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Lin Hip Quc hay Lin Hp Quc (tn gi xut x t ting Hn /), vit tt l LHQ l mt t chc quc t c mc ch duy

tr ha bnh v an ninh trn th gii, pht trin cc mi quan h hu ngh gia cc dn tc v tin hnh hp tc quc t gia cc nc trn c s tn trng nguyn tc bnh ng v quyn t quyt ca cc dn tc. Hin nay, Lin Hip Quc c 192 thnh vin, bao gm phn ln cc quc gia c ch quyn trn Tri t. Lin Hip Quc s dng 6 ngn ng chnh thc: ting Rp, ting Trung, ting Anh, ting Php, ting Nga v ting Ty Ban Nha. T tr s trong lnh phn quc t ti thnh ph New York, Lin Hip Quc v cc c quan chuyn mn ca n quyt nh cc vn v iu hnh v lut l.Theo hin chng LHQ th t chc ny gm 6 c quan chnh, ch yu gm: i hi ng, Hi ng Bo An, Hi ng kinh t v x hi, Ban th k, Ta n Quc t v Cng l,Hi ng Qun thc. Ngoi ra, mt s t chc tin hnh qun l cc c quan ca H thng Lin Hip Quc, v d nh T chc Y t Th gii (WHO) v Qu Nhi ng Lin Hip Quc (UNICEF). Nhn vt i din tiu biu nht ca Lin Hip Quc l Tng th k, ng nhim l Ban Ki-moon, ngi Hn Quc. Lin Hip Quc c ti tr bng cc khon ng gp t nguyn v c kim sot t cc nc thnh vi

Lch s hnh thnh


Tr s Lin Hip Quc trong lnh phn quc t ti Manhattan, Thnh ph New York... Tin thn ca Lin Hip Quc l Hi Quc Lin (League of Nations), vn l mt sng kin ca Tng thng Hoa K Woodrow Wilson sau chin tranh th gii th nht. Hoa K tuy sng lp nhng li khng chnh thc lm hi vin, hn th quy ch hot ng ca hi li lng lo, cc cng quc nh Vng quc Lin hip Anh v Bc Ireland, Php, Nga, c, , Nht Bn tham gia vn ch tranh ginh nh hng cho mnh. D hi t c mt s thnh tu ng k trong cng cuc gii phng ph n cng nh nhng hot ng nhn o nhng chin tranh th gii th hai bng n v buc Hi quc lin phi gii tn. Sau Th chin th hai, cc nc Khi ng Minh v nhn dn th gii c nguyn vng gi gn ha bnh v ngn chn cc cuc chin tranh th gii mi. Ti Hi ngh Yalta, nguyn th ba nc Lin X, M, Anh thng nht thnh lp t chc quc t gi gn ha bnh v an ninh th gii. Trn c s Hi ngh Durbarton Oaks Washington, D.C., t 25 thng 4 n 26 thng 6 nm 1945, i din ca 50 quc gia hp ti San Francisco, California, Hoa K thng qua Hin chng Lin Hip Quc. Ngy 24 thng 10 nm 1945, Lin Hip Quc chnh thc c thnh lp. Tuy vy, i Hi ng Lin Hip Quc (General Assembly) u tin, tham d bi 51 nc, khng c t chc cho mi n ngy 10 thng 1 nm 1946 (ti Nh hp chnh Westminster Lun n). "Mt s nghip v i t n c Cha ton nng..." Tng thng M Harry S. Truman ni nh vy v thnh tu ca hi ngh ti San Francisco, mt hi ngh gp phn vo vic son tho bn Hin chng Lin Hp Quc nm 1945. Cu ni ca tng thng Truman i din cho hng triu ngi, nhng ngi tin rng t chc mi ny s lm cho nhng cuc chin tranh th gii li su vo d vng. Li ta ca bn Hin chng nu r mc ch ca t chc ny: "Chng ti, nhng dn tc ca Lin Hp Quc, quyt tm cu nhng th h mai sau khi thm ha chin tranh...". Ti nm 2006 c 192 quc gia thnh vin Lin Hip Quc, gm tt c cc quc gia c lp c th gii cng nhn. Trong s nhng nc khng phi thnh vin, ng ch nht l Trung Hoa Dn Quc (i Loan), gh ca h ti Lin Hip Quc c chuyn giao cho Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa nm 1971; Ta Thnh (thc th qun l Thnh Vatican), vn t b quy ch thnh vin nhng vn l mt quc gia quan st vin; Nh nc Palestine (l mt quan st vin cng vi Chnh quyn Quc gia Palestine). Hn na, nhng dn tc di ch quyn nc ngoi v cc quc gia khng c cng nhn cng khng hin din ti Lin Hip Quc, nh Transnistria. Thnh vin mi nht ca Lin Hip Quc l Montenegro, chnh thc gia nhp ngy 28 thng 6 nm 2006.

Lin Hip Quc vch ra cc nguyn tc c bn cho t cch thnh vin: 1. T cch thnh vin ca Lin Hip Quc m rng cho tt c cc quc gia yu chung ha bnh v chu chp nhn cc nguyn tc c t ra trong Hin chng hin thi v trong cc phn quyt ca T chc, c th v sn sng thc thi nhng nguyn tc . 2. S thu nhn mt quc gia nh th vo Lin Hip Quc s b nh hng bi quyt nh ca i hi ng Lin Hip Quc vi s gii thiu ca Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc. Hin chng Lin Hip Quc, Chng 2, Phn 4, http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/ To nh tr s Lin Hip Quc hin nay c xy dng trn mt khu t rng 16 acre ti Thnh ph New York trong giai on t nm 1949 ti 1950, bn cnh Khu pha ng ca thnh ph. Khu t ny c John D. Rockefeller, Jr. mua vi gi 8.5 triu dollar, con trai ng Nelson l nh thng thuyt ch yu vi chuyn vin thit k William Zeckendorf, vo thng 12 nm 1946. Sau John D. Rockefeller, Jr. tng khu t ny cho Lin Hip Quc. Tr s c mt i cc kin trc s quc t gm c Le Corbusier (Thu S), Oscar Niemeyer (Brasil) v i din t nhiu nc khc thit k. Wallace K. Harrison, mt c vn ca Nelson Rockefeller, lnh o i. xy ra mt v rc ri gia nhng ngi tham gia v thm quyn ca tng ngi. Tr s Lin Hip Quc chnh thc m ca ngy 9 thng 1 nm 1951. Tr s chnh ca Lin Hip Quc nm ti New York, tr s mt s c quan khc ca t chc ny nm ti Geneva, La Hay, Wien, Montral, Copenhagen, Bonn v nhiu ni khc. a ch tr s Lin Hip Quc l 760 United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017, USA. V nhng l do an ninh, tt c th t gi ti a ch trn u c tit trng.[1] Cc ta nh Lin Hip Quc u khng c coi l cc khu vc ti phn chnh tr ring bit,[cn dn ngun] nhng thc s c mt s quyn ch quyn. V d, theo nhng tha thun vi cc nc ch nh C quan qun l th tn Lin Hip Quc c php in tem th gi th tn trong nc . T nm 1951 vn phng ti New York, t nm 1969 vn phng ti Geneva, v t nm 1979 vn phng ti Wien in n tem ring ca mnh. Cc t chc ca Lin Hip Quc cng s dng tin t vin thng ring, 4U, v v mt khng chnh thc, cc tr s ti New York, Geneva v Wien c coi l cc thc th ring bit i vi cc mc ch radio khng chuyn. Bi tr s chnh ca Lin Hip Quc tri qua mt qu trnh s dng kh di, Lin Hip Quc hin ang trong qu trnh xy dng mt tr s tm do Fumihiko Maki thit k trn i l th nht gia Ph 41 v Ph 42 dng tm khi cng trnh hin nay ang c tu sa.[2] Trc nm 1949, Lin Hip Quc s dng nhiu a im ti London v tiu bang New York.[3]

[sa] Ti chnh
Lin Hip Quc hot ng nh tin ng gp v tin quyn t nguyn t cc quc gia thnh vin. Nhng ngn sch chnh thc hai nm ca Lin Hip Quc v cc t chc chuyn bit ca h ly t nhng khon ng gp. i hi ng thng qua ngn sch chnh thc v quyt nh khon ng gp ca mi quc gia thnh vin. iu ny da ch yu trn nng lc chi tr ca mi nc, tnh theo nhng s liu thng k thu nhp cng vi nhng yu t khc. i hi ng a ra nguyn tc rng Lin Hip Quc s khng qu ph thuc vo bt k mt quc gia thnh vin no trong lnh vc ti chnh cn thit cho nhng hot ng ca mnh. V th, c mt mc "trn", quy nh khon tin ti a mt nc c th ng gp cho ngn sch. Thng 12 nm 2000, i hi ng sa i t l ng gp phn nh chnh xc hn cc din th gii hin ti. Nh mt phn ca s sa i ny, trn ng gp c gim t 25% xung 22%. Hoa K l quc gia duy nht ng gp mc trn, nhng nhng khon tin h cn thiu ln ti hng trm triu dollar (xem

Hoa K v Lin Hip Quc). Theo mc ng gp mi c thng qua nm 2000, cc nc ng gp ln khc vo ngn sch Lin Hip Quc nm 2001 l Nht Bn (19.63%), c (9.82%), Php (6.50%), Anh (5.57%), (5.09%), Canada (2.57%), Ty Ban Nha (2.53%) v Brasil (2.39%).[4] Cc chng trnh c bit ca Lin Hip Quc khng c tnh vo ngn sch chnh thc ca t chc ny (v d nh UNICEF v Chng trnh Pht trin Lin Hip Quc (UNDP)), chng hot ng nh nhng khon quyn gp t nguyn t cc chnh ph thnh vin. Mt s cc khon ng gp di hnh thc cc loi thc phm nng nghip vin tr cho nhng ngi b nh hng, nhng ch yu vn l tin mt.

[sa] Ngn ng
Lin Hip Quc s dng su ngn ng chnh thc: ting Rp, ting Hoa, ting Anh, ting Php, ting Nga v ting Ty Ban Nha[5]. Ban th k s dng hai ngn ng lm vic: (ting Anh v ting Php). Khi Lin Hip Quc c thnh lp, bn ngn ng chnh thc c la chn l: ting Anh, ting Trung, ting Php v ting Nga. Ting Rp v ting Ty Ban Nha c a vo thm nm 1973. Hin c nhng tranh ci tri chiu v vic liu c nn gim bt s lng ngn ng chnh thc (v d ch gi li ting Anh) hay nn tng thm con s ny.[cn dn ngun] p lc i a thm ting Hindi thnh ngn ng chnh thc ang ngy cng gia tng.[cn dn ngun] Nm 2001, cc nc ni ting Ty Ban Nha phn nn rng ting Ty Ban Nha khng c t cch ngang bng so vi ting Anh[6]. Nhng n lc chng li s tt gim v th ca ting Php trong t chc ny cng rt to ln[7]; v th tt c cc Tng th k Lin Hip Quc u phi bit dng ting Php v r rng vic Tng th k mi Ban Ki-Moon gp kh khn c th ni tri chy ngn ng ny trong bui hp bo u tin ca ng [8] b mt s ngi coi l mt s mt im [9]. Tiu chun ca Lin Hip Quc i vi cc ti liu bng ting Anh (Hng dn xut bn Lin Hip Quc) tun theo quy tc ca ting Anh. Lin Hip Quc v tt c cc t chc khc l mt phn ca h thng Lin Hip Quc s dng phng php nh vn Oxford. Tiu chun ca Lin Hip Quc v ting Hoa (Quan thoi) thay i khi Trung Hoa Dn Quc (i Loan) phi nhng gh cho Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa nm 1971. T nm 1945 n 1971 kiu ch phn th c s dng, v t nm 1971 kiu ch gin th thay th. Trong s cc ngn ng chnh thc ca Lin Hip Quc, ting Anh l ngn ng chnh thc ca 52 quc gia thnh vin, ting Php ca 29 thnh vin, ting Rp l 24, ting Ty Ban Nha l 20, ting Nga ti 4 v ting Trung Quc ti 2 nc. Ting B o Nha v ting c l nhng ngn ng c s dng kh nhiu nc thnh vin Lin Hip Quc (8 v 6) nhng li khng phi l ngn ng chnh thc ca t chc ny.

[sa] Cc mc ch v hot ng
[sa] Cc mc ch ca Lin Hip Quc
Nhng mc ch c nu ra ca Lin Hip Quc l ngn chn chin tranh, bo v nhn quyn, cung cp mt c cu cho lut php quc t, v tng cng tin b kinh t, x hi, ci thin cc iu kin sng v chng li bnh tt. [10] Lin Hip Quc to c hi cho cc quc gia nhm t ti s cn bng trong s ph thuc ln nhau trn bnh din th gii v gii quyt cc vn quc t. Nhm mc ch , Lin Hip Quc ph chun mt Tuyn ngn Chung v Nhn Quyn nm 1948. [11]

[sa] Cc hi ngh quc t


Cc quc gia Lin Hip Quc v cc c quan c bit ca n "nhng stakeholder" ca h thng a ra hng dn v quyt nh v nhng vn ln v vn hnh chnh trong nhng cuc gp thng l c t chc sut nm. Cc c cu qun l c hnh thnh t cc quc gia thnh vin, khng ch gm i hi ng, Hi ng Kinh t X hi v Hi

ng Bo an, m cn c cc c cu tng ng chu trch nhim qun l tt c cc c quan khc ca H thng Lin Hip Quc. V d i hi ng Y t v Ban Chp hnh qun l cng vic ca T chc Y t Th gii. Khi mt vn c coi l c tm quan trng c bit, i hi ng c th triu tp mt phin hp c bit tp trung s ch ton cu v xy dng mt phng hng hnh ng chung. Nhng v d gn y gm:

Tr s Lin Hip Quc Chu u ti Geneva, Thu S

Hi tho Lin Hip Quc v Mi trng v Pht trin (Thng nh Tri t) ti Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, thng 6 nm 1992, dn ti s thnh lp U ban Lin Hip Quc v s Pht trin Bn vng nhm thc hin nhng iu c k kt ti Chng trnh ngh s 21, vn bn cui cng v nhng tha thun c cc chnh ph tho lun ti UNCED; Hi ngh Quc t v Dn s v Pht trin, c t chc ti Cairo, Ai Cp, vo thng 9 nm 1994, thng qua mt chng trnh hnh ng nhm gii quyt cc thch thc nguy ngp v mi quan h lin quan gia dn s v s pht trin bn vng trong vng 20 nm ti; Hi ngh Th gii ln th t v Ph n, c t chc ti Bc Kinh, Trung Quc, vo thng 9 nm 1995, tm cch y nhanh vic thc hin nhng tha thun lch s t c ti Hi ngh Th gii ln th ba v Ph n; Hi ngh Lin Hip Quc ln th hai v S nh c Loi ngi (Habitat II), c triu tp thng 6 nm 1996 ti Istanbul, Th Nh K, nh gi nhng thch thc trc s pht trin v qun l nh c loi ngi trong th k 21. ICARA 2 or ICARA II: Hi ngh Quc t v s H tr Ngi t nn ti chu Phi c thnh lp nm 1984.

[sa] Nhng nm quc t v nhng vn lin quan


Bi chi tit: Nm quc t Lin Hip Quc Lin Hip Quc tuyn b v iu phi "Nm quc t..." nhm tp trung s ch ca th gii vo cc vn quan trng. S dng hnh tng Lin Hip Quc, mt logo c thit k c bit cho nm , v c s h tng ca H thng Lin Hip Quc nhm phi hp cc s kin trn khp th gii, nhiu nm tr thnh im xc tc cho nhng vn quan trng trn phm vi th gii.

i s thin ch UNESCO Di sn vn ha th gii UNESCO i s thin ch UNHCR Thnh ph Lin Hip Quc v ha bnh

[sa] Mc tiu kim sot v gii gip v kh


Hin chng nm 1945 ca Lin Hip Quc d nh a ra mt h thng quy nh s m bo "s chi tiu nh nht cc ngun ti nguyn con ngi v kinh t th gii cho v kh". Pht minh ra cc loi v kh ht nhn xy ra ch vi tun sau khi Hin chng c k kt v ngay lp tc thc y tng hn ch v gii gip v kh. Trn thc t, ngh quyt u

tin ca phin hp u tin ca i hi ng (ngy 24 thng 1 nm 1946) c tiu "S thnh lp mt y ban gii quyt cc Vn Pht sinh do s Pht minh ra Nng lng Nguyn t" v ku gi a ra nhng xut khoa hc cho "s hn ch trang b cc loi v kh nguyn t v tt c cc loi v kh chnh khc vi mc ch hy dit hng lot". Lin Hip Quc lp ra nhiu din n nhm gii quyt cc vn gii gip v kh a bin. Cc din n chnh l y ban Th nht ca i hi ng v Cao y v Gii gip v kh Lin Hip Quc. Nhng vn c a vo chng trnh ngh s gm vic c tnh nhng gi tr c c sau nhng hip c cm th ht nhn, kim sot v kh khng gian, nhng n lc nhm ngn chn cc loi v kh ha hc, gii gip v kh ht nhn v v kh thng thng, nhng khu vc khng v kh ht nhn, gim bt ngn sch qun s, v cc bin php nhm tng cng an ninh quc t. Hi ngh Gii gip l mt din n c cng ng th gii lp ra m phn v cc tha thun kim sot v kh a bn v gii gip v kh. Din n c 66 thnh vin i din cho mi khu vc trn th gii, gm c nm quc gia ht nhn chnh (Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa, Php, Nga, Anh Quc v Hoa K). Tuy hi ngh khng phi l mt t chc chnh thc ca Lin Hip Quc, n kt ni vi t chc ny thng qua s hin din c nhn ca Tng th k; ngi ng thi cng l tng th k ca hi ngh. Nhng ngh quyt c i hi ng thng qua thng yu cu hi ngh xem xt cc vn gii gip ring bit. i li, hng nm hi ngh thng bo cc hot ng ca mnh cho i hi ng.

[sa] Gi gn ha bnh
xts

Bi chi tit: Gn gi ha bnh v Danh sch cc S mnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc Lnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc c gi ti nhiu vng ni cc cuc xung t qun s mi chm dt, nhm buc cc bn tn trng cc tha thun ha bnh v ngn chn tnh trng th ch ti din, v d ti ng Timor cho ti khi nc ny ginh c lp nm 2001. Cc lc lng do cc quc gia thnh vin Lin Hip Quc ng gp, v vic tham d vo cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh l khng bt buc; ti nay ch c hai quc gia l Canada v B o Nha, tham gia vo tt c cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh.[cn dn ngun] Lin Hip Quc khng duy tr bt k mt lc lng qun s c lp no. Tt c cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh ca Lin Hip Quc phi c Hi ng bo an thng qua. Nhng ngi sng lp Lin Hip Quc thc s hy vng rng t chc ny s hot ng ngn chn nhng cuc xung t gia cc quc gia v cc cuc chin tranh trong tng lai. Nhng hy vng khng hon ton tr thnh hin thc. Trong thi Chin tranh Lnh (t khong nm 1945 ti nm 1991), s phn chia th gii thnh nhng phe th ch khin tha thun gn gi ha bnh rt kh c thng qua. Sau khi Chin tranh Lnh kt thc, li ti xut hin nhng li ku gi bin Lin Hip Quc tr thnh mt c quan m bo ha bnh quc t, bi hng chc nhng cuc xung t qun s vn tip tc din ra trn khp th gii. Nhng s tan v ca Lin bang X vit cng khin Hoa K c c v th thng tr ton cu duy nht, to ra nhiu thch thc mi cho Lin Hip Quc. Cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh ca Lin Hip Quc s dng ngun ti chnh t cc khon ng gp, tnh theo cng thc ng gp t l thng thng, nhng gm c nhng chi ph cng thm i vi nm thnh vin thng trc ca Hi ng bo an, nhng nc c quyn thng qua vic tin hnh nhng chin dch gn gi ha bnh . Khon thu thm ny s b p cho nhng khon ph gn gi ha bnh ca cc quc gia km pht trin. Thng 12 nm 2000, Lin Hip Quc sa i t l ng gp vo ngn sch hot ng v ngn sch gn gi ha bnh. T l ng gp cho vic gn gi ha bnh s c thay i su thng mt ln v d kin l gn 27% cho nm 2003. Hoa K d nh ng gp chi ph gn gi ha bnh mc thp ny v ang tm kim s ng h php l t pha Ngh vin nhm cho php gii ngn cc khon gp h cn n Lin Hip Quc. Cc lc lng gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc (c gi l Qun m ni xanh) nhn c Gii Nobel nm 1998 cho cng lao gi gn Ha bnh ca h. Nm 2001, Tng th k Lin Hip Quc Kofi Annan ot gii Nobel Ha bnh "v n lc cho mt th gii ha bnh v c t chc tt hn."

Lin Hip Quc c nhiu loi Huy chng Lin Hip Quc trao cho nhng thnh vin qun s tham gia vo vic gn gi cc tha thun ha bnh ca t chc ny. Huy chng u tin ra i l Huy chng Phc v Lin Hip Quc, c trao cho cc lc lng Lin Hip Quc tham gia vo cuc Chin tranh Triu Tin. Huy chng NATO cng ra i vi mc tiu nh trn v c hai loi ny u c coi l huy chng quc t ch khng phi huy chng qun s.[cn dn ngun]

[sa] Nhn quyn


Xem thm: Hip nh B sung nm 1956 ca Lin Hip Quc v vic Xa b ch N l v Cng c v Quyn tr em Vic theo ui mc tiu nhn quyn l mt l do chnh ca vic thnh lp Lin Hip Quc. S tn bo ca Th chin th hai v nn dit chng dn ti mt kt lun chung rng t chc mi ny phi hot ng ngn chn bt k mt thm kch no nh vy trong tng lai. Mt mc tiu ban u l to ra mt khung php l xem xt v hnh ng trc nhng vn v vi phm nhn quyn. Hin chng Lin Hip Quc bt buc tt c cc quc gia thnh vin phi khuyn khch "s tn trng ton din, v s tun th, nhn quyn" v tin hnh "cc hnh ng chung hay ring r" cho mc tiu . Tuyn b Chung v Nhn quyn, d khng chnh thc rng buc, c i hi ng thng qua nm 1948 nh l mt tiu chun chung hng ti i vi mi nc thnh vin. i hi ng thng cp ti cc vn nhn quyn. Ngy 15 thng 3 nm 2006 i hi ng Lin Hip Quc b phiu vi kt qu p o thay th U ban nhn quyn (Human rights Commission) bng Hi ng Nhn quyn Lin Hip Quc(Human Rights Council) [12]. Mc tiu ca n l gii quyt cc v vi phm nhn quyn. U ban nhn quyn nhiu ln b ch trch v thnh phn thnh vin ca n. [cn dn ngun] c bit, chnh nhiu nc thnh vin ca c quan ny cng c thnh tch nhn quyn km ci, gm c nhng nc c i din c bu lm ch tch y ban.[cn dn ngun] Hin c by C cu hip c nhn quyn lin quan ti Lin Hip Quc, gm y ban Nhn quyn Lin Hip Quc v y ban v S hn ch v Ngn chn bo hnh chng Ph n. Ban th k ca su (tr y ban Hn ch v ngn chn bo hnh chng ph n) u do vn phng Cao y nhn quyn Lin Hip Quc iu hnh. Lin Hip Quc v cc c quan ca mnh l nhn t ch cht thc y v p dng cc nguyn tc thing ling trong Tuyn b Chung v Nhn quyn. Mt trng hp nh th l vic Lin Hip Quc h tr cc nc ang trong qu trnh chuyn tip sang ch dn ch. H tr k thut trong vic t chc cc cuc bu c t do v cng bng, ci thin cc c cu php l, khi tho hin php, hun luyn cc nhn vin nhn quyn, v chuyn cc phong tro v trang thnh cc ng chnh tr ng gp rt ln vo qu trnh dn ch ha trn khp th gii. Lin Hip Quc gip t chc cc cuc bu c ti nhng quc gia vn c thnh tch dn ch yu km, gm c hai quc gia gn y l Afghanistan v ng Timor. Lin Hip Quc cng l mt din n h tr quyn ph n tham gia y vo i sng chnh tr, kinh t v x hi ca t nc h. Lin Hip Quc gp phn vo vic hng s ch ca d lun vo khi nim nhn quyn thng qua cc hip c ca n v s ch ca t chc ny vo nhng v lm dng c bit thng qua cc ngh quyt ca i hi ng hay Hi ng bo an hay thng qua nhng quyt nh ca ICJ. u nm 2006, mt nhm hi tho chng tra tn ti Lin Hip Quc xut vic ng ca Nh t Vnh Guantanamo v ch trch ci gi l s s dng nhng nh t b mt v s nghi ng vic vn chuyn t nhn ti nc ngoi cho mc ch hi cung ca Hoa K.[cn dn ngun] Mt s thnh vin ng Dn ch Hoa K v cc nhm nhn quyn cho rng h thng nh t b mt ca CIA khng cho php gim st c cc v vi phm nhn quyn v hy vng chng s sm b ng ca.

[sa] H tr nhn o v Pht trin quc t


Phi hp vi cc t chc khc nh Ch thp , Lin Hip Quc cung cp thc phm, nc ung, ni c ng v cc dch v nhn o khc cho nhng ngi dn ang phi chu nn i, phi ri b nh ca v chin tranh, hay b nh hng bi cc thm ha khc. Cc c quan nhn o chnh ca Lin Hip Quc l Chng trnh Lng thc Th gii ( gip cung cp thc phm cho hn 100 triu ngi mi nm hn 80 quc gia), Cao y Lin Hip Quc v Ngi t nn hin iu hnh cc d n hn 116 nc, cng nh cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh ti hn 24 quc gia. Nhiu ln, cc nhn vin cu tr ca Lin Hip Quc tr thnh mc tiu ca cc v tn cng (xem Cc v tn cng vo nhn vin cu tr nhn o). Lin Hip Quc cng tham gia vo vic h tr pht trin, v d thng qua vic a ra Cc mc tiu Thin nin k. Chng trnh Pht trin Lin Hip Quc (UNDP) l t chc a bn ln nht tin hnh h tr k thut trn th gii. Cc t chc khc nh WHO, UNAIDS, v Qu th gii Phng chng AIDS, Lao v St rt l cc nh ch hng u trong cuc chin chng li bnh tt trn th gii, c bit ti cc nc ngho. Qu dn s Lin Hip Quc l nh cung cp chnh cc dch v sinh sn. Qu ny gip gim t l t vong b m v tr em ti 100 quc gia. Hng nm Lin Hip Quc a ra Ch s Pht trin Con ngi (HDI), mt bin php so snh xp hng quc gia theo s ngho kh, hc vn, gio dc, tui th, v cc yu t khc. Lin Hip Quc khuyn khch pht trin con ngi thng qua nhiu c quan v vn phng ca mnh:

T chc Y t Th gii (WHO) loi tr bnh u ma nm 1977 v ang tin gn ti mc tiu loi tr bnh bi lit. Ngn hng Th gii / Qu tin t Quc t (IMF) Ghi ch: Ngn hng Th gii v Qu Tin t Quc t c thnh lp vi t cch cc thc th ring bit khi Lin Hip Quc thng qua Tha thun Bretton Woods nm 1944. Sau , vo nm 1947, mt tha thun khc c k kt bin cc t chc hu Bretton Woods tr thnh cc c quan c lp, chuyn bit v l nhng c quan gim st bn trong c cu Lin Hip Quc. y l trang ca Ngn hng Th gii lm sng t quan h gia hai t chc. Chng trnh Mi trng Lin Hip Quc (UNEP) Chng trnh Pht trin Lin Hip Quc (UNDP) T chc Gio dc, Khoa hc v Vn ha Lin Hip Quc (UNESCO) Qu Tr em Lin Hip Quc(UNICEF) Cao y Lin Hip Quc v Ngi t nn (UNHCR)

Ngy 9 thng 3 nm 2006, Tng th k Kofi Annan lp ra Qu Cu tr Khn cp Trung ng (CERF) dnh cho nhng ngi dn Chu Phi ang b nn i e do.[13] Lin Hip Quc cng c mt c quan gi l Hi ng Lng thc Th gii vi mc ch phi hp cc b nng nghip cc nc nhm gim nh nn i v suy dinh dng. T chc ny tm ngng hot ng nm 1993.

[sa] Cc hip c v lut php quc t


Lin Hip Quc m phn cc hip c nh Tha c Lin Hip Quc v Lut Bin nhm trnh nhng nguy c xung t quc t tim tng. Nhng tranh ci v vic s dng cc i dng c th c phn x ti mt ta n c bit. Ta n Php l Quc t (ICJ) l ta n chnh ca Lin Hip Quc. Mc tiu ca ta n ny l phn x nhng tranh ci gia cc quc gia thnh vin. ICJ bt u hot ng nm 1946 v vn ang xem xt nhiu v vic. Cc trng hp ng ch gm:

Congo v Php, khi Cng ha Dn ch Congo co buc Php bt gi bt hp php cc cu lnh o b cho l ti phm chin tranh; v Nicaragua vi Hoa K, khi Nicaragua buc ti M trang b v kh bt hp php cho Contras (v ny dn ti V Iran-Contra). Nm 1993, i ph vi s "thanh lc sc tc" ti Nam T c, Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc thnh lp Ta n ti phm quc t cho Nam T c. Nm 1994, i ph vi nn dit chng ti Rwanda, Hi ng thnh lp Ta n ti phm quc t cho Rwanda. Vic phn x ti hai ta n thit lp nn c s xc nh hin nay rng hnh vi ti phm cng bc trong nhng cuc xung t qun s l ti c chin tranh.[14] Nm 1998 i hi ng ku gi triu tp mt hi ngh ti Roma v vic thnh lp mt Ta n Ti phm Quc t (ICC), ti y "Quy ch Roma" c thng qua. Ta n Ti phm quc t bt u hot ng nm 2002 v tin hnh phin x u tin nm 2006.[15] y l ta n quc t thng trc u tin chu trch nhim xt x nhng ngi b cho l phm cc ti c nghim trng theo lut php quc t gm c ti c chin tranh v dit chng. Tuy nhin, hot ng ca ICC c lp vi Lin Hip Quc c v nhn s v ti chnh, d mt s cuc gp g ca c quan iu hnh ICC, i hi ng cc Quc gia tham gia Quy ch Roma, c t chc ti Lin Hip Quc. C mt "tha thun quan h" gia ICC v Lin Hip Quc quy nh mi quan h gia hai nh ch ny vi nhau.
[16][17]

Nm 2002, Lin Hip Quc thnh lp Ta n c bit cho Sierra Leone i ph trc nhng hnh ng tn bo xy ra trong thi gian ni chin ti nc ny.

Cng c mt SCIU (n v iu tra nhng Ti c Nghim trng) cho ng Timor.

[sa] Nhng gng mt ni ting ca Lin Hip Quc


Nhiu c nhn theo ch ngha nhn o v ngi ni ting cng hot ng vi Lin Hip Quc, gm Amitabh Bachchan, Audrey Hepburn, Eleanor Roosevelt, Danny Kaye, Roger Moore, Peter Ustinov, Bono, Jeffrey Sachs, Angelina Jolie, M Teresa, Shakira, Jay Z v Nicole Kidman.

[sa] Ci cch
Bi chi tit: Ci cch Lin Hip Quc v Ci cch Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc Nhng nm gn y c nhiu li ku gi ci cch Lin Hip Quc. Nhng vn cha c nhiu trin vng sng sa, ch ring vic cc nc chu ng thun vi nhau, v cch ci t nh th no. Mt s nc mun Lin Hip Quc ng mt vai tr ln v hiu qu hn trong cc cng vic chung ca th gii, nhng nc khc mun gim xung ch cn vai tr nhn o. Cng c nhiu li ku gi ci cch quy ch thnh vin trong Hi ng Bo an nhm phn nh chnh xc hn tnh th a chnh tr quc t ngy nay (v d tng s thnh vin Chu Phi, Nam M v Chu ).[cn dn ngun] Nm 2004 v 2005, nhng chng c nh qun l km v tham nhng lin quan ti Chng trnh i du ly lng thc cho Iraq di thi Saddam Hussein khin mt ln na nhng li ku gi ci cch li dy ln.[cn dn ngun] Mt chng trnh ci cch chnh thc c Tng th k Lin Hip Quc Kofi Annan a ra mt thi gian ngn sau khi ng nhm chc trong nhim k u tin ngy 1 thng 1 nm 1997. Nhng hnh ng ci cch lin quan ti vic thay i s lng thnh vin thng trc ca Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc (hin ch phn nh quan h quyn lc nm 1945); bin qu trnh hot ng ca b my tr nn cng khai hn, nhn mnh trn hiu qu; bin Lin Hip Quc tr nn dn ch hn; v p t mt biu thu quc t trn cc cng ty sn xut v kh ton cu.[cn dn ngun] Thng 9 nm 2005, Lin Hip Quc triu tp mt Hi ngh Thng nh Th gii vi s tham gia ca hu ht nguyn th quc gia cc nc thnh vin, trong mt kha hp ton th ca phin hp ton th i hi ng ln th 60. Lin Hip

Quc gi cuc hp thng nh l "mt c hi hng th h mi c mt ln nhm a ra nhng quyt nh quan trng v pht trin, an ninh, nhn quyn v ci ch lin hip quc".[18] Tng th k Kofi Annan xut hi ngh ng v mt "tha thun c gi" ci cch Lin Hip Quc sa cha li cc h thng quc t v ha bnh v an ninh, nhn quyn v pht trin, khin chng c kh nng gii quyt nhng thch thc rt ln m Lin Hip Quc s phi i mt trong th k 21. Cc nh lnh o th gii ng thun trn mt vn bn v nhng vn ng ch nh:

thnh lp mt Hi ng xy dng ha bnh to lp mt c cu trung tm nhm gip cc quc gia ang ng trc nguy c xung t; tha thun rng cng ng quc t c quyn can thip khi cc chnh ph quc gia khng th hon thnh trch nhim ca h trong vic bo v cc cng dn ca mnh khi nhng hnh ng ti c; mt y ban Nhn quyn (thnh lp ngy 9 thng 5 v s bt u hot ng 19 thng 6)[19]; mt tha thun cung cp thm nhng ngun ti nguyn cho Vn phng cc Dch v Gim st Ni b Lin Hip Quc; nhiu tha thun chi thm hng t dollar nhm t cc Mc tiu Thin nin k; mt s ln n r rng v khng tham vng vi ch ngha khng b " mi hnh thc v mi kiu"; mt qu dn ch; mt tha thun nhm chm dt hot ng ca Hi ng y tr v hi ng ny hon thnh s mnh ca mnh.
[20]

D cc nc thnh vin Lin Hip Quc cha t c nhiu thnh qu trn con ng ci cch s quan liu ca t chc ny, Annan vn tip tc tin hnh nhng ci cch trong phm vi quyn hn ca mnh. ng lp ra cc vn phng o c, chu trch nhim trng pht nhng hnh vi gian ln ti chnh mi b phanh phui v xut nhng chnh sch ngn nga mi. Ti cui thng 12 nm 2005, ban th k hon thnh vic xem xt li ton b y nhim ca i hi ng t hn nm nm trc. Vic iu tra ny l c s cn bn cc quc gia thnh vin quyt nh tng hay gim cc chng trnh hot ng theo hiu qu ca chng.[cn dn ngun]

[sa] Nhng mc tiu pht trin thin nin k


Bi chi tit: Mc tiu Pht trin Thin nin k Cc mc tiu pht trin thin nin k l tm mc tiu m ton b 192 nc thnh vin Lin Hip Quc ng s hon thnh vo nm 2015. Borgen Project c tnh rng cn chi khong 40-60 t dollar mi nm t tm mc tiu trn. Tuyn b thin nin k Lin Hip Quc, c k kt thng 9 nm 2000, ha hn: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Loi tr ngho i; Hon thnh ph cp gio dc tiu hc; Khuyn khch bnh ng gii v tng quyn cho ph n; Gim t l t vong tr em; Ci thin sc khe b m; Chin u chng HIV/AIDS, st rt, v cc bnh tt khc; m bo mi trng bn vng; Khuyn khch mt mi quan h i tc pht trin quc t.

[sa] Nhng thnh cng v tht bi trong cc vn an ninh


Mt phn ln trong chi tiu ca Lin Hip Quc l gii quyt cc vn ct li v ha bnh v an ninh ca Lin Hip Quc. Ngn sch gn gi ha bnh nm ti chnh 2005-2006 gn 5 t dollar (so vi mc gn 1.5 t dollar ngn sch chnh ca Lin Hip Quc trong cng giai on)[cn dn ngun], vi khong 70.000 qun c trin khai cho 17 chin dch khp th

gii. Bo co An ninh Con ngi 2005 [21], do Trung tm An ninh Con ngi thuc i hc British Columbia a ra vi s h tr t nhiu chnh ph v qu khc cho thy mt s st gim ln, nhng phn ln khng c cng nhn, trong s lng cc cuc chin, nhng v dit chng v nhng v vi phm nhn quyn t cui giai on Chin tranh Lnh. Nhng con s thng k gm:

Gim 40% nhng cuc xung t bo lc. Gim 80% nhng cuc xung t gy mu nhiu nht. Gim 80% nhng cuc dit chng v thanh lc chnh tr.

Bo co, do Oxford University Press[cn dn ngun], cho rng s tuyn truyn cho mt hc thuyt quc t - ch yu do Lin Hip Quc xng - l nguyn nhn chnh mang li s st gim nhng cuc xung t qun s, d bn bo co cho thy bng chng v s tranh ci ny a phn ch mang tnh hon cnh. Bn bo co ch ra nhiu khon u t ring bit chi: [22]

Tng su ln s lng cc chin dch ca Lin Hip Quc c tin hnh ngn chn chin tranh trong giai on 1990 ti 2002. Tng bn ln cho cc n lc nhm chm dt nhng cuc xung t ang din ra, t nm 1990 ti 2002. Tng by ln s lng Bn b ca Tng th k, Cc nhm tip xc v cc c cu do chnh ph xut nhm h tr cc chin dch kin to ha bnh v xy dng ha bnh trong giai on t 1990 n 2003. Tng mi mt ln s lng cc lnh trng pht kinh t chng li cc ch cm quyn trn khp th gii t 1989 ti 2001. Tng bn ln s lng cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc, t 1987 n 1999.

Tnh trung bnh, nhng n lc trn va nhiu va qu ln li phc tp hn nhng chin dch thi Chin tranh Lnh. Trong lnh vc gn gi ha bnh, cc thng li gm:

Vn phng Gii trnh Chnh ph Hoa K kt lun rng vic gn gi ha bnh ca Lin Hip Quc c chi ph t hn tm ln so vi khon chi cho lc lng Hoa K. [23] Mt nghin cu nm 2005 ca RAND Corp cho thy Lin Hip Quc thnh cng hai trong s ba chin dch gn gi ha bnh ca mnh. Nghin cu ny cng so snh nhng n lc xy dng nh nc ca Lin Hip Quc vi cng n lc ca Hoa K, v thy rng trong tm trng hp ca Lin Hip Quc, by trng hp din ra trong ha bnh, trong khi trong tm trng hp ca Hoa K, bn din ra trong ha bnh, v bn khng h hay cha h c ha bnh. [24]

Tuy nhin, trong nhiu trng hp cc quc gia thnh vin Lin Hip Quc bt c d phi thc hin cc ngh quyt ca Hi ng Bo an. Iraq c cho l vi phm 17 ngh quyt ca Hi ng bo an t ngy 28 thng 6 nm 1991 cng nh tm cch n trnh nhng lnh trng pht kinh t ca Lin Hip Quc. Trong gn mt thp k, Israel bt chp cc ngh quyt ku gi tho d cc khu nh c ca h ti B Ty v Di Gaza. Nhng tht bi xut pht t tnh trng ph thuc a chnh ph ca Lin Hip Quc - nhiu kha cnh y l mt t chc gm 192 quc gia thnh vin v lun cn phi c s nht tr, ch khng phi l mt t chc c lp. Thm ch khi cc hnh ng c 15 nc thnh vin Hi ng bo an thng qua, Ban th k him khi cung cp cc ngun ti nguyn cn thit thc hin cc s mnh . Nhng tht bi khc trong vn an ninh gm:

Tht bi trong vic ngn chn v Dit chng ti Rwanda nm 1994, dn ti ci cht ca gn mt triu ngi, v cc thnh vin ca hi ng bo an t chi thng qua bt k mt hnh ng qun s no.[25]

Tht bi ca MONUC (Ngh quyt 1292 ca UNSC) trong vic can thip mt cch c hiu qu vo cuc Chin tranh Congo ln th hai, lin quan ti gn nm triu ngi ti Cng ha Dn ch Congo, 1998-2002 (vi nhng trn nh vn ang tip din), v trong vic tin hnh cung cp vin tr nhn o. Tht bi trong vic can thip vo Cuc thm st Srebrenica nm 1995, d s thc l Lin hip quc coi Srebrenica l mt "thin ng an ton" cho nhng ngi t nn v phi 600 lnh gn gi ha bnh H Lan ti bo v n. Tht bi trong vic cung cp thc phm ti nhng ngi dn i kht ti Somalia; thc phm thng b cc lnh cha a phng chim ot. Mt n lc ca Hoa K/Lin Hip Quc trong vic bt gi cc v lnh cha dn ti Trn Mogadishu nm 1993. Tht bi trong vic thc hin 1559 v Ngh quyt 1701 ca Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc ku gi gii gip cc nhm bn qun s Liban nh Fatah v Hezbollah. Lm dng tnh dc ca binh lnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc. Binh lnh gn gi ha bnh t nhiu quc gia b thi hi khi cc chin dch gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc v hnh ng lm dng v bc lt tnh dc cc c gi, thm ch mi ch 8 tui, trong mt s chin dch gn gi ha bnh khc nhau. S lm dng tnh dc ny vn din ra d c nhiu s pht hin v bng chng t Vn phng Lin Hip Quc v Dch v Gim st Ni b.[26][27] Mt cuc iu tra ni b nm 2005 ca Lin Hip Quc cho thy s khai thc v lm dng tnh dc c bo co ti t nht nm quc gia ni cc binh lnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc c trin khai, gm Cng ha Dn ch Congo, Haiti, Burundi, Cte d'Ivoire v Liberia. [26] BBC tin hnh mt cuc iu tra tng t, v cng ch ra mt s thnh vin Chng trnh Lng thc Th gii cng c nhng hnh vi lm dng.
[28]

[sa] Ch trch v mu thun


Xem thm: Trung Quc v Lin Hip Quc, Israel v Lin Hip Quc, Lin bang X vit v Lin Hip Quc, v Hoa K v Lin Hip Quc

[sa] Hi ng bo an
Xem bi chnh ti Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc Lin Hip Quc b ch trch v khng th hot ng mt cch r rng v kin quyt khi i u trc mt v khng hong. Nhng v d gn y gm chng trnh ht nhn ca Iran v s dit chng trong cuc xung t Darfur, Sudan. V mi nc trong s nm thnh vin thng trc ca Hi ng bo an u c quyn ph quyt, v bi v h thng bt ng vi nhau, rt nhiu ln khng c bt k mt hnh ng no c thng qua. Thng thng, nhng khng phi l lun lun, s chia r ny xut hin gia Hoa K mt pha v Trung Quc, Nga hay c hai pha kia. Mt s ln Hi ng bo an ng thun vi nhau nhng li thiu s quyt tm hay phng tin thc thi cc ngh quyt ca h. Mt v d gn y l Cuc khng hong Israel-Liban 2006, khng hnh ng no c thc hin theo Ngh quyt 1559 v Ngh quyt 1701 gii gip cc lc lng du kch phi chnh ph nh Hezbollah. Nhng li ch trch t nghi vn v hiu nng v s thch hp ca Hi ng bo an bi v khi vi phm vo mt ngh quyt do Hi ng ny a ra, thng cng khng xy ra hu qu no c. (Xem Ci cch Hi ng Bo an Lin Hip Quc.)

[sa] Gim st nhn quyn


Cc quc gia nh Sudan v Libya, vi nhng nh lnh o r rng c bng thnh tch nhn quyn km ci vn(theo quan im ca M v mt s nc c l thnh vin ca y ban Lin Hip Quc v Nhn quyn (HRC) c,[29][30] v vic Libya c bu lm ch tch ca y ban ny, tng l mt vn bn ci. Nhng nc cho rng, cc quc gia phng ty, m h cho l c thi th ch thc dn v tn bo, khng c quyn t vn v t cch thnh vin ca h trong y ban ny.

Tuy nhin vo ngy 15 thng 3 nm 2006 i hi ng thng qua ngh quyt thnh lp mt c ch mi - Hi ng Nhn quyn Lin Hip Quc thay th y ban trn. C quan ny c cc quy nh cht ch hn v quy ch thnh vin gn gi ha bnh gm c mt bn thnh tch chung v nhn quyn v tng s lng phiu cn bu cn thit mt quc gia c t cch tham gia, t hnh mu bu theo danh sch vng vi Hi ng kinh t x hi 53 thnh vin chuyn sang tt c mt na trong s 192 thnh vin ca i hi ng. Ngy 9 thng 5 nm 2006 47 thnh vin mi c bu vo hi ng. Trong khi mt s chnh ph c thnh tch nhn quyn km ci( theo quan im ca hoa k)[cn dn ngun], nh Cuba, Pakistan, Nga, Rp Saudi v Azerbaijan c bu, th mt s nc vi phm nhn quyn khc khng c c mt trong Hi ng mi:

Cc nc khng c tham gia: Syria, Bc Triu Tin, Belarus v Myanma Cc quc gia tng l thnh vin ca y ban: Zimbabwe, Sudan, Nepal v Libya Cc quc gia mun tham gia nhng khng nhn s phiu: Iran, Venezuela, Thi Lan, Iraq v Kyrgyzstan

V nhng thay i trong c ch thnh vin gia y ban v Hi ng, s lng quc gia b Hi ng T do coi l "Khng t do" chim hn mt na.[31][32][33]

[sa] Thiu hiu nng do tnh quan liu


Lin Hip Quc b co buc thiu tnh hiu nng v lng ph v c cu cng knh v quan liu qu mc ca n. Trong thp nin 1990, Hoa K, nc hin ng gp nhiu nht cho ngn sch t chc ny, coi s thiu hiu qu l mt nguyn nhn khin h tr hon cc khon ng gp. Vic chi tr nhng khon thiu ny ch c thc hin vi iu kin v sng kin cho mt cuc ci cch ln. Nm 1994 Vn phng Dch v Gim st Ni b (OIOS) c thnh lp theo quyt nh ca i hi ng nhm ng vai tr gim st tnh hiu nng ca t chc.[34] Mt chng trnh ci cch c xut, nhng vn cha c i hi ng thng qua.[35][36]

[sa] S phn bit i x chng Israel


Xem thm: Israel v Lin Hip Quc Lin Hip Quc cng b co buc thc hin tip cn mt chiu i vi cc vn Trung ng v cuc xung t Israel-Palestine.[37][38][39]. Nhng li co buc cho rng Israel b phn bit i x trong t chc quc t ny vi cch i x ch trch mt chiu c nht t trc ti nay. Khng ging nh tt c cc nhm ngi t nn khc, ngi Palestine c c quan ring ca h bn trong Lin Hip Quc (C quan Cu tr v Vic lm Lin Hip Quc cho ngi t nn Palestine) tch bit vi Vn phng Cao y Lin Hip Quc v Ngi t nn, vn chu trch nhim v tt c cc vn ngi t nn trn th gii. [40] Cho ti tn nm 2000, Israel khng c t cch thnh vin bn trong bt k mt nhm cp vng no ca Lin Hip Quc. Trn thc t, iu ny c ngha l Israel b cm hot ng trong cc c quan Lin Hip Quc nh Hi ng Bo an. Vic cho php Israel tham gia y hn bn trong Lin Hip Quc vi t cch l mt quc gia thnh vin Ty u v cc nhm cp vng khc gn y ch mang tnh tm thi v bt buc phi c gia hn nh k. Israel ch c php tham gia vo cc hot ng ti Thnh ph New York ca Lin Hip Quc v b loi tr khi cc vn phng Lin Hip Quc ti Geneva, Nairobi, Roma v Wien l nhng vn phng qun l cc vn nh nhn quyn v kim sot v kh. Vic ch trch Israel tr thnh mt cng vic thng ngy i vi nhiu c quan Lin Hip Quc nh Hi ng Nhn quyn.

[sa] Bt lc trc vn dit chng v nhn quyn


Lin Hip Quc cng b co buc c tnh lm ng trc hon cnh kh khn ca nhiu ngi trn khp th gii, c bit ti nhiu vng Chu , Trung ng v Chu Phi. Nhng v d hin ti gm vic Lin Hip Quc khng hnh ng

g trc chnh ph Sudan ti Darfur[27], vic thanh lc sc tc ca chnh ph Trung Quc ti Ty Tng v Israel ti cc vng lnh th Palestine.

[sa] B bi trong chng trnh i du ly lng thc


Xem thm: Chng trnh i du ly lng thc Chng trnh i du ly lng thc c Lin Hip Quc a ra nm 1995. Mc tiu ca n l cho php Iraq bn du ra th trng th gii i ly lng thc, thuc men, v cc nhu yu phm khc cho ngi dn Iraq b nh hng bi lnh cm vn kinh t quc t, m khng cho php Chnh ph Iraq ti xy dng li lc lng qun i ca mnh sau cuc Chin tranh Vng Vnh ln th nht. Chng trnh b ngt qung vo cui nm 2003 trc nhng li co buc ngy cng lan rng v s lm dng v tham nhng. Cu gim c, Benon Sevan ngi Sp, l ngi u tin b nh ch chc v v sau phi t chc khi Lin Hip Quc, khi mt bn bo co tm thi ca ban iu tra do Lin Hip Quc h tr di s lnh o ca Paul Volcker kt lun rng Sevan nhn t lt t pha chnh quyn Iraq v xut vic bi b quyn bt kh xm phm thuc Lin Hip Quc ca ng ta nhm m ng cho mt cuc iu tra ti phm.[41] Di s bo h ca Lin Hip Quc, s lng du m tr gi hn 65 t la ca Iraq c bn ra th trng th gii. V mt chnh thc, khong 46 t c chi cho cc mc ch nhn o. S cn li c dnh tr cho nhng khon bi thng cho cuc Chin tranh Vng Vnh thng qua mt Qu Chi tr, s tin qun l v hot ng ca Lin Hip Quc cho chng trnh ny chim 2,2%, v chng trnh thanh st v kh chim 0,8%. Con trai ca Kofi Annan l Kojo Annan cng dnh lu ti v ny, vi li buc ti kim c mt cch bt hp php nhiu hp ng trong chng trnh i du ly lng thc ca Lin Hip Quc cho cng ty Cotecna Thy S. Ngoi trng n , Natwar Singh, phi t chc v vai tr ca ng trong v ny.[cn dn ngun] Chnh ph c lp ra Cole Inquiry vo thng 11 nm 2005 nhm iu tra xem liu y ban Bt m c (Australian Wheat Board - AWB) c vi phm iu lut no khi thc hin nhng hp ng ca h vi Iraq trong Chng trnh i du ly lng thc. AWB tr chnh quyn ca Saddam Hussein khong 300 triu la, thng qua mt cng ty bnh phong l Alia, c c nhng hp ng cung cp bt m cho Iraq. Th tng c (John Howard), Ph th tng (Mark Vaile) v B trng ngoi giao (Alexander Downer) bc b vic h c bit v vic khi b gi ra iu trn trc y ban. c thng tin cho rng d chnh ph c khng iu hnh AWB mt cch hiu qu ngn chn s vic , Lin Hip Quc ng ra phi tch cc hn trong vic yu cu chnh ph nc ny tin hnh iu tra. Cole Inquiry d nh s bo co vo ngy 24 thng 11 nm 2006.[42]

[sa] Nhng co buc lnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc cng dm ti Congo, Haiti, Liberia v Sudan
Thng 12 nm 2004, trong chin dch gn gi ha bnh ca Lin Hip Quc ti Congo, t nht 68 v b cho l cng hip, mi dm v hn 150 co buc khc b cc nh iu tra Lin Hip Quc pht gic, tt c u c lin quan ti binh lnh gn gi ha bnh, c bit l cc binh lnh t Pakistan, Uruguay, Maroc, Tunisia, Nam Phi v Nepal. Nhng binh lnh gn gi ha bnh t 3 trong s cc quc gia ny cng b co buc c tnh cn tr qu trnh iu tra [43]. Tng t, mt chuyn gia hu cn Lin Hip Quc ngi Php ti Congo cng b co buc hm hip v khiu dm tr em trong cng thng [44]. BBC thng bo rng cc c gi tr b binh lnh gn gi ha bnh Lin Hip Quc lm dng v hm hip ti Port-auPrince.[45]. Nhng li co buc tng t cng c nu ra ti Liberia [46] v Sudan. [47]

[sa] Chnh sch nhn s

Lin Hip Quc v cc c quan ca mnh c hng quy ch min tr i vi php lut ti cc quc gia ni h hot ng, gn gi khng thin v vi s tn trng nc ch nh, v quc gia thnh vin.[cn dn ngun] Vic thu mn v sa thi, gi lm vic v mi trng lm vic, thi gian ngh, hu tr, bo him y t, bo him tui th, lng bng, tin tr cp xa gia nh v cc iu kin s dng lao ng chung thc hin theo cc quy nh ca Lin Hip Quc. S c lp ny c php cc c quan thc hin cc chnh sch ngun nhn lc thm ch tri ngc vi lut l ca nc ch nh hay quc gia thnh vin. V d, mt ngi khng t cch lm vic ti Thy S, ni T chc Lao ng Th gii (ILO) ng tr s, khng th c lm vic cho ILO tr khi anh/c ta l ngi ca quc gia thnh vin ILO.

[sa] Ngi ht thuc


T chc Y t Th gii, mt c quan ca Lin Hip Quc, cm tuyn nhng ngi ht thuc t ngy 1 thng 12 nm 2005, nhm khuyn khch mt mi trng lm vic khng thuc l.[48] Cng c mt lnh cm ht thuc bn trong tr s Lin Hip Quc, nhng mt s quc gia thnh vin cho php ht thuc bn trong i s qun ca mnh ti Lin Hip Quc. Hn na, nhng ngi s dng ma tu khng c php lm vic cho Lin Hip Quc.

[sa] Hn nhn ng gii


D c s c lp trong nhng vn chnh sch ngun nhn lc, cc c quan Lin Hip Quc t nguyn p dng cc iu lut ca cc quc gia thnh vin v vn hn nhn ng gii, cho php cc quyt nh v tnh trng s dng nhn cng c hn nhn ng gii c a ra da theo tng quc gia. H cng nhn cc cuc hn nhn ng gii ch khi ngi l cng dn ca cc quc gia cng nhn s hn nhn . Mt s c quan cung cp khon tr cp hn ch cho nhng v/chng ngi a phng ca nhn vin ca mnh.

[sa] Lin Hip Quc trong vn ha i chng


Bi chi tit: Hnh nh Lin Hip Quc trong vn ha i chng Mt hot ng gio dc c gi l M hnh Lin Hip Quc tr nn quen thuc trong cc trng hc trn khp th gii. M hnh Lin Hip Quc c cc sinh vin ng vai (thng thng) mt c cu trong H thng Lin Hip Quc gip h pht trin kh nng trong tranh lun v trong ngoi giao. Nhng cuc hi tho c c cc trng i hc v cao ng t chc. Cc y ban thng c a ra lm m hnh gm cc y ban i hi ng, cc y ban ECOFIN, Hi ng bo an v mt s ln cc y ban chuyn trch nh mt Hi ng Lch s An Ninh hay Nhm Qun l Cp cao. Cc sinh vin tranh lun v cc ch Lin Hip Quc ang tham gia tho g v tm cch th hin quan im ca quc gia mnh nhm tin ti mt gii php chung. Nhn thc Lin Hip Quc vi t cch mt t chc ln, bao hm chnh ph cc nc trn th gii khin nhiu tng v chnh ph th gii v dn ch ton cu ngy cng xut hin nhiu. Lin Hip Quc cng l mc tiu ca cc hc thuyt m mu.[49]

A
Tn ting Vit Abkhazia1 Cng ho Abkhazia Afghanist Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Abkhazia Republic of Abkhazia

Ting Abkhazia: Asny / Ting Nga: Abchazija / Ting Gruzia: Aazei / Ting Dari: Afnestn /

Afghanistan

an (A Ph Hn) Cng ho Hi gio Afghanistan Ai Cp Cng ha Rp Ai Cp Albania (Anbani) Cng ho Albania Algeria (An-gi-ri) Cng ho Dn ch Nhn dn Algeria Andorra Cng quc Andorra Angola (ng-g-la) Cng ho Angola Anh2 Vng quc Lin hip Anh v Bc Ireland Antigua v Barbuda4 o3 Cng ha o Rp Saudi ( Rp X t) Vng quc Rp Saudi Argentina 3 (c-hen-tina, Cn nh) Quc gia Argentina hoc Cng ho

(Tn c:Quc gia Hi gio Afghanistan)Dowlat-e Eslami-ye Afghanestan /


Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

Ting Pashtu: Afnistn / Ting Rp: Mir / Jumhuriyat Mir al-Arabiyah / Ting Albania: Shqipria Republika e Shqiprise Egypt Arab Republic of Egypt Albania Republic of Albania

Ting Rp: Al-Jaz'ir / Al-Jumhryah al-Jaziryah ad-Dmuqryah ash-Shabyah /

Algeria People's Democratic Republic of Algeria

Ting Catalan: Andorra Principat d'Andorra Ting B o Nha: Angola Repblica de Angola

Andorra Principality of Andorra Angola Republic of Angola

Ting Anh: United Kingdom United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

United Kingdom United Kingdom of Great Britain Northern Ireland

Ting Anh: Antigua and Barbuda Ting c: sterreich Republik sterreich Ting Rp: Al- Arabiyyah as-Sa diyyah / Al-Mamlakah al-'Arabiyah as-Sa'udiyah /

Antigua and Barbuda Austria Republic of Austria Saudi Arabia Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Argentina Nacin Argentina hoc Repblica Argentina

Argentina Argentine Nation hoc Argentine Republic

Argentina Armenia Ting Armenia: Hayastan / (c-m-ni) Hayastani Hanrapetut'yun / Cng ho Armenia Azerbaija Ting Azerbaijan: Azrbaycan 1,4 n (A-gicAzrbaycan Respublikas bai-gian) Cng ho Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Republic of Azerbaijan

Armenia Republic of Armenia

Tn ting Vit n 3 Cng ha n Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh India Republic of India

Ting Anh: India Republic of India Ting Hindi: Bharat / Bhrat Ganarjya /

B
Tn ting Vit Bahamas Lin bang Bahamas Bahrain (Baranh) Vng quc Bahrain Ba Lan Cng ho Ba Lan Bangladesh (Bng-la-t) Cng ho Nhn dn Bangladesh Barbados Bc Sp 1 Cng ho Th Bc Sp Belarus (B-lart; Bch Nga) Cng ho Belarus Belize Benin (B-nanh)

Tn bn ng Ting Anh: The Bahamas Commonwealth of the Bahamas Ting Rp: al-Barayn / Mamlakat al Bahrayn / Ting Ba Lan: Polska Rzeczpospolita Polska Ting Bengali (Bangla): Banglde / Gana Prajtantr Bngldesh / Ting Anh: Barbados Ting Th: Kuzey Kbrs Kuzey Kbrs Trk Cumhuriyeti Ting Belarus: Bjelar / Respublika Biearu / Ting Nga: Bjelorssija / Ting Anh: Belize Ting Php: Bnin

Tn ting Anh The Bahamas Commonwealth of the Bahamas Bahrain Kingdom of Bahrain Poland Republic of Poland Bangladesh People's Republic of Bangladesh

Barbados Northern Cyprus Turkish Republic of Northern Cyp Belarus Republic of Belarus

Belize Benin

Cng ho Benin Bhutan (Bu-tan) Vng quc Bhutan B Vng quc B Li Thi

Rpublique du Bnin Ting Dzongkha: Druk Yul / Druk Gyal Khab Ting H Lan: Belgi Koninkrijk Belgi Ting Php: Belgique Royaume de Belgique Ting c: Belgien Knigreich Belgien Ting Ty Ban Nha: Bolivia Repblica de Bolivia

Republic of Benin Bhutan Kingdom of Bhutan Belgium Kingdom of Belgium

Bolivia (B-li-via) Cng ho Bolivia Bosna v Hercegovina4

Bolivia Republic of Bolivia

Ting Bosniak: Bosna i Hercegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Ting Serb: Bosna i Hercegovina / Ting Croat: Bosna i Hercegovina Ting Tswana: Botswana Lefatshe la Botswana Ting B o Nha: Portugal Repblica Portuguesa Ting B o Nha: Brasil Repblica Federativa do Brasil

Botswana Cng ho Botswana B o Nha4 Cng ha B o Nha Brazil3 (Braxin, Ba Ty) Cng ha Lin bang Brazil Brunei (Nh nc) Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria (Bungari, Bo Gia Li) Cng ho Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Cng ho Burundi

Botswana Republic of Botswana Portugal Portuguese Republic Brazil Federative Republic of Brazil

Ting Malay: Brunei Darussalam / Negara Brunei Darussalam / Ting Bulgaria: Blgarija / Republika Blgarija /

Brunei State of Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Republic of Bulgaria

Ting Php: Burkina Faso Ting Kirundi: Uburundi Republika y'Uburundi

Burkina Faso Burundi Republic of Burundi

Ting Php: Burundi Rpublique du Burundi Mc lc : u 09 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[sa] C
Tn ting Vit Tn bn ng Tn ting Anh

Cabo Verde (Cp Ve) Cng ho Cabo Verde Cc Tiu Vng quc Rp Thng nht3 Camero on (Ca-mrun) Cng ho Cameroon Campuc hia (Cm bt, Cao Min) Vng quc Campuchia Canada3 (Can-naa; Gia N i) Chile (Chi-l; Ch Li) Cng ho Chile Colombi a (C-lmbi-a) Cng ho Colombia Comoro s (C mo)3 Lin bang Comoros

Ting B o Nha: Cabo Verde Repblica de Cabo Verde

Cape Verde Republic of Cape Verde

Ting Rp: Al-Imarat Al-Arabiyah Al-Muttahidah /

United Arab Emirates

Ting Php: Cameroun Rpublique du Cameroun

Cameroon Republic of Cameroon

Ting Anh: Cameroon Republic of Cameroon Ting Khmer: Kampuchea / Cambodia Preah Reachea Nachakr Kampuchea / Kingdom of Cambodia

Ting Anh, ting Php: Canada

Canada

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Chile Repblica de Chile

Chile Republic of Chile

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Colombia Repblica de Colombia

Colombia Republic of Colombia

Ting Php: Comores Union des Comores Ting Comori: Komori Udzima wa Komori Ting Rp: Qumur / Ting Php: Congo Rpublique du Congo

Comoros Union of the Comoros

Cng ho Congo (Cng-g; Congo-

Republic of the Congo Congo-Brazzaville

Brazzaville) Cng ho Dn ch Congo (CongoKinshasa) Costa Rica Cng ho Costa Rica Cte d'Ivoire (Ct i Voa, B Bin Ng) Cng ho Cte d'Ivoire Croatia Cng ho Croatia Cuba Cng ho Cuba

Ting Php: Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo

Democratic Republic of the Co Congo-Kinshasa

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Costa Rica Repblica de Costa Rica

Costa Rica Republic of Costa Rica

Ting Php: Cte d'Ivoire Rpublique de Cte d'Ivoire

Cte d'Ivoire Republic of Cte d'Ivore

Ting Croat: Hrvatska Republika Hrvatska Ting Ty Ban Nha: Cuba Repblica de Cuba

Croatia Republic of Croatia Cuba Republic of Cuba

D
Tn ting Vit Djibouti Cng ho Djibouti

Tn bn ng Ting Php: Djibouti Rpublique de Djibouti Ting Rp: Jibuti / Jumhuriyaa Jibuti / Ting Anh: Dominica Commonwealth of Dominica Ting Ty Ban Nha: Republica Dominicana

Tn ting Anh Djibouti Republic of Djibouti

Dominica Lin bang Dominica Dominicana Cng ho Dominicana

Dominica Commonwealth of Dominic Dominican Republic

Tn ting Vit an Mch2 Vng quc an Mch ng Timor Cng ho Dn ch ng


Tn bn ng Ting an Mch: Danmark Kongeriget Danmark Ting Tetum: Timor Lorosa'e

Tn ting Anh

Denmark Kingdom of Denmark East Timor Democratic Republic of Timor-Le

Timor

Repblika Demokrtika Timor Lorosa'e Ting B o Nha: Timor-Leste Repblica Democrtica de Timor-Leste Ting c: Deutschland Bundesrepublik Deutschland

c3 Cng ha Lin bang c

Germany Federal Republic of Germany

E
Tn ting Vit Ecuad or Cng ho Ecuador El Salvador Cng ho El Salvador Eritre a Quc gia Eritrea Estoni a Cng ho Estonia Ethio pia3 Cng ho Dn ch Lin bang Ethiopia Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Ecuador Republic of Ecuador

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Ecuador Repblica del Ecuador

Ting Ty Ban Nha: El Salvador Repblica de El Salvador

El Salvador Republic of El Salvador

Ting Tigrinya: Ertra / Hagere Ertra Ting Rp: Irtriy / Ting Estonia: Eesti Eesti Vabariik

Eritrea State of Eritrea

Estonia Republic of Estonia

Ting Amharic: Ityop'iya / Ityop'iya Federalawi Demokrasiyawi Ripeblik /

Ethiopia Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Mc lc : u 09 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[sa] F
Tn ting Vit Fiji4 Cng ho Qun o Fiji

Tn bn ng Ting Fiji: Viti Matanitu Tu-Vaka-i-koya ko Viti

Tn ting Anh Fiji Republic of the Fiji Islands

Tn ting Vit Gabon (Ga-bng) Cng ho Gabon Gambia (Gm-bi-a) Cng ho Gambia Ghana (Ga-na) Cng ho Ghana Grenada (Gr-naa)4 Gruzia1,4 Cng ho Gruzia Guatemala Cng ho Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Cng ho Guinea-Bissau Guinea Xch o Cng ho Guinea Xch o Guinea Cng ho Guinea Guyana Cng ho Hp tc Guyana

Tn bn ng Ting Php: Gabon Rpublique Gabonaise Ting Anh: The Gambia Republic of the Gambia Ting Anh: Ghana Republic of Ghana Ting Anh: Grenada Ting Gruzia: Sakartvelo / Resp'ublik'a Sakartvelos / Ting Ty Ban Nha: Guatemala Repblica de Guatemala Ting B o Nha: Guin-Bissau Repblica da Guin-Bissau Ting Ty Ban Nha: Guinea Ecuatorial Rpublica de Guinea Ecuatorial Ting Php: Guine Rpublique de Guine Ting Anh: Guyana Co-operative Republic of Guyana

Tn ting Anh Gabon Gabonese Republic The Gambia Republic of the Gambia Ghana Republic of Ghana Grenada Georgia Republic of Georgia

Guatemala Republic of Guatemala Guinea-Bissau Republic of Guinea-Bissau Equatorial Guinea Republic of Equatorial Guinea

Guinea Republic of Guinea Guyana Co-operative Republic of Guy

H
Tn ting Vit Haiti Cng ho Haiti Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Haiti Republic of Haiti

Ting Php: Hati Rpublique d'Hati Ting Haiti Creole: Ayiti Repiblik Dayiti Ting H Lan: Nederland Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

H Lan2 (Ho Lan) Vng quc H Lan Hn Quc (Nam Hn) i Hn

The Netherlands Kingdom of the Netherlands

Ting Triu Tin: Hanguk / Daehan Minguk /

South Korea Republic of Korea

Dn quc Hoa K2,3 (M) Hp Chng Quc Hoa K Hng Kng c khu hnh chnh Hng Kng thuc Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa Hondu ras Cng ho Honduras Hunga ry (Hung Gia Li) Cng ho Hungary Hy Lp4 Cng ho Hy Lp

Ting Anh: United States United States of America

United States United States of America

Ting Trung: Zhnghu rnmn gnghgu xinggng tbi xngzhngq Ting Anh: Hong Kong Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Hong Kong Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Honduras Repblica de Honduras

Honduras Republic of Honduras

Ting Hung: Magyarorszg Magyar Kztrsasg

Hungary Republic of Hungary

Ting Hy Lp: Ells / Ellinik Dimokrata /

Greece Hellenic Republic

I
Tn ting Vit Iceland (Ai x len, Bng o) Cng ho Iceland Indonesia (Nam Dng) Cng ho Indonesia Iran Cng ho Hi gio Iran Iraq (Irc) Cng ho Iraq

Tn bn ng Ting Iceland: sland Lveldi sland Ting Indonesia: Indonesia Republik Indonesia Ting Ba T: rn / Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye rn / Ting Rp: Al-rq / Al-Jumhuriyah Al-Iraqiyah / Ting Kurd: Iraq / Komara Iraq /

Tn ting Anh Iceland Republic of Iceland Indonesia Republic of Indonesia Iran Islamic Republic of Iran Iraq Republic of Iraq

Ireland (Ai len, i Nh Lan) Cng ho Ireland

Ting Gaeilge: ire Poblacht na hireann Ting Anh: Ireland Republic of Ireland Ting Hebrew: Yisra'el / Medinat Yisra'el /

Ireland Republic of Ireland

Israel Quc gia Israel

Israel State of Israel

Ting Rp: Isra'il / Daulat Isra'il / Mc lc : u 09 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

[sa] J
Tn ting Vit Jamaica Jordan (Gioc an ni) Vng quc Hashemite Jordan Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh

Ting Anh: Jamaica Ting Rp: Al-Urdun / Al Mamlakah al Urduniyah al Hashimiyah /

Jamaica Jordan Hashemite Kingdom of Jord

K
Tn ting Vit Kazakhstan (Ca-gicxtan) Cng ho Kazakhstan

Tn bn ng Ting Kazakh: Qazaqstan / Qazaqstan Respblkasy / Ting Nga: Kazakhstan / Respublika Kazakhstan / Ting Swahili: Kenya Jamhuri ya Kenya Ting Anh:Kenya Republic of Kenya Ting Kiribati: Kiribati Ribaberikin Kiribati Ting Anh: Kiribati Republic of Kiribati Ting Albania: Kosova Ting Serb: Kosovo Ting Rp: Al-Kuwayt / Dawlat al Kuwayt / Ting Hy Lp: Kypros /

Tn ting Anh Kazakhstan Republic of Kazakhstan

Kenya (K-nhi-a) Cng ho Kenya

Kenya Republic of Kenya

Kiribati Cng ho Kiribati

Kiribati Republic of Kiribati

Kosovo Cng ho Kosovo Kuwait (C-ot) Quc gia Kuwait Sp

Kosovo Republic of Kosovo Kuwait State of Kuwait Cyprus

Cng ho Sp

Kypriaki Dimokratia / Ting Th: Kbrs Kbrs Cumhuriyeti Ting Kyrgyz: Kyrgyzstan / Kyrgyz Respublikasy / Ting Nga: Kyrgyzstan / Kyrgyzskaya respublika /

Republic of Cyprus

Kyrgyzstan (C-r-gxtan) Cng ho Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz Republic

L
Tn ting Vit Lo Cng ha Dn ch Nhn dn Lo Latvia Cng ho Latvia Lesotho Vng quc Lesotho Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Laos Lao People's Democratic Republic Latvia Republic of Latvia Lesotho Kingdom of Lesotho

Ting Lo: Lao / Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao / Ting Latvi: Latvija Latvijas Republika Ting Sotho: Lesotho Mmuso wa Lesotho Ting Anh: Lesotho Kingdom of Lesotho Ting Rp: Lubnn / Al Jumhuriyah al Lubnaniyah /

Liban (Libng) Cng ho Liban Liberia Cng ho Liberia Libya Jamahiriya Rp Libya Nhn dn X hi Ch ngha V i Liechtenst ein Cng quc Liechtenstein Litva Cng ho Litva

Lebanon Republic of Lebanon

Ting Anh: Liberia Republic of Liberia Ting Rp: Lbiyah / al-Jamhryah al-Arabya al-Lbyah ash-Shabyah al-Ishtirkyah alUzma /

Liberia Republic of Liberia Libya Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya

Ting c: Liechtenstein Frstentum Liechtenstein

Liechtenstein Principality of Liechtenst

Ting Litva: Lietuva Lietuvos Respublika

Lithuania Republic of Lithuania

Luxembo urg (Lcxmbua, Lc Xm Bo) i Cng quc Luxembourg

Ting Lc Xm Bo: Ltzebuerg Groussherzogdem Ltzebuerg Ting Php: Luxembourg Grand-Duch de Luxembourg Ting c: Luxemburg Groherzogtum Luxemburg

Luxembourg Grand-Duchy of Luxemb

M
Tn ting Vit Macedoni a5 (M C n) Cng ho Macedonia Madagasc ar Cng ho Madagascar Malawi Cng ho Malawi Malaysia3 (M Lai Ty ) Lin bang Malaysia Maldives (Man-i-v) Cng ho Maldives Mali Cng ho Mali Malta Cng ho Malta Maroc6 Vng quc Maroc Qun o Marshall Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh

Ting Macedoni: Makedonija / Republika Makedonija /

Macedonia (FYROM) Republic of Macedoni

Ting Malagasy: Madagasikara Repoblikan'i Madagasikara Ting Php: Madagascar Republique de Madagascar Ting Chewa: Malai Mfuko la Malai Ting M Lai: Malaysia Persekutuan Malaysia

Madagascar Republic of Madagasc

Malawi Republic of Malawi

Malaysia Federation of Malaysi

Ting Divehi: Divehi Rjje / Divehi Rjje ge Jumhuriyy /

Maldives Republic of Maldives

Ting Php: Mali Rpublique de Mali Ting Malta: Malta Repubblika ta' Malta Ting Rp: al-Marib / Al Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah / Ting Anh: Marshall Islands Republic of the Marshall Islands

Mali Republic of Mali Malta Republic of Malta Morocco Kingdom of Morocco

Marshall Islands Republic of the Marsh

Cng ho Qun o Marshall Mauritani e Cng ho Hi gio Mauritanie Mauritius Cng ho Mauritius

Islands

Ting Rp: Mrtniyyah / Al-Jumhuriyah al-Islamiyah al-Mrtniyah / Ting Php: Mauritanie Rpublique Islamique de la Mauritanie Ting Php: Maurice Rpublique de Maurice Ting Anh: Mauritius Republic of Mauritius Ting Ty Ban Nha: Mxico Estados Unidos Mexicanos

Mauritania Islamic Republic of Mauritania

Mauritius Republic of Mauritius

Mexico3 (Mhic, M Ty C) Lin bang Mexico Micronesi 3 a Lin bang Micronesia Moldova1,
4

Mexico United Mexican States

Ting Anh: Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia

Micronesia Federated States of Micronesia Moldova Republic of Moldova

Ting Romana ti Moldova: Moldova Republica Moldova

Cng ho Moldova Monaco Cng quc Monaco Mng C Monteneg ro Cng ho Montenegro Mozambi que (Mgim-bch) Cng ho Mozambique Myanma (Min in) Lin bang Myanma

Ting Php: Monaco Principaut de Monaco Ting Mng C: Mongol Uls / Ting Serb: Crna Gora / Republika Crna Gora /

Monaco Principality of Monac

Mongolia Montenegro Republic of Monteneg

Ting B o Nha: Moambique Repblica de Moambique

Mozambique Republic of Mozambi

Ting Min in: Myanma / Pyidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw /

Myanmar Union of Myanmar

Tn ting Vit Nagorn oKarabakh1 Cng ho NagornoKarabakh Namibi a Cng ho Namibia Nam Ossetia1 Cng ho Nam Ossetia Nam Phi Cng ho Nam Phi

Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Nagorno-Karabakh Nagorno-Karabakh Republic

Ting Armenia: Lernayin Gharabagh /

Ting Anh: Namibia Republic of Namibia

Namibia Republic of Namibia

Ting Osetia: Xussar Iryston / Respublikae Xussar Iryston /

South Ossetia Republic of South Ossetia

Ting Nga: Yuzhnaya Osetiya (Junaja Osetija) / Respublika Yuzhnaya Osetiya (Respublika Junaja Osetija)/ Ting Anh: South Africa South Africa Republic of South Africa Republic of South Africa Ting Afrikaans: Suid-Afrika Republiek van Suid-Afrika Ting Xhosa: Mzantsi Afrika IRiphabliki yaseMzantsi Afrika Ting Zulu: Ningizimu Afrika IRiphabliki yaseNingizimu Afrika Ting Anh: Nauru Republic of Nauru Ting Nauru: Naoero Ting Na Uy c in: Norge Kongeriket Norge Ting Na Uy mi: Noreg Kongeriket Noreg Ting Nepal: Nepl / Sanghiya Loktntrik Ganatantra Nepl /

Nauru Cng ho Nauru Na Uy Vng quc Na Uy


2

Nauru Republic of Nauru

Norway Kingdom of Norway

Nepal Cng ha Dn ch Lin bang Nepal New Zealand (Niu Diln)2 (Tn Ty Lan)

Nepal Federal Democratic Republic Nepal

Ting Anh: New Zealand Ting Maori: Aotearoa

New Zealand

Nicara gua Cng ho Nicaragua Niger Cng ho Niger Nigeria


3

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Nicaragua Repblica de Nicaragua

Nicaragua Republic of Nicaragua

Ting Php: Niger Rpublique du Niger Ting Anh: Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria

Niger Republic of Niger Nigeria Federal Republic of Nigeria

Cng ho Lin bang Nigeria Nga3 Lin bang Nga Nht Bn

Ting Nga: Rossiya (Rossija) / Rossiyskaya Federatsiya (Rossijskaja Federacija) / Ting Nht: Nihon / - Nihon-koku /

Russia Russian Federation Japan (Nippon)

O
Tn ting Vit Oman Vng quc Oman

Tn bn ng Ting Rp: Ummn / Saltanat Uman /

Tn ting Anh Oman Sultanate of Oman

P
Tn ting Vit Pakistan (Ba C T Thn) Cng ho Hi gio Pakistan Palau Cng ho Palau (Belau) Palestine7 Quc gia Palestine Panama Cng ho Panama Papua New Guinea (Papua Tn Guinea) Quc gia c lp Papua New Guinea Paraguay

Tn bn ng Ting Urdu: Pkistn / Islami Jamhuria Pkistn / Ting Palau: Belau Beluu er a Belau Ting Rp: Filastn / Daulat Filastin / Ting Ty Ban Nha: Panam Repblica de Panam Ting Anh: Papua New Guinea Independent State of Papua New Guinea

Tn ting Anh Pakistan Islamic Republic of Pakistan

Palau Republic of Palau

Palestine State of Palestine Panama Republic of Panama Papua New Guinea Independent State of Papua New Guin

Ting Ty Ban Nha: Paraguay

Paraguay

Cng ho Paraguay

Repblica del Paraguay Ting Guarani: Paragui Tta Paragui Ting Ty Ban Nha: Per Repblica del Per Ting Php: France Rpublique Franaise Ting Phn Lan: Suomi Suomen tasavalta Ting Thu in: Finland Republiken Finland Ting Filipin: Pilipinas Republika ng Pilipinas

Republic of Paraguay

Peru (P Ru) Cng ho Peru Php2 Cng ha Php Phn Lan4 Cng ha Phn Lan

Peru Republic of Peru France French Republic Finland Republic of Finland

Philippines (Phi Lut Tn) Cng ho Philippines

Philippines Republic of the Philippines

Q
Tn ting Vit Qatar (Qua-ta) Quc gia Qatar

Tn bn ng Ting Rp: Qaar / Dawlat Qatar /

Tn ting Anh Qatar State of Qatar

R
Tn ting Vit Romania (Rumani, L Ma Ni) Rwanda (Ruanda) Cng ho Rwanda

Tn bn ng Ting Romana: Romnia Ting Rwanda: Rwanda Repubulika y'u Rwanda Ting Php: Rwanda Rpublique du Rwanda

Tn ting Anh Romania Rwanda Republic of Rwanda

S
Tn ting Vit Saint Kitts v Nevis4 Lin bang Saint Kitts v Nevis Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Saint Kitts and Nevis Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

Ting Anh: Saint Kitts and Nevis Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis

Saint Lucia Saint Vincent v Grenadines Samoa Quc gia c lp Samoa San Marino Cng ho i bnh yn San Marino So Tom v Prncipe4 Cng ho Dn ch So Tom v Prncipe Scotland (Xctlen, T Cch Lan) Sc (Tip) Cng ha Sc Sngal Cng ho Sngal Serbia3,4,
8

Ting Anh: Saint Lucia Ting Anh: Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

Ting Samoa: Samoa Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa

Samoa Independent State of Samoa

Ting : San Marino Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino

San Marino Most Serene Republic of San Marino

Ting B o Nha: So Tom e Prncipe Repblica Democrtica de So Tom e Prncipe

So Tom and Prncipe Democratic Republic of So Tom and Prncipe

Ting Anh, ting Scots: Scotland Ting Gaelic ti Scotland: Alba Ting Sc: esk republika esko

Scotland

Czech Republic

Ting Php: Sngal Rpublique du Sngal Ting Serb: Srbija / Republika Srbija /

Senegal Republic of Senegal Serbia Republic of Serbia

Cng ho Serbia Seychell es Cng ho Seychelles Sierra Leone Cng ho Sierra Leone

Ting Php: Seychelles Rpublique des Seychelles Ting Seselwa: Sesel Repiblik Sesel Ting Anh: Sierra Leone Republic of Sierra Leone

Seychelles Republic of Seychelles

Sierra Leone Republic of Sierra Leone

Singapo re (Tn Gia Ba) Cng ha Singapore

Ting M Lai: Singapura Republik Singapura Ting Hn: Xinjiapo / Xnjap Gnghgu / Ting Tamil: ikappr / Cingkappr Kudiyarasu / Ting Slovak: Slovensko Slovensk Republika Ting Sloven: Slovenija Republika Slovenija Ting Anh: Solomon Islands

Singapore Republic of Singapore

Slovakia Cng ho Slovakia Slovenia Cng ho Slovenia Solomon Qun o Solomon Somalia1
,9

Slovakia Slovak Republic Slovenia Republic of Slovenia Solomon Islands

Ting Somali: Soomaaliya Ting Somali: Somaliland

Somalia Somaliland Republic of Somaliland

Somalila nd1 Cng ho Somaliland Sri Lanka Cng ha X hi Ch ngha Dn ch Sri Lanka Sudan Cng ho Sudan Surinam e Cng ho Suriname Swazila nd Vng quc Swaziland Syria Cng ho Rp Syria

Ting Sinhala: Sri Lanka Sri Lank Prajathanthrika Samajavadi Janarajaya Ting Tamil: Llankai / Illankai Chananaayaka Chosalisa Kudiyarasu

Sri Lanka Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lank

Ting Rp: As-Sdn / Jumhuriyat as-Sudan / Ting H Lan: Suriname Republiek Suriname

Sudan Republic of the Sudan Suriname Republic of Suriname

Ting Anh: Swaziland Kingdom of Swaziland Ting Swazi: eSwatini Umbuso weSwatini Ting Rp: Sriyyah / Al-Jumhuriyah al-'Arabiyah al-Suriyah /

Swaziland Kingdom of Swaziland

Syria Syrian Arab Republic

Tn ting Vit Tajikistan (Ta-gi-ktxtan)4 Cng ho Tajikistan Tanzania Cng ho Thng nht Tanzania Ty Ban Nha3 Vng quc Ty Ban Nha

Tn bn ng Ting Tajik: Tojikistan / Jumhurii Tojikiston

Tn ting Anh Tajikistan Republic of Tajikistan

Ting Anh: Tanzania United Republic of Tanzania Ting Swahili: Tanzania Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania Ting Ty Ban Nha: Espaa Reino de Espaa Ting Basque: Espainia Espainiako Erresuma Ting Catalan: Espanya Regne d'Espanya Ting Galicia: Espaa Reino de Espaa Ting Rp: Al-Sarwiyyah / Al-Jumhry al-Araby as-Sahrwy ad-Dmuqrty / Ting Php: Tchad Rpublique du Tchad Ting Rp: Tad / Jumhuriyat Tad / Ting Thi: Pratht Thai / Ratcha Anachak Thai Ting Th: Trkiye Trkiye Cumhuriyeti

Tanzania United Republic of Tanzan

Spain Kingdom of Spain

Ty Sahara6 Cng ho Rp Sarauy Dn ch Tchad (St) Cng ho St

Western Sahara Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Chad Republic of Chad

Thi Lan Vng quc Thi Lan Th Nh K Cng ho Th Nh K Thy in Vng quc Thy in Thy S3 (Thy S) Lin bang Thy S

Thailand Kingdom of Thailand Turkey Republic of Turkey

Ting Thu in: Sverige Konungariket Sverige Ting c: Schweiz Schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft Ting Php: Suisse Confdration suisse Ting : Svizzera Confederazione Svizzera Ting Romansh: Svizra

Sweden Kingdom of Sweden Switzerland Swiss Confederation

Togo Cng ho Togo Tonga Vng quc Tonga

Confederaziun Svizra Ting Php: Togo Rpublique Togolaise Ting Anh: Tonga Kingdom of Tonga Ting Tonga: Tonga Pule'anga Fakatu'i 'o Tonga Ting Nga: Pridnestrovye (Pridnestrovje) / Ting Romana ti Moldova: Stnga Nistrului Republica Moldoveneasc Nistrean / Ting Triu Tin: Chosn / Chosn Minjujui Inmin Konghwaguk /

Togo Togolese Republic Tonga Kingdom of Tonga

Transnistri a Cng ho Moldova Transdniestria Bc Hn (Bc Triu Tin) Cng ha Dn ch Nhn dn Triu Tin Trinidad v Tobago4 Cng ho Trinidad v Tobago Trung Hoa Dn quc10 i Loan Trung Quc4 Cng ha Nhn dn Trung Hoa Trung Phi Cng ha Trung Phi Tunisia (Tuynidi) Cng ho Tunisia Turkmenis tan Cng ha Turkmenistan Tuvalu
1

Transnistria Transdniestrian Moldovan Republic

North Korea Democratic People's Repub of Korea

Ting Anh: Trinidad and Tobago Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago Republic of Trinidad and Tobago

Ting Trung: JhongHu MnGu / Tiwn / Ting Ph Thng: Zhnggu / Zhnghu Rnmn Gnghgu /

Republic of China

People's Republic of China

Ting Php: Rpublique Centrafricaine Ting Sango: Kdrsse t Bafrka Ting Rp: Tnis / Al Jumhuriyya at-Tsiyya /

Central African Republic

Tunisia Republic of Tunisia

Ting Turkmen: Trkmenistan Trkmenistan Jumhuriyti

Turkmenistan Republic Turkmenistan

Ting Tuvalu: Tuvalu

Tuvalu

Ting Anh: Tuvalu

U
Tn ting Vit c3 (c i Li) Lin bang c Uganda Cng ho Uganda Ukraina (U-crai-na)4 Uruguay Cng ho ng Uruguay Uzbekistan (U-gi-be-ktxtan)4 Cng ho Uzbekistan

Tn bn ng Ting Anh: Australia Commonwealth of Australia Ting Anh: Uganda Republic of Uganda Ting Ukrain: Ukrajina / Ting Ty Ban Nha: Uruguay Repblica Oriental del Uruguay Ting Uzbek: O'zbekiston Ozbekiston Respublikasi

Tn ting Anh Australia Commonwealth of Australi Uganda Republic of Uganda Ukraine Uruguay Eastern Republic of Urugua Uzbekistan Republic of Uzbekistan

V
Tn ting Vit Vanuatu Cng ho Vanuatu

Tn bn ng Ting Bislama: Vanuatu Ripablik blong Vanuatu Ting Anh: Vanuatu Republic of Vanuatu Ting Php: Vanuatu Rpublique du Vanuatu Ting : Citt del Vaticano Stato della Citt del Vaticano Ting Latinh: Status Civitatis Vatican Ting Ty Ban Nha: Venezuela Repblica Bolivariana de Venezuela

Tn ting Anh Vanuatu Republic of Vanuatu

Vatican/To Thnh Thnh Bang Vatican Venezuela (V-n-giu-la)3 Cng ho Bolivar Venezuela Vit Nam Cng ha X hi Ch ngha Vit Nam

Vatican City/Holy See State of the Vatican City

Venezuela Bolivarian Republic of Venezu

Ting Vit: Vit Nam Cng ha X hi Ch ngha Vit Nam

Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam

W
Tn ting Vit Wales (X Un /Gan)

Tn bn ng Ting Anh: Wales

Tn ting Anh Wales

Ting Welsh: Cymru

Y
Tn ting Vit ( i Li, Italia) Cng ho Yemen (Dip Mn) Cng ho Yemen Tn bn ng

Tn ting Anh Italy Italian Republic Yemen Republic of Yemen

Ting : Italia Repubblica Italiana Ting Rp: Al-Yaman / Al-Jumhuriyah al-Yamaniyah /

Z
Tn ting Vit Zambia Cng ho Zambia Zimbabwe (Gim-ba-bu) Cng ho Zimbabwe

Tn bn ng Ting Anh: Zambia Republic of Zambia Ting Anh: Zimbabwe Republic of Zimbabwe

Tn ting Anh Zambia Republic of Zambia Zimbabwe Republic of Zimbabwe

A
Thnh ph Abidjan Abu Dhabi Abuja Accra Adamstown Addis Ababa Algiers Alofi Amman Amsterdam Andorra la Vella Ankara Antananarivo Apia Ashgabat Asmara Astana Asuncin Athena Avarua Quc gia Cte d'Ivoire Cc Tiu Vng quc Rp Thng nht Nigeria Ghana Qun o Pitcairn Ethiopia Algrie Niue Jordan H Lan Andorra Th Nh K Madagascar Samoa Turkmenistan Eritrea Kazakhstan Paraguay Hy Lp Qun o Cook

[sa] B
Thnh ph Baghdad Baku Bamako Bandar Seri Begawan Bangkok Bangui Banjul Basseterre Bc Kinh Beirut Belgrade Belmopan Berlin Bern Bishkek Bissau Bloemfontein Bogot Braslia Bratislava Brazzaville Bridgetown Brussel Bucharest Budapest Buenos Aires Bujumbura Quc gia Iraq Azerbaijan Mali Brunei Thi Lan Cng ha Trung Phi Gambia Saint Kitts v Nevis Trung Quc Liban Serbia Belize c Thy S Kyrgyzstan Guin-Bissau Cng ha Nam Phi (t php) Colombia Brasil Slovakia Cng ha Congo Barbados B Romania Hungary Argentina Burundi

[sa] C
Thnh ph Cairo Canberra Cape Town Caracas Castries Charlotte Amalie Chiinu Cockburn Town Conakry Copenhagen Quc gia Ai Cp c Cng ha Nam Phi (lp php) Venezuela Saint Lucia Qun o Virgin thuc M Moldova Qun o Turks v Caicos Guine an Mch

Cotonou

Bnin (de facto)

[sa] D
Thnh ph Dakar Damascus Dar es Salaam Den Haag Dhaka Dili Djibouti Dodoma Doha Douglas Dublin Dushanbe i Bc Quc gia Sngal Syria Tanzania (hnh php) H Lan (hnh php) Bangladesh ng Timor Djibouti Tanzania (chnh thc) Qatar o Man Ireland Tajikistan Trung Hoa Dn quc

[sa] E
Thnh ph Quc gia El Aain Ty Sahara (khng chnh thc; xem Chnh tr Ty Sahara) Episkopi Cantonment Akrotiri v Dhekelia

[sa] F
Thnh ph Freetown Funafuti Quc gia Sierra Leone Tuvalu

[sa] G
Thnh ph Gaborone George Town Georgetown Gibraltar Grytviken Thnh ph Guatemala Quc gia Botswana Qun o Cayman Guyana Gibraltar Qun o Nam Georgia v Nam Sandwich Guatemala

[sa] H
Thnh ph Quc gia

Hagta Hamilton H Ni Harare Hargeisa Havana Helsinki Honiara

Guam Bermuda Vit Nam Zimbabwe Somaliland (cha c cng nhn, t tuyn b) Cuba Phn Lan Qun o Solomon

[sa] I
Thnh ph Quc gia Islamabad Pakistan

[sa] J
Thnh ph Jakarta Jamestown Jerusalem Quc gia Indonesia Saint Helena Israel

[sa] K
Thnh ph Kabul Kampala Kathmandu Khartoum Kiev (Kyiv) Kigali Kingston Kingston Kingstown Kinshasa Kuala Lumpur Thnh ph Kuwait Quc gia Afghanistan Uganda Nepal Sudan Ukraina Rwanda Jamaica o Norfolk Saint Vincent v Grenadines Cng ha Dn ch Congo Malaysia (chnh thc) Kuwait

[sa] L
Thnh ph La Paz Libreville Lilongwe Lima Quc gia Bolivia (hnh php) Gabon Malawi Peru

Lisboa Ljubljana Mbabane Lom London Luanda Lusaka Luxembourg

B o Nha Slovenia Swaziland (hong gia v lp php) Togo Vng quc Lin hip Anh v Bc Ireland (de facto) Angola Zambia Luxembourg

[sa] M
Thnh ph Madrid Majuro Malabo Mal Mamoudzou Managua Manama Manila Maputo Maseru Mata-Utu Mbabane Melekeok Thnh ph Mexico Minsk Mogadishu Monaco Monrovia Montevideo Moroni Moskva Muscat Quc gia Ty Ban Nha Qun o Marshall Guinea Xch o Maldives Mayotte Nicaragua Bahrain Philippines Mozambique Lesotho Wallis v Futuna Swaziland (hnh php) Palau Mexico Belarus Somalia Monaco Liberia Uruguay Comoros Nga Oman

[sa] N
Thnh ph Nairobi Nassau Naypyidaw N'Djamena New Delhi Niamey Quc gia Kenya Bahamas Myanma Tchad n Niger

Nicosia Nouakchott Nouma Nuku'alofa Nuuk

Kypros Mauritania Nouvelle-Caldonie Tonga Greenland

[sa] O
Thnh ph Oranjestad Oslo11 Ottawa Ouagadougou Quc gia Aruba Na Uy Canada Burkina Faso

[sa] P
Thnh ph Pago Pago Palikir Thnh ph Panama Papeete Paramaribo Paris Phnom Penh Plymouth Podgorica Port Louis Port Moresby Port Vila Port-au-Prince Port of Spain Porto-Novo Praha Praia Pretoria Putrajaya Pyongyang Quc gia Samoa thuc M Micronesia Panama Polynsie thuc Php Suriname Php Kampuchia Montserrat Montenegro Mauritius Papua New Guinea Vanuatu Haiti Trinidad v Tobago Bnin (chnh thc) Cng ha Sc Cabo Verde Cng ha Nam Phi (chnh thc) Malaysia (hnh php) Bc Triu Tin

[sa] Q
Thnh ph Quc gia Quito Ecuador

[sa] R

Thnh ph Rabat Reykjavk Riga Riyadh Road Town Roma Roseau

Quc gia Maroc sland Latvia Rp Saudi Qun o Virgin thuc Anh Dominica

[sa] S
Thnh ph Saipan San Jos San Juan San Marino San Salvador Sana Santiago Santo Domingo So Tom Sarajevo Seoul The Settlement Singapore Skopje Sofia Nam Tarawa Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte St. George's St. Helier St. John's St. Peter Port St. Pierre Stanley Stockholm Sucre Suva Quc gia Qun o Bc Mariana Costa Rica Puerto Rico San Marino El Salvador Yemen Chile Cng ha Dominican So Tom v Prncipe Bosna v Hercegovina Hn Quc o Christmas Singapore Macedonia Bulgaria Kiribati Sri Lanka Grenada Jersey Antigua v Barbuda Guernsey Saint-Pierre v Miquelon Qun o Falkland Thy in Bolivia (chnh thc) Fiji

[sa] T
Thnh ph Tallinn Tashkent Tbilisi Quc gia Estonia Uzbekistan Gruzia

Tegucigalpa Tehran Thimphu Tirane Tiraspol Tokyo Trshavn Tripoli Tunis

Honduras Iran Bhutan Albania Transnistria Nht Bn Qun o Faroe Libya Tunisia

[sa] U
Thnh ph Ulaanbaatar Quc gia Mng C

[sa] V
Thnh ph Vaduz Valletta The Valley Thnh Vatican Victoria Vientiane Vilnius Quc gia Liechtenstein Malta Anguilla Vatican Seychelles Lo Litva

[sa] W
Thnh ph Warszawa Washington, D.C. Wellington West Island Vienna Willemstad Windhoek Quc gia Ba Lan Hoa K New Zealand Qun o Cocos (Keeling) o Antilles thuc H Lan Namibia

[sa] Y
Thnh ph Yamoussoukro Yaound Yaren Yerevan Quc gia Cte d'Ivoire (chnh thc) Cameroon Nauru (hnh php) Armenia

[sa] Z
Thnh ph Quc gia trn th gii Zagreb Croatia