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projet mostapha (1)

projet mostapha (1)

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Publicado porMoustapha Rachidi

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Published by: Moustapha Rachidi on May 04, 2012
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Bdak tzed 2wal saf7a w lfahras w list of figures Introduction

History records that 1876 was the year when Alexander Graham Bell patented the first device able to transform voice into an electrical signal that could travel across a simple wire. As this invention gathered momentum it became quickly obvious that a single home could not be connected to every other home with a dedicated wire (although the first devices were sold in pairs and ranchmen used barbed wire in the US to communicate using the newly invented telephone).

Thus the first switchboards were soon deployed, with human operators physically wiring callers with called people by plugging cords into jacks. Each place with a phone line was given a number to identify it. The line and its associated telephones were connected to a local switchboard. These switchboards were themselves interconnected all over the country. When someone wanted to call another place, a long process started: the caller picked up the phone, triggering an alarm on the local switchboard where an operator plugged a headset to speak with the caller. The caller then requested to be connected with a given phone number. The local operator checked whether the destination number was attached to the local switch or had to be reached through a distant switchboard. In the latter case, she called the destination switchboard, talked to its operator to ask her to make the called phone ring. If the called user picked up the phone, the distant switchboard operator connected a cord between the called line and the incoming line of the calling switchboard. The calling switchboard operator then also connected a cord to the caller's line, eventually establishing a full voice path between the calling and the called parties. In order to overcome this huge effort signaling is introduced. The aim of this project is to introduce and discuss the Dual tone multi frequency signaling. The project is divided into two chapters: The first chapter introduce the concept of signaling and discuss the main idea behind Dcadic and DTMF signaling. The second chapter explain the DTMF signaling, its component and the way its work. Chapter two also contains some simulation that shows the way DTMF works

in turn. One of these conventions is DTMF. the telephone sends voltage to the ringer. Address signaling can be one of two types. DTMF. The Decadic system was used extensively in modern telephone networks to dial numbers.Chapter 1 Signaling 1. Supervisory signaling is the means by which the caller and his telephone company notify each other of call status.1-Introduction The communication is the act to establish relations with somebody. The phone company. They have a fixed significance. A phone number can be dialed using two completely independent methods: Tones and Dial Pulses. The two types of signaling discussed are supervisory signaling and Address Signaling. alerting the caller that it is sending voltage to the recipient’s phone. returns a dial tone to the phone to indicate that it is ready. The different types of supervisory signaling are on-hook. 1. When someone is making a call. To communicate. telephone networks used a dialing system called Decadic (also known as Pulse Dial).Telephone signaling When the phone is used to place or receive a call. it is essential that there are a transmitter (or sender) and a receiver (or recipient). offhook and ringing. In this chapter we will introduce telephone signaling. which were entered by the telephone companies . The phone company also sends a ring back tone to the caller. Only the ringer is active when the handset is on-hook. certain signals are used by all according to international conventions (ex: measurements). Among the multitude of signals. Lifting the handset off the cradle allows current to flow through the phone. When allowing the handset to rest in the cradle (on-hook) opens the switch hook and prevents the current from flowing through the phone.2. and that a visual or sound message (signals) is delivered first towards the second.signaling does this. This chapter also explains the principal of both Decdiac and DTMF signaling 1. it must communicate with the telephone company .3-Decadic system and DTMF Before DTMF was created. alerting the phone company that a subscriber is requesting to make a call. pulse or dual-tone multifrequency.

DTMF was being developed for the future of electronic telecommunications switching systems. which were currently in use at the time. and was then used as the main telecommunications dialing and switching system. The Decadic (Pulse Dialing system was very useful. as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals. as opposed to the mechanical crossbar systems. After various tests were performed on the DTMF system throughout the 1960s (when DTMF became known as Touch-Tone). requiring an operator to connect long distance calls.4 – DTMF Principal: A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. The clicking sounds were actually the connection of the phone line being connected. but was limited to the local exchange connections. Plans were then made to begin the manufacture of DTMF controlled switching systems in the communications exchanges and later standard customer owned telephones were upgraded to using DTMF circuits rather than Decadic (Pulse Dial). Each key on the keypad is identified uniquely by its row frequency and its column frequency (see Figure 1). it made no sense to continue using that particular dialing system in the equipment circuits which the telephone exchanges were using at the time. disconnected. 1. and remains that way to this day. DTMF was made official. and reconnected again in a certain pattern. The Decadic (Pulse Dialling) system used a series of clicks (which could be heard through the speaker of the phone) to dial the numbers which were dialed via a keypad or rotary dial. Lfigures lezem ytzabato ykono wad7en w lezem ykon lcaption t7ton . Decadic dialing was made pointless to continue. After DTMF was created.users.

Besides the numerals 0 to 9. A.conclusion . while pressing a “1” produces 697Hz and 1209Hz tones. fL is the low frequency. the difference between any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies.5. and the sum of any two frequencies does not equal any of the frequencies. Thus generated signal can be expressed mathematically as follows: ( ) ( ) ( ) Where AH is the amplitude of high frequency signal. pressing the digit “9”(row 3 and column 3)produces 852 Hz and 1477Hz tones simultaneously. 1. B.Touch-Tone Telephone Keypad The full DTMF encoding standard defines four rows and four columns for a total of 16 two-tone combinations. C and D. AL is the amplitude of low frequency signal. Each of these tones is composed of two pure sine waves of the low and high frequencies superimposed on each other. fH is the high frequency.#.a DTMF dial has *. For example. These two frequencies explicitly represent one of the digits on the telephone keypad. The frequencies were chosen to avoid harmonics: no frequency is a multiple of another.

It also introduces the mechanism used in the DTMF detector. for each digit that is to be encoded. Table 1 specifies the coefficients and initial conditions necessary to generate the DTMF tones.1. .2 -DTMF Tone Generator The encoder portion and tone generation part of a DTMF codec are based on two programmable.Signaling is essential in modern communication system. a sampling rate of 8 kHz for this implementation is within a safe area of the Nyquist criteria. second-order digital sinusoidal oscillators. Two oscillators. Figure 2 displays the block diagram of the digital oscillator pair. each of the two oscillators needs to be loaded with the appropriate coefficient and initial conditions before oscillation can be initiated. The tone generator must be quiet during the remainder of the 100-msec time slot. the duration for the actual tone is at least 45 msec and not longer than 55 msec. For a 100-msec time slot. Tone duration specifications state the following: 10 digits/sec is the maximum data rate for touch-tone signal. Since typical DTMF frequencies range from approximately 700 Hz to 1700 Hz. instead of eight. These signals are generated by oscillators as well as a decoder that detects the presence and the information content of incoming DTMF tone signals (detector).Introduction A DTMF codec incorporates an encoder that translates key strokes or digit information into dual-tone signals. facilitate the code and reduce the code size. The quiet during are necessary to discriminate between two or more identical digits entered successively. Of course. 2. which provides some theoretical background and a guideline for determining coefficients and initial conditions for digital sinusoidal oscillators. In this chapter. This chapter also presented the principal of Decdiac and DTMF signaling. we explained the concept of signaling. It plays a critical role in initializing communication. one for the row tone and one for the column tone. Chapter2 DTMF Tone Generation and Detection 2. This chapter presents the DTMF tone generator. Finally a simulation is done to explain the overall mechanism and the condition where the DTMF works.

lcaption nafs l7ajem bkel lfigurs w ltabels mesh t3melon sowar. (Coefficient and initial conditions for sinusoidal oscillators) .

Essentially. On completion of the RINT_ISR. If the end of the task duration is reached. One task (the “tone task”) generates dual-tone samples and the other (the “quiet task”) generates pause samples. the next task name and duration is initialized and starts to execute with the completion of the next RINT_ISR. which provides a perfect clock for real-time processing and constant sample output. a tone or quiet sample. Unpacking means that the digit is mapped to the row/column tone properties (oscillator coefficients. pointing to the appropriate locations in the oscillator property table. Each task is assigned a certain duration that is controlled by a timer variable. therefore. The entire program flow is synchronized to the receive-interrupt service routine. Later. At the end of the quiet task. Both tone task and quiet task check on the timer variable to determine if the end of the task duration is already reached. the task has to initialize the timer variable and the task-name (tone or quiet) for the next task to be invoked. . If not. which determines the particular task (tone or quiet) that needs to be executed. the task scheduler is invoked. one very important component is added: A new digit is retrieved from the digit buffer and is unpacked.For the following description of the program flow. unpacks the next digit at the end of its duration. The program flow. incorporates two tasks that are swapped after certain time intervals. The quiet task. additionally. At the end of each task. is generated. respectively. it is helpful to consult the flowchart shown in (flowchart eli ta7t maba3rif ra2mo). the series of keypad entries are translated into a series of dual-tones of certain duration that are interrupted by pauses of certain duration. the dual-tones enable the decoder to identify the associated digits. initial conditions) and pointers are loaded.

The decoding process is by its nature a continuous process.Lezim el caption yotzabbat : Flowcharts of the DTMF Encoder Implementation 2. . meaning it needsto continually search an incoming data stream for the presence of DTMF tones.2 -DTMF Tone Detector: The task to detect DTMF tones in an incoming signal and to convert them into actual digits is certainly more complex than the encoding process.

thereby. For the actual tone detection. This method is a very effective and fast way to extract spectral information from an input signal. The second harmonics information later enables discrimination of DTMF tones from speech or music. Hyde lezem terja3 tenkatab The Goertzel algorithm is much faster than a true FFT. Squared magnitudes are needed for eight row/column frequencies and for their eight-second harmonics. a recursive structure (always operating on one incoming sample at a time). . which can then be used to determine the squared magnitude.2. the magnitude (here. The choice of N is mainly driven by the frequency resolution needed. as compared to the DFT (or FFT) which needs a block of data before being able to start processing. This algorithm essentially utilizes two-pole IIR (infinite impulse response) type filters to compute DFT values effectively.2. Table 2 contains a list of frequencies and filter coefficients. After a certain number of samples N (equivalent to a DFT block size).Collecting Spectral Information The Goertzel algorithm is the basis of the DTMF detector. N also is chosen so that (k/N)fs most accurately coincides with the actual DTMF frequencies (see Table 1) assuming ks are integer values and fs is a sampling frequency of 8 ksps. See Figure 4 for a short mathematical description of the algorithm. as only few of the set of spectral line values are needed and only for those values are filters provided. squared magnitude) information of the DFT is sufficient.1. The IIR structure for the Goertzel filter incorporates two complex-conjugate poles and facilitates the computation of the difference equation by having only one real coefficient. which sets a lower boundary. It is. the Goertzel filter output converges towards a pseudo DFT value vk(n).

Note that the mainlobe of the continuous magnitude spectrum of a rectangular windowed sinewave (window is N wide) is exactly the distance of 2 DFT frequency bins. and with that. . To be able to meet the acceptable bandwidth specifications. (2) This is especially true when column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies lie close to one another. The DFT frequency bins mostly deviate from the true DTMF frequency by an amount in the range of up to 2% off center frequency. a modification of the algorithm departs from the true DFT and tunes frequency bins exactly with the DTMF tone frequencies. The evenly spaced frequency bins of a true DFT present an inherent drawback in the DTMF tone-detection process. Note that column frequencies and 2nd harmonics of row frequencies share the same frequency band. takes two calculated risks: (1) A frequency bin is possibly moved inside of the mainlobe of its neighboring frequency bin. Therefore. neighboring frequency bins can affect each other.Modifications to the Goertzel Algorithm The coefficients of Table 2 reflect the coefficients needed to recursively compute the true DFT. This modification gives up the DFT property of evenly spaced frequency bins.

05 dbm. We note that the channel is connected also to a spectrogram so we can visualize the frequency spectrum of the signal transmitted.3. The frequency spectrum is signal generated is illustrated in fig 2. the medium or the channel where the signal is transmitted and the DTMF receiver.b .2 Procedure In this figure that is snipped from the simulation on Matlab.3-Simulation We have done the simulation of the DTMF with the Matlab Program. In the channel we can control the noise power. we generated the values: [ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 9 0] with the noise power set to 0. The DTMF generator.3. 2. The DTMF receiver detects all the values without errors as it appears on the display.3.1 Components The DTMF simulation is composed of 3 basic elements. 2.2. The output of the receiver is connected to a display so we can visualize the values detected.

DTMF signal generator and detector were explained.b We remark. that the number 1.32 dbm. 4 and 7 have the same high frequency which is 1209 Hz. as it should be. the evolution of communication technologies and the wide spread of its application encouraged researchers to search for techniques that are less expensive and less complicated. we presented the mechanism of DTMF. 3-General Conclusion In conclusion. We have remarked that as we elevate the noise power. At this point the receiver stop detecting them correctly. The receiver keeps detecting the values correctly since the noise power is relatively low.3.2. as it was expected. 2. the receiver keeps detecting the values until a point where the noise power becomes equal to 0. 2 and 3 have the same low frequency which is 697 Hz and the number 1.4-conclusion DTMF technology was a big step in modern communication. and a simulation is done to illustrate the way DTMF works. DTMF is a signaling technique found to simplify the connection . In this chapter.

Yap. Tiong. Ahmed Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering College of Engineering. K. K. Universiti Tenaga Nasional [3] DTMF Detection and Generation Virtual Peripheral Module Application Note 41 August 2000 . researchers are working to develop these techniques and techniques of signaling in the core network References: Lezem tzed references w t7ot 2r2am 2elon [1]Dtmf tone generation and detection using the tms320c54x [2]J. S.establishment between a user and the central office. Nagi*. Furthermore. K. S. S.

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