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History records that 1876 was the year when Alexander Graham Bell patented the first device able to transform voice into an electrical signal that could travel across a simple wire. As this invention gathered momentum it became quickly obvious that a single home could not be connected to every other home with a dedicated wire (although the first devices were sold in pairs and ranchmen used barbed wire in the US to communicate using the newly invented telephone).
Thus the first switchboards were soon deployed, with human operators physically wiring callers with called people by plugging cords into jacks. Each place with a phone line was given a number to identify it. The line and its associated telephones were connected to a local switchboard. These switchboards were themselves interconnected all over the country. When someone wanted to call another place, a long process started: the caller picked up the phone, triggering an alarm on the local switchboard where an operator plugged a headset to speak with the caller. The caller then requested to be connected with a given phone number. The local operator checked whether the destination number was attached to the local switch or had to be reached through a distant switchboard. In the latter case, she called the destination switchboard, talked to its operator to ask her to make the called phone ring. If the called user picked up the phone, the distant switchboard operator connected a cord between the called line and the incoming line of the calling switchboard. The calling switchboard operator then also connected a cord to the caller's line, eventually establishing a full voice path between the calling and the called parties. In order to overcome this huge effort signaling is introduced. The aim of this project is to introduce and discuss the Dual tone multi frequency signaling. The project is divided into two chapters: The first chapter introduce the concept of signaling and discuss the main idea behind Dcadic and DTMF signaling. The second chapter explain the DTMF signaling, its component and the way its work. Chapter two also contains some simulation that shows the way DTMF works
the telephone sends voltage to the ringer. in turn. certain signals are used by all according to international conventions (ex: measurements). alerting the caller that it is sending voltage to the recipient’s phone. This chapter also explains the principal of both Decdiac and DTMF signaling 1. When allowing the handset to rest in the cradle (on-hook) opens the switch hook and prevents the current from flowing through the phone. Address signaling can be one of two types. returns a dial tone to the phone to indicate that it is ready.1-Introduction The communication is the act to establish relations with somebody. Only the ringer is active when the handset is on-hook. alerting the phone company that a subscriber is requesting to make a call. which were entered by the telephone companies . The phone company. To communicate. DTMF. In this chapter we will introduce telephone signaling. Among the multitude of signals. The two types of signaling discussed are supervisory signaling and Address Signaling. The phone company also sends a ring back tone to the caller.signaling does this. it is essential that there are a transmitter (or sender) and a receiver (or recipient). it must communicate with the telephone company . The different types of supervisory signaling are on-hook.3-Decadic system and DTMF Before DTMF was created. and that a visual or sound message (signals) is delivered first towards the second. They have a fixed significance. One of these conventions is DTMF. Lifting the handset off the cradle allows current to flow through the phone.Telephone signaling When the phone is used to place or receive a call. offhook and ringing.2. A phone number can be dialed using two completely independent methods: Tones and Dial Pulses. Supervisory signaling is the means by which the caller and his telephone company notify each other of call status. 1. When someone is making a call.Chapter 1 Signaling 1. telephone networks used a dialing system called Decadic (also known as Pulse Dial). The Decadic system was used extensively in modern telephone networks to dial numbers. pulse or dual-tone multifrequency.
but was limited to the local exchange connections. Lfigures lezem ytzabato ykono wad7en w lezem ykon lcaption t7ton . as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals. it made no sense to continue using that particular dialing system in the equipment circuits which the telephone exchanges were using at the time. 1. Each key on the keypad is identified uniquely by its row frequency and its column frequency (see Figure 1). After various tests were performed on the DTMF system throughout the 1960s (when DTMF became known as Touch-Tone). The clicking sounds were actually the connection of the phone line being connected. Decadic dialing was made pointless to continue. After DTMF was created.users. DTMF was made official. as opposed to the mechanical crossbar systems. and reconnected again in a certain pattern. Plans were then made to begin the manufacture of DTMF controlled switching systems in the communications exchanges and later standard customer owned telephones were upgraded to using DTMF circuits rather than Decadic (Pulse Dial). disconnected. requiring an operator to connect long distance calls. which were currently in use at the time. and was then used as the main telecommunications dialing and switching system.4 – DTMF Principal: A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. The Decadic (Pulse Dialing system was very useful. DTMF was being developed for the future of electronic telecommunications switching systems. The Decadic (Pulse Dialling) system used a series of clicks (which could be heard through the speaker of the phone) to dial the numbers which were dialed via a keypad or rotary dial. and remains that way to this day.
conclusion . AL is the amplitude of low frequency signal. Besides the numerals 0 to 9. Each of these tones is composed of two pure sine waves of the low and high frequencies superimposed on each other. 1. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. The frequencies were chosen to avoid harmonics: no frequency is a multiple of another. fH is the high frequency. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. C and D.#. while pressing a “1” produces 697Hz and 1209Hz tones.5. These two frequencies explicitly represent one of the digits on the telephone keypad. A. B. fL is the low frequency.a DTMF dial has *. pressing the digit “9”(row 3 and column 3)produces 852 Hz and 1477Hz tones simultaneously.Touch-Tone Telephone Keypad The full DTMF encoding standard defines four rows and four columns for a total of 16 two-tone combinations. For example. Thus generated signal can be expressed mathematically as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) Where AH is the amplitude of high frequency signal.
for each digit that is to be encoded.1. These signals are generated by oscillators as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals (detector). In this chapter. . one for the row tone and one for the column tone. instead of eight. This chapter also presented the principal of Decdiac and DTMF signaling. a sampling rate of 8 kHz for this implementation is within a safe area of the Nyquist criteria. 2. Figure 2 displays the block diagram of the digital oscillator pair. we explained the concept of signaling.Introduction A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. Tone duration specifications state the following: 10 digits/sec is the maximum data rate for touch-tone signal. Since typical DTMF frequencies range from approximately 700 Hz to 1700 Hz. It plays a critical role in initializing communication. The tone generator must be quiet during the remainder of the 100-msec time slot.2 -DTMF Tone Generator The encoder portion and tone generation part of a DTMF codec are based on two programmable. the duration for the actual tone is at least 45 msec and not longer than 55 msec. Of course. each of the two oscillators needs to be loaded with the appropriate coefficient and initial conditions before oscillation can be initiated. Finally a simulation is done to explain the overall mechanism and the condition where the DTMF works. Two oscillators. facilitate the code and reduce the code size. This chapter presents the DTMF tone generator. second-order digital sinusoidal oscillators. Chapter2 DTMF Tone Generation and Detection 2. It also introduces the mechanism used in the DTMF detector. which provides some theoretical background and a guideline for determining coefficients and initial conditions for digital sinusoidal oscillators.Signaling is essential in modern communication system. The quiet during are necessary to discriminate between two or more identical digits entered successively. For a 100-msec time slot. Table 1 specifies the coefficients and initial conditions necessary to generate the DTMF tones.
(Coefficient and initial conditions for sinusoidal oscillators) .lcaption nafs l7ajem bkel lfigurs w ltabels mesh t3melon sowar.
initial conditions) and pointers are loaded. the task has to initialize the timer variable and the task-name (tone or quiet) for the next task to be invoked. which determines the particular task (tone or quiet) that needs to be executed. a tone or quiet sample. On completion of the RINT_ISR. The entire program flow is synchronized to the receive-interrupt service routine. the dual-tones enable the decoder to identify the associated digits. At the end of the quiet task. respectively. Both tone task and quiet task check on the timer variable to determine if the end of the task duration is already reached. If not. Later. therefore. . additionally. The program flow. One task (the “tone task”) generates dual-tone samples and the other (the “quiet task”) generates pause samples. pointing to the appropriate locations in the oscillator property table. is generated. The quiet task. At the end of each task. Unpacking means that the digit is mapped to the row/column tone properties (oscillator coefficients. the series of keypad entries are translated into a series of dual-tones of certain duration that are interrupted by pauses of certain duration. one very important component is added: A new digit is retrieved from the digit buffer and is unpacked. unpacks the next digit at the end of its duration. it is helpful to consult the flowchart shown in (flowchart eli ta7t maba3rif ra2mo). the task scheduler is invoked. Essentially.For the following description of the program flow. the next task name and duration is initialized and starts to execute with the completion of the next RINT_ISR. incorporates two tasks that are swapped after certain time intervals. If the end of the task duration is reached. Each task is assigned a certain duration that is controlled by a timer variable. which provides a perfect clock for real-time processing and constant sample output.
Lezim el caption yotzabbat : Flowcharts of the DTMF Encoder Implementation 2. The decoding process is by its nature a continuous process. meaning it needsto continually search an incoming data stream for the presence of DTMF tones.2 -DTMF Tone Detector: The task to detect DTMF tones in an incoming signal and to convert them into actual digits is certainly more complex than the encoding process. .
the Goertzel filter output converges towards a pseudo DFT value vk(n). thereby. squared magnitude) information of the DFT is sufficient.1. a recursive structure (always operating on one incoming sample at a time).2. the magnitude (here. The IIR structure for the Goertzel filter incorporates two complex-conjugate poles and facilitates the computation of the difference equation by having only one real coefficient. This method is a very effective and fast way to extract spectral information from an input signal.Collecting Spectral Information The Goertzel algorithm is the basis of the DTMF detector. The choice of N is mainly driven by the frequency resolution needed.2. Squared magnitudes are needed for eight row/column frequencies and for their eight-second harmonics. This algorithm essentially utilizes two-pole IIR (infinite impulse response) type filters to compute DFT values effectively. For the actual tone detection. which can then be used to determine the squared magnitude. . as compared to the DFT (or FFT) which needs a block of data before being able to start processing. The second harmonics information later enables discrimination of DTMF tones from speech or music. N also is chosen so that (k/N)fs most accurately coincides with the actual DTMF frequencies (see Table 1) assuming ks are integer values and fs is a sampling frequency of 8 ksps. which sets a lower boundary. Table 2 contains a list of frequencies and filter coefficients. as only few of the set of spectral line values are needed and only for those values are filters provided. See Figure 4 for a short mathematical description of the algorithm. It is. After a certain number of samples N (equivalent to a DFT block size). Hyde lezem terja3 tenkatab The Goertzel algorithm is much faster than a true FFT.
Therefore. and with that. Note that the mainlobe of the continuous magnitude spectrum of a rectangular windowed sinewave (window is N wide) is exactly the distance of 2 DFT frequency bins. The DFT frequency bins mostly deviate from the true DTMF frequency by an amount in the range of up to 2% off center frequency. takes two calculated risks: (1) A frequency bin is possibly moved inside of the mainlobe of its neighboring frequency bin.Modifications to the Goertzel Algorithm The coefficients of Table 2 reflect the coefficients needed to recursively compute the true DFT. The evenly spaced frequency bins of a true DFT present an inherent drawback in the DTMF tone-detection process. a modification of the algorithm departs from the true DFT and tunes frequency bins exactly with the DTMF tone frequencies. . To be able to meet the acceptable bandwidth specifications. (2) This is especially true when column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies lie close to one another. neighboring frequency bins can affect each other. Note that column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies share the same frequency band. This modification gives up the DFT property of evenly spaced frequency bins.
we generated the values: [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 0] with the noise power set to 0. In the channel we can control the noise power.3. the medium or the channel where the signal is transmitted and the DTMF receiver.1 Components The DTMF simulation is composed of 3 basic elements.2.3. The DTMF receiver detects all the values without errors as it appears on the display.05 dbm. We note that the channel is connected also to a spectrogram so we can visualize the frequency spectrum of the signal transmitted.b .3. The output of the receiver is connected to a display so we can visualize the values detected.3-Simulation We have done the simulation of the DTMF with the Matlab Program. 2. The DTMF generator. The frequency spectrum is signal generated is illustrated in fig 2.2 Procedure In this figure that is snipped from the simulation on Matlab. 2.
We have remarked that as we elevate the noise power. 4 and 7 have the same high frequency which is 1209 Hz. In this chapter. as it should be. 2 and 3 have the same low frequency which is 697 Hz and the number 1. the evolution of communication technologies and the wide spread of its application encouraged researchers to search for techniques that are less expensive and less complicated.32 dbm.2. we presented the mechanism of DTMF.b We remark. 2. At this point the receiver stop detecting them correctly.3. 3-General Conclusion In conclusion. DTMF is a signaling technique found to simplify the connection . that the number 1.4-conclusion DTMF technology was a big step in modern communication. the receiver keeps detecting the values until a point where the noise power becomes equal to 0. and a simulation is done to illustrate the way DTMF works. The receiver keeps detecting the values correctly since the noise power is relatively low. as it was expected. DTMF signal generator and detector were explained.
Nagi*. Yap. Ahmed Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering College of Engineering. researchers are working to develop these techniques and techniques of signaling in the core network References: Lezem tzed references w t7ot 2r2am 2elon Dtmf tone generation and detection using the tms320c54x J. S. Tiong.establishment between a user and the central office. Universiti Tenaga Nasional  DTMF Detection and Generation Virtual Peripheral Module Application Note 41 August 2000 . K. S. K. K. S. Furthermore.
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