# EJERCICIOS DE FACTORIZACIÓN.

a) 3x3 y2 + 9x2 y2 – 18xy2
=> 3x3 y2 + 9x2 y2 – 18xy2 = 3xy2 (x2 + 3x – 6)
b) a (m – 1) + b (m – 1) – c (m – 1)
a (m – 1) + b (m – 1) – c (m – 1) = (m – 1) (a + b – c)
c) 2av2 + 3u3 + 2auv – 3uv2 – 2au2 – 3u2 v
2av2 + 3u3 + 2auv – 3uv2 – 2au2 – 3u2 v
= (2av2 – 3uv2) – (2au2 – 3u3) + (2auv – 3u2 v) (se factoriza cada grupo)
= v2 (2a – 3u) – u2 (2a – 3u) + u v (2a – 3u) (aparece un nuevo factor común)
= (2a – 3u) (v2 – u2 + u v) (se completa la factorización). Entonces,
2av2 + 3u3 + 2auv – 3uv2 – 2au2 – 3u2 v = (2a – 3u) (v2 – u2 + u v)
d) 9x2 – 36xy + 36y2
9x2 – 36xy + 36y2 = (3x – 6y)2

3x
6y
2(3x)(6y)
e) 9x2 – 4y4
9x2 – 4y4 = (3x + 2y2) (3x – 2y2)

3x 2y2
f) (a + b – 1)2 – (a – b + 1)2
(a + b – 1)2 – (a – b + 1)2 = [(a + b – 1) + (a – b + 1)] [(a + b – 1) – (a – b + 1)]
= [a + b – 1 + a – b + 1] [a + b – 1 – a + b – 1]
= [2a] [2b – 2] = 2 a. 2 (b – 1) = 4 a (b – 1)
(a + b – 1)2 – (a – b + 1)2 = 4 a (b – 1)

g)

125 a3 + 8b3

125 a3 + 8b3 = (5a)3 + (2b)3 = (5a + 2b) [(5a)2 – (5a) (2b) + (2b)2]
= (5a + 2b) (25a2 – 10a b + 4b2)

h) (x – 1)3 – (1 – x)3 Solución: Se trata de una diferencia de dos cubos.3my + 7az – 7mz m(x + 2) – x – 2 + 3(x + 2) = a(17x +3y +7z) . (x – 1)3 – (1 – x)3 = [(x – 1) – (1 – x)] [(x – 1)2 + (x – 1) (1 – x) + (1 – x)2] desarrollando: = [x – 1 – 1 + x] [x2 – 2x + 1 + x – x2 – 1 + x + 1 – 2x + x2] Simplificando: = [2x – 2] [–2x + 2x + 1 – 2x + x2] factorizando y simplificando: = 2 (x – 1) (x2 – 2x + 1) = 2 (x – 1) (x – 1)2. entonces. por lo que se aplica: a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + a b + b2).m(17x + 3y +7z) = (17x +3y +7z)(a – m) = (x + 2)(m + 3) -1(x + 2) = (x + 2)[(m + 3) – 1] = (x + 2)(m + 3 – 1) Otra forma de hacerlo m(x + 2) – x – 2 + 3(x + 2) = m(x + 2) -1(x + 2) + 3(x + 2) = (x + 2)(m + 3 -1) . Entonces. (x – 1)3 – (1 – x)3 = 2 (x – 1)3 l) 3x2 – 5x – 2 Ejemplos: Encontrar el factor común de los siguientes términos: 17ax – 17mx + 3ay .