k rf ;kd BuKd ; 4if;wdUk \
a'owGiaf &muf&adS evQif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf rd;k BuKd ;ESi&hf ifqikd &f rnfuakd Mumuf&UHG aomaMumifh rdrw
d Ukd pdu
k f
cif;rsm;odUk roGm;a&mufMuay/ rd;k BuKd ;onf 4if;xde;f csKyef ,fajrwGif ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;jrK yEf &HS ef 0goemygaom
aMumifh &Gmom;rsm;onf rdrw
d Ukd \v,f,mpdu
k cf if;rsm;udk twkid ;f yifpeG Uf ypfxm;&ygonf/ KNLA
ppfom;rsm;\ tultnDjzifh rdik ;f rsm;udk wl;azmfEikd yf grS rdrw
d Ukd pdu
k yf sK;d xm;aomoD;ESrH sm;udk oGm;a&mufMunf&h I
Edik yf gonf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ukd ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f rsm;tE&m,faMumifh &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf tvkyrf vkyu
f ikd Ef ikd b
f J qif;&J
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k nf; xdcu
kd af pygonf/ 4if;\uHMurm tusK;d
ay;aMumifyh if Adv
k rf ;kd BuKd ;onf 2007ckEpS f aESmif;ydik ;f wGif ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f aMumifh jyif;xefpmG 'Pf&m&&SNd y;D
ajcaxmufwpfzufq;kH &SK;H cJ&h ygonf[k u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ rSowif;&&Scd yhJ gonf/ rd;k BuKd ;onf DKBA
axmifaomrdkif;xdcJhjcif;avmodkUr[kwf KNLA rSaxmifaomrdkif;xdcJhjcif;avmudkrl&Sif;vif;pGmr
od&&dS ao;ay/
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ajrjrKyf
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ajrjr Kyf
jrKyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm; jr
KyfESH
xm;aMumif; vltrsm;rSajymqdkMuygonf/ vltrsm;ajymonfrSm DKBA axmifxm;aomrdkif;onf xdkae
&mwGifomr[kwfyg/ xdkUaMumifh rdrdwdkU ajcaxmuftydk&SdvQif raMumufr&GHUoGm;vmEdkifygonf/}}
-apm---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxk H c &d k i f ? ? (puf w if b mv 2006)
]] pmuav;xk a 'owG i f rd k ; Bud K ;rS ajrjr
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rk d ; Bud K ;onf ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;udk vQKdU0SufpGmaxmifxm;jcif;jzpfNyD; rnfonfhae&mwGifaxmifxm;onfudk
&Gmom;rsm;rod&Sday/ trsKd;orD;rsm;onf &mbmap;jcpf&ef&mbmpdkufcif;rsm;odkU roGm;0Hhay/ }}
-OD ; ---(usm;? 55ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f ? ? (Zef e 0g&D v 2007)

jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f uav;?vlBu;D rsm;tm;vk;H onf ajrjrKyrf ikd ;f aMumifh rnfrQ'Pf&m&&So
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tE&m,fEiS yhf wfoufNy;D pm&if;xkwjf yefaomtzGUJ tpnf;\tpD&ifcpH mt& etz tpd;k &onf ajrjrKyf
rdik ;f xdcu
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f m;ygonf/102 odUk aomf
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kd 'f Pf&m&olrsm;ESihf
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k v
f H
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ao;aomvufeufBu;D usnq
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k cd u
kd 'f Pf&m
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f m;ay;? ay:wmxrf;
102

Landmine Monitor Report 2007: Burma/Myanmar, October 2007, International


Campaign to Ban Landmines, p.17.
103
Ibid., p.1.

134

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-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

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udk um;rsm;a&SUrSvrf;avQmufapygonf/ ppfom;ESihf ppfum;rsm; ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f xdcu
kd rf nfukd pd;k &draf Mumuf&UHG
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Edik Nf y;D xdcu
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vdifydkif;qdkif&m tvGJoHk;pm;jyKjcif;
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-OD ; .---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

104

"People have to beg as the situation gets worse in Toungoo District," Kwe Ka Lu, Septe
-mber 28th 2007.uG,fuvlpmapmifrSaumufEIwfcsuf/

135

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
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ta0;wpfae&modkU twif;tusyfac:aqmifum om;r,m;jyKusifhNyD; aoewfjzifhypfowfMuygonf/ }}
-aemf - --(r? 19ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zm;tH c &d k i f / (Mo*k w f v 2007)

u&ifjynfe,f&dS trsK;d orD;ESirfh ed ;f uav;rsm;onf a'ocHtrsK;d om;rsm;\ twif;t"rjyKjcif;cH&Ny;D tcsKUd


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h Ukd vdiyf ikd ;f qdik &f mrw&m;jyKusirhf KS rsm;onf
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aumif; ppfom;rsm;onf uRefrudk om;r,m;jyKusifhvdkMuonf/ xdkUaMumifh uRefronf npOf tjcm;trsKd;
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105

ydrk o
kd &d v
dS v
kd Qif Testimony of Porters Escaped from SLORC Forces, KHRG, January 1992.wGif
MunfhIEdkifygonf/

136

tMurf;zuftvGo
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ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif Village-level decision making in responding to forced relocation: A case


from Papum District, KHRG, March 2008.wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/
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109

"Born in the crossfire," The Nation, July 11th 2007. Accessed at http://www.
nationmultimedia.com/2007/07/11/regional_30040353.php on April 4th 2008.

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110

ydkrdkod&SdvdkvQif Landmines, killings and food destruction: Civilian life in Toungoo District
(Karen Human Rights Group, August 2007)wGifMunfhIEdkifonf/

142

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-aemf - --(r? 23ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

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146

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-apm---(usm;? 23ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

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f nf; ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm;tE&m,fEiS &hf ifqikd &f ygonf/ u&ifjynfe,fwpfvmT ;wGif etz ppfwyfrsm;onf
148

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aMumifh etz ppfwyfrsm;wdu
k cf u
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wGuv
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h akd omf &Gmol&mG om;rsm;onf ajrjrK yrf ikd ;f rsm; rnfonfh
ae&mwGif jrKyEf x
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]] vGefcJhaomESpfu aocdk'Jaus;&GmrS touf16ESpft&G,f&Sd aemfa*a*azmonf etz axmifxm;aom
ajrjr
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oGm;pOfvrf;wGif ajrjr
ajrjrKyf
jrKyf
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KyfESHoN*dKvfcJhaomaMumifh rdcifonf
olrtavmif;udk rjrifawGUcJh&yg/ }}
-aemf - --(r? 52ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / ({NyD v 2006)

etz xde;f csKyef ,fajrtcsKUd a'orsm;wGif &Gmol&mG om;rsm;ud,


k w
f ikd f rdrw
d Ukd &Gmudk etz&efru
S muG,f
Edik &f ef rdrw
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wdu
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]] uRefawmfwdkUa'owGif etz ppfwyfESihf KNLA wyfzGJUrsm;ESpfzGJUpvkH;ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
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ajrjrKyf
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etz ppf o m;rsm;onf ajrjr
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axmif a omajrjr
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Kyfrdkif;rsm;onf uRefawmfwdkUudk tumtuG,fay;ygonf/ KNLA ajrjr
etzppf o m;rsm; wuf e if ; rd ayguf u G J o H M um;&ygu uRef a wmf w d k U tm;Bud K wif o wd a y;ouJ h o d k U jzpf N yD ;
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-apm---(usm;? 40ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? awmif i l c &d k i f / (ZG e f v 2007)

tMurf;zufrSKrsm;tm; uav;i,frsm;wkHYjyefyHk
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tm;umuG,&f efBuKd ;pm;vkyaf qmifaomfvnf; ajrjrKyfrdkif;tE&m,f? ppfwyf\ wku
d cf u
dk jf cif;? owfjzwf
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xdu
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d Ukd aetdrrf sm;udk etz ppfom;rsm;wdu
k cf u
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ajymjyygonf/ xdUk tjyif etzppfom;rsm; 4if;wdUk a'oodUk a&muf&v
dS maMumif; owif;&&Sv
d Qif rdrw
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149

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
a&;twGupf ;kd &draf Mumif; xkwaf zmfajymjyygonf/ 2007ckEpS f ZGe?f Zlvikd t
f wGi;f wGif u&ifvUl tcGit
hf
a&;tzGUJ onf zmyGecf &dik &f dS jynfwiG ;f 'kuo
nfrsm;yke;f cd&k mae&mrsm;wGif 9 ESprf S 12ESpt
f &G,u
f av;i,f
rsm;udk pkaygif;ac:,lumawGUqHak r;jref;Ny;D tvky&f aHk qG;aEG;yGjJ yKvyk cf yhJ gonf/ xdu
k o
hJ Ukd jyKvyk af om tvky&f Hk
aqG;aEG;yGrJ sm;wGif uav;i,frsm;onf 4if;wdUk yke;f cd&k mae&mrsm;udk ajryHrk sm;a&;qGjJ yjcif;ESiafh jryHw
k iG f
t"duusaomae&mrsm;udx
k nfo
h iG ;f azmfjyMuygonf/ tcsKUd uav;i,frsm;onf etzppfom;rsm;vm
a&mufwu
kd cf u
kd yf gu rnfuo
hJ Ukd xGuaf jy;&rnfukd ajryHak y:wGiv
f rf;aMumif;qGjJ yMuygonf/ tcsKUd uav;
i,frsm;onf rdrw
d Ukd ajymvdak omt&mrsm;udk a&;om;azmfjyMuygonf/ xdak &;om;csuw
f iG f uav;i,frsm;
onf etz ppfom;rsm;vma&mufwu
kd cf u
kd yf gu xdik ;f Ekid if b
H ufoUkd xGuaf jy;rnf[k a&;om;azmfjyxm;yg
onf/ tcsKUd uav;i,frsm;onf rdrw
d Ukd vkjH cKH a&;twGuf etz ppfom;rsm;wdu
k cf u
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kd cf u
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H Ukd xGuaf jy;rnf
jzpfNy;D KNU ppfom;rsm;tm;ckcw
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t&G,if ,f&,
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k iG t
f csKUd uav;i,frsm;onf KNU ppfom;
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k kd xnfo
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]]etz ppfom;rsm;vma&mufwu
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f ykd govm;[k ar;jref;aomtcg
tm;vH;k onfjyefvykd gonf[k ajzMum;cJyh gonf/ odUk aomf jrefrmjynf Nird ;f csr;f a&;r&&So
d a&GU tdro
f Ukd jyef&ef
r0H&h MJ uyg/ (uReaf wmfwUkd onf upm;ckepf m;jyKvyk &f ojzifh aysm&f iT Mf uygonf/)

150

uav;ppfom;rsm;
oHvGifjrpfaMumif;wpfavQmuf jynfwGif;'kuonfrsm;ykef;ckd&mae&mudk xdkif;EdkifiHbufrS jrifawGU&yHk/ u&ifvlUtcGifh
ta&;tzGJUESifh jyKvkyfcJhaomtvkyf&HkaqG;aEG;yGJwGif uav;i,frsm;a&;qGJxm;aomajryHkjzpfygonf/ ykH\tay:nm
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ppfom;rsm;vma&mufwdkufcdkufvQif xdkif;EdkifiHodkUxGufajy;rnf}} [laom pmwef;udkawGUjrifEdkifygonf/ jynfwGif;
'kuonfrsm;ykef;ckd&mae&mudk od&SdEdkifojzifh yHktay:b,fzufwGifyg&Sdaomjrpftrnfudkazmfjyrxm;yg/ (ajrykHu&if v l Y t cG i f h t a&;tzG J U )

7/ uav;ppfom;rsm;
]] jrefrmEdkifiHwGif 1996ckESpfrSp aus;&Gmaygif; 2700-ausmf zsufqD;cH&NyD; (odkU) ajymif;a&TUcHcJh&NyD;?
ppfom;rsm;onfvnf; wdkif;&if;om;vlenf;pkrsm;udk twif;t"r
t"rjyKusif
t"r
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apcdkif;rSKrsm; rsm;jym;vmaMumif;ESifh wyfrawmf111 wGif uav;i,frsm;udk twif;t"r
t"rppf
ppfrSKxrf;apjcif;
ponfwdkU jzpfay:aeaMumif; taxmuftxm;rsm;ESifh ajymqdkpGyfpGJxm;ygonf/ trSefpifppf uav;i,f
rsm;udk twif;t"r
t"rppf
ppfrSKxrf;&efapcdkif;olrsm;onf vufwpfqkyfpmom&Sdaomaomif;usef;olrsm;rS jyKvkyf
aejcif ; jzpf y gonf / }}
-etz owif ; pm&S i f ; vif ; yG J w G i f ajymqd k a om w&m;0if a jymqd k c suf (atmuf w d k b m 2005)112
]] pufwifbmv 2007ckESpf rwdkifrSDwGif tjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJU ILO rS &&SdcJhaomwdkifMum;
pmtrsm;pkrSm a'ocHt&yfzuf tmPmydkifrsm;rSjynfolrsm;udk twif;t"r
t"rvk
vyk ftm;ay;apckdif;aMumif;ESifh
oufqdkifNyD; ppfwyfrS twif;t"r
t"rapcd
apcdkif;jcif;ESifh uav;i,frsm;udkppfrSKxrf;apjcif;ponfwdkUESifhoufqdkif
aomwdkifMum;pmrsm;rSmrltenf;pkomyg0ifygonf/ odkUaomf pufwifbmaemufydkif;rSp&&S d c J h a omwd k i f
Mum;pmrsm;wGif ppfwyfrS jynfolrsm;tm;twif;t"r
t"rvk
vyk ftm;ay;apjcif;ESifhuav;i,frsm;udk ppfwyfodkU
0ifa&mufapjcif;ponfwdkUESifh oufqdkifaomtaMumif;t&mrsm;om trsm;pkyg0ifygonf/}}
-jrefrmEdkifiHwGif jzpfay:aeaomtwif;t"r
t"r apcd
apcdkif;cH&jcif;ESifh oufqdkifaom ILO tzGJUrS ajymqdkcsuf
(rwf v 2008 )113

jrefrmEdik if w
H iG f uav;ppfom;rsm;taMumif;ajymqd&k mwGif tcuftcJjyem&Syd gonf/ u&ifvrl sK;d rsm;\
,lqcsurf sm;t& touf13ESpEf iS hf 14ESpt
f xuf uav;i,frsm;udu
k av;i,frsm;[l r,lq awmhyg/
tjynfjynfqikd &f mpHcsed pf n
H eT ;f owfrw
S cf surf sm;t&rl touf15ESpf (odUk ) 18ESpaf tmufuav;i,frsm;[k
omowfrSwfygonf/ 1998ckESpf tjynfjynfqdkif&m &mZ0wfrSKw&m;&kH;\a&mrNrdKUoabmwlnDcsuf
Oya't&Edik if w
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f J jrefrmEdik if t
H a&SUzufjcrf;wGijf zpfymG ;aeaom vufeufuikd yf #dyu
tajctaersm;twGuf ppf&mZ0wfrKS uakd tmufygtwdik ;f jyXgef;cJyh gonf/ ]]touf15 ESpaf tmufuav;
i,frsm;udpk pfwyfrsm;twGi;f twif;tMuyfow
G o
f iG ;f jcif; (odUk ) ppfrKS xrf;apNy;D tMurf;zufvyk if ef;rsm;wGif
111

Tatmadaw Kyi is the Burmese name for the SPDC Army.


SPDC press conference statement, 23rd October 2005, accessed at http://www.myanmar.
com/press_conference/2005/23-10.html on 23rd January 2008, in reference to the report
Threat to the Peace: A Call for the UN Security Council to Act in Burma, commissioned
by former President of the Czech Republic Valv Havel and Archbishop Desmond Tutu,
September 2005.
113
"Developments concerning the question of the observance by the Government of
Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930(No.29)," [GB 301/6/2]. para.26, p.6,
March 2008
112

151

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
yg0ifapjcif;onf &mZ0wfrKS ajrmuf ygonf/ }}114 Oya't& uav;i,f rsm;udw
k u
kd yf rJG sm;wGiyf g0ifap
jcif;omr[kwb
f J ppfwyfoUkd oGwo
f iG ;f Ny;D ppfom;rsm;tjzpf ay:wmxrf;apjcif;onfvnf; tMuKH ;0ifyg
onf/ uav;ppfom;rsm;toH;k jyKjcif; &yfwefU&efBuKd ;pm;aeaom nGeUf aygif; tzGUJ onf ppfxo
J Ukd 0if&ef
toufti,fq;kH vdt
k yfcsuu
f kd 18ESpt
f xdw;kd Ny;D owfrw
S &f efawmif;qdx
k m;ygonf/ 1999ckEpS f tjynf
jynfqikd &f mtvkyo
f rm;tzGUJ ILO \ uav;oli,frsm;apcdik ;f cH&jcif;ESihf oufqikd af omoabmwlncD suf
t& vufeufuikd yf #dyursm;aMumihf touf18ESpaf tmufuav;i,frsm;udk ppfwyfrsm;odUk twif;t"r
(odUk ) ppfrKS rxrf;rae& jyXgef;csujf zifph pfrKS xrf;apjcif;rjyK&yg/ 115
tjynfjynfqikd &f mtpd;k & r[kwaf omtzGUJ tpnf;rsm; ( NGO ) ESihf ,leq
D uf ( UNICEF ) tzGUJ wdUk onf
uav;oli,frsm;tcGit
hf a&;ESiyhf ufowf vrf;pOfaumif;rsm;udu
k sio
hf ;kH MuNy;D 4if;wkUd ( NGO ESifh
UNICEF )onf 1997ckESpf {NyDvwGif jyKvkyfcJhaomuav;olrsm;udk twif;t"rppfwyfrsm;odkU
0ifa&mufapjcif;udk umuG,&f ef? vufeufzsuo
f rd ;f a&;ESihf uav;ppfom;rsm;udk vlrKS tzGUJ tpnf;rsm;odUk
jyefvnfyUkd aqmifay;a&;ponfwUkd ESiyfh wfouf usi;f ycJah omES;D aESmzvS,yf w
JG iG f ]]uav;ppfom;rsm;}}
[laomt"dyg ,fukd atmufygtwdik ;f owfrw
S cf yhJ gonf/ touf18ESpaf tmuf rnforl qdk tNrw
J rf;jzpf
ap? &Hzef&cH gjzpfap ppfwyfrsm;wGiyf g0ifygu 4if;wdUk udk ]] uav;ppfom;}} rsm;[kac:ygonf/ (xrif;csuf
rsm;? ay:wmrsm;ESihf qufom;rsm;yg yg0ifygonf/) 4if;uav;i,frsm;onf ppfom;rsm;\ om;?orD;rsm;
jzpfygu ]]uav;ppfom;}} rsm;[k rowfrw
S Ef ikd yf g/ xdUk tjyif txufygt"dyg ,fziG q
hf ckd suw
f iG f rde;f uav;
rsm; vdiyf ikd ;f qdik &f mazsmaf jz&eftwGuf ppfwyfoUkd oGwo
f iG ;f cH&jcif;ESihf twif;t"rvufxyfapjcif;yg
tMuKH ;0ifygonf/ xdUk aMumifh uav;ppfom;rsm;[lonf vufeufuikd f ppfwyfrsm;wGif ppfrKS xrf;aom
uav;i,frsm;omr[kwyf g/116 txufyg ]]uav;ppfom;}} t"dyg ,fziG q
hf ckd suu
f kd Edik if w
H pfumrS vufcH
117
oabmwlnx
D m;Ny;D KNLAyg oabmwlvufcv
H ufrw
S af &;xd;k xm;ygonf/ u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;
tzGUJ KHRG onfvnf; txufygt"dy?g,fziG q
hf ckd sut
f wdik ;f touf18 ESpaf tmufuav;i,frsm;udk
ppfwyfoUkd 0ifa&mufapygu ]]uav;ppfom;}} rsm;[k owfrw
S x
f m;jcif;udk vufcv
H u
kd ef musio
hf ;kH ygonf/
Edik if w
H umrS txufyg ]]uav;ppfom;}} t"dyyg,fziG q
hf ckd suu
f kd vufcx
H m;Muaomfvnf; jrefrmEdik if H
wGif jynfov
l x
l \
k b0tbufbufonf ppftyk cf sKyaf &;\vTr;f rd;k rSKuckd &H Ny;D uav;i,frsm;tm;vk;H ppf
wyfoUkd ppfom;tjzpf trnfpm&if;oGi;f cH&onfjzpfap? rcH&onfjzpfap ppfwyfrsm;twGuv
f yk t
f m;ay;t
wif;t"rapcdik ;f cH&aomaMumifh 4if;uav;i,frsm;udk uav;ppfom;rsm;tjzpfowfrw
S Ef ikd zf ,
G &f ydS gonf/
tb,faMumifq
h akd omf xdo
k Ukd twif;t"rtvkyaf pcdik ;f cH&aomuav;i,frsm;onf ppfwyftwGuf ppf
ypn;f rsm;o,f,al y;&jcif;? ppfaMumif;rsm;twGuf awmvrf;ckwx
f iG &f iS ;f vif;ay;&jcif;ESihf ppfpcef;rsm;
114

Article 8.2.(e)(iii),1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, avaliable


online at http://untreaty.un.org/cod/icc/statute/remefra.htm
115
Article 3.a, 1999 Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (ILO Convention 182),
available online at http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/convde.p1?C182
116
Capetown Principles and Best Practices, UNICEF, April 1997. Accessed online at
http://www.unicef.org/emerg/files/Cape_Town_Principles(1).pdf on February 28th 2008.
117
Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma, Human
Rights Watch, October 2007, Appendix E.

152

uav;ppfom;rsm;
ppfwef;vsm;rsm;aqmufvyk &f mwGif yg0ifvyk af qmif&jcif;ponfwUkd udk vkyu
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4if;wdUk udk uav;ppfom;rsm;[k jiif;cHo
k wfrw
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k Ukd qdak omf etz? DKBA ? KNU ?
KNLA -Nird ;f csr;f a&;aumifpED iS fh KNLA wyfzUJG rsm;onf t&G,rf a&mufao;olukd ppfwyfwiG ;f odUk
w&m;0if 0ifa&mufapygu4if;uav;i,frsm;onf uav;ppfom;rsm;jzpfonf[k xif&mS ;pGmod&EdS ikd yf g
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wdik w
f m0ef,&l ygonf/ xdt
k csed rf sK;d wGif uav;i,frsm;udv
k ufeufuikd af qmifNy;D uif;apmih&f efwm0ef
ay;Muygonf/ 4if;uav;i,frsm;onf w&m;0ifzGJUxm;aomjynfolUppfom;vnf;r[kwfyg/ 4if;u
av;i,frsm;onf vufeufuikd af qmifNy;D rdrw
d Ukd &yf&mG vHjk cKH a&;twGuf wm0efxrf;aqmifMuaomfvnf;
&Gmol&mG om;rsm;u 4if;wdUk udu
k av;ppfom;rsm;[krowfrw
S yf g/
]] uRefawmfwdkU&GmwGif &Gmom;rsm;tm;vHk; tvSnfhusuif;apmihf&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif vli,frsm;
onfvnf; &yf&GmvHkjcHKa&;twGufuif;apmifh&NyD; vSnfhvnfMunfh&SK&ygonf/ odkUaomf a,musfm;av;rsm;
om &yf&GmvHkjcHKa&;twGufyg0ifMuNyD; rdef;uav;rsm;udk ryg0ifapyg/ ynma&;wGifrl a,musfm;av;?
rdef;uav; wef;wltcGifhta&;&Sdygonf/ uRefawmfonfvnf; &yf&GmvHkjcHKa&;twGuf &Gmywf0ef;usifodkU
vSnfhvnfNyD; tajctaersm;udkMunfh&SKppfaq;&ygonf/ wpfcgwpf&HwGif vufeufudkifaqmif&efvkdtyf
ygonf/ uRefawmfonf xl;jcm;rSKwpfckckudkawGU&SdvQif &GmvlBuD;rsm;udk owif;ydkU&ygonf/ }}
-apm---(usm;? 23ESpf)? ---&Gm? anmifav;yifc&dkif/ (azaz:0g&Dv 2007)

etzESihf DKBA wyfzUJG rsm;onf uav;i,frsm;udk 4if;wdUk qEESifh qefUusif ppfwyfrsm;odUk twif;
tMuyfow
G o
f iG ;f vsu&f ydS gonf/ xdUk tjyif uav;i,frsm;onf KNU ? KNLA Nird ;f csr;f a&;aumifpD
wyfzUJG rsm;? wyfrawmf\ t&efwyfzUJG rsm;jzpfaomt&efr;D owfwyfzUGJ ? jynfaxmifpMk ucHh ikd af &;ESizhf UHG NzKd ;a&;
tzGUJ ? jynfoUl ppftzGUJ ESihf jrefrmEkid if H MuufajceDwyfzUJG ponft
h zGUJ rsm;odUk 0ifa&muf&efvnf; twif;t"rap
cdik ;f cH&ygonf/ u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ onf rMumao;rSu
D &&Sad omtpD&ifcpH mt& uav;i,ftcsKUd wdUk
onf KNLA wyfzUJG rsm; (odUk ) KNLA rS zGUJ pnf;ay;aomaus;&Gmjynf olUppfwyfzUJG rsm;wGiyf g0ifppfrKS
xrf;vsu&f adS Mumif;od&&dS ygonf/ etz t&efwyfzUJG rsm;ESihf DKBA wyfzUJG rsm;odUk 0ifa&mufppfrKS xrf;
&ef&yf&mG rsm;rS vli,frsm;ray;ydUk Edik yf gu'PfaiGrsm;ay;aqmif&ygonf/ tcsKUd rdom;pkrsm;onf 4if;wdUk
ud,
k pf m; tjcm;vlwpfO;D udk aiGaMu;ay;iSm;&rf;Ny;D ppfrKS xrf;apygonf/ aiGaMu;rwwfEikd af omrdom;pk
rsm;rSmrl rdrw
d Ukd uav;rsm;udk ppfrKS xrf;&efapvTw&f ygonf/
]] uRefawmfwdkU&GmwGif etz ppftpdk;&onf t&ufaopmESifh jynfolUppftwGuf tcGefaiGaumufcHygonf/
jynfolUppftwGuf uRefawmfwdkU&GmonfwpfvvQif 2000usyf ay;aqmif&ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkU&Gmom;
rsm;onf jynfolUppfwyfzGJUodkU r0ifa&mufvkdaomaMumifh aiGaMu;ay;aqmif&NyD; xdkaiGaMu;jzifh tjcm;vl
wpfa,mufudk tpm;xdk;iSm;&rf;ygonf/ }}
-apm---(usm;? 44ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? oxH k c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2006)

153

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY

etzppfwyfwGif;&Sd uav;i,frsm;tajctae
]] etz rSzGJUpnf;xm;aom t&G,fra&mufao;aomuav;i,frsm;ukd ppfwyfodkU twif;t"r
t"r 0if
0 ifa &muf
ppfrSKxrf;apjcif;udk wm;qD;umuG,f&eftwGuf zGJUpnf;xm;aomaumfrwDonf ur
ur mhm hu k v or*
or* tzG
tzGJUESifh
twlwuGyl;aygif;yg0ifaqmif&Gufrnf[k AdkvfrSL;csKyfol&jrifhatmifuajymqdkcJhygonf/ xdkuJhodkUyl;aygif;
aqmif&GufrSKaMumifh uav;i,frsm;udk ppfrSKxrf;apjcif;onf jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tenf;i,fom&Sdygonf/
aumf r wD \ BuD ; Muyf v rf ; nT e f r S K jzif h ppf w yf r sm;onf wyf o m;opf r sm;pk a qmif ; &m? w&m;Oya'twd k i f ;
txufrSnTefMum;aomtrdefUrsm;udk wdwdususvdkufemusifhoHk;ygonf/ xdkUaMumifh aumfrwD\aqmif
&GufrSKrsm;onf wpfESpfxufwpfESpfydk wdk;wufvmcJhygonf/ }}
-etzrS xk w f a 0aomowif ; pmwG i f a&;om;azmf j ycsuf (Zef e 0g&D 2008)118
]]ppfom;OD;a& 30wGif 10a,mufausmfonf touf16ESpfrS 17ESpfom&Sdygonf/ uRefawmfudk,fwdkif
odjrifMuHKawGUcJh&ygonf/ uRefawmfawGUjrifcJh&aom ppfwyf&if;rSm trSwf(378) ajcjrefwyf&if; jzpfyg
onf ? ?}}
-OD;---(usm;? 34ESpf)? ppfwyfrS xGufajy;vGwfajrmufcJhaom ay:wm? zmyGefc&dkif/ (azaz:0g&Dv 2007)

etz ppftpd;k &rS ]]jrefrmwyfrawmfonf rdrw


d Ukd qEoabmjzifh ppfrKS xrf;vdo
k rl sm;jzifo
h mzGUJ pnf;xm;yg
119
onf}} [k ajymqdak eaomfvnf; trSew
f u,foufaotaxmuftxm;t&rl wyfrawmfonf wyf
om;opfrsm;pkaqmif;&mwGif jynfot
l rsm;udk twif;tusyw
f u
kd w
f eG ;f ppfxo
J 0Ykd ifa&mufapygonf/
jrefrmumuG,af &;0efBu;D XmerS ]]ppfwyfoUkd 0ifa&muf trSKxrf;vdo
k rl sm;onf touf18ESpf rS 25ESpf
twGi;f &S&d rnf}}120 [k trdeUf xkwjf yefxm;aomfvnf; ppfom;opfpak qmif;ol Adv
k rf sm;onf uav;oli,f
rsm;udk t"duypfrw
S x
f m;Muygonf/ tb,faMumihq
f akd omf uav;i,frsm;udk vG,u
f pl mG ajcmufveS t
Yf Edik f
usifh&aomaMumifhjzpfygonf/ uav;i,frsm;onf ppfwyfrsm;twGif;odkU0ifa&mufppfrSKxrf;&ef
twif;tMuyfapckid ;f cH&Ny;D wyfrS w&m;0ifjyefvnfxu
G cf mG cGiu
hf v
kd nf;r&&Sad Mumif; u&ifvt
Yl cGit
hf a&;
tzGUJ rStpD&ifcpH mrsm;udk tNrq
J ufwu
kd &f &Sad eygonf/ vlUtcGit
hf a&;apmifMh unfah &;tzGUJ \ tqdt
k &rl
etz ppfwyfrsm;twGuf ppfom;pkaqmif; a&;t&m&Srd sm;onf ]]vltrsm;ppfwyfukd ,HMk unfrKS enf;vm
jcif;? ppfajy;rsm;jym;vmjcif; ESifh ppfrKS xrf;vdo
k el nf;yg;vmjcif;}} 121 ponft
h aMumif;rsm;aMumifh vdt
k yf
onfh ppfom;opfrsm;&&S&d ef cufc
J uav;i,frsm;udk ppfwyfot
Ykd wif;tusyf 0ifa&mufapjcif;enf;vrf;
udo
k m tm;ud;k toH;k jyK&ygonf/ ppfom;pkaqmif;a&;t&m&Sd (odUk ) t&mcHAv
kd rf sm;onf uav;i,frsm;udk
pmoifausmif;jyifyrsm; (odUk ) vlpnfum;aomae&mrsm;rSjzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifNy;D ppfwyfxo
J Ukd r0ifygu
zrf;qD;rnf[Nk crd ;f ajcmuf ppfwyfoUkd twif;tMuyf0ifa&mufppfrKS xrf;apygonf/ uav;i,frsm;\
rdbrsm;udrk l 4if;wdUk uav;rsm;rnfonfah e&mwGi&f o
dS nfukd taMumif;Mum;owif;ay;jcif;r&Sb
d J uav;
118

"Committee for Prevention against Recruiting Minors into Army holds seventh meeting," New Light of Myanmar, January 29th 2008.
119
Union of Myanmar: The Length of Borders with Immediate Neighbouringg Countries,
Myanmar Information Committee, Yangon, October 10th 2002. Accessed at http://
myanmar. tempdomainname.com/political/english.pdf on June 26th 2007.
120
Quote from Police Major Than Swe, interviewed in the article "Taskforce to Prevent
Exploitation of Children," The Myanmar Times, November 6th-12th 2006.
121
Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma, Human
Rights Watch, October 2007, p.5

154

uav;ppfom;rsm;
i,frsm;udk ppfrKS xrf;ap&m? cGijhf yKcsu&f ,ljcif; r&Sad y/ tcsKUd rdbrsm;onf rdrw
d Ukd &ifaoG;rnfonfw
h yfwiG f
&Sad eonfuo
kd &d dS rdru
d av;udjk yefvnfvw
T af y;yg&efawmif;qdo
k nft
h cg ppfom;rsm;\ Ncrd ;f ajcmuf
rSKuckd &H ygonf/
1990ckEpS f tv,fyikd ;f u etz tpd;k &onf rdrw
d Ukd \ ppfwyftiftm;udw
k ;kd csUJ &ef ppfom;OD;a& 500,000
jzifh ppfwyfuzkd UJG pnf;rnf[k ajymqdck ahJ omfvnf; ,ckvuf&cdS efUrSe;f wGucf surf KS t& ppfom;OD;a&onf
250,000 yifr&SdEdkifay/122 2002ckEpS w
f iG f xkwjf yefonfu
h ed ;f *Pef;t& etz ppfwyfwiG f wyfom;
OD;a& 350,000&Syd gonf/ xdt
k xJwiG f ppfom;OD;a& 70,000ausmcf efUonf touf18 ESpaf tmufuav;
i,frsm;jzpfMuonf[k vlUtcGit
hf a&;apmifMh unfah &;tzGUJ rS cefUrSe;f wGucf sucf yhJ gonf/ xdUk aMumifh etz
ppfwyfonf jrefrmEdik if w
H iG o
f mru urmay:wGif uav;ppfom;trsm;qH;k toH;k jyKonfph pfwyfjzpfyg
123
onf/ xdUk tjyifppfwyfwiG &f adS omtrSew
f u,f ppfom;OD;a&ESihf etzrS xm;&Sv
d adk omppfom;OD;a&
onf tvGeu
f mG jcm;ygonf/ onfuMkd unfjh cif;jzifh ppfom;pkaqmif;a&;t&m&Srd sm;onf etzrScsrw
S f
xm;aomppfom;OD;a&&&S&d eftwGuf wyfom;opfrsm;pkaqmif;&mwGif tcuftcJ&adS Mumif;awGUjrif&yg
onf/ xdUk aMumifh ppfom;pkaqmif;a&;t&m&Srd sm;onf uav;i,frsm;udq
k ufvufNy;D ppfwyfoUkd 0ifa&muf
ppfrKS xrf;apygonf/

touf 1 6ES p f t&G , f & S d armif - --onf 2006ck E S p f wG i f


ppf w yf o d k U 0if a &muf & ef twif ; tMuyf o G w f o G i f ; jcif ; ud k cH &
csdef? ausmif;rS yy
rwef
rwef;atmifjrifNyD;ump ausmif;om;jzpfyg
onf / xd k U aemuf w G i f zmyG e f c &d k i f ? 0if ; armf p pf p cef ; ? tajc
pdkufaomtrSwf(434) ajcjrefwyf&if;wGif wm0efcsxm;jcif;
cH c J h & ygonf /
4if ; armif - --rS 4if ; onf t&mcH A d k v f r sm;? wyf M uyf r sm; \
zd E S d y f n ifi f; yef ; rS K ud k tpOf t NrJ c H & aomaMumif h ppf w yf r S
xG u f a jy;cJ h N yD ; 2006ck E S p f atmuf w d k b mvwG i f KNU\
\
apmifha&SmufrSKatmufodkY a&muf&SdcJh ygonf[k u&ifvlYtcGifh
ta&;tzGJUukd ajymjycJhygonf/ ("gwfyHk-u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;
tzG J U )

122

For varying estimates on the current troop strength of the SPDC Army see, for example, Martin Smith, Statee of Strife: The Dynamics of Ethnic Conflict in Burma, EastWest Center Washington, August 2007, p.22; Mary Callahan, Political Authority in
Burma's Ethnic Minority States: Devolution, Occupation, and Coexistence, East-West
Center Washington, May 2007, p.7 and Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of
Child Soldiers in Burma, Human Rights Watch, October 2007, p.29-31.
123
My Gun Was as Tall as Me: Child Soldiers in Burma, Human Rights Watch, October
2002, p.3.

155

u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJY
vGecf ahJ omESprf sm;? etz ppfwyfwiG f ppfrKS xrf;Mu&aomuav;i,frsm;onf ppfwyfwiG &f u
kd Ef u
S f cH&jcif;?
ni;f qJc&H jcif;? tjrwfxw
k cf &H jcif;ESihf tpma&pmvkaH vmufpmG r&&Sjd cif;ponfwUkd aMumifh ppfwyfrx
S u
G f
ajy;Muygonf/ ,ckvuf&w
dS iG rf l u&ifjynfe,fwiG f ppfwyftajrmuftrsm;csxm;jcif;aMumifh ppfrKS xrf;
Mu&aomuav;i,frsm;twGufxGufajy;&efcufcJNyD; xGufajy;ygutvG,fwuljyefvnfzrf;qD;&Edkif
ygonf/ xdUk aMumifh uav;i,frsm; ppfwyfrS tvG,w
f ulrxGuaf jy;Edik af Mumif; u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ
(KHRG)rS od&&dS ygonf/ odUk aomf a'ocH&mG ol&mG om;rsm;ESihf vGwaf jrmufvmaomtusO;f om;ay:
wmrsm;onf uav;i,frsm; etzppfwyfwiG f ppfom;rsm;tjzpf ppfrKS xrf;aeMuaMumif;awGUjrif&onf
[k ajymjyMuygonf/
]] ay:wmxrf;olrsm;wGif toufti,fqHk;onf 14ESpf&SdNyD; trSwf(88) ajcjrefwyfcGJwGif ppfrSKxrf;
aeol toufti,fqHk; ppfom;onf15ESpf&Sdygonf/ }}
-ud k - --(usm;? 29ES p f ) ? xG u f a jy;vmol tusOf ; om;ay:wm? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

200&ckEpS f 'DZifbmvwGif xkwjf yefcahJ om ukvor*taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rSL;csKy\


f tpD&ifcpH mwGif
jrefrmppftpdk;&onf uav;i,frsm;udk ppfwyfodkUtwif;tMuyf0ifa&mufxrf;apjcif;ESifhyufowf
atmufygtwdik ;f azmfjycJyh gonf/
]] jrefrmEdkifiH? w&m;0ifxkwfjyefxm;aom Oya'wGif wyfrawmftwGif; 0ifa&mufppfrSKxrf;jcif;onf
rd r d \ qE
qEoabmtwd
oabmtwdkif;omjzpf&rnfjzpfNyD; ppfrSKxrf;&ef touf18ESpf jynfhNyD;olomjzpf&rnf[kyg&Sdyg
onf / od k U aomf uk v or*
or* tzG
tzGJUESifh vkyfazmfudkifzuftzGJUrsm;\ ,HkMunfavmufaomtpD&ifcHpmwGifrl
jrefrmhwyfrawmfwGif uav;i,frsm;udk twif;tMuyfppfrSKxrf;apjcif;onf qufvufjzpfay:vsuf&Sdyg
onf / }}124

etz ppftpd;k &rS uav;oli,frsm;udk wyfom;opftjzpfpak qmif;jcif;ESifh uav;ppfom;rsm;tok;H jyKjcif;


ponfwdkUudk EdkifiHwumrStm&Hkpdkufvmaomtcg etztpdk;&onf uav;oli,frsm;tm;ppfwyfodkU
0ifa&mufjcif;udk ydwyf ifwm;jrpf&rnft
h pm; ppfwyfonf uav;oli,frsm;udk ppfom;tjzpfv;kH 0ppfrKS
xrf;apjcif;r&Sad Mumif;jiif;qdNk y;D uav;ppfom;rsm;udv
k nf; wyfwiG ;f rS xGurf ajy;Edik &f efwif;MuyfpmG
csKyu
f ikd x
f m;ygonf/ u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ rS u&ifjynfe,ftwGi;f uGi;f qif;avhvmol\tpD&ifcpH m
wGif etzonf a&SUwef;e,fajrrsm;wGif uav;ppfom;rsm; vG,u
f pl mG xGuaf jy;jcif;rjyKEikd &f ef 4if;wdUk \
oGm;vmcGiu
hf kd xde;f csKyx
f m;ygonf/ odUk jzihf uav;ppfom;rsm;onf xGurf ajy;Edik b
f v
J Ul tcGit
hf a&;t
zGUJ rsm;? ukvor*tzGUJ ESihf tjcm;aomtzGUJ tpnf;rsm;odUk vnf; owif;ray;ydUk Edik af Mumif;a&;om;xm;
ygonf/ rnfoUkd yifqakd p ,ckvuf&u
dS av;ppfom;rsm;ESihf ,cktcgwGif 18ESpaf usmNf yD jzpfaomfvnf;
ppfwyfoUkd 0ifa&mufpOfu 18ESprf jynfah o;ol ppfom;rsm;onfxu
G af jy;MuNy;D 4if;wdUk \cHpm;&rSKrsm;udk
eufeuf&KS id ;f &SKid ;f xkwaf zmfajymqdMk uygonf/ atmufygOyrmwGif zwf&SK&ygrnf/

124

"Children and armed conflict," Report of the Secretary General, December 21st 2007.
Accessed at http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RW/Files2007.nsf/FilesByRWDoc Unid
Filename/ EGUA-7BBTF3-full_report.pdf/$File/full_report.pdf on February 22nd 22008.

156

uav;ppfom;rsm;
]]uRef a wmf o nf trS w f ( 13)ajcvsif w yf & if ; vuf a tmuf c H a jcjref w yf c G J trS w f ( 88)wG i f ppf r S K xrf ;
cJhygonf/ uRefawmfonf wyfom;jzpfNyD; udk,fydkiftrSwfrSm ---jzpfygonf/ uRefawmfwdkU\wyf&if; rSL;rSm
xGef;OD;jzpfygonf/ ppfwyfwGif wm0efxrf;aqmifaeMuaom ppfom;trsm;tjym;onf uRefawmfESihf
oufwl&G,fwl rsm;jzpfMuNyD; tcsKdUwdkUonf uRefawmfhxufyif toufi,fygonf/ uRefawmfonf awmif
wGif;BuD;NrdKUwGif tajccHppfoifwef;wufa&mufcJh&ygonf/ xdkoifwef;wGif touf16ESpfatmufuav;
rsm;pG m yg0if w uf a &muf y gonf / ppf o if w ef ; ud k Nrd K Uay:wG i f w uf a &muf & aomaMumif h oif w ef ; wuf
a&muf&onfudk tvGefESpfoufcJhygonf/ aoewfrnfodkUrnfyHk ypfcwf&rnfESifh ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;rnfuJhodkU
axmif&rnfudk oifMum;cJh&ygonf/ oifwef;wufa&mufaepOf um;vrf;rsm;jyifqifjcif;ESifh pyg;pdkufysKd;
jcif;rsm;wGif vkyftm;ay;vkyfudkif&ygonf/ oifwef;wGif oifwef;q&mrsm;\ &dkufESufjcif;udkcH&Muyg
onf/ oifwef;wufa&mufaecsdefwGif oifwef;om;trsm;tjym;onf yifyef;rSK'PfrcHEdkifaomaMumifh
xGufajy;Muygonf/ oifwef;NyD;qHk;aomtcg uRefawmfonf [l;rl;'J ( Ku Mu Der ) &S d trS w f ( 13)
ajcvsifwyf&if;odkU oGm;a&mufwm0efxrf;aqmif&ygonf/ xdkwyfwGif touf16^17ESpft&G,fuav;
i,frsm;pGm ppfrSKxrf;aeMuygonf/ ppfom;rsm;onf iSufzsm;ESihf0rf;a&m*gaMumihf aoqHk;Mu&ygonf/
uRefawmfonf ppfpcef;wGifomae&NyD; a&SUwef;rxGuf&yg/ wcgw&HwGif uif;apmihftjzpfwm0ef,l&
ygonf/ uRefawmfwdkUonf pcef;ywfvnfwGif ntcsdef? ajrjr
ajrjr Kyf
Kyfrdkif;rsm;tNrJaxmifavh&SdNyD; reufcif;
wGifrljyefvnfwl;azmfxm;ygonf/ tjcm;ppfom;rsm;onf &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;ESifhtdrfarG;wd&dp mef
m efr sm;ud k
awGUjrifvQif aoewfjzifhypfygonf[k uGsefawmftm;ajymMuygonf/ rdef;uav;rsm;udk awGUjrifvQifvnf;
oem;pdwfrxm;&efajymygonf/ uRefawmfonf [l;rl;'Jpcef;odkU qeftdwfrsm;o,fydkUay;csdefwGif wyfrSxGuf
ajy;cJ h y gonf / }}
-ud k ---(usm;? 19ES p f ) ?etzwyf a jy;? awmif i l c &d k i f w G i f a wG U qH k a r;jref ; cJ h y gonf / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

uav;ppfom;rsm;toH;k jyKjcif;ESihf ywfouf etztpd;k &tm; Edik if w


H umrSa0zefjypfwifvmaomtcg
ppftpd;k &onf 2004ckEpS f tapmydik ;f wGif t&G,rf a&mufao;oluav;ppfom;rsm;udk ppfwyfoUkd twif;
t"r0ifa&mufppfrKS xrf;apjcif;udk wm;qD;umuG,&f efaumfrwDwpf&yfuzkd UJG pnf;cJyh gonf/ odUk aomf tqdk
ygaumfrwDonf uav;i,frsm;tm;wyfom;opftjzpfpak qmif;jcif;udk wm;qD;umuG,&f rnft
h pm; wyfr
awmf\vkyyf ikd cf iG u
hf t
kd oH;k csNy;D ppfwyfonf uav;ppfom;rsm;udt
k oH;k rjyKaMumif;jiif;qd
k jrefrmEdik if o
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125
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125

"Myanmar still facing unjust accusations of child soldiers as only slanders and falsehood reach UN," New Light of Myanmar, February 4th 2005. Accessed at http://
www.myanmar. gov.mm/NLM-2005/Feb05/enlm/Feb04_h3.html on February 22nd, 2008.

157

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126
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cGifh ta&;tzGJUESiahf wGUqHak r;jref;rSKt& uk-d -- \ajymqdk
csurf sm;udk atmufwiG af zmfjyxm;ygonf/127
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("gwfyHk-u&ifvlYtcGifhta&;tzGJU)
126

For more infformation see, Abuse Under Orders: The SPDC and DKBA Armies Through
the Eyes of their Soldiers, KHRG, March 2001.
127
For more information on this child soldiers case, see Interview with an SPDC Child
Soldier, KHRG, April 2006.

158

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ajcjref w yf & if ; od k U ppf o m;tjzpf t rS K xrf ; &ef apvT w f c J h y gonf / 4if ; wd k U rS m uRef a wmf ? armif - --? aZmf - -?aZmf---? 0if; ---? wif---ESifh atmif---wdkU jzpfMuygonf/ 7a,mufxJ wGif aZmf---? 0if;---ESifh uRefawmf
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159

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160

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128

KHRG reported this incident in State repression and the creation of poverty in southern Karen State, February 2007.[0][0]

163

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129

For more information on the systematic use of convict porters see Less than Human:
Convict Porters in the 2005-2006 Northern Karen State Offensive, KHRG, August 2006.

164

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130

For more information on this incident see The Compounding Consequences of DKBA
Oppression: Abuse, povery and food insecurity in Thaton District, KHRG, July 2007.

165

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166

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131

For more information on this incident see Child soldiers recruited to support expansion of the KNU-KNLA Peace Council, KHRG, May 2007.

167

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2007)

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-apm---(usm;? 35ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

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168

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wyfom;opf&mS azGpak qmif;jcif;rl0g'ESihf ywfouf atmufygtwdik ;f u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ tm;
ajymjycJyh gonf/
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pkaqmif;vufcH&mwGif uav;i,frsm;udk vufrcH&efESifhrpkaqmif;&ef KNLA odkU trdefUxkwfjyefxm;yg
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apmifhMuyfaponf/ txufazmfjyygtcsufrsm;onf uREkfyfwdkU\ rl0g'rsm;jzpfygonf/}}133

KNLA \ w&m;0ifwyfom;pkaqmif;jcif; rl0g't& KNLA wyfzUJG onf rdom;pkwpfpw


k iG f t&G,f

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wGi;f odUk twif;tMuyf0ifa&mufapaMumif; u&ifvUl tcGit
hf a&;tzGUJ rSowif;&&Syd gonf/
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uRefrwdkU\tarESifhajymqkdMuygonf/ uRefr\tarrScGifhjyKaomfvnf; tpfudkrSmrlppfwyfxJodkUr0ifvdkay/
rdom;pkwpfpkwGifom;a,musfm;2OD;^3OD; &dSvQif 1 OD;onf KNLA wyfzGJUodkU0ifa&muf&ygonf/}}
-aemf - --(r? 13ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

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ynmoif,lapygonf/ wpfcgwpf&H KNLA wyfzGJUonf 4if;wdkU?ppfom;OD;a&enf;ygu &yf&Gm&Sd rdrd&Gmudk
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vnf; jy
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jy
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onf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 18ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

132

Sold to be Soldiers: The Recruitment and Use of Child Soldiers in Burma, Human
Rights Watch, October 2007, Appendix E.
133
KHRG interview with Pado Mahn Sha (former KNU General Secretary 1) and David
Thackarbaw (KNU General Secretary 2) on August 7th 2007.

169

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---&GG m ? zmyG e f c &d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

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td y f p uf M u&aomaMumif h j zpf y gonf / }}
-apm---(usm;? 17ES p f ) ? ---&
---&GG m ? anmif a v;yif c &d k i f / (azaz:0g&D v 2007)

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apm---(usm;? 12ES p f ) ? ---&G m ? rd b rJ h a bmf ' g? ---&G m ? zmyG e f
c&d k i f / (rwf v 2007)

170

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awmf h r S m KNUtzGJUodkY0ifa&mufcJhaomaMumifh KNUacgif ; aqmif r sm;rS a usmif ; aeapygonf / }}
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]]tcsKdU&Gmom;rsm;onf touf16ESpfjynfhaomtcg KNLA wyfzGJUodkU0ifa&mufMuygonf/ xdktcg KNLA
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tcsKdUuav;i,frsm;onf KNLA wyfzGJUrsm;wGif ppfrSKxrf;jcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; KNU \vuf&Hk;


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171

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KNU rS 4if;wdUk KNLA wyfzUJG wGif toufrjynfah o;ol?uav;i,frsm;udk wyfom;opftjzpfvufcH

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134
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8/ upm;ckefpm;jyKjcif;
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134

KHRG interview with Pado Mahn Sha (former KNU General Secretary 1) and David
Thackarbaw (KNU General Secretary 2) on August 7th 2007.

172

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-America Academy of Pediatrics Climical \ tpD&ifcHpm (Zefe0g&D 2007)135

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xm;jcif ; jzpf y gonf / (2006 ck E S p f ) 138

135

Kinsburg, K. et al. (2007). "The importance of play in promoting healthy child develop-ment and maintaining strong parent-child bonds", Pediatrics 119(1): 182-191, p.182
136
For more information, see the following texts, in addition to the above clinical report:
Brain, C. and Mukherji, P.(2005), Understanding Child Psychology, published by Nelson
Thornes andd Packer Isenburg, J and Quisenberry, N (2002), Play: Essential for all
Children, Association for Childhood Education International, accessed at http://
www.acei.org/playpaper.htm on April 4th 2008.
137
Convention on the Rights of the Child, Article 31(1). Accessed at http://www.unhchr.ch/
html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm on April 4th 2008.
138
Smith, P. and Biggins, R. (2006), The Trouble with 21st Century Kids, SPI Play. Accessed at http://www.api-play.org/upload/documents/documents56.pdf on April 4th 2008.

173

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139

See order document #23 in Shouldering the burden of militarisation: SPDC, DKBA
and KPF order document and forced labour since September 2006, KHRG, August 2007,
p50.

174

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175

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176

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178

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9/

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140

''Myanmar: IRC denounces major and repeated violations of international humanitarian


law," International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), June 2007. Accessed at http://
www.icrc.org/web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/myanmar-news-290607 on March 10th 2007.

179

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141

Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, available online at http://www.unhchr.ch/


html/menu3/b/k2crc.htm.
142
Myanmar's Second Submission to the Committee on the Rights of the Child, United
Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child, June 2002, p.14. Accessed at http://
www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/385c2add1632f4a8c12565a9004dc311/357a104dd2a3
7d04c1256e0c0037e59a/$FILE/G0344866.pdf on March 4th, 2007.
143
See Chapter VI on violent abuses above.

180

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181

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ygonf/
144

'Declarations and Reservations,' United Nations Treaty Collection, October 2001. Accessed at http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/treaty15_asp.htm on March 4th 2008.
145
"Child Rights Day celebrated in Myanmar," UNICEF Media Centre, November 20th
2004. Accessed at http://www.unicef.org/myanmar/media_1575.html on August 29th 2007.

182

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f wGi;f ppfwyfrsm;rSppfAv
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d kd apmifMh unfNh y;D
csKd ;azmuforl sm;udk tjypfp&D ifcahJ Mumif;az:jyxm;ygonf/ odaYk omf etz tpd;k &\vkyaf qmifcsurf sm;onf
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148

Developments concerning the question of thee observance by the Government of


Myanmar of the Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29), GB.301/6/2, ILO, March
2008. p.12-14. Accessed at http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/--relconf/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_091341.pdf on April 6th 2008.
146
Forced Labour Convention (ILO Convention 29), 1930. Available at http://www.unhchr.
ch/html/menu3/b/31.htm.
147
"ILO says forced labour increasing in the military," Democratic Voice of Burma, March
3rd 2008. Accessed at http://english.dvb.no/textonly/news.php?id=1017 on March 6th 2008.

183

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150
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ponfwjYkd zpfygonf/

149

For more in-depth analysis of the limitations of the ILO mechanism, see The limits of
the new ILO mechanism and potential mesrepresentation of forced labour in Burma,
KHRG, April 2007.
150
"Security Council Establishes Monitoring, Reporting Mechanism on use of Child
Soldiers, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1612(2005)," Press Release, UN Security
Council, July 26th 2005. Accessed at http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/
sc8458.doc.htm on March 6th 2008.
151
Resolution 1612 (2005), UN Security Council, July 26th 2005. Accessed at http://
nepal. ohchr.org/en/resources/Documents/English/children/03.%20SC%20
Res%201612% 20(2005)%20Eng.pdf on March 6th 2007.

184

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152

Un Security Council establishes monitoring and reporting system to protect children


affected by armed conflict, UN Security Council Press Release, July 2005. Accessed at
http://www.un.org/children/conflict/pr/2005-07-05118.html on March 6th 22007.
153
"Press Conference of the Special Representative," Office of the Special Representative of the Secretary General for Children and Armed Conflict, June 29th 2007. Accessed at http://www.un.org/children/conflict/pr/2007-06-29161.html on March 6th 2007.

185

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186

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154

Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War.
Geneva, 12 August 1949. Available at http://www.icrc.org/ihl.nsf/FULL/
380?OpenDocume nt.

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"Entire Mon State and most areas of Kayin State are peaceful, tranquil Residential
people there are enjoying fruitful results of development endeavours," SPDC Press Conference, June 2006. Accessed at http://www.myanmar.com/press_conference/2006/116a.html on April 6th 2008.

188

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