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1. V hnh, nu cu to, trnh by nguyn l lm vic ca anten gng Parabol. Nu ng dng anten gng Parabol .

Cu to
a) b)

Ti u im

+ B bc x s cp: S dng anten chn t i xng hoc

anten loa. V tr t ti tiu im parabol. Bc x sng cu (vi gng parabol trn xoay) hay mt ngun bc x thng dc theo trc tiu (gng parabol tr). + Mt phn x (gng) trn xoay c mt cong theo ng cong theo ng cong parabol, mt phn x m bo c ch hi t tp trung nng lng vo mt phng cho trc. Nguyn l
a) b)

A d O h

B F O z

A O

0 0

Da trn nguyn l lm vic ca gng quang hc + B bc x s cp: Bc x ra sng in t vi mt sng v hng truyn lan xc nh. + Mt phn x: Bin i thnh sng th cp vi mt sng v hng truyn lan theo yu cu nh kt cu ca mt phn x lm vic theo nguyn l gng quang hc. Anten gng thng c tnh hng cao + Sng th cp l sng phng, tp chung nng lng trong mt khng gian hp.

+ Tnh cht quan hc gng parabol f + h = Const. + Cc tia sau khi phn x i n ming gng vi qung ng nh nhau, do ti ming gng mt sng l mt phng. ng dng 2. V hnh, nu cu to, trnh by nguyn l hot ng lm vic ca anten loga-chu k. Nu ng dng anten loga-chu k. Cu to
d5 d2 d1 Phi cp in l1 l2 l3 l4 l5 l6

+ Nhiu chn t c di khc nhau, t khong cch khc nhau + Kch thc v khong cch anten thay i theo mt t l gi l chu k anten

+ Tip in cho tt c cc chn t + Tip in ng pha Nguyn l hot ng + Tn s kch thch l f0: Chn t l0 = 0/2 ng vai tr chn t ch ng (tr khng vo thun tr = 73,1)

d l d1 d 2 l l = = .. = n 1 = 1 = 2 = ... = n 1 d2 d dn l l3 ln t song song3vi nhau trn mt 2mt phng

+ Cc chn t khc c thnh phn in khng, gi tr ph thuc di so vi chn t cng hng + Tip in so le, cc chn t pha trc (l < l0) tho mn iu kin ca chn t hng x, cc chn t pha sau (l > l0) tho mn iu kin chn t phn x. + Min bc x ca anten ch yu to bi chn t cng hng v mt vi chn t ln cn. Cng thc xc nh tn s lm vic

f n = n 1. f1 f ln n = ( n 1). ln f 1
ng dng: 3. Nu cu to v trnh by nguyn l lm vic anten loa. Nu iu kin loa ti u. Nu ng dng anten loa. Cu to Thuc loi anten bc x mt + L on ng dn sng c mt u h. + Ming ng dn sng c m thon dn tr khng sng bin i u.
L O o 2 C loa R
0

b1

Nguyn l loa Hnh 6.20 Nng lng cao tn n c loa dng sng phng.

Ming

Sng phn k theo thn loa ti ming loa. Ti ming loa nng lng sng bc x ra khng gian vi dng sng cu. Chn gc m thch hp

( 2 R0 )

2, 4

0,15

th tnh hng

=00

ng dng: + Anten loa thng c s dng lm anten bc x s cp (b chiu x) cho cc loi anten c mt bc x th cp nh anten parabol, anten cassegrain....N cng c s dng lm cc anten c lp trong cc h thng thng tin v tinh. Khi kch thc ca loa rt ln. 4. V hnh, nu cu to v trnh by nguyn l lm vic ca anten Yagi. Nu ng dng ca anten Yagi. Cu to

+ Cc chn t i xng ton sng: l = /2

+ Xp xp trn mt mt phng theo hng v ct + Khong cch gia cc chn t l /2

+ Mt chn t ch ng: Vng dt na sng sng: l = /4

(Zv=300) + Cc chn t th ng: Phn x v dn x + t song song vi nhau trn mt mt phng Tip in: Tip in ng pha + Kiu u cho + Kiu song song Nguyn l hot ng

I2 = a.e j I1
a=

(R

2 12

2 + X 22 )

2 2 R22 + X 22

= + arctg

+ 2l > /2: X22 < 0, tnh cm, I sm pha hn Chn t

X 12 X arctg 22 R12 R22

phn x d = (0,15 0,25) + 2l < /2: X22 > 0, tnh dung, I chm pha hn Chn t hng x d = (0,1 0,35) + th tnh hng ging chn t i xng nhng c tnh hng cao hn. + Hng bc x cc i ti = 0 v + bc x n hng: Kt hp vi mt phn x, khong cch d = (0,2 0,25) ng dng 5. V hnh nu cu to, ng dng, nguyn l hot ng ca anten Cassegrain.

G ng phn x ch nh (P arabol trn xoay )

F2

G ng phn ph x (H ybperbol trn xoay )

F1

Cu to: Gng chnh: gng phn x parabol trn xoay. Gng ph: gng phn x hyperbol, c hai tiu im: mt trng vi tiu im ca gng chnh v mt trng vi tm pha ca b chiu x (hnh: Mt ct dc theo quang trc ca anten Cassegrain ). B chiu x dng anten loa: c b tr sao cho tm loa nm gia nh parabol. Nguyn l hot ng: ng dng: Cu 6: cc yu t nh hng n truyn sng trong thng tin di ng: Suy hao: Tng theo khong cch Che ti: Cc vt cn trn ng truyn lm suy gim tn hiu Pha dinh a ng: Tn hiu trc tip, phn x, nhiu x, tn x giao thoa vi nhau gy mo tn Nhiu: Trng tn s ,knh ln cn.. V hnh Suy hao ng truyn v che ti: tx

Prx

C h ng ng i M y pht M y th u

Pha inh ng truyn v nhiu:

Vt phn x mnh Vt tn x

My pht

: tri gc

1
My thu

Vt phn x mnh

7. V hnh trnh by cc phng php truyn ln song cc ngn, nu ng dng cc phng php. c im truyn lan sng cc ngn Bc sng t 1mm n 10m (30MHz 300GHz): L sng siu cao tn (RF Radio Frequency) Phng php truyn +Tn s cao nn khng th phn x trong tng in ly (i xuyn qua)

+ Bc sng ngn nn kh nng nhiu x km, b hp th mnh bi mt t + Phng php truyn sng khng gian: L ph hp nht Truyn sng do khuch tn trong tng i lu:

Tn ti cc vng khng gian khng ng nht trong tng i 2 lu 3 1 Sng i vo trong vng khng ng nht s khuych tn theo mi hng gh Li dng truyn sng n im thu 5 4 4 4 c im: Khng n nh do vng khng ng nht lun thay 5 h0 A i ng dng: Siu khc x tng i lu

Ch s chit sut N gim theo cao. Khi tc gim t dN/dh < -0,157 (m -1) Tia sng c bn knh cong ln hn cong tri t nn quay tr li mt t : Siu khc x Li dng truyn sng n im thu sau khi phn x nhiu ln trn mt t

c im: Khng n nh do min siu khc x lun thay i. ng dng: Truyn lan trong gii hn nhn thy trc tip

Hai anten thu v pht phi c t cao trn mt t trnh b che chn bi cc vt cn trn ng truyn v cong ca tri t Sng truyn t pht n thu trong min khng gian nhn thy trc tip gia hai anten c im: t ph thuc vo iu kin thin nhin, s dng ph bin ng dng: 8. Cc phng php truyn lan sng trong mi trng thc. Truyn lan sng b mt. + Truyn lan trc tip trn b mt tri t.

+ Khuyt im: S hp th ca tri t. ng dng: H thng pht thanh, thng tin trn bin. Truyn lan sng khng gian.

+ Nguyn l: Anten t cao trn mt t t nht vi bc sng. Sng in t n im thu theo 3 cch: + Trc tip: i thng t im pht n im thu. + Sng phn x: n im thu sau khi phn x trn b mt t ( tha mn nh lut phn x). + Tn x. + c im: - Chu nh hng nhiu ca iu kin mi trng. - Ph hp cho bng sng cc ngn ( VHF, UHF, SHF) l phng thc truyn sng chnh trong thng tin v tuyn. +ng dng: +S dng cho thng tin bang song cc ngn (VHF, UHF, SHF), nh truyn hnh, cc h thng vi ba nh h thng chuyn tip trn mt t, h thng thng tin di ng, thng tin v tinh. Truyn lan sng tri.

+ Nguyn l: + Li dng c tnh phn x sng ca tng in ly i vi cc bng sng ngn. + Tng in ly l tng rt mng cha nhiu ion v in t t do. + Sng in t phn x s quay tr v tri t ( anten thu). + c im: + Khng n nh do s thay i iu kin phn x ca tng in ly.

+ ng dng: + Truyn lan t do.

+ Nguyn l: + Mi trng truyn sng l tng ( ng tnh, ng hng, khng hp th Mi trng chn khng). + Sng truyn lan trc tip n im thu theo mt ng thng. + c im: + Mi trng ch tn ti trong v tr, s dng cho thng tin v tr. + Bu kh quyn tri t trong mt s iu kin nht nh c coi l khng gian t do. 9. Nu nhim v ca thng tin trong mi trng thng tin v tuyn, cho v d. L thit b bc x sng in t ra khng gian v thu nhn sng in t t khng gian bn ngoi Bc x sng in t theo nhng hng nht nh vi cc yu cu k thut t ra Anten pht : bin i tn hiu in cao thnh sng in t t do lan truyn trng khng gian Anten thu : tp trung nng lng sng in t trong khng gian thnh cc tn hiu in cao tn a n my thu V d 1:

Trong cc h thng tin qung b nh pht thanh, truyn hnh,..th yu cu anten phi c bc x ng u trong mt phng ngang (mt t) mi hng u c th thu c tn hiu ca i pht.

V d 2: Trong h thng thong tin v tuyn im ti im nh h thng thong tin vi ba, thong tin v tinh, ra a.. yu cu anten bc x vi tnh nh hng cao, ngha l sng bc x ch tp trung vo mt gc rt hp trong khng gian. 9.V hnh cc dng phn cc song, v sao li s dng cc dng phn cc khc nhau.
Dng phn cc thng: Hu ht truyn dn v tuyn s dng phn cc tuyn tnh, trong phn cc ng c gi l phn cc trong trng in vung gc vi mt t v phn cc ngang c gi l phn cc trong trng in song song vi mt t. Gi thuyt rng phng ngang v phng ng c coi l trc x v y (hnh1). Ti im no trong khng gian, vector trng ca sng c biu th bi cc thnh phn thng ng v nm ngang nh sau:

Trong : : l vector n v trong phng ng. : l vector n v trong phng ngang. : l gi tr nh hay bin ca trng in trong phng ng. : l gi tr nh hay bin ca trng in trong phng ngang. Khi trng tng s l vector E hp vi trc ngang mt gc c xc nh nh sau: Trong trng hp ny ta thy vector khng bin i. di ca vector thay i theo thi gian nhng u mt cu vector lun nm trn ng thng c nh trng vi phng ca gc nghing (hnh 2). l hin tng phn cc ng thng cu sng in t. Khi ta c sng phn cc ngang, lc ny vector lun song song vi mt t. Khi ta c sng phn cc ng, vector lun vung gc vi mt t. Dng phn cc trn: Khi phn thng ng v nm ngang c cng bin (E0) nhng mt trng nhanh pha hn 900

Vect E quay quanh gc ca n trong mt phng xy vi vn tc