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RESERVIOR DRIVE MECHANISM.

PRESENTED BY

okoh oluchi idam

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION. NATURAL PRIMARY

DRIVES.

DRIVES.
DRIVES.

SECONDRY TERTIARY

DRIVES.

CONCLUSION.

INTRODUCTION

Reservoir drive is the force that causes hydrocarbon to flow out of the reservoir rock into the wellbore and up to the surface. Most petroleum reservoirs flow unassisted for at least the first part of the reservoir productive life. this natural drive is used up, production can continue only by artificial lift or by reservoir flooding, either of which may be prohibitively

If

DRIVE MECHANISMS.
Primary drive mechanisms. Secondary drive mechanisms.

Primary Drive Mechanisms.

This is the first stage of hydrocarbon production, in which natural reservoir energy, such as;

Gas drive, water drive or gravity drainage, displaces hydrocarbons from the reservoir, into the wellbore and up to surface.

Initially, the reservoir pressure is considerably higher than the bottom hole pressure inside the wellbore. This high natural differential pressure drives hydrocarbons toward the well and up to surface.

However, as the reservoir pressure declines because of production, so does the differential pressure.

TYPES OF PRIMARY DRIVES.

Reservoir-drive mechanisms include;

gas

drive (gas cap or solution gas drive). water drive (bottom water drive or edge water drive).

combination drive, and gravity

Gas cap drive; The gas that accumulates in the upper portions of a reservoir where the pressure, temperature and fluid characteristics are conducive to free gas.

The energy provided by the expansion of the gas cap provides the primary drive mechanism for oil recovery in such circumstances.

Gas cap drive reservoir

Solution gas drive: A type of reservoir-drive mechanism in which the energy for the transport and production of reservoir fluids is provided by the gas dissolved in the liquid.

As reservoir fluids enter the wellbore, changing pressure conditions cause the gas to break from solution to create a commingled flow of gas and liquid that aids production.

Solution gas drive reservoir

Water drive; A primary recovery mechanism in which the pressure from free water is sufficient to move hydrocarbons out of the reservoir, into the wellbore and up to surface.
Water

drive reservoirs can have bottom water drive or edge water drive.

In a bottom water-drive reservoir, water is located beneath the oil accumulation, while in an edge water-drive reservoir, water is located only on the edges of the reservoir.

Water drive reservoir

gravity drainage; The least common primary recovery mechanism in which the force of gravity pushes hydrocarbons out of the reservoir, into the wellbore and up to surface.
Gravity

force is always present in the reservoir, but its effect is greater in thick gas-condensate reservoirs and in shallow, highly permeable, steeply dipping reservoirs.

SECONDARY RECOVERY

The second stage of hydrocarbon production during which an external fluid such as; Water or gas is injected into the reservoir through injection wells located in rock that has fluid communication with production wells. The purpose of secondary recovery is to maintain reservoir pressure and to displace hydrocarbons toward the wellbore.

The most common secondary recovery techniques are gas injection and water flooding.
Normally, gas is injected into the gas cap and water is injected into the production zone to sweep oil from the reservoir. A pressure-maintenance program can begin during the primary recovery stage, but it is a form or enhanced recovery.

TERTIARY DRIVES.

An oil recovery enhancement method using sophisticated techniques that alter the original properties of oil. Once ranked as a third stage of oil recovery that was carried out after secondary recovery, the techniques employed during enhanced oil recovery can actually be initiated at any time during the productive life of an oil reservoir.

The three major types of enhanced oil recovery operations are;


chemical flooding (alkaline flooding or micellar-polymer flooding). miscible displacement (carbon dioxide [CO2] injection or hydrocarbon injection). thermal recovery (steam flood or in-situ combustion).

The

optimal application of each type depends on reservoir temperature, pressure, depth, net pay, permeability, residual oil and water saturations, porosity and fluid properties.

CONCLUSION.
In

conclusion, reservoir drive mechanisms are forces necessary for the flow of hydrocarbons from the reservoir rocks to the surface.

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